Sample records for autonomy-based bioethics promote

  1. [Bioethics]. (United States)

    Nunes, Cássia Regina Rodrigues; Nunes, Amauri Porto


    Bioethics is a new field of knowledge and a current of thought that has been largely developing in Brazil, especially since the Nineties. In this article, we try to contextualize its inception by justifying the need to create such a neologism, since ethics was somewhat forgotten, in relation to the technique, being restricted to professional ethics. We are nowadays faced with a wide scope of works in this area that help guide our action as citizens who want quality of life and to preserve life on the planet. Bioethics, however, is concerned about the way of being: thought-judgment-action, in relation to human beings among them and towards nature.

  2. [The importance of promoting the bioethical seeds in the University]. (United States)

    Pérez-Polanco, Paola; Montaño-Zetina, Luis Manuel


    One of the main scopes for institutions dedicated to preparing professionals in health is to increase their bioethics profile. To achieve this scope, these institutions have included lessons in bioethics into their study plans. Another way to increase the profile of the students, as the authors of this article propose, is creating bioethics seeds through a bioethics interest diagnostic on the students' preferences in their first year of the Justo Sierra University using a particular clinical case. The results found indicated that students show more interest in learning the physiopathology, diagnostics, and therapy of the pathologies than bioethics. The authors concluded that in order to increase this profile, the students are encouraged to discuss and reflect on bioethical situations that help them to construct their own opinion and decisions.

  3. Strategies for Promoting College Students Learner Autonomy Based on Constructivism%基于建构主义理论的大学生英语自主学习能力的培养策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The study reviews relevant domestic and foreign theories and researches concerning learner autonomy,investigates the present situation of learner autonomy among Chinese EFL college students,and proposes some strategies for promoting students�learner autonomy based on constructivism.%回顾了国内外对学习者自主学习能力的相关理论与研究,运用定量与定性的方法,对228名非英语专业大学生的英语自主学习能力现状进行了调查,基于建构主义理论提出相应的自主学习能力培养策略。

  4. Undignified bioethics. (United States)

    Cochrane, Alasdair


    The concept of dignity is pervasive in bioethics. However, some bioethicists have argued that it is useless on three grounds: that it is indeterminate; that it is reactionary; and that it is redundant. In response, a number of defences of dignity have recently emerged. All of these defences claim that when dignity is suitably clarified, it can be of great use in helping us tackle bioethical controversies. This paper rejects such defences of dignity. It outlines the four most plausible conceptions of dignity: dignity as virtuous behaviour; dignity as inherent moral worth; Kantian dignity; and dignity as species integrity. It argues that while each conception is coherent, each is also fundamentally flawed. As such, the paper argues for a bioethics without dignity: an 'undignified bioethics.'

  5. Teaching Bioethics (United States)

    Russo, Michael T.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Sunal, Dennis W.


    All citizens will make bioethics decisions as a result of today's biotechnology revolution. The decisions made require citizens to find possible acceptable solutions to dilemmas that have become public issues. In this activity, students practice making decisions in ethical dilemmas after evaluating the influences of their own ethical beliefs and…

  6. [Personalist bioethics and utilitarian bioethics]. (United States)

    Ortiz Llueca, Eduardo


    This paper shows the insufficiency of a bioethics which would intend to derive its proposals from Utilitarianism, identifying some inadequacies in the ethics of John Stuart Mill, e.g., the difficulties of the utilitarian commitment with instrumentalism, the deficiency of an utilitarian moral psychology and the naiveté of the forensic dimension of the utilitarian submission.

  7. Was bioethics founded on historical and conceptual mistakes about medical paternalism? (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B


    Bioethics has a founding story in which medical paternalism, the interference with the autonomy of patients for their own clinical benefit, was an accepted ethical norm in the history of Western medical ethics and was widespread in clinical practice until bioethics changed the ethical norms and practice of medicine. In this paper I show that the founding story of bioethics misreads major texts in the history of Western medical ethics. I also show that a major source for empirical claims about the widespread practice of medical paternalism has been misread. I then show that that bioethics based on its founding story deprofessionalizes medical ethics. The result leaves the sick exposed to the predatory power of medical practitioners and healthcare organizations with only their autonomy-based rights to non-interference, expressed in contracts, to protect them. The sick are stripped of the protection afforded by a professional, fiduciary relationship of physicians to their patients. Bioethics based on its founding story reverts to the older model of a contractual relationship between the sick and medical practitioners not worthy of intellectual or moral trust (because such trust cannot be generated by what I call 'deprofessionalizing bioethics'). On closer examination, bioethics based on its founding story, ironically, eliminates paternalism as a moral category in bioethics, thus causing bioethics to collapse on itself because it denies one of the necessary conditions for medical paternalism. Bioethics based on its founding story should be abandoned.

  8. Bioethics Consultations and Resources


    Thomas, Jennie


    Making difficult healthcare decisions is often helped by consultation with a bioethics committee. This article reviews the main bioethics principles, when it is appropriate and how to call a bioethics consult, ethical concerns, and members of the consult team. Bioethics resources are included.

  9. Center for Practical Bioethics (United States)

    ... medical students and the general public. LEARN MORE Bioethics Interviews and Lectures Helen Emmott INTERVIEW LISTEN Kaith ... Conversation with Rosemary and Myra Join live-streamed bioethics discussions with Myra Christopher and Rosemary Flanigan on ...

  10. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl


    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the princip......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...

  11. Bioethics as public discourse and second-order discipline. (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M


    Bioethics is best viewed as both a second-order discipline and also part of public discourse. Since their goals differ, some bioethical activities are more usefully viewed as advancing public discourse than academic disciplines. For example, the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights" sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization seeks to promote ethical guidance on bioethical issues. From the vantage of philosophical ethics, it fails to rank or specify its stated principles, justify controversial principles, clarify key terms, or say what is meant by calling potentially conflicting norms "foundational." From the vantage of improving the public discourse about bioethical problems and seeking ethical solutions in the public arena, however, this document may have an important role. The goals and relations between bioethics as a second-order discipline and public discourse are explored.

  12. [Twenty years of bioethics in Mexico: development and perspectives of the National Bioethics Commission]. (United States)

    Ruiz de Chávez-Guerrero, Manuel Hugo


    Bioethics in Mexico has a history that reveals the vision and ethical commitment of iconic characters in the fields of health sciences and humanities, leading to the creation of the National Bioethics Commission responsible for promoting a bioethics culture in Mexico. Its development and consolidation from the higher perspective of humanism had the aim to preserve health, life and its environment, while at the same time the bases of ethics and professional practice from different perspectives have been the building blocks of medical practice.

  13. Bioethics in Russia. (United States)

    Tishchenko, P D


    Ten years of development in Russian bioethics presents significant progress. At the beginning of the 90s bioethics was practically unknown for Russian medical doctors, philosophers and the public. Since the year 2000 bioethics has become an obligatory course for all medical students. The Russian Orthodox Church published the same year "The Social Doctrine" that included a special part "The Church and Problems of Bioethics." Different bioethical problems are often discussed in the mass media. The development of Russian bioethics proves the basic understanding of ethics presented by John Dewey--ethics is a function of the moral life of the community. Norms are good or bad mostly as instruments that could be used in everyday life to solve real problems people meet.

  14. Bioethics in China. (United States)

    Li, En-Chang


    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  15. Toward a postmodern bioethics. (United States)

    Gibson, David


    In this article, postmodernism is presented as posing a challenge to the role of philosophy within bioethics. It is argued that any attempt to develop a postmodern bioethics must respond to arguments concerning power, relational responsibility, and violence. Contemporary work on the topic of relational autonomy and naturalized bioethics is interpreted as engaging with the postmodern challenge. This article proposes that the role of philosophy in bioethics should be not to provide moral guidance but rather to adopt a critical approach to the possible consequences of privileging any position or understanding over others.

  16. Toward critical bioethics. (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur


    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.

  17. Bioethical pluralism and complementarity. (United States)

    Grinnell, Frederick; Bishop, Jeffrey P; McCullough, Laurence B


    This essay presents complementarity as a novel feature of bioethical pluralism. First introduced by Neils Bohr in conjunction with quantum physics, complementarity in bioethics occurs when different perspectives account for equally important features of a situation but are mutually exclusive. Unlike conventional approaches to bioethical pluralism, which attempt in one fashion or another to isolate and choose between different perspectives, complementarity accepts all perspectives. As a result, complementarity results in a state of holistic, dynamic tension, rather than one that yields singular or final moral judgments.

  18. [Bioethics: an epistemological approach]. (United States)

    Cecchetto, Sergio; Mainetti, José A


    The present paper reviews the history of the birth of bioethics in the USA at the beginning of the seventies as an inter-discipline. It points out the horizon where the neologism "bio-ethics" appeared as blend of biology and morals, life and ethics, science and conscience, fact and value, being and must. It insists on the interdisciplinary nature of this branch of learning and it proposes a classification of the subject matter studied by it. The paper ends with a concise view of the development of bioethics in Argentina, drawing attention to its contribution to the biological sciences and health care.

  19. [Bioethics in orthodontics]. (United States)

    Gazizullina, O R; Danilova, M A; Khudoroshkov, Yu G


    The objective of the study was to reveal the necessity of implementation of bioethical principles in the treatment of patients with dentofacial anomalies. Scientific publications revealing the interrelation of basic bioethical principles and characteristics relevant during treatment of patients with dentofacial anomalies were monitored and analyzed. The patient's responsibility for the results of treatment, the revision of life values, the change of overall lifestyle contributes to the patient's recovery. An orthodontist must follow basic bioethical principles: benevolence, autonomy, causing no harm, and justice. Trust-based relations in the system "doctor-patient" allow the doctor to share the knowledge which contribute to the patient's recovery, so the necessity of implementation of bioethical principles (benevolence, autonomy, causing no harm, and justice) in the treatment of patients with dentofacial anomalies was revealed.

  20. Bioethics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman


    This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinati......This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second......-order examinations, what might be called a political philosophical approach. The authors argue that although first-order examination plays an important role in teasing out different moral points of view, in contemporary democratic societies, few, if any, bioethical questions can be resolved satisfactorily by means...... of first-order analyses alone, and that bioethics needs to engage more closely with second-order enquiries and the question of legitimacy in general....


    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana


    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  2. Taking bioethics personally. (United States)

    Chambers, Tod; Ahmad, Ayesha; Crow, Sheila; Davis, Dena S; Dresser, Rebecca; Harter, Thomas D; Jordan, Sara R; Kaposy, Chris; Lanoix, Monique; Lee, K Jane; Scully, Jackie Leach; Taylor, Katherine A; Watson, Katie


    This narrative symposium examines the relationship of bioethics practice to personal experiences of illness. A call for stories was developed by Tod Chambers, the symposium editor, and editorial staff and was sent to several commonly used bioethics listservs and posted on the Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics website. The call asked authors to relate a personal story of being ill or caring for a person who is ill, and to describe how this affected how they think about bioethical questions and the practice of medicine. Eighteen individuals were invited to submit full stories based on review of their proposals. Twelve stories are published in this symposium, and six supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. Authors explore themes of vulnerability, suffering, communication, voluntariness, cultural barriers, and flaws in local healthcare systems through stories about their own illnesses or about caring for children, partners, parents and grandparents. Commentary articles by Arthur Frank, Bradley Lewis, and Carol Taylor follow the collection of personal narratives.

  3. Postmodern Bioethics through Literature. (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel


    Explores a hermeneutical perspective of modern medicine. The author suggests that good medical decision making requires interpretation, and bioethics will be well served by incorporating this interpretive element. (LZ)

  4. Elucidating Bioethics with Undergraduates. (United States)

    Hoskins, Betty B.; Shannon, Thomas A.


    Discusses the importance of developing bioethics programs for undergraduate students. Two aspects are considered: (1) current areas of concern and sources of bibliographic information; and (2) problems encountered in undergraduate projects. A list of references is provided. (HM)

  5. From integrative bioethics to pseudoscience. (United States)

    Bracanović, Tomislav


    Integrative bioethics is a brand of bioethics conceived and propagated by a group of Croatian philosophers and other scholars. This article discusses and shows that the approach encounters several serious difficulties. In criticizing certain standard views on bioethics and in presenting their own, the advocates of integrative bioethics fall into various conceptual confusions and inconsistencies. Although presented as a project that promises to deal with moral dilemmas created by modern science and technology, integrative bioethics does not contain the slightest normativity or action-guiding capacity. Portrayed as a scientific and interdisciplinary enterprise, integrative bioethics displays a large number of pseudoscientific features that throw into doubt its overall credibility.

  6. What Is Bioethics Worth? (United States)

    Solomon, Mildred Z


    What is bioethics to do when it strives to assess the quality of its research and scholarship and when it needs to justify its work to prospective funders, especially a funder like the National Institutes of Health that privileges empirical discovery? In "A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship," Debra Mathews and colleagues take an important first step at advancing an answer. The authors describe what they call a translational process, whereby bioethics "outputs" are translated into changes of three types: in thinking, practice, and policy. It goes nearly without saying that bioethics research and scholarship must be held accountable for changes in thinking. What raison d'etre do we have if not to deepen thinking, question assumptions, and encourage ourselves and others to examine hard issues from novel approaches? Assuredly it is hard to assess quality, and even harder to assess specific changes in thinking for which high-quality scholarship may be responsible, but it is a necessary goal and one for which we should strive without reservation. Bioethics should also affect policy and practice. We should document how it does and the extent to which it does as often and as prominently as possible. However, let us be wary of pinning too much on practice and policy changes as the primary way of establishing bioethics' worth.

  7. [Neuroethics and bioethics--implications of Balkanization controversy]. (United States)

    Kagawa, Chiaki


    There have been considerable disputes the positioning of neuroethics as a new field since its emergence in 2002. It is the novelty of the neuroethical issues and the necessity for updated moral approaches to them that leading exponents of neuroethics have emphasized; advances in neurosciences have created an entirely new field of moral inquiries that the conventional bioethics had never noticed. Futher, as neuroethics embraces the subdivision of ethics in neuroscience, it should take precedence over bioethics, which depends on the fundamental moral concepts without questioning their bases. Many bioethicists have squarely opposed these insistences and thereby detected the claim of neuroethics exceptionalism: the asserted newness of issues comes mainly from the ignorance of exponents of this new field regarding accumulated bioethical inquiries, so that the overlapping concerns between bioethics and neuroethics are passed on to the future by them. Moreover, bioethicists point out that the recent tendency of Balkanization in the field of bioethics could endanger the integrity of moral investigations. Subfields of bioethics, such as geneethics, neuroethics, nanoethics and so on, originate consecutively, entail wastage of valuable time and money, and increase the risk of fragmentizing moral considerations in an inconsistent way. By reviewing this controversy between neuroethics and bioethics, I argue that the relevant scientific investigations and technologies, which have appeared to promote the proliferation of bioethical sub-disciplines to date, are beginning to converge into 1 complex that demands not the division into subspecialities but the novel integration of bioethical inquiries: it is time to attempt the unification of bioethical applied ethics for moral considerations regarding nano-bio-info-cogno convergent technologies.

  8. The Bioethics of Music, the Music of Bioethics. (United States)

    Lubet, Alex


    Bioethics is rarely referenced in the scholarship of performing arts medicine (PAM). This essay argues that bioethical concerns loom far larger in the care of PAM patients than might typically be understood. This essay presents Beauchamp and Childress's four principles of bioethics, with examples pertinent to PAM, drawn from the author's research and personal experience.

  9. The interface between bioethics and cultural diversity under the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa


    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights has made clear its aims to provide a universal framework of principles and procedures to guide States in the formulation of their legislation, policies or other instruments in the field ofbioethics and also to guide the actions of individuals, groups, communities, institutions and corporations so as to promote appreciation for human dignity and to protect human rights. It also sets up 15 principles to be applied. One of the principles in the Declaration is about the recognition of cultural diversity as an important element of bioethics. Thus it is clear that bioethics has its relativeness and is susceptible to different cultures. However, in order not to have the bioethics principles being defeated because of the cultural factor, the Declaration set forth conditions to limit the application of the cultural diversity element. This approach is called "qualified absoluteness" by the author. The paper discusses these conditions and the problems arising from their applications. Basically, there is a clear line drawn to limit the application of cultural diversity in setting up and in applying bioethical rules. The line drawn is based on the concept of human rights, the principles and concepts of which have not only been set forth in the Human Rights Convention, but have also been prescribed in other provisions in the Declaration. From conceptual viewpoint, the Declaration has listed a number of soft-law rules, which in turn also provide authorization for the government or private or public groups to take cultural diversity into account. Although the rules set forth in most of the parts in the Declaration are of soft but absolute mandates in nature, the requirement of paying due regard to cultural diversity is in fact providing governments as well as groups a possibility to enact or apply their bioethical rules to reflect their cultural uniqueness. The term "qualified absoluteness" is used in this paper to reflect

  10. A bioethics for all seasons. (United States)

    Chan, Sarah


    The last four decades have seen the emergence and flourishing of the field of bioethics and its incorporation into wide-ranging aspects of society, from the clinic or laboratory through to public policy and the media. Yet considerable debate still exists over what bioethics is and how it should be done. In this paper I consider the question of what makes good bioethics. Drawing on historical and contemporary examples, I suggest that bioethics encompasses multiple modes of responding to moral disagreement, and that an awareness of which mode is operational in a given context is essential to doing good bioethics.

  11. Bioethics and Christian theology. (United States)

    Griniezakis, Makarios; Symeonides, Nathanael


    The authors of this essay suggest that the field of bioethics and Christian theology have a great deal to offer each other. The authors first argue that representatives from both fields must first make sure that they fully and correctly represent their respective position. In other words, scientists, ethicists, and theologians alike must make sure that they present their fields and not use their knowledge merely for personal gain at the stake of misguiding people. Once this is established, the authors then proceed to show the intimate relationship between Christianity and medicine that has existed throughout the ages. It is a call for a continuation of such a relationship that the authors suggest between bioethics and theology. Through an integration of bioethics and Christian theology, both scientists/physicians and theologians are able to gain greater insight into the human person--a focus in both fields.

  12. Global bioethics: utopia or reality? (United States)

    Hellsten, Sirkku K


    This article discusses what 'global bioethics' means today and what features make bioethical research 'global'. The article provides a historical view of the development of the field of 'bioethics', from medical ethics to the wider study of bioethics in a global context. It critically examines the particular problems that 'global bioethics' research faces across cultural and political borders and suggests some solutions on how to move towards a more balanced and culturally less biased dialogue in the issues of bioethics. The main thesis is that we need to bring global and local aspects closer together when looking for international guidelines, by paying more attention to particular cultures and local economic and social circumstances in reaching a shared understanding of the main values and principles of bioethics, and in building 'biodemocracy'.

  13. Bioethics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman


    This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second-order examinati......This article examines two current debates in Denmark-assisted suicide and the prioritization of health resources-and proposes that such controversial bioethical issues call for distinct philosophical analyses: first-order examinations, or an applied philosophy approach, and second...

  14. Epigenetics and the environment in bioethics. (United States)

    Dupras, Charles; Ravitsky, Vardit; Williams-Jones, Bryn


    A rich literature in public health has demonstrated that health is strongly influenced by a host of environmental factors that can vary according to social, economic, geographic, cultural or physical contexts. Bioethicists should, we argue, recognize this and--where appropriate--work to integrate environmental concerns into their field of study and their ethical deliberations. In this article, we present an argument grounded in scientific research at the molecular level that will be familiar to--and so hopefully more persuasive for--the biomedically-inclined in the bioethics community. Specifically, we argue that the relatively new field of molecular epigenetics provides novel information that should serve as additional justification for expanding the scope of bioethics to include environmental and public health concerns. We begin by presenting two distinct visions of bioethics: the individualistic and rights-oriented and the communitarian and responsibility-oriented. We follow with a description of biochemical characteristics distinguishing epigenetics from genetics, in order to emphasize the very close relationship that exists between the environment and gene expression. This then leads to a discussion of the importance of the environment in determining individual and population health, which, we argue, should shift bioethics towards a Potterian view that promotes a communitarian-based sense of responsibility for the environment, in order to fully account for justice considerations and improve public health.

  15. Bioethics and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Castillo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some concepts related to bioethics and ageing, specifically with regard to health and disease. Considerations on medical practice are made by referring to Kant and Heidelberg school of thought. Perception of time in the elderly and issues such as euthanasia and death are mentioned.

  16. Should Bioethics Be Taught? (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.


    Examined is the issue concerning teaching bioethics. Differing points of view are discussed. The author concludes that moral and ethical reasoning should be incorporated into the public school curriculum, using morally laden issues that have grown out of advances in biological knowledge and biomedical technology. (CS)

  17. On feminist engagements with bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drezgić Rada


    Full Text Available The article explores two questions: what is feminist bioethics, and how different it is from standard bioethics. Development of feminist bioethics, it is argued, began as a response to standard bioethics, challenging its background values, and philosophical perspectives. The most important contribution of feminist bioethics has been its re-examination of the basic conceptual underpinnings of mainstream bioethics, including the concepts of “universality”, “autonomy”, and “trust”. Particularly important for feminists has been the concept of autonomy. They challenge the old liberal notion of autonomy that treats individuals as separate social units and argue that autonomy is established through relations. Relational autonomy assumes that identities and values are developed through relationships with others and that the choices one makes are shaped by specific social and historical contexts. Neither relational autonomy, nor feminist bioethics, however, represents a single, unified perspective. There are, actually, as many feminist bioethics as there are feminisms-liberal, cultural, radical, postmodern etc. Their different ontological, epistemological and political underpinnings shape their respective approaches to bioethical issues at hand. Still what they all have in common is interest in social justice-feminists explore mainstream bioethics and reproductive technologies in order to establish whether they support or impede gender and overall social justice and equality. Feminist bioethics thus brings a significant improvement to standard bioethics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004: Bioethical Aspects: Morally Acceptable Within the Biotechnologically and Socially Possible i br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  18. Tuskegee University experience challenges conventional wisdom: is integrative bioethics practice the new ethics for the public's health? (United States)

    Sodeke, Stephen Olufemi


    The Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care was established in 1999 in partial response to the Presidential Apology for the United States Public Health Service's Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male conducted in Macon County, Alabama, from 1932 to 1972. The Center's mission of promoting equity and justice in health and health care for African Americans and other underserved populations employs an integrative bioethics approach informed by moral vision. Etymological and historical analyses are used to delineate the meaning and evolution of bioethics and to provide a basis for Tuskegee's integrative bioethics niche. Unlike mainstream bioethics, integrative bioethics practice is holistic in orientation, and more robust for understanding the epistemic realities of minority life, health disparities, and population health. The conclusion is that integrative bioethics is relevant to the survival of all people, not just a privileged few; it could be the new ethics for the public's health.

  19. On nature and bioethics. (United States)

    Peterson, Paul Silas


    The account of nature and humanity's relationship to nature are of central importance for bioethics. The Scientific Revolution was a critical development in the history of this question and many contemporary accounts of nature find their beginnings here. While the innovative approach to nature going out of the seventeenth century was reliant upon accounts of nature from the early modern period, the Middle Ages, late-antiquity and antiquity, it also parted ways with some of the understandings of nature from these epochs. Here I analyze this development and suggests that some of the insights from older understandings of nature may be helpful for bioethics today, even if there can be no simple return to them.

  20. Feminism, law, and bioethics. (United States)

    Rothenberg, K H


    Feminist legal theory provides a healthy skepticism toward legal doctrine and insists that we reexamine even formally gender-neutral rules to uncover problematic assumptions behind them. The article first outlines feminist legal theory from the perspectives of liberal, cultural, and radical feminism. Examples of how each theory influences legal practice, case law, and legislation are highlighted. Each perspective is then applied to a contemporary bioethical issue, egg donation. Following a brief discussion of the common themes shared by feminist jurisprudence, the article incorporates a narrative reflecting on the integration of the common feminist themes in the context of the passage of the Maryland Health Care Decisions Act. The article concludes that gender does matter and that an understanding of feminist legal theory and practice will enrich the analysis of contemporary bioethical issues.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  2. Bioethics and "Rightness". (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W


    If bioethics seeks to affect what people do and don't do as they respond to the practical issues that confront them, then it is useful to take seriously people's sense of rightness. Rightness emerges from the fabric of a life-including the economy of its geography, the events of its times, its popular culture-to be what the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu calls a predisposition. It is the product of a way of life and presupposes continuing to live that way. Rightness is local and communal, holding in relationship those who share the same predisposing sense of how to experience. Rightness is an embodied way of evaluating what is known to matter and choosing among possible responses. Bioethics spends considerable time on what people should do and on the arguments that support recommended actions. It might spend more time on what shapes people's sense of the rightness of what they feel called to do.

  3. Bioethics and the Italian National Bioethics Committee: historical highlights. (United States)

    Conti, A A


    Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath. An institutional milestone in the Italian evolution of bioethical knowledge and competence was the foundation of the Italian National Bioethics Committee (NBC), established in 1990. The NBC, which answers to the Council of Ministers, provides methodological support to the Italian Government in the field of bioethical issues, elaborating legislative acts and also furnishing information and consultation for other bodies and associations and for the general public. The activity of the NBC is clearly discernible in its free and user-friendly website. Today, the Internet is often the first repository where individuals and patients look for bioethical information. Given that the quality of this information is extremely variable and not infrequently unreliable, initiatives such as that of the above mentioned NBC website are particularly useful and precious both for health care operators and the entire community.

  4. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.


    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importance...... of laymen as a part of the bioethical debate and decisions; and the strong focus on debate and educational tools....

  5. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB]. (United States)

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta


    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  6. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience. (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria


    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.

  7. [From virtue bioethics to bioethics personalistic: is integration possible?]. (United States)

    Pastor, Luis Miguel


    In this article we analyze how the idea of virtue as an important element of human ethical action is slowly being lost. There are proposals both in ethics and in bioethics to rehabilitate virtue and to consider it as a very important element of human morality. In particular, in the health sector the rehabilitation of virtue, would imply greater focus on the ethical character of professionals and personal improvement rather than on training for the resolution of ethical cases. Such guidance would also improve the health professional-patient relationship with an increase not only in the technical quality but also in human dimension of health sciences. However, this orientation or tendency in bioethics suffers from a deficit in reasoning due to lack of a complete theory of human action that covers the good and also norms. The second part of the article looks at the relation between of virtue and personalistic bioethics. Virtue is considered as an important element of human action and is integrated with the good and norms. After analyzing and distinguishing between what is today considered personalistic bioethics and the contributions of personalism to bioethics, the paper concludes that the integration of virtue in personalistic bioethics is not only possible but desirable to overcome the ethical minimalism that has resulted from modern day principlism driven bioethics.

  8. Bioethics as a Governance Practice. (United States)

    Montgomery, Jonathan


    Bioethics can be considered as a topic, an academic discipline (or combination of disciplines), a field of study, an enterprise in persuasion. The historical specificity of the forms bioethics takes is significant, and raises questions about some of these approaches. Bioethics can also be considered as a governance practice, with distinctive institutions and structures. The forms this practice takes are also to a degree country specific, as the paper illustrates by drawing on the author's UK experience. However, the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics can provide a starting point for comparisons provided that this does not exclude sensitivity to the socio-political context. Bioethics governance practices are explained by various legitimating narratives. These include response to scandal, the need to restrain irresponsible science, the accommodation of pluralist views, and the resistance to the relativist idea that all opinions count equally in bioethics. Each approach raises interesting questions and shows that bioethics should be studied as a governance practice as a complement to other approaches.

  9. Epistocracy for online deliberative bioethics. (United States)

    Schiavone, Giuseppe; Mameli, Matteo; Boniolo, Giovanni


    The suggestion that deliberative democratic approaches would suit the management of bioethical policymaking in democratic pluralistic societies has triggered what has been called the "deliberative turn" in health policy and bioethics. Most of the empirical work in this area has focused on the allocation of healthcare resources and priority setting at the local or national level. The variety of the more or less articulated theoretical efforts behind such initiatives is remarkable and has been accompanied, to date, by an overall lack of method specificity. We propose a set of methodological requirements for online deliberative procedures for bioethics. We provide a theoretical motivation for these requirements. In particular, we discuss and adapt an "epistocratic" proposal and argue that, regardless of its merits as a general political theory, a more refined version of its normative claims can generate a useful framework for the design of bioethical forums that combine maximal inclusiveness with informed and reasonable deliberation.

  10. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundiran Temidayo O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.

  11. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative (United States)

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O


    Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa. PMID:15488145

  12. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies]. (United States)

    Cortina, A


    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  13. Bioethics and academic freedom. (United States)

    Singer, Peter


    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  14. Bioethics for Technical Experts (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  15. Evolutionary Theology and Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Georgievich Yushchenko


    Full Text Available The essential theses of evolutional theology are set forth here, which assume biological evolution to be either a technology of the Creator or His own evolution towards understanding His own intentions and attributes. The paradigm of evolutional Christianity is reviwed along with the position and the role of humans in the psychophysical megasynthesis of the Universe and the attibutes of religious and scientifically-atheistic world-view. Biological evolution is interpreted as an ascending row of divine embodiments in biological organisms culminated in the most cephalized  living forms:  human being (terrestrial form and higher dolphins (water form. The establishment of communication between these living forms is considered a necessary stage of integration of Noospheric consciousness. It is suggested to use the ethics of the Creator’s attitude to human beings, as a basis of bio-ethical attitude of humans to animals, especially to higher ones possessing advanced intellect and soul.

  16. Look who's talking: the interdisciplinarity of bioethics and the implications for bioethics education. (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S


    There are competing accounts of the birth of bioethics. Despite the differences among them, these accounts share the claim that bioethics was not born in a single disciplinary home or in a single social space, but in numerous, including hospitals, doctors' offices, research laboratories, courtrooms, medical schools, churches and synagogues, and philosophy classrooms. This essay considers the interdisciplinarity of bioethics and the contribution of new disciplines to bioethics. It also explores the implications of interdisciplinarity for bioethics education. As bioethics develops, it will be helpful to identify essential elements in the education of bioethicists and to distinguish between members of other disciplines who make important contributions to bioethics and bioethicists.

  17. The UNESCO Bioethics Programme: a review. (United States)

    Langlois, Adéle


    UNESCO's Bioethics Programme was established in 1993. In twenty years it has adopted three international declarations, on the human genome (1997), human genetic data (2003) and bioethics (2005); produced reports on a wide range of bioethics issues; and developed capacity building and public education programmes in bioethics. Yet UNESCO has sometimes struggled to assert its authority in the wider bioethics world. Some bioethicists have criticized the 2005 declaration and suggested that the World Health Organization might be better placed to advance bioethics. In 2011, after four years of debate, UNESCO decided not to draft a convention on human reproductive cloning, because consensus on the issue proved impossible. This article reviews the standard setting and capacity building activities of the UNESCO Bioethics Programme. While the Programme faces challenges common to most intergovernmental organizations, its achievements in expanding international law and building bioethics capacity should not be underestimated.

  18. [Bioethics in the Council of Europe]. (United States)

    Chatzixiros, Efstratios


    The Council is an intergovernmental institution that actively defends human rights in biomedicine through its experts' Committee on Bioethics. The field of biomedical science and technology is in constant development. Bioethics provisions must take account.

  19. Bioethics: A Rationale and a Model (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.; Rusch, John J.


    Discusses the rationale for and development of an undergraduate bioethics course. Based on experiences with the course, general suggestions are offered to instructors planning to add bioethics to existing curricula. (MA)

  20. Improving the Science Curriculum with Bioethics. (United States)

    Lundmark, Cathy


    Explains the importance of integrating bioethics into the science curriculum for student learning. Introduces a workshop designed for middle and high school science teachers teaching bioethics, its application to case studies, and how teachers can fit bioethics into their classroom. (YDS)

  1. Community treatment orders: Bioethical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Bertolín Guillén


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Numerous opinions and medico-legal controversies have arisen up to the date from community treatment orders in Western countries, but underlying bioethical questions have not been specifically studied. The aim of this work is to contribute to further clarify the bioethical conflicts arising from community treatment orders. Methods: The bioethical deliberation of the author is principally based on what can be considered the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm. These principles, as first described by Beauchamp and Childress in 1979, will be applied in this work to the actual situation of involuntary outpatient treatment. Results: The author's deliberation considers that community treatment orders are consistent first with the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm of practical reason, respecting its four general categories of basic principles. It also respects the principles of the medical ethics of virtue, subsumed in the personalism of ontological matrix, in the same way as its ethos affects the intrinsic purpose which is the dignity of the person; and with the consequentialist utilitarianism because it seeks the proportionality of the common good. A community treatment order prescription must ultimately be based on a bioethical exercise of responsibility by the clinician, judiciously weighing up the classic principal prima facie duties which must necessarily be translated into a real duty referring to a specific patient and context. Conclusions: Community treatment orders are seen as a method of therapeutic intervention with a bioethical basis resistant to criticism.

  2. Bioethics and cara sui. (United States)

    Gillett, Grant


    Cara sui (care of the self) is a guiding thread in Foucault's later writings on ethics. Following Foucault in that inquiry, we are urged beyond our fairly superficial conceptions of consequences, harms, benefits, and the rights of persons, and led to examine ourselves and try to articulate the sense of life that animates ethical reasoning. The result is a nuanced understanding with links to virtue ethics and post-modern approaches to ethics and subjectivity. The approach I have articulated draws on the phenomenology of Levinas and Heidegger, the Virtue ethics of Baier, and the post-structuralist writing of Michel Foucault. The subject is seen as negotiable, embodied, provisional and able to be transformed in a way that denies essentialism about human beings, their moral status, and the idea of the good. The human being emerges as responsible because, properly, responsive to the context of discourse in which morality becomes articulated. When we import this style of thinking into bioethics we find that it reaches beyond issues of policy or right conduct and allows us to use the biomedical sciences and the clinical world to revise and interrogate our understanding of ourselves and the theoretical foundations of health care ethics.

  3. What can history do for bioethics? (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan


    This article details the relationship between history and bioethics. I argue that historians' reluctance to engage with bioethics rests on a misreading of the field as solely reducible to applied ethics, and overlooks previous enthusiasm for historical perspectives. I claim that seeing bioethics as its practitioners see it - as an interdisciplinary meeting ground - should encourage historians to collaborate in greater numbers. I conclude by outlining how bioethics might benefit from new histories of the field, and how historians can lend a fresh perspective to bioethical debates.

  4. Towards a bioethics of innovation. (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Axler, Renata


    In recent years, it has become almost axiomatic that biomedical research and clinical practice should be 'innovative'-that is, that they should be always evolving and directed towards the production, translation and implementation of new technologies and practices. While this drive towards innovation in biomedicine might be beneficial, it also raises serious moral, legal, economic and sociopolitical questions that require further scrutiny. In this article, we argue that biomedical innovation needs to be accompanied by a dedicated 'bioethics of innovation' that attends systematically to the goals, process and outcomes of biomedical innovation as objects of critical inquiry. Using the example of personalised or precision medicine, we then suggest a preliminary framework for a bioethics of innovation, based on the research policy initiative of 'Responsible Innovation'. We invite and encourage critiques of this framework and hope that this will provoke a challenging and enriching new bioethical discourse.

  5. On the nature and sociology of bioethics. (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Dunn, Michael


    Much has been written in the last decade about how we should understand the value of the sociology of bioethics. Increasingly the value of the sociology of bioethics is interpreted by its advocates directly in terms of its relationship to bioethics. It is claimed that the sociology of bioethics (and related disciplinary approaches) should be seen as an important component of work in bioethics. In this paper we wish to examine whether, and how, the sociology of bioethics can be defended as a valid and justified research activity, in the context of debates about the nature of bioethics. We begin by presenting and arguing for an account of bioethics that does justice to the content of the field, the range of questions that belong within this field, and the justificatory standards (and methodological orientations) that can provide convincing answers to these questions. We then consider the role of sociology in bioethics and show how and under what conditions it can contribute to answering questions within bioethics. In the final section, we return to the sociology of bioethics to show that it can make only a limited contribution to the field.

  6. The living dead: fiction, horror, and bioethics. (United States)

    Belling, Catherine


    Popular fiction responds to, and may exacerbate, public anxieties in ways that more highbrow literary texts may not. Robin Cook's 1977 novel Coma exemplifies the ways in which medical thrillers participate in the public discourse about health care. Written shortly after the medical establishment promoted "irreversible coma," or brain death, as a new definition of dying, and at a time when the debate over the removal of Karen Ann Quinlan from life support was the subject of popular attention, Coma crystallized public fears over the uses of medical technology. While Cook hoped that Coma would encourage public participation in health-care decision-making, the book may have fueled public concerns about medicine in ways that he did not anticipate. The public engagement that accompanied the rise of bioethics and that led to increased transparency and patient autonomy in medical decision-making had its birth, in part, in the distrust and paranoia reflected in the medical thriller. Because fiction can shape public perceptions of health-care dilemmas and may affect decision-making on bioethical issues, bioethicists need to pay attention to popular fictional accounts of medicine.

  7. Connecting the East and the West, the Local and the Universal: The Methodological Elements of a Transcultural Approach to Bioethics. (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao; Fitzgerald, Ruth P

    From the outset, cross-cultural and transglobal bioethics has constituted a potent arena for a dynamic public discourse and academic debate alike. But prominent bioethical debates on such issues as the notion of common morality and a distinctive "Asian" bioethics in contrast to a "Western" one reveal some deeply rooted and still popular but seriously problematic methodological habits in approaching cultural differences, most notably, radically dichotomizing the East and the West, the local and the universal. In this paper, a "transcultural" approach to bioethics and cultural studies is proposed. It takes seriously the challenges offered by social sciences, anthropology in particular, towards the development of new methodologies for comparative and global bioethics. The key methodological elements of "transculturalism" include acknowledging the great internal plurality within every culture; highlighting the complexity of cultural differences; upholding the primacy of morality; incorporating a reflexive theory of social power; and promoting changes or progress towards shared and sometimes new moral values.

  8. [Building and teaching bioethics in French-speaking countries: at the crossroads of disciplines and practices]. (United States)

    Godard, Béatrice; Moubé, Zéphirin


    It is inmportant to emphasize three aspects concerning the construction and teaching of 'French bioethics: the maintenance and promotion ofa multidisciplinary approach; a greater autonomy in the management and development of training programs; positioning a power of attraction and development in French-speaking countries. Bioethics is defined as a field of interdisciplinary studies at the junction of the health sciences and the humanities and, more importantly, directly connected to the reality of the health community, research and public Policy. A greater autonomy in the management and development of training programs is also capital. The danger of being dominated by one discipline involved whether medicine, law, philosophy, theology is real and prevents from promoting methodological approaches that are both theoretical and empirical. Finally, compliance with local and national, but also disciplinary diversity is essential to the construction and teaching of French bioethics. As such, the University of Montreal has positioned itself as a leader in the French-speaking countries: at the junction of North America and European countries, Quebec has developed its own specificity in bioethics, which is a force of attraction for many countries of the French-speaking world. In this context, the Bioethics Programs at the University of Montreal rely heavily on knowledge transfer to other cultures. Moreover, the internationalization of training programs in French bioethics is a major issue in the current context of globalization and transmission of knowledge.

  9. Creating the 'ethics industry': Mary Warnock, in vitro fertilization and the history of bioethics in Britain. (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan


    Recent decades have seen a shift in the management and discussion of biomedicine. Issues once considered by doctors and scientists are now handled by a diverse array of participants, including philosophers, lawyers, theologians and lay representatives. This new approach, known as 'bioethics', has become the norm in regulatory committees and public debate. In this article, I argue that bioethics emerged as a valued enterprise in Britain during the 1980s because it fulfilled, and linked, the concerns of several groups. My analysis centres on the moral philosopher Mary Warnock, who chaired a government inquiry into human fertilization and embryology between 1982 and 1984, and became a strong advocate of bioethics. I detail how Warnock's promotion of bioethics tallied with the Conservative government's desire for increased surveillance of hitherto autonomous professions - while fulfilling her own belief that philosophers should engage in public affairs. And I also show that Warnock simultaneously promoted bioethics to doctors and scientists as an essential safeguard against declining political and public trust. This stance, I argue, framed bioethics as a vital intermediary between politics, the public, and biomedicine, and explains the growth and endurance of what the Guardian identified as an ethics industry.

  10. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'? (United States)

    Hurst, Samia


    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  11. Bioethics in the Hunger Games (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce


    In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…

  12. [The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia]. (United States)

    del Barrio Seoane, Jaime


    On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution.

  13. Bioethics and its gatekeepers: does institutional racism exist in leading bioethics journals? (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Myser, Catherine; De Vries, Raymond


    Who are the gatekeepers in bioethics? Does editorial bias or institutional racism exist in leading bioethics journals? We analyzed the composition of the editorial boards of 14 leading bioethics journals by country. Categorizing these countries according to their Human Development Index (HDI), we discovered that approximately 95 percent of editorial board members are based in (very) high-HDI countries, less than 4 percent are from medium-HDI countries, and fewer than 1.5 percent are from low-HDI countries. Eight out of 14 leading bioethics journals have no editorial board members from a medium- or low-HDI country. Eleven bioethics journals have no board members from low-HDI countries. This severe underrepresentation of bioethics scholars from developing countries on editorial boards suggests that bioethics may be affected by institutional racism, raising significant questions about the ethics of bioethics in a global context.

  14. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate]. (United States)

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C


    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  15. Bioethics and authoritarian discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Güven


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]This paper has been planned as a critical response to Murat Civaner's article entitled 'Medical Ethics arguments should be concordant with scientific knowledge and certain values', published in the Autumn 2015 issue of Turkish Journal of Bioethics. It also aims to provide an evaluation of the way the authoritarian discourse manifests itself in ethical arguments.[¤]METHODS[|]For this purpose, the paper first presents the views of Orhan Hançerlioğlu on Karl Marx and Karl Popper and treats these views as a written example of such authoritarian discourse, which is essentially a problematic attitude that results from an inability to acknowledge the value-laden aspects of a given perspective. [¤]RESULTS[|]In order to show that problems in Hançerlioğlu's approach is also present in Civaner's arguments, several examples where the author did not recognize the value-laden aspects and the subjective nature of information are provided. The paper then examines the recent claim by Celal Şengör, who asserted that force feeding of feces to individuals do not qualify as torture. Based on the presentation and the justification of this reductionist claim, it is emphasized that the relationship between information and values is much more complicated than those presented by Civaner. Civaner's claim, which asserts that the concept of conscience should have no place in medical ethics arguments, is also evaluated on this basis and the dangers of excluding the moral agent in ethical evaluation are underlined. In addition, the relationship of the paternalist tradition with the perspective which I refer to as the 'macro axis' is examined. Last but not least, the paper deals with the concept of 'ethics of ethics' by using examples from national and international ethics literature and emphasizes the reason why it is important for the ethicist to become aware of her own scheme of values. [¤]DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION[|]The paper concludes that contrary

  16. [Interface between bioethics and international relations]. (United States)

    Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei


    Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics.

  17. The virtue ethics approach to bioethics. (United States)

    Holland, Stephen


    This paper discusses the viability of a virtue-based approach to bioethics. Virtue ethics is clearly appropriate to addressing issues of professional character and conduct. But another major remit of bioethics is to evaluate the ethics of biomedical procedures in order to recommend regulatory policy. How appropriate is the virtue ethics approach to fulfilling this remit? The first part of this paper characterizes the methodology problem in bioethics in terms of diversity, and shows that virtue ethics does not simply restate this problem in its own terms. However, fatal objections to the way the virtue ethics approach is typically taken in bioethics literature are presented in the second section of the paper. In the third part, a virtue-based approach to bioethics that avoids the shortcomings of the typical one is introduced and shown to be prima facie plausible. The upshot is an inviting new direction for research into bioethics' methodology.

  18. Disciplining bioethics: towards a standard of methodological rigor in bioethics research. (United States)

    Adler, Daniel; Zlotnik Shaul, Randi


    Contemporary bioethics research is often described as multi- or interdisciplinary. Disciplines are characterized, in part, by their methods. Thus, when bioethics research draws on a variety of methods, it crosses disciplinary boundaries. Yet each discipline has its own standard of rigor--so when multiple disciplinary perspectives are considered, what constitutes rigor? This question has received inadequate attention, as there is considerable disagreement regarding the disciplinary status of bioethics. This disagreement has presented five challenges to bioethics research. Addressing them requires consideration of the main types of cross-disciplinary research, and consideration of proposals aiming to ensure rigor in bioethics research.

  19. Exploring Preschoolers' Engagement and Perceived Physical Competence in an Autonomy-Based Object Control Skill Intervention: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Logan, Samuel; Robinson, Leah; Webster, E. Kipling; Barber, Laura


    The purpose of this study was to describe children's engagement during two (high and low) autonomy-based climates. Twenty-five preschool children participated in a nine-week object control skill intervention. Children completed the object control subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd Edition and the perceived physical competence…

  20. Bioethics in the Laboratory: Synthesis and Interactivity. (United States)

    Murray, Kevin J.


    Describes the implementation of a bioethics laboratory exercise that incorporates a variety of instructional strategies. In the activity, General Biology students consider relevant and interesting topics of bioethical importance and prepare classroom presentations on the different viewpoints normally attendant to ethical topics. Includes an…

  1. Integrative Bioethics: A Conceptually Inconsistent Project. (United States)

    Ivanković, Viktor; Savić, Lovro


    This article provides a critical evaluation of the central components of Integrative Bioethics, a project aiming at a bioethical framework reconceptualization. Its proponents claim that this new system of thought has developed a better bioethical methodology than mainstream Western bioethics, a claim that we criticize here. We deal especially with the buzz words of Integrative Bioethics - pluriperspectivism, integrativity, orientational knowledge, as well as with its underlying theory of moral truth. The first part of the paper looks at what the claims of a superior methodology consist in. The second reveals pluriperspectivism and integrativity to be underdeveloped, hazy terms, but which seem to be underpinned by two theses - the incommensurability and the inclusiveness theses. These theses we critically scrutinize. We then consider strategies the project's proponents might apply to curb these theses in order to acquire minimal consistency for their framework. This part of the article also deals with the conception of moral truth that drives the theory, a position equally burdened with inconsistencies. In the last part of the article, we observe the concept of orientational knowledge, and develop two interpretations of its possible meaning. We claim that, following the first interpretation, Integrative Bioethics is completely descriptive, in which case it is informative and important, but hardly bioethics; if it is normative, following the second interpretation, it is bioethics as we already know it, but merely clad in rhetorical embellishments. We conclude that there is nothing new about this project, and that its inconsistencies are reason enough for its abandonment.

  2. Assessing Analysis and Reasoning in Bioethics (United States)

    Pearce, Roger S.


    Developing critical thinking is a perceived weakness in current education. Analysis and reasoning are core skills in bioethics making bioethics a useful vehicle to address this weakness. Assessment is widely considered to be the most influential factor on learning (Brown and Glasner, 1999) and this piece describes how analysis and reasoning in…

  3. The environmental education in the bioethics.



    Introduction: In the area of the environment, it has been perceived the Bioethics like an interdisciplinary in the construction of a critical thought that should conclude in an environmental knowledge with ethics and in a position epistemologist where the existential values and axiological are reaffirmed, to conclude analyzing the courses of the environmental education. Objectives: To demonstrate how the Bioethics claims ...

  4. Fritz Jahr's 1927 concept of bioethics. (United States)

    Sass, Hans-Martin


    In 1927, Fritz Jahr, a Protestant pastor, philosopher, and educator in Halle an der Saale, published an article entitled "Bio-Ethics: A Review of the Ethical Relationships of Humans to Animals and Plants" and proposed a "Bioethical Imperative," extending Kant's moral imperative to all forms of life. Reviewing new physiological knowledge of his times and moral challenges associated with the development of secular and pluralistic societies, Jahr redefines moral obligations towards human and nonhuman forms of life, outlining the concept of bioethics as an academic discipline, principle, and virtue. Although he had no immediate long-lasting influence during politically and morally turbulent times, his argument that new science and technology requires new ethical and philosophical reflection and resolve may contribute toward clarification of terminology and of normative and practical visions of bioethics, including understanding of the geoethical dimensions of bioethics.

  5. Bioethics education of nursing curriculum in Korea: a national study. (United States)

    Choe, Kwisoon; Kang, Youngmi; Lee, Woon-Yong


    The aim of this study is to examine the current profile of bioethics education in the nursing curriculum as perceived by nursing students and faculty in Korea. A convenience sampling method was used for recruiting 1223 undergraduate nursing students and 140 nursing faculty in Korea. Experience of Bioethics Education, Quality of Bioethics Education, and Demand for Bioethics Education Scales were developed. The Experience of Bioethics Education Scale showed that the nursing curriculum in Korea does not provide adequate bioethics education. The Quality of Bioethics Education Scale revealed that the topics of human nature and human rights were relatively well taught compared to other topics. The Demand for Bioethics Education Scale determined that the majority of the participants believed that bioethics education should be a major requirement in the nursing curriculum. The findings of this study suggest that bioethics should be systemically incorporated into nursing courses, clinical practice during the program, and during continuing education.

  6. The narrative approach in Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Picozzi


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the narrative approach in Bioethics is more and more considered and used. In our paper we would like to explain why – when we need to take a decision – it is essential and crucial that the patient tells his own history; we also indicate the main consequences that this approach has with reference to the choices at the bed of the patient. Selected Papers of the Congress “Narrative Based Medicine and Communication in Clinical Practice” · Cagliari, Italy · April 14th, 2014 Guest Editors: Massimiliano Zonza, Vassilios Fanos, Gian Paolo Donzelli

  7. Online Resources for Introducing Bioethics through Case-Studies and Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan K. Kiely


    Full Text Available Comparative review of: Bioethics 101 and Exploring Bioethics

  8. Current bioethical issues in parasitology. (United States)

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E


    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  9. Bioethics, population studies, and geneticophobia. (United States)

    Salzano, Francisco M


    In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group's biological and cultural history; however, in their urge to assure rights, social researchers, bioethics commissions, non-governmental organizations, and community leaders are, in many cases, crossing the limits of good sense. DNA is sometimes interpreted as synonymous to demoniac, and there is a frequent behaviour that I could only describe using a neologism: geneticophobia. There is an irrational attitude against genetic studies aiming to unravel the biological history of a given people and to classify any genome population study as "racist". This behaviour should be opposed; science and the scientific study of humankind are the only way we have to reach the socially adequate objective of the maximum of happiness to the largest number of persons.

  10. Literature, history and the humanization of bioethics. (United States)

    Emmerich, Nathan


    This paper considers the disciplines of literature and history and the contributions each makes to the discourse of bioethics. In each case I note the pedagogic ends that can be enacted though the appropriate use of the each of these disciplines in the sphere of medical education, particularly in the medical ethics classroom.(1) I then explore the contribution that both these disciplines and their respective methodologies can and do bring to the academic field of bioethics. I conclude with a brief consideration of the relations between literature and history with particular attention to the possibilities for a future bioethics informed by history and literature after the empirical turn.

  11. Participatory Bioethics Research and its Social Impact: The Case of Coercion Reduction in Psychiatry. (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A; Voskes, Yolande; Widdershoven, Guy


    In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage. There is an emphasis on realizing social change through the conduct (not merely the results) of the research, and it is believed that the engagement of stakeholders in the research process will promote their intrinsic motivation to change their practice. Another distinctive feature of participatory bioethics research is that its central normative commitment is to reflection and dialogue, not to a particular substantive ethical approach. In reflection and dialogue there is an emphasis on inclusion and the co-production of knowledge. Furthermore, empirical and normative research are combined, and there is a deliberate attempt to give voice to otherwise marginalized positions. This provides a model of social impact which is relevant not only for bioethics research, but also for other areas of health care research. We will show the merits of a participatory approach to bioethics research with a case example. It concerns the reduction of coercion and in particular seclusion in Dutch mental healthcare.

  12. On the tenth anniversary of the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights". (United States)

    Petrini, C


    In 2005 the representatives of 191 states meeting for the General Conference of UNESCO unanimously approved the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights". The Declaration is the only instrument of its kind: it was the first document adopted by a global organisation that addressed the whole range of issues with which bioethics is concerned and that is a legal instrument. Many of the principles affirmed in the Declaration had already been amply absorbed into the discipline of bioethics. All of them can be traced to the dignity and equality of every individual. The most evident novelty is to be found less in the content of the principles than in the balancing of individual and societal perspectives. Also in evidence are several compromises that were adopted in order to promote dialogue and mutual understanding.

  13. On the possibility of a pragmatic discourse bioethics: Putnam, Habermas, and the normative logic of bioethical inquiry. (United States)

    Cooke, Elizabeth F


    Pragmatic bioethics represents a novel approach to the discipline of bioethics, yet has met with criticisms which have beset the discipline of bioethics in the past. In particular, pragmatic bioethics has been criticized for its excessively fuzzy approach to fundamental questions of normativity, which are crucial to a field like bioethics. Normative questions need answers, and consensus is not always enough. The approach here is to apply elements of the discourse ethics of Habermas and Putnam to the sphere of bioethics, in order to develop a normative structure out of the framework of bioethical inquiry as it stands. The idea here is that the process of inquiry contains its own normative structure as it aims to discover norms. Such an approach, which fuses pragmatic bioethics with discourse ethics (which equally draws on pragmatism), may rightly be called a "Pragmatic Discourse Bioethics."

  14. [Contribution of Stein's Anthropology to Personalistic Bioethics]. (United States)

    Robles Morejón, Jeannette Beatriz


    Dr. Juan Manuel Burgos proposes ″a challenge″ to whom aims to consolidate the dignity of the human person as the center of a thought structure. Burgos presents a well-founded trilogy, citing Wojtyla, Sgreccia and he himself, as a perfect combination to support personalist bioethics. However, the possibility of giving a solid anthropological support to this bioethics remains open provided that a substantial list of personalistic authors is revised. This research seeks to collate Stein's anthropological proposal to personalist bioethics needs expressed by Burgos. The study aims to prove how Stein's anthropology can be assembled to the characteristics of personalism, and thus infer that more specific levels of the personalist bioethics can be based on this anthropology.

  15. How philosophy and theology have undermined bioethics. (United States)

    Capaldi, Nicholas


    This essay begins by distinguishing among the viewpoints of philosophy, theology, and religion; it then explores how each deals with "sin" in the bioethical context. The conclusions are that the philosophical and theological viewpoints are intellectually defective in that they cripple our ability to deal with normative issues, and are in the end unable to integrate Christian concepts like "sin" successfully into bioethics. Sin is predicated only of beings with free will, though only in Western Christianity must all sins be committed with knowledge and voluntarily. Without the notions of free will, sin, and a narrative of redemption, bioethics remains unable to provide itself with an adequate normative framework. Bioethics, and morality in general, remain a morass precisely because there has been a failure to translate Christian morality into fully secular and scientistic terms.

  16. A "Bioethics" Approach to Teaching Health Law. (United States)

    Capron, Alexander Morgan


    The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)

  17. Teaching Bioethics from an Interdisciplinary Perspective. (United States)

    Singleton, Rivers, Jr.; Brock, D. Heyward


    Outlines an interdisciplinary workshop in bioethics for secondary teachers taught by a team consisting of a scientist, a philosopher, and a literary critic. Discusses definitions, topics, reading selections, problems, and value. (DC)

  18. Bioethics: why philosophy is essential for progress. (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian


    It is the JME's 40th anniversary and my 20th anniversary working in the field. I reflect on the nature of bioethics and medical ethics. I argue that both bioethics and medical ethics together have, in many ways, failed as fields. My diagnosis is that better philosophy is needed. I give some examples of the importance of philosophy to bioethics. I focus mostly on the failure of ethics in research and organ transplantation, although I also consider genetic selection, enhancement, cloning, futility, disability and other topics. I do not consider any topic comprehensively or systematically or address the many reasonable objections to my arguments. Rather, I seek to illustrate why philosophical analysis and argument remain as important as ever to progress in bioethics and medical ethics.

  19. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron


    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  20. Bioethical language and its dialects and idiolects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    Full Text Available In their search for answers to the relevant theoretical questions on importing knowledge in practical ethics, the authors take an instrumental approach to metaphor. This figure of language allows one to compare language and linguistic variants to bioethics and knowledge. As defined by the dictionary, an 'idiom' is the official language of a nation, a 'dialect' is a regional variant of an idiom, and an 'idiolect' is an individual variant of a dialect. The bioethical idiom is thus seen as a linguistic set constituting a 'bioethical nation'. Since it is situated above particular dialects, it exercises more than a regulatory role over the discipline. In this article, in order to focus on the process of transmission of knowledge in bioethics, the authors chose Diego Gracia's work as a paradigmatic reference to the question on the transculturation of dialects and the relations in bioethics which are considered 'peripheral' or 'central'. Although this researcher found the key question pointing to the core of the problem of importing dialects, he is still searching for a proper answer to the cultural/bioethical context/contradiction

  1. Bioethical language and its dialects and idiolects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrafa Volnei


    Full Text Available In their search for answers to the relevant theoretical questions on importing knowledge in practical ethics, the authors take an instrumental approach to metaphor. This figure of language allows one to compare language and linguistic variants to bioethics and knowledge. As defined by the dictionary, an 'idiom' is the official language of a nation, a 'dialect' is a regional variant of an idiom, and an 'idiolect' is an individual variant of a dialect. The bioethical idiom is thus seen as a linguistic set constituting a 'bioethical nation'. Since it is situated above particular dialects, it exercises more than a regulatory role over the discipline. In this article, in order to focus on the process of transmission of knowledge in bioethics, the authors chose Diego Gracia's work as a paradigmatic reference to the question on the transculturation of dialects and the relations in bioethics which are considered 'peripheral' or 'central'. Although this researcher found the key question pointing to the core of the problem of importing dialects, he is still searching for a proper answer to the cultural/bioethical context/contradiction

  2. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron


    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  3. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Mathúna Dónal P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Discussion Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans. A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Summary Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi

  4. Burden of Proof in Bioethics. (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J


    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons.

  5. Nanotechnologies, bioethics and human dignity. (United States)

    Visciano, Silvia


    Nanoscale science, research, and technology present a complex set of circumstances. First of all, this field involves many different subjects, including biology, chemistry, physics, and environment sciences. Secondly, although scientists are working increasingly at a molecular level, nanotechnology is about much more than a reduction of scale. Indeed, nanoscience and Nanotechnologies offer an unprecedented ability to control and manipulate nature, offering hope for progress. Ethical perspectives vary considerably in this field, but commentators and researchers share a concern about a specific worrisome issue: the lack of appropriate ethical and legal principles and processes (associated with issues including health risks, human body manipulation, and private life violation), to guide nanotechnological R&D, commercialization, and final use. Some authors partially reject this concern by suggesting that Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies do not constitute an autonomous category, and that they are instead just the operative result of combining other traditional areas of study. However the nanotechnological debate brings up the semantic and content issues of bioethics and foments a contentious discussion emphasizing human dignity. Issues include enhancement versus therapeutic intervention, traceability versus privacy, and societal benefits versus risks. From these preliminary considerations, we will move on to discuss (I) the traditional, although still controversial, relationship between bioethics and human dignity, and (II) return to the subject of nanotechnology. We will discuss how today in Europe, although still indefinite, the principle of respect for human dignity is a welcomed contributor to "ethical vigilance" about the uncertain development of new nano-scale technologies. We will also note how U.S. strategy in this regard is simply lacking and appears only as a purely discursive "key issue in long term ".

  6. Systematic reviews in bioethics: types, challenges, and value. (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind


    There has recently been interest in applying the techniques of systematic review to bioethics literature. In this paper, I identify the three models of systematic review proposed to date in bioethics: systematic reviews of empirical bioethics research, systematic reviews of normative bioethics literature, and systematic reviews of reasons. I argue that all three types yield information useful to scholarship in bioethics, yet they also face significant challenges particularly in relation to terminology and time. Drawing on my recent experience conducting a systematic review, I suggest that complete comprehensiveness may not always be an appropriate goal of a literature review in bioethics, depending on the research question. In some cases, all the relevant ideas may be captured without capturing all the relevant literature. I conclude that systematic reviews in bioethics have an important role to play alongside the traditional broadbrush approach to reviewing literature in bioethics.

  7. Basic principles of bioethics and orthodox ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katsimigas George


    Full Text Available The galloping progress in genetic and medical technology has led to the birth of the new science of bioethics. Bioethics examines the ethical dimension of problems arising from the application of the discoveries in the fields of biology and genetics and the effects they may have on nature and people in particular, from the aspect of anthropological teaching of the church Fathers.Aim: The aim of this article is: a the delimitation of the scientific field of bioethics and its historical background, b the emergence of the principles of the science of bioethics, c the determination of the principles of orthodox morality though which the issues arising from the application of genetic engineering in human are faced.Material and Method: The method used to collect material for the writing of this article “principles of bioethics and orthodox morality”, was the widespread review of international and Greek bibliography. For the collection of the English bibliography the electronic database CINAHL was used. The keywords used in combination were Bioethics orthodox ethics. Results: The basic principle of bioethics are: a the principle of autonomy, b the principle of equivalence, c the principle of not causing harm and pain, d the principle of utility or beneficence, e the principle of justice. The orthodox approach to the issues arising from the application of genetics human is based on the Orthodox anthropology, as expressed in the Bible and the texts of the Fathers of the Church. The centerpieces of the Biblical and Patristic anthropology are: a that man was created as the exact replica of the Triune God and b that man is a single psychosomatic entity.

  8. Surmounting elusive barriers: the case for bioethics mediation. (United States)

    Bergman, Edward J


    This article describes, analyzes, and advocates for management of clinical healthcare conflict by a process commonly referred to as bioethics mediation. Section I provides a brief introduction to classical mediation outside the realm of clinical healthcare. Section II highlights certain distinguishing characteristics of bioethics mediation. Section III chronicles the history of bioethics mediation and references a number of seminal writings on the subject. Finally, Section IV analyzes barriers that have, thus far, limited the widespread implementation of bioethics mediation.

  9. Bioethics Center: An Idea Whose Time Had Come (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974


    The functioning of the Kennedy Institute, which aims at dealing with ethical and social questions raised by advances in biosciences and medicine, is described. Three major projects now underway are briefly discussed: a core reference library in bioethics, an Encyclopedia of Bioethics, and a bioethics information retrieval system. (DT)

  10. How can we help? From "sociology in" to "sociology of" bioethics. (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond


    Sociology and bioethics have an uneasy relationship. Bioethicists find sociology helpful for describing and analyzing ethical issues, but they are less enthusiastic when bioethics becomes the subject of sociological scrutiny. After review of different sociological approaches to bioethical topics -- descriptive, evaluative, and analytical -- I explain how bioethics will benefit by using the tools of sociology to answer its questions ("sociology in bioethics") and by allowing sociology to use bioethics to answer sociological questions ("sociology of bioethics").

  11. Bioethical issues in the development of biopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Zoran


    Full Text Available Development of biopharmaceuticals is a challenging issue in bioethics. Unlike conventional, small molecular weight drugs, biopharmaceuticals are proteins derived from DNA technology and hybrid techniques with complex three dimensional structures. Immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals should always be tested in clinical settings due to low predictive value of preclinical animal models. However, non-human primates (NHP and transgenic mice could be used to address certain aspects of immunogenicity. Substantial efforts have been made to reduce NHP use in biopharmaceutical drug development, e.g. study design improvements and changes in regulatory policy. In addition, several expert groups are active in this field (e.g. NC3Rs, BioSafe, and Biopharmaceutical Technical Group. Despite that, there is an increasing trend of use of NHP in preclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals, especially regarding monoclonal antibodies. Other potential bioethical issues related biopharmaceutical drug development are their cost/effectiveness ratio, clinical safety assessment, production of biosimilars, and comparison of their efficacy with placebo in countries without intention to market. Identification of the human genome has opened many new bioethical issues. Development of biopharmaceuticals is an important bioethical issue for several reasons. It connects all aspects of contemporary bioethics: bio­medicine (e.g. clinical trials in vulnerable subjects, animal welfare and the most recent ad­vances in biotechnology. In particular, biopharmaceutical drug development is a challenging issue regarding treatment of rare diseases.

  12. Bioethics and Christian theology in Brazil. (United States)

    Dos Anjos, Márcio Fabri; Lepargneur, Hubert François


    A Christian theology is important to bioethics in Brazil not only because Brazil is a country of strong Christian traditions, but also because of its theological method and because of many practices in their Christian communities. In fact, the interaction within practice and theory is a big point of its methodology. A heritage of a long history of colonialism in South America comes to our times as enormous social inequalities. In such a context, the silent cry of poor people is heard as a question of coherence to the Christian faith and to the neighbor love. Through a constant dialog with human sciences, the method of theology, known as liberation theology, seeks the roots of social inequalities and the alternatives to a movement of spiritual and social liberation. In touch with the modern bioethics, this theology has strongly contributed to understand all the questions of bioethics in the frame of social structures and systems. On the other hand, many actual practices of the Catholic Church in Brazil with popular impact, like its annual Fraternity Campaign, develop social themes and problems that are also big concerns of bioethics. In this article we try to expose some aspects of this dialog, where theology has a well considered contribution to Brazilian bioethics, at the same time his religious discourse is open to interact with a lay discourse.

  13. Two Agendas for Bioethics: Critique and Integration. (United States)

    Garrett, Jeremy R


    Many bioethicists view the primary task of bioethics as 'value clarification'. In this article, I argue that the field must embrace two more ambitious agendas that go beyond mere clarification. The first agenda, critique, involves unmasking, interrogating, and challenging the presuppositions that underlie bioethical discourse. These largely unarticulated premises establish the boundaries within which problems can be conceptualized and solutions can be imagined. The function of critique, then, is not merely to clarify these premises but to challenge them and the boundaries they define. The second agenda, integration, involves honoring and unifying what is right in competing values. Integration is the morally ideal response to value conflict, offering the potential for transcending win/lose outcomes. The function of integration, then, is to envision actions or policies that not only resolve conflicts, but that do so by jointly realizing many genuine values in deep and compelling ways. My argument proceeds in stages. After critically examining the role and dominant status of value clarification in bioethical discourse, I describe the nature and value of the two agendas, identify concrete examples of where each has been and could be successful, and explain why a critical integrative bioethics--one that appreciates the joint necessity and symbiotic potential of the two agendas--is crucial to the future of the field. The ultimate goal of all of this is to offer a more compelling vision for how bioethics might conduct itself within the larger intellectual and social world it seeks to understand and serve.

  14. Bioethical issues in neuropsychiatric genetic disorders. (United States)

    Fuentes, Joaquin; Martín-Arribas, M Concepción


    Neurogenetic disorders share many characteristics with other rare disorders and raise complex bioethical issues for clinical practice and research. Because patients frequently present with cognitive or communicative impairments, special measures to guarantee consent and assent are required. Many neurogenetic disorders present with autistic behavior or borderline sociocommunicative aspects. The likelihood that early educational intervention benefits the adaptive skills of these persons leads to screening programs that pose bioethical challenges. The biggest conflicts come from the lack of research in clinical care and the limited application of biomedical ethics in the personal support services arena. Alternatives include the development of personal services portfolios, establishing and supporting bioethical committees, reviewing and improving ethical aspects in research initiatives in this population, and empowering clients (and their legally authorized representatives) for participation and representation.

  15. Outlining a Serious Moral Games in Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Christen


    Full Text Available Our contribution discusses the possibilities and limits of using video games for apprehending and reflecting on the moral actions of their players. We briefly present the results of an extended study that introduces the conceptual idea of a Serious Moral Game (SMG. Then, we outline its possible application in the domain of bioethics for training medical professionals such that they can deal better with moral problems in medical practice. We briefly sketch major components of a SMG Bioethics. The contribution should demonstrate how such an instrument may improve psychological competences that are needed for dealing with various ethical questions within healthcare. The contribution is an intermediate step of a project that aims at actually creating a SMG for training in moral competences that are needed for putting bioethics in practice.

  16. The ethics of peer review in bioethics. (United States)

    Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin


    A good deal has been written on the ethics of peer review, especially in the scientific and medical literatures. In contrast, we are unaware of any articles on the ethics of peer review in bioethics. Recognising this gap, we evaluate the extant proposals regarding ethical standards for peer review in general and consider how they apply to bioethics. We argue that scholars have an obligation to perform peer review based on the extent to which they personally benefit from the peer review process. We also argue, contrary to existing proposals and guidelines, that it can be appropriate for peer reviewers to benefit in their own scholarship from the manuscripts they review. With respect to bioethics in particular, we endorse double-blind review and suggest several ways in which the peer review process might be improved.

  17. Lessons from Queer Bioethics: A Response to Timothy F. Murphy. (United States)

    Richie, Cristina


    'Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people' writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof (i.e. DSM diagnosis; access to SrS or ARTs). It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I will situate Queer bioethics within Queer studies, and offer three 'lessons' that bioethics can derive from this perspective. These are not definitive rules for Queer bioethics, since it is a field which fundamentally opposes categorizations, favoring pastiche over principles. These lessons are exploratory examples, which both complement and contradict LGBT bioethics. My latter two lessons - on environmental bioethics and disability - overlap with some of Murphy's concerns, as well as other conceptions of LGBT bioethics. However, the first lesson takes an antithetical stance to Murphy's primary focus by resisting all forms of heteroconformity and disavowing reproduction as consonant with Queer objectives and theory. The first lesson, which doubles as a primer in Queer theory, does heavy philosophical lifting for the remainder of the essay. This response to Timothy F. Murphy, whose work is certainly a legacy in bioethics, reveals the multiplicity of discourses in LGBT/Queer studies, many of which are advantageous - even essential - to other disciplines like bioethics.

  18. 78 FR 46335 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ... Bioethical Issues will conduct its fourteenth meeting on August 19-20, 2013. At this meeting, the Bioethics Commission will continue to discuss the ethical implications of incidental findings. The Bioethics Commission...: . Additional information may be obtained at ....

  19. Experimental course of bioethics upon the bioethics core curriculum of UNESCO: methodoloy and result of investigation. (United States)

    Davtyan, S


    In October 2005 the General Conference of UNESCO adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The aim of this Declaration was to assist in the realization ofprinciples and support the thorough understanding of the consequences of the ethics of scientific and technical progress, especially for youth. In 2008, the Division of Ethics of Science and Technology Sector for Social and Human Sciences of UNESCO worked out an Educational Program (Bioethics Core Curriculum). On November 23, 2010 a Memorandum was signed between UNESCO and the Yerevan State Medical University after M. Heratsi. The Memorandum was aimed to test the Bioethics Core Curriculum of UNESCO. In this article we will analyze the aims and goals of studying the course, as well as disputable shortcomings of the Program, make recommendations for the improvement of the course of bioethics, and highlight the positive aspects of this Educational Program.

  20. [Understanding my patient from the personalist bioethics]. (United States)

    Cardona Vélez, Jonathan


    The role of ethics in our everyday life responds to the need to understand a decisive reality, especially for us as physicians, a reality that we know as the human person. So, a personalized bioethical approach plays an important role against the accelerated dehumanization that we are experiencing, because every one of our actions has a direct impact on our patients.

  1. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights. (United States)

    March, B. E.


    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  2. Bioethics: New Responsibility for Human Service Administrators. (United States)

    Burke, Rebecca

    The paper highlights the poignancy with which problems and issues surface as the fields of special education and bioethics (the combination of ethics and the life sciences) intersect, and touches upon professionals' responsibility for protection of the persons in their care. (Author/SBH)

  3. Community Bioethics: The Health Decisions Community Council. (United States)

    Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate


    Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…

  4. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.


    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  5. Family Secrets: The Bioethics of Genetic Testing (United States)

    Markowitz, Dina G.; DuPre, Michael J.; Holt, Susan; Chen, Shaw-Ree; Wischnowski, Michael


    This article discusses "Family Secrets," a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum module that focuses on the bioethical implications of genetic testing. In high school biology classrooms throughout New York State, students are using "Family Secrets" to learn about DNA testing; Huntington's disease (HD); and the ethical, legal,…

  6. Teaching about Bioethics through Authoring of Websites (United States)

    Willmott, Christopher J. R.; Wellens, Jane


    There is growing awareness of the need to equip students to think through the ethical implications of developments in biology. We describe an exercise in which students work in teams to produce websites about current controversial issues within the subject. Participants report a significant improvement in their knowledge of bioethics and…

  7. An undignified bioethics: there is no method in this madness. (United States)

    De Melo-Martín, Inmaculada


    In a recent article, Alasdair Cochrane argues for the need to have an undignified bioethics. His is not, of course, a call to transform bioethics into an inelegant, pathetic discipline, or one failing to meet appropriate disciplinary standards. His is a call to simply eliminate the concept of human dignity from bioethical discourse. Here I argue that he fails to make his case. I first show that several of the flaws that Cochrane identifies are not flaws of the conceptions of dignity he discusses but rather flaws of his, often problematic, understanding of such conceptions. Second, I argue that Cochrane's case against the concept of human dignity goes too far. I thus show that were one to agree that these are indeed flaws that require that we discard our ethical concepts, then following Cochrane's recommendations would commit us not only to an undignified bioethics, i.e. a bioethics without dignity, but to a bioethics without much ethics at all.

  8. 75 FR 16127 - Establishment of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ... members, who will be drawn from fields of bioethics, science, medicine, technology, engineering, law... President's Council on Bioethics. The Council was established by Executive Order 13237, dated November...

  9. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view


    Benatar, D


    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  10. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view. (United States)

    Benatar, D


    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  11. The role of philosophy in global bioethics: introducing four trends. (United States)

    Hellsten, Sirkku K


    This article examines the relationship between philosophy and culture in global bioethics. First, it studies what is meant by the term "global" in global bioethics. Second, the author introduces four different types, or recognizable trends, in philosophical inquiry in bioethics today. The main argument is that, in order to make better sense of the complexity of the ethical questions and challenges we face today across the globe, we need to embrace the universal nature of self-critical and analytical philosophical analysis and argumentation, rather than using seemingly philosophical approaches to give unjustified normative emphasis on different cultural approaches to bioethics.

  12. [Glossary of bioethics terms frequently used in nutrition support]. (United States)

    Moreno Villares, J M; Alvarez Hernández, J; Wanden-Berghe Lozano, C; Lozano Fuster, M


    Bioethical decisions are present in every clinical decision. Nutrition support participates the same situation. Feeding critically ill patients, etriminal patients or in permanent vegetative status is almost always involved in bioethical dilemmas. A common problem is the confusion in concepts regarding bioethics. This lack of uniformity does not help in the deliberation process. From the Working Group in Bioethics of the Spanish Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Support (SENPE) it has been considered to gather the commonest terms used in our academic area. Each term is accompanied by a definition, a description or a commentary related to its main application.

  13. "Eugenics talk" and the language of bioethics. (United States)

    Wilkinson, S


    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether "eugenics talk", in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people's critical-rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical-rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics.

  14. Bioethics and the national security state. (United States)

    Moreno, Jonathan D


    In previous work, I have described the history and ethics of human experiments for national security purposes during he cold war and developed the bioethical issues that will be apparent in the "war on terror". This paper is an attempt to bring these two previous lines of work together under the rubric of the "national security state," a concept familiar to Cold War historians and political scientists. The founding of the national security state was associated with the first articulations of informed consent requirements by national security agencies. My analysis indicates that strengthened consent standards, though conventionally thought to be antithetical crisis, can be seen as an attempt by the postwar national security state to protect itself from critics of expanded governmental power. During the coming years the renewed mission of the national security state in the war on terror should impel students of bioethics to consider its implications for the field.

  15. Religion and bioethics: toward an expanded understanding. (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Macdonald, Arlene


    Before asking what U.S. bioethics might learn from a more comprehensive and more nuanced understanding of Islamic religion, history, and culture, a prior question is, how should bioethics think about religion? Two sets of commonly held assumptions impede further progress and insight. The first involves what "religion" means and how one should study it. The second is a prominent philosophical view of the role of religion in a diverse, democratic society. To move beyond these assumptions, it helps to view religion as lived experience as well as a body of doctrine and to see that religious differences and controversies should be welcomed in the public square of a diverse democratic society rather than merely tolerated.

  16. [Bioethics today: Heidegger’s questions]. (United States)

    Figueroa, Gustavo


    Bioethics was born not only as an aftermath of medical technological advance but also from underlying philosophical conceptions about man, that determine scientific research. Analyzing occidental ethics, Heidegger showed that animalism was the only human dimension considered and thereby the domain of measurable objectiveness. He postulated that the essence of human existence as being-in-the-world is ethical and revealed through an original consciousness. Unlike moral conscience, original conscience calls to authenticity, to hear his constitutive nihilism as a "Being-referred-to-death". The founding ground of bioethics may be to listen to this primary being-guilty prior to the derived guilts, e.g. faults, deficiencies and shortcomings of specific daily actions.

  17. Right to health, biopower and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Junges


    Full Text Available The right to health is being more and more affected by the Biopower new configurations, no more only determined by the State, as in Foucault's analyses, but mainly by the symbolic power of the market. The biotechnological enterprises stir up increasing claims for consuming in health. These products are techno-semiotic agencies of the subjectivity in health, rendering their use as a right. In this situation it is important to return to the Right to Health comprehension of the International Conventions and the Alma-Ata Conference, proving the interdependence between Human Rights in general and the Right to Health in particular, mainly aiming at the social determinants of health that define more basic rights. The Human Rights perspective permits the proposal of a public health bioethics, different from the clinical bioethics, more appropriate for considering the collective implications of the right to Health, not reduced to a mere consumption of technologies.

  18. Mapping Queer Bioethics: Space, Place, and Locality. (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance


    This article, which introduces the special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," begins by offering an overview of the analytical scope of the issue. Specifically, the first half of this essay raises critical questions central to the concept of a space-related queer bioethics, such as: How do we appreciate and understand the special needs of queer parties given the constraints of location, space, and geography? The second half of this article describes each feature article in the issue, as well as the subsequent special sections on the ethics of reading literal, health-related maps ("Cartographies") and scrutinizing the history of this journal as concerns LGBT health ("Mapping the Journal of Homosexuality").

  19. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics]. (United States)

    Tomar Romero, Francisca


    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  20. [The bioethics of protection and the state's role: moral problems in unequal access to drinking water]. (United States)

    Pontes, Carlos Antonio Alves; Schramm, Fermin Roland


    The aim of this study is to examine unequal access to drinking water as a public health problem in terms of normative and analytical tools in the bioethics of protection. Therefore, we analyze both the moral implications of unequal treatment of primary needs, such as situations of vulnerability and threat to population groups, and the public sector's responsibility in supplying safe water. In addition, solutions are proposed for the protection of public health and the promotion of legitimate personal development projects. The bioethics of protection reaffirms the state's role in maintaining the drinking water supply and recommends avoiding a policy of privatization of this public good, meanwhile justifying public policies to correct situations of social injustice.

  1. Bioethics and Medical Issues in Literature


    Stripling, Mahala Yates


    Many of the bioethical and medical issues challenging society today have been anticipated and addressed in literature ranging from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Albert Camus’s The Plague, to Margaret Edson's Wit. The ten works of fiction explored in this book stimulate lively dialogue on topics like bioterrorism, cloning, organ transplants, obesity and heart disease, sexually transmitted diseases, and civil and human rights. This interdisciplinary and multicultural approach introducing literat...

  2. Contemporary Bioethics: The Promethean Challenges of Reprogenetics


    Lima, Natacha Salomé; Cicovacki, Predrag


    Contemporary bioethics presents to us major challenges in several fields of knowledge. The ever-increasing technological power to interfere with the nature of things (including human nature) demands our increasing ethical awareness and considerations. How are we going to respond to these demands? Our proposal is to address this complex issue by revisiting one of the founding myths of Western civilization, that of Prometheus. Among numerous variations of this myth, we will address in the first...

  3. Thanatophoric dysplasia: case-based bioethical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Abarca López


    Full Text Available This paper presents a case report of thanatophoric displasia diagnosed in the prenatal period using ultrasound standards. The course of the case pregnancy, birth process, and postnatal period is described. This report invites bioethical analysis using its principles, appealing to human dignity, diversity and otherness, particularly in the mother-child dyad and their family. An early diagnosis allows parental support as they face the course of this condition and its potentially fatal outcome.

  4. Gender context of personalism in bioethics. (United States)

    Amzat, Jimoh; Grandi, Giovanni


    Personalism is one of the philosophical perspectives which hold that the reality in person and the human person has the highest intrinsic value. This paper makes reference to Louis Janssens' eight criteria in adequate consideration of the human person but further argues that there is need to consider people as situated agents especially within gender relational perspectives. The paper identifies gender as an important social construction that shapes the consideration of the human persons within socio-spatial spheres. The main crux of the paper is that there is a gender context of personalism and this has profound implications for bioethical agendas. Gender is part of the human condition, especially when we philosophically or sociologically engage the notion of equity and equality within the social system, because social realities in the relational perspective are not impartial, impersonal and equal. Gender does not determine morality but it plays a role in morality and expectations from moral agents. Women have been categorised as a sociological group because their integrity, freedom/autonomy and dignity (which are basic concerns of bioethics) are capable of being threatened. A gender perspective provides important incentives for moral theory which searches for possible conceptual imbalances or blind spots in ethical reflections. The paper refers to Sen's faces of gender inequality and expands on the notion that natality inequality is one of the fundamental levels of gender inequality, which in turn is the primary starting agenda in bioethics. The paper avers that the recognition of the fundamental importance of gender to the organization of social reality and the development of personal identities have important practical implications for bioethics.

  5. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenburg, L.


    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  6. The environmental education in the bioethics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Cuenca


    Full Text Available Introduction: In the area of the environment, it has been perceived the Bioethics like an interdisciplinary in the construction of a critical thought that should conclude in an environmental knowledge with ethics and in a position epistemologist where the existential values and axiological are reaffirmed, to conclude analyzing the courses of the environmental education. Objectives: To demonstrate how the Bioethics claims the values of the humanism and to outline the Environmental Education as an action opportunity and generation of actions in the sustainable development of the communities of our region. Methodology: By means of bibliographical revision, a rehearsal was elaborated about the relationship of the Bioethics with the Environmental Education, as for the aspects of the atmosphere, the socioeconomic development and the environmental pedagogy. Results: They were carried out descriptions about the Holistic concept in the environment; conceptualization on Environmental Ethics; conceptualization about the Sustainable Development, the Globalization and the Sustainability; and conceptualization about the Environmental Education and the Bioethics. Conclusions: Of the carried out analysis we have a first epilogue that drives to assume the responsibility for our to work in the world and being able to understand that our quality of life reaches its fullness, when we transcend from our individual conscience toward a form of conscience able to not feel as own alone our necessity but, that of all other human being and in all other way of life. And a second epilogue in outlining strategies of an Environmental Education, different to the traditional ones, like an evolution toward the Education for the Sustainability, on the as continuing the development at the same time that it is protected, it preserves and they conserve the systems of vital support of the planet.

  7. Bioethics and Emergency Medicine: problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori


    Full Text Available Before examining the specific problems of emergency medicine, the article identifies the cardinal points for orientation in bioethics, in the conviction that the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject allow the reader to make more conscious and suitable choices. The questions of moral relativism and the consequences of the biomedical revolution are addressed in detail in order to support the argument for a new ethical base for healthcare in general and for emergency medicine.

  8. Cultivating Synergy in Nursing, Bioethics, and Policy. (United States)

    Grady, Christine


    Nursing and bioethics have a lot in common because they share concerns about life and death, illness and health, the rights of individuals and communities, ethical patient care, health care delivery, and public health. Nurses and bioethicists contribute to ethical practice, ethics scholarship, and health policy-making in a variety of ways. Some nurses have bioethics education or experience, some bioethicists study or collaborate closely with nurses, and some of us proudly identify as both bioethicists and as nurses. Despite certain shared and interwoven aims, bioethicists and nurses often accomplish their goals in dissimilar ways, have diverse educational and training trajectories as well as distinct roles and responsibilities, and are viewed differently within health care organizations. Yet the work of bioethics and nursing can be, and in my view should more often be, synergistic. That synergism may be especially critical in the arena of health policy and ethics. Nurses can bring extraordinary insights and real-world experiences to the policy table but are not always considered essential contributors.

  9. Fostering critical thinking, reasoning, and argumentation skills through bioethics education. (United States)

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N; Collins, Laura J


    Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001) between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001) in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and

  10. Fostering critical thinking, reasoning, and argumentation skills through bioethics education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Ting Chowning

    Full Text Available Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001 between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001 in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student

  11. Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy


    This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

  12. Islamic bioethics: between sacred law, lived experiences, and state authority. (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I


    There is burgeoning interest in the field of "Islamic" bioethics within public and professional circles, and both healthcare practitioners and academic scholars deploy their respective expertise in attempts to cohere a discipline of inquiry that addresses the needs of contemporary bioethics stakeholders while using resources from within the Islamic ethico-legal tradition. This manuscript serves as an introduction to the present thematic issue dedicated to Islamic bioethics. Using the collection of papers as a guide the paper outlines several critical questions that a comprehensive and cohesive Islamic bioethical theory must address: (i) What are the relationships between Islamic law (Sharī'ah), moral theology (uṣūl al-Fiqh), and Islamic bioethics? (ii) What is the relationship between an Islamic bioethics and the lived experiences of Muslims? and (iii) What is the relationship between Islamic bioethics and the state? This manuscript, and the papers in this special collection, provides insight into how Islamic bioethicists and Muslim communities are addressing some of these questions, and aims to spur further dialogue around these overaching questions as Islamic bioethics coalesces into a true field of scholarly and practical inquiry.

  13. "(East) Asia" as a Platform for Debate: Grouping and Bioethics. (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics. Using the notions of "grouping" and "segmentary systems" to show the performative nature of characterizations of (East) Asian bioethics, allowing users to mark regional identity, share meanings, take political positions, and network. Deploying Peter Haas's notion of "epistemic communities," I argue that academic and political elites translate "home" issues into "Asia speak," while at the same time, introducing and giving shape to "new" bioethical issues. Although the "Asianisms" and group-marking activities of Asian networks of bioethics are ideological, thereby engaging in the politics of in/exclusion, they succeed in putting politically sensitive topics on the agenda.

  14. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications (United States)

    Diaz, Jose Luis


    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  15. 76 FR 21369 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...: . Additional information may be obtained at available. The meeting will also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public comment on any...

  16. 77 FR 26012 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)

    2012-05-02 . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY... space. The meeting will also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive Order... webcast, will be available at . The Commission welcomes input from anyone...

  17. 76 FR 48864 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...-mail: . Additional information may be obtained at also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November... information about access to the webcast, will be available at . The...

  18. 76 FR 7569 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...-mail: . Additional information may be obtained at The meeting will also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public comment on any...

  19. 77 FR 41789 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)

    2012-07-16 . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... at . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the... access to the webcast, will be available at . The Commission welcomes input from...

  20. 77 FR 76042 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...: . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY... available. The meeting will also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive Order 13521... information about access to the webcast, will be available at . The Commission...

  1. Philosophy as news: bioethics, journalism and public policy. (United States)

    Goodman, K W


    News media accounts of issues in bioethics gain significance to the extent that the media influence public policy and inform personal decision making. The increasingly frequent appearance of bioethics in the news thus imposes responsibilities on journalists and their sources. These responsibilities are identified and discussed, as is (i) the concept of "news-worthiness" as applied to bioethics, (ii) the variable quality of bioethics reportage and (iii) journalists' reliance on ethicists to pass judgment. Because of the potential social and other benefits of high quality reporting on ethical issues, it is argued that journalists and their bioethics sources should explore and accommodate more productive relationships. An optimal journalism-ethics relationship will be one characterized by "para-ethics," in which journalistic constraints are noted but also in which issues and arguments are presented without oversimplification and credible disagreement is given appropriate attention.

  2. Development of "Bioethical Values Inventory" for Pupils in Secondary Education within the Scope of Bioethical Education (United States)

    Keskin-Samanci, Nilay; Özer-Keskin, Melike; Arslan, Orhan


    This study has led to the development of the "Bioethical Values Inventory" that can be used to reveal secondary school students' ethical values in decisions that they make during ethical debates regarding the application of biological sciences. An original inventory development model was used, consisting of four steps and involving…

  3. The Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching High School Bioethics: Insights from the Exploring Bioethics Curriculum. (United States)

    Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F


    A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions.

  4. Linking international research to global health equity: the limited contribution of bioethics. (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe


    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of health equity - namely, healthier social environments and stronger health systems. Bioethical frameworks such as the human development approach do consider how international clinical research is connected to the social determinants of health but, again, do so to address the question of when international clinical research is permissible. It is suggested that the narrow focus of this debate is shaped by high-income countries' economic strategies. The article further argues that the debate's focus obscures a stronger imperative to consider how other types of international research might advance justice in global health. Bioethics should consider the need for non-clinical health research and its contribution to advancing global justice.

  5. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ghaiath MA


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethics as a field related to the health system and health service delivery has grown in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in North America. This is attributed, the author argues, to mainly three kinds of development that took place in the developed countries at a pace different than the developing countries. They are namely: development of the health system; moral development; and political development. Discussion This article discusses the factors that impede the development of the field of bioethics from an academic activity to a living field that is known and practiced by the people in the developing countries. They are quite many; however, the emphasis here is on role of the political structure in the developing countries and how it negatively affects the development of bioethics. It presents an argument that if bioethics is to grow within the system of health service, it should be accompanied by a parallel changes in the political mindsets in these countries. Summary For bioethics to flourish in developing countries, it needs an atmosphere of freedom where people can practice free moral reasoning and have full potential to take their life decisions by themselves. Moreover, bioethics could be a tool for political change through the empowerment of people, especially the vulnerable. To achieve that, the article is proposing a practical framework for facilitating the development of the field of bioethics in the developing countries.

  6. Judging the Past: How History Should Inform Bioethics. (United States)

    Lerner, Barron H; Caplan, Arthur L


    Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons. However, such instruction can resemble so-called Whig history, in which a supposedly more enlightened mindset is seen as having replaced the "bad old days" of physicians behaving immorally. Bioethical discourse-both in the classroom and in practice-should be accompanied by efforts to historicize but not minimize past ethical transgressions. That is, bioethics needs to emphasize why and how such events occurred rather than merely condemning them with an air of moral superiority. Such instruction can reveal the complicated historical circumstances that led physician-researchers (some of whom were actually quite progressive in their thinking) to embark on projects that seem so unethical in hindsight. Such an approach is not meant to exonerate past transgressions but rather to explain them. In this manner, students and practitioners of bioethics can better appreciate how modern health professionals may be susceptible to the same types of pressures, misguided thinking, and conflicts of interest that sometimes led their predecessors astray.

  7. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath. (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya


    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways.

  8. Genetic advances require comprehensive bioethical debate. (United States)

    ten Have, Henk A M J


    In the popular media and scientific literature, the idea of medical utopia seems to have been revived. Medical science and technology are expected to provide solutions for all kinds of daily problems in human existence. The utopian context and optimistic atmosphere are influencing deeply the bio-ethical debate concerning bio-molecular technologies. They a priori direct this debate towards individual perspectives, emphasizing the benefits among which an autonomous person can make his or her choice, and towards practical applications the potential beneficial effects of which are almost there. It is argued that the concept of "geneticization" is useful for the analysis of the interrelations between genetics, medicine, society, and culture. This concept focuses on conceptual issues--the use of genetic vocabulary to define problems; institutional issues--the emergence of bio-ethics experts; cultural issues--the transformation of individual and social attitudes under the influence of genetic knowledge and technology; and philosophical issues--changing views of human identity, interpersonal relationships, and individual responsibility.

  9. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics. (United States)

    Verkerk, Marian A; Lindemann, Hilde


    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical resources that are up to the task. This paper identifies four distinct understandings of 'globalised' in the bioethics literature: (1) a focus on global issues; (2) an attempt to develop a universal ethical theory that can transcend cultural differences; (3) an awareness of how bioethics itself has expanded, with new centres and journals emerging in nearly every corner of the globe; (4) a concern to avoid cultural imperialism in encounters with other societies. Each of these approaches to globalisation has some merit, as will be shown. The difficulty with them is that the standard theoretical tools on which they rely are not designed for cross-cultural ethical reflection. As a result, they leave important considerations hidden. A set of theoretical resources is proposed to deal with the moral puzzles of globalisation. Abandoning idealised moral theory, a normative framework is developed that is sensitive enough to account for differences without losing the broader context in which ethical issues arise. An empirically nourished, self-reflexive, socially inquisitive, politically critical and inclusive ethics allows bioethicists the flexibility they need to pick up on the morally relevant particulars of this situation here without losing sight of the broader cultural contexts in which it all takes place.

  10. A bioethical perspective on man’s life and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea ŞTEFAN


    Full Text Available This article presents an interdisciplinary approach of the problems of bioethics related to the human existence, namely life and death: abortion and euthanasia. The connection point between bioethics and Christian morals is generated by the meeting of the two cultures, the scientific technologized one based on the economic perspective on life and the humanistic-moral one, which needs to be founded on the protection of life. At the same time, bioethics must not be focused only on man, but ought to comprise the biosphere as a whole as well, namely any scientific intervention of man on life in general.

  11. Bioethics and the Right to Health: Advancing a Complementary Agenda. (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Forman, Lisa; Nixon, Stephanie A


    This special section in Health and Human Rights Journal explores the relationship between bioethics and the right to health. Although bioethics scholars may argue for a right to health, particularly in the domains of universal health coverage and global health governance, and human rights scholars may advance ethical norms in their work, there has been little scholarly attention to the intersections, synergies, and contrasts between these two areas of study. At first glance, this is surprising given that bioethics and human rights share conceptual and normative terrain in articulating guidance for action on health-related issues and international policy and practice is explicitly interrelating human rights and ethics.

  12. Theological discourse and the postmodern condition: the case of bioethics. (United States)

    Dell'Oro, Roberto


    Bioethics reflects--like many other disciplines--the cultural fragmentation and the complexity of what has come to be known as the postmodern condition. The case of bioethics is particularly acute because of its epistemological indeterminacy and the moral pluralism characterizing postliberal societies. A provisional solution to this situation is the retrieval of a neo-Kantian version of ethical formalism in which concern for a consensus on rules replaces universal dialogue on moral content. The article analyzes the possible consequences of this solution with reference to theological ethics. In particular, the reduction of ethical rationality to a function of political regulation on the one hand, and the implicit legitimization of ethical relativism on the other, push any theological contribution to bioethics to the margins. The central methodological issue for the articulation of theological discourse in bioethics is how to avoid the pitfall of privatism while creating the conditions for ethical dialogue across different traditions.

  13. Applying theological developments to bioethical issues such as genetic screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallia, P.; Have, H.A.M.J. ten


    Catholic movements within the centre of Roman Catholic doctrine recently have discussed Trinitarian theology as applied to sciences, arts, economics, health and other social areas. We explore the possibilities Trinitarian theology offers to bioethical debate, concentrating particularly on genetic sc

  14. Bioethics as a stage in development of humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Ketova


    Full Text Available This article uncovers humanistic substance of bioethics - a discipline which originated in 1960's. Bioethics has an interdisciplinary character and presents itself as a reflection on problematic situations, which can appear as a result of biomedical progress. Bioethics in a wider sense can be viewed as ethics of life, which highlights its ecological substance. This article analyses the problem of consequences of radical human transformation and also the article shows significance of leading principle of «personal autonomy of the patient». In the article functions and goals of ethical committees, existing in various countries, are highlighted. In conclusion, the article highlights specifics of bioethics as a syncretic discipline, which assists development of humanism and responds to modern civilization's challenges.

  15. American Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines for Infant Bioethics Committees. (United States)

    College and University, 1985


    Examples are given of points hospitals must consider when adopting and implementing infant bioethics committees, including committee functions (educational, policy development, and consultative), structure, membership, jurisdiction, recordkeeping, and legal issues. (MSE)

  16. [Bioethics in the new Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code]. (United States)

    Bergel, Salvador Darío


    Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents.


    Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljacić, Morana; Grgas-Bile, Cecilija; Gajski, Domagoj; Racz, Aleksandar; Cengić, Tomislav


    In the context of modern scientific and technological developments in biomedicine and health care, and the potential consequences of their application on humans and the environment, Potter's global bioethics concept resurfaces. By actualizing Potter's original thoughts on individual bioethical issues, the universality of two of his books, which today represent the backbone of the world bioethical literature, "Bioethics--Bridge to the Future" and "Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy", is emphasized. Potter's global bioethics today can legitimately be viewed as a bridge between clinical personalized ethics on the one hand and ethics of public health on the other.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna V. Chashina


    Full Text Available Introduction: the article discusses significance of use of new technologies in the learning process for realisation of goals of cognitive and affective domain of knowledge. The paper explores the methods of development of educational knowledge, which is achieved by information, reproductive and research means. Based on example of bioethics the paper demonstrates the use of visuals technology (charts, graphs, tables, illustrations, specification, etc., which performs the following tasks: memorising, analysis and synthesis, comparison and differentiation, categorisation and classification, identification of relationships between facts, and for the revision of the material studied, acquisition of the new knowledge, memo risation of educational material. Materials and Methods: on the basis of the dialectical approach the object of research is new technologies in the learning process, in particular the study of bioethics. By using methods of observation, survey, analysis and synthesis in the educational process the authors prove the efficiency of such technologies as the use of visualisation (diagrams, illustrations, problem-based learning (issues, tasks and situations and research tasks (case study method. Results: visual method complements the learning process. It allows a deeper understanding of the subject. This method deals with feelings, emotions and consciousness of students. It encourages creativity. In addition this method of material presentation allows reducing the amount of material of an ordinary lecture. It is underscored that in the study of bioethics it is recommended to use a technology of a problem-based learning, which is able to implement the intellectual activity of students by means of questions¸ case-studies, tasks and situations. The most vivid form of such technology is a case method. The basis for the emergence of technology of problembased learning is a certain contradiction between knowledge and practice. This method can

  19. [Is it possible a bioethics based on the experimental evidence?]. (United States)

    Pastor, Luis Miguel


    For years there are different types of criticism about principialist bioethics. One alternative that has been proposed is to introduce empirical evidence within the bioethical discourse to make it less formal, less theoretical and closer to reality. In this paper we analyze first in synthetic form diverse alternative proposals to make an empirical bioethics. Some of them are strongly naturalistic while others aim to provide empirical data only for correct or improve bioethical work. Most of them are not shown in favor of maintaining a complete separation between facts and values, between what is and what ought to be. With different nuances these proposals of moderate naturalism make ethical judgments depend normative social opinion resulting into a certain social naturalism. Against these proposals we think to make a bioethics in that relates the empirical facts with ethical duties, we must rediscover empirical reality of human action. Only from it and, in particular, from the activity of discernment that makes practical reason, when judged on the object of his action, it is possible to integrate the mere descriptive facts with ethical judgments of character prescriptive. In conclusion we think that it is not possible to perform bioethics a mode of empirical science, as this would be contrary to natural reason, leading to a sort of scientific reductionism. At the same time we believe that empirical data are important in the development of bioethics and to enhance and improve the innate ability of human reason to discern good. From this discernment could develop a bioethics from the perspective of ethical agents themselves, avoiding the extremes of an excessive normative rationalism, accepting empirical data and not falling into a simple pragmatism.

  20. The Challenge of Defining Success in Bioethics' Humanist Wing. (United States)

    Lauritzen, Paul


    In "Reason and the Republic of Opinion," Leon Wieseltier bemoaned an age that reduces reason to utilitarian calculation and requires almost ritual genuflection before the altar of numbers. The spirit of this age is at work in the field of bioethics where, as Debra Mathews and colleagues point out in "A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship," researchers and scholars are increasingly "being asked to demonstrate and also forecast the value and impact of their work." Despite the reductionism that typically accompanies the movements imbued with this spirit, the concern for accountability that stands behind the call for measuring success is legitimate. The bioethics community is thus fortunate to have such a distinguished group of scholars wrestling with these matters. Indeed, the effort of Mathews et al. to articulate a framework for determining success in bioethics research and scholarship is especially admirable precisely because they resist the temptation to reduce success to quantitative measures alone. That said, it is also important to say that it is nearly impossible to engage with the task these scholars have set for themselves and not succumb to a kind of data fetishism. It is well and good to talk about the complexity of bioethics as a field, but the language of "metrics," "outputs," "feedback loops," "stakeholders," and the like is not the language of the disciplines of history, literature, philosophy, or religious studies-all fields that Mathews et al. rightly credit with making important contributions to bioethics research and scholarship.

  1. [Biomedical update in bioethics: a primordial ethical imperative]. (United States)

    Pastor, Luis Miguel


    In this brief article we continue our reflection about the relations that should exist between the knowledge of biomedical sciences and the development of bioethics. After stating the principle of not absolute concordance between empirical and philosophical data as well as the former data are partial truths and highly contextualized by the experiment, we propose a certain criteria that should govern the use of biomedical sciences in bioethics. These criteria are based on ability to distinguish the two areas of knowledge and, without confusing each other, achieve their integration in a new unit of knowledge. Approximating the two disciplines in this way each will be more able to accommodate the other. From contiguity to integration into a higher order unit, without that both losing their own nature. We conclude that not only this posture avoid the mistake of deducting the bioethics from experimental scientific date but also not to manipulate biomedical data based on previous philosophical positions. Furthermore we also reached a more comprehensive and real understanding of bioethics. This implies that both scientists and humanists that work in bioethics must live an ethical imperative in their research that we have described as essential. This consist in a continuously update in biomedicine for research and development the bioethics.

  2. A degree in bioethics: an "introspective" analysis from Pakistan. (United States)

    Jafarey, Aamir M


    The success of degree-level bioethics programmes, a recent development across the world, is generally evaluated on the basis of their quantifiable impact; for instance, the number of publications graduates produce. The author conducted a study of Pakistani graduates who had pursued a higher qualification in bioethics, and on the basis of the respondents' written and verbal narratives, this paper presents an analysis of their perceptions of the internal impact of bioethics degree programmes. Using these narratives, the paper also analyses the reactions of their colleagues to their new qualification.The respondents reported significant changes in their thinking and actions following their education in bioethics. They exhibited more empathy towards their patients and research subjects, and became better "listeners~ They also reported changes in practices,the most significant being the discontinuation of the linkages they had established with pharmaceutical firms to seek support,because of concerns related to conflict of interest. Although some respondents believed that their new qualification was generally welcomed by their colleagues, who considered them aesthetics resources, others reported that their colleagues harboured unreasonable and impractical expectations from them, and that these were impossible to fulfil. They also got the feeling of being ostracized and regarded as "ethics watchdogs~ Whereas the internalisation of bioethics is an encouraging finding in this cohort, the mixed reception that bioethics and those involved in it received indicates a Jack of understanding of the field and is a source of concern.

  3. Opportunities in Reform: Bioethics and Mental Health Ethics. (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin


    Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine's most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics' distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) An intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics' early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) Structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics' relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider.

  4. 78 FR 71615 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ..., Suite C-100, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: 202-233-3960. Email: . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the... available. The meeting will also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive Order...

  5. 75 FR 66378 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...., Suite C-100, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: 202/233-3960. E- mail: . Additional information may be obtained by viewing the Web site: . . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...

  6. 77 FR 61608 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...., Suite C-100, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: 202-233-3960. Email: . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...

  7. 75 FR 52533 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...: . Additional information may be obtained by viewing the Web site: . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463... about access to the Web cast, will be available at . The Commission...

  8. A Compulsory Bioethics Module for a Large Final Year Undergraduate Class (United States)

    Pearce, Roger S.


    The article describes a compulsory bioethics module delivered to [approximately] 120 biology students in their final year. The main intended learning outcome is that students should be able to analyse and reason about bioethical issues. Interactive lectures explain and illustrate bioethics. Underlying principles and example issues are used to…

  9. 77 FR 2298 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ...., Suite C-100, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: (202) 233-3960. Email: . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to... also be webcast at . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated...

  10. 76 FR 66720 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (United States)


    ..., DC 20005. Telephone: (202) 233-3960. Email: . Additional information may be obtained at . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...

  11. [Biology and ethics of bioethics: an urgent need of realism]. (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia


    Tenets and recommendations of bioethics should be based on a profound knowledge of biological processes and at the same time deeply integrated with their human significance. Integration has been usually distorted by those implied in disciplines involved with human nature. Biology of fertilization and embryo development have been often fodder of science fiction, when considering that techniques can achieve any aim without acknowledging natural limits, and often handling data, and accepting without any critical attitude pseudoscientific dogma. In the middle of that pseudo-biology bioethics has suffered the onslaught of the ideology of man believing himself autonomous and claiming he is the only one who dictates the rules of reality of world and man, and leading development and progress with this technological power in his hands. The profoundly different response to this deep question of whether what is properly human and essential to each man emerges as a consequence of his own construction and development or, on the contrary, is inherent to the constitution of each man, has caused the splitting of bioethics into two really irreconcilable bioethics. And that because of their different reasoning and criteria. The Ethics of Bioethics requires a new thinking on this crucial point allowing it to grow as an unprejudiced Science. Serious consequences derive from taking one perspective or another. Adopting one or another perspective confront us with a serious problem. Is human life disposable? Or should it be elegantly preserved?

  12. Teaching of bioethics in dental graduate programs in Brazil. (United States)

    Aires, Carolina Patrícia; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein


    In the field of human research, researchers are faced with unexpected moral dilemmas, as a result of the development of technologies applied to health. Due to the great importance of this issue, our objective was to evaluate bioethics instruction in the education of researchers in Brazilian graduate programs in dentistry. Eighty-seven graduate programs in dentistry, recognized by CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) were evaluated in this study. Data were extracted independently by two researchers from the CAPES website, and from the websites of the graduate programs, directly or via links to the programs available at the CAPES website. Forty-eight out of 87 programs had an ethics/bioethics course as part of their curricula. Of the graduation programs graded 5, 6 or 7 by CAPES, 38% included bioethics courses, while 62% of the programs graded 3 or 4 by CAPES had bioethics courses as part of their curricula. These findings are an alert to those involved in dental research education, as they showed that, although resolution 196/96 by the National Council of Health regulating human research in Brazil was published ten years ago, bioethics instruction in Brazilian graduate programs in dentistry is still at an incipient stage. This situation indicates a need for ethics pedagogy in the education of young researchers.

  13. Critical Realism and Empirical Bioethics: A Methodological Exposition. (United States)

    McKeown, Alex


    This paper shows how critical realism can be used to integrate empirical data and philosophical analysis within 'empirical bioethics'. The term empirical bioethics, whilst appearing oxymoronic, simply refers to an interdisciplinary approach to the resolution of practical ethical issues within the biological and life sciences, integrating social scientific, empirical data with philosophical analysis. It seeks to achieve a balanced form of ethical deliberation that is both logically rigorous and sensitive to context, to generate normative conclusions that are practically applicable to the problem, challenge, or dilemma. Since it incorporates both philosophical and social scientific components, empirical bioethics is a field that is consistent with the use of critical realism as a research methodology. The integration of philosophical and social scientific approaches to ethics has been beset with difficulties, not least because of the irreducibly normative, rather than descriptive, nature of ethical analysis and the contested relation between fact and value. However, given that facts about states of affairs inform potential courses of action and their consequences, there is a need to overcome these difficulties and successfully integrate data with theory. Previous approaches have been formulated to overcome obstacles in combining philosophical and social scientific perspectives in bioethical analysis; however each has shortcomings. As a mature interdisciplinary approach critical realism is well suited to empirical bioethics, although it has hitherto not been widely used. Here I show how it can be applied to this kind of research and explain how it represents an improvement on previous approaches.

  14. Chauncey Leake and the development of bioethics in America. (United States)

    Brody, Howard


    Chauncey D. Leake (1896-1978) occupies a unique place in the history of American bioethics. A pharmacologist, he was largely an autodidact in both history and philosophy, and believed that ethics should ideally be taught to medical students by those with philosophical training. After pioneering work on medical ethics during the 1920s, he helped to lay the groundwork for important centers for bioethics and medical humanities at two institutions where he worked, the University of California-San Francisco and the University of Texas Medical Branch-Galveston. Understanding Leake's role in American bioethics requires navigating a number of paradoxes--why he was described respectfully in his time but largely forgotten today; how in the 1920s he could write forward-looking pieces that anticipated many of the themes taken up by bioethics a half-century later, yet played largely a reactionary role when the new bioethics actually arrived; and why he advocated turning to philosophy and philosophers for a proper understanding of ethics, yet appeared often to misunderstand philosophical ethics.

  15. Is it time for bioethics to go empirical? (United States)

    Herrera, Chris


    Observers who note the increasing popularity of bioethics discussions often complain that the social sciences are poorly represented in discussions about things like abortion and stem-cell research. Critics say that bioethicists should be incorporating the methods and findings of social scientists, and should move towards making the discipline more empirically oriented. This way, critics argue, bioethics will remain relevant, and truly reflect the needs of actual people. Such recommendations ignore the diversity of viewpoints in bioethics, however. Bioethics can gain much from the methods and findings from ethnographies and similar research. But it is misleading to suggest that bioethicists are unaware of this potential benefit. Not only that, bioethicists are justified in having doubts about the utility of the social science approach in some cases. This is not because there is some inherent superiority in non-empirical approaches to moral argument. Rather, the doubts concern the nature of the facts that the sciences would provide. Perhaps the larger point is that disagreements about the relationship between facts and normative arguments should be seen as part of the normal inquiry in bioethics, not evidence that reform is needed.

  16. Toward a Child Rights Theory in Pediatric Bioethics. (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Mercer, Raul; Webb, Elspeth; Nathawad, Rita; Shenoda, Sherry; Lansdown, Gerison


    This article offers a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics, applying the principles, standards, and norms of child rights, health equity, and social justice to medical and ethical decision-making. We argue that a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics will help pediatricians and pediatric bioethicists analyze and address the complex interplay of biomedical and social determinants of child health. These core principles, standards and norms, grounded in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), provide the foundational elements for the theory and a means for better understanding the complex determinants of children's health and well-being. Rights-based approaches to medical and ethical decision-making provide strategies for applying and translating these elements into the practice of pediatrics and pediatric bioethics by establishing a coherent, consistent, and contextual theory that is relevant to contemporary practice. The proposed child rights theory extends evolving perspectives on the relationship between human rights and bioethics to both child rights and pediatric bioethics.

  17. Moral philosophy in bioethics. Etsi ethos non daretur? (United States)

    Pessina, Adriano


    In this paper I intend to put forward some criticism of the purely procedural model of bioethics, which, in fact, leads to delegating to biopolitics and biolaw the finding of a purely pragmatic solution to the issues for which bioethics was "invented" over forty years ago. This delegating takes place after the transition from the thesis, dear to modernity, whereby in ethics reasoning should avoid any discussion regarding its foundation or ultimate justification (Etsi Deus non daretur) to the contemporary affirmation of a substantial ethical agnosticism, which, in the name of the incommensurability of morals, should construct procedures as if no sole substantial moral were possible (Etsi ethos non daretur) and act as a guarantor of ethical pluralism. These theses will be discussed and an attempt will be made to demonstrate why it is necessary to establish a link between true and good, and how this is possible only by referring to ontology. The conclusion points to the need to propose bioethics explicitly in terms of content that satisfies the presumed axiological neutrality of procedural bioethics, which however, turns out to be theoretically weak and practically unable to protect the ethical pluralism for which it would like to be the guarantor. The conclusion is that only by referring to ontology can bioethics, which is a fully fledged form of moral philosophy, act as a guarantor of pluralism within the truth and oppose the authoritarian tendencies concealed under the liberal guise of ethical agnosticism.

  18. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle. (United States)

    Blasszauer, Bela


    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect.

  19. Parental authority and pediatric bioethical decision making. (United States)

    Cherry, Mark J


    In this paper, I offer a view beyond that which would narrowly reduce the role of parents in medical decision making to acting as custodians of the best interests of children and toward an account of family authority and family autonomy. As a fundamental social unit, the good of the family is usually appreciated, at least in part, in terms of its ability successfully to instantiate its core moral and cultural understandings as well as to pass on such commitments to future generations. The putative rights of children to expression, information, freedom of thought, conscience, religion, and to freedom of association with others are, in this essay, assessed from the perspective of those conditions necessary for the family to function as a moral community. In so doing, I respond to the move to liberate children from parental authority and to effect the transformation of the family as implied by the United Nations' "Convention on the Rights of the Child" and the pediatric bioethics it supports.

  20. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics. Empirical, conceptual and normative constraints. (United States)

    Bracanovic, Tomislav


    In contemporary debates about the nature of bioethics there is a widespread view that bioethical decision making should involve certain knowledge of and respect for cultural diversity of persons to be affected. The aim of this article is to show that this view is untenable and misleading. It is argued that introducing the idea of respect for cultural diversity into bioethics encounters a series of conceptual and empirical constraints. While acknowledging that cultural diversity is something that decision makers in bioethical contexts should try to understand and, when possible, respect, it is argued that this cultural turn ignores the typically normative role of bioethics and thus threatens to undermine its very foundations.

  1. Teaching bioethics in the new millennium: holding theories accountable to actual practices and real people. (United States)

    Tong, Rosemarie


    Teaching bioethics in the new millennium requires its practitioners to confront a wide area of methodological alternatives. This essay chronicles the author's journey from the principlism of Beauchamp and Childress, through narrative and postmodern bioethics, to a complex feminist critique of postmodern bioethics that emphasizes functional human capabilities and the creation of structures that can facilitate free discussion of those capabilities and how best to realize them. Teaching bioethics concerns not only the acknowledgement of differences but also reminding ourselves of our samenesses. Sustained Habermasian democratic conversations might help us to escape the narrow confines of a postmodern bioethics of moral strangers for a richer world of moral friends.

  2. Applying theological developments to bioethical issues such as genetic screening. (United States)

    Mallia, Pierre; ten Have, Henk


    Catholic movements within the centre of Roman Catholic doctrine recently have discussed Trinitarian theology as applied to sciences, arts, economics, health and other social areas. We explore the possibilities Trinitarian theology offers to bioethical debate, concentrating particularly on genetic screening and testing. It is important therefore to analyse the philosophical implications of this approach onto the bioethical world, where much disagreement occurs on fundamental issues. It is Catholic basic teaching to recognize and see God's hand in plurality, not merely as a cliche and then doing what we feel is right, but to recognize how to live in a pluralistic world. We recognize, in agreement with these theologians, that in order for a Trinitarian mode of understanding to be used by those doing bioethical debate, there is a need to depart from fundamentalism.

  3. Bioethics and Climate Change: A Response to Macpherson and Valles. (United States)

    Resnik, David B


    Two articles published in Bioethics recently have explored the ways that bioethics can contribute to the climate change debate. Cheryl Cox Macpherson argues that bioethicists can play an important role in the climate change debate by helping the public to better understand the values at stake and the trade-offs that must be made in individual and social choices, and Sean Valles claims that bioethicists can contribute to the debate by framing the issues in terms of the public health impacts of climate change. While Macpherson and Valles make valid points concerning a potential role for bioethics in the climate change debate, it is important to recognize that much more than ethical analysis and reflection will be needed to significantly impact public attitudes and government policies.

  4. Comprehending Bioethics%理解生命伦理学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The author analyzed the peculiarity of bioethics from standardability , rationality , practicability/ap-plicability , evidence/experience , secularity these five five aspects .Based on this , how to understand bioethics was alsodiscussed in this paper from the viewpoints of right path of bioethics , de -ethics trend and building culture brand.%从规范性、理性、实用/应用性、证据/经验知情性、世俗性五个方面分析研究了生命伦理学学科的独特性,并结合生命伦理学的合适进路,去伦理学倾向以及“打文化牌”这三个角度分析探讨了如何理解生命伦理学这一问题。

  5. Who's arguing? A call for reflexivity in bioethics. (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan; Dunn, Michael


    In this paper we set forth what we believe to be a relatively controversial argument, claiming that 'bioethics' needs to undergo a fundamental change in the way it is practised. This change, we argue, requires philosophical bioethicists to adopt reflexive practices when applying their analyses in public forums, acknowledging openly that bioethics is an embedded socio-cultural practice, shaped by the ever-changing intuitions of individual philosophers, which cannot be viewed as a detached intellectual endeavour. This said, we argue that in order to manage the personal, social and cultural embeddedness of bioethics, philosophical bioethicists should openly acknowledge how their practices are constructed and should, in their writing, explicitly deal with issues of bias and conflict of interest, just as empirical scientists are required to do.

  6. Translational research-the need of a new bioethics approach. (United States)

    Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan


    Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research.

  7. Theological Discourse in Bioethics: General and Confessional Differencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basia Nikiforova


    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to the problem of theological discourse in bioethics. We focus both on general positions shared across major existing religions and substantial confessional differences among them. Among the major categories determining relationship between bioethics and religion we studied the following: “image of God” (imago Dei, casuistry, primacy of procreation, “playing God”, artificial procreation and others. After analyzing Christian, Jewish and Islamic positions on the theological interpretation of the reproductive technologies and human cloning, we came to a conclusion that differences in views depend rather on orthodox, conservative, traditional or liberal viewpoint within a given church than on differences between particular religions. Despite substantial faith-related differences, occasionally, views on reproductive technologies and other problems of bioethics seem closer between liberal Protestants and liberal Judaists than between orthodox and reformist Judaists. 

  8. Diversity and deliberation: bioethics commissions and moral reasoning. (United States)

    Kaveny, M Cathleen


    This article considers the sort of diversity in perspective appropriate for a presidential commission on bioethics, and by implication, high-level governmental commissions on ethics more generally. It takes as its point of comparison the respective reports on human cloning produced by the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, appointed by President Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush's President's Council on Bioethics, under the leadership of its original chair, Leon Kass. I argue that the Clinton Commission Report exemplifies forensic diversity (the type of diversity between contesting parties in a legal case), while the Kass Council Report exemplifies academic diversity (the diversity found in a medieval disputatio). Drawing upon Thomas Aquinas, I argue that the type of diversity most appropriate for such advisory bodies is deliberative diversity, which facilitates the President's process of taking counsel. After considering their respective charges, I suggest that neither the Clinton Commission nor the Kass Council possessed an adequate degree of deliberative diversity for their respective tasks.

  9. Contribution of Ayurveda in foundation of basic tenets of bioethics. (United States)

    Tawalare, Kiran A; Nanote, Kalpana D; Gawai, Vijay U; Gotmare, Ashish Y


    Ethics deal with the set of principles of right conduct. The four basic principles of bioethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are known as "principlism". Though these four principles are influenced by the western world; in the medical field they are adapted as universal ethics. Originally, Ayurveda, the Indian medical system, has strongly advocated ethical code of conduct for physicians, but does not get its due recognition till this date. Proposed article aims to compare universally accepted basic tenets of bioethics and ancient Ayurvedic ethics. For this purpose classical texts of Ayurveda and literature regarding principlism was collected and analyzed thoroughly. It was found that the essence of ethics is very well-defined and described in the fundamental texts of Ayurveda in the form of Sadvritta, Chatushpada, Yogya, Vaidyavritti and Aachara Rasayana. Hence, Ayurveda should be considered as a trailblazer in establishing the basic tenets of bioethics.

  10. Eli Lilly and Company's bioethics framework for human biomedical research. (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J


    Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values.

  11. The bioethics and law paradox: an argument to maintain separateness with a hint of togetherness. (United States)

    Werren, Julia


    This article analyses how bioethics and law interact and work together. The first half of the article provides definitions of both ethics and bioethics. The article then considers a number of different bioethical standpoints to demonstrate the variance of views in relation to bioethics. In addition, the first half of the article focuses on the different regulatory possibilities in regard to bioethical contexts. This demonstrates that law is of central importance to bioethics. This part also shows that even though law and ethics are often used simultaneously to achieve bioethical goals, law and ethics cannot be used interchangeably. Thus, even though it is somewhat inevitable that law will be used in the pursuit of the goals of bioethics, bioethics and bioethical principle should not be merely a vehicle for law-makers to utilise. The second half of the article focuses on the issues of autonomy and consent to demonstrate how law and ethics have developed in one of the foundation areas of bioethics.

  12. Ethics and Bioethics. Bases for Informed Consent in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Pentón García


    Full Text Available The quality and scientific development of health assistance in Cuba are reflected in its health index which is an expression of respect for all those who give and receive health services in the country. Thus human dignity, which is widely represented in the informed consent should be a premise while practicing a high quality health service according to the principles of Bioethics, constituting it an ethical challenge for all the health staff. This paper reviews the principles of Bioethics with regards to informed consent in Orthodontics.

  13. Solidarity and the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. (United States)

    Gunson, Darryl


    Recent work has stressed the importance of the concept of solidarity to bioethics and social philosophy generally. But can and should it feature in documents such as the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights as anything more than a vague notion with multiple possible interpretations? Although noting the tension between universality and particularity that such documents have to deal with, and also noting that solidarity has a political content, the paper explores the suggestion that solidarity should feature more centrally in international regulations. The paper concludes with the view that when solidarity is seen aright, the UDBHR is an implicitly solidaristic document.

  14. Publishing bioethics and bioethics--reflections on academic publishing by a journal editor. (United States)

    Schüklenk, Udo


    This article by one of the Editors of Bioethics, published in the 25th anniversary issue of the journal, describes some of the revolutionary changes academic publishing has undergone during the last decades. Many humanities journals went from typically small print-runs, counting by the hundreds, to on-line availability in thousands of university libraries worldwide. Article up-take by our subscribers can be measured efficiently. The implications of this and other changes to academic publishing are discussed. Important ethical challenges need to be addressed in areas such as the enforcement of plagiarism-related policies, the so-called 'impact factor' and its impact on academic integrity, and the question of whether on-line only publishing can currently guarantee the integrity of academic publishing histories.

  15. Teaching Research Integrity and Bioethics to Science Undergraduates (United States)

    Turrens, Julio F.


    Undergraduate students in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of South Alabama, Mobile, are required to take a course entitled "Issues in Biomedical Sciences," designed to increase students' awareness about bioethical questions and issues concerning research integrity. This paper describes the main features of this…

  16. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide. (United States)

    Tong, R


    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  17. A Bioethics Course for Biology and Science Education Students. (United States)

    Bryant, John; la Velle, Linda Baggott


    Points out the importance of awareness among biologists and biology teachers of the ethical and social implications of their work. Describes the bioethics module established at the University of Exeter mainly targeting students majoring in biology and science education. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/YDS)

  18. Appropriate methodologies for empirical bioethics: it's all relative. (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather


    In this article we distinguish between philosophical bioethics (PB), descriptive policy orientated bioethics (DPOB) and normative policy oriented bioethics (NPOB). We argue that finding an appropriate methodology for combining empirical data and moral theory depends on what the aims of the research endeavour are, and that, for the most part, this combination is only required for NPOB. After briefly discussing the debate around the is/ought problem, and suggesting that both sides of this debate are misunderstanding one another (i.e. one side treats it as a conceptual problem, whilst the other treats it as an empirical claim), we outline and defend a methodological approach to NPOB based on work we have carried out on a project exploring the normative foundations of paternal rights and responsibilities. We suggest that given the prominent role already played by moral intuition in moral theory, one appropriate way to integrate empirical data and philosophical bioethics is to utilize empirically gathered lay intuition as the foundation for ethical reasoning in NPOB. The method we propose involves a modification of a long-established tradition on non-intervention in qualitative data gathering, combined with a form of reflective equilibrium where the demands of theory and data are given equal weight and a pragmatic compromise reached.

  19. The death of bioethics (as we once knew it). (United States)

    Macklin, Ruth


    Fast forward 50 years into the future. A look back at what occurred in the field of bioethics since 2010 reveals that a conference in 2050 commemorated the death of bioethics. In a steady progression over the years, the field became increasingly fragmented and bureaucratized. Disagreement and dissension were rife, and this once flourishing, multidisciplinary field began to splinter in multiple ways. Prominent journals folded, one by one, and were replaced with specialized publications dealing with genethics, reproethics, nanoethics, and necroethics. Mainstream bioethics organizations also collapsed, giving way to new associations along disciplinary and sub-disciplinary lines. Physicians established their own journals, and specialty groups broke away from more general associations of medical ethics. Lawyers also split into three separate factions, and philosophers rejected all but the most rigorous, analytic articles into their newly established journal. Matters finally came to a head with global warming, the world-wide spread of malaria and dengue, and the cost of medical treatments out of reach for almost everyone. The result was the need to develop plans for strict rationing of medical care. At the same time, recognition emerged of the importance of the right to health and the need for global justice in health. By 2060, a spark of hope was ignited, opening the door to the resuscitation of bioethics and involvement of the global community.

  20. Functional Measurement in the Field of Empirical Bioethics (United States)

    Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul C.; Teysseire, Nathalie; Nann, Stephanie; Martinez, Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales; Ahmed, Ramadan; Kamble, Shanmukh; Olivari, Cecilia; Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz


    We present, in a synthetic way, some of the main findings from five studies that were conducted in the field of empirical bioethics, using the Functional Measurement framework. These studies were about (a) the rationing of rare treatments, (b) adolescents' abortions, (c) end-of-life decision-making regarding damaged neonates, (d) end-of-life…

  1. From bioethics to a sociology of bio-knowledge. (United States)

    Petersen, Alan


    Growing recognition of bioethics' shortcomings, associated in large part with its heavy reliance on abstract principles, or so-called principlism, has led many scholars to propose that the field should be reformed or reconceptualised. Principlism is seen to de-contextualise the process of ethical decision-making, thus restricting bioethics' contributions to debate and policy on new and emergent biotechnologies. This article examines some major critiques of bioethics and argues for an alternative normative approach; namely, a sociology of bio-knowledge focussing on human rights. The article discusses the need for such an approach, including the challenges posed by the recent rise of 'the bio-economy'. It explores some potential alternative bases for a normative sociology of bio-knowledge, before presenting the elements of the proposed human rights-focused approach. This approach, it is argued, will benefit from the insights and concepts offered by various fields of critical scholarship, particularly the emergent sociology of human rights, science and technology studies, Foucaultian scholarship, and feminist bioethics.

  2. Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate (pragmatic) naturalism. (United States)

    Racine, Eric


    There is a growing interest in various forms of naturalism in bioethics, but there is a clear need for further clarification. In an effort to address this situation, I present three epistemological stances: anti-naturalism, strong naturalism, and moderate pragmatic naturalism. I argue that the dominant paradigm within philosophical ethics has been a form of anti-naturalism mainly supported by a strong 'is' and 'ought' distinction. This fundamental epistemological commitment has contributed to the estrangement of academic philosophical ethics from major social problems and explains partially why, in the early 1980s, 'medicine saved the life of ethics'. Rejection of anti-naturalism, however, is often associated with strong forms of naturalism that commit the naturalistic fallacy and threaten to reduce the normative dimensions of ethics to biological imperatives. This move is rightly dismissed as a pitfall since ethics is, in part, a struggle against the course of nature. Rejection of naturalism has drawbacks, however, such as deterring bioethicists from acknowledging the implicit naturalistic epistemological commitments of bioethics. I argue that a moderate pragmatic form of naturalism represents an epistemological position that best embraces the tension of anti-naturalism and strong naturalism: bioethics is neither disconnected from empirical knowledge nor subjugated to it. The discussion is based upon historical writings in philosophy and bioethics.

  3. Why bioethics cannot figure out what to do with race. (United States)

    Burton, Olivette R


    Race and religion are integral parts of bioethics. Harm and oppression, with the aim of social and political control, have been wrought in the name of religion against Blacks and people of color as embodied in the Ten Commandments, the Inquisition, and in the history of the Holy Crusades. Missionaries came armed with Judeo/Christian beliefs went to nations of people of color who had their own belief systems and forced change and caused untold harms because the indigenous belief systems were incompatible with their own. The indigenous people were denounced as ungodly, pagan, uncivilized, and savage. Hence, laws were enacted because of their perceived need to structure a sense of morality and to create and build a culture for these indigenous people of color. To date bioethics continues to be informed by a Western worldview that is Judeo/Christian in belief and orientation. However, missing from bioethical discourse in America is the historical influence of the Black Church as a cultural repository, which continues to influence the culture of Africans and Blacks. Cultural aspects of peoples of color are still largely ignored today. In attempting to deal with issues of race while steering clear of the religious and cultural impact of the Black Church, bioethics finds itself in the middle of a distressing situation: it simply cannot figure out what to do with race.

  4. All in the family: law, medicine and bioethics. (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm


    In this first Bioethical Issues column the author outlines some of the distinctions and congruities between ethics and law, and between bioethics and medical law. The evidence for connections is obvious and wide-ranging, appearing within health and medical education, the academic literature, statute and case law, professional guidelines and the activities of professional associations, the history of legal practice and philosophical inquiry, and the emergence of human rights theory and applications. The interpenetration of morals and law is examined first by briefly tracing the development of natural law and legal positivism. These links are then developed through a number of examples which are the subjects of both bioethical and legal interest: decision-making capacity, what constitutes good medical practice in the advance care planning context, sex selection, embryo experimentation and posthumous conception. These topics illustrate some of the explicit and some of the less obvious ways in which moral considerations and medical law interact, and suggest that biolaw can involve inconsistencies and even obfuscation which, while difficult to avoid in plural societies, are appropriate areas for examination. In the final section the author argues that bioethics and medical law share some important logical features, including a prescriptivist, principled structure, which is subject to the related requirements of specification and universalisability. Again, medico-legal illustrations are used to support this proposal, which also constitutes a suitable topic for critique. Future columns will provide the opportunity for those who care about the issues of bioethics and medical law to share their thoughts and those of their colleagues.

  5. Bioethical Perspectives for Ageing. The documents produced by the Ethics Councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília Nunes


    Full Text Available Aging attracted keen interest in research, health, education as well as cross-sectors approaches. We researched what has been produced by the National Bioethics/Ethics Councils in the form of opinions or other documents, relating to aging and elderly people. In the websi-tes of the 28 EU councils and 12 other countries, we identified 4 documents relating to aging and 8 opinions, which we analyse. The Councils have proposed to draw the attention and reflection of public opinion to the elderly condition; all agree that the age has its own traits and that matters revert to a “culture of old age”, respect and promotion of a positive aging. Enhance the diversity of modes of aging and the importance of preparing all, promoting literacy for aging, creating social and legal protective elements (Elderly Statute, Observatory of the Elderly Conditions. From the analysis, a set of principles and bioethical elements: [1] respect for human dignity, regardless of the stage of life; [2] recognition of the person’s situation uniqueness to aging; [3] freedom of one’s own decision, which is materialized in respect for autonomy; [4] recognition of the vulnerabilities of the elderly, [5] ethical commitment and social responsibility in monitoring the elderly, [6] non-discrimination by age and [7] the guidance to the conditions of the integral good and quality of life. Aging is an existential step for which we can prepare, on the assumption that human life in its longevity, interweaves those who are older and those younger, on the crucial issue of human existence.

  6. Ethics of surrogacy: a comparative study of Western secular and islamic bioethics. (United States)

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun


    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach.

  7. The Time Is Now: Bioethics and LGBT Issues. (United States)

    Powell, Tia; Foglia, Mary Beth


    Our goal in producing this special issue is to encourage our colleagues to incorporate topics related to LGBT populations into bioethics curricula and scholarship. Bioethics has only rarely examined the ways in which law and medicine have defined, regulated, and often oppressed sexual minorities. This is an error on the part of bioethics. Medicine and law have served in the past as society's enforcement arm toward sexual minorities, in ways that robbed many people of their dignity. We feel that bioethics has an obligation to discuss that history and to help us as a society take responsibility for it. We can address only a small number of topics in this special issue of the Hastings Center Report, and we selected topics we believe will stimulate discourse. Andrew Solomon offers an elegant overview of the challenges that bioethics faces in articulating a solid basis for LGBT rights. Timothy F. Murphy asks whether bioethics still faces issues related to lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, given the deletion of homosexuality as a disease and the progress toward same-sex marriage. Jamie Lindemann Nelson's essay addresses the search for identity for transgender persons and the role of science in that search. Two articles, those by Brendan S. Abel and by Jack Drescher and Jack Pula, take up the complex issue of medical treatment for children who reject their assigned birth gender. Celia B. Fisher and Brian Mustanski address the special challenges of engaging LGBT youth in research, balancing the need for better information about this vulnerable group against the existing restrictions on research involving children. Tia Powell and Edward Stein consider the merits of legal bans on psychotherapies intended to change sexual orientation, particularly in the light of current research on orientation. Mary Beth Foglia and Karen I. Fredricksen-Goldsen highlight health disparities and resilience among LGBT older adults and then discuss the role of nonconscious bias in perpetuating

  8. Topics in bioethics: a development of student perspectives. (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A


    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  9. Bioethics mediation: the role and importance of nursing advocacy. (United States)

    Schlairet, Maura C


    Ethics consultations are utilized in health care to identify and manage conflict, difficult decision-making, and ethical issues. In bioethics mediation, a more updated approach using interpersonal, mediative, conflict management, and dispute resolution skills is merged with ethical principles to manage dilemmas arising in healthcare settings. This article argues, based on a professional obligation to advocate for the good of the client, that nurses must assume leadership roles in mediation processes. Nurses can initiate and fully participate in formal bioethics mediation and other mediative interventions. Nurse administrators can work to evolve existing ethics consult models to mediation models. Nonetheless, mediative efforts of individual nurses must be grounded in realization of the multifactorial nature of conflict and dilemma in healthcare settings. Multidisciplinary mediative interventions, framed by sound institutional policies, may best serve the complex needs of ethically vulnerable clients. To best advocate for these at-risk clients, nurses must assume various leadership roles in mediation processes.

  10. [Reflexions on some dilemmas in bioethics for the millennium]. (United States)

    Villa-Caballero, L; Lifshitz-Guinzberg, A


    With the end of the millennium, several proposals or propositions have been made about politics, culture, and economics for the world society. Science cannot be isolated from this well-recognized globalization process. Information through the Internet allows the spread of scientific data and knowledge among professional and no professional users to be exchanged and non shared, with the possibility of storing that information in a very fast manner. However, there are important differences in the availability and quality the information, especially in developing countries. On the other hand, it is clear that advances in technology in recent years are higher and faster than development in humanistic and philosophical areas. This situation points to the necessity of using some basic bioethical principles to deal with very important dilemmas such as euthanasia, assisted suicide, and new bioethical dilemmas such as technified death, restriction of economic resources in health care institutions, cloning and genetic manipulation, among others.

  11. Topics in Bioethics: A Development of Student Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Johnson


    Full Text Available Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  12. Uncovering Metaethical Assumptions in Bioethical Discourse across Cultures. (United States)

    Sullivan, Laura Specker


    Much of bioethical discourse now takes place across cultures. This does not mean that cross-cultural understanding has increased. Many cross-cultural bioethical discussions are marked by entrenched disagreement about whether and why local practices are justified. In this paper, I argue that a major reason for these entrenched disagreements is that problematic metaethical commitments are hidden in these cross-cultural discourses. Using the issue of informed consent in East Asia as an example of one such discourse, I analyze two representative positions in the discussion and identify their metaethical commitments. I suggest that the metaethical assumptions of these positions result from their shared method of ethical justification: moral principlism. I then show why moral principlism is problematic in cross-cultural analyses and propose a more useful method for pursuing ethical justification across cultures.

  13. Solidarity in contemporary bioethics--towards a new approach. (United States)

    Prainsack, Barbara; Buyx, Alena


    This paper, which is based on an extensive analysis of the literature, gives a brief overview of the main ways in which solidarity has been employed in bioethical writings in the last two decades. As the vagueness of the term has been one of the main targets of critique, we propose a new approach to defining solidarity, identifying it primarily as a practice enacted at the interpersonal, communal, and contractual/legal levels. Our three-tier model of solidarity can also help to explain the way in which crises of solidarity can occur, notably when formal solidaristic arrangements continue to exist despite 'lower tiers' of solidarity practices at inter-personal and communal levels having 'broken away'. We hope that this contribution to the growing debate on the potential for the value of solidarity to help tackle issues in bioethics and beyond, will stimulate further discussion involving both conceptual and empirically informed perspectives.

  14. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative. (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond


    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:1-3, 2011) and Bracanovic (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:229-236, 2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures.

  15. Topics in Bioethics: A Development of Student Perspectives† (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A.


    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style. PMID:25574290

  16. [The bioethical principlism model applied in pain management]. (United States)

    Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; Pessoa, Ana Paula da Costa; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Pereira, Lilian Varanda


    An integrative literature review was developed with the purpose to analyze the scientific production regarding the relationships between pain and the principles of bioethics (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice). Controlled descriptors were used in three international data sources (LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE), in April of 2012, totaling 14 publications categorized by pain and autonomy, pain and beneficence, pain and nonmaleficence, pain and justice. The adequate relief of pain is a human right and a moral issue directly related with the bioethical principlism standard model (beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). However, many professionals overlook the pain of their patients, ignoring their ethical role when facing suffering. It was concluded that principlism has been neglected in the care of patients in pain, showing the need for new practices to change this setting.

  17. Bioethical and Other Philosophical Considerations in Positive Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R Singh


    Full Text Available The paper begins by asserting the need for bioethical and related philosophical considerations in the emerging subspecialty Positive Psychiatry. Further discussion proceeds after offering operational definitions of the concepts fundamental to the field – Bioethics, Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Positive Mental Health - with their conceptual analysis to show their areas of connect and disconnect. It then studies the implications of positive and negative findings in the field, and presents the Positive Psychosocial Factors (PPSFs like Resilience, Optimism, Personal Mastery, Wisdom, Religion/Spirituality, Social relationships and support, Engagement in pleasant events etc. It then evaluates them on the basis of the 4-principled bioethical model of Beneficence, Non-malfeasance, Autonomy and Justice (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009[5], 2013[6], first offering a brief clarification of these principles and then their bioethical analysis based on the concepts of 'Common Morality', 'Specific Morality', 'Specification', 'Balancing' and 'Double Effects'. The paper then looks into the further development of the branch by studying the connectivity, synergy and possible antagonism of the various Positive Psychosocial Factors, and presents technical terms in place of common terms so that they carry least baggage. It also takes note of the salient points of caution and alarm that many incisive analysts have presented about further development in the related field of Positive Mental Health. Finally, the paper looks at where, and how, the field is headed, and why, if at all, it is proper it is headed there, based on Aristotle's concept of the four causes - Material, Efficient, Formal and Final. Suitable case vignettes are presented all through the write-up to clarify concepts.

  18. Bioethical and Other Philosophical Considerations in Positive Psychiatry (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.


    The paper begins by asserting the need for bioethical and related philosophical considerations in the emerging subspecialty Positive Psychiatry. Further discussion proceeds after offering operational definitions of the concepts fundamental to the field – Bioethics, Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Positive Mental Health - with their conceptual analysis to show their areas of connect and disconnect. It then studies the implications of positive and negative findings in the field, and presents the Positive Psychosocial Factors (PPSFs) like Resilience, Optimism, Personal Mastery, Wisdom, Religion/Spirituality, Social relationships and support, Engagement in pleasant events etc. It then evaluates them on the basis of the 4-principled bioethical model of Beneficence, Non-malfeasance, Autonomy and Justice (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009[5], 2013[6]), first offering a brief clarification of these principles and then their bioethical analysis based on the concepts of ‘Common Morality’, ‘Specific Morality’, ‘Specification’, ‘Balancing’ and ‘Double Effects’. The paper then looks into the further development of the branch by studying the connectivity, synergy and possible antagonism of the various Positive Psychosocial Factors, and presents technical terms in place of common terms so that they carry least baggage. It also takes note of the salient points of caution and alarm that many incisive analysts have presented about further development in the related field of Positive Mental Health. Finally, the paper looks at where, and how, the field is headed, and why, if at all, it is proper it is headed there, based on Aristotle's concept of the four causes - Material, Efficient, Formal and Final. Suitable case vignettes are presented all through the write-up to clarify concepts. PMID:28031624

  19. [SIBIL: an information tool for the information retrieval on bioethics]. (United States)

    Dracos, Adriana


    The article describes the main features of the website SIBIL (Sistema Informativo per la Bioetica In Linea) implemented within the framework of a research project of the ISS for collecting, indexing and disseminating Italian literature on bioethics since 1995 through an integrated electronic system. The site, addressed to a wide range of people interested at different degrees and levels in bioethics, offers a comprehensive overview of the activities, such as courses and meetings, on the major ethical issues at stake in Italy, as well as a survey of the most important activities both at national and international level. The main feature of SIBIL is a database of a large collection of documents retrieved through sources or exploitation of the most important international electronic databases. A thesaurus of 1,600 terms, available in Italian and English, was created in order to organize documents with standardized criteria currently adopted in the Italian scientific environment. Future trends of the website are also discussed for sharing experiences with other countries and laying the basis for a European portal on bioethics.

  20. Global Convergence on the Bioethics of Surgical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Garcia


    Full Text Available The increasing globalization of mankind with pluralistic belief systems necessitates physicians by virtue of their profession to partner with bioethics for soundly applying emerging knowledge and technologies for the best use of the patient. A subfield within medicine in which this need is acutely felt is that of surgical implants. Within this subfield such recent promising ethics and medicine partnerships include the International Tissue Engineering Research Association and UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and Human Rights’ International Code of Ethics. In this paper, we provide an overview of the emerging human rights framework from bioethics and international law, discussion of key framework principles, their application to the current surgical challenge of implantation of surgical mesh for prolapse, and conclusions and recommendations. Such discussions are meant to facilitate true quality improvement in patient care by ensuring the exciting technologies and medical practices emerging new daily are accompanied by an equal commitment of physicians to ethically provide their services for the chief end of the patient’s good.

  1. Bioethics and the reinforcement of socio-technical expectations. (United States)

    Hedgecoe, Adam


    Over the past few years, considerable interest has been paid to the way in which social expectations (hopes, hypes, fears) about new genomic technologies help shape, and in themselves are shaped by, emerging technologies, regulatory regimes and social concerns. In comparison, little attention has been paid to the role of expectations in related, but non-scientific discourses, such as bioethics. Drawing on a review of publications addressing the ethical issues associated with pharmacogenetics, this paper presents a detailed critique of bioethicists' contribution to these debates. The review highlights how, almost a decade after bioethical debate around pharmacogenetics started, and in contrast to the profession's self-perception as a form of regulator, bioethicists still largely restrict themselves to reviews of possible ethical issues raised by this technology, rather than critiquing others' positions and arguing for specific points of view. In addition the paper argues that bioethicists tend to: accept unquestioningly scientists' expectations about the development and ethical issues raised by pharmacogenetics; ignore contributions from bioethicists who do question these expectations; and engage in an ethical debate, the boundaries of which have been laid down and defined by academic and industry scientists. The paper concludes by offering some possible explanations for why the bioethical discourse has taken this form.

  2. How will the economic downturn affect academic bioethics? (United States)

    Epstein, Miran


    An educated guess about the future of academic bioethics can only be made on the basis of the historical conditions of its success. According to its official history, which attributes its success primarily to the service it has done for the patient, it should be safe at least as long as the patient still needs its service. Like many other academic disciplines, it might suffer under the present economic downturn. However, in the plausible assumption that its social role has not been exhausted yet, it should recover as soon as the economy does. But if, as this paper tries to argue, the success of academic bioethics should be attributed first and foremost to the service it has done for the neoliberal agenda, then its future would have to depend on the fate of the latter. The exact implications of the downturn for the neoliberal agenda are obviously impossible to predict. Among the various options, however, the one of going back to 'normal' seems to be the least likely. The other options suggest that the future of academic bioethics, as we have known it, is bleak.

  3. Inter-ethics: towards an interactive and interdependent bioethics. (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A; Baur, Vivianne E; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy A M


    Since its origin bioethics has been a specialized, academic discipline, focussing on moral issues, using a vast set of globalized principles and rational techniques to evaluate and guide healthcare practices. With the emergence of a plural society, the loss of faith in experts and authorities and the decline of overarching grand narratives and shared moralities, a new approach to bioethics is needed. This approach implies a shift from an external critique of practices towards embedded ethics and interactive practice improvement, and from a legal defence of rights towards fostering interdependent practices of responsibility. This article describes these transitions within bioethics in relation to the broader societal and cultural dynamics within Western societies, and traces the implications for the methodologies and changing roles of the bioethicist. The bioethicist we foresee is not just a clever expert but also a relationally sensitive person who engages stakeholders in reciprocal dialogues about their practice of responsibility and helps to integrate various sorts of knowledge (embodied, experiential, visual, and cognitive-scientific). In order to illustrate this new approach, we present a case study. It concerns a project focusing on an innovation in elderly care, based on the participation of various stakeholders, especially older people themselves.

  4. The Confucian bioethics of surrogate decision making: its communitarian roots. (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping


    The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when a patient has lost decision-making capacity. It is argued that the practice of not having an established order for surrogate decision makers (e.g., spouse, children, and then parents), as it is done in the United States, reflects the acknowledgment that the family as a social reality cannot be reduced to a stereotype of the appropriate order of default decision makers. This description of the family as being in authority to make surrogate decisions for an incompetent family member is enriched by an elaboration of the differences among the concepts of patient autonomy, family autonomy, and moral autonomy. The Chinese model, as well as the Confucian communitarian life of families, engages a family autonomy that is supported by a Confucian understanding of moral autonomy, rather than individual autonomy. Finally, the issue of possible conflicts between patient and family interests in relation to a patient's past wishes in the Chinese model is addressed in light of the role of the physician.

  5. The Life Value and Bioethics Education in Medical Students%医学生生命价值观与生命伦理教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The life value is the basic attitude for individual life and the life value; Bioethics is the moral norms and principles system for human being when refers to the environment, their own and other living life value and dignity. The professional characteristics of medicine determine that the educations of life value and bioethics supplement each other, promote each other. To carry out medical students'life values education and bioethical education, it needs their correct understandings of life, pay more attention to life education, cultivate the correct life values; the life value education and bioethics education should be combined; strengthen the construction of the teaching staff; promote the medical students'thinking on life ethics, cultivate their humanistic concept.%生命价值观是个体对生命和生命价值的基本态度;生命伦理是指人作为生命主体在面对环境、自身和其他生命体的生命价值、尊严时应该遵循的道德规范和原则体系,医学的专业特点决定了医学生的生命价值教育与生命伦理教育相辅相成,相互促进.开展医学生生命价值观教育和生命伦理教育,需要医学生正确认识生命,重视生命教育,培养正确的生命价值观;把生命价值教育与生命伦理教育相结合;加强师资队伍建设;促进医学生生命伦理思考,培养其人文价值理念.

  6. A Pharmaceutical Bioethics Consultation Service: Six-Year Descriptive Characteristics and Results of a Feedback Survey. (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Allen, Albert J; Watson, Susan B; Therasse, Donald G


    Background: Bioethics consultations are conducted in varied settings, including hospitals, universities, and other research institutions, but there is sparse information about bioethics consultations conducted in corporate settings such as pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this article is to describe a bioethics consultation service at a pharmaceutical company, to report characteristics of consultations completed by the service over a 6-year period, and to share results of a consultation feedback survey. Methods: Data on the descriptive characteristics of bioethics consultations were collected from 2008 to 2013 and analyzed in Excel 2007. Categorical data were analyzed via the pivot table function, and time-based variables were analyzed via formulas. The feedback survey was administered to consultation requesters from 2009 to 2012 and also analyzed in Excel 2007. Results: Over the 6-year period, 189 bioethics consultations were conducted. The number of consultations increased from five per year in 2008 to approximately one per week in 2013. During this time, the format of the consultation service was changed from a committee-only approach to a tiered approach (tailored to the needs of the case). The five most frequent topics were informed consent, early termination of a clinical trial, benefits and risks, human biological samples, and patient rights. The feedback survey results suggest the consultation service is well regarded overall and viewed as approachable, helpful, and responsive. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical bioethics consultation is a unique category of bioethics consultation that primarily focuses on pharmaceutical research and development but also touches on aspects of clinical ethics, business ethics, and organizational ethics. Results indicate there is a demand for a tiered bioethics consultation service within this pharmaceutical company and that advice was valued. This company's experience indicates that a bioethics consultation service raises

  7. How to connect bioethics and environmental ethics: health, sustainability, and justice. (United States)

    Dwyer, James


    In this paper, I explore one way to bring bioethics and environmental ethics closer together. I focus on a question at the interface of health, sustainability, and justice: How well does a society promote health with the use of no more than a just share of environmental capacity? To address this question, I propose and discuss a mode of assessment that combines a measurement of population health, an estimate of environmental sustainability, and an assumption about what constitutes a fair or just share. This mode of assessment provides an estimate of the just and sustainable life expectancy of a population. It could be used to monitor how well a particular society promotes health within just environmental limits. It could also serve as a source of information that stakeholders use when they deliberate about programs, policies, and technologies. The purpose of this work is to focus attention on an ethical task: the need to fashion institutions and forms of life that promote health in ways that recognize the claims of sustainability and justice.

  8. Living apart together: reflections on bioethics, global inequality and social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mupenda Bavon


    Full Text Available Abstract Significant inequalities in health between and within countries have been measured over the past decades. Although these inequalities, as well as attempts to improve sub-standard health, raise profound issues of social justice and the right to health, those working in the field of bioethics have historically tended to devote greater attention to ethical issues raised by new, cutting-edge biotechnologies such as life-support cessation, genomics, stem cell research or face transplantation. This suggests that bioethics research and scholarship may revolve around issues that, while fascinating and important, currently affect only a small minority of the world's population. In this article, we examine the accusation that bioethics is largely dominated by Anglophone and industrialized world interests, and explore what kinds of positive contributions a 'bioethics from below' (as Paul Farmer calls it can make to the field of bioethics in general. As our guide in this exploration, we make use of some experiences and lessons learned in our collaborative bioethics project in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Building Bioethics Capacity and Justice in Health. We conclude that while there is some evidence of increased attention to bioethical challenges in developing countries, this development should be further cultivated, because it could help expand the horizons of the field and enhance its social relevance wherever it is practiced.

  9. Hospital Bioethics: A Beginning Knowledge Base for the Neonatal Social Worker. (United States)

    Silverman, Ed


    Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…

  10. Development of integrative bioethics in the Mediterranean area of South-East Europe. (United States)

    Kukoč, Mislav


    With regards to its origin, foundation and development, bioethics is a relatively new discipline, scientific and theoretical field, where different and even contradicting definition models and methodological patterns of its formation and application meet. In some philosophical orientations, bioethics is considered to be a sub-discipline of applied ethics as a traditional philosophical discipline. Yet in biomedical and other sciences, bioethics is designated as a specialist scientific discipline, or a sort of a new medical ethics. The concept of integrative bioethics as an interdisciplinary scholarly and pluriperspectivistic area goes beyond such one-sided determinations, both philosophical and scientistic, and intends to integrate the philosophical approach to bioethics with its particular scientific contents, as well as different cultural dimensions and perspectives. This concept of integrative bioethics has gradually developed at philosophical and interdisciplinary conferences and institutions on the "bioethical islands" of the Croatian Mediterranean. In this paper, the author follows the formation, development and prospects of integrative bioethics in the wider region of the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe.

  11. Thinking out Loud about Teaching Bioethics: A Contribution from the Edge (United States)

    Solberg, Mary M.


    Teaching bioethics might be likened to a rollercoaster ride of twists, turns, and dips that invite teachers and students to experience something of their own edges of fear and comfort. Here the author provides readers with a glimpse into her distinctive approach to teaching bioethics that encourages students to move beyond boundaries of personal…

  12. The four-principle formulation of common morality is at the core of bioethics mediation method. (United States)

    Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram


    Bioethics mediation is increasingly used as a method in clinical ethics cases. My goal in this paper is to examine the implicit theoretical assumptions of the bioethics mediation method developed by Dubler and Liebman. According to them, the distinguishing feature of bioethics mediation is that the method is useful in most cases of clinical ethics in which conflict is the main issue, which implies that there is either no real ethical issue or if there were, they are not the key to finding a resolution. I question the tacit assumption of non-normativity of the mediation method in bioethics by examining the various senses in which bioethics mediation might be non-normative or neutral. The major normative assumption of the mediation method is the existence of common morality. In addition, the four-principle formulation of the theory articulated by Beauchamp and Childress implicitly provides the normative content for the method. Full acknowledgement of the theoretical and normative assumptions of bioethics mediation helps clinical ethicists better understand the nature of their job. In addition, the need for a robust philosophical background even in what appears to be a purely practical method of mediation cannot be overemphasized. Acknowledgement of the normative nature of bioethics mediation method necessitates a more critical attitude of the bioethics mediators towards the norms they usually take for granted uncritically as valid.

  13. Bioethics Cases and Issues: Enrichment for Social Science, Humanities, and Science Courses. (United States)

    Guyer, Ruth Levy; Dillon, Mary Lou; Anderson, Linda; Szobota, Lola


    Discusses the use of bioethics and bioethical dilemmas in different subject areas at the high school level by focusing on the case of Baby K. Includes the story of Baby K, classroom activities for U.S. history, 10th and 11th grade ethics, and anatomy and physiology. (CMK)

  14. A theory of international bioethics: multiculturalism, postmodernism, and the bankruptcy of fundamentalism. (United States)

    Baker, Robert


    The first of two articles analyzing the justifiability of international bioethical codes and of cross-cultural moral judgments reviews "moral fundamentalism," the theory that cross-cultural moral judgments and international bioethical codes are justified by certain "basic" or "fundamental" moral priniciples that are universally accepted in all cultures and eras. Initially propounded by the judges at the 1947 Nuremberg Tribunal, moral fundamentalism has become the received justification of international bioethics, and of cross-temporal and cross-cultural moral judgments. Yet today we are said to live in a multicultural and postmodern world. This article assesses the challenges that multiculturalism and postmodernism pose to fundamentalism and concludes that these challenges render the position philosophically untenable, thereby undermining the received conception of the foundations of international bioethics. The second article, which follows, offers an alternative model -- a model of negotiated moral order -- as a viable justification for international bioethics and for transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments.

  15. Establishing a framework for a physician assistant/bioethics dual degree program. (United States)

    Carr, Mark F; Bergman, Brett A


    : Numerous medical schools currently offer a master of arts (MA) in bioethics dual degree for physicians. A degree in bioethics enhances the care physicians provide to patients and prepares physicians to serve on ethics committees and consult services. Additionally, they may work on institutional and public policy issues related to ethics. Several physician assistant (PA) programs currently offer a master of public health (MPH) dual degree for PAs. A degree in public health prepares PAs for leadership roles in meeting community health needs. With the success of PA/MPH dual degree programs, we argue here that a PA/bioethics dual degree would be another opportunity to advance the PA profession and consider how such a program might be implemented. The article includes the individual perspectives of the authors, one of whom completed a graduate-level certificate in bioethics concurrently with his 2-year PA program, while the other served as a bioethics program director.

  16. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews. (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind


    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy.

  17. Perspective Intercultural Bioethics and Human Rights: the search for instruments for resolving ethical conflicts culturally based.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to a deeper reflection on intercultural conflicts within the bioethics scope, and to point out the problem of using human rights as a theoretical normative mediator of the conflicts in bioethics that bear elements of interculturalism. The methodological steps adopted in this inquiry were: analysis of the concept of intercultural conflict in bioethics, from the perception developed by Colectivo Amani; study of human rights as tools of the culture of human beings, based on Bauman’s and Beauchamp’s theories; investigation of the toolsthat human rights offer so as to solve intercultural conflicts in bioethics. It was concluded that intercultural bioethics must incorporate to its prescriptive and descriptive tasks norms and institutions of human rights that ensure the participation and social integration of the individuals from communities that are in cultural conflict. Such measure will act as instrumentsfor the solution of intercultural conflicts.


    Marin, Ana; Bouffard, Chantal


    At a time in which the ethical awareness towards socio-cultural diversity is a necessity, it seems of paramount importance to explore what is meant by bioethics. Without being exhaustive, this paper suggests to scrutinize the key defnitions of bioethics, considering their evolution over time as well as their convergence with anthropology. Starting with its global and its restricted definitions, this article examines certain differences or definitional imprecisions in the light of the concepts used by bioethicists and anthropologists in their conception of bioethics. While this exercise shows the pertinence of the conceptual tools proposed by anthropology to facilitate the cultural diversity's integration into bioethics, it ultimately challenges an anthropological approach that has been unable to mainstream this knowledge into the definition of bioethics.

  19. 谈生命伦理学在医学人体试验中应用的特殊性%Discussion on bioethical uniqueness in human subjects research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲; 刘延; 刘珺; 孙玮


    To demonstrate the application and specification of bioethical uniqueness in human subjects research. Analysis was made with regard to the ethics of clinical blind trial to display the bioethical uniqueness in human subjects research. Autonomy was one of the most important factors, which was different from the informed consent in medical treatment. Em -phasis was laid on the subjects' free decision rather than being provided with sufficient information. The research was in -tended to promote the medical development social progress. Social welfare could be achieved in bioethics in the human subjects research. So combinaion of autonomy and social welfare is the real reflection of bioethical uniqueness in human subjects research.%为探讨生命伦理学在医学人体试验中的具体应用有其特殊性,说明不能照搬医疗中的自主性原则.本文对临床盲试伦理进行具体分析,发现医学人体试验中的自主性原则应注重受试者的自主决定权而不是知情权;同时,鉴于医学人体试验旨在促进医学发展和社会进步,社会利益也是医学人体试验伦理应考虑的重要因素.因此,自主性原则与社会利益的兼顾才真正符合医学人体试验的伦理道德.

  20. Measuring cognitive outcomes in a pre-clinical bioethics course. (United States)

    Fernandes, Ashley K; Borges, Nicole; Rodabaugh, Heather


    Medical schools universally accept the idea that bioethics courses are essential components of education, but few studies which measure outcomes (i.e., knowledge or retention) have demonstrated their educational value in the literature. The goal of this study was to examine whether core concepts of a pre-clinical bioethics course were learned and retained. Over the course of 2 years, a pre-test comprising 25 multiple-choice questions was administered to two classes (2008-2010) of first-year medical students prior to the start of a 15-week ethics course, and an identical post-test was administered at the end of the course. A total of 189 students participated. Paired t tests showed a significant difference between pre-test scores and post-test scores. The pre-test average score was 69.8 %, and the post-test average was 82.6 %, an increase of 12.9 % after the ethics course. The pre- and post-test results also suggested a shift in difficulty level of the questions, with students finding identical questions easier after the intervention. Given the increase in post-test scores after the 15-week intervention, the study suggests that core concepts in medical ethics were learned and retained. These results demonstrate that an introductory bioethics course can improve short-term outcomes in knowledge and comprehension, and should provide impetus to educators to demonstrate improved educational outcomes in ethics at higher levels of B.S. Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning.

  1. What makes Christian bioethics Christian? Bible, story, and communal discernment. (United States)

    Verhey, Allen


    Scripture is somehow normative for any bioethic that would be Christian. There are problems, however, both with Scripture and with those who read Scripture. Methodological reflection is necessary. Scripture must be read humbly and in Christian community. It must be read not as a timeless code but as the story of God and of our lives. That story moves from creation to a new creation. At the center of the Christian story are the stories of Jesus of Nazareth as healer, preacher of good news to the poor, and sufferer. The story shapes character and conduct and enables communal discernment.

  2. 全球生命伦理学%Global Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henk A M J ten Have; Bert Gordijn; 陈月芹(译)


    This paper started the discussion of the origin of bioethics ,demonstrated the opinions of believers of different stories ,and led to the conclusions .Whatever the precise historic provenance of bioethics ,it has currently turned into a truly global phenomenon .It is very important around the world ,because people are not only European or Asian ,but also residents of the world and members of a global moral community .Bioethics is important for everyone everywhere ,not because it is imported or imposed ,but it provides a universal framework to interpret and manage the constantly changes ,in which all countries and cultures are involved currently .However ,the interpretation and application of this framework must respect the local circumstance .Therefore ,modern bioethics must be characterized by both its global nature and local characteristics .%探讨生命伦理学的起源,并阐述了不同理论支持者的观点,发现无论准确的生命伦理学历史起源是什么,目前生命伦理学已经变成了一种真正的全球现象。它在全世界具有重要的意义,因为人类不仅仅是欧洲人或亚洲人,也是世界公民和一个全球道德共同体的成员。生命伦理学对任何地方、任何人都是重要的,并不是因为它是“拿来”的,而是因为它提供了一个普遍的框架去解释和管理正在经历的变化,这个变化包括了目前所有的国家和文化。然而,这个框架的解释和应用必须依据本土环境。因此,现代生命伦理学具有全球性和本土特征的特点。

  3. A method of reflexive balancing in a pragmatic, interdisciplinary and reflexive bioethics. (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan


    In recent years there has been a wealth of literature arguing the need for empirical and interdisciplinary approaches to bioethics, based on the premise that an empirically informed ethical analysis is more grounded, contextually sensitive and therefore more relevant to clinical practice than an 'abstract' philosophical analysis. Bioethics has (arguably) always been an interdisciplinary field, and the rise of 'empirical' (bio)ethics need not be seen as an attempt to give a new name to the longstanding practice of interdisciplinary collaboration, but can perhaps best be understood as a substantive attempt to engage with the nature of that interdisciplinarity and to articulate the relationship between the many different disciplines (some of them empirical) that contribute to the field. It can also be described as an endeavour to explain how different disciplinary approaches can be integrated to effectively answer normative questions in bioethics, and fundamental to that endeavour is the need to think about how a robust methodology can be articulated that successfully marries apparently divergent epistemological and metaethical perspectives with method. This paper proposes 'Reflexive Bioethics' (RB) as a methodology for interdisciplinary and empirical bioethics, which utilizes a method of 'Reflexive Balancing' (RBL). RBL has been developed in response to criticisms of various forms of reflective equilibrium, and is built upon a pragmatic characterization of Bioethics and a 'quasi-moral foundationalism', which allows RBL to avoid some of the difficulties associated with RE and yet retain the flexible egalitarianism that makes it intuitively appealing to many.

  4. Theology and bioethics in the film: Mar adentro, Spain, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Franco Taitson


    Full Text Available The article reflects on euthanasia and its consequences for which seeks to shorten the life of a patient known to be incurable. Film and Literature are equivalent here, being arts narratives that convey a story, and it is natural that the first has appropriated the second to boost its development. Through its own strategy, the two arts narratives met, making a discussion of the privilege of one over the other, which yields fruit until today. This practice can be seen in the Spanish film The Sea Inside, with theological reflections front the valuation of life issues, death, suffering and moral action. In the days of the time today is very rich, due to infinite horizons data by science and technology, which enable the creation and implementation of projects related to the protection and care of the reading of the death. But we know, at the same time that the pathway for degradation and even the establishment of a culture of death is also set. This is exactly why we cannot do without when we talk about death, to make a bioethical exercise and dialogue. Thus, theology, film and literature converge the light of the bioethical studies.

  5. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt


    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  6. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations. (United States)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Lu, Guangxiu; Döring, Ole; Cong, Yali; Laska-Formejster, Alicja; He, Jing; Chen, Haidan; Gottweis, Herbert; Rose, Nikolas


    One of the features of advanced life sciences research in recent years has been its internationalisation, with countries such as China and South Korea considered 'emerging biotech' locations. As a result, cross-continental collaborations are becoming common generating moves towards ethical and legal standardisation under the rubric of 'global bioethics'. Such a 'global', 'Western' or 'universal' bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four 'spheres' - deliberation, regulation, oversight and interaction - as a helpful way to conceptualise national systems of ethical governance. Using a workshop-based mapping methodology (workshops held in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Xian, Shenzen and London) we identified three specific ethical challenges arising from cross-continental research collaborations: (1) ambiguity as to which regulations are applicable; (2) lack of ethical review capacity not only among ethical review board members but also collaborating scientists; (3) already complex, researcher-research subject interaction is further complicated when many nationalities are involved.

  7. An argument for the use of Aristotelian method in bioethics. (United States)

    Allmark, Peter


    The main claim of this paper is that the method outlined and used in Aristotle's Ethics is an appropriate and credible one to use in bioethics. Here "appropriate" means that the method is capable of establishing claims and developing concepts in bioethics and "credible" that the method has some plausibility, it is not open to obvious and immediate objection. It begins by suggesting why this claim matters and then gives a brief outline of Aristotle's method. The main argument is made in three stages. First, it is argued that Aristotelian method is credible because it compares favourably with alternatives. In this section it is shown that Aristotelian method is not vulnerable to criticisms that are made both of methods that give a primary place to moral theory (such as utilitarianism) and those that eschew moral theory (such as casuistry and social science approaches). As such, it compares favourably with these other approaches that are vulnerable to at least some of these criticisms. Second, the appropriateness of Aristotelian method is indicated through outlining how it would deal with a particular case. Finally, it is argued that the success of Aristotle's philosophy is suggestive of both the credibility and appropriateness of his method.

  8. Looking backwards, looking forward: hopes for bioethics' next twenty-five years. (United States)

    Sherwin, Susan


    I reflect on the past, present, and future of the field of bioethics. In so doing, I offer a very situated overview of where bioethics has been, where it now is, where it seems to be going, where I think we could do better, and where I dearly hope the field will be heading. I also propose three ways of re-orienting our theoretic tools to guide us in a new direction: (1) adopt an ethics of responsibility; (2) explore the responsibilities of various kinds of actors and relationships among them; (3) expand the types of participants engaged in bioethics.

  9. Respect for Human Vulnerability: The Emergence of a New Principle in Bioethics. (United States)

    ten Have, Henk


    Vulnerability has become a popular though controversial topic in bioethics, notably since 2000. As a result, a common body of knowledge has emerged (1) distinguishing between different types of vulnerability, (2) criticizing the categorization of populations as vulnerable, and (3) questioning the practical implications. It is argued that two perspectives on vulnerability, i.e., the philosophical and political, pose challenges to contemporary bioethics discourse: they re-examine the significance of human agency, the primacy of the individual person, and the negativity of vulnerability. As a phenomenon of globalization, vulnerability can only be properly addressed in a global bioethics that takes the social dimension of human existence seriously.

  10. 中国传统文化中朴素生命伦理思想的启示%Analysis of Simple Bioethics in the Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article started with the different views to death in Confucianism , Taoism, and Buddhism .And then explore the simple bioethics spirit in Chinese traditional culture , such as cherishing life , equal spirit , the spir-it of benevolence .Finally the research significance is summarized .In the bioethics development era background , researching naive ethics thought in the Chinese traditional culture has important significance to tamp multicultural foundation of bioethics , promote the development of bioethics in China , transform the ancient Chinese bioethics wisdom into the common wealth of mankind and perfectly handle ethical confusion in the development of biology and medicine.%从发掘传统文化中儒家、道家、佛家对生、死的基本态度入手,通过探寻、提炼中国传统文化中珍视生命、众生平等、仁爱精神等朴素的生命伦理思想的分析,总结该领域研究的现实意义:传统文化中蕴涵的生命伦理思想是中国生命伦理学发展创新的文化渊源,传统文化中的朴素生命伦理智慧可以为解决现实伦理问题提供思想启迪,对我国传统文化中生命伦理思想的梳理有利于中国生命伦理学的发展。

  11. 论中国生命伦理学发展的本土化要求%Bioethics Development Research of Concise Principles, Local Roots and Focus on Real

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      Vigorously development of the Chinese localization of bioethics is not only the Chinese bioethics of their native development needs of today's cultural construction, and further the need to promote socialist cultural progress and prosperity. To develop localization bioethics theoretical system with Chinese characteristics, there must be a high degree of awareness on the methodology, it is necessary to pay attention to the absorption of Western ethical culture, refining the principles of Bioethics, also based on Chinese cultural traditions, to seek the basis of theoretical logic, but it must also be departed from China's actual bioethical issues.%  大力发展中国本土化生命伦理学不仅是中国生命伦理学自身发展的需要,也是当今中国进行文化建设,进一步推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣的需要。而发展具有中国特色的本土化生命伦理学理论体系,必须有方法论上的高度自觉,既要注意吸收西方伦理文化,提炼生命伦理原则,也要立足中国文化传统,寻求理论逻辑基础,同时还必须从中国实际生命伦理问题出发。

  12. The Quality of Life for the World's Population: A Unit on Bioethics (United States)

    Bloom, Arthur; Constan, Phyllis


    A bioethics unit aimed at taking biology out of the laboratory and classroom and into the world. An experience in which students not only begin to understand reasons for making decisions, but also understand how values change. (Author/EB)

  13. Islamic bioethical deliberation on the issue of newborns with disorders of sex development. (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohd Salim; Noor, Siti Nurani Mohd


    This article presents the Islamic bioethical deliberation on the issue of sex assignment surgery (SAS) for infants with disorders of sex development (DSD) or intersexed as a case study. The main objective of this study is to present a different approach in assessing a biomedical issue within the medium of the Maqasid al-Shari'ah. Within the framework of the maqasidic scheme of benefits and harms, any practice where benefits are substantial is considered permissible, while those promoting harms are prohibited. The concept of Maqasid al-Shari'ah which is the mechanistic interpretation of Qur'an and Hadith presents the holistic attention of Islam on many life activities, including healthcare. Indeed, this concept encompasses many aspects of worldly life, both for the human individual and collectively for the whole society. In healthcare, the practice of SAS on DSD newborns has presented an assortment of implications on the future livelihood of the affected individual. The process of decision-making seems to be very multifaceted since every element such as the determination of the 'correct' sex and the urgency of early surgery must consider the benefits and harms, as well as the child's rights and best interest. The application of the concept of Maqasid al-Shari'ah, would convey a pragmatic approach that is often disregarded in Western medicine. This approach considers the right of the individual to live life optimally, individually and socially and practice his faith, precisely, in accordance with the assigned gender.

  14. In the 25th year of bioethics publishing: new challenges of the post-truth era. (United States)

    Jesani, Amar


    As IJME enters its 25th year of publication, all of us closely associated with the journal look back on this journey with a degree of satisfaction. Not only has the only bioethics journal published from India survived for 24 years, it has also produced some extraordinary successes. As you read this issue, we will be celebrating the 12th year of the biennial National Bioethics Conferences - the sixth NBC will take place in Pune from January 13 to 15, 2017.

  15. Human rights and bioethics: competitors orallies? The role of international law in shaping the contours of a new discipline. (United States)

    Sándor, Judit


    Bioethical norms that had constituted only a rather short chapter in the medical curricula are now integrated into universal human rights. This paper seeks to demonstrate the normative convergence between the fields of bioethics and human rights by discussing the recently adopted relevant international documents and some applicable cases from international law. Human rights case law relevant in this emerging legal domain is analyzed with the aim to tackle changes that have occurred in the fields of human rights and bioethics due to the convergence and interdependence between them. Bioethics and human rights are two different systems of norms but bioethics can enrich human rights by extending the traditional catalogue of rights in certain new fields. The theory of human rights nevertheless dictates some discipline in formulating new and new rights. Therefore it offers to bioethics, as an exchange, a more sufficient enforcement mechanism and international recognition.

  16. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program. (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M; Lee, Lisa M


    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation--deliberative public bioethics--into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bioethics offers both a how and where. Using the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program as an example of effective incorporation of deliberative processes to integrate ethics into public health policy, we examine how deliberative public bioethics can integrate both public health and bioethics perspectives into three areas of public health practice: research, education, and health policy. We then offer recommendations for future collaborations that integrate deliberative methods into public health policy and practice.

  17. The historical development of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales: a symbiotic relationship? (United States)

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest


    The paper explores the backward and forward linkage between HCL and bioethics. Indeed, the relationship between the two is so close that it can be considered one of symbiosis. This is particularly the case when an account is taken of how HCL and bioethics positively benefitted from each other in diverse ways during their development into their present status as discrete disciplines. In the first place, the aftermath of the Second World War, such as the Nuremberg trial and unprecedented medical experiment scandals in the 1960s/70s fuelled the increasing participation of lay scholars in exploring and critiquing medical ethics which culminated in the emergence ofbioethics.2 This in turn facilitated the evolution of HCL as a discipline, since academic lawyers involved in early bioethical discourse developed interest in exploring the interface between law and bioethics at the same time that society was waking up to the ethical implications of medical advances. As HCL emerged as a discrete discipline, it consolidated the status of bioethics as a field of inquiry by projecting the relevance of the latter in adjudication of novel cases with significant slippery moral undertones. Thus, the chicken and egg paradox finds a perfect reflection in the emergence of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales.

  18. Analysis and critical review of the development of bioethics in Belarus. (United States)

    Vishneuskaya, Yuliya A


    The main trends of the bioethics development in Belarus have been analyzed on the basis of the materials collected by the Ethics Documentation Center (ISEU, Minsk, Belarus). A critical review of the most important publications in the field since 2000 suggests that development of bioethics in Belarus has occurred in two parallel directions distantly connected to each other: a theoretical direction and a practical one. Despite there are objective and subjective reasons for introducing bioethics in Belarus as an institutionally-organized system based on liberal values such as individual rights and freedom, a range of essential problems could be identified. Non-equivalent regulation of ethical issues in health care and other fields of biomedical research has been emphasized, as well as the problem of unclear hierarchical relationships among institutions dealing with various aspects of bioethics in the country and low ethical and educational level of the social and professional groups involved in further expansion of bioethical knowledge. The contextual aspects of the development of bioethics in the country such as the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, the prevalence of the authoritarian social morality and traditionally paternalistic nature of the relations between physicians and their patients are discussed.

  19. The evolving idea of social responsibility in bioethics: a welcome trend. (United States)

    Ahola-Launonen, Johanna


    This article discusses the notion of social responsibility for personal health and well-being in bioethics. Although social responsibility is an intrinsic aspect of bioethics, and its role is increasingly recognized in certain areas, it can still be claimed that bioethics in general is committed to an individualistic theoretical framework that disregards the social context in which decisions, health, and well-being are situated. The philosophical premises of this framework regard individuals as rational decisionmakers who can be held accountable for their health conditions and who should be the primary objects of intervention in attempts to reduce lifestyle-associated chronic diseases. There are, however, social determinants of health that challenge this conclusion. Because their impact can be controlled, to a certain extent, by social and public policy decisions, their existence shows the inadequacy of the purely individualistic approach. I suggest, accordingly, that bioethics would benefit, both academically and societally, from a more social perspective. Bioethical studies that acknowledge, from the start, the social determinants of health would be more amenable to constructive multi- and interdisciplinarity, and a more balanced account of responsibility would further the contribution of sound bioethical work to sensible public policies.

  20. [Qualitative research into the scientific production in the field of bioethics]. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia; Claro, Lenita Barreto Lorena; Un, Julio Wong


    This article discusses the character and use of qualitative research methods in the field of bioethics. A systematic review of articles published in Latin American countries and selected from the SciELO database was conducted, with special emphasis on articles that employed qualitative research methodology. The set of articles reveals a field of bioethics composed of three distinct vectors. The first refers to the dual characterization of bioethics that can be defined as a social movement or as a discipline; the second differentiates bioethics from other fields of ethics, especially from predominantly deontology-based professional ethics; and the third is related to ethical approaches adopted in the analyses conducted in the research. A relatively insignificant part of these texts result from qualitative research and they can be divided into four categories according to their themes and guidelines: bioethics as a field and/or discourse; training in health; ethics, care, and clinical practice; formulation of health policy. The production shows, on the one hand, a relatively timid approach of social science researchers to the field of bioethics and, on the other hand, little use of qualitative methodologies in research in the field and, in some cases, a certain lack of precision regarding use of the methods.

  1. Personal experience narratives by students: a teaching-learning tool in bioethics. (United States)

    Pandya, Radhika H; Shukla, Radha; Gor, Alpa P; Ganguly, Barna


    The principles of bioethics have been identified as important requirements for training basic medical doctors. Till now, various modalities have been used for teaching bioethics, such as lectures, followed by a small case-based discussion, case vignettes or debates among students. For effective teaching-learning of bioethics, it is necessary to integrate theory and practice rather than merely teach theoretical constructs without helping the students translate those constructs into practice. Classroom teaching can focus on the theoretical knowledge of professional relationships, patient-doctor relationships, issues at the beginning and end of life, reproductive technologies, etc. However, a better learning environment can be created through an experiencebased approach to complement lectures and facilitate successful teaching. Engaging students in reflective dialogue with their peers would allow them to refine their ideas with respect to learning ethics. It can help in the development both of the cognitive and affective domains of the teaching of bioethics. Real-life narratives by the interns, when used as case or situation analysis models for a particular ethical issue, can enhance other students' insight and give them a moral boost. Doing this can change the classroom atmosphere, enhance motivation, improve the students' aptitude and improve their attitude towards learning bioethics. Involving the students in this manner can prove to be a sustainable way of achieving the goal of deep reflective learning of bioethics and can serve as a new technique for maintaining the interest of students as well as teachers.

  2. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret


    standardisation under the rubric of ‘global bioethics’. Such a ‘global’, ‘Western’ or ‘universal’ bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips......One of the features of advanced life sciences research in recent years has been its internationalisation, with countries such as China and South Korea considered ‘emerging biotech’ locations. As a result, crosscontinental collaborations are becoming common generating moves towards ethical and legal...... with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four ‘spheres...

  3. Religious Perspectives on Human Suffering: Implications for Medicine and Bioethics. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C; Zoloth, Laurie; Tollefsen, Christopher; Tsomo, Karma Lekshe; Jensen, Michael P; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Sarma, Deepak


    The prevention and relief of suffering has long been a core medical concern. But while this is a laudable goal, some question whether medicine can, or should, aim for a world without pain, sadness, anxiety, despair or uncertainty. To explore these issues, we invited experts from six of the world's major faith traditions to address the following question. Is there value in suffering? And is something lost in the prevention and/or relief of suffering? While each of the perspectives provided maintains that suffering should be alleviated and that medicine's proper role is to prevent and relieve suffering by ethical means, it is also apparent that questions regarding the meaning and value of suffering are beyond the realm of medicine. These perspectives suggest that medicine and bioethics have much to gain from respectful consideration of religious discourse surrounding suffering.

  4. From global bioethics to ethical governance of biomedical research collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret;


    with the ethical challenges that inter-continental biomedical research collaborations generate. In particular we ask how national systems of ethical governance of life science research might cope with increasingly global research collaborations with a focus on Sino-European collaboration. We propose four ‘spheres...... standardisation under the rubric of ‘global bioethics’. Such a ‘global’, ‘Western’ or ‘universal’ bioethics has in turn been critiqued as an imposition upon resource-poor, non-Western or local medical settings. In this article, we propose that a different tack is necessary if we are to come to grips......’ e deliberation, regulation, oversight and interaction e as a helpful way to conceptualise national systems of ethical governance. Using a workshop-based mapping methodology (workshops held in Beijing, Shanghai, Changsha, Xian, Shenzen and London) we identified three specific ethical challenges...

  5. Bioética e as diretrizes curriculares nacionais do curso de medicina Bioethics and national medical school curriculum guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma análise dos aspectos bioéticos contidos nas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN do curso de medicina, documento aprovado em 2001 pelos Ministérios da Educação e da Saúde e que propõe diretrizes para a formação do profissional médico. O campo da Bioética permeia todas as diretivas das DCN do curso de Medicina. Isso credita à disciplina um status de eixo integrador no processo de formação de médicos. Considerando as observações que reforçam a tese de que a sociedade é que conforma a educação, esse novo paradigma contribui para efetivação do sistema de saúde brasileiro, o Sistema Único de Saúde, com todos os nuances e hibridizações de modelos de atenção. A Bioética está legitimada nas DCN. Resta ao aparelho formador garantir que ela se consolide na academia, enquanto ciência propositiva imprescindível para se alcançar a necessária prudência ao conhecimento biológico, associando aos valores humanos a ética da vida.The article discusses various bioethical issues addressed by the National Curriculum Guidelines (DCN for medical schools, a document approved in 2001 by the Ministries of Health and Education, which sets out guidelines for medical training. Bioethics permeates all the DCN guidelines for medical schools. This means that the discipline performs an integrating role in the medical training process. In view of observations backing the hypothesis that education is determined by society, this new paradigm helps to instill the new Brazilian health system, the Unified Health System, with its nuanced and mixed models of health care. Bioethics is given legitimacy by the DCN. It remains for the teaching profession to ensure that it is consolidated in academic circles, as an indispensible discipline, if biological knowledge is to be pursued in a prudent fashion promoting humane values and an ethics of life.

  6. Web-Facilitated Learning for Bioethics Principles on Human Dignity and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapalan Selvadurai


    Full Text Available Problem statement: With the advent of globalization and information and communication technology (ICT, web-facilitated learning strategy has taken an important role in the learning and teaching process. This paper examines how bioethics principles on human dignity and human rights can be learned through web-facilitated learning strategies among tertiary level International Relations students. Bioethics is an emerging field that concerns states and inter-state relations. It is about thinking globally about ethics and about our moral judgment about life, the environment and other species. The objective of this study is to provide an assessment on how graduate students of International Relations use web-based tools to gather information about global bioethics principles. Approach: The research data is collected through feedbacks solicited from some 40 post-graduate students of International Relations on (i self-assessment on the learning acquired regarding the bioethics principles using web resources and (ii through a set of pre- and post-tests to test the knowledge acquired on the subject matter. Results: The findings reveal that through the use of web-facilitated learning strategy respondents’ showed increased comprehension and receptiveness towards bioethics principles on human dignity and human rights. Conclusion: Therefore the study concludes that the use of web-facilitated learning strategy can emphasize the importance of bioethics principles in understanding the ethical framework in dealing with human dignity and human rights. The research findings may provide useful information for scholars and researchers developing teaching strategies using bioethics resources.

  7. [The role of bioethics committees in the systems protecting scientific biomedical research participants in France and in Poland]. (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek; Sieczych, Alicja


    Bioethics committees are along with ethic regulations and rules of law one of three main pillars in the system of protection of scientific biomedical research participants. Although principal directives for bioethics committees are established by international guidelines, detailed regulations may differ in particular states. The aim of this article was to compare two bioethic committees systems: French and Polish one. Historical beginnings of the bioethics committees system in France and in Poland are briefly mentioned, Subsequently, the networks of bioethics committees in both countries are compared. Although the number of bioethics committees (Research Ethic Committees) in both countries is comparable, the procedure of their establishment varies. French committees are based on administrative division of the country and divide on regional and interregional committees. In Poland, bioethics committees are established by medical universities, medical research and development units or regional chambers of physicians and dentists. In France there is no equivalent of Appeal Bioethics Committee, however one could appeal from the negative bioethics committee's opinion. The composition of French bioethics committees is more diverse and half of the members are not related to medical professions. Members of French committees are named on indefinite term by headmaster of Regional Health Agency after having been chosen in competition for the post. In Poland members are called on three-year-term but the rotation of members is not overwhelming since there is no limit of terms for one member. French legal solutions seems more secure for scientific bioethics research participants. For this reason, a detailed research on legislation in other countries is necessary before introducing any new regulations in Polish law.

  8. The Right of Life under the Perspective of Bioethics%生命伦理视野下的生命权

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    生命权是生命伦理学中的主要概念.生命权在生命伦理学中存在的问题主要表现为:把生命权简单地理解为生的权利和死的权利;不同文化对生命权的理解不同;生命权与其他权利之间存在冲突.为了更好地实现对生命权的尊重与保障,需要大力弘扬社会主义核心价值观,树立以人为本的理念;促进生命伦理学的跨文化交流;加强对生命权的法律研究与制度建设.%Right of life is the main concept of Bioethics. Problems of the right of life in bioethics mainly are: the right of life is simply understood as right of living and right of death; different culture has different understanding of right of life; conflicts exist between right of life and other rights. In order to realize the respect and safeguard for right to life, it needs to carry forward the socialist core values t and set up the people - oriented idea; to promote cross - cultural communication of Bioethics; to strengthen the legal research on right of life and system construction.

  9. Negotiating international bioethics: a response to Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin. (United States)

    Baker, Robert


    Can the bioethical theories that have served American bioethics so well, serve international bioethics as well? In two papers in the previous issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, I contend that the form of principlist fundamentalism endorsed by American bioethicists like Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin will not play on an international stage. Deploying techniques of postmodern scholarship, I argue that principlist fundamentalism justifies neither the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg, nor, as the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) demonstrates, condemnation of Cold War radiation researchers. Principlist fundamentalism thus appears to be philosophy bankrupt. In this issue of the Journal, Beauchamp and Macklin reject this claim, arguing that I have misread the ACHRE report and misunderstood Nazism. They also argue that the form of post-postmodern negotiated human rights theory that I proffer is adequate only insofar as it is itself really fundamentalist; insofar as I take postmodernism seriously, however, I mire international bioethics in relativism. In this response, I reaffirm my anti-fundamentalism, provide further evidence in support of my reading of the ACHRE report, and defend my post-postmodern version of rights theory. I also develop criteria for a minimally adequate theoretical framework for international bioethics.

  10. The Invisibility of Disability: Using Dance to Shake from Bioethics the Idea of 'Broken Bodies'. (United States)

    Harmon, Shawn H E


    Complex social and ethical problems are often most effectively solved by engaging them at the messy and uncomfortable intersections of disciplines and practices, a notion that grounds the InVisible Difference project, which seeks to extend thinking and alter practice around the making, status, ownership, and value of work by contemporary dance choreographers by examining choreographic work through the lenses of law, bioethics, dance scholarship, and the practice of dance by differently-abled dancers. This article offers a critical thesis on how bioethics has come to occupy a marginal and marginalizing role in questions about the differently-abled body. In doing so, it has rendered the disabled community largely invisible to and in bioethics. It then defends the claim that bioethics - as a social undertaking pursued collaboratively by individuals from different disciplines - must take much better notice of the body and the embodied individual if it is to better achieve its ends, which include constructing a moral and just society. Finally, this article considers how the arts, and specifically dance (and here dance by differently-abled dancers), provides us with rich evidence about the body and our ability to respond positively to normally 'othered' bodies. It concludes that greater attention to empirical evidence like that being generated in InVisible Difference will help to expand the reach and significance of bioethics, and thereby its relevance to (and consciousness of) important questions about the status of bodies and bodily differences, which must be considered as central to its ambitions.

  11. Don't blame the 'bio'--blame the 'ethics': varieties of (bio)ethics and the challenge of pluralism. (United States)

    Charlesworth, Max


    We tend to think that the difficulties in bioethics spring from the novel and alarming issues that arise due to discoveries in the new biosciences and biotechnologies. But many of the crucial difficulties in bioethics arise from the assumption we make about ethics. This paper offers a brief overview of bioethics, and relates ethical 'principlism' to 'ethical fundamentalism.' It then reviews some alternative approaches that have emerged during the second phase of bioethics and argues for a neo-Aristotelian approach. Misconceptions about ethical principles and ethical reasoning not only distort our views of the business of bioethics, but they also prevent us from facing up to the formidable problems posed by ethical pluralism in so-called liberal societies.

  12. A sociological analysis of ethical expertise: The case of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Emmerich


    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of ethical expertise and does so in the context of bioethics or, more accurately, applied ethics and the ethical governance of the life sciences. This analysis builds on a perspective set out in a previous paper and develops it further such that it relates to democratic processes. I argue that the academic practice of applied ethics exhibits a particular logic, way of thinking or eidos. Drawing on work in the history of science I present the logic of this practice as underpinned by a particular set of values or ethos. This can be contrasted with what Bernstein calls the democratic ethos as well as that of everyday moral agents. Using the framework of expertise developed by Collins and Evan’s—which differentiates between ubiquitous, contributory, and interactional expertise—I suggest that (bioethicists should modulate their expertise depending on the particular nature of the fora—academic, public, and policy-making—they are speaking in.

  13. Bioethics and the Framing of Climate Change's Health Risks. (United States)

    Valles, Sean A


    Cheryl Cox MacPherson recently argued, in an article for this journal, that 'Climate Change is a Bioethics Problem'. This article elaborates on that position, particularly highlighting bioethicists' potential ability to help reframe the current climate change discourse to give more attention to its health risks. This reframing process is especially important because of the looming problem of climate change skepticism. Recent empirical evidence from science framing experiments indicates that the public reacts especially positively to climate change messages framed in public health terms, and bioethicists are particularly well positioned to contribute their expertise to the process of carefully developing and communicating such messages. Additionally, as climate framing research and practice continue, it will be important for bioethicists to contribute to the creation of that project's nascent ethical standards. The discourse surrounding antibiotic resistance is posited as an example that can lend insight into how communicating a public health-framed message, including the participation of bioethicists, can help to override public skepticism about the findings of politically contentious scientific fields.

  14. Bioethical considerations about water fluoridation: a critical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Quinteros


    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the oral pathologies with greater burden of disease in the Chilean population. Fluoridation of drinking water has been used as a caries prevention strategy. However, its application as a public policy has been questioned since its implementation. The aim of this article is to analyze whether fluoridation of drinking water is a justified measure in reducing the incidence and prevalence of caries from the perspective of bioethics, taking into account the current evidence on its effectiveness. The arguments reviewed are based on the belief that water fluoridation is effective and, in general terms, ethically acceptable. A recent systematic review concludes that there is not enough evidence to support fluoridation as a public policy. There is a gap of knowledge that ought to be closed so that public health authorities can assess the significance of the intervention and make a democratic decision on its continuation or suspension based on scientific evidence. This decision should be informed and disseminated within the community.

  15. The bioethics of separating conjoined twins in plastic surgery. (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Gosain, Arun K; Becker, Devra


    The incidence of craniopagus twins approximates four to six per 10 million births. Although rare, surgical separation of conjoined twins poses significant technical and ethical challenges. The present report uses the case of craniopagus twins AD and TD to examine the bioethical issues faced by a multidisciplinary medical team in planning the separation of craniopagus twins. AD and TD are craniopagus twins conjoined at the head. TD's head is conjoined to the back of AD's head. Neurologically, AD has the dominant cerebral circulation. TD has two normal kidneys, whereas AD has none. AD depends on TD's renal function and, on separation, will require either a kidney transplant or lifelong dialysis. This case report reviews one approach to analyzing and solving complex ethical dilemmas in pediatric plastic surgery. The principles reviewed are (1) autonomy and informed consent, focusing especially on the role of children in the informed consent process; (2) beneficence and nonmaleficence, two intricately intertwined principles because separation could potentially cause irreversible harm to one twin while improving the quality of life for the other (as separation is not a life-saving procedure, is it ethical to perform a procedure with unknown surgical risk to improve children's quality of life?); and (3) justice (is it fair to allocate excessive medical resources for the twins' separation?). The present report explores the ethics behind such decisions with respect to the separation of conjoined twins.

  16. The hedgehog and the Borg: common morality in bioethics. (United States)

    Arras, John D


    In this commentary, I critically discuss the respective views of Gert and Beauchamp-Childress on the nature of so-called common morality and its promise for enriching ethical reflection within the field of bioethics. Although I endorse Beauchamp and Childress' shift from an emphasis on ethical theory as the source of moral norms to an emphasis on common morality, I question whether rouging up common morality to make it look like some sort of ultimate and universal foundation for morality, untouched by the dialectics of time and reflective equilibrium, was an equally good move. As for Gert's magisterial conception of common morality, I conclude that certain elements of his system are controversial at best and woefully inadequate at worst. He has a tendency to find in common morality what he himself put there, and his highly restricted conception of duties of assistance strikes this reader as ad hoc, inadequately defended, and unworthy of a project whose goal is to lessen the amount of misery in the world.

  17. Bioethics committee%生命伦理学委员会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国英; 邹和建; 伍蓉


    Bioethics committee is a decision-making and consulting organization which mainly reviews the studies and trials involved human participants and protects the welfare of participants according to Declaration of Helsinki. It is generally composed of the members whose disciplines are law, ethics, medicine and pharmacology. Recently, more and more ethics committees have been set up. However, the review quality is not uniform. To promote benign development of ethics committees in China, continuous training for the members of ethics committees and supervisor for the ethics committees are needed by related administrations.%生命伦理学委员会是从伦理学角度审查人体试验研究,保护受试者权益的决策咨询组织.该委员会一般由来自法学、伦理学、医学、药学等领域的专家学者组成,其审查遵循的重要依据是世界医学会制订的《赫尔基辛宣言》.近年来,伦理委员会快速发展,但各伦理委员会审查质量参差不齐.因此,相关部门尚需加强对伦理委员会成员的培训,并加强对伦理委员会的监管,方能促进我国伦理委员会的良性发展.

  18. Bioethical aspects of the management of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesús Sánchez Bouza


    Full Text Available Bioethical aspects related with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with AIDS are present in the Cuban strategy to fight the epidemic. Through the revision of the essentials and principles of Bioethics, we analyze the problems that doctors face when treating these patients and aspects related with education for health in the case of this disease. It also outlines the association between these principles and the disposition, manifested or not, of theses patients to be part of some researches. This infection should be the target of permanent analysis by the Bioethics due to the constant challenges that it represent for medical staff and for society, either for the prevention, treatment and care, or for other kids of actions. Cuba has exceptional results in this field.

  19. The future of bioethics: three dogmas and a cup of hemlock. (United States)

    Dawson, Angus


    In this paper I argue that bioethics is in crisis and that it will not have a future unless it begins to embrace a more Socratic approach to its leading assumptions. The absence of a critical and sceptical spirit has resulted in little more than a dominant ideology. I focus on three key issues. First, that too often bioethics collapses into medical ethics. Second, that medical ethics itself is beset by a lack of self-reflection that I characterize here as a commitment to three dogmas. Third, I offer a more positive perspective by suggesting how bioethics may benefit from looking towards public health ethics as a new source of inspiration and direction.

  20. Bioethical differences between drug addiction treatment professionals inside and outside the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendelevich Vladimir D


    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange, euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts.

  1. Reframing bioethics education for non-professionals: lessons from cognitive anthropology and education theory. (United States)

    Emmerich, Nathan


    It is increasingly common for universities to provide cross-curricular education in bioethics as part of contemporary attempts to produce 'global citizens.' In this article I examine three perspectives drawn from research into pedagogy that has been conducted from the perspective of cognitive anthropology and consider its relevance to bioethics education. I focus on: two metaphors of learning, participation and acquisition, identified by Sfard; the psychological notion of moral development; and the distinction between socialization and enculturation. Two of these perspectives have been particularly fruitful in understanding the processes of teaching and learning in a variety of domains. The third perspective has been developed in relation to the formal ethical education of medical students. I examine their relevance for 'non-professional' bioethics education suggesting that if we take seriously the idea that it is part of 'educating for citizenship' then the distinction between 'ethics' and 'politics' is blurred as such programmes aim at the development of student's political subjectivity.

  2. Does God Know Who Permits? :On Permission Principle of Engelhardt's Secular Bioethics%谁允许,天知否?——恩格尔哈特俗世生命伦理学允许原则辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Under the premise of post-modernity moral pluralism coexisting, Engelhardt creatively constructed the new theory of secular bioethics which does not provide the essential contents, but the procedures based on the theoretical foundation of permission principle. It is of great referential value for promoting the construction and development of Chinese bioethics to analyze the basis and connotation of secular bioethics's permission principle as well as discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the permission principle's theory.%在后现代多元道德境遇并存的前提下,恩格尔哈特以允许原则为理论基础,创造性地构建了一个全新的不提供实质内容的程序性的俗世生命伦理学理论框架.对俗世生命伦理学允许原则的建构依据及其内涵进行全面考察,进而多维度辨析允许原则理论成果的内容及其长短得失,对于促进我国生命伦理原则的建构与发展具有较强的借鉴意义.




    Azerbaijan is a modern, rapidly developing democratic country at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. The country is currently harmonizing its national legislation with international norms, and reforming its national scientific and medical. Higher standards of medical research and education will enhance public health and protect human rights to life and health that are specified in Azerbaijan Constitution. In order to raise its medical research and education to international standards, Azerbaijani scientists and authorities are studying the experience of other countries and taking measures to implement international standards and norms in the country’s national legislation. Cooperation with the WHO, UNESCO and other international and foreign organizations, both on regional and global level is creating steps to achieve this goal. These steps include, for example, creation of the Azerbaijan unit of the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and teaching bioethics based on UNESCO’s Bioethics Core Curriculum. Another step is providing research fellowship for young Azerbaijani professionals to study at leading medical research and educational centers around the world including Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital in the USA, and Koc University in Turkey. A complementary step is the development of local bioethical research, including its legal, ethical and scientific foundations. Adherence to ethical principles in different spheres of life is currently one of the most challenging social and professional issues, especially, this is true with the development of new medical technologies in recent decades and the development of new ethical and legal standards, issues involving different areas of health and medicine and their relation to human rights. Bioethics in Azerbaijan is developing as an important field that deals with universal moral principles within the context of both national laws and the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

  4. Infusing bioethics into biology and microbiology courses and curricula: a vertical approach. (United States)

    Jagger, Kathleen S; Furlong, Jack


    With the rise of biomedicine and biotechnology, there has been a corresponding growth in the need for better understanding of consequent ethical questions. Increasingly, biologists are being asked not only to offer technical clarifications but also to venture ethical opinions, for which most feel poorly equipped. This expectation puts pressure on biology instructors at the university level to provide biology majors the skills and experience to discuss with some confidence and competence bioethical issues which may arise in either the workplace or through public discourse in everyday contexts. Many fine curricular resources about bioethics are available for varied pedagogical purposes, but few target undergraduate biology or microbiology student audiences. When it occurs in the context of a course, bioethics instruction often is taught by non-biologists outside standard biology curricula. We propose that biologists should strive to "infuse" bioethical thinking into their courses and major curricula but not in such a way as merely to point at ethical problems, treating them at a surface level. We suggest what we call "vertical infusion": taking one bioethical issue per course and integrating this issue within the context of a relevant biological topic, challenging students to push their thinking beyond their initial intuitions toward underlying scientific and ethical principles. While the vertical approach lacks widespread coverage of ethical issues throughout a single course, it has the advantage of taking the bioethical dimension seriously and in intimate relation to contemporary discoveries in biology and to the biological principles, processes, or procedures that occasioned the ethical quandaries in the first place.

  5. Helen Flanders Dunbar, John Dewey, and clinical pragmatism: reflections on method in psychosomatic medicine and bioethics. (United States)

    Hart, Curtis W


    This article outlines the method utilized by physicians and major figures in the founding of Clinical Pastoral Education, Helen Flanders Dunbar, in her work of 1943, Psychosomatic Diagnosis, and relates it to the currently evolving approach in bioethics known as clinical pragmatism. It assesses Dewey's influence on both Dunbar in psychosomatic medicine and clinical pragmatism in bioethics, and illustrates the breadth of influence of the school of philosophical thought known as pragmatism with which Dewey's name and those of William James and Charles Sanders Pierce are most often identified.

  6. Identifying Sources of Clinical Conflict: A Tool for Practice and Training in Bioethics Mediation. (United States)

    Bergman, Edward J


    Bioethics mediators manage a wide range of clinical conflict emanating from diverse sources. Parties to clinical conflict are often not fully aware of, nor willing to express, the true nature and scope of their conflict. As such, a significant task of the bioethics mediator is to help define that conflict. The ability to assess and apply the tools necessary for an effective mediation process can be facilitated by each mediator's creation of a personal compendium of sources that generate clinical conflict, to provide an orientation for the successful management of complex dilemmatic cases.

  7. A response to Dubler's commentary on "surmounting elusive barriers: the case for bioethics mediation". (United States)

    Bergman, Edward J


    Dubler's commentary focuses on knowledge of clinical medicine and "institutional savvy" as pieces of the skill set required of bioethics mediators. Here, I describe why, as a practical matter, such requirements are unlikely to be achieved by a meaningful number of aspirants. Simultaneously, I examine the reasons why Dubler's criteria are inherently risk-laden and would be better addressed as a dialogue among experienced practitioners regarding the merits of alternative stylistic approaches, rather than as universal threshold criteria for the practice of bioethics mediation.

  8. IAB presidential address: bioethics in a globalized world: creating space for flourishing human relationships. (United States)

    Biller-Andorno, Nikola


    Bioethics in a globalized world is meeting a number of challenges - fundamentalism in its different forms, and a focus on economic growth neglecting issues such as equity and sustainability, being prominent among them. How well are we as bioethicists equipped to make meaningful contributions in these times? The paper identifies a number of restraints and proceeds to probe potential resources such as the capability approach, care ethics, cosmopolitanism, and pragmatism. These elements serve to outline a perspective that focuses on the preconditions for flourishing human relationships as a way to address bioethical challenges in a globalized world.

  9. [The religious convictions in the argumentation bioethics. Two different secularists perspectives: Sádaba and Habermas-Rawls]. (United States)

    Burgos Velasco, Juan Manuel


    This article analyses the position of two secularized theories on the role of religious beliefs in bioethical reasoning. The excluding laicism of Sádaba rejects the rationality of religious fact and extend a general suspicion about the bioethical reasoning of believer. Contrary, the open position of Habermas-Rawls considers reasonable religions as one of the typical comprehensive views of liberal State, encourage secularized citizens to value his contributions and urge to secular and, then, neutral, State not to impose to all citizens a secularized cosmo-vision. Only the second perspective put the bases for a fruitful and calm dialogue in the bioethical area.

  10. A syllabus for Jewish medical ethics in the context of general bioethics. (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Shaham, Dorith


    Since the beginning of medical history, ethics has interested medical practitioners. The subject has become particularly important in recent years due to the huge advancements in medicine and medical technology and has elicited much public interest. While international ethical principles and guidelines have been established, classical Jewish tradition has always placed great emphasis on bioethics. Prof. Avraham Steinberg's monumental Encyclopedia of Jewish Medical Ethics presents the subject comprehensively and in depth. We propose a bioethics syllabus, to be integrated into the medical curriculum in three stages: i) preclinical - covering basic ethical concepts and principles, relevant history, and ethical codes; ii) clinical - covering bioethical topics relating to the human life cycle; iii) prior to students' final examinations and further specialization - covering bioethical topics relating to their personal interests. Steinberg's Encyclopedia is an ideal basis for the development of a professional course, including Jewish traditional aspects. Such a course would provide future physicians with a varied cultural and intercultural background, help shape their image, and improve the quality of medical care.

  11. Ethics in the Work Environment: Applied Bioethics in the Hospital for Delta's Nursing Students. (United States)

    Plackowski, Linda C.

    In 1979, Delta College, in Michigan, established a bioethics requirement for all nursing students. This paper describes a project to teach one of the required ethics course to local hospitals to observe students while they work and discuss ethical dilemmas as they arose. Introductory sections discuss project rationale and procedures, indicating…

  12. Indiana Health Science Teachers: Their Human Genetics/Bioethics Educational Needs. (United States)

    Hendrix, Jon R.; And Others


    Results from a human genetics/bioethics needs assessment questionnaire (N = 124 out of 300) mailed to Indiana health teachers are reported. Genetic topics and human genetic diseases/defects included in health science instruction are listed in two tables. Responses to 16 science/society statements (and statements themselves) are also reported. (SK)

  13. A Survey of Bioethics Courses in U.S. Colleges and Universities (United States)

    Hendrix, Jon R.


    Data from questionnaires sent to every college and university in the United States ascertained that 26 percent of the 223 responding major institutions offered a bioethics course, most frequently presented by the biology department to medical students and taught most frequently by professors of ethics and philosophy background. Questionnaire and…

  14. High School Teaching of Bioethics in New Zealand, Australia, and Japan. (United States)

    Asada, Yukiko; Tsuzuki, Miho; Akiyama, Shiro; Macer, Nobuko Y.; Macer, Darryl R. J.


    Summarizes the results of an International Bioethics Education Survey conducted in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Compares knowledge and teaching of 15 selected topics with particular emphasis on the teaching of social, ethical, and environmental issues of in vitro fertilization, prenatal diagnosis, biotechnology, nuclear power, pesticides,…

  15. Playing God: the rock opera that endeavors to become a bioethics education tool. (United States)

    Takala, Tuija; Häyry, Matti; Laing, Laurence


    This article describes and introduces a new innovative tool for bioethics education: a rock opera on the ethics of genetics written by two academics and a drummer legend. The origin of the idea, the characters and their development, and the themes and approaches as well as initial responses to the music and the show are described, and the various educational usages are explored.

  16. Lessons Learned from Undergraduate Students in Designing a Science-Based Course in Bioethics (United States)

    Loike, John D.; Rush, Brittany S.; Schweber, Adam; Fischbach, Ruth L.


    Columbia University offers two innovative undergraduate science-based bioethics courses for student majoring in biosciences and pre-health studies. The goals of these courses are to introduce future scientists and healthcare professionals to the ethical questions they will confront in their professional lives, thus enabling them to strategically…

  17. The "Ethics Committee": A Practical Approach to Introducing Bioethics and Ethical Thinking (United States)

    Goodwin, Mark; Kramer, Cas; Cashmore, Annette


    Bioethics is an increasingly important part of the biosciences curriculum at school and in higher education, but few science teachers have much experience of teaching the subject in an engaging or interactive manner. This article sets out a session that allows students to practise the skills of ethical thinking and ethical debate in a relevant…

  18. Little Book, Big Waves: The Epistle of James and Global Stewardship in Bioethics

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    Lora Jean Brake


    Full Text Available At first glance the twenty-first century arena of biotechnology and bioethics seems worlds away from the practical concerns of the first century outlook of the New Testament book of James. A closer look, however, reveals that the issues that James addresses have applications to challenges in bioethics. This article will give an overview of James and examine James’ teaching on wealth, poverty, and generosity and its import for the issue of global stewardship in bioethics.  Stewardship concerns both a Christian’s care and management of time, talents, and treasures.  Faithful use of the resources God has given demonstrates the fruitful faith that James writes of in his epistle. The idea of global stewardship, though “stewardship” is grounded in a distinctly Christian ethic, reflects an emerging discussion in bioethics regarding the need to address the inequities present between the money and time spent on biotechnology in some of the world in proportion to the money spent on meeting the basic healthcare needs of the poor of the entire world.  This New Testament epistle gives clear indications of how the Christian is to view wealth and how the Christian is to respond to poverty.  James, though a comparatively small book, sends a crucial message across the years that should greatly impact how Christians view stewardship in terms of global healthcare needs. 

  19. Identity and status of the Italian National Bioethics Committee: contrasting paradigms (1990-2006). (United States)

    Incorvati, Giovanni


    So far the activities of the Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica (CNB) have been subject to desultory and fragmentary analyses, stuck to the paradigm (in the way Kuhn means it) which claims the division between the issues of "frontier bioethics" and those of "everyday bioethics" (and between the respective types of communication). According to the above mentioned paradigm, bioethics should just deal with the problems coming from the application of technological progress to extreme cases (which imply a type of communication internal to the scientific communities), and only subordinately with other issues, even if of a more general interest and widespread public involvement. Nonetheless, in the last years another paradigm has come out and it is emphasizing the importance of the interaction between the two models of bioethics and of a type of external communication not just limited to the scientific communities in the strict sense of the word, but based on "open opinions ". The present notes are supposed to be an introduction to a historical comprehension of the CNB activity and of its impact, in the light of the rising of the new paradigm and of the Italian adherence to the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe.

  20. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education. (United States)

    Mijaljica, Goran


    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours.

  1. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research. (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J


    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research.

  2. [Teaching bioethics in the secondary system in France]. (United States)

    Lavabre, Isabelle


    Bioethics is not a subject in the French school curriculum but it can be taught in secondary schools. I will first raise the problems I encountered in order to teach it and some possible solutions for teaching it within the French educational system. An experimental approach often appears irrefutable to students and this can be an obstacle or slow down their acceptance of an ethical approach which leads to questioning result sor exploring more than one answer. The study of an ethical problem requires an interdisciplinary approach which is not always easy to put in place in schools, but which has been helped by the latest reform of the lycle curriculum. Nevertheless, who will be responsible for it? And how? The experiment which I have led over the past 9 years in my school, the Lycle International of St. Germain en Laye, has led me to try to work alongside at least one colleague who is a teacher of Philosophy. A group of students made up of volunteers from the classes of lère and Tie (the last two years of high school),from all three options of the baccalauréat (Scientific, Economic and Literary) and from all the international sections to be found in the school (13 in all) was formed. Firstly they became acquainted with ethical questioning and then took greater control by debating these issues after doing individual research. They spoke for themselves and I gained much from their own ideas and reflections. Arranging contacts and debates with specialists in the field and with witnesses with experiences of these situations enabled the students to be confronted with concrete examples and to understand the human dimension and the daily life of those concerned. Giving their thoughts in written form or translating ethical questioning in other ways proceeded the sharing of these ideas and thoughts with others: either in their own school through debates and other media or from French specialists during the days of reflections organized by the CCNE. In my opinion, this

  3. Science and society: different bioethical approaches towards animal experimentation. (United States)

    Brom, Frans W A


    respect their integrity. By weighing these prima facie duties, the moral problem of animal experimentation exists in finding which duty actually has to be considered as the decisive duty. It will be argued that these three views, even though they will all justify animal experimentation to some extent, will do so in practice under different conditions. Many current conflicts regarding the use of animals for research may be better understood in light of the conflict between the three bioethical perspectives provided by these views.

  4. Autonomy, subject-relativity, and subjective and objective theories of well-being in bioethics. (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka


    Among the different approaches to questions of biomedical ethics, there is a view that stresses the importance of a patient's right to make her own decisions in evaluative questions concerning her own well-being. This approach, the autonomy-based approach to biomedical ethics, has usually led to the adoption of a subjective theory of well-being on the basis of its commitment to the value of autonomy and to the view that well-being is always relative to a subject. In this article, it is argued that these two commitments need not lead to subjectivism concerning the nature of well-being.

  5. Estratégias de enfrentamento dos dilemas bioéticos gerados pela violência na escola Coping strategies to bioethical dilemmas generated by school violence

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    Flavia Pedro dos Anjos Santos


    underlie health education, on bioethical issues in the school violence field. It consists of a critical-reflexive literature review by accessing the Virtual Health Library (VHL database, using the keywords: "violence and bioethics", and "violence at school", considering the studies published from 2004 to 2009. We also surveyed Paulo Freire's and Pedro Demo's works, theorists of Libertarian Education, which led us define and discuss three thematic areas: 1 bioethics as a reflective instrument for the moral values resumption in the society, 2 school as an ethics and citizenship practice creator, 3 health education as a contributor to coping with violence at school. We believe that school violence involves bioethical issues that should be the target of educational interventions in the liberating perspective, in order to generate reflections on the negative character of school violence, both for teaching and learning, as to the sickening of the actors involved in this issue. Health professionals may establish the intersectoriality with the education and contribute in preventing violence at school, through health education actions, mobilizing citizens for a society committed to promoting life. And the education professionals must be receptive and co-participants in the education and health intersectorial process.

  6. Who Guards the Guardians? Ian Kennedy, Bioethics and the ‘Ideology of Accountability’ in British Medicine (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan


    Summary This article charts the history of bioethics in Britain through the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy. From the late 1970s, Kennedy claimed that external oversight, which he termed ‘bioethics’, was needed to make medicine accountable to patients and the public. I believe these arguments provide a window onto the historical factors that generated the demand for bioethics, and help us determine why it became influential in recent decades. I detail how Kennedy's argument resonated with the Conservative enthusiasm for audit and consumer choice in the 1980s. Contrary to traditional portrayals of bioethics as a critique of medicine, I also show that Kennedy promised it would benefit doctors by improving decision making and maintaining public confidence. This analysis reframes bioethics as an important constituent of the ‘audit society’: fulfilling the neo-liberal demand for oversight and the medical demand for legitimacy.

  7. [Ethical problems experienced by dentists: dealing with bioethics to wide the view on the daily professional practice]. (United States)

    Amorim, Adriana Gomes; Souza, Elizabethe Cristina Fagundes de


    Bioethics strives for humanization in health services along with promoting the rights of patients. In view of the lack of dental research dealing with this topic, the present study was undertaken to identify, from the viewpoint of dental surgeons, ethical problems experienced in dental practice. It is a descriptive exploratory investigation within a qualitative approach. Empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews performed with 15 dental surgeons in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The results indicate that many of the ethical problems coincide with infringements of the norms and rules of the Dental Code of Ethics, confirming a dental ethic acquired during professional formation and therefore, inadequate for solving the problems that emerge in professional practice. We concluded that the ethical problems identified in professional practice need to be understood beyond the dental dimension, towards a human approach. It is therefore necessary to incorporate health care management technologies into health practices which imply recognizing the different dimensions that surround individuals and their health needs.

  8. Creating the ‘ethics industry': Mary Warnock, in vitro fertilization and the history of bioethics in Britain


    Wilson, Duncan


    Recent decades have seen a shift in the management and discussion of biomedicine. Issues once considered by doctors and scientists are now handled by a diverse array of participants, including philosophers, lawyers, theologians and lay representatives. This new approach, known as ‘bioethics', has become the norm in regulatory committees and public debate. In this article, I argue that bioethics emerged as a valued enterprise in Britain during the 1980s because it fulfilled, and linked, the co...

  9. [Resuscitational aspects of evolution of history of death teaching and interpretation of concept of death as bioethical category]. (United States)

    Akhaladze, V M


    The aim of the research was to determine the role of resuscitation science and practice in development of new trends in thanatology; and to determine the significance of integrated interdisciplinary approach to notion "death" as "biological, medical, and bioethical" categories. The author discusses nine distinct concepts of death and concludes that only complex scientific approach can enrich the knowledge about the notion of death. The list of different aspects of interdisciplinary bioethical definition of notion "death" was developed.

  10. Review of Feminist Bioethics At the Center, On the Margins, edited by Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel E. Baldwin-Ragaven, Petya Fitzpatrick

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    Sander-Staudt Maureen


    Full Text Available Abstract The anthology, Feminist Bioethics, edited by Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel E. Baldwin-Ragaven, and Petya Fitzpatrick, examines how feminist bioethics theoretically and methodologically challenges mainstream bioethics, and whether these approaches are useful for exploring difference in other contexts. It offers critical conceptual analyses of "autonomy", "universality", and "trust", and covers topics such as testing for hereditary cancer, prenatal selection for sexual orientation, midwifery, public health, disability, Indigenous research reform in Australia, and China's one child policy.

  11. Repaving the Road of Good Intentions: LGBT Health Care and the Queer Bioethical Lens. (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance; Fiester, Autumn


    As the saying goes, "The road to hell is paved with good intentions." And in the recent burst of clinical attention being paid to the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients, good intentions abound. But while this long-overdue interest in LGBT health care aims to highlight important gaps and bring into relief serious issues in health care delivery for LGBT persons, such work can inadvertently reinforce both the marginalization of sexual minorities and the cultural norms related to sexuality, gender identity, and the conventional family. To ensure that positive outcomes for LGBT patients are inextricably paired with those noble intentions, we advocate for a new, queer bioethics-a methodology of scholastic, bioethical, and critical scrutiny that not only addresses the needs of LGBT persons in health care settings but also considers the perspectives, histories, and feelings of such parties.

  12. Using a Scoring Rubric to Assess the Writing of Bioethics Students. (United States)

    Stoddard, Hugh A; Labrecque, Cory A; Schonfeld, Toby


    Educators in bioethics have struggled to find valid and reliable assessments that transcend the "reproduction of knowledge" to target more important skill sets. This manuscript reports on the process of developing and grading a minimal-competence comprehensive examination in a bioethics master's degree program. We describe educational theory and practice for the creation and deployment of scoring rubrics for high-stakes performance assessments that reduce scoring inconsistencies. The rubric development process can also benefit the program by building consensus among stakeholders regarding program goals and student outcomes. We describe the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy as a mechanism for rubric design and provide an example of how we applied that taxonomy to define pass/fail cut scores. Details about domains of assessment and writing descriptors of performance are also presented. Despite the laborious work required to create a scoring rubric, we found the effort to be worthwhile for our program.

  13. Bioethics as a second-order discipline: who is not a bioethicist? (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M


    A dispute exists about whether bioethics should become a new discipline with its own methods, competency standards, duties, honored texts, and core curriculum. Unique expertise is a necessary condition for disciplines. Using the current literature, different views about the sort of expertise that might be unique to bioethicists are critically examined to determine if there is an expertise that might meet this requirement. Candidates include analyses of expertise based in "philosophical ethics," "casuistry," "atheoretical or situation ethics," "conventionalist relativism," "institutional guidance," "regulatory guidance and compliance," "political advocacy," "functionalism," and "principlism." None succeed in identifying a unique area of expertise for successful bioethicists that could serve as a basis for making it a new discipline. Rather expertise in bioethics is rooted in many professions, disciplines and fields and best understood as a second-order discipline.

  14. Bioethics and its dimensions in the actions of the health professional.

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    Orlando Sánchez Machado


    Full Text Available In the article it is made a historical recount of the evolution of Bioethics from the origins of this discipline in the United States of North America, by Van Rensselaer Potter, medical oncologist of the University of Wisconsin, and their ulterior development in the Latin America as well as their development in Cuba... Emphasis is made in the necessity of contributing, decisively, to the reinforcement of the national identity, the social commitment, the love to the university, and the invigoration of social ethical values, the construction of values ethical professionals evidenced in acting with bigger civic responsibility and professional. Some reflections are exposed about the dimensions of the Bioethics that should characterize the doctor's professional formation in their performance contexts whose mission is the preparation of professionals able to assure the historical continuity of the Cuban system of health.

  15. Clinical bioethics integration, sustainability, and accountability: the Hub and Spokes Strategy. (United States)

    MacRae, S; Chidwick, P; Berry, S; Secker, B; Hébert, P; Shaul, R Zlotnik; Faith, K; Singer, P A


    The "lone" clinical bioethicist working in a large, multisite hospital faces considerable challenges. While attempting to build ethics capacity and sustain a demanding range of responsibilities, he or she must also achieve an acceptable level of integration, sustainability, and accountability within a complex organisational structure. In an effort to address such inherent demands and to create a platform towards better evaluation and effectiveness, the Clinical Ethics Group at the Joint Centre for Bioethics at the University of Toronto is implementing the Hub and Spokes Strategy at seven hospitals. The goal of the Hub and Spokes Strategy is to foster an ethical climate and strengthen ethics capacity broadly throughout healthcare settings as well as create models in clinical bioethics that are excellent and effective.


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    Segura Castillo Mario


    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo pretendo presentar concepciones a cerca del abordaje de la bioética, desde las teorías del caos y del pensamiento complejo. La bioética es un modo de estar en el dominio del consenso, de coordinaciones de sentires, que requiere de una gran plasticidad, desde lo humano, comprometido con su historia y las futuras generaciones. Además, concibo la aprendiencia como un proceso bioético de vida, en la convivencia, en ese lenguajear perpetúo, que permite la aceptación del otro y la otra. En ese sentido, todos los seres, que crecemos en el lenguaje, somos capaces de aprender y de reconocer nuestros propios errores, como los que hemos cometido con la naturaleza, en todas sus formas. Por lo tanto, una idea personal de la bioética es aprehender los sentires y los pensamientos, con compromiso, en el devenir sostenible de la Tierra.Abstract:In this essay I try to present conceptions which deal with bioethics, from the chaos theories and complex thinking. Bioethics is a mode of being dominated by consensus, the coordination of feelings, which require great flexibility from the human, committed to its history and future generations. Furthermore, I conceive learning as a bioethical process of life, within coexistence, in this perpetual language which permits the acceptation of the other. In this sense, all beings, we who grow up with language, are capable of learning and recognizing our own mistakes, and those which we have committed in nature, and in all forms. Therefore, a personal idea of bioethics is to seize feelings and thoughts, with commitment, in order for earth’s sustainability to come about.

  17. Bioethics methods in the ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project literature. (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair


    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations).

  18. In the Context of Bioethics and Biopolitics with Keeping Track of the Helsinki Declaration

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    Ümit Yaşar Öztoprak


    Full Text Available Bioethics and biopolitics derive from ethics, which con­stitutes their denominator but their choice and the appli­cation of the moral principles ranges from being simply different to being outright contradictory. In order to under­stand the interaction between bioethics and biopolitics, which has been repeatedly mentioned, we believe that it is important to examine the Declaration of Helsinki. When the revisions of the declaration are analyzed thoroughly, especially when the differences between the 2008 and 2013 revisions are examined, it is possible to see how bioethics and politics contradict and/or overlap each other in the world of clinical research. In 1952 ethics commission was established under WMA (World Medical Association, in 1961 an outline of text about use of human subjects and researches on human being was created to be a guideline for physicians. This text has been declared at the 18th General Assembly of the WMA (Helsinki 1964. In our study, in the light of this document, we will evaluate with a critical perspective, the revision in 2013 and the WMA’s biopolitics concerns relating to reserch on human subject. We will scent out the traces of the capitalism on the health and health care era. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 111-119

  19. Bioethics, biolaw, (bio)constitutional interpretation and biopatents under the light of Brazilian law. (United States)

    Myszczuk, Ana Paula; de Meirelles, Jussara Maria Leal


    The article briefly analyzes the concepts of the Bioethics, the Biolaw, the Bio-Constitution and the Biopatent. In order to do so, we will check some principles of the Bioethics, the newly added term the Biolaw, the concept of the Bio-Constitution or the Constitutional Biolaw, all used as means to solve conflicts of bio-juridical norms. Besides it formulates some questions about biopatents. It is here understood that the 1988 Brazilian Federal Constitution chose the human dignity principle as the core to be used in any Biomedicine related matter and this Law acts to bring some tools into a bio-constitutional interpretation. Among those tools are the fundamental rights and the protection of the environment. Some juridical limits to the private appropriation of the human genome, via patenting, are examined. The article considers the requirements imposed by the Law Act no 9279/96 (novelty, invention and industrial use), as well as some Brazilian constitutional dispositions concerning biopatents. In the conclusion, we argue that the Bioethics and the Biolaw principles are valuable instruments to support juridical decisions and to guide the establishment of possible limits on the use and/or development of the Biomedicine. Consequently when interpreting a concrete case, besides having a multidisciplinary analysis, we have refreshed classic juridical concepts. This is achieved by rethinking juridical fundamentals and opening up the space for the conceptualization of a Bio-Constitution interpretation.

  20. A theory of international bioethics: the negotiable and the non-negotiable. (United States)

    Baker, Robert


    The preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal presents the argument that "moral fundamentalism," the position that international bioethics rests on "basic" or "fundamental" moral prinicples that are universally accepted in all eras and cultures, collapses under a variety of multicultural and postmodern critiques. The present article looks to the contractarian tradition of Hobbes and Locke -- as reinterpreted by David Gauthier, Robert Nozick, and John Rawls -- for an alternative justification for international bioethics. Drawing on the central themes of this tradition, it is argued that international bioethics can be rationally reconstructed as a negotiated moral order that respects culturally and individually defined areas of nonnegotiability. Further, the theory of a negotiated moral order is consistent with traditional ideals about human rights, is flexible enough to absorb the genuine insights of multiculturalism and postmodernism, and yet is strong enough to justify transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments, including the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg. This theory also is consistent with the history of the ethics of human subjects experimentation and offers insights into current controversies such as the controversy over changing the consent rule for experiments in emergency medicine and the controversy over exempting certain clinical trials of inexpensive treatments for preventing the perinatal transmission of AIDS from the ethical standards of the sponsoring country.

  1. Dealing with bioethical dilemmas: A survey and analysis of responses from ministers in the Reformed Churches in South Africa

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    Magdalena (Leentie C. de Lange


    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements in Bioethics have been rapid and incremental, leaving little time for Christian ethicists to reflect or develop a coherent methodological approach. To assess the situation in the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA, a bioethical questionnaire was developed and administered during the synod in 2009. Three practical questions served as point of departure, viz. which bioethical issues confronted ministers in their work environment, which value judgement trends are evident when counselling members of their congregations and what theoretical frameworks or resources do they call upon when reflecting on these difficult situations? The survey consisted of 19 questions with several subquestions that sought demographic information to determine the population and information about bioethical issues confronting them, methodological strategies they apply and how they think they can contribute to the resolution of any such bioethical dilemmas. The results were tabulated and it was concluded that recent advancements in biotechnology cannot be ignored or dealt with in a piecemeal fashion any longer, either by the RCSA or its ministers. The need for clarity and analysis of the principles underlying those theories that guide or should guide their decision-making and pastoral care in dealing with bioethical dilemmas was emphasised. The findings highlighted the need for appropriate courses in Bioethics to be taught during initial theological training, as well as the need to keep the debate alive by offering workshops, seminars and short courses for practicing ministers to enhance awareness and allay fears and uncertainties in this very dynamic and morally challenging field of human and scientific endeavour.

  2. 从生命伦理到生命法%From bioethics to bio-law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The development of biotechnology since the second half of the twentieth century has brought great benefit to human beings, while it also aroused many legal as well as ethical problems, which makes it necessary for bioethics and law to involve in. During the development of biotechnology, bioethics plays a leading role in ensuring the healthy development of biotechnology through its special mechanism. Bioethics is different from bio-law, which makes it hard to assume solely the task of leading the development of biotechnology healthily, but should cooperate with bio-law. In a modern biotechnological time, bio-law plays an irreplaceable role. For this reason, there has arose a movement of legalization of bioethics froml970's in many countries, which have enacted many a bio-law and thus changed the history of bioethics supervising respectively in biotechnology while made laws involving in. The governance of biotechnology of human is sure to transfer from the pattern of relying on bioethics only to the pattern of ruling by bioethics as well as law. There are some deficiencies in China's biolaws, which make it difficult for the laws to meet the need of the development of biotechnology and should be perfected.%20世纪下半叶以来,生命科技的发展极大地增进了人类的福祉,但也引生了大量伦理与法律问题,使得生命科技的伦理调整与法律规范成为必然.在生命科技发展的过程中,生命伦理发挥了重要的引领作用,它以其自身特定的机制保障着生命科技的健康发展.生命伦理与生命法存在着明显区别,这些区别使得生命伦理在现代生命科技社会中无法独立承担引领生命科技健康发展的使命,而必须与生命法共同在生命科技社会治理中发挥作用.在现代生命科技社会中,生命法具有不可取代的重要作用,正是基于此,20世纪70年代以来,各国兴起了一场生命伦理法律化的运动,纷纷强化了本国的生命法制建设,改

  3. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

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    Dedi Afandi


    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  4. Possibility of Bioethical Consensus and Its Limitation%生命伦理学的共识是否可能及其限度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑林娟; 杨同卫


    Bioethical issues are endless recently, arid the key to solve these issues is whether we can find a bioethical standard which can be accepted by everyone.Therefore,the paper summarizes two different standpoints about bioethical consensus, probes into the foundation of bioethical consensus, and analyzes the applied scope of bioethical consensus.%当前关于生命伦理学的问题层出不穷,解决这些问题的关键在于能否找到一个大家普遍认可的生命伦理学标准.为此,通过梳理人们对生命伦理学共识的两种不同的态度,考察了生命伦理学共识成立的条件,并对生命伦理学共识的应用范围进行分析.

  5. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial. (United States)

    Grant, Jenna M


    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics.

  6. [Bioethics and biomedical experiment evolution from Alkmaion to Pavlov. Dedicated to 160 years since I.P. Pavlov's birthday]. (United States)

    Kopaladze, R A


    Ethic aspects of biomedical experiment evolution from Alkmaion to Pavlov, are analysed. The history of reflexes in the paradigm of mechanitsism and antropomorphism is reinterpreted. It is emphasized that animal life and their behaviour exceed the bounds of mechanitsizm. It is grounded the necessity of humane treating living organisms. The theory of conditioned reflexes and the method of physiological synthesis are considered in the context of bioethics. It is shown that Pavlov's methodological approaches are in correspondence with the modern principles of bioethics of scientific animal experiments.

  7. [Science fiction and the Brave New World: predictions fulfilled in our century and bioethical considerations]. (United States)

    Santos, Ana Carolina Clemente Dos; Amorim Neto, Thomaz Pereira de; Goes, Andrea Carla de Souza


    The speed with which science generates results in modern society requires reflection on the limits of scientific progress. This is the foundation of Brave New World, a book published by Aldous Huxley in 1932 that portrays a future technological society along the lines of Fordism. This article establishes a relationship between our current technocratic society and that described by Huxley, discussing the viability of the technical and biological aspects of the manipulations narrated in the book in light of current knowledge. Some bioethical considerations with respect to the procedures 'invented' by the author - and which are already or could be developed in modern society - will also be addressed.

  8. [Towards social eugenics. Ideology and bioethics in the construction of the social policy]. (United States)

    Fernández Riquelme, Sergio


    The social eugenics is the real face of the biomedical application of an ideological paradigm, self-styled like "progressive", that claims the radical transformation of the western society from laicist and utilitarians positions. This article tries to decipher the historical roots, the bioethical language and the political - social implications of this paradigm, which questions the essential dignity of any human life in benefit of "new rights", constructed ex professo. For it, it exposes three analytical dimensions of his "historical possibilities" (retrospective, perspective and Forward studies), taking as an example the role of the social Policy, and especially, the doctrinal and institutional paradoxes of the "Welfare state" in Spain.

  9. [Bioethical reflections on ill-considered care due to an early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease]. (United States)

    Buxó, M Jesús; Casado, María


    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease raises important bioethical issues. In the interval between early disease detection and symptom onset, there is a time in which the patient's autonomy, privacy, and dignity may be undermined by certain healthcare measures or by family care and support. These measures may eventually turn patients into an object of care, preventing them from accepting the disease, developing an identity, and rearranging their living spaces. Every effort should be made to ensure that care does not become compassionate harassment or an invasive act, annulling the patient's autonomy, identity, and self-determination.

  10. Stakeholder engagement analysis - a bioethics dilemma in patient-targeted intervention: patients with temporomandibular joint disorders. (United States)

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Demerjian, Gary; Jan, Allison; Sama, Nateli; Nguyen, Mia; Du, Angela; Chiappelli, Francesco


    Modern health care in the field of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing is grounded in fundamental philosophy and epistemology of translational science. Recently in the U.S major national initiatives have been implemented in the hope of closing the gaps that sometimes exist between the two fundamental components of translational science, the translational research and translational effectiveness. Subsequent to these initiatives, many improvements have been made; however, important bioethical issues and limitations do still exist that need to be addressed. One such issue is the stakeholder engagement and its assessment and validation. Federal, state and local organizations such as PCORI and AHRQ concur that the key to a better understanding of the relationship between translational research and translational effectiveness is the assessment of the extent to which stakeholders are actively engaged in the translational process of healthcare. The stakeholder engagement analysis identifies who the stakeholders are, maps their contribution and involvement, evaluates their priorities and opinions, and accesses their current knowledge base. This analysis however requires conceptualization and validation from the bioethics standpoint. Here, we examine the bioethical dilemma of stakeholder engagement analysis in the context of the person-environment fit (PE-fit) theoretical model. This model is an approach to quantifying stakeholder engagement analysis for the design of patient-targeted interventions. In our previous studies of Alzheimer patients, we have developed, validated and used a simple instrument based on the PE-fit model that can be adapted and utilized in a much less studied pathology as a clinical model that has a wide range of symptoms and manifestations, the temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the jaw joint endowed with sensory and motor innervations that project from within the central nervous system and its dysfunction can


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Donev


    Full Text Available The ethics in economy is not only a corrector, but also must be initiator if we want to achieve essence of our existence - the human being as “Homo ethicus”, as well as, which is more important for mankind - to achieve a human being as “Homo homine ethica ethicus est”. This remark points on two things. First: we came to the stage where we become aware about the fact that our economies are dehumanized. The second: that’s the reason why we must return to ethics and pull out from it that universal values which will make the managers of natural recourses more ethically awarded, so they will be able to start managing production without endangering bio potentials anymore. Previous remark lead us to conclusion that, no matter if the idiom “business ethics” is oxymoron or not, the present ethics is more a list of rules of conduction or, more precisely, etiquette. This clearly points that this kind of ethics of economy and in economy is not adoptive to the imperative of Bioethics: Don’t misuse recourses if you want to feed yourself and those for which you create the existence! This is so because always when we talk about ethics and ethicizing of those which managing the base of existence, de facto, are discussions about choosing the appropriate model of capitalism. The problem of these “discussions” is that we almost always forget to explain: is the chosen model of capitalization of society applicable considering the local specifics and needs of community? Therefore, the imperative of Bioethics, in this context, is to teach the ethics how to think about bio resource and bio heritage, even if we stop talk of some kinds of ethics and ethicizing of economies and of those which managing with it, because if we reconsider the reactions of the population, it is clear that they are seek of talking about it. But also, it’s recognizable the fact that they who talks just show that the essential thinking about Bioethics is absent and that the

  12. Solidarity, rights and social welfare in the NHS--resisting the tide of bioethics? (United States)

    Newdick, Christopher


    What are social welfare rights? On the one hand, Rawls, Nozick and Dworkin emphasise individual rights rather than community interests. On the other, the idea of "solidarity" is so imprecise and contentious, that it offers a poor foundation for a theory of collective rights. This article analyses the nature and content of rights to solidarity via the experience of resource allocation in the National Health Service in the U.K.. Contrary to popular currents of contemporary bioethics, it argues for a stronger sense of institutional ethics capable of balancing individual claims to substantive rights with the need for solidarity and social cohesion in the community as a whole.

  13. Enhancing who? Enhancing what? Ethics, bioethics, and transhumanism. (United States)

    Koch, Tom


    Transhumanists advance a "posthuman" condition in which technological and genetic enhancements will transform humankind. They are joined in this goal by bioethicists arguing for genetic selection as a means of "enhancing evolution," improving if not also the species then at least the potential lives of future individuals. The argument of both, this paper argues, is a new riff on the old eugenics tune. As ever, it is done in the name of science and its presumed knowledge base. As ever, the result is destructive rather than instructive, bad faith promoted as high ideal. The paper concludes with the argument that species advancement is possible but in a manner thoroughly distinct from that advanced by either of these groups.

  14. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

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    Miguel A Faria


    Full Text Available In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists′ and the Nazi doctors′ dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the ′collective′ or ′greater good.′ Thus in the 20 th century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine.

  15. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics? (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A


    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists' and the Nazi doctors' dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the 'collective' or 'greater good.' Thus in the 20(th) century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine.

  16. Between Relativism and Imperialism: Navigating Moral Diversity in Cross-Cultural Bioethics. (United States)

    Beck, Daniel


    The need for explicit theoretical reflection on cross-cultural bioethics continues to grow as the spread of communication technologies and increased human migration has made interactions between medical professionals and patients from different cultural backgrounds much more common. I claim that this need presents us with the following dilemma. On the one hand, we do not want to operate according to an imperialist ethical framework that denies and silences the legitimacy of cultural values other than our own. On the other hand, we do not want to backslide into a form of cultural relativism that is unable to critically appraise cultural practices that are harmful, unjust, or oppressive. I examine two prominent attempts - the principlism of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress and the Contractarianism of Robert Baker - to frame cross-cultural bioethics between these two extremes and argue that both approaches have significant flaws. The principlist approach fails to provide a non-question begging way to identify cross-cultural norms that does not already assume the universal legitimacy of moral principles dominant in North American society. Baker's contractarianism cannot grapple with the realities of political power imbalances that often characterize cross-cultural moral disputes. I suggest that a naturalized feminist framework, though not free of its own theoretical difficulties, provides the best alternative for approaching moral diversity respectfully and critically.

  17. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article. (United States)

    Badulescu, Daniel; Badulescu, Alina


    Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner.

  18. Bioethical responsibilities of the health authority in health care and biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Salinas


    Full Text Available The reflection on bioethical contents of health policies and their effects on the demands for social justice has been a preferred concern of those who have driven the health reforms that were behind the creation of the National Health Service and, more recently, the regime of health guarantees. In the course of the years, the concern for the vindication of individual rights in the context of health care and research has joined to citizen demands for equitable access to health actions. For this purpose, in 2006 and 2012, specific laws addressing these matters were enacted and in the last year, regulations that make them operative emerged and are being implemented. The wording of the articles of both laws, in the effort to rescue individual rights, raises an imbalance in some respects, with regard to the social impact of their implementation. In certain subjects, its provisions run counter to existing codes of professional ethics in the country and in others; its implementation allows the privatization of the process of ethical review of pharmacological research, which was restricted to public health services. The absence of starting up of the National Bioethics Commission, pending since 2006, has prevented the creation of a pluralistic spaTce for deliberation on these issues and others as provided by law.

  19. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Badulescu


    Full Text Available Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services, and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner.

  20. Towards a Medicine of the Invisible: bioethics and relationship in "The Little Prince". (United States)

    Colucci, Massimiliano; Pegoraro, Renzo


    The Little Prince is one of the most famous fables. In this paper, we attempt to look at three bioethical issues through the Little Prince's eyes: the end-of-life context, the patient-physician relationship and prevention/precaution. The fable gives us the basis for a perspective we have called 'Medicine of the Invisible', which is value-focused. The Little Prince suggests that we seek the invisible-the "thing that is important", the "matters of consequence", even on a gnoseological and epistemological level-as a new type of 'clinical data' which may help to make healthcare more ethical and effective. However, this invisible is attainable only within a relationship, in which the physician needs to be tamed by the patient and the patient needs to be tamed by the physician-each one becoming responsible for the other, each one becoming himself through the dialogue with the other. Responsibility is also projected towards the future, against those threats to life that are still unseen and unknown: owning a part of the world entails the ethical imperative to act, in order to safeguard life. But, without a relationship-saturated with lived time, shared experiences, and individual's uniqueness-no meaning and no value can be given. For this reason, the Medicine of the Invisible reminds bioethics that "the thing that is important is the thing that is not seen".

  1. Application and adaptation of Symphonology Bioethical Theory (SBT in pastoral care practice

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    M.M. Khechane


    Full Text Available In an environment which is ethically and from a human rights point of view overly sensitive and in which interculturism is becoming more and more a norm, pastoral care practitioners need to be committed to providing services that are ethical, intercultural and respecting of patients’ rights. This article demonstrates how application of the Symphonology Bioethical Theory (SBT as the framework for practice in pastoral care and counselling can help Pastoral Care Practitioners (PCP to be ethical while upholding patients’ human rights, and it can also help to bridge the intercultural chasm while simultaneously explaining the rationale for the practice. Symphonology is a context-driven, ethical decision- making model guiding holistic interaction between patients and PCPs. The Symphonological decision-making matrix is based on a practitioner-patient agreement for pastoral care that emphasizes patient preferences, pastoral psychological and theological knowledge, the pastoral care content and the context of the situation. The goal of the PCP is to ethically incarnate the divine presence and thus to bring about hope and emancipation to the patient using the bioethical standards of autonomy, freedom, objectivity, self-assertion, benevolence and fidelity.

  2. Bioethical – Theological and Legal approach in genetic testing of adult persons

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    George Katsimigas


    Full Text Available Thorough genetic testing gives possibility's diagnosis of genetic diseases or identity individuals, who genetic predisposed for disease outbreak Aims: To present/identify the ethical and religious issues, which arise from the application of genetic testing in humans. Furthermore, the principles from the European and Greek legislation regarding genetic testing will be discussed. Materials & Methods: A literature review based on both review and research literature, conducted during the period of (1993-2010, derived from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ΙΑΤΡΟΤΕΚ databases using as key words: Bioethics, genetic testing, bioethics, access, genetic information, orthodox ethics, Legislation. Results: Genetic testing for disease prevention is of primary importance. The main ethical concerns however, are related to the dissemination/ disclosure and use of this information from insurance companies, healthcare authorities, scientists, forensic departments/services and employers. Similarly, the orthodox religion accepts the use of genetic testing for the prevention and treatment of diseases as long as there is no break of confidentiality. Finally, considering the legal issues, it is apparent that genetic information is regarded as personal information and as such it is protected from the national (Greek and international law. Conclusions: It is necessary to ensure that the public authorities protect the rights of their citizens regarding genetic testing and all insurance companies, employers, schools etc. should not be allowed to have access to genetic information. Such an approach will ensure that social discrimination, obstructions or other inequalities between people on the basis of genetic information is avoided.

  3. [Bioethical responsibilities of the health authority in health care and biomedical research]. (United States)

    Salinas, Rodrigo A; Fuenzalida, Max C


    The reflection on bioethical contents of health policies and their effects on the demands for social justice has been a preferred concern of those who have driven the health reforms that were behind the creation of the National Health Service and, more recently, the regime of health guarantees. In the course of the years, the concern for the vindication of individual rights in the context of health care and research has joined to citizen demands for equitable access to health actions. For this purpose, in 2006 and 2012, specific laws addressing these matters were enacted and in the last year, regulations that make them operative emerged and are being implemented. The wording of the articles of both laws, in the effort to rescue individual rights, raises an imbalance in some respects, with regard to the social impact of their implementation. In certain subjects, its provisions run counter to existing codes of professional ethics in the country and in others; its implementation allows the privatization of the process of ethical review of pharmacological research, which was restricted to public health services. The absence of starting up of the National Bioethics Commission, pending since 2006, has prevented the creation of a pluralistic spaTce for deliberation on these issues and others as provided by law.

  4. The Bioethics in Technological Age%科技时代的生命伦理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the technological age, people in the fierce technological competition and the fanatical pursuit of profit, often ignore the common interests of mankind. To sum up, these are bioethics issues. Bioethical issues related to the vital interests of each ind%进入科技时代,人们在激烈的科技竞争、狂热追逐利润过程中,经常忽视人类共同的利益。这些归根到底都是生命伦理问题,关乎每个个体的切身利益。只有对科技做出正确的伦理引导,科技才不会滑向人类的反面。用人伦道德来限制科技经济发展的盲目性的同时,更须不断推进法制的健全,使生命伦理原则法制化。我们不仅需要马克思主义理论武装,还需要儒家思想醇关处事风范,使我们生命伦理超出个体利益的局限,走向生命意识的升华。

  5. From laboratories to chambers of parliament and beyond: producing bioethics in France and Romania. (United States)

    Bretonnière, Sandrine


    In a European context marked by heterogeneous Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) practices, this article will elucidate and compare the norm elaboration processes pertaining to ART in France and Romania. Using an experimental five-phase model encompassing experimentation, excesses, social mobilization, legislation and contestation, I will examine the processes linking micro (everyday medical practices), meso (institutional regulation) and macro (legislation) levels of ART bioethics in the two countries since the 1980s. ART has developed in France and Romania on different time frames, and Romania's management of ART is decisively influenced by Ceauşescu's pro-natalist policy. However, I will show how the two countries share similar trajectories along the proposed model's first three phases of norm elaboration, and, in recent years, how both have witnessed the emergence of social actors' claims for a more liberal and state-sponsored access to ART, requiring a redefinition of bioethics in line with reproductive social justice at national levels. This is fed by contemporary medical practices and social values, and an increasing transnational interconnectedness between social actors.

  6. Networking Ethics: A Survey of Bioethics Networks Across the U.S. (United States)

    Fausett, Jennifer Kleiner; Gilmore-Szott, Eleanor; Hester, D Micah


    Ethics networks have emerged over the last few decades as a mechanism for individuals and institutions over various regions, cities and states to converge on healthcare-related ethical issues. However, little is known about the development and nature of such networks. In an effort to fill the gap in the knowledge about such networks, a survey was conducted that evaluated the organizational structure, missions and functions, as well as the outcomes/products of ethics networks across the country. Eighteen established bioethics networks were identified via consensus of three search processes and were approached for participation. The participants completed a survey developed for the purposes of this study and distributed via SurveyMonkey. Responses were obtained from 10 of the 18 identified and approached networks regarding topic areas of: Network Composition and Catchment Areas; Network Funding and Expenses; Personnel; Services; and Missions and Accomplishments. Bioethics networks are designed primarily to bring ethics education and support to professionals and hospitals. They do so over specifically defined areas-states, regions, or communities-and each is concerned about how to stay financially healthy. At the same time, the networks work off different organizational models, either as stand-alone organizations or as entities within existing organizational structures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.


    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the experience of formation and creating illustrative images for the course called «Bioethics and questions of bio safety». The peculiarity of this course is to review bioethical problems in the context of concrete scientific activities of the biologist – research, experimental work. The part of the course issues related to Bio safety, is revealed as an interdisciplinary area of knowledge focusing on the identification, study and understanding of biological practice and biological research associated with broad philosophical and moral component. The main blocks have been identified, which form visual resources: animals in the experiment, the questions of bioethics in the media; the metamorphosis of the human body; chimeras in works of art. In the selection of illustrative images we have taken into account several aspects: illustration, as an information resource for the analysis of the studied phenomenon; illustration, as a form of motivation to seek information, the answer to the question; illustration, as an element of ethical education of the student to different issues of bioethics. For each semantic unit collected 20-30 illustrative images within two years. They are used both when reading a lecture course and as material for independent work of students. It is shown that the presented visual resources for the course reflect the basic components of visual thinking: linear; structural; combinatorial and functional

  8. Including Public Health Content in a Bioethics and Law Course: Vaccine Exemptions, Tort Liability, and Public Health. (United States)

    Crossley, Mary


    Incorporating public health content in a bioethics and law course can prompt rich discussions. This set of materials on mandatory vaccinations, nonmedical exemptions, and potential tort liability for nonvaccination explores the roles of public health law and tort law in advancing social goals and protecting individual rights and interests.

  9. Localized past, globalized future: towards an effective bioethical framework using examples from population genetics and medical tourism. (United States)

    Widdows, Heather


    This paper suggests that many of the pressing dilemmas of bioethics are global and structural in nature. Accordingly, global ethical frameworks are required which recognize the ethically significant factors of all global actors. To this end, ethical frameworks must recognize the rights and interests of both individuals and groups (and the interrelation of these). The paper suggests that the current dominant bioethical framework is inadequate to this task as it is over-individualist and therefore unable to give significant weight to the ethical demands of groups (and by extension communal and public goods). It will explore this theme by considering the inadequacy of informed consent (the 'global standard' of bioethics) to address two pressing global bioethical issues: medical tourism and population genetics. Using these examples it will show why consent is inadequate to address all the significant features of these ethical dilemmas. Four key failures will be explored, namely, • That the rights and interests of those related (and therefore affected) are neglected; • That consent fails to take account of the context and commitments of individuals which may constitute inducement and coercion; • That consent alone does not have the ethical weight to negate exploitation or make an unjust action just ('the fallacy of sufficiency'); • That consent is a single one-off act which is inappropriate for the types of decision being made. It will conclude by suggesting that more appropriate models are emerging, particularly in population genetics, which can supplement consent.

  10. Viewpoint discrimination and contestation of ideas on its merits, leadership and organizational ethics: expanding the African bioethics agenda. (United States)

    Chima, Sylvester C; Mduluza, Takafira; Kipkemboi, Julius


    The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we

  11. Bioethics and why I hope to live beyond age 75 attaining wisdom!: A rebuttal to Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel′s 75 age limit

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    Miguel A Faria


    Full Text Available American bioethicists have been providing persuasive arguments for rationing medical care via the theory of the necessary "rational allocation of finite health care resources." Anticipating the need for the drastic rationing of medical care in the U.S. with the implementation of ObamaCare and assisted by various sectors of organized medicine in league with the State, bioethicists have deduced that more ingenious approaches are necessary to convince Americans who have been accustomed to receiving the best medical care that third-party payers are willing to pay for. It is in this context that the individual-based, patient-oriented ethics of Hippocrates, including his fundamental dictum, "First Do No Harm," have to be supplanted by the utilitarian approach promoted by the bioethicists. And today′s foremost proponent of the bioethics movement is Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel. This editorial proposes a rational rebuttal to Dr. Emanuel′s proposal to limit life expectancy to age 75 as a rational paradigm to a better life.

  12. Law and bioethics in Israel: between liberal ethical values and Jewish religious norms. (United States)

    Shapira, Amos


    In Israel, the bulk of the population leads an essentially secularist, liberal, and permissive individual lifestyle. At the same time, certain cultural-religious values, institutions, practices, and injunctions are formally woven into the Israeli communal fabric. Consequently, the bioethical discourse in Israel has evolved in a sociocultural context which manifests a unique mix of orthodoxy and secularism, of communal paternalism and assertive individualism, of proscription and permissiveness, of religious norms and liberal ethical values. There can be no denying of the impact of Jewish religious tenets, and the political groups that champion them, on the shaping of Israeli biomedical jurisprudence. Yet it would be wrong to assume that such impact invariably has been prohibitive and restrictive. To illustrate the diverse influence of religious attitudes on normative postures regarding biomedical dilemmas in Israel, I will focus on end-of-life medical decision making, on the one hand and on embryonic stem cells research, on the other.

  13. How to regulate medical tourism (and why it matters for bioethics). (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn


    A growing literature examines descriptive and normative questions about medical tourism such as: How does it operate? What are its effects? Are home country patients or their governments failing in moral duties by engaging in or permitting medical tourism? By contrast, much less has been written on the regulatory dimension: What might be done about medical tourism if we were convinced that it posed ethical issues and were motivated to act? I shall argue that this kind of regulatory analysis is essential for bioethical analysis of medical tourism. This article focuses on these regulatory questions more directly, evaluating available methods, restrictions, costs, and benefits of home and destination country unilateral regulatory moves. This article also discusses more briefly multilateral treaty and private sector responses.

  14. Finding A Seat at the Table Together: Recommendations for Improving Collaboration between Social Work and Bioethics. (United States)

    Brazg, Tracy; Dotolo, Danae; Blacksher, Erika


    Social work and bioethics are fields deeply committed to cross-disciplinary collaboration to do their respective work. While scholars and practitioners from both fields share a commitment to social justice and to respecting the dignity, integrity and the worth of all persons, the overlap between the fields, including shared values, has received little attention. The purpose of this article is to describe the ways in which greater collaboration between the two fields can broaden their scope, enrich their scholarship, and better ground their practice. We describe the potential for realizing such benefits in two areas - health care ethics consultation and social inequalities in health - arguing that the fields both complement and challenge one another, making them ideal partners for the interdisciplinary inquiry and problem-solving so often called for today in health and health care.

  15. [The experiments with laboratory animals from a bioethical point of view--history, modern time, perspectives]. (United States)

    Kopaladze, R A


    The origin of laboratory animal science was called forth by violent development of experimental biology and medicine in the XIX century on the one hand, and on the other hand by the necessity to have standard healthy animals for experiments with strictly definite biological characteristics. With this aim in view management technology and animal use in experiments have been constantly improved. "Laboratory animal" notion has been formed by the end of the XIX century. At the beginning of laboratory animal science development ethical problems were not as urgent as they are now. It is established that the three Rs bioethical conception of W.M.S. Russel and R.L. Burch (1959) has influence on modern state and perspectives of the development of animal experimental methods. It is shown that the existence of laboratory animal protection laws and the reflection in them of compulsory ethical review of scientific project and statistics of used laboratory animals is absolutely necessary.

  16. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics. (United States)

    Almeida, J L; Schramm, F R


    Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care) beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.

  17. From Nuremberg to bioethics: an educational project for students of dentistry and dental prosthesis. (United States)

    Marinozzi, Silvia; Corbellini, Gilberto; Ottolenghi, Livia; Ripari, Francesca; Pizzuti, Antonio; Pezzetti, Marcello; Gaj, Fabio


    In the lessons of medical-scientific methodologies of the medical faculty at the Sapienza University of Rome, basic notions on the ethical and deontologic aspects characterizing the history of the medical profession are provided, including the formulation and application of bioethical principles to clinics and biomedical research. Within such framework, an educational project has been initiated on the historical origin of the current normative and juridic dispositions in the regulation of experimental biomedical research and the relationship between health operators and patients, with particular attention to the procedure, the meaning the value either professional or deontologic, of ethics and the legality of the informed consensus. Emphasis is put on medical and experimental abuses that occurred in Germany during the nazi regime.

  18. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Telles de Almeida

    Full Text Available Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.

  19. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida José Luiz Telles de


    Full Text Available Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.

  20. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights]. (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María


    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups.

  1. An integrated ethical approach to bioethical decision-making: A proposed model for ministers

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    Magdalena C. de Lange


    Full Text Available This article outlined a model for guidance in ‘doing’ bioethics in a Reformed context. The proposed model suggested that in order to arrive at responsible ethical decisions, one must refer to both contextual elements and theory. The theoretical grounding for this model was based on the integration of a deontological and virtue ethics approach, arguing that virtue enables persons to know and desire the right moral ends and motivates them to carry out appropriate action toward achieving these ends. An integrative model opens up the possibility whereby bioethics as a systematic tool provides the individual decision-maker with the critical-reflective skills and justification for the ultimate choice that is lacking in the general decision-making processes. This could lead to clearer thinking and increased confidence in the justification of decisions within the Reformed tradition. The proposed hermeneutical perspective on ethical decision-making represents a shift in views about the nature of knowledge and the process of how we come to know. The key to this hermeneutical approach is to acknowledge the dialectic between the universal and the subjectivity of human relations. Working in specific religious communities, one needs to take cognisance of the fact that knowledge is situated in the context of human relationships in which the interpreter participates when articulating the meaning of bioethical experiences. Another aspect that is anticipated lies in the realisation that people struggling with bioethical dilemmas should not be viewed as isolated individuals, but as members of a broader faith community.‘n Geïntegreerde etiese benadering tot bioetiese besluitneming: Voorgestelde model vir predikante. Hierdie artikel het ‘n model geskets wat moontlike riglyne aantoon vir die  beoefening  van  bioetiek  binne  ‘n  Gereformeerde  konteks.  Die  voorgestelde  model argumenteer dat verwysing na beide kontekstuele elemente en teorie

  2. Why would medical publishers not incorporate core bioethical values into their Ethics Guidelines? (United States)

    Watine, Joseph


    It is quite universally acknowledged by bioethicists, at least in the western world, that respect for the patients' autonomy, non-malevolence, beneficence, and justice (also called equity) are four core ethical values in medicine. The Ethics Guidelines of key journals in laboratory medicine are not explicit about the first three of these values, and even implicitly, they seem to miss values of justice. Health equity being one of the main objectives of public health policy across the world, we suggest that values of equity explicitly become part of the Ethics Guidelines of laboratory medicine journals. Biochemia Medica could show the way to other medical publishers by incorporating into its Ethics Guidelines these very important core bioethical values.

  3. A learning activity to introduce undergraduate students to bioethics in human clinical research: a case study. (United States)

    Segarra, Ignacio; Gomez, Manuel


    We developed a pharmacology practicum assignment to introduce students to the research ethics and steps involved in a clinical trial. The assignment included literature review, critical analysis of bioethical situations, writing a study protocol and presenting it before a simulated ethics committee, a practice interview with a faculty member to obtain informed consent, and a student reflective assessment and self-evaluation. Students were assessed at various steps in the practicum; the learning efficiency of the activity was evaluated using an independent survey as well as students' reflective feedback. Most of the domains of Bloom's and Fink's taxonomies of learning were itemized and covered in the practicum. Students highly valued the translatability of theoretical concepts into practice as well as the approach to mimic professional practice. This activity was within a pharmacy program, but may be easily transferable to other medical or health sciences courses.

  4. Future research and therapeutic applications of human stem cells: general, regulatory, and bioethical aspects

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    Liras Antonio


    Full Text Available Abstract There is much to be investigated about the specific characteristics of stem cells and about the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells, both embryonic as adult stem cells, for several therapeutic indications (cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic diseases, liver diseases. Along with recent progress in transference of nuclei from human somatic cells, as well as iPSC technology, has allowed availability of lineages of all three germ layers genetically identical to those of the donor patient, which permits safe transplantation of organ-tissue-specific adult stem cells with no immune rejection. The main objective is the need for expansion of stem cell characteristics to maximize stem cell efficacy (i.e. the proper selection of a stem cell and the efficacy (maximum effect and safety of stem cell derived drugs. Other considerations to take into account in cell therapy will be the suitability of infrastructure and technical staff, biomaterials, production costs, biobanks, biosecurity, and the biotechnological industry. The general objectives in the area of stem cell research in the next few years, are related to identification of therapeutic targets and potential therapeutic tests, studies of cell differentiation and physiological mechanisms, culture conditions of pluripotent stem cells and efficacy and safety tests for stem cell-based drugs or procedures to be performed in both animal and human models in the corresponding clinical trials. A regulatory framework will be required to ensure patient accessibility to products and governmental assistance for their regulation and control. Bioethical aspects will be required related to the scientific and therapeutic relevance and cost of cryopreservation over time, but specially with respect to embryos which may ultimately be used for scientific uses of research as source of embryonic stem cells, in which case the bioethical conflict may be further


    Keidar, Daniella; Yagoda, Arie


    In recent years, the study of emotions has broadened its scope and established its standing as a new scientific discipline. Humanity has become increasingly conscious of the seminal role played by the emotional components in both intrapersonal and interpersonal behavior. A deeply rooted and inherent correlation exists between emotional intelligence (E.I. - Emotional Intelligence) and positive social results: social adaptation, quality social relationships, the capacity for healthy social behaviors, caring, altruism, empathy, enlightened communication and the efficacy and personal coherence essential to moral and ethical behavior, including its manifestation in the sphere of bio-ethics. The importance of the personal relationship between the doctor and the patient is especially fundamental in the current era of immense and accelerated scientific-technological development, forcing doctors to cope with an increasingly complicated technical environment. Precisely because of this reality, it is essential that a doctor's actions and interpersonal relationship with the patient proceed from an ethical base, grounded in both professional and emotional responsibility. Emotional responsibility is one of the central elements underlying bioethical conduct and is the element that provides the guideposts for the treatment of others. The symbiotic connection between emotional intelligence and the sphere of ethics and morals is what delineates human beings. Human beings, by definition and in essence, bear responsibility for their actions. The beginning of ethics is in the human being's consciousness of choice in relation to self and to others. An individual's choices integrate emotion and cognition. That ability to integrate alongside the capacity for choice enables the human race to act in accordance with ethical and moral codes. At work, on a daily basis, a doctor is positioned opposite to the physical, emotional, cognitive and ethical entirety of the patient. Beyond the doctor

  6. Los principios de la bioética y el surgimiento de una bioética intercultural The principles of bioethics and the growth of an intercultural bioethics

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    Juan Carlos Siurana Aparisi


    Full Text Available En este trabajo defiendo que el debate internacional sobre los principios de la bioética es uno de los más fructíferos para construir los fundamentos de una bioética intercultural. Tras recordar en qué consisten los principios de la bioética, tal y como han sido defendidos por Tom L. Beauchamp y James F. Childress en Estados Unidos, ofrezco una breve mirada a estos principios desde Europa, América Latina, África y Asia. Continúo con una reflexión sobre dichos principios desde algunas de las grandes religiones del mundo. Todo ello me permite ofrecer importantes elementos para construir las bases de lo que podríamos llamar una «bioética intercultural».In this article, I defend that the international debate on de principles of bioethics is one of the most fruitful to build the foundation of an intercultural bioethics. I make here a brief summary on the content of the "principles of biomedical ethics" as Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress in the United States defended them. After words, I provide a brief perspective of these principles from Europe, Latinamerica, Africa and Asia. I follow with a reflection on such principles from some of the big religions of the world. All of that, permits me to provide important elements to build the basis faith we could call an "intercultural bioethics».

  7. Problems related to the use of animals for therapeutic and care purposes: the document of the National Committee for Bioethics

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    Pasqualino Santori


    Full Text Available The Italian Ministry of Health, in 2002, instructed the National Committee for Bioethics to carefully review and ultimately provide evidence for future legislative bills in various aspects. One such matter was that of the subject of "Pet Therapy", generically viewed as a "man-animal" relationship, with the purpose of proving beneficiary to both human health and welfare. The necessity of a bioethical approach was deemed important in establishing the concrete benefits for mankind (and the research required to demonstrate this whilst also considering any possible malaise inflicted on those animals participating. The final recommendations decided upon, took into consideration effectiveness, cost, suitable alternatives, discussion of the intervention with the patient.

  8. 叙事疗法的生命伦理学关怀%Bioethical Concerns of Narrative Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 高颖


    The bioethical concerns of narrative therapy were discussed after a brief review of the origination of this endeavor and its development in mainland China. The bioethical concerns of narrative therapy include its emphasis on equality of life rights, its approach towards human ecological harmony and its enrichment of life meaning. Thereafter, the potentials of narrative therapy were summarized. It maintains that bioethical concerns of narrative therapy play an important role in realizing its potentials.%简要回顾了叙事疗法的诞生和在中国的传播过程,探讨了叙事疗法在三个方面的生命伦理学关怀:以生命权力的平等为前提、以人文生态的和谐为途径、以生命意义的丰富为旨归.最后探讨分析了叙事疗法的发展潜力,并指出叙事疗法所蕴含的生命伦理学关怀是一个重要的推动因素.


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    Onã Silva


    Full Text Available Introduction: in the bioethical mirror there are such vulnerabilities which strike those who live with HIV/Aids and the ones involved with them. The social construction of this disease faces the representation and morality related to sexual practice, values, myths and beliefs that lead to prejudice and bioethical implications. Objective: to identify the main bioethical conflicts and the stressful factors developed by people living with HIV/Aids and the ones involved with them, and ways of facing a positive diagnosis in Brazilian publications. Methodological description: the conduction of this essay was supported by the Theory of Feminist Inspiration. The references were obtained on Scientific Electronic Library On-line data basis (SciELO. Four analytical categories were elaborated. Social construction of HIV/Aids infection; bioethical conflicts, vulnerabilities and stressful factors experienced by people living with HIV/Aids and the ones involved with them; the dealing with dilemmatic situations involving people living with HIV/Aids and the ones involved with them in Health care as well policies addressing to that matter. Results and discussion: about the analyzed categories, significant results came up which revealed under the feminist bioethics perspective, the vulnerabilities faced by people with HIV/Aids. The social representation of the disease, regardless scientific and technological developments and human rights, HIV-positive people are still vulnerable in relation to social attitudes of panic, intolerance and prejudice. Conclusion: the dramatic reality of HIV-positive people, who are vulnerable as a consequence of prejudicial and inhuman behaviors, requires bioethical studies, inspired in theoretical currents, discussing the power relationships – from where moralities, stigmas and prejudices arise. The bioethical debate upon the values that characterize the stigmatizing issues about this epidemic, would assist to dismantle a negative

  10. Transplants: bioethics and justice Transplantes: bioética e justiça

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    Claudio Cohen


    Full Text Available Bioethics, as a branch of philosophy that focuses on questions relative to health and human life, is closely tied to the idea of justice and equality. As such, in understanding the concept of equality in its original sense, that is, in associating it to the idea to treat "unequals" (those who are unequal or different, in terms of conditions or circumstances unequally (differentially, in proportion to their inequalities (differences, we see that the so-called "one-and-only waiting list" for transplants established in law no. 9.434/97, ends up not addressing the concept of equality and justice, bearing upon bioethics, even when considering the objective criteria of precedence established in regulation no. 9.4347/98, Thus, the organizing of transplants on a one-and-only waiting list, with a few exceptions that are weakly applicable, without a case by case technical and grounded analysis, according to each particular necessity, ends up institutionalizing inequalities, condemning patients to happenstance and, consequently, departs from the ratio legis, which aims at seeking the greatest application of justice in regards to organ transplants. We conclude, therefore, that from an analysis of the legislation and of the principles of bioethics and justice, there is a need for the creation of a collegiate of medical experts, that, based on medical criteria and done in a well established manner, can analyze each case to be included on the waiting list, deferentially and according to the necessity; thus, precluding that people in special circumstances be treated equal to people in normal circumstances.A bioética, como ramo da filosofia que enfoca as questões relativas a saúde e a vida humana, está intimamente ligada à idéia de justiça e igualdade. Desta forma, entendendo o conceito de igualdade em sua acepção original, ou seja, associando-o à idéia de tratar desigualmente os desiguais na medida de suas desigualdades, observamos que a denominada

  11. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero


    Promoters are crucial for gene regulation. They vary greatly in terms of associated regulatory elements, sequence motifs, the choice of transcription start sites and other features. Several technologies that harness next-generation sequencing have enabled recent advances in identifying promoters...... and their features, helping researchers who are investigating functional categories of promoters and their modes of regulation. Additional features of promoters that are being characterized include types of histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, RNA polymerase pausing and novel small RNAs. In this Review, we...... discuss recent findings relating to metazoan promoters and how these findings are leading to a revised picture of what a gene promoter is and how it works....

  12. Bioethical dimensions of cultural psychosomatics: the need for an ethical research approach. (United States)

    Lolas, Fernando


    Contemporary psychosomatics is a research-based technical discipline and its social power depends on how scientific knowledge is obtained and applied in practice, considering cultural contexts. This article presents the view that the dialogical principles on which bioethical discourse is based are more inclusive than professional ethics and philosophical reflection. The distinction is advanced between rule-guided behavior and norm-justifiable acts (substantiation and justification). The practical implications of good practices in the generation of valid, reliable, generalizable and applicable knowledge are emphasized. For practitioners and researchers, the need to reflect on the distinction between patient and research participant can avoid the therapeutic misunderstanding, a form of abuse of the doctor-patient relationship. In addition, in resource-poor settings, the dilemma presented by the know-do gap (inapplicability of research results due to financial or social constraints) is part of the ethics' realm of the profession. Future prospects include a wider use of research results in practice, but avoidance of the know-do gap (the disparity between what is known and what can be done, particularly in settings with limited resources) requires a synthetic and holistic approach to medical ethics, combining moral reflection, theoretical analysis and empirical data.

  13. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity. (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C


    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism.

  14. The 'four principles of bioethics' as found in 13th century Muslim scholar Mawlana's teachings

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    Tenik Ali


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been different ethical approaches to the issues in the history of philosophy. Two American philosophers Beachump and Childress formulated some ethical principles namely 'respect to autonomy', 'justice', 'beneficence' and 'non-maleficence'. These 'Four Principles' were presented by the authors as universal and applicable to any culture and society. Mawlana, a great figure in Sufi tradition, had written many books which not only guide people how to worship God to be close to Him, but also advise people how to lead a good life to enrich their personality, as well as to create a harmonious society and a peaceful world. Methods In this study we examined the major works of Mawlana to find out which of these 'Four Principles of Bioethics' exist in Mawlana's ethical understanding. Results We have found in our study that all these principles exist in Mawlana's writings and philosophy in one form or another. Conclusions We have concluded that, further to Beachump and Childress' claim that these principles are universal and applicable to any culture and society, these principles have always existed in different moral traditions in different ways, of which Mawlana's teaching might be presented as a good example.


    Ilgili, Onder; Arda, Berna; Munir, Kerim


    We conducted a descriptive study of the existing research ethics committee (REC) review structure in Turkey with respect to clinical trials and discuss what can be expected in the future under the new regulation that came into effect in April 2013. We identified 78 RECs in Turkey under the Ministry of Health (MOH) as of September 2012, categorised under geographic location, type and institution. We identified REC member lists from the MOH in the same month and further characterize them under: membership number, gender, and speciality. MOH, universities, national nongovernmental organizations such as the Turkish Medical Association and the Turkish Bioethics Association, as well as clinical research and pharmaceutical bodies are intensively interested in the enhancement of the current system of research ethics review in the country. The European Union and Council directives have been important sources that have guided new developments. Proper evaluation of the existing system and introduction of new regulatory framework are expected to further clarify the obstacles and offer opportunities for institutions, researchers, REC members and administrators.

  16. Systemic Negligence: Why It Is Morally Important for Developing World Bioethics. (United States)

    Chakraborti, Chhanda


    In the context of clinical and non-clinical biomedical practices, negligence is usually understood as a lapse of a specific professional duty by a healthcare worker or by a medical facility. This paper tries to delineate systemic negligence as another kind of negligence in the context of health systems, particularly in developing countries, that needs to be recognized and addressed. Systemic negligence is not just a mere collection of stray incidences of medical errors and system failures in a health system, but is proposed in this paper as a more pervasive kind of neglect. Several non-medical factors, such as lack of social and political will, also contribute to it and hence is more difficult to address in a health system. This paper argues that recognizing systemic negligence and including it research agenda have special moral importance for researchers in developing world bioethics, public health ethics and for health activists in the developing world. For, it can be a potent health system barrier, and can seriously impair efforts to ensure patient safety, particularly in the weaker health systems. As it erodes accountability in a health system, addressing it is also important for the twin goals of ensuring patient safety and improving health system performance. Above all, it needs to be addressed because the tolerance of its persistence in a health system seems to undervalue health as a social good.

  17. The West's dismissal of the Khabarovsk trial as 'communist propaganda': ideology, evidence and international bioethics. (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao


    In late 1949 the former Soviet Union conducted an open trial of eight Japanese physicians and researchers and four other military servicemen in Khabarovsk, a city in eastern Siberia. Despite its strong ideological tone and many obvious shortcomings such as the lack of international participation, the trial established beyond a reasonable doubt that the Japanese army had prepared and deployed bacteriological weapons and that Japanese researchers had conducted cruel experiments on living human beings. However, the trial, together with the evidence presented to the court and its major findings--which have proved remarkably accurate--was dismissed as communist propaganda and totally ignored in the West until the 1980s. This paper reviews the 1949 Khabarovsk trial, examines the West's dismissal of the proceedings as mere propaganda and draws some moral lessons for bioethics today. As an important historical case, set in the unique socio-political context of the Cold War, the West's dismissal of the trial powerfully illustrates some perennial ethical issues such as the ambivalence of evidence and power of ideology in making (or failing to make) cross-national and cross-cultural factual and moral judgments.

  18. [Clinical bioethics: contributions to decision-making in neonatal intensive care units]. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Rego, Sergio


    This article presents a reflection about decision-making in Neonatal Intensive Care Units based on the principle of distributive justice and considering the theoretical approaches of the Bioethics of Protection, formulated by Schramm and Kottow, and the Theory of Capabilities developed by Nussbaum and Sen. Within the concept of justice in the health area adopted in this study, we characterize the essential needs of the citizens that must be satisfied by the State. Then we discuss the question of who should be benefited in the neonatal intensive care units--and in which way--given the scarce public resources available, considering three groups of newborn that in general represent the demand for intensive care services in these units. We conclude that, the better the clinical information available, the more it is likely that a better and more qualified ethical choice can be taken. Further studies will be necessary for the construction of reasonable evidence, prognosis included, so that the involved families can be provided with even more adequate information and, most importantly, for allowing the parents of the child to take part in the clinical decisions.

  19. Reflections and arguments in the construction of shared knowledge about the bioethical issues of genetic engineering (United States)

    Zaltas, Fred David

    This qualitative inquiry reports on how metacognitive reflection was more stimulated within a context of a collective argument with a destination of shared knowledge construction. Its purpose was to investigate seventh grade students' group dilemma discussions about the bioethical issues of genetic engineering by relating the dynamics of argumentation to metacognitive mental actions involved in the construction of knowledge. Specifically examined were (1) students reflections and perceptions about the issues involved in the dilemma discussions, (2) elements of argument used during dilemma discussions that supported reasoning and thinking in the construction of knowledge, (3) metacognitive mental actions relating argument and reflective thoughts, (4) levels of metacognitive awareness, (5) levels of metacognitive awareness within argumentative structure. Focus-group interviews and discourse analysis revealed patterns regarding metacognitive strategies and reasoning, knowledge and awareness of the process of argument, and the construction of knowledge. Dilemma discussions may provide innovative learning environments in which reasoning could develop through co-construction and critical opposition fostering a metacognitive dimension of thinking.

  20. Bioethical perspective on acceptable-risk criteria for nuclear-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxey, M.N.


    Wisely managing the profound human and environmental risks of nuclear wastes requires complex moral and ethical judgments. Whereas traditional ethics is limited to interpersonal relations, a new system of ethics--bioethics--concerns man's relation with nature. Environmentalists claim that technology has upset the balance of nature, that nature is sacred and has inviolable rights, and that man must therefore regulate his behavior to conform to earth's limited carrying capacity. They also say that Judeo-Christian monotheism and anthropocentrism have sanctioned the exploitation of nature in the West, whereas Eastern religions teach adaptation to nature. Evidence suggests, however, that the balance of nature is neither absolute nor precarious, but is continually changing. Moreover, technology has brought more good than harm to man, and man's needs should supersede nature's. Other evidence indicates that the earth's resources may be neither limited nor nearly exhausted. Persuasive arguments also demonstrate that man's relation with nature is not traceable to religious assumptions. In assessing the risks/benefits of nuclear-waste management, we should avoid risks that jeopardize the rights of future generations without imposing excessive sacrifices on the present generation.

  1. [Individual versus collective protection: bioethical analysis of the national program of mass child vaccination]. (United States)

    Lessa, Sérgio de Castro; Schramm, Fermin Roland


    Vaccination is considered one of the most efficient and cost-effective public health policies most used in the control and prevention of disease. However, it is also one of the most polemic and controversial biomedical techniques, making it difficult to avoid an ethical dilemma, especially when vaccination is compulsory for the entire population. Indeed, since vaccines are not totally effective and safe, there is an ethical conflict between the individual and the collective interest, because children effectively carry the burden of vaccination for the benefit of public health when they are affected with serious adverse reactions and do not benefit from the care that should be offered by the government. The objective of this article was to demonstrate that the tools of bioethics are relevant in this discussion to understand and analyze these dilemmas critically by providing convincing arguments to underpin the development of biopolitics that consider prevention not only rigorously, but also the joint responsibility of all as fundamental for individual and collective protection.

  2. Sources of bioethics: Lex Naturae versus Sola Scriptura and Sola Gratia? A response to Vorster

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    Anné H. Verhoef


    Full Text Available To argue that the concept of natural law can be regarded, with certain conditions, as a credible and useful tool in the Reformed paradigm, as Vorster did, may at first seems to be in conflict with the Reformation’s emphasis on sola scriptura and sola gratia. Vorster, however, argues very convincingly that the general revelation of God and creational gifts can be a source for bioethics within the reformed tradition. He does this by relying on Calvin and Bavinck’s appreciative theologies and in reaction to Barth and Welker’s critique to the notion of natural law. In this article I will further Vorster’s argument by identifying some critical points in his argument, analyse the critique on these points and broaden the discussion by incorporating an eschatological perspective and the anthropology of the Protestant philosopher, Paul Ricoeur. The aim is, as Vorster states in his conclusion, to provide Christian ethics with opportunities and means to formulate applicable and relevant moral codes that can be utilised in the bio- and eco-ethical debates of today.

  3. Tattoos, piercings and re-configuration of the body. A path between bioethical and educational profiles

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    Carmela Bianco


    Full Text Available Tattoos and piercings can become a mask to hide behind? Everything can become a mask if we use it for masquerading. The tattoo is the anthropological roots of ancient and modern makeup that refers to the mask understood as that which creates the face, which gives it its social being. The tattoo is also an artistic decoration that should be born by the deep desire to communicate yourself to others. Tattoos must be able to "tell" the people who wear them, but if the latter decorate their body with a message or image that does not belong, it can cause the destruction of individuality. The tattoo is immortal. It can be a permanent dress, a way to resist the unwanted transformations using a piece of subjective identity, non-imitable, from which one cannot be excluded. Along with careful identification of psycho-sociological motivations that drive a young man to want a tattoo, you need to traverse an education that not only form a personality, teaches the knowledge of his own body. Getting a tattoo means not only change the morphology of the body but the risk of jeopardizing their health. Responsibility for their own health also means being aware that a tattoo can procure mild side effects or more severe depending on the initial state of health of the subject. Then a tattoo only after a careful history following the favorable opinion of the doctor and after a personal assessment aware. These initial objectives of a path bioethical-pedagogical significant.

  4. Knowledge and positions on bioethical dilemmas in a sample of Spanish nursing students: a questionnaire study. (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Palacios Ceña, Domingo; Fuentes, Paloma Salvadores


    This study, performed in Madrid, Spain, evaluates nursing students' understanding and attitudes about bioethical dilemmas that they will likely confront as health care providers. We asked 86 juniors in the King Juan Carlos University Nursing baccalaureate program about their knowledge of and personal attitudes on five biomedical advances: eugenics, experimentation with unimplanted embryos, human cloning, abortion, and euthanasia. Students reported being most knowledgeable about abortion and euthanasia and least familiar with eugenics. Examining the data for a correlation between the two phenomenon (knowledge and position) with respect to each of these five biomedical issues, the students reported significantly Conversely, they held significantly neutral positions on eugenics, a virtually unfamiliar topic for them (r = 0.618, p < 0.0001). The data also revealed a significantly direct correlation between knowledge and position for experimentation with non-implanted embryos (correlation coefficient = 0.380, p < 0.0001), that is, little knowledge and neutral attitudes. The trend findings for abortion and cloning were not significant. Based on these data, we concluded that the nursing program would benefit from additional biomedical curriculum.

  5. [The terminal patient: Jewish religious law, the Steinberg report and the bioethical discourse in Israel]. (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael


    This article surveys key texts in contemporary orthodox Jewish law (Halakha) with regard to end-of-life decision making. The author proposes twelve principles that govern Jewish law in that matter. The article proceeds to examine the Steinberg report in the light of Halakha. Orthodox Judaism regards human life as a prime value, which is always beyond consideration of economical means or quality of life. The avoidance of suffering is the only justification to shorten the life of the sufferer, provided that the acts performed do not fall within the Halakhic definition of murder, namely active and direct action that shortens life. It is argued that the main challenge of bioethics in Israel is the bridging between the positive law of Halakha whose fundamental value is submission to God's will as manifested in Halakha, and the rationalism, universalism, and egalitarianism which constitute naturalistic ethics. This challenge may produce ideas such as the "clock machine". It is too early to know if this is a trickery, or genuine ethical creativity.

  6. Pandemic management and developing world bioethics: bird flu in West Bengal. (United States)

    Chakraborti, Chhanda


    This paper examines the case of a recent H5N1virus (avian influenza) outbreak in West Bengal, an eastern state of India, and argues that poorly executed pandemic management may be viewed as a moral lapse. It further argues that pandemic management initiatives are intimately related to the concept of health as a social 'good' and to the moral responsibility of protection from foreseeable social harm from an infectious disease. The initiatives, therefore, have to be guided by special moral obligations towards biorisk reduction, obligations which remain unfulfilled when a public body entrusted with the responsibility fails to manage satisfactorily the prevention and control of the infection. The overall conclusion is that pandemic management has a moral dimension. The gravity of the threat that fatal infectious diseases pose for public health creates special moral obligations for public bodies in pandemic situations. However, the paper views the West Bengal case as a learning opportunity, and considers the lapses cited as challenges that better, more effectively conducted pandemic management can prepare for. It is hoped that this paper will provoke constructive bioethical deliberations, particularly pertinent to the developing world, on how to ensure that the obligations towards health are fulfilled ethically and more effectively.

  7. 试论健康伦理对生命伦理的拓新%Analysis of the innovation of health ethics to bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    健康伦理以健康利益为关注支点,拓展了生命伦理的研究对象、研究内容和价值维度,补充、丰富了其原则内涵,展露出新的生命力。健康伦理是在医学发展新阶段对医学伦理、生命伦理的延续和提升。%Taking health interest as its focus, health ethics develops research object, content and value dimension of bioethics. It enrichs bioethics principle and connotation, and shows new vitality. Health ethics lasts and upgrades medical ethics and bioethics at the new stage of medicine development.

  8. 我国生命伦理学研究现状探讨%Discussion on the Status of Bioethics Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳; 张忠元; 范菲菲; 雷虹艳; 郑红朝; 李恩昌


    As an emerging discipline imported Irom the west, Chinese bioethics has achieved great development in the last three decades. Experts introduced the new progress of the foreign Bioethics, and combined with China's national conditions. Chinese Bioethics should look for her own direction actively, should have a close connection with the development of society, medical technology, and thehot focus on bioethics, and should pay attention to the organic combination of local and western culture, combine the Bioethics and the medical ethics alucation. It's useful the development of the bioethics in China.%生命伦理学作为一门新兴学科,从西方引入中国已有三十多年的时间,在我国取得了巨大的发展.我国相关学者的论文不仅介绍国外生命伦理学研究的新进展,而且紧密结合中国的国情促进了生命伦理学的发展.中国生命伦理学在发展过程中,应当紧密结合社会、医学技术的发展而研究相关生命伦理学的热点问题,同时也应当将中国传统医德文化与生命伦理学有机结合,有利于我国生命伦理学的发展.

  9. Bioética feminista na América Latina: a contribuição das mulheres Feminist bioethics in latin america: women's contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Diniz


    Full Text Available A bioética se consolidou no Brasil em finais dos anos 1990. Um fenômeno semelhante ocorreu em outros países da América Latina, em especial na Argentina, no Chile e no México. Nesse processo de consolidação, as mulheres assumiram diferentes papéis: ora de protagonistas acadêmicas da bioética, ora de interlocutoras da bioética no espaço público. Essa dupla inserção é marca registrada das mulheres na bioética latino-americana e é parte da biografia das autoras deste ensaio. Este ensaio é uma peça biográfica e genealógica da bioética latino-americana e brasileira em particular. O fio condutor da narrativa são experiências vividas pelas autoras nesse duplo papel de protagonismo acadêmico e de interlocução política da bioética.Bioethics was consolidated in Brazil at the end of the 1990s. A similar phenomenon occurred in other countries in Latin America, especially in Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. In this consolidation process, women assumed different roles: sometimes as bioethics academic protagonists, and sometimes as bioethics interlocutors in the public sphere. This dual insertion is the trademark of the women in Latin American bioethics and is part of the biography of the authors of this essay. This essay is a biographical and genealogical narrative of Latin American, and specifically, of Brazilian bioethics. The common thread of this narrative is our experiences in this dual role as academic protagonists and as bioethics political speakers.

  10. Bioethical language and its dialects and idiolects O idioma bioético, seus dialetos e idioletos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa


    Full Text Available In their search for answers to the relevant theoretical questions on importing knowledge in practical ethics, the authors take an instrumental approach to metaphor. This figure of language allows one to compare language and linguistic variants to bioethics and knowledge. As defined by the dictionary, an 'idiom' is the official language of a nation, a 'dialect' is a regional variant of an idiom, and an 'idiolect' is an individual variant of a dialect. The bioethical idiom is thus seen as a linguistic set constituting a 'bioethical nation'. Since it is situated above particular dialects, it exercises more than a regulatory role over the discipline. In this article, in order to focus on the process of transmission of knowledge in bioethics, the authors chose Diego Gracia's work as a paradigmatic reference to the question on the transculturation of dialects and the relations in bioethics which are considered 'peripheral' or 'central'. Although this researcher found the key question pointing to the core of the problem of importing dialects, he is still searching for a proper answer to the cultural/bioethical context/contradictionNa procura de respostas à questão teórica relativa à importação de conhecimento em ética prática, os autores utilizam, de forma instrumental, a metáfora. Essa figura de linguagem permite que se compare o idioma e suas variantes lingüísticas com a bioética e seus saberes. Segundo o registro dicionarizado, o idioma é a língua oficial de uma nação, o dialeto é uma variante regional de um idioma e o idioleto é uma variante individual de um dialeto. O idioma bioético é entendido, então, como um conjunto lingüístico que constitui a 'nação bioética' e que, por estar acima dos dialetos particulares, exerce um papel sobre-regulador na disciplina. Os dialetos correspondem às várias correntes ou teorias existentes e realizam a ponte entre o idioma e a prática. Os idioletos são frutos de tentativas cr

  11. 解读“美国少年的精彩16秒”--跨文化交际视角下的中美生命伦理价值观差异及原因%Interpretation of American Teenager Wonderful 16 Seconds--On Different Values and Backgrounds of Bioethics in the Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文以美国少年精彩的16秒为案例,阐述了生命伦理的普世价值,通过比较中美家庭教育和学校教育的不同,分析了中美生命伦理价值的差异。外语教学的重要意义在于实现跨文化交际并构建跨文化的生命伦理平台,培养尊重生命和热爱生命的意识。%The paper bases on the case . It expounds the universal value of bioethics, analyzes the differences of it between China and America and explores their respective origins by comparing family education and school education. The purpose is to build the bioethical dialogue platform to promote cross-cultural communication for college students and their respect and love of life.

  12. 'One can always say no.' enriching the bioethical debate on antisocial behaviour, neurobiology and prevention: views of juvenile delinquents. (United States)

    Horstkötter, Dorothee; Berghmans, Ron; Feron, Frans; De Wert, Guido


    Genomic and neuro-scientific research into the causes and course of antisocial behaviour triggers bioethical debate. Often, these new developments are met with reservation, and possible drawbacks and negative side-effects are pointed out. This article reflects on these scientific developments and the bioethical debate by means of an exploration of the perspectives of one important stakeholder group: juveniles convicted of a serious crime who stay in a juvenile justice institution. The views of juveniles are particularly interesting, as possible applications of current and future scientific findings are considered to be most effective if applied early in life. Based on their statements we come to the following provisional conclusions. Concerns about labelling and stigmatization are recognized and widely shared. Possible effects on one's identity are acknowledged too. Yet, a possible biological underpinning of one's antisocial behaviour is not considered to result in the development of a criminal identity. Nonetheless, psychopharmacological interventions are experienced as endangering one's current self. Concerns regarding the refusal of responsibility and the blaming of one's genes or brain can be put into perspective. Instead, participants emphasize the motive of own choice as underlying their criminal behaviour. Moreover, bioethical debate should pay attention to the role of parents of children at risk and the parent-child relationship in families at-risk. We argue that the short-term and long-term interests of children at risk, as well as their interests and those of society at large, may conflict. In order to deal appropriately with newly arising dilemmas, a normative framework needs to be developed.

  13. Novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas: bioética e controvérsias New reproductive conception technologies: bioethics and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tamanini


    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de alguns dos múltiplos aspectos éticos/bioéticos e de gênero no campo das novas tecnologias reprodutivas conceptivas (NTRc. A literatura nele apresentada aponta para a pluralidade de situações e abordagens possíveis em um campo multidimensional e controvertido. Explicita alguns princípios éticos/bioéticos do agir biomédico encontrados durante pesquisa com casais heterossexuais que fizeram reprodução assistida e com médic@s especialistas em reprodução humana no Sul do Brasil.1 Apresenta os pressupostos éticos/bioéticos sancionadores do agir médico e da continuidade dos chamados tratamentos para engravidar, e analisa os mecanismos utilizados para reerguer as expectativas dos casais em situação de desconfiança ou de insucesso.This article concerns some of the multiple ethical-bioethical and gender issues in the field of new reproductive and contraceptive technologies. The literature presented points to the plurality of possible situations and approaches in a multidimensional and controversial field. It presents some ethical-bioethical principals of biomedical action found in the study of heterosexual couples who use assisted reproduction. and of medical specialists in human reproduction in southern Brazil. It presents the ethical-bioethical presumptions that sanction medical behavior and the continuity of the so-called impregnation treatments, and analyzes the mechanisms used to raise the expectations of couples who lack confidence or success.

  14. [Views of the Spanish Paediatric Association Bioethics Committee on the refusal of essential and non-essential treatment in minors]. (United States)

    Sánchez Jacob, Marta; Tasso Cereceda, María; Martínez González, Carmen; de Montalvo Jááskeläinem, Federico; Riaño Galán, Isolina


    The conflicts that arise when minors or their legal representatives refuse to receive medical treatment considered necessary by the paediatrician pose a serious ethical dilemma and also have a considerable emotional impact. In order to adequately tackle this rejection of medical treatment, there is to identify and attempt to understand the arguments of the people involved, to consider the context in each individual case and be conversant with the procedure to follow in life-threatening scenarios, taking into account bioethical considerations and the legal framework.

  15. Life Education Function of Bioethics%生命伦理学的生命教育功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建兵; 毕云; 李庆; 陈绍辉; 郭苏平


    There is a pressing need on life education in colleges and universities .However ,the formation and improvement of the life education curriculum system are a long‐term process ,before which bioethics can partly exercise the function of life education .Firstly ,bioethics teaches life science and knowledge of health care ,exercising the function of life cognition . Secondly ,the four basic principles of bioethics can instruct college life ,performing the function of life guidance .Thirdly , the study of health and death is more than death education ,but also a survival education .Finally ,the teaching team construction ,textbook compilation , teaching methods and curriculum design of bioethics can be the experience for reference ,exerting the function of life education curriculum hatching .%大学生对生命教育有着迫切的需求,然而,高校生命教育课程体系的形成和完善是一个长期的过程,在此之前,生命伦理学可以部分行使生命教育的功能:第一,生命伦理学传授生命科学和医学保健知识,行使生命认知功能;第二,生命伦理学的四个基本原则可以指导生活实践,行使生活指导功能;第三,生命伦理学对健康与死亡的研究和讨论既是一种死亡教育,也可行使生存教育功能;第四,生命伦理学教学的队伍建设、教材编写、教学方法以及课程设计的经验都可资借鉴,行使生命教育的课程孵化功能。

  16. Brain death in Islamic ethico-legal deliberation: challenges for applied Islamic bioethics. (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Arozullah, Ahsan; Moosa, Ebrahim


    Since the 1980s, Islamic scholars and medical experts have used the tools of Islamic law to formulate ethico-legal opinions on brain death. These assessments have varied in their determinations and remain controversial. Some juridical councils such as the Organization of Islamic Conferences' Islamic Fiqh Academy (OIC-IFA) equate brain death with cardiopulmonary death, while others such as the Islamic Organization of Medical Sciences (IOMS) analogize brain death to an intermediate state between life and death. Still other councils have repudiated the notion entirely. Similarly, the ethico-legal assessments are not uniform in their acceptance of brain-stem or whole-brain criteria for death, and consequently their conceptualizations of, brain death. Within the medical literature, and in the statements of Muslim medical professional societies, brain death has been viewed as sanctioned by Islamic law with experts citing the aforementioned rulings. Furthermore, health policies around organ transplantation and end-of-life care within the Muslim world have been crafted with consideration of these representative religious determinations made by transnational, legally-inclusive, and multidisciplinary councils. The determinations of these councils also have bearing upon Muslim clinicians and patients who encounter the challenges of brain death at the bedside. For those searching for 'Islamically-sanctioned' responses that can inform their practice, both the OIC-IFA and IOMS verdicts have palpable gaps in their assessments and remain clinically ambiguous. In this paper we analyze these verdicts from the perspective of applied Islamic bioethics and raise several questions that, if answered by future juridical councils, will better meet the needs of clinicians and bioethicists.

  17. Mídia, clonagem e bioética Media, cloning, and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ibiapina Ferreira Costa


    Full Text Available Para este artigo, foram analisadas trezentas matérias extraídas dos principais jornais da mídia impressa brasileira sobre o tema da clonagem, em um período de dezoito meses, a contar do anúncio de Dolly, feito em fevereiro de 1997. A análise do material teve dois grandes objetivos: mapear os constantes morais a que a possibilidade da clonagem de seres humanos esteve associada e identificar alguns dos pressupostos morais da pesquisa científica com animais não-humanos e que foram reproduzidos irrefletidamente pela mídia. Além do reconhecimento de que houve antes uma difusão irrefletida do medo da clonagem em seres humanos que mesmo um debate ético frente à questão, a conclusão a que os autores chegaram com este estudo foi que há um sério descompasso entre as reflexões bioéticas e a mídia brasileira.This article was based on an analysis of three hundred articles from mainstream Brazilian periodicals over a period of eighteen months, beginning with the announcement of the Dolly case in February 1997. There were two main objectives: to outline the moral constants in the press associated with the possibility of cloning human beings and to identify some of the moral assumptions concerning scientific research with non-human animals that were published carelessly by the media. The authors conclude that there was a haphazard spread of fear concerning the cloning of human beings rather than an ethical debate on the issue, and that there is a serious gap between bioethical reflections and the Brazilian media.

  18. Bioethics of Universal Knowledge: How Space Science is Transforming Global Culture (United States)

    Perkins, Kala

    A new universal culture is championing the human race; never before has immersion in the cosmological environment been so clearly presented nor invited as revolutionary a sense of participatory identity to the human race. We are delving into the awareness of a complex relatedness with the expanse of spatial architectures and life that astrophysics and cosmology are revealing. History is marked by waves of interest and inquiry into the possibilities of the existence of other worlds. Since the Renaissance, building of telescopes has been pursued in their quest; now Kepler and other space missions are leading us into direct apprehension of these worlds, scattered across the cosmological landscape. This affords a unique repertoire of dimensionalities in which to re-construe our global cultural evolution and identity. Spatial education, with related social science and humanities, are facilitating the actualization of a universal culture, redefining the collective global heritage, with infinity as our home. The potential significance of space sciences to the human cognitive environment is yet to be fully ascertained. We now understand that the entire history of the universe informs each and every particle and spin of the fabric of existence. The implications of this knowledge have the power to facilitate our overcoming many social diseases such as racism, nationalism and the ideological delusions that tolerate such activities as warfare. Space sciences may help to purge the human cognitive atmosphere of those ills and ignorance that sap global resources, challenging global sustainability, from the economic to the psychosocial. Were the full implications of our united origins and destiny as a cosmic organism to be applied to how we live as a species on the Earth, there would be adequate funds for all manner of science and education such as to transform the global human and ecological landscape in ways as yet only dreamt or fictionalized. The bioethics of universal

  19. Discovering the Neural Nature of Moral Cognition? Empirical, Theoretical, and Practical Challenges in Bioethical Research with Electroencephalography (EEG). (United States)

    Wagner, Nils-Frederic; Chaves, Pedro; Wolff, Annemarie


    In this article we critically review the neural mechanisms of moral cognition that have recently been studied via electroencephalography (EEG). Such studies promise to shed new light on traditional moral questions by helping us to understand how effective moral cognition is embodied in the brain. It has been argued that conflicting normative ethical theories require different cognitive features and can, accordingly, in a broadly conceived naturalistic attempt, be associated with different brain processes that are rooted in different brain networks and regions. This potentially morally relevant brain activity has been empirically investigated through EEG-based studies on moral cognition. From neuroscientific evidence gathered in these studies, a variety of normative conclusions have been drawn and bioethical applications have been suggested. We discuss methodological and theoretical merits and demerits of the attempt to use EEG techniques in a morally significant way, point to legal challenges and policy implications, indicate the potential to reveal biomarkers of psychopathological conditions, and consider issues that might inform future bioethical work.

  20. Living with the label "disability": personal narrative as a resource for responsive and informed practice in biomedicine and bioethics. (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffery; Sunderland, Naomi


    What is it like to live with the label "Disability?" NIB editorial staff and narrative symposium editors, Jeffery Bishop and Naomi Sunderland developed a call for stories, which was sent to several list serves, shared with the 1000 Voices Project community and posted on Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics' website. The request for personal stories from people who identify with the label "disabled" asked them to: consider how the label "disability" interacts with other aspects of their life in health care settings; does the term "disability" reflect their actual embodied experiences of impairment or does it fail to do justice to their particular experience of impairment; describe the kind of experiences that are possible because of the impairment(s); discuss how the label has affected their "authentic voice"; and many other concepts about what effects the label has on their lives. These authors share deeply personal experiences that will help readers understand their world, challenges, and joys. Thirteen stories are found in the print version of the journal and an additional five supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. The stories are complemented by four commentary articles by Elizabeth R. Schiltz; Lorna Hallahan; Nicole Matthews, Kathleen Ellem, and Lesley Chenoweth; and Jeffery Bishop, Rachelle Barina, and Devan Stahl. These scholars come from the disciplines of law, social work, media studies, medicine, and bioethics from Australia and the United States. Together, the symposium's storytellers and commentators offer striking and informative insights into the everydayness of living with disabilities.

  1. Bioethical ambition, political opportunity and the European governance of patenting: the case of human embryonic stem cell science. (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Salter, Charlotte


    Scientific progress in the life sciences is dependent on the governance of tensions between the economic potential of the innovation and the cultural response from society. Ownership of the scientific innovation through patenting is a necessary part of the realization of its economic value yet, in the case of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) science, ownership of the human body and human life may offend fundamental cultural values. In the case of transnational patenting governance by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the European Union (EU), cross-national cultural conflict in the field of hESC science has produced a political demand for a form of governance that can incorporate ethical as well as economic judgements in its decision making. This paper explores how bioethics has responded to this opportunity to establish itself as a form of expert authority for the negotiation and resolution of the cultural conflict. In so doing, it shows how the political struggle that has accompanied this bid for new governance territory has been influenced both by the political tensions between the EPO and EU systems of patenting governance and the resistance of competing experts in law and science to a bioethical presence.

  2. 医疗公平的生命伦理意蕴%On the Bioethical Implications of Medical Equity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    From the perspective of appearance, medical equity means the distribution of medical resources fairly, but in essence, it contains deep value: the equality of the value of human life, dignity of human and happiness, which is the basic value orientation of l Bioethics. Bioethics provides philosophical concerns and the value of traction fundamentally for enhancing human freedom, the dignity of life and human happiness.%医疗公平的表象是医疗资源的分配公正,其深层价值蕴含着:人的生命价值的平等、对人的尊严的尊重和人的幸福的实现,这些都是生命伦理的基本价值旨趣。生命伦理学从根本上为人类自由的增进、生命尊严的提升和人类幸福的实现提供哲学关切和价值牵引。

  3. Bioethics Concept of Evidence-based Medicine%循证医学的生命伦理学观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Some bioethical issues existed in Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) are often over-looked. These include the ethical basis on patient's autonomy, informed consent and information disclosure, the humanities of how to interpret and deal with doctor-patient relationship in the medical uncertainty, the moral sense about updating our knowledge and using of evidence, etc. Evidence-based Medicine is in line with the basic principles of bioethics, and it must be integrated into modern medical education and be used for clinical decision-making.%循证医学包涵的一些生命伦理学问题往往被忽视;如病人的自主权、知情同意和信息披露的伦理依据;医疗不确定性下如何解释和处理医患关系的人文基础;知识更新和运用证据的道德意识等.循证医学符合生命伦理学的基本原则;必须融入现代医学教育并用于临床医疗决策.

  4. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child: Relevance and Application to Pediatric Clinical Bioethics. (United States)

    Lansdown, Gerison; Lundy, Laura; Goldhagen, Jeffrey


    This article provides an overview of the relevance and import of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) to child health practice and pediatric bioethics. We discuss the four general principles of the CRC that apply to the implementation of all rights contained in the document, the right to health articulated in Article 24, and the important position ascribed to parents in fulfilling the rights of their children. We then examine how the CRC is implemented and monitored in law and practice. The CRC and associated principles of child rights provide strategies for rights-based approaches to clinical practice and health systems, as well as to policy design, professional training, and health services research. In light of the relevance of the CRC and principles of child rights to children's health and child health practice, it follows that there is an intersection between child rights and pediatric bioethics. Pediatric bioethicists and child rights advocates should work together to define this intersection in all domains of pediatric practice.

  5. Conflicts Between Parents and Health Professionals About a Child's Medical Treatment: Using Clinical Ethics Records to Find Gaps in the Bioethics Literature. (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind; Notini, Lauren; Phillips, Jessica


    Clinical ethics records offer bioethics researchers a rich source of cases that clinicians have identified as ethically complex. In this paper, we suggest that clinical ethics records can be used to point to types of cases that lack attention in the current bioethics literature, identifying new areas in need of more detailed bioethical work. We conducted an analysis of the clinical ethics records of one paediatric hospital in Australia, focusing specifically on conflicts between parents and health professionals about a child's medical treatment. We identified, analysed, and compared cases of this type from the clinical ethics records with cases of this type discussed in bioethics journals. While the cases from journals tended to describe situations involving imminent risk to the child's life, a significant proportion of the clinical ethics records cases involved different stakes for the child involved. These included distress, poorer functional outcome, poorer psychosocial outcome, or increased risk of surgical complications. Our analysis suggests that one type of case that warrants more detailed ethics research is parental refusal of recommended treatment, where the refusal does not endanger the child's life but rather some other aspect of the child's well-being.

  6. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.


    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...... - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as Empowerment for Child...

  7. 国际法视域下的生命伦理原则%Bioethics Principles in the International Legal Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Many international organizations ,particularly the UNESCO and the council of Europe ,are share of the opinion that burgeoning development of scientific knowledge in the field of biomedicine produces new bioethics problems . Therefore ,the convention or declaration with universal character should be established in order to codify the rules ,as precisely and fully as possible , in the fields of biomedicine and bioethics . Until now , there are five main relevant international instruments and some bioethics principles .In essence ,the bioethics principles enshrined in the instruments are considered to be the bottom line bioethical principles and human rights principles at their core .Moreover ,they are not mere rehearsals of abstract human rights norms . Rather , they infuse human rights with past and contemporary controversies in bioethics ,thereby illustrating the complementarities of human rights and bioethics .%以联合国教科文组织和欧洲委员会为代表的诸多国际组织意识到了生命医学技术高速发展滋生了诸多新的生命伦理问题。因此有必要创制若干国际公约或宣言,以尽可能细致而全面地解决生命伦理问题。到目前为止,主要有五个规制生命伦理问题的国际文件,其中提出了若干生命伦理原则。从其本质上讲,这些生命伦理原则既是底线生命伦理原则,又是国际人权原则。然而,这些生命伦理原则并不是国际人权原则在生命伦理领域的简单重复,而是涵盖了生命伦理领域过去与当下涉及人权问题的诸多争议,体现了生命伦理与人权的互补性。

  8. Reflection on Bioethics from the Perspective of Medical Humanism%医学人道主义视阈下生命伦理学的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振良; 李肖峰; 席建军


    The origin and development of bioethics marked the transform of medical humanism from tradition to modern . The modern bioethics was born of the development of modern medical science and technology .It constitutes from four dimensions :ethical foundations ,principles ,puzzles and technology .The purpose of bioethics starts from particular ethical basis to structure ethical principle and response the technology via the puzzle .The medical ethics committee is the main practical form of bioethics .As the modern form of medical humanism ,bioethics from the view of technological angle mainly pays attention to abnormal state of medicine ,minorities and relatively ignores the virtue ,that made it unable to replace the traditional medical humanism .%以生命伦理学的产生与发展为标志,医学人道主义思想完成了由传统到现代的转变。当代生命伦理学是现代医学科技发展的产物,其体系由伦理基础、原则、问题和技术四个维度构成,主旨是从一定的伦理基础出发构建伦理原则,通过对问题的探讨做出对技术的回应。医学伦理委员会的构建是生命伦理学主要的实践形式。作为医学人道主义的现代形式,生命伦理学由于从技术出发重点关注非常态的医学、关注少数人群和对美德的相对忽略,使其不能完成代替传统医学人道主义的任务。

  9. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.


    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  10. Bioethics in popular science: evaluating the media impact of The Immortal Llife of Henrietta Lacks on the biobank debate (United States)


    Background The global expansion of biobanks has led to a range of bioethical concerns related to consent, privacy, control, ownership, and disclosure. As an opportunity to engage broader audiences on these concerns, bioethicists have welcomed the commercial success of Rebecca Skloot’s 2010 bestselling book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. To assess the impact of the book on discussion within the media and popular culture more generally, we systematically analyzed the ethics-related themes emphasized in reviews and articles about the book, and in interviews and profiles of Skloot. Methods We conducted a content analysis of a population of relevant English-language articles and transcripts (n = 125) produced by news organizations and publications in the U.S., Canada, Great Britain/Ireland, and Australia/New Zealand. We scored each article for the emphasis and appearance of 9 ethics-related themes. These were informed consent, welfare of the vulnerable, compensation, scientific progress, control/access, accountability/oversight, privacy, public education, and advocacy. Results The informed consent theme dominated media discussion, with almost 39.2 percent of articles/transcripts featuring the theme as a major focus and 44.8 percent emphasizing the theme as a minor focus. Other prominent themes and frames of reference focused on the welfare of the vulnerable (18.4 percent major emphasis; 36.0 percent minor emphasis), and donor compensation (19.2 percent major; 52.8 percent minor). Ethical themes that comprised a second tier of prominence included those of scientific progress, control/access, and accountability/oversight. The least prominent themes were privacy, public education, and advocacy. Conclusions The book has been praised as an opportunity to elevate media discussion of bioethics, but such claims should be re-considered. The relatively narrow focus on informed consent in the media discussion generated by Skloot’s book may limit the ability of

  11. Educação: nova fronteira da bioética Education: new frontier of bioethics

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    Jansen Ribeiro Pires


    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a opinião de professores quanto à introdução de conteúdo sobre bioética no currículo do ensino médio. Foram selecionadas seis escolas: três públicas e três particulares da principal região administrativa de Brasília. De um universo de 340 professores, 150 aderiram à pesquisa. Foi apresentado um questionário com alternativas versando sobre a existência ou não de conteúdo relacionado com a construção de valores nos estudantes. O segundo momento contou com 140 dos professores que participaram da primeira fase. Foi-lhes entregue um texto que resumia o que era a bioética. Ao final, havia um espaço à pergunta se uma nova disciplina de bioética preencheria a lacuna curricular na formação de valores e atitudes éticas nos estudantes. A análise dos dados demonstrou que: (a a escola não tem cumprido a função de instrumentar a formação da consciência ética; (b na opinião dos docentes, isto vem acontecendo em razão da inexistência de uma disciplina que se responsabilize pela abordagem destas questões; (c 51% dos entrevistados se posicionaram a favor da introdução de uma disciplina que trate da bioética na estrutura curricular do ensino médio, por acreditarem que ela poderia contribuir à construção de valores morais e atitudes afirmativas dos estudantes.This study analyses the opinion of teachers regarding the inclusion of contents on Bioethics in the curricular structure of high school. Six schools were selected: three public and three private in the main administrative region of Brasília. In a universe of 340 teachers, 150 joined the research. They were given a questionnaire with answers about the existence or not of curricular contents related to the construction of values in the students. The second phase counted with 140 teachers out of those who joined the first part of the research. These teachers received a text briefly explaining what Bioethics is with a closed space for answering if

  12. Nonegalitarian Social Responsibility for Health: A Confucian Perspective on Article 14 of the UNESCO: Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping


    This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level.

  13. Promoting Models (United States)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  14. 什么是生命伦理学?——从历史发展的视角%What is bioethics: from perspective of historical development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    生命伦理学是20世纪60年代兴起于美国的一门新兴学科,旨在应对生命科学和生物技术的发展或医疗保健的演变使人类面临的种种伦理难题.生命伦理学的兴起有着特殊的社会历史背景.它在发展过程中出现的一些里程碑式的案例,对生命伦理学的发展产生了深远的影响.从其发展特征上看,生命伦理学和医学伦理学紧密联系,有着更为广泛的研究内容和独特的专业特性.生命伦理学要有效回应现代医学和生命科学的发展给人类带来的伦理难题,既要准确地界定伦理问题,又要以适当的方式将伦理学基础理论应用到具体问题当中.对生命伦理学的基本理论进行概述.%Bioethics is an emerging discipline originating in America of the 1960s, aiming to bridge between life science, biomedical technology, health care and ethics. Bioethics originated under particular social historical contexts; Some events or cases which happened as the cornerstone in the history have profound influences on the development of bioethics. With respect to its developmental features, even though bioethics historical linked with medical ethics, it owns broader contents and unique characteristics. In order to answer ethical dilemmas caused by the developments of contemporary medicine and life science, bioethics firstly needs to define ethical issues correctly, then apply fundamental theories of ethics to concrete scenarios in appropriate ways. This paper also makes a briefly introduction of the basic theories of bioethics.

  15. Whose dignity? Resolving ambiguities in the scope of "human dignity" in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald


    In October 2005, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR). A concept of central importance in the declaration is that of "human dignity". However, there is lack of clarity about its scope, especially concerning the question of whether prenatal human life has the same dignity and rights as born human beings. This ambiguity has implications for the interpretation of important articles of the delcaration, including 2(c), 4, 8, 10 and 11. The paper applies relevant provisions of the UDBHR to specific cases, addresses problems of internal consistency and considers attempts at clarifying the scope of "human dignity" by the negotiating parties. An analysis of the important relationship between the UDBHR and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to which the UDBHR refers in its title and elsewhere, shows that because of a crucial emphatic asymmetry, a broad reading according to which the UDBHR must be understood to ascribe human rights and dignity to prenatal life is untenable. However, the view that the UDBHR confers human rights and dignity on humans from the moment of birth onwards is robust and defensible. This conclusion is important for a proper understanding of the declaration and its use, as stated in Articles 1(2) and 22, the latter urging states ".. to give effect to the principles .. in this declaration". Similarly, it has implications for the use of the declaration in the wider context of bioethics-related law and policy, as well as in academic and other discussions where increasing reference to the UDBHR is likely.

  16. From human wrongs to universal rights: communication and feminist challenges for the promotion of women's health in the Third World. (United States)

    Hellsten, S K


    This article argues that in the quest for global bioethics in its relation to the promotion of women's health and women's rights, the main challenge is to, first, rise above the relativist trap and second, to solve the false dilemma between individualism and collectivism. Particularly in order to improve women's position and advance their well-being in many developing countries with patriarchal cultural practices, there is an urgent need to introduce modern medicine and to share more evenly and efficiently the health care resources of the industrialized societies. This presumes that we can find a normative bioethical approach that promotes the rights of individuals without striving for cultural assimilation and disrespect. From the philosophical point of view this means that we have to overcome the debate between the rival views of justice, and rather find the shared features of the various approaches, thus diminishing the exaggerated polarizations between them. The author claims that despite its importance in women's rights protection, feminist bioethics cannot remain as a normative alternative that can replace either liberal or communitarian approaches. Instead feminism needs to be part of both liberal and communitarian ethical thinking. Communitarianism, for its part, cannot offer an alternative to either liberalism or feminism, but it can function as an essential critical balancing force within these approaches. Individualist liberalism, on the other hand, has to find its way into collective social structures and accept their maintenance, instead of exhausting itself in its attempts to lift individuals above or beyond their social contexts. All in all, the article shows that in finding the global bioethical norms the incompatibility between universalist and relativist reasoning or between individualist and collective ethical positions per se is not the main problem. Rather the problem is in our persistent tendency to believe that such an incompatibility exists

  17. The Review of the 4th Bioethics Conference in China%第四届全国生命伦理学学术会议综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The 4th Bioethics Conference had been hold in Kunming, Yunnan province.More than 100 shcolars (including scholars from Hongkong and Taiwan) discussed hotly with many very important bioethical issue, and given some significant suggestions and advices.%第四届全国生命伦理学学术会议于2010年8月6日至8日在云南昆明召开,100多名来自国内及香港、台湾地区的与会学者对生命伦理学的一些重要问题展开了热烈而富有建设性的探讨.

  18. Reflexiones para una bioética implicada en la cultura de los derechos humanos Reflections for having bioethics involved in the human rights culture

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    Silvia Brussino


    Full Text Available La Bioética puede entenderse como una reflexión crítica sobre la vida y la salud, como una nueva forma de tomar decisiones en esos ámbitos, como un movimiento de reforma social y también como una disciplina académica. En cualquiera de los casos, la Bioética implica un diálogo interdisciplinario e intercultural. A su vez, los derechos humanos, como pautas morales universales, proporcionan una base plausible para el diálogo intercultural, permitiendo identificar un núcleo de valores transculturales que funcionen como “mínimos morales” en las arenas del diálogo entre culturas diversas y la búsqueda de consensos internacionales. En este trabajo se plantea la triple vinculación (histórico-genealógica, conceptual y práctica de la bioética y los derechos humanos y se reflexiona sobre algunas condiciones que deberían tomarse en cuenta para una bioética implicada en la cultura de los derechos humanos.Bioethics can be interpreted as a critical reflection on life and health, a new way to make decisions in these fields, a social reform movement, and an academic discipline. In any case, Bioethics implies an interdisciplinary and intercultural dialogue. At the same time, human rights, as universal moral guidelines, provide a plausible basis for this intercultural dialogue, for they enable the identification of a core of transcultural values that can work as “moral minima” in the dialogue among different cultures and the search for international consensuses. This article sets forth the triple connection (historical-genealogical, conceptual and practical between bioethics and human rights, and reflects on some of the conditions that should be taken into account for bioethics to be involved in the human rights culture.

  19. Discussion on bioethics education for medical social work profession%医务社会工作专业开展生命伦理教育探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石礼华; 刘庚常


    Bioethics education conducted by medical social work professionals can help college students to deeply understand the value and meaning of life.Thus they would respect the service objects.The ways to carry out Bioethics education include classroom teaching,professional practice and social practice,etc.The effects of bioethics education are the significant improvement in students' idea and skills on coordination of doctor-patient relationship,hospice service and professional service.%医务社会工作专业开展生命伦理教育,能够使学生加深对生命价值和意义的理解,从而尊重服务对象,完善自我人格.开展生命伦理教育的途径主要有课堂教学、专业实习和社会实践等.开展生命伦理教育的效果表现为,学生在医患关系协调、临终关怀服务、社会工作专业理念和技能方面都有明显提升.

  20. Bioethics in the Malay-Muslim Community in Malaysia: A Study on the Formulation of Fatwa on Genetically Modified Food by the National Fatwa Council. (United States)

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan; Man, Saadan; Chang, Lee Wei


    The field of bioethics aims to ensure that modern scientific and technological advancements have been primarily developed for the benefits of humankind. This field is deeply rooted in the traditions of Western moral philosophy and socio-political theory. With respect to the view that the practice of bioethics in certain community should incorporate religious and cultural elements, this paper attempts to expound bioethical tradition of the Malay-Muslim community in Malaysia, with shedding light on the mechanism used by the National Fatwa Council to evaluate whether an application of biological sciences is ethical or not. By using the application of the genetically modified food as a case study, this study has found that the council had reviewed the basic guidelines in the main references of shari'ah in order to make decision on the permissibility of the application. The fatwa is made after having consultation with the experts in science field. The council has taken all factors into consideration and given priority to the general aim of shari'ah which to serve the interests of mankind and to save them from harm.

  1. Correntes da bioética frente às pessoas com deficiência =Bioethical tendencies regarding peoplewith deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immig, Cláudio Vicente


    Full Text Available Este artigo foi extraído de parte do segundo capítulo da tese de doutorado apresentada pelo autor em fevereiro de 2010 na Academia Alfonsiana de Roma. Nele são apresentadas diferentes correntes bioéticas com seus respectivos posicionamentos e suas consequências práticas na vida das pessoas com deficiência. Através de algumas citações das obras Ética prática e Fundamentos da bioética, respectivamente de Peter Singer e Hugo T. Engelhardt, se constata a urgência de denunciar os perigos desta corrente utilitarista e deste modelo contratualista, pois ao negarem o status de pessoa para os seres humanos com deficiência mental grave, anulam a sua dignidade, negando os direitos proclamados pelas nações. Percebe-se a necessidade de uma antropologia de fundo para que o conceito de pessoa não fique restrito às capacidades, à autonomia e autodeterminação, mas que supere esta leitura parcial que reduz a dignidade humana à decisão dos agentes morais. Através da bioética personalista se observa a importância de considerar a pessoa em todas as suas dimensões, acentuando o aspecto da dignidade humana que é anterior às capacidades e às transcende, exigindo acolhida e respeito, de modo especial nas situações de vulnerabilidade, questionando assim o agir ético. This article was extracted from the second chapter of the doctorate thesis presented by the author in February 2010 in the Alphonsian Academy of Rome. In the article are showed different bioethics fronts with their respective positions and their practical consequences in disabled people’s lives. By some quotations from the works Practical Ethics and The foundations of Bioethics, from Peter Singer and Hugo T. Engelhardt respectively, we can see the urgency of reporting the dangers of this utilitarian front and this contractual model, because, when they deny the person status to the human beings with a serious mental disease, they declare their dignity invalid, denying the

  2. Bioética de la actividad pericial médica Bioethics of Medical Expert-Witness Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aso Escario


    Full Text Available La Bioética implica hoy en día a toda la actividad médica, habiéndose convertido en un factor crucial a la hora de orientar la acción en muchas situaciones clínicas y evaluar materias médicas tales como publicaciones, artículos y conferencias. Sin embargo, hasta el momento, la Bioética ha prestado poca atención a la actividad pericial médica. Ello a pesar de los importantes problemas que surgen en los peritajes ante los Tribunales. Factores como la cualificación del perito, sesgo, error, confidencialidad, conflictos entre actividad asistencial y pericial, están entre las principales materias potenciales de discusión ética. En España, en particular, hay una falta de regulación de estos aspectos, causando importantes consecuencias sobre todo en casos de litigación por cuestiones de responsabilidad médica. El presente trabajo intenta revisar la situación en España, comparada con las posiciones en el extranjero, y enfatizar la necesidad de una regulación legal, profesional pero sobre todo ética de la actividad pericial médica ante los Tribunales.Bioethics involves the entire medical activity, becoming, in recent years, a crucial factor in evaluating medical matters such as publications, conferences, articles, and clinical cases analysis. Nevertheless, expert-witness testimony is sheldomly included in Bioethic discussions, despite the important problems that arise from medical testimonies in tribunals. Factors as expert qualification, bias, error, confidentiality, conflict between clinical and expert activities, are among the main potential subjects of Ethical discussion. In Spain in particular, there is a lack of regulation in these matters, determining important consequences mainly in professional responsability judgement cases. The present paper tries to review the Spanish situation, compared to abroad positions, and enphasize the need of a more extensive legal, professional but mainly ethical regulation of medical expert

  3. Firing up the nature/nurture controversy: bioethics and genetic determinism. (United States)

    de Melo-Martín, I


    It is argued here that bioethicists might inadvertently be promoting genetic determinism: the idea that genes alone determine human traits and behaviours. Discussions about genetic testing are used to exemplify how they might be doing so. Quite often bioethicists use clinical cases to support particular moral obligations or rights as if these cases were representative of the kind of information we can acquire about human diseases through genetic testing, when they are not. On other occasions, the clinical cases are presented in simplistic ways that portray genetic testing as yielding information more accurate than it actually is. It is concluded that, because of the problematic implications that the ideology of genetic determinism might have for individuals' wellbeing and for our public policies, bioethicists should be careful to present these issues in ways that do not promote questionable ideas about the causal role of genes in human diseases and behaviours.

  4. How organizational context affects bioethical decision-making: pharmacists' management of gatekeeping processes in retail and hospital settings. (United States)

    Chiarello, Elizabeth


    Social science studies of bioethics demonstrate that ethics are highly contextual, functioning differently across local settings as actors make daily decisions "on the ground." Sociological studies that demonstrate the key role organizations play in shaping ethical decision-making have disproportionately focused on physicians and nurses working in hospital settings where they contend with life and death issues. This study broadens our understanding of the contexts of ethical decision-making by empirically examining understudied healthcare professionals - pharmacists - working in two organizational settings, retail and hospital, where they act as gatekeepers to regulated goods and services as they contend with ethical issues ranging from the serious to the mundane. This study asks: How do organizations shape pharmacists' identification, negotiation, and resolution of ethical challenges; in other words, how do organizations shape pharmacists' gatekeeping processes? Based on 95 semi-structured interviews with U.S. pharmacists practicing in retail and hospital pharmacies conducted between September 2009 and May 2011, this research finds that organizations influence ethical decision-making by shaping how pharmacists construct four gatekeeping processes: medical, legal, fiscal, and moral. Each gatekeeping process manifests differently across organizations due to how these settings structure inter-professional power dynamics, proximity to patients, and means of accessing information. Findings suggest new directions for theorizing about ethical decision-making in medical contexts by drawing attention to new ethical actors, new organizational settings, an expanded definition of ethical challenges, and a broader conceptualization of gatekeeping.

  5. Communication strategies and intensive interaction therapy meet the theology of the body: bioethics in dialogue with people with profound disabilities. (United States)

    Matthews, Pia


    Academic bioethics does not appear to be interested in communication and its ethical concerns unless communication is to do with issues such as capacity, consent, truth telling and confidentiality. In contrast practitioners are interested in actually communicating with their patients and they are often particularly perplexed when it comes to people with profound disabilities where communication appears disrupted. Although some new and not so new communication strategies, and especially intensive interaction, are available, little has been written on either the ethical concerns these may present or the deeper concepts that underpin them. This article explores the practical applications of some of these communication strategies. By engaging these strategies with theology, and specifically Pope John Paul's Theology of the Body, this article identifies and addresses some significant ethical issues that may arise, notably the risk of dualism and of objectifying the human person. Moreover it provides communication strategies with a rationale that goes beyond practicalities to one based on respect for human dignity, justice and solidarity.

  6. Explaining the emergence of euthanasia law in the Netherlands: how the sociology of law can help the sociology of bioethics. (United States)

    Weyers, Heleen


    The debate over the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia is most often seen to be the result of three changes in society: individualisation, diminished taboos concerning death and changes in the balance of power in medicine. The fact that these changes occurred in many western countries but led to legalisation in only a few makes this claim problematic. I examine whether socio-legal propositions, with respect to the emergence of laws which focus on social control, offer a better approach to understanding the development of rules allowing and governing euthanasia. After a short sketch of the history of the Dutch law regulating euthanasia, I discuss these three societal changes in the light of shifts in the social control of medical behaviour that shortens life. I show that the Dutch relaxation of the prohibition of euthanasia goes together with new forms of social control: doctors' self control is complemented with second-party control (by patients), professional third-party control and governmental control. My work calls attention to the fact that bioethics is part of larger systems of social control.

  7. In vitro fertilization (IVF) in mammals: epigenetic and developmental alterations. Scientific and bioethical implications for IVF in humans. (United States)

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Irarrázaval, Isabel; Rolle, Augusto J; Gutiérrez, Juan I; Moreno, Ricardo D; Santos, Manuel J


    The advent of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in animals and humans implies an extraordinary change in the environment where the beginning of a new organism takes place. In mammals fertilization occurs in the maternal oviduct, where there are unique conditions for guaranteeing the encounter of the gametes and the first stages of development of the embryo and thus its future. During this period a major epigenetic reprogramming takes place that is crucial for the normal fate of the embryo. This epigenetic reprogramming is very vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions such as the ones implied in IVF, including in vitro culture, nutrition, light, temperature, oxygen tension, embryo-maternal signaling, and the general absence of protection against foreign elements that could affect the stability of this process. The objective of this review is to update the impact of the various conditions inherent in the use of IVF on the epigenetic profile and outcomes of mammalian embryos, including superovulation, IVF technique, embryo culture and manipulation and absence of embryo-maternal signaling. It also covers the possible transgenerational inheritance of the epigenetic alterations associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including its phenotypic consequences as is in the case of the large offspring syndrome (LOS). Finally, the important scientific and bioethical implications of the results found in animals are discussed in terms of the ART in humans.

  8. A Child as a Donor for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Bioethical Justification—A Case Study on Sickle Cell Disease (United States)

    Hamerschlak, Nelson; Kondo, Andrea; de Souza, Polianna Mara Rodrigues; Pedreira, Wilson Leite; Mantovani, Luiz Fernando Alves Lima; Troster, Eduardo Juan; Grunspun, Henrique; Bueno, Marco Aurélio Scarpinella


    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important treatment option for children with severe and refractory sickle cell disease (SCD) with debilitating clinical complications. HSCT with cells from the bone marrow of a HLA-identical sibling used in SCD has a low mortality risk, high cure rate, and high event-free survival rate after a median follow-up of 5-6 years. However, matched donors are found in only about 20% of the patients. A boy aged 8 years with SCD had a sister, <2 years old, a fully compatible donor. The boy met all eligibility criteria to undergo HSCT, and he was suffering from cognitive and neurologic impairment due to ischemic events. A Bioethical Committee jointly discussed the ethical issues on this case after a pediatric evaluation released the very young sister for donation. The justification was that the sister would benefit from the donation too because of the greater likelihood of survival and cure and less suffering of her brother. The parents were informed about the risks and benefits for both children, and the family was psychologically evaluated. After their consent, HSCT was performed and the patient is cured from SCD. The complication for the donor was the need for blood transfusion. PMID:28326208

  9. Situation Ethics and Bioethical Decision-making%境遇伦理学与生命伦理决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    境遇伦理学是方法而不是体系;境遇伦理学认为任何事物正当与否;均因具体境遇而定;爱是永恒的善;爱是唯一的规范;爱同公正是一回事;爱不是喜欢;爱证明手段之正当性;爱是当时当地做决定.境遇伦理学厌恶伦理学的律法主义;反对僵硬不变的伦理规范教条;境遇伦理学对于处理生命伦理学的一些两难问题;有重要的参考意义.%Situation ethics is a method rather than the system, which believes that anything justi-fied or not is due to the specific situation. Love is permanently good, the unique rule. Love and justice are the same. Love is not likeness. The approve means of love is justified. Love is making decision at the given time and place. Situation ethics disgusts legalistn of ethics, against the rigid ethical rules. Situation ethics is significant to deal with some bioethical dilemmas.

  10. On industrialization of transgenic crops from the perspective of bioethics%生命伦理学视野下的转基因作物产业化问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新志; 李俊


    转基因作物的产业化作为当前生命伦理学的重要问题之一日益受到我国学术界、政府和广大公众的关注.转基因作物产业化不仅关涉到我国13亿人的吃饭问题,也与我国公众的身心健康、基本权利密切相关.转基因作物产业化的生命伦理意蕴主要体现在:转基因作物产业化的基础是确保公众健康与生命安全,关键是尊重公众权利,核心是促进社会公正.%As one of the significant issues of bioethics, the industrialization of transgenic crops has been paid more attention by the academia, the government and the public. The industrialization of transgenic crops is not only related with the food problem of 1.3 billion people in China, but also with the public's physical and mental health as well as basic rights. The ethical significance of the industrialization of transgenic crops are mainly embodied as follows: the foundation is to ensure safety of the health and safety of the public, the key is to respect the rights of the public, and the core is to promote social justice.

  11. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness. (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural


    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, "extreme centrism", and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics-separate and together-have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  12. 生命伦理学及其四大基本原则%The Bioethics and Its Four Basic Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志炎; 陈仁彪


    @@ 生命伦理学起源于1950年代,1970年代成为一门独立的学科.我国于1980年代初起步.生命伦理学的英文bioethics,由bio和ethics两个词组成,意即在进行生命科学研究时既要遵循生命科学规律,又要合乎伦理学的原则.

  13. [Netnography and the bioethical analysis of therapeutic tourism blogs for stem cells]. (United States)

    Monsores, Natan; Lopes, Cecilia; Bezerra, Edilnete Maria Bessa; Silva, Natasha Lunara


    Therapeutic tourism is a recent phenomenon in public health and has had repercussions among people with disabilities. Virtual social networks have enabled people to organize themselves to discover ways and means of seeking unconventional treatments in China. In this context, foreign biotech companies have offered experimental cell treatment therapies. In this work, netnography (conducting ethnographic research online) was conducted on the blogs of 58 people who organized campaigns to carry out treatment in China. In the analysis it was found that the main motivation for mobilization of resources and people in order to submit a disabled child to a treatment with stem cells without scientific proof is the rhetoric of hope promoted by stem cell laboratories. The conclusion drawn is that due to the ethical, legal and health implications, debate on the subject should be broadened in order to protect vulnerable individuals against inadvertent exposure to health risks due to treatments without proven control or rigor.

  14. The Foundations of a Human Right to Health: Human Rights and Bioethics in Dialogue. (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey


    Human rights, including the right to health, are grounded in protecting and promoting human dignity. Although commitment to human dignity is a widely shared value, the precise meaning and requirements behind the term are elusive. It is also unclear as to how a commitment to human dignity translates into specific human rights, such as the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and delineates their scope and obligations. The resulting lack of clarity about the foundations of and justification for the right to health has been problematic in a number of ways. This article identifies the strengths of and some of the issues with the grounding of the right to health in human dignity. It then examines ethical and philosophical expositions of human dignity and several alternative foundations proposed for the right to health, including capability theory and the work of Norman Daniels, to assess whether any offer a richer and more adequate conceptual grounding for the right to health.

  15. Abortamento provocado na adolescência sob a perspectiva bioética Abortion among adolescents: a bioethical approach

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    José Humberto Belmino Chaves


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever características sócio-demográficos, comportamentais, clínicos, analise anatomopatológica, e o tipo de abortamento em adolescentes, de modo a discuti-los bioeticamente. MÉTODOS: aplicou-se questionário estruturado no atendimento a 201 adolescentes com abortamento incompleto submetidas à curetagem uterina, em uma maternidade pública no nordeste do Brasil. RESULTADOS: idade média de 16,1 anos; parceiro estável; mulatas; não usavam preservativos nas relações sexuais; média de idade de início de atividade sexual de 15 anos; não planejaram a gestação; desejavam a gravidez; idade gestacional média de 13,2 semanas. O desfecho da gravidez, quanto ao tipo de abortamento 1,99% abortamento espontâneo e 81,59% certamente provocados, dados obtido através da classificação da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Tecidos embrionários e maternos no anatomopatológico 88,56% e 11,44%, respectivamente. Entre os abortamentos certamente provocados, um caso de mola hidatiforme. CONCLUSÕES: recomenda-se urgência nos programas estratégicos de planejamento familiar; realização do anatomopatológico no material proveniente de aborto; a bioética refletindo pró-ativamente se apresenta como instrumento para diretrizes mínimas de proteção e assistência a adolescente, e auxilio ao profissional de saúde.OBJECTIVES: to describe the socio-demographic, behavioral, clinical and anatomical-pathological characteristics and the type of abortion in adolescents as a way of discussing the subject from a bio-ethical perspective. METHODS: a structured questionnaire was applied to 201 adolescent girls receiving treatment for incomplete abortion and being subjected to uterine curretage, at a public maternity unit in the Northeast region of Brazil. RESULTS: the mean age was 16.1 years; most girls had a stable partner, were of mixed race, and were not accustomed to using condoms during sexual intercourse. The mean age for initiation of

  16. Bioética y asignación de recursos para la atención odontológica del adulto mayor en Chile Bioethics and dental health care resource allocation for elderly people in Chile

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    I Espinoza Santander


    Full Text Available Una creciente preocupación entre quienes reconocen que los recursos sanitarios son finitos y que el deseo de beneficios en salud puede ser ilimitado, ha promovido una discusión sobre qué es una distribución justa y equitativa de los servicios en salud. En este escenario, la asignación de recursos para la atención sanitaria de adultos mayores es objeto de debate. La planificación de programas odontológicos para adultos mayores, necesita conocer la magnitud y distribución de las patologías en la población y costo-efectividad de las terapias. Sin embargo, una discusión que justifique la asignación de recursos debe ser planteada previamente, y más que datos demográficos y epidemiológicos, requiere incluir las consideraciones éticas que sostengan estas políticas. En esta revisión se expone brevemente las principales características de la salud oral de los adultos mayores en Chile. Posteriormente, se analizan algunas consideraciones bioéticas que pueden limitar o sustentar la asignación de recursos en este grupo de edad. Finalmente, se concluye que los fundamentos de Justicia en Salud y Bioética de la Protección deben aplicarse a la discusión sobre la asignación de recursos para programas de atención odontológica en los adultos mayores y otros grupos susceptibles que deberían ser el foco de la protección.A growing concern among those who recognize that healthcare resources are finite and that desire for health benefits can be unlimited has promoted in recent years a policy of cost reduction, accountability, and an analysis of what is a fair and equitable health service. In this scenario, the resource allocation for health care for older adults has been debated. Planning for dental programs for older adults, like any other, needs to know the magnitude and distribution of diseases in the population and what are the cost-effective therapies. However, a discussion justifying the allocated resources should be raised previously

  17. Human Dignity and the Manipulation of the Sense of Happiness: From the Viewpoint of Bioethics and Philosophy of Life

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    Masahiro Morioka


    Full Text Available If our sense of happiness is closely connected to brain functions, it might become possible to manipulate our brain in a much more refined and effective way than current methods allow. In this paper I will make some remarks on the manipulation of the sense of happiness and illuminate the relationship between human dignity and happiness. The President’s Council on Bioethics discusses this topic in the 2003 report Beyond Therapy, and concludes that the use of SSRIs might make us “feel happy for no good reason at all, or happy even when there remains much in one’s life to be truly unhappy about.” I will extend their line of thought through two thought experiments. In the first, a “perfect happiness” drug is given to a person, and in the second a happiness device with an on/off switch is placed inside a person. The first case leads us to conclude that a life with dignity means a life free from domination by the sense of happiness and the sense of unhappiness. The second case leads us to conclude that a life with dignity requires substantive freedom to choose unhappiness. At the end of this paper, I present a new interpretation of “human dignity,” that is, “a life with dignity means a life in which we are able to explore our own life, equipped with both happiness and unhappiness, without regret, through relationships with others, without being exploited by the desires of anyone, and without being dominated by our own desires.”

  18. Retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI Challenges of bioethics in twenty-first century medicine

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    Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz


    Full Text Available Para plantear posibles retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI es necesario considerar que existieron algunos retos en el pasado (en el origen de esa nueva disciplina llamada bioética; que los retos se han ido modificando con el avance científico, biomédico y humanístico; considerando que los retos que pueden plantearse para el futuro serán, de diferentes maneras, resultado de este devenir histórico. Se plantean como grandes retos: los problemas no resueltos de justicia, equidad y pobreza; los retos que plantea la introducción de nuevas tecnologías con el paradigma de la nanomedicina y los retos que plantea el avance de las neurociencias con el paradigma de la neuroética.In order to propose possible challenges of bioethics in the twenty-first century medicine, it is necessary to consider that there were some past challenges (at the origin of this new discipline called bioethics, that the challenges have been modified with scientific, biomedical and humanistic breakthroughs, considering at the same time that challenges that may arise in the future will be, in different ways, a result of this historical evolution. The major challenges would be in the future: the unsolved problems of justice, equity and poverty; the challenges posed by the introduction of new technologies with the nanomedicine paradigm; and finally, the challenges driven by breakthroughs in neurosciences with the neuroethics paradigm.

  19. Bioethics and health psychology: reflecting upon life and death questions / A Bioética e a psicologia da saúde: reflexões sobre questões de vida e morte

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    Wilma da Costa Torres


    Full Text Available The present work focus on factors that contributed to the emerging field of Bioethic. Among, those, we point out: a technological and scientific revolution; b social revolution of the 60's. It describes the historical development of Bioethic, from its former definition as a science of human survival to its current stage – Global Bioethic and its boundaries with different fields of knowledge. Health Psychology takes part in this multidisciplinary context, mainly due to its reflection upon challenging themes that involve Bioethics; among these themes, we discuss here those brought about by intensive medicine (euthanasia and disthanasia and the ones that are a consequence of substitutive medicine (transplants. Basic questions, such as death definition, free and informed consent, are analysed as still polemic and controversial. The article is concluded raising questions upon the chimeras of science to triumph over diseases and the problems brought about by the cannibal order, that are expected to diminish as a consequence of the progress of etiological and physiological therapeutics.

  20. On the Law Policy of Bioethics: from the Angle of Luhmann's Systems Theory%生命伦理的法政策论析——以卢曼的社会系统论为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑荣; 王玉柱


    运用卢曼系统论原理;将医疗、法律、政治等作为分析对象对生命伦理的法律政策问题进行探讨;把生命伦理问题与政治法律系统置于系统论中进行阐释;通过生命伦理、法、政策系统关联性;找出生命伦理与政治、法律系统的切合点;为生命伦理的法政策论题可持续研究提供了新的切入点.%This paper discusses the law and policy problems on bioethics from the angle of Luh-mann's systems theory; it tries to interpret the problems of bioethics in the systematology. This article intends to find the relevancy between the bioethics and law policy, and tries to provide a new angle on the study of the problem of law policy on bioethics.

  1. The Current Difficulties and Development Trends of Chinese Bioethics%中国生命伦理学的当下难题及发展趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万旭; 郭玉宇


    Chinese Bioethics experienced a generation, development and deepening process. Comparing with the development of Bioethics in west, the current Chinese Bioethics faced with difficulty in theory, practice and development. Chinese Bioethics should look for her own direction actively, and should grasp the important trends such as localization and globalization complemented each other, diversification and standardization coexisted, and reason and faith melted altogether.%中国生命伦理学经历了一个萌芽、发展和深化的过程,与西方生命伦理学的发展相比较,当下的中国生命伦理学面临着理论难题、实践难题和发展难题.中国生命伦理学应当积极寻找自己的方向,在发展过程中应当把握本土化与全球化互补、多元化与规范化并存、理性与信仰共融这几个重要趋势.

  2. 中国传统文化视野下对西方生命伦理学的批判性反思%Critical Reflection on Western Bioethics Under View-field of Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    峗怡; 任正安; 贺加


    H.Tristram Engelharts The Foundations of Bioethics is the classic representative of western bioeth-ics, in which he attempt to sets up "procedure morals" for the moral practice of secular ethics with poly element vision field of post mordernity, to find a channel to communicate for " stranger". However, there are somewhat biases in the western bioethics based on cognition of "the rational person". This paper presents a critical scrutiny, in the perspective of Chinese traditional culture, on the western bioethics advocated view, of "People" as the centre, the moral construction and the lap between Chinese and western culture circumstances.%恩格尔哈特的《生命伦理学基础》是西方生命伦理学的经典之作,他用后现代的多元视域,尝试为俗世伦理学的道德实践构建“程序道德”,为道德“异乡人”找到沟通渠道.但是,基于“理性人”认知下的西方的生命伦理学仍有偏颇,以中国传统文化为视阈,对西方生命伦理以“人”为中心的视角、道德的建构以及中西医文化落差境遇予以批判性审视.

  3. Psicoterapia e bioética: aproximando conceitos, aperfeiçoando práticas Psychotherapy and bioethics: linking concepts, improving practices

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    Martha Wallig Brusius Ludwig


    rmino de Consentimiento Libre y Aclarado (TCLA en el proceso psicoterápico, la formación profesional y otros. Se pretende, con este artículo, presentar algunos cuestionamientos poco trabajados, haciendo una contribución reflexiva, pero no determinante.Issues on the link between Psychology, therapy, training and Bioethics are provided and discussed. Current discussion is justified due to the fact that Bioethics has become an important subject in the context of contemporary technological and scientific improvements as a whole. It is thus essential to discuss Bioethics in all its specialties, taking the human being as its focus and center. Since Psychology deals with human beings, it may be highly contribute towards the solution of dilemmas in Bioethics and its importance may be highlighted within this area. Consequently, the manner bioethical principles may be transposed to the psychotherapeutic process is of paramount importance. Current essay reflects on the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist may face, on the use of the Term of Free and Clear Consent (TCLE in the psychotherapeutic process, professional training, among others. It shall also shed some light on less discussed issues for reflective, albeit not determinant, contributions.

  4. Bioética e pesquisa na Fisioterapia: aproximação e vínculos Bioethics and research in physical therapy: approximation and bonds

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    Ana Fátima Viero Badaró


    Full Text Available A Bioética, como campo disciplinar, teve um avanço significativo nas últimas décadas. A América Latina e principalmente o Brasil seguiram essa tendência mundial, com edição expressiva de publicações na área da saúde. Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar como questões éticas e bioéticas foram incorporadas à prática e à pesquisa na área da Fisioterapia. Este estudo exploratório procedeu à revisão sistemática das bases de dados MedLine/PubMed, SciELO, ProQuest, Scopus, Lilacs, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde e Google acadêmico, sites de periódicos de Fisioterapia, recorrendo a uma bibliografia bioética brasileira editada em 2002 e a contato com autores, em busca de artigos publicados a partir de 2000 que abordassem temas relacionados às questões éticas e bioéticas na fisioterapia. Excluíram-se livros, comentários e/ou resenhas de livros, artigos em revistas não-indexadas e textos com enfoque comercial ou de divulgação. Foram selecionados 23 artigos, 2 editoriais e uma seção de revista. Verificou-se que a evolução da pesquisa bioética na fisioterapia é crescente no cenário internacional, mas há carência desses estudos no âmbito nacional. Isso demonstra a necessidade premente de incluir essa temática na formação e nas discussões dos fisioterapeutas, como forma de contribuir para o fortalecimento da identidade profissional.The bioethics discipline has had a significant advancement in the last decades. Latin America, and mainly Brazil, have followed this world trend, showing a good number of publications by health care professionals. This study aims at verifying how the themes of bioethics and ethics were incorporated into practice and research in the physical therapy field. This systematic literature review has drawn on MedLine/PubMed, SciELO, ProQuest, Scopus, Lilacs, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde and Scholar Google databases, on physical therapy journal websites, also resorting to a Brazilian bioethics


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


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  6. Vulnerabilidade e vida nua: bioética e biopolítica na atualidade Vulnerability and bare life: bioethics and biopolitics today

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    Márcia Arán


    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a noção de vulnerabilidade utilizada pela bioética para debater as pesquisas com seres humanos na atualidade, a partir de uma reflexão acerca da biopolítica na cultura contemporânea. Para isto, partiu-se da leitura de Giorgio Agamben dos modelos de poder foucaultianos - Soberania e Biopolítica - para, em seguida, analisar a noção de vida nua - "vida sem nenhum valor". Se os dispositivos de poder nas democracias modernas conjugam estratégias biopolíticas com a emergência da força do poder soberano que transforma a vida em vida nua, é fato que a bioética deve ser um instrumento de proteção das pessoas vulneradas. No entanto, além do território do estado do direito, a bioética também deve poder penetrar nas zonas de indiferenciação, onde soberania e técnica se misturam, profanando a fronteiras biopolíticas e problematizando a própria condição de vulnerabilidade.The study had the objective of analyzing the notion of vulnerability that is used by bioethics to debate research involving human beings today, from reflections on biopolitics in contemporary culture. For this, the starting point was Giorgio Agamben's reading of Foucault's model of power (Sovereignty and Biopolitics, with the aim of subsequently analyzing the notion of bare life: "life without any value". If the devices of power in modern democracies conjoin biopolitical strategies with the emergence of the strength of sovereign power that transforms life into bare life, in fact bioethics must be an instrument for protecting people who have become vulnerable. Nevertheless, beyond the territory of the rule of law, bioethics must also penetrate the undifferentiated zones where sovereignty and techniques become mixed, disrespecting the frontiers of biopolitics and questioning the condition of vulnerability itself.

  7. Bioética da proteção e papel do Estado: problemas morais no acesso desigual à água potável The bioethics of protection and the state's role: moral problems in unequal access to drinking water

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    Carlos Antonio Alves Pontes


    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo examinar o problema de saúde pública representado pelo acesso desigual à água potável, do ponto de vista das ferramentas analítica e normativa da bioética da proteção. Para tanto, por um lado, analisam-se as implicações morais do atendimento desigual de necessidades primárias, quais sejam, as situações de fragilidade e ameaça de grupos populacionais e as responsabilidades públicas para com o abastecimento de água; e, por outro, propõem-se soluções comprometidas com a proteção da saúde pública, bem como com a promoção dos legítimos projetos de desenvolvimento pessoal. Considera-se que a aplicação da bioética da proteção permite reafirmar o papel do Estado como responsável pela prestação dos serviços de abastecimento de água, pois, ao mesmo tempo em que desaconselha as políticas de privatização não comprometidas com o bem público, justifica moralmente políticas públicas protetoras capazes de corrigir situações de injustiça social.The aim of this study is to examine unequal access to drinking water as a public health problem in terms of normative and analytical tools in the bioethics of protection. Therefore, we analyze both the moral implications of unequal treatment of primary needs, such as situations of vulnerability and threat to population groups, and the public sector's responsibility in supplying safe water. In addition, solutions are proposed for the protection of public health and the promotion of legitimate personal development projects. The bioethics of protection reaffirms the state's role in maintaining the drinking water supply and recommends avoiding a policy of privatization of this public good, meanwhile justifying public policies to correct situations of social injustice.


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    Veronica Moreno L.


    Full Text Available El Campo temático que se presenta está direccionado hacia la descripción y sistematización de los desarrollos curriculares, (formativos e identitarios de las instituciones de educación Superior franciscana del siglo XXI. Recoge los avances hermenéuticos y resultados investigativos en torno a la formación socio – humanista de la Universidad de San Buenaventura (USB, que se han liderado desde su unidad de apoyo académico “Formación humana y Bioética.”AbstractThe thematic field which is introduced here is directed towards the description and the systematization of curriculum development -formative and identitarian- of the Franciscan Higher Education of the 21st century institutions. It collects research results and hermeneutical advances around the socio-humanistic formation at Saint Bonaventure University (SBU, which have been promoted from the "Human Formation and Bioethics,” its academic support unit.

  9. 医学与伦理能否同行——从生命伦理学的特点探讨科技与伦理的关系%Can Medicine and Ethics Travel Together: Discussion on the Relation between Science, Technology and Ethics from the Features of Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    内在自生,问题导向、案例推进和体制化、规范化是生命伦理学兴起和发展的三个特点,表明科技与伦理的关系发生了新变化.科学家在科技伦理的舞台上扮演着重要角色,生命科学和医学走到了前台,科技与伦理的矛盾冲突也有所不同.为此,要努力探求科技与伦理的良性互动,培养一批高素质人才.%lnternal creation, problem-oriented, case promoting, institutionalization and standardization are the features of the creation and development of bioethics. It indicates the new change of relation between science, technology and ethics. Scientists play an important role on the stage of scientific and technical ethics. Bioscience and medicine go on the stage. The conflicts between science, technology and ethics are different. Therefore, we should seek the optimum interaction between science, technology and ethics and cultivate highly qualified talents.

  10. Health care ethics consultation: an update on core competencies and emerging standards from the American Society For Bioethics and Humanities' core competencies update task force. (United States)

    Tarzian, Anita J


    Ethics consultation has become an integral part of the fabric of U.S. health care delivery. This article summarizes the second edition of the Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation report of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. The core knowledge and skills competencies identified in the first edition of Core Competencies have been adopted by various ethics consultation services and education programs, providing evidence of their endorsement as health care ethics consultation (HCEC) standards. This revised report was prompted by thinking in the field that has evolved since the original report. Patients, family members, and health care providers who encounter ethical questions or concerns that ethics consultants could help address deserve access to efficient, effective, and accountable HCEC services. All individuals providing such services should be held to the standards of competence and quality described in the revised report.

  11. Cooperação em saúde na perspectiva bioética Cooperation in health from the bioethical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paranaguá de Santana


    Full Text Available O estudo considera o cenário das relações internacionais na transição para o Século XXI como pano de fundo para uma reflexão sobre a perspectiva bioética da cooperação internacional em saúde. Apresenta uma análise exploratória sobre a produção científica interdisciplinar da bioética com a saúde pública no contexto internacional, revelando que o enfoque de ambas, ou mesmo das articulações entre esses dois temas, tem parca abordagem do ponto de vista das relações diplomáticas. Descreve a metodologia que permitiu selecionar publicações catalogadas nessa área interdisciplinar em duas fontes bibliográficas disponíveis na Web (93 artigos na BVS/Bireme e 161 na PubMed, apontando dificuldades na recuperação dessa literatura. Advoga o potencial da vertente epistemológica que floresceu na América Latina sob a designação da Bioética de Intervenção na abordagem dos desafios que afrontam o sistema de cooperação internacional, acenado como referencial de análise da cooperação sul-sul em saúde. Conclui propondo a sistematização e o aprofundamento do conhecimento na interseção da bioética com a saúde pública e a diplomacia, cuja projeção no âmbito político-institucional poderá contribuir para a redução das desigualdades das condições de saúde entre as nações.This study considers the scenario of international relations in the transition to the twenty-first century as a backdrop for reflection on the bioethical perspective of international cooperation in health. It presents an exploratory analysis of the interdisciplinary scientific production in bioethics and public health in the international context, revealing that the focus and confluence of both issues has scant coverage in terms of diplomatic relations. It describes the methodology used to select publications cataloged in this interdisciplinary area from two bibliographic sources available on the web (93 articles in BVS/BIREME and 161 in Pub

  12. How Bioethics is Complementing Human Rights in Realizing Health Access for Clinical Trial Participants: The Case of Formative PrEP Access in South Africa. (United States)

    Singh, Jerome


    Following the demise of apartheid, human rights in South Africa are now constitutionally enshrined.The right to health in South Africa's Constitution has been credited with transforming the lives of millions of people by triggering programmatic reforms in HIV treatment and the prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV.However, a constitutionally enshrined right to health offers no guarantee that clinical trial participants will enjoy post-trial access to beneficial interventions. Using access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in South Africa as an example, this paper argues that adherence to bioethics norms could realize the right to health for trial participants following the end of a clinical trial.

  13. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Dove


    Full Text Available The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science; and consortia ethics (Big Ethics. These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  14. Sentiency, bioethics and animal welfare: concepts that need to be discussed in higher education to change the teaching and researching paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson do Prado Duzanski


    Full Text Available This study investigated the knowledge of students of Veterinary Medicine and Biological Sciences of the State University of Northern Paraná, Campus Luiz Meneghel, on the ethical and legal guidelines of animal experimentation, as well as the possibility of substitute methods for using sentient animals in classes and scientific practices. The research involved 162 freshman students and graduating students, aged 17 to 32 years. The students responded to the questionnaire containing objective and subjective questions, and the answers were analysed by descriptive statistics. It was observed that 87% of the students were unaware of the concept of the “3Rs” and 81.5% did not know the existence of alternative methods that can replace the use of live animals in studies. In addition, only 24.7% of respondents reported they had studied “bioethics” before graduation. However, 94.3% and 96.2% of the students from veterinary medicine and biological sciences, respectively, considered it important to insert animal welfare and bioethics in the curriculum of such courses. The results demonstrated that the ethical and statutory guidelines that rule the use of animals in scientific experiments and in classes are unknown even among senior students and there is still great resistance to the exclusion of animal models. Thus, it is important that animal welfare and bioethics remain in the curriculum in higher education through the insertion of such subjects, even as elective courses that aim to work with methodologies and innovative strategies in synergistic action with ethics committees for animal use, which are responsible for analysing, guiding and supervising the relevance of animal use in education and research. Therefore, the curriculum will be able to achieve rationalization in the use of animal models, the sustainable and “humanitarian” development of teaching and research, and the training of more conscious and ethical professionals, perceptions

  15. 克隆技术引发的伦理之争%Bioethical argument by cloning technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔中东; 王莲芸


    Since Dolly was born, the ethical argument of the human cloning keeps chackling. Almost all of political organisms as well as governments worldwide clearly claimed their opposite opinions to clone a person for the reproductive purpose; moreover, scientists delivered their qualm about faultiness of the clone technique. In order to overcome the technical obstruction and ethical limitation, scientists developed heterogenetical nuclear transfer and induced pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells could develop into tissues, or even an individual, which avoids destroying embryo. Although the technique of cloning has been ameliorated, the puzzlement about cloning human still exists. This review discussed the possibility of cloning human from four major principles of bioethics. In spite that human cloning would not confuse the balance of relationship of people, would not deliver a next Hitler, and would not reduced the genetic polymorphism, it would deprive the autonomy of the cloned individual, bring physical and mental damages to them, and naturally violate the principles of beneficence and justice. Hence, in ethics, there are many problems to be solved in future.%自从克隆羊多莉诞生以来,有关克隆人的伦理学争论就一直喋喋不休.世界上的各种政治组织和各国政府都明确反对生殖性克隆,而科学家们则对克隆技术的不完善心存疑虑.为了克服克隆过程中的伦理学障碍和技术缺陷,科学家们在核移植技术的基础上,又发展了异种核移植技术、诱导多能干细胞技术等.诱导的多能干细胞可以分化成各种组织,甚至能发育成个体,这些方法使克隆技术不再破坏胚胎,避免了伦理学纠纷.尽管科学技术在进步,但是人们对克隆人仍有很多不解和困惑.从自主、不伤害、行善和公正等四大生命伦理学原则着手,在技术层面上提出了尽管克隆人不会搞乱人际关系,不会减少人类基因多样性,也不


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  17. Bioethics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Chinese civilization has a long history of 5,000years. It is China's fine tradition to attach importance to ethics and morality, that is "All must regard self-cultivation as the root." Confucius once said that "Benevolence means love of people." He advocated respecting people, concerning about people and caring for people.

  18. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns. (United States)

    Miah, Andy


    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  19. Eight years of bioethics (United States)

    Moreno-Exebio, Luis


    Este trabajo presenta la experiencia que significó el paso por el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la investigación biomédica y psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile (2003–2004) y algunas reflexiones respecto de la integración de lo aprendido en mi posterior labor en comités de ética y programas académicos de ética de investigación. Asimismo, en la elaboración de regulaciones que permitan una mejor evaluación ética y científica. PMID:23172984

  20. Bioethics of organ transplantation. (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur


    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well--to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation--rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate.

  1. Promoting preschool reading



    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  2. Developing a Promotional Video (United States)

    Epley, Hannah K.


    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  3. Glosario de términos y expresiones frecuentes de Bioética en la práctica de la Nutrición Clínica Glossary of bioethics terms frequently used in nutrition support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Moreno Villares


    Full Text Available Las decisiones éticas están presentes en toda la práctica clínica. También en el campo del soporte nutricional. En la alimentación de pacientes críticos, en el soporte nutricional de pacientes terminales o la situación de enfermos con estado vegetativo permanente se plantean, con frecuencia, conflictos éticos. Un problema frecuente es la confusión terminológica cuando se hace referencia a la aplicación de los conceptos bioéticos a la práctica de la nutrición clínica. La falta de uniformidad en la terminología no ayuda a la deliberación bioética. Desde el Grupo de Ética de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral (SENPE hemos creído que sería útil reunir los términos más frecuentemente usados en nuestra disciplina. Cada término se acompaña de una breve definición, descripción o comentario sobre el sentido principal en el que se emplean.Bioethical decisions are present in every clinical decision. Nutrition support participates the same situation. Feeding critically ill patients, etriminal patients or in permanent vegetative status is almost always involved in bioethical dilemmas. A common problem is the confusion in concepts regarding bioethics. This lack of uniformity does not help in the deliberation process. From the Working Group in Bioethics of the Spanish Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Support (SENPE it has been considered to gather the commonest terms used in our academic area. Each term is accompanied by a definition, a description or a commentary related to its main application.

  4. Practice of Psychological Sitcom in Bioethics Education to the Probationer Nurses%心理情景剧在实习护士生命伦理教育中的实践∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅思佳; 陈庆健


    Based on the necessity of carrying out bioethics education to the probationer nurses, this paper put forward to introduce psychological sitcom to the probationer nurses′ bioethics education and described the practice process in detail. It also discussed the mechanism to improve the effectiveness of bioethics education from the per-spectives of creation, dramatization, and performance of psychological sitcom.%在谈论对实习护士开展生命伦理教育必要性的基础上,将心理情景剧引入实习护士生命伦理教育的过程中,对心理情景剧的实践过程进行了详细描述,并从心理情景剧的创作、编写、演出等方面探讨了其提升生命伦理教育有效性的作用机制。

  5. 对当代学者恩格尔哈特俗世生命伦理学的中国化解读%The Chinese Reading to the Contemporary Scholar Engelhardt's Secular Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    对当代美国生命伦理学家恩格尔哈特的俗世生命伦理学思想进行中国化解读:对文化背景之差异性解读和对人伦关系的历史理解之差异性解读.在此基础上;认识允许原则及其恩氏俗世生命伦理学在中国应用中的有限性.其对中国生命伦理学的发展具有重要的启示作用.%The article makes a Chinese reading to the contemporary scholar Engelhardt' s secular bioethics: the reading to the difference of the cultural background and the reading to the difference of the history understanding to the human relations. And, on the basis of the cognition, the limitation of the permission principle and the secular bioethics in the Chinese application are known. They have the important enlightenment to the Chinese bioethics.

  6. Confucian Ethics in the Vision of Bioethics and Its Contemporary Value%生命伦理学视野中的儒家伦理及其当代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Traditional Chinese Confucian ethics can provide profound cultural foundation for bioethics.From the perspective of bioethics, this paper discusses Confucian ethics including view of life and death, the overall concept of heaven and human, the principle of human relations and orders, and Confucian principle of getting the profit by the right way, aiming to absorb the essence of traditional Confucian culture, discard the dross, and provide reference for contemporary bioethical study.%中国传统儒家伦理可以为生命伦理学提供深厚的文化根基.从生命伦理学的视野探讨儒家的生死观、天人整体现、人伦秩序原则和儒家的见利思义原则,吸取儒家传统文化中的有益成分,剔除其糟粕,为当代生命伦理学研究提供借鉴.

  7. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...... are conceived in a specific educational setting; namely the Danish social and health education programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a qualification aimed at citizens and patients - and not at the students themselves. However, as the paper will demonstrate, conceptions of student...... health promotion workers should ideally act as health promotion role models. This claim leads to a series of educational and morally anchored dilemmas and challenges. Inspired by Foucault and others who have developed this line of thinking (eg. Signild Vallgårde) health promotion is viewed as a heartfelt...

  8. What do health-promoting schools promote?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka


    Purpose – The editorial aims to provide a brief overview of the individual contributions to the special issue, and a commentary positioning the contributions within research relating to the health-promoting schools initiative in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The members of the Schools...... for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer...... review process, nine submissions were accepted for publication. Five of these are selected to be published in this issue and the rest will be published in a future issue of the journal. Findings – The five articles in this issue take a comprehensive approach to health promotion in schools and reflect...

  9. Is Lamb Promotion Working?


    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Williams, Gary W.


    This objective of this study is to determine whether the advertising and promotion dollars collected and spent by the American Lamb Board on lamb promotion since the inception of the Lamb Checkoff Program have effectively increased lamb consumption in the United States. The main conclusion is that program has resulted in roughly 7.6 additional pounds of total lamb consumption per dollar spent on advertising and promotion and $41.59 in additional lamb sales per dollar spent on advertising and ...

  10. Health promotion in Brazil. (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo


    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.

  11. Analysis of promotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Bozhkova


    Full Text Available Article describes the classification of promotions and determining the effectiveness of specific measures to stimulate sales (which isnt possible practically in most advertising companies.

  12. Um novo olhar bioético sobre as pesquisas odontológicas brasileiras A new bioethical view on Brazilian dental researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Finkler


    Full Text Available Buscando contribuir com o debate sobre a mudança na formação profissional em saúde, este trabalho discute algumas questões relacionadas às pesquisas brasileiras em odontologia, tendo a bioética como referencial teórico para analisar a adequação desta produção ao contexto social. A partir de uma pesquisa em bancos de dados sobre os periódicos e de classificações baseadas nas temáticas predominantes e no instrumento de avaliação da CAPES (Qualis, constatou-se que a grande maioria dos periódicos está voltada à publicação de pesquisas sobre técnicas e materiais odontológicos de pequeno alcance social. Tal resultado reflete o direcionamento dado ao conhecimento científico da área, não ao encontro das necessidades nacionais e regionais que deveriam ser prioritárias, sob o ponto de vista bioético, mas ao enfoque do mercado. O pouco espaço disponível nestes periódicos para a publicação de pesquisas relacionadas à odontologia social e preventiva e áreas afins convida-nos a uma reflexão sobre a produção científica que se faz necessária, ou seja, aquela capaz de propiciar uma formação profissional ética e socialmente comprometida.This article discusses some issues related to Brazilian dental researches having the bioethics as the rationale for appraising the adequacy of the scientific production in relation to the social context, aiming to contribute to a shift of the professional health formation. From a search in journals database and CAPES ranking instrument (Qualis it was observed that most journals are aimed to publish dental materials and techniques of limited social range. This result reflects a trend of the scientific knowledge in this field to focus the market rather than national and regional needs which should be the priority under the bioethical point of view. The lack of room available for publication of researches of Preventive and Social Dentistry and relative areas is an invitation to reflect

  13. On the Bioethical Implications in the Traditional Chinese Medical Culture%略论中医药文化中的生命伦理意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫华; 樊民胜


    中医药文化发扬了中国传统文化中敬畏自然、遵循规律的原则,又从“医”之独特视角将人文情怀与科学精神相结合,嬗变出具有中医药特征的文化模式.在这种文化模式下,既有对自然生命之发展的透视,又有对生命价值和人性完美的引导.在中医药文化背景下开展生命伦理教育,需要在课程设置上加大医学人文教育课程的比重;挖掘中医药文化中的生命伦理教育资源,使中医药生命文化渗透于教学之中;将中医药文化纳入中医入学教育,培养学生中医药文化的认同感.%The culture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) not only developed the principles of fearing the nature, following the law of nature in Chinese traditional culture, but also combined the humanistic feelings with scientific spirits from the viewpoint of " Medicine" , forming a cultural pattern with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine. This culture pattern, not only had the understanding of the development of natural life, but also had perfect guide for the value of life and perfect of human nature. Under the background of traditional Chinese medicine culture, the bioethical education needs to increase the proportion of medical humanistic education courses in the curriculum; to discover the bioethical education resources in the traditional Chinese medicine culture, make the life culture permeate in the teaching; to bring traditional Chinese medicine culture into entrance education of Chinese medicine, and cultivate students'sense of approval for traditional Chinese medicine culture.

  14. Health promotion, Islamic ethics and law in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Larijani


    Full Text Available Health statistics demonstrate remarkable progresses in the field of primary health care and academic education in Iran within recent decades. Iran has also had obvious progresses in the field of research and the International publication rate of Iranian scientists has been quadrupled over the past decade. Progresses in biomedical researches have been associated with considerable activities in bioethics education, research and legislation. Organ transplantation, stem cell research, assisted reproductive technologies and genetics are some important instances of ethical debates in our country. "nIn this concise manuscript we intend to present some recent progresses in science and research in Iran. Considering importance of the bioethical issues, we will also review new legislations in the field of bioethics.

  15. 中国发展生命伦理学之路——纪念中国生命伦理学发展30周年%The Path of Bioethics in China——In Commemoration of Bioethics Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从1979年广州会议开始,生命伦理学在中国已经有了30余年的历史.从以下几方面总结了30余年的历史经验,即生命伦理学探究中放风筝与骑单车这两种模型或进路的争论;生命伦理学的基本要素,即鉴定伦理问题,进行伦理学探究,将探究结果转化为政策,实现关怀人的生命、健康和权利,善待动物和保护生态环境的根本目的以及在我们活动中保持独立性和自主性等有关问题.%Bioethics in China has developed more than 30 years since Guangzhou Conference held in 1979. This article summed up the historical experiences of the past 30 years, including the debate between two models or approaches,that is "kite playing"and "bicycle riding" in ethical inquiry;basic elements on bioethics -identify ethical issues, conduct ethical inquiry, translate research results into action, and fulfill ultimate goal of protecting persons'health, life and rights,animal welfare and ecological environment;and other important issues such as maintaining independence and autonomy in our activities etc.

  16. Promoter reuse in prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveen, H.; Matus-Garcia, M.; Passel, van M.W.J.


    Anecdotal evidence shows promoters being reused separate from their downstream gene, thus providing a mechanism for the efficient and rapid rewiring of a gene’s transcriptional regulation. We have identified over 4000 groups of highly similar promoters using a conservative sequence similarity search

  17. Health-promoting schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M


    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling...... them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...... Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated...

  18. The Food Safety Issues of China in light of Bioethics%从生命伦理学角度看我国食品安全问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective This essay is an essential study of Chinese food safety issues from the aspect of bioethics for the purpose of establishing a life-respecting food safety system. Methods By referring to both domestic and foreign documents, the author learns the speciifc phenomena of Chinese food safety issues and the essence of bioethics and points out the bioethical intension of Chinese food safety issues, which is discussed on the basis that the government, market and consumer all lack the fundamental respect towards life. In the end, the author presents a possibility of establishing a life-respecting food safety system from the aspects of government, market and consumer as solutions. Results The essence of food safety issues is to view problems appeared in the process of implementing food safety system from the aspect of morality, which concerning some bioethical concepts (life-respected right, health right, dignity, etc.) . The specific meaning is equal to the brutal exploitation of human life, specifically manifested in three aspects, namely the inhumanity of government administration, enterprises’ greed and disrespect to human life and the consumers’ disrespect to their own life. Conclusion The solutions to food safety issues can be found in three angles. The government should integrate humanity into drafting and implementing food safety system. Enterprises should establish a correct value on making proift. Consumers should raise the awareness of respecting health and life. With all these criteria matched, a sound food policy system could be established.%目的:本文旨在从生命伦理学角度,研究中国食品安全问题的内涵以及中国食品安全问题的本质,从而构建一个尊重生命的食品安全制度。方法文章通过查阅国内外文献的方法,了解中国食品安全问题的具体表现和生命伦理学的涵义,并通过理论分析,提出生命伦理学角度下的中国食品安全问题的内涵。进一步从

  19. A Modern Twist on the Beaumont and St. Martin Case: Encouraging Analysis and Discussion in the Bioethics Classroom with Reflective Writing and Concept Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C. Goller


    Full Text Available Historical ethical dilemmas are a valuable tool in bioethics courses. However, garnering student interest in reading and discussing the assigned cases in the classroom can be challenging. In an effort to actively engage undergraduate and graduate students in an Ethical Issues in Biotechnology course, an activity was developed to encourage reflection on a classical ethical dilemma between a patient, St. Martin, and his employer/caretaker, Beaumont. Two different texts were used to analyze the ethical ramifications of this relationship: a chapter in a popular press book and a short perspective in a medical journal. Participants read the book chapter for homework and discussed it in class. This easy read highlights the fundamental ethical issues in the relationship between two men. Students were then provided with a second text focusing on the scientific accomplishments achieved through Beaumont's experimentation on St. Martin. A structured worksheet prompted participants to reflect on their feelings after reading each text and create a concept map depicting the dilemma. Student-generated concept maps and written reflections indicate participants were able to list the ethical issues, analyze the situation, and evaluate the information provided. This activity not only encouraged higher-level thinking and reflection, it also mirrored the course's structured approach of using concept mapping and reflection to dissect ethical dilemmas.

  20. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints (United States)


    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... concerning invention promoters and responses from the invention promoters to these complaints. An individual may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter to the USPTO, which will forward the...