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Sample records for autonomy dryden murphy

  1. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  2. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  3. Sull'"Eneide" di Dryden

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Mario

    1990-01-01

    In 'Dryden and The Art of Translation' William Frost afferma che le traduzioni costituiscono due terzi della produzione letteraria di John Dryden. Fra le traduzioni in Inglese di Dryden da Omero, Teocrito, Lucrezio, Virgilio, Orazio, Ovidio, Giovenale, Persio, Boccaccio quella dell"Eneide' di Virgilio del 1697 è certamente per noi la più interessante. Secondo Pope essa costituisce "the most noble and spirited translation in any language", così come per Earl Miner questa fatica di Dryden r...

  4. Richard Murphy: a life in writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Meihuizen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Irish poet Richard Murphy published his autobiography “The kick: a life among writers” in 2003. From a slightly different perspective the subtitle of this work could be rewritten as “A life in writing” since it is an account of the agencies that moulded a life devoted to creative writing which forms the book’s essential impetus. The memoir is based on notebooks which Murphy kept throughout his life “to hold the scraps of verse, elusive images, dreams, desires and revelations” to be developed into poetry. Apart from contextualising his poetry by registering the relationships, circumstances and landscapes from which it germinated, Murphy also tells of the creative process itself and the personal poetics underlying this process. This article explores what is regarded as the central determining feature of Murphy’s identity as poet, namely the relationship between the creative self and a particular place, where the concept of “place” is seen as a cultural palimpsest which represents not only physical qualities, but also the shaping and development of the landscape through time according to a certain way of life.

  5. Eddie Murphy grimmile kulus üheksa kuud / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Uues USA komöödiafilmis "Norbit" (režissöör Brian Robbins, stsenarist näitleja vend Charles Murphy) mängib Eddie Murphy kolme täiesti erinevat rolli. Seejuures aitas teda grimmikunstnik Rick Baker

  6. Jucys-Murphy elements for Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, A. P.; Ogievetsky, O. V.

    2011-05-01

    The Burman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra, considered as the quotient of the braid group algebra, possesses the commutative set of Jucys-Murphy elements. We show that the set of Jucys-Murphy elements is maximal commutative for the generic Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra and reconstruct the representation theory of the tower of Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebras.

  7. Richard Murphy: Autobiography and the Connemara landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Meihuizen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It could be argued that an important feature of Richard Murphy’s work, and of his identity as a poet is the relationship between the creative self and a particular place, where ‘place’ should be understood as referring not just to physical qualities of the natural environment, but in a broader sense to denote an environment in which everything is interrelated and connected, and in which there is no sharp division between the natural and the human. The landscape providing inspiration for Murphy’s poetic imagination is the landscapes and seascapes of Connemara in north-west Ireland. In 1959 he settled in this environment which was to be his base for the next 20 years and from this period and this location emanated the bulk of his poetic oeuvre. For Murphy committing to a life of writing poetry necessarily means being in the Connemara landscape. Returning to this environment in adulthood represents a quest for recovering childhood feelings, of belonging and love, as connected to particular places. Murphy’s Connemara poems could be read as an account of this process of re-placement, as a type of autobiographical text in which the artist creates a ‘double portrait’: in writing about the landscape he also writes about himself, creating a place-portrait which is, at the same time, a self-portrait.

  8. Richard Murphy: Autobiography and the Connemara landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Meihuizen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It could be argued that an important feature of Richard Murphy’s work, and of his identity as a poet is the relationship between the creative self and a particular place, where ‘place’ should be understood as referring not just to physical qualities of the natural environment, but in a broader sense to denote an environment in which everything is interrelated and connected, and in which there is no sharp division between the natural and the human. The landscape providing inspiration for Murphy’s poetic imagination is the landscapes and seascapes of Connemara in north-west Ireland. In 1959 he settled in this environment which was to be his base for the next 20 years and from this period and this location emanated the bulk of his poetic oeuvre. For Murphy committing to a life of writing poetry necessarily means being in the Connemara landscape. Returning to this environment in adulthood represents a quest for recovering childhood feelings, of belonging and love, as connected to particular places. Murphy’s Connemara poems could be read as an account of this process of re-placement, as a type of autobiographical text in which the artist creates a ‘double portrait’: in writing about the landscape he also writes about himself, creating a place-portrait which is, at the same time, a self-portrait.

  9. NASA Dryden flow visualization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfrate, John H.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the Flow Visualization Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This water tunnel facility is used primarily for visualizing and analyzing vortical flows on aircraft models and other shapes at high-incidence angles. The tunnel is used extensively as a low-cost, diagnostic tool to help engineers understand complex flows over aircraft and other full-scale vehicles. The facility consists primarily of a closed-circuit water tunnel with a 16- x 24-in. vertical test section. Velocity of the flow through the test section can be varied from 0 to 10 in/sec; however, 3 in/sec provides optimum velocity for the majority of flow visualization applications. This velocity corresponds to a unit Reynolds number of 23,000/ft and a turbulence level over the majority of the test section below 0.5 percent. Flow visualization techniques described here include the dye tracer, laser light sheet, and shadowgraph. Limited correlation to full-scale flight data is shown.

  10. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight over Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership flies over the main building at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and has also been both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of

  11. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Dryden Ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership sits on the ramp in front of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  12. Dr. Hugh L. Dryden seated at desk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    As a very young undergraduate Student at Johns Hopkins University Hugh L. Dryden proved himself especially gifted in physics and mathematics and began advanced study with Professor Joseph Ames, an important figure on campus. Ames not only headed the Physics Department but also eventually became President of Johns Hopkins. More important to Dryden's development, his professor would one day chair the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), an institution at the vanguard of aircraft research. In Dryden, Ames had discovered a star pupil, whom he called, 'the brightest young man [I] ever had, without exception.' He took his Bachelor's degree with honors in three years and in 1918 completed a Masters thesis entitled 'Airplanes: An Introduction to the Physical Principles Embodied in their Use.' Ames had introduced Dryden to a subject that would occupy the rest of his life. Certain of Ames' encouragement and assistance, Dryden decided to work toward his doctorate. In the spring of 1919, he received the Ph.D. degree in applied physics, at 20 the youngest person ever to earn a Johns Hopkins University doctorate. His dissertation, titled 'Air Forces on Circular Cylinders,' described the scale effects of air flowing around columns perpendicular to the wind and launched him in the rising field of aerodynamics. Dryden's scientific standing rested largely on the theoretical insights, the experiments, and the publications dating from his first six years in his position as Chief of the Aerodynamics Section at the National Bureau of Standards. Later in 1949 he became director of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and then deputy administrator of the NACA's successor, NASA, in 1958. Very much interested in flight research, he had been responsible for establishing a permanent facility at the location later named in his honor, the NASA Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California.

  13. Chess & schizophrenia: Murphy v Mr Endon, Beckett v Bion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Gary

    2011-12-01

    This paper reconvenes Samuel Beckett's psychotherapy with Wilfred Bion during 1934-1936 during which time Beckett's conceived and began writing this second novel, Murphy. Based on Beckett's visits to the Bethlem & Maudsley Hospital and his observation of the male nurses, the climax of Murphy is a chess match between Mr Endon (a male schizophrenic patient) and Murphy (a male psychiatric nurse). The precise notation of the Endon v Murphy chess match tells us that the Beckett intended it to be an exemplar of an anti-match, perhaps a metaphor for the tragedy of being locked into madness. It is also argued that the match offers us insight into Beckett's experience of the process of psychotherapy with Bion. Based on new information from Beckett's nephew and Bion's widow, hypotheses about the long term impact of the Bion-Beckett analysis are advanced as a mutual experience which shaped the lives and later literary output of both men, producing conjoined career writings which continue to offer us stark and sublime condensations of depression, psychosis, and the challenges of therapy and recovery.

  14. Lessons from Queer Bioethics: A Response to Timothy F. Murphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    'Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people' writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof (i.e. DSM diagnosis; access to SrS or ARTs). It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I will situate Queer bioethics within Queer studies, and offer three 'lessons' that bioethics can derive from this perspective. These are not definitive rules for Queer bioethics, since it is a field which fundamentally opposes categorizations, favoring pastiche over principles. These lessons are exploratory examples, which both complement and contradict LGBT bioethics. My latter two lessons - on environmental bioethics and disability - overlap with some of Murphy's concerns, as well as other conceptions of LGBT bioethics. However, the first lesson takes an antithetical stance to Murphy's primary focus by resisting all forms of heteroconformity and disavowing reproduction as consonant with Queer objectives and theory. The first lesson, which doubles as a primer in Queer theory, does heavy philosophical lifting for the remainder of the essay. This response to Timothy F. Murphy, whose work is certainly a legacy in bioethics, reveals the multiplicity of discourses in LGBT/Queer studies, many of which are advantageous - even essential - to other disciplines like bioethics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Suborbital Science Program: Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelFrate, John

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the suborbital science program at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Program Objectives are given in various areas: (1) Satellite Calibration and Validation (Cal/val)--Provide methods to perform the cal/val requirements for Earth Observing System satellites; (2) New Sensor Development -- Provide methods to reduce risk for new sensor concepts and algorithm development prior to committing sensors to operations; (3) Process Studies -- Facilitate the acquisition of high spatial/temporal resolution focused measurements that are required to understand small atmospheric and surface structures which generate powerful Earth system effects; and (4) Airborne Networking -- Develop disruption-tolerant networking to enable integrated multiple scale measurements of critical environmental features. Dryden supports the NASA Airborne Science Program and the nation in several elements: ER-2, G-3, DC-8, Ikhana (Predator B) & Global Hawk and Reveal. These are reviewed in detail in the presentation.

  16. Autonomy @ Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dalsem, William; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    This is a powerpoint presentation that highlights autonomy across the 15 NASA technology roadmaps, including specific examples of projects (past and present) at NASA Ames Research Center. The NASA technology roadmaps are located here: http:www.nasa.govofficesocthomeroadmapsindex.html

  17. Syntactic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-12-01

    The study of adapting and evolving autonomous agents should be based on a complex systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notions of semiotics and situated action is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments.Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and self-organization are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. With this semiotic view of self-organization and symbols, the authors re-think the notion of autonomy of evolving systems, and show that evolutionary systems are characterized by a particular type of syntactic autonomy. Recent developments in emergent computation in cellular automata are discussed as examples of the emergence of syntactic autonomy in computational environments. New experiments emphasizing this syntactic autonomy in cellular automata are presented.

  18. Simulation at Dryden Flight Research Facility from 1957 to 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John P.; Schilling, Lawrence J.; Wagner, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility has been a leader in developing simulation as an integral part of flight test research. The history of that effort is reviewed, starting in 1957 and continuing to the present time. The contributions of the major program activities conducted at Dryden during this 25-year period to the development of a simulation philosophy and capability is explained.

  19. Two Rebt Therapists and One Client: Windy Dryden Transcript

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 1994, two of the most published authors in the field of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Albert Ellis and Windy Dryden, each saw the same client. The transcript of Windy Dryden is presented with slight modifications to protect the confidentiality of the client and those in the client’s life.

  20. In fuga sulla sedia a dondolo: Murphy di Samuel Beckett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bellini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio tratta del significato della sedia a dondolo nel romanzo Murphy di Samuel Beckett, considerata come esempio della ‘simbologia geometrica’ dell’autore. Si sostiene che la forma della sedia a dondolo possa essere interpretata in relazione all’interesse di Beckett per i numeri irrazionali quali mezzo per illustrare il tipo di relazione fra i suoi personaggi e il mondo. Si propone inoltre di mettere in relazione in questo senso la sedia a dondolo con un altro oggetto tipicamente beckettiano, la bicicletta, che si rivela caratterizzata da una simbologia a essa complementare. La relazione fra questi due oggetti, si sostiene infine, può fungere da paradigma per una tipologia dei personaggi beckettiani, tesi fra una fuga verso un altrove indefinito e una fuga verso un’interiorità staccata dal mondo.

  1. Working as an Electronics Engineer at NASA Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  2. 77 FR 43281 - Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permits for BHP Billiton Petroleum, Inc., Murphy Exploration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Murphy permit regulates air pollutant emissions from the Diamond Offshore Ocean Confidence drilling... applications and additional material relevant to the applications and contained in the administrative record...

  3. Dryden Flight Research Center Critical Chain Project Management Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Dennis O.

    2012-01-01

    In Fiscal Year 2011 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) implemented a new project management system called Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM). Recent NASA audits have found that the Dryden workforce is strained under increasing project demand and that multi-tasking has been carried to a whole new level at Dryden. It is very common to have an individual work on 10 different projects during a single pay period. Employee surveys taken at Dryden have identified work/life balance as the number one issue concerning employees. Further feedback from the employees indicated that project planning is the area needing the most improvement. In addition, employees have been encouraged to become more innovative, improve job skills, and seek ways to improve overall job efficiency. In order to deal with these challenges, DFRC management decided to adopt the CCPM system that is specifically designed to operate in a resource constrained multi-project environment. This paper will discuss in detail the rationale behind the selection of CCPM and the goals that will be achieved through this implementation. The paper will show how DFRC is tailoring the CCPM system to the flight research environment as well as laying out the implementation strategy. Results of the ongoing implementation will be discussed as well as change management challenges and organizational cultural changes. Finally this paper will present some recommendations on how this system could be used by selected NASA projects or centers.

  4. Regimes of Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Like being able to drive a car, being autonomous is a socially attributed, claimed, and contested status. Normative debates about criteria for autonomy (and what autonomy entitles one to) are best understood, not as debates about what autonomy, at core, really is, but rather as debates about the

  5. Autonomy: Life and Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary-Anne

    This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

  6. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  7. Shanghai College: An architectural history of the campus designed by Henry K. Murphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available American architect Henry Killam Murphy contributed extensively in designing college campuses, making him a significant figure in the history of modern Chinese architecture. This study investigates the influence of Western architecture on modern Chinese architecture based on the master plan of Shanghai College and its architectural design by Murphy. Shanghai College has been maintained by American Baptists since 1906. Its campus is the largest missionary college in China. The Shanghai municipal government designated the campus as a “HERITAGE ARCHITECTURE.” Thus, studying the design characteristics of Shanghai College is important to understand the history of Chinese architecture. From an architectural-historical point of view, studying the design of Shanghai College also helps describe the propagation and development of Western architecture in China. This study determines the historical significance of Shanghai College to help enhance the value of its buildings.

  8. A comparison of the Murphy-Pattee and the Seligson methods for serum thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J L; Freier, E F

    1975-03-01

    We compared two methods for serum thyroxine measurement by competitive protein binding - the Murphy and Pattee and the Seligson and Seligson methods. We found the Seligson and Seligson method, which requires less sample volume and analysis time, to be the method of choice on the basis of sensitivity, extraction efficiency, precision, and accuracy. Standard plots of time/10,000 counts versus thyroxine concentration are linear to 20 ug/dl, extraction efficiency is 99.6 per cent, within-day S.D. plus or minus 0.28 ug/dl, and 98.3 per cent of added thyroxine is recovered in the Seligson and Seligson method. The Seligson and Seligson method is superior to the Murphy and Pattee method with respect to all these parameters. The methods were also compared with correlation and normal value studies.

  9. Spectacles of shame: Ryan Murphy as curator of queer cultural memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepić Nikola N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the anthology Queer Shame, edited by David M. Halperin and Valerie Traub, 'the personal and the social shame attached to eroticism' is taken to task in relation to the larger contemporary discourse surrounding gay pride (understood in terms of activism and cultural production, while being seen as a defining characteristic of queer history, culture and identity. Shame, as theorized by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Halperin and others, is predicated on a larger issue of queer people's access to discursive power, which Sedgwick herself had theorized in The Epistemology of the Closet. Such a conceptualizing of queer culture and queer politics begs the interrogation of how queer shame is contained and negotiated in contemporary popular culture. One of the most successful auteurs working in film and television today, Ryan Murphy's opus is marked by a constant dialogue with queer cultural artifacts. The excitement that his productions generate is typically predicated on his use of queer cultural objects, especially as they are rearticulated for mainstream audiences. This paper investigates the inherent shame of queer memory as embodied in Murphy's show American Horror Story through reference and negotiation of queer icons, filmic traditions and on-screen bodies. Utilizing queer and film theory as its framework, this paper treats Murphy's queer vernacular as the uncanny that destabilizes conventions of both the horror genre and mainstream television, in turn legitimizing and exploiting 'shameful' queer categories such as trauma, excess, diva worship and camp through the language of popular television and the bodies that populate it. Finally, this essay evaluates the productive power of Murphy's repository of 'disgraceful' bodily images-allegorical and literal-in furthering a critical remediation of the vernacular of queer shame.

  10. NASA Dryden: Flight Loads Lab Capabilities and Mass Properties Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David Michael; Bakalyar, John A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation covers the basic capabilities of the Dryden Flight Loads Lab. It also covers in detail the mass properties capabilities of the loads lab, focusing on the recent mass properties testing of the X-48B, and the recent tests of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement method (DIMM). Presentation focuses on the test methods and issues discovered during the mass properties testing of the X-48B leading to the requirement of new instrumentation on all conventional mass properties testing. Presentation also focuses on development of DIMM for replacement of conventional mass properties tests.

  11. Autonomy for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Jim; Goodwin, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    A conversation has emerged in education circles over how much latitude or autonomy principals should have. So how much autonomy should superintendents give principals, and how much is too much? The authors report on some relevant findings in research by McREL, a federal research lab, that may answer this question. McREL's meta-analysis of research…

  12. Autonomy of State Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Niklasson, Birgitta; Roness, Paul

    NPM-doctrines states that ideal-type agencies should have a high level of managerial autonomy, while being controlled through result-based control instruments, like performance contracts. In this article, the authors present a first preliminary attempt to comparatively analyze the autonomy of state...... agencies in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. By using survey data from more than 500 state agencies in the four countries, the article analyses whether there is indeed a Scandinavian style of autonomy and result control and assesses which structural, cultural, and environmental...

  13. Ch. Dokou on Bernice M. Murphy's The Suburban Gothic in American Popular Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bernice M. Murphy, The Suburban Gothic in American Popular Culture. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Pp. 236. ISBN: 98-0-230-21810-9Studies in pop culture have the advantage of dealing with material that is more or less familiar to a wide majority of readers and, what is more, appreciated for what it is: the enjoyable—hence surviving and proliferating—collective currency of concepts, facts and views, crude yet effective, by which a culture defines and establishes itself and ...

  14. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide......, are they at odds with each other or do they possibly overlap? This last possibility would be that minority rights are so extensive that they actually amount to autonomy. Autonomy has a range of dimensions and one must distinguish between political autonomy which is largely territorial in nature and autonomy...

  15. Changing professional autonomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway......The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway...

  16. Autonomy and hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Schicha, H.; Baehre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of autonomy in iodine-deficiency goiter for the development of hyperthyroidism was investigated. (1) In 171 of 426 consecutive patients high-resolution quantitative scintiscans showed signs suggestive of autonomy. With increasing 99mTc uptake by the thyroid their TT3 levels were found to rise progressively during suppression, while their pre-suppression TSH levels dropped progressively. This suggests global sup(99m)Tc uptake by the thyroid during suppression to be a useful indicator of the functional significance of autonomy. (2) Based on 326 patients with hyperthyroidism a system for differentiating between autonomy-related and immunogenic disease was developed and validated prospectively in another 162 patients with hyperthyroidism by assaying for thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb). TSAb was found to be present in 82% of the 77 patients diagnosed as having immunogenic hyperthyroidism and in only 8% of the 85 patients with autonomy-related hyperthyroidism. Our results support the assumption that autonomy in iodine-deficiency goiter plays a major role in the development of hyperthyroidism, while autoimmune processes appear to be of secondary importance. (Author)

  17. A Powerful Friendship: Theodore von Karman and Hugh L. Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Michael

    2003-01-01

    During their long personal friendship and professional association, Theodore von Karman (1882-1963) and Hugh L. Dryden (1898-1965) exercised a pivotal if somewhat elusive influence over American aeronautics and spaceflight. Both decisive figures in organizing scientists and engineers at home and abroad, both men of undisputed eminence in their technical fields, their range of contacts in government, academia, the armed forces, industry, and professional societies spanned the globe to an extent unparalleled then as now. Moreover, because they coordinated their activities closely, their combined influence far exceeded the sum of each one s individual contributions. This paper illustrates their personal origins as well as the foundations of their friendship, how their relationship became a professional alliance, and their joint impact on the world of aeronautics and astronautics during the twentieth century.

  18. ‘Flirting with International Socialism’: Love, Politics and Intertextuality in the Poetry of Gerry Murphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Villar-Argáiz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After almost three decades writing poetry, Gerry Murphy has attained a place as one of the most popular, idiosyncratic and unconventional contemporary Irish poets. His voice is certainly unique in Irish poetry, as regards the content, form and sarcastic tone of his poems. This  “extraordinary juggler of conflicts”,  as poet Thomas McCarthy (2010 defines him, has indeed provoked controversy in some circles. One funny anecdote of his many literary performances includes his reading of “A Note on the Demise of Communism” in front of the Dean and 600 Chinese students in Fudan University (Shangai, and the troubling expectancy this event arose before finding out that it was just a love poem after all. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introductory critical perspective on Gerry Murphy. First, I will discuss the cluster of themes which dominate his work, by particularly focusing on the predominant sensual eroticism and the awkward, almost uneasy, interplay of love and politics observed in much of his poetry. Other elements of analysis will include Murphy’s frequent use of dramatic monologue, his literary influences, the stylistic variety of his work, and the use of sarcasm as a very powerful means of exerting criticism.

  19. Autonomy in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Literature on the mental capacities and cognitive mechanisms of the great apes has been silent about whether they can act autonomously. This paper provides a philosophical theory of autonomy supported by psychological studies of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie chimpanzee behavior to argue that chimpanzees can act autonomously even though their psychological mechanisms differ from those of humans. Chimpanzees satisfy the two basic conditions of autonomy: (1) liberty (the absence of controlling influences) and (2) agency (self-initiated intentional action), each of which is specified here in terms of conditions of understanding, intention, and self-control. In this account, chimpanzees make knowledge-based choices reflecting a richly information-based and socially sophisticated understanding of the world. Finally, two major theories of autonomy (Kantian theory and two-level theory) are rejected as too narrow to adequately address these issues, necessitating the modifications made in the present approach.

  20. PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis (MURPHYS2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimian, Mihai; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2015-02-01

    The International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis (MURPHYS) conference series focuses on multiple scale systems, singular perturbation problems, phase transitions and hysteresis phenomena occurring in physical, biological, chemical, economical, engineering and information systems. The 6th edition was hosted by Stefan cel Mare University in the city of Suceava located in the beautiful multicultural land of Bukovina, Romania, from May 21 to 24, 2012. This continued the series of biennial multidisciplinary conferences organized in Cork, Ireland from 2002 to 2008 and in Pécs, Hungary in 2010. The MURPHYS 2012 Workshop brought together more than 50 researchers in hysteresis and multi-scale phenomena from the United State of America, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Greece, Ukraine, and Romania. Participants shared and discussed new developments of analytical techniques and numerical methods along with a variety of their applications in various areas, including material sciences, electrical and electronics engineering, mechanical engineering and civil structures, biological and eco-systems, economics and finance. The Workshop was sponsored by the European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Program Human Resources 2007-2013 (PRO-DOCT) and Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava. The Organizing Committee was co-chaired by Mihai Dimian from Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava (Romania), Amalia Ivanyi from the University of Pecs (Hungary), and Dmitrii Rachinskii from the University College Cork (Ireland). All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The Guest Editors wish to place on record their sincere gratitude to Miss Sarah Toms for the assistance she provided

  1. Former Dryden pilot and NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Famed astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon during the historic Apollo 11 space mission in July 1969, served for seven years as a research pilot at the NACA-NASA High-Speed Flight Station, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards, California, before he entered the space program. Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, and today the Glenn Research Center) in 1955. Later that year, he transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards as an aeronautical research scientist and then as a pilot, a position he held until becoming an astronaut in 1962. He was one of nine NASA astronauts in the second class to be chosen. As a research pilot Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100A and F-100C aircraft, F-101, and the F-104A. He also flew the X-1B, X-5, F-105, F-106, B-47, KC-135, and Paresev. He left Dryden with a total of over 2450 flying hours. He was a member of the USAF-NASA Dyna-Soar Pilot Consultant Group before the Dyna-Soar project was cancelled, and studied X-20 Dyna-Soar approaches and abort maneuvers through use of the F-102A and F5D jet aircraft. Armstrong was actively engaged in both piloting and engineering aspects of the X-15 program from its inception. He completed the first flight in the aircraft equipped with a new flow-direction sensor (ball nose) and the initial flight in an X-15 equipped with a self-adaptive flight control system. He worked closely with designers and engineers in development of the adaptive system, and made seven flights in the rocket plane from December 1960 until July 1962. During those fights he reached a peak altitude of 207,500 feet in the X-15-3, and a speed of 3,989 mph (Mach 5.74) in the X-15-1. Armstrong has a total of 8 days and 14 hours in space, including 2 hours and 48 minutes walking on the Moon. In March 1966 he was commander of the Gemini 8

  2. Validation of the NASA Dryden X-31 simulation and evaluation of mechanization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickes, Edward; Kay, Jacob; Ralston, John

    1994-01-01

    This paper shall discuss the evaluation of the original Dryden X-31 aerodynamic math model, processes involved in the justification and creation of the modified data base, and comparison time history results of the model response with flight test.

  3. Automated Autonomy Assessment System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has expressed the need to assess crew autonomy relative to performance and evaluate an optimal level of autonomy that maximizes individual and team performance....

  4. Description of the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelFrate, John H.; Deets, Dwain A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A water tunnel facility at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility is described. This water tunnel facility, the Flow Visualization Facility, is used primarily for visualizing and analyzing vortical flows on aircraft models and other shapes at high incidence angles. The tunnel is used extensively as a low cost diagnostic tool to help understand complex flows over aircraft and other full scale vehicles. The facility consists primarily of a closed circuit water tunnel with a 16 in by 24 in vertical test section. The velocity of the flow through the test section can be varied from 0 to 10 in/sec, however 3 in/sec has been found to be optimum for flow visualization. This corresponds to a unit Reynolds number of 23,000 per foot and a turbulence level over the majority of the test section below .05%. Flow visualization techniques described include the dye tracer, laser light sheet and the shadowgraph techniques. Limited correlation to full-scale flight data is shown.

  5. Update on Piloted and Un-Piloted Aircraft at NASA Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelFrate, John H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's (DFRC) environment for testing of experimental aircraft. Included are a satellite view of the Dryden locale, and a summary of the capabilities at DFRC. It reviews the capabilites of High Altitude Platform (HAP) testing; Gulfstream III (1.)Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (2) Precision Trajectory Capability Global Hawk (ACTD); ER-2; Ikhana (Predator B);

  6. Learner Autonomy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article explores whether the perception of learner autonomy that is promoted in language pedagogy is suitable for preparing students to perform successfully in the changed circumstances of the use of English. Recent developments, which include the growing role of English as a lingua franca and computer-mediated communication (CMC), give rise…

  7. Branding and liberal autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlaak, E.

    2011-01-01

    Are you manipulated by branding campaigns? This book addresses this question by drawing on work in both philosophy and psychology. It does so from the perspective of the liberal state. As such, manipulation is understood as the violation of liberal autonomy. The central claims are that, on this

  8. Technical Assessment: Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    areas from sensors to artificial intelligence and robotics . There are opportunities to leverage private sector investment where applications overlap...and efficiency-related technologies, and focus DoD perception, artificial intelligence, and robotics R&D on developing autonomy for platforms...a small number of weaknesses to endanger a large proportion of the force, as with agricultural monocultures and disease susceptibility

  9. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  10. Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Det empiriske udgangspunkt for artiklen "Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi - dansk normal evalueringsforskning som et ikke-autonomt (sub)felt i magtens felt" er en række tekster af fire dominerende danske evalueringsforskere. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er især Pierre Bourdieus teori om...

  11. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    to a specific group. The question never posed is, if there is a point and in that case at what point the group can actually talk about being autonomous. Is there a minimum in the number of special rights and procedures that has to be reached in order for the package of rights to qualify as ‘granting autonomy......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide...... with kin-states face a two-way situation regarding autonomy. First there is the autonomy from the home-state - the state the minority exists in. Secondly, though, there is the question of autonomy from the kin-state: How autonomous is a minority when it is (partly) financed by the kin-state? The discussion...

  12. Institutional Autonomy and Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, Fred

    1981-01-01

    The diversity in college admissions policies is described and the relationship between these policies and admissions testing is explained. The consequences of government regulation of testing is discussed. Colleges are urged to defend their autonomy in admissions and to act responsibly in that respect. (Author/AL)

  13. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, John; Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    discussion of challenges. The other outcome is the extent to which academic colleagues in a wide-range of disciplines and not directly engaged with research on university autonomy may not perceive or engage with the wider autonomy outcomes of their work and as a result their own case studies may not fully...... identify the autonomy impact real or potential. Many academic staff take for granted university autonomy without questioning its sometimes contradictory assumptions and impacts....

  14. The economic value of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    We develop an economic theory of "autonomy", which we interpret as the discretion or ability to make a decision that others disagree with. We show that autonomy is essentially an option for the decisionmaker, and can be valued as such. The value of the autonomy option is decreasing in the extent to

  15. University autonomy as sensemaking: from formal to enacted autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jonas Krog

    . The article then demonstrates the analytical potential of the conceptual framework in a case study of two Danish universities and their enactment of a bibliometric funding distribution model (BRI). The analysis reveals that, although the formal autonomy of these universities is the same with regard to the BRI......The formal autonomy of universities in Europe has generally increased over recent decades. However, new forms of accountability measures and more indirect state steering have accompanied this development, making it difficult to assess the actual autonomy. The article addresses this problem...... by applying the sensemaking approach to the study of organizational autonomy. Enacted autonomy is suggested as a new conceptualization that challenges the basic assumption in studies on formal autonomy that autonomy is only about external constraints on action. It does so by insisting on the active subjects...

  16. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-15

    Autonomy is defined as the capacity to think, decide, and act freely and independently on the basis of such thought and decisions. Three types of autonomy are distinguished: autonomy of thought, which embraces the wide range of human intellectual activities called "thinking for oneself"; autonomy of will, or the capacity to decide to do things on the basis of one's deliberations; and autonomy of action, the absence of which is illustrated by the situation of a patient whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed by curariform drugs and who thus cannot tell the surgeon that the anesthetist has forgotten the nitrous oxide. Autonomy is viewed as a prerequisite for all the virtues, rather than as a virtue in its own right. The arguments of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill concerning the principle of respect for autonomy are summarized as exemplars respectively of the deontological and utilitarian philosophical approaches.

  17. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  18. The Autonomy of Deportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas de Genova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As ostensibly unwanted or undesirable non-citizens, the utter disposability of deportees appears to be finally and conclusively verified by deportation as a sovereign state power’s perfunctory and mundane act of 'taking out the trash.' Hence, it is no accident that, etymologically, the origins of the very word 'deportation' would indicate a carrying away, a removal, a disposal. The eradication of deportees’ individual lives — their personal identities and life trajectories — emerges as a frightfully routine and prosaic fact of deportation. In spite of the sheer violence of the ruptures inflicted though deportation, however, those who have been rendered the objects of this power persistently reassert their own subjectivity. Ethnographic insights into the lived struggles of the deported (as well as their loved ones and communities elucidates the enduring subjectivity of those who have been made the objects of such sovereign acts of state power and subjected to deportation's techniques of eradication, and illustrates the stubborn incorrigibility of human life against the myriad forces that would seek to enforce its precarity and disposability. In the post-deportation condition, we confront anew the elementary and elemental human freedom of movement, and the incorrigibility of the autonomy and subjectivity of migration. Much as the autonomy of migration instigates a contest in which state power never has the first word, what we may now conceive as the autonomy of deportation — an autonomy and subjectivity of the deported within and against their predicaments of deportation — similarly ensures that state power never has the last word, either.

  19. Autonomy, recognition and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Vitório Cenci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Honneth’s concept of autonomy from two dimensions of his work, distinct, though inseparable. The first one is suggested through the subject’s positive practical self-relation linked to the patterns of reciprocal recognition of love, right and social esteem; the second is formulated as non-centered autonomy opposed to the present-day criticism of the modern autonomous subject encompassing three levels, namely: the capacity of linguistic articulation, the narrative coherence of life and the complementation of being guided by principles with some criteria of moral sensitivity to the context. We defend the position that, by metaphysically anchoring the concept of autonomy onto the intersubjective assumptions of his/her theory of the subject, and exploring it linked to the subject’s positive practical self-relation and to a non-centered meaning, Honneth has managed to renew it, which allows drawing important consequences of such effort to the field of education.

  20. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Nurse autonomy in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Lissa; Bakker, Debra; Montgomery, Phyllis; Palkovits, Jo-Anne

    2010-01-01

    The concept of autonomy is regarded as an essential element for gaining professional status. Yet, it remains poorly defined and understood. To date, there is little research that has focused on exploring how nurses in different specialty areas perceive autonomy. The purpose of this research was to explore oncology nurses' perceptions of autonomy and understand how they develop and exhibit autonomy in their everyday practice. Using Leininger's ethnonursing method, data were collected from 15 oncology nurses using semistructured interviews. Participant observation was also carried out through job shadowing to complement interview data. Three themes emerged from the findings: autonomy is an unspoken opportunity in the workplace; autonomy is developed through professional and personal growth acquired over time; and demonstrating autonomous behaviors is a conscious choice. The findings provide insight into how oncology nurses perceive, develop, and exhibit autonomy in everyday practice and how autonomous and collaborative clinical decision making contributes to quality cancer care. Descriptions of the meaning of autonomy and its explication in a nursing specialty practice can add to nursing knowledge by clarifying nurse autonomy and its relevance to nurses' work life. Descriptive studies can identify nurse behaviors and attitudes related to autonomy that may be measurable and relevant to real life.

  2. How Systems Engineering and Risk Management Defend Against Murphy's Law and Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Michael; Connley, Warren

    2004-01-01

    Systems Engineering and Risk Management processes can work synergistically to defend against the causes of many mission ending failures. Defending against mission ending failures is facilitated by fostering a team that has a healthy respect for Murphy's Law and a team with a of curiosity for how things work, how they can fail, and what they need to know. This curiosity is channeled into making the unknowns known or what is uncertain more certain. Efforts to assure mission success require the expenditure of energy in the following areas: 1. Understanding what defines Mission Success as guided by the customer's needs, objectives and constraints. 2. Understanding how the system is supposed to work and how the system is to be produced, fueled by the curiosity of how the system should work and how it should be produced. 3. Understanding how the system can fail and how the system might not be produced on time and within cost, fueled by the curiosity of how the system might fail and how production might be difficult. 4. Understanding what we need to know and what we need learn for proper completion of the above three items, fueled by the curiosity of what we might not know in order to make the best decisions.

  3. Book Review ~ Advancing Online Learning in Asia. Editors: David Murphy, Namin Shin, and Weiyuan Zhang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Jung

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The Internet, high-speed electronic communications, and computers have transformed the way we teach and learn. With the development of these new information and communication technologies, the idea of online education has been adopted in many developed, and more recently in developing countries, to bring wider opportunities to people in the form of increased access to flexible and interactive, open and distance learning systems. As stated in the Introduction of “Advancing Online Learning in Asia” edited by Murphy, Shin, and Zhang, online education is now everywhere and it “is changing the ways in which educational institutions interact with their students, for both traditional and distance education universities.” By examining recent developments of online education in Asia from multiple perspectives, this book has a potential to be an invaluable resource to educators. Taking cases from the Asian region in which online learning was introduced, implemented, and experienced, this book presents the cases from a number of perspectives, especially from student perspectives, and addresses pedagogical and technical issues faced by online educators. The breadth of the articles in this book provides a wide range of online learning cases and varied perspectives, which should clearly appeal to educators, researchers, administrators, and policy makers in online education.

  4. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu; Edeh Rolleta Haroen; Rosiliwati Wihardja

    2008-01-01

    The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain ...

  5. The Challenge of University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, John; Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduce the reader to the book, providing a historical perspective and a current understanding of university autonomy. While appreciating the central role of the four dimensions of university autonomy – organisational, financial, human resource, and academic – the authors conjecture......, which is discussed at length in the chapter. The authors conclude by presenting international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are genuinely global....

  6. Asset Analysis and Operational Concepts for Separation Assurance Flight Testing at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Guillermo J.; Arteaga, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary survey of existing separation assurance and collision avoidance advancements, technologies, and efforts has been conducted in order to develop a concept of operations for flight testing autonomous separation assurance at Dryden Flight Research Center. This effort was part of the Unmanned Aerial Systems in the National Airspace System project. The survey focused primarily on separation assurance projects validated through flight testing (including lessons learned), however current forays into the field were also examined. Comparisons between current Dryden flight and range assets were conducted using House of Quality matrices in order to allow project management to make determinations regarding asset utilization for future flight tests. This was conducted in order to establish a body of knowledge of the current collision avoidance landscape, and thus focus Dryden s efforts more effectively towards the providing of assets and test ranges for future flight testing within this research field.

  7. Autonomy, Automation, and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip R.

    1987-02-01

    Aerospace industry interest in autonomy and automation, given fresh impetus by the national goal of establishing a Space Station, is becoming a major item of research and technology development. The promise of new technology arising from research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has focused much attention on its potential in autonomy and automation. These technologies can improve performance in autonomous control functions that involve planning, scheduling, and fault diagnosis of complex systems. There are, however, many aspects of system and subsystem design in an autonomous system that impact AI applications, but do not directly involve AI technology. Development of a system control architecture, establishment of an operating system within the design, providing command and sensory data collection features appropriate to automated operation, and the use of design analysis tools to support system engineering are specific examples of major design issues. Aspects such as these must also receive attention and technology development support if we are to implement complex autonomous systems within the realistic limitations of mass, power, cost, and available flight-qualified technology that are all-important to a flight project.

  8. X-1E on Display Stand at Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E is shown in this artistic night photo taken in February 1996. This aircraft is displayed on a pedestal in front of the main building (4800) at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E

  9. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Edwards AFB Runway

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable workhorse, the B-52 mothership, rolls out on the Edwards AFB runway after a test flight in 1996. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  10. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and equally pull in opposite directions. The holistic view is expressed in a model of institutional university autonomy that brings together the traditional basic four pillars of autonomy, and five interfaces: government–university; university...

  11. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  12. The many faces of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H T

    2001-01-01

    The challenge in maintaining patient autonomy regarding medical decision-making and confidentiality lies not only in control over information transferred to and regarding patients, but in the ambiguity of autonomy itself. Post-modernity is characterized by the recognition of not just numerous accounts of autonomy, but by the inability in a principled fashion to select one as canonical. Autonomy is understood as a good, a right-making condition, and an element of human flourishing. In each case, it can have a different content, depending in part on whether it is given a nomological or a volitional construal. Different accounts of autonomy can lead to strikingly different understandings of appropriate behavior, including the argument that one ought on behalf of autonomy to liberate individuals from the sense of autonomy they themselves affirm. In the face of competing accounts of moral probity, autonomy in a secular morality and bioethics must by default be understood in terms of the permission of patients, which makes space for numerous moral accounts and different communal construals of free choice, which in turn will legitimate different practices of informing patients and maintaining confidentiality.

  13. Institutional Financial Autonomy in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szwebs, Witold

    2016-01-01

    by departments as bureaucratic and hampering effective research. Thus autonomy has produced new internal tensions between the central management/administration and the departments which it is argued is counter-productive and not beneficial for research and could be seen as a perverse aspect of greater autonomy...

  14. The Principalship, Autonomy, and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacott, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary discourses in educational administration have exponentially grown the number of adjectival leaderships, challenged traditional organisational structures, and offered autonomy as a solution to performance issues. In this theoretical paper, I ask "what does the principalship look like after autonomy?" Despite the range of…

  15. Teacher Autonomy: Power or Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the issue of teacher autonomy in relation to its potential for freedom or control. It examines the concept of empowerment as applied to education, arguing that, although it is traditionally cast as a means of achieving autonomy, an alternative approach sees empowerment as part of the disciplinary apparatus of late modern…

  16. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges traditional approach to university autonomy which is based on four pillars: organisational, financial, human resource, and academic. The main thesis is that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a more holistic view of the complex inter......-relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and equally pull in opposite directions. The holistic view is expressed in a model of institutional university autonomy that brings together the traditional basic four pillars of autonomy, and five interfaces: government–university; university......–university staff; academic staff–students; university–business; and university–internationalisation. This model is explored through international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are complex, interactive and genuinely...

  17. Neuromodulation, agency and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulation consists in altering brain activity to restore mental and physical functions in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and brain and spinal cord injuries. This can be achieved by delivering electrical stimulation that excites or inhibits neural tissue, by using electrical signals in the brain to move computer cursors or robotic arms, or by displaying brain activity to subjects who regulate that activity by their own responses to it. As enabling prostheses, deep-brain stimulation and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are forms of extended embodiment that become integrated into the individual's conception of himself as an autonomous agent. In BCIs and neurofeedback, the success or failure of the techniques depends on the interaction between the learner and the trainer. The restoration of agency and autonomy through neuromodulation thus involves neurophysiological, psychological and social factors.

  18. Autonomy and Its Effect on Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Morsunbul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy is one of the most important variable that influences adolescent’s mental health. Though there have been many studies conducted on autonomy, there is no commonly accepted definition for it. Two approaches concerning autonomy have a dominant effect on studies. These are explanations of cultural psychology and psychoanalytic approach (autonomy as independent and explanation of Self Determination Theory (autonomy as self endorsed functioning about autonomy. This study aims to review main approaches related to autonomy and relations between autonomy and mental health.

  19. UAV Research, Operations, and Flight Test at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the projects that have extended NASA Dryden's capabilities in designing, testing, and using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). Some of the UAV's have been for Science and experimental applications, some have been for flight research and demonstration purposes, and some have been small UAV's for other customers.

  20. Hugh L. Dryden's Career in Aviation and Space. No. 5; Monographs in Aerospace History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    Hugh Latimer Dryden led a life rich in paradox. Born in obsurity, he attained international prominence. Indifferent to self-advancement, he nonetheless rose to the pinnacle of the aeronautics profession and subsequently assumed a pivotal role in the initial period of space exploration. Although a research scientist of the first order, he nurtured within himself a profoundly spiritual outlook.

  1. Autonomy as Ideology: Towards an Autonomy Worthy of Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrope, Alistair

    Recent criticism of the role of respect for autonomy in bioethics has focused on that principle's status as ‘dogma’ or ‘ideology’. I suggest that lying beneath many applications of respect for autonomy in medical ethics are some influential dogmas — propositions accepted, not as explicit premises or as a consequence of reasoned argument, but simply because moral problems are so frequently framed in such terms. Furthermore, I will argue that rejecting these dogmas is vital to secure and protect an autonomy worthy of respect. The concept of autonomy that is widely applied in clinical ethics emphasises decision-making competence, at the expense of considering the authenticity of those decisions. Respect for such autonomy is interpreted in largely synchronic and individual terms — concerned with the isolated decisions of individual agents — and thus neglects the diachronic and social dimensions of many moral dilemmas arising in the health care context. I will examine how these unwritten rules lead to an impoverished understanding of respect and a systematic neglect in bioethics of certain kinds of ethical consideration, and draw on insights from feminist and communitarian work on autonomy to sketch an alternative approach to understanding respect, modelled on the norms of respectful conversation — a respect that is firstly concerned with engaging with the another as a potential giver and bearer or reasons, and working with them to promote both individual and social flourishing.

  2. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131 I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  3. Intramitochondrial autonomy in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.; Rajwade, M.S.; Satav, J.G.; Katyare, S.S.; Fatterpaker, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondria in rat liver and their protein turnover has been investigated using 1- 14 C leucine. The results indicate that intramitochondrial autonomy exists both with respect to their genesis and turnover. (M.G.B.)

  4. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  5. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d...

  6. Heat Stress Equation Development and Usage for Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtas, Franzeska; Teets, Edward H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Heat Stress Indices are equations that integrate some or all variables (e.g. temperature, relative humidity, wind speed), directly or indirectly, to produce a number for thermal stress on humans for a particular environment. There are a large number of equations that have been developed which range from simple equations that may ignore basic factors (e.g. wind effects on thermal loading, fixed contribution from solar heating) to complex equations that attempt to incorporate all variables. Each equation is evaluated for a particular use, as well as considering the ease of use and reliability of the results. The meteorology group at the Dryden Flight Research Center has utilized and enhanced the American College of Sports Medicine equation to represent the specific environment of the Mojave Desert. The Dryden WBGT Heat Stress equation has been vetted and implemented as an automated notification to the entire facility for the safety of all personnel and visitors.

  7. The NACA Exceptional Service Medal presented at the NACA High Speed Flight Station. L-R: Hugh Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    The NASA exceptional Service Medal presented at the NACA High Speed Flight Station. L-R: Hugh Dryden, Joe Walker (X-1A research pilot), Stan Butchart (pilot of the B-29 mothership), Richard Payne (X-1A crew chief).

  8. A biased historical perspective of women in the engineering field at Dryden from 1946 to November 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke

    1994-01-01

    Being a woman in engineering, and in particular, being the woman with the dubious distinction of having the most years at Dryden, gives the author a long-term perspective on the women who worked in the engineering field and their working environment. The working environment for the women was influenced by two main factors. One factor was the Dryden's growth of 14 persons (2 of them women) at the end of 1946 to the present size. The other factor was the need for programming knowledge when the digital computers came into use. Women have been involved with flight research at Dryden since the days of the first transonic and supersonic airplanes. This paper uses available records, along with memory, to document the number of women in engineering at Dryden, to comment about observed trends, and to make personal observations.

  9. Propulsion modeling techniques and applications for the NASA Dryden X-30 real-time simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the flight planning activities to date in the current National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program. The government flight-envelope expansion concept and other design flight operational assessments are discussed. The NASA Dryden NASP real-time simulator configuration is examined and hypersonic flight planning simulation propulsion modeling requirements are described. The major propulsion modeling techniques developed by the Edwards flight test team are outlined, and the application value of techniques for developmental hypersonic vehicles are discussed.

  10. The Ideal of Moral Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements of the ideal of moral autonomy are discussed in this paper. Such ideal is a key assumption in social practices focused on normative imputation, particularly morality and law. First, a constructivist conception of normativity is introduced, taking reasons as an essential and non-reducible element, and focused on the conceptual features of moral reasons within the normative domain. Then, an idea of moral autonomy based on the self-constitution is developed including three key features: the possibility of responding to reasons based on shared social expectations; the responsibility for certain scope of actions, according to a set of reasons available to the individual and to their maximum extent of expansion; and the need to preserve autonomy as a purpose unifying the set of autonomous actions of moral agents.

  11. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  12. The ADEPT Framework for Intelligent Autonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricard, Michael; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    ...) architecture for intelligent autonomy. Intelligent autonomy is the ability to plan and execute complex activities in a manner that provides rapid, effective response to stochastic and dynamic mission events...

  13. Teacher Autonomy vs. Curricular Anarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthorn, Allan A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the negative and positive aspects of teacher autonomy in relation to curriculum development and control. Outlines a process for solving the problem that includes conducting staff development through dialog, delineating mastery curriculum, mapping ideal curriculum, and developing curriculum-based tests. Includes references and a figure.…

  14. Reproductive autonomy: A case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consequentialist argument moral reasons may trump reproductive autonomy. Although we clearly have a strong moral obligation to minimise net suffering, certain disabilities are trivial, and the assumption that the lives of disabled persons contain more suffering than the lives of ablebodied individuals is far from selfevident.

  15. The relationship between the teacher autonomy and learner autonomy support behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Şakir YAZICI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the purpose is to determine the relationship between teachers’ autonomy behaviors and learner autonomy support behaviors. The current study was designed in the survey model. The population of the study is comprised of teachers working in elementary, secondary and high schools located in the city of Muğla, Turkey, and its surrounding districts during the 2015-2016 school year. The sampling of the study consists of 428 teachers selected through disproportional cluster sampling technique. In the study, the Teacher Autonomy Scale and Learner Autonomy Support Behaviors Scale were used as data collection tools. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, correlation and multiple regression analysis were employed. The results of the analyses revealed that the general autonomy behaviors of the teachers are above medium level. The autonomy behavior most frequently exhibited by the teachers is communication autonomy and the least exhibited is professional development autonomy. The teachers are of the opinion that they often demonstrate learner autonomy support behaviors. There is a medium level and same directional correlation between the teacher autonomy and learner autonomy support behaviors. The dimensions of teacher autonomy explain 12% of learner autonomy support behaviors. Communication autonomy and teaching process autonomy are important predictors of learner autonomy support behaviors.

  16. The Connotations of Language Teacher Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ligang

    2017-01-01

    With the research on the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education, teacher autonomy has become a hot topic in the research of foreign language teacher education. However, it is the most difficult question to define language teacher autonomy and any answer to it is likely to be subjective. On the basis of expounding upon the…

  17. School Autonomy, Leadership and Learning: A Reconceptualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin Cheong; Ko, James; Lee, Theodore Tai Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for reconceptualising research on school autonomy to redress the limitations of traditional research, strengthen the conceptual links between school autonomy and learning outcomes and offer a range of new strategies for studying the interplay of school autonomy, leadership and learning.…

  18. Respect for autonomy and technological risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, L.

    2008-01-01

    Technological developments can undermine the autonomy of the individual. Autonomy is one's ability to make and act upon decisions according to one's own moral framework. Respect for autonomy dictates that risks should not be imposed on the individual without her consent. Technological developments

  19. Student Perceptions of Their Autonomy at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, D. C.; Morrell, L. J.; Scott, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    Learner autonomy is a primary learning outcome of Higher Education in many countries. However, empirical evaluation of how student autonomy progresses during undergraduate degrees is limited. We surveyed a total of 636 students' self-perceived autonomy during a period of two academic years using the Autonomous Learning Scale. Our analysis suggests…

  20. Rawls: The Problem of Autonomy and Coherentism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnora Gondim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the idea of autonomy into that of justice as equality modifies the work of Rawls taken as a whole. Thus, while in the Theory of Justice, a Kantian- type of autonomy is adopted, in Political Liberalism, autonomy is extended to the sphere of the political.

  1. Analysis of the Dryden Wet Bulb GLobe Temperature Algorithm for White Sands Missile Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaQuay, Ryan Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In locations where workforce is exposed to high relative humidity and light winds, heat stress is a significant concern. Such is the case at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Heat stress is depicted by the wet bulb globe temperature, which is the official measurement used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The wet bulb globe temperature is measured by an instrument which was designed to be portable and needing routine maintenance. As an alternative form for measuring the wet bulb globe temperature, algorithms have been created to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature from basic meteorological observations. The algorithms are location dependent; therefore a specific algorithm is usually not suitable for multiple locations. Due to climatology similarities, the algorithm developed for use at the Dryden Flight Research Center was applied to data from the White Sands Missile Range. A study was performed that compared a wet bulb globe instrument to data from two Surface Atmospheric Measurement Systems that was applied to the Dryden wet bulb globe temperature algorithm. The period of study was from June to September of2009, with focus being applied from 0900 to 1800, local time. Analysis showed that the algorithm worked well, with a few exceptions. The algorithm becomes less accurate to the measurement when the dew point temperature is over 10 Celsius. Cloud cover also has a significant effect on the measured wet bulb globe temperature. The algorithm does not show red and black heat stress flags well due to shorter time scales of such events. The results of this study show that it is plausible that the Dryden Flight Research wet bulb globe temperature algorithm is compatible with the White Sands Missile Range, except for when there are increased dew point temperatures and cloud cover or precipitation. During such occasions, the wet bulb globe temperature instrument would be the preferred method of measurement. Out of the 30

  2. Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  3. Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  4. Design of a Mission Data Storage and Retrieval System for NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Jessica; Downing, Bob; Sheldon, Jack

    2007-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) employs the WATR Integrated Next Generation System (WINGS) for the processing and display of aeronautical flight data. This report discusses the post-mission segment of the WINGS architecture. A team designed and implemented a system for the near- and long-term storage and distribution of mission data for flight projects at DFRC, providing the user with intelligent access to data. Discussed are the legacy system, an industry survey, system operational concept, high-level system features, and initial design efforts.

  5. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-11-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  6. Autonomy and the Sources of Political Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Contemporary political liberals argue for extending the scope of reasonable disagreement to include also the principle of autonomy that was central in classical liberal theory. I take outset in Charles Larmore, The Autonomy of Morality (2008), which argues that liberal theory can dispense...... the commitment to autonomy. My focus is the Kantian conception of autonomy, and I argue for understanding this conception practically and politically, rather than metaphysically and theoretically. In this way we can separate the principle of respect for persons from the metaphysical idea of autonomy as self......-origination of binding principles but not from autonomy as a necessary presupposition of our moral-political deliberations. Respect for persons and the authority of moral-political claims are internally related to the mutual affirmation of our autonomy as equal subjects and authors of binding principles....

  7. School autonomy: Necessary but not sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahle Suggett

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available School autonomy has become increasingly significant in the politics of education, as well as a central feature of education systems’ reform policies in Australia and globally. This review examines the spectrum of evidence on the impact of school autonomy on student academic achievement, and the features of autonomy that improve or constrain achievement, and discusses the implications of these findings for future policy. There is no definitive or simple conclusion from assessing the impact of autonomy on student achievement, but neither does the evidence reject the contribution of autonomy. Rather, the evidence points to autonomy as a key and necessary component of a mature and high-performing system, as it is in other areas of public administration. However, the wider institutional context matters, and parallel policies like accountability and leadership development need to be in place. Crucially, and counter to popular conception, more rather than less systemic support is needed for the potential of school autonomy to be realised.

  8. University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    analysed, adding up to approximately 8000 pages. These evaluation studies were conducted by the EUniAM Task Force teams in 2013 and reported in 2014. They commenced at the time when the Government of Moldova made changes to the financial autonomy of universities, allowing them inter alia to open own bank...... accounts in a bank of their choosing, and keep and transfer the balance for the next reporting year. At this same time, the Ministry of Education together with the higher education community started working on the Code of Education. Although during this period data were a moving target, the Task Force...... teams made everything possible to account for those changes in the evaluation studies. During the above mentioned period, data and information from these evaluation studies contributed to a great extent, directly and/or indirectly, to the debate on university institutional autonomy legislation...

  9. The many faces of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Diego

    2012-02-01

    What does autonomy mean from a moral point of view? Throughout Western history, autonomy has had no less than four different meanings. The first is political: the capacity of old cities and modern states to give themselves their own laws. The second is metaphysical, and was introduced by Kant in the second half of the 18th century. In this meaning, autonomy is understood as an intrinsic characteristic of all rational beings. Opposed to this is the legal meaning, in which actions are called autonomous when performed with due information and competency and without coercion. This last meaning, the most frequently used in bioethics, is primarily legal instead of moral. Is there a proper moral meaning of the word autonomy? If so, this would be a fourth meaning. Acts can only be called moral when they are postconventional (using the terminology coined by Lawrence Kohlberg), inner-directed (as expressed by David Riesman), and responsible (according to Hannah Arendt). Such acts are autonomous in this new, fourth, and to my mind, the only one proper, moral meaning. The goal of ethics cannot be other than forming human beings capable of making autonomous and responsible decisions, and doing so because they think this is their duty and not because of any other nonmoral motivation, like comfort, convenience, or satisfaction. The goal of ethics is to promote postconventional and mature human beings. This was what Socrates tried to do with the young people of Athens. And it is also the objective of every course of ethics and of any process of training.

  10. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain a value for perception threshold and taste identification threshold using sucrose solution of 0.0006 M-0.06 M concentration. Research results indicate that the perception threshold and identification threshold of young, male adult smokers are 0.0119 M and 0.0292 M. Young, male adult clove cigarette smokers have a perception threshold and identification threshold of 0.0151 M and 0.0348 M. The conclusion of this research is that the perception threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are the same, whereas the identification threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are different, that is, the identification threshold of clove cigarette smokers is higher than that of white cigarette smokers.

  11. Cognitive architectures and autonomy: Commentary and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Editors: Włodzisław Duch / Ah-Hwee Tan / Stan Franklin Autonomy for AGI Cristiano Castelfranchi 31 Are Disembodied Agents Really Autonomous? Antonio Chella 33 The Perception-…-Action Cycle Cognitive Architecture and Autonomy: the View from the Brain Vassilis Cutsuridis 36 Autonomy Requires Creativity and Meta-Learning Włodzisław Duch 39 Meta Learning, Change of Internal Workings, and LIDA Ryan McCall / Stan Franklin 42 An Appeal for Declaring Research Goals Brandon Rohrer 45 The Development of Cognition as the Basis for Autonomy Frank van der Velde 47 Autonomy and Intelligence Pei Wang 49 Autonomy, Isolation, and Collective Intelligence Nikolaos Mavridis 51 Response to Comments Kristinn R. Thórisson / Helgi Páll Helgasson 56

  12. Autonomous Robot Control via Autonomy Levels (ARCAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    10 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL ■ VOLUME 22, 2015 Autonomous Robot Control via Autonomy Levels (ARCAL) Lawrence A.M. Bush and Andrew Wang In the...Adjustable autonomy technolo- gies, concepts, and simulation environments to evaluate teaming behaviors will enable researchers to develop these systems...A damaged nuclear energy facility also Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) need to handle more autonomy and perform more intelligent behaviors. These

  13. From solidarity to autonomy: towards a redefinition of the parameters of the notion of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Starting from examples of concrete situations in France, I show that autonomy and solidarity can coexist only if the parameters of autonomy are redefined. I show on the one hand that in situations where autonomy is encouraged, solidarity nevertheless remains at the foundation of their practices. On the other hand, in situations largely infused with family solidarity, the individual autonomy may be put in danger. Yet, based on my ethnographic observations regarding clinical encounters and medical secrecy, I show that while solidarity may endanger individual autonomy, it does not necessarily endanger autonomy itself. The social practices observable in France reflect the reality of an autonomy that goes beyond the individual, a reality that involves a collective subject and includes solidarity. The opposition between these two values can then be resolved if the content of the notion of autonomy is understood to be dependent on its cultural context of application and on its social use.

  14. Autopoiesis: Autology, Autotranscendence and Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , to the prospects of imagination, not least because imagination is driven by such paradoxes. The depth of the imagination is all surface, and all of its surfaces are deep structures. Schiltz’s exploration of autology grows out of one of a number (a growing number) of programmes that deal seriously with the idea......¿ning) problem of modernity. Castoriadis suggests a mutual and complementary relation between subjective and collective autonomy. Bouchet’s interpretation of this is very  radical and in certain respects quite startling. He considers how in modernity emerge spontaneous social orders (like markets or publics...

  15. Professional Autonomy versus Corporate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Nygaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism and bureaucracy tend to be understood as incompatible systems of work organization, represented by the ideals of collegiality and auton-omy versus control and supervision. I present a historical case study from early 20th century Norway examining the potential clash between efforts made toward professionalization and bureaucratization in industry. Based on my findings, I argue that there is neither an inherent conflict between professionalism and bureaucracy nor static national trajectories at the level of professional versus bureaucratic work organization.

  16. Adolescents, Graduated Autonomy, and Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy takes many shapes. The concept of “graduated autonomy” is conceived as comprising several unique features: (1 it is incremental, (2 it is proportional, and (3 it is related to the telos of the life stage during which it occurs. This paper focuses on graduated autonomy in the context of genetic testing during adolescence. Questions can be raised about other life stages as well, and some of these questions will be addressed by discussing a possible fourth characteristic of graduated autonomy, that is, its elasticity. Further scholarship and analysis is needed to refine the concept of graduated autonomy and examine its applications.

  17. Space Technology Demonstrations Using Low Cost, Short-Schedule Airborne and Range Facilities at the Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Kelly, John; Jones, Dan; Lee, James

    2013-01-01

    There is a national effort to expedite advanced space technologies on new space systems for both government and commercial applications. In order to lower risk, these technologies should be demonstrated in a relevant environment before being installed in new space systems. This presentation introduces several low cost, short schedule space technology demonstrations using airborne and range facilities available at the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  18. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  19. X-38 vehicle #131R arrives at NASA Dryden via NASA'S Super Guppy transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Super Guppy transport aircraft landed at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on July 11, 2000, to deliver the latest version of the X-38 drop vehicle to Dryden. The X-38s are intended as prototypes for a possible 'crew lifeboat' for the International Space Station. The X-38 vehicle 131R will demonstrate a huge 7,500 square-foot parafoil that will that will enable the potential crew return vehicle to land on the length of a football field after returning from space. The crew return vehicle is intended to serve as a possible emergency transport to carry a crew to safety in the event of problems with the International Space Station. The Super Guppy evolved from the 1960s-vintage Pregnant Guppy, used for transporting outsized sections of the Apollo moon rocket. The Super Guppy was modified from 1950s-vintage Boeing C-97. NASA acquired its Super Guppy from the European Space Agency in 1997.

  20. Motivating Proteges' Personal Learning in Teams: A Multilevel Investigation of Autonomy Support and Autonomy Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Fu, Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the roles of 3 multilevel motivational predictors in proteges' personal learning in teams: an autonomy-supportive team climate, mentors' autonomy support, and proteges' autonomy orientation. The authors followed 305 proteges in 58 teams for 12 weeks and found that all 3 predictors were positively related to the proteges'…

  1. Geohydrology, water quality, and simulation of groundwater flow in the stratified-drift aquifer system in Virgil Creek and Dryden Lake Valleys, Town of Dryden, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tompkins County Planning Department and the Town of Dryden, New York, began a study of the stratified-drift aquifer system in the Virgil Creek and Dryden Lake Valleys in the Town of Dryden, Tompkins County. The study provided geohydrologic data needed by the town and county to develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. In this study area, three extensive confined sand and gravel aquifers (the upper, middle, and lower confined aquifers) compose the stratified-drift aquifer system. The Dryden Lake Valley is a glaciated valley oriented parallel to the direction of ice movement. Erosion by ice extensively widened and deepened the valley, truncated bedrock hillsides, and formed a nearly straight, U-shaped bedrock trough. The maximum thickness of the valley fill in the central part of the valley is about 400 feet (ft). The Virgil Creek Valley in the east part of the study area underwent less severe erosion by ice than the Dryden Lake Valley, and hence, it has a bedrock floor that is several hundred feet higher in altitude than that in the Dryden Lake Valley. The sources and amounts of recharge were difficult to identify in most areas because the confined aquifers are overlain by confining units. However, in the vicinity of the Virgil Creek Dam, the upper confined aquifer crops out at land surface in the floodplain of a gorge eroded by Virgil Creek, and this is where the aquifer receives large amounts of recharge from precipitation that directly falls over the aquifer and from seepage losses from Virgil Creek. The results of streamflow measurements made in Virgil Creek where it flows through the gorge indicated that the stream lost 1.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or 0.78 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water in the reach extending from 220 ft downstream from the dam to 1,200 ft upstream from the dam. In the southern part of the study area, large amounts of recharge also replenish the

  2. Learner Autonomy Scale: A Scale Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakci, Senol; Gelisli, Yücel

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study is to develop a scale named "Learner Autonomy Scale" (LAS) for determining the learner autonomy of the students toward English lesson. The proposal scale, composed of 29 items, was applied to two study groups in Turkey. The group of Exploratory Factor Analysis that aims to determine the psychometric properties…

  3. Changing Light Bulbs: Practice, Motivation, and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    The comment on the Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste, and Deci (2011) article on motivation and autonomy in psychotherapy considers motivation and its role as prerequisite, process variable, or appropriate outcome, speculating that all are appropriate ways to conceptualize motivation in the behavior change process. Autonomy, as a useful addition, refers…

  4. Scaffolding Learner Autonomy in Online University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Elisa; Bezanilla, María José

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the question in what ways teachers and course designers can support the development and exertion of learner autonomy among online university students. It advocates that a greater attention to learner autonomy could help more students to complete their course successfully and thus contribute the decrease of the high dropout…

  5. Becoming Autonomous: Nonideal Theory and Educational Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.; Ryg, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomy operates as a key term in debates about the rights of families to choose distinct approaches to education. Yet, what autonomy means is often complicated by the actual circumstances and contexts of schools, families, and children. In this essay, Terri S. Wilson and Matthew A. Ryg focus on the challenges involved in translating an ideal of…

  6. Epistemic Autonomy: A Criterion for Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Catherine Elgin proposes a novel principle for identifying epistemic virtue. Based loosely on Kant's Categorical Imperative, it identifies autonomy as our fundamental epistemic responsibility, and defines the epistemic virtues as those traits of character needed to exercise epistemic autonomy. I argue that Elgin's principle fails as a…

  7. On the Compatibility of Autonomy and Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Holley S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the relation of autonomy to naturally occurring social interactions in two studies: the first investigated college students' interactions with parents, and the second examined interactions across all relationships. Autonomy was significantly related to more positive and naturally occurring interaction, whereas control related more to…

  8. Learner Autonomy Based On Constructivism Learning Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Constuctivism learning theory lays emphasis on the learners' active learning, such as learning initiative, sociality and context. By analyzing the relationship between constructivism learning theory and learner autonomy, this paper explores how to cultivate learners' learner autonomy under the guidance of constructivism learning theory.

  9. Netherlands: Steady decline in job autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.; Hooftmann, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that job autonomy has predominantly positive effects, such as the prevention of stress, burnout and cardiovascular disease. Employees with a good deal of autonomy generally report better well-being, are more productive, more creative, have more self-esteem and have higher work

  10. Interpreting the Effects of Autonomy on Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frank P.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    Research has indicated that increasing autonomy to incarcerated youths results in greater acceptance of institutional treatment goals and less support for an inmate counterculture. To examine different processes by which autonomy might affect individual outcomes, 430 youths in four Michigan boys' training schools were surveyed. The questionnaire…

  11. Attachment and autonomy problems in adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, R.G.; van Vroenhoven, S.; Karreman, A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attachment security and autonomy were examined in adults with ADHD. Insecure attachment and autonomy problems were expected to be negatively associated with general psychological functioning. Method: Questionnaires were administered (Relationship Questionnaire, Autonomy-Connectedness

  12. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  13. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural...... is good for oneself and what is equally good for all. While freedom of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that citizens have no obligations with regard to how they speak to each other. The moral insights that deliberation delivers depends on that the participants...

  14. Protecting autonomy as authenticity using Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Willigenburg, Theo; Delaere, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Pre-commitment directives or Ulysses contracts are often defended as instruments that may strengthen the autonomous self-control of episodically disordered psychiatric patients. Autonomy is understood in this context in terms of sovereignty ("governing" or "managing" oneself). After critically analyzing this idea of autonomy in the context of various forms of self-commitment and pre-commitment, we argue that what is at stake in using Ulysses contracts in psychiatry is not autonomy as sovereignty, but autonomy as authenticity. Pre-commitment directives do not function to protect autonomous self-control. They serve in upholding the guidance that is provided by one's deepest identity conferring concerns. We elucidate this concept of autonomy as authenticity, by showing how Ulysses contracts protect the possibility of being "a self."

  15. The Autonomy Activity Status of Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzikowska, Marlena; Gammelgaard, Jens; Jindra, Björn

    Research concerning the autonomy of subsidiaries has been concentrated on the possession of decision-making rights. Building on the definitional and empirical argumentation, we claim that so understood autonomy has a prospective character, is not equal to the implementation of actual actions (or...... lack of thereof) and neglects the issue of the scope of potential actions. This paper aims to fill in the current literature gap by offering a holistic stance in which we assert that subsidiaries can be meaningfully differentiated according to their levels of autonomy and corresponding actions. We base...... this argumentation on the findings of real option theory and competitive dynamics perspective, develop a typology specific to a subsidiary’s autonomy activity status (the position of a subsidiary in terms of its autonomy level confronted with the extent of actions taken in a corresponding area). We evaluate...

  16. Indications for treatment of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on pathophysiological findings and considerations it is attempted to review critically the present state of indications and therapeutic modalities in cases of thyroid autonomy. If hyperthyroidism occurs or has occurred in autonomy, definitive treatment with radioiodine or surgery is indicated. In cases of autonomy with euthyroidism, treatment planning and indication of definite therapy are difficult still today, because the risk to develop hyperthyroidism cannot as yet be sufficiently estimated. A useful indicator in such cases seems to be the percentage of global thyreoidal uptake of 99m-technetium under supression. If autonomy is severe surgical treatment today is superior to radio-iodine therapy, but is associated with a higher rate of manifest hypothyroidism. Further research into both the risk of hyperthyroidism in thyroid autonomy and the optimization of radio-iodine therapy are needed. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Walker, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    Systems capabilities on ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) and autonomy have traditionally been addressed separately. This means that ISHM functions, such as anomaly detection, diagnostics, prognostics, and comprehensive system awareness have not been considered traditionally in the context of autonomy functions such as planning, scheduling, and mission execution. One key reason is that although they address systems capabilities, both ISHM and autonomy have traditionally individually been approached as independent strategies and models for analysis. Additionally, to some degree, a unified paradigm for ISHM and autonomy has been difficult to implement due to limitations of hardware and software. This paper explores a unified treatment of ISHM and autonomy in the context of distributed hierarchical autonomous operations.

  18. Respect for Autonomy in Light of Neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sabine

    2017-06-01

    Bioethics needs an elaborated concept of autonomy based on empirical knowledge about the prerequisites of the capacity of autonomy. Whereas Beauchamp and Childress, and many other bioethicists have discussed social influences on the capacity of autonomy in depth, neurobiological influences have received less attention. A comprehensive concept of autonomy should consider both social and biological factors that can diminish the capacity of autonomy. This article focuses on neurobiological influences that can reduce the capacity of autonomy. The thesis of this article is that the integration of neuropsychiatric knowledge into the concept of autonomy is essential for (1) evaluating demands for harmful medical treatments which might be caused by a brain disease, and (2) deciding on involuntary treatments of patients who suffer from substantial lack of autonomy due to neuropsychiatric disorders. Diametrically opposed to such a comprehensive concept of the capacity of autonomy is the concept of 'liberty of illness'. In Germany, this concept is supported not only by anti-psychiatric groups but also by the Federal Constitutional Court. Several real cases demonstrate how the brain can be 'hijacked' by parasites, antibodies or technical devices. Applying the concept of 'liberty of illness' to persons whose decision-making capacity is severely affected by neuropsychiatric disorders is cynical. These patients neither chose their disease nor would refuse effective treatment if their will was not disturbed by the disease. Respect for autonomy should be understood as the positive obligation to save, support or restore the biological prerequisites of the capacity for autonomous decision-making. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  20. LOOKING FOR (REDEFINING UNIVERSITY AUTONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala\tCOTELNIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the institutional university autonomy of the following EU member states: Denmark, Lithuania, Romania, Scotland and Sweden. Today we are witnessing the restructuring of various society sectors - the economy, labor market, social and political systems, etc. It is a process at state – nation level, as well as regional and global levels. Education systems in most countries, at their turn, react to this process and engage in radical reform of higher education in order to achieve economic, social and political objectives of the society. In this emerging environment universities have to review their position in order to redefine and adapt their functions, forming an autonomous space for proper decision making and, thus, playing an innovative role in the socio- economic environment.

  1. Contextual predictability shapes signal autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, James; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2018-03-10

    Aligning on a shared system of communication requires senders and receivers reach a balance between simplicity, where there is a pressure for compressed representations, and informativeness, where there is a pressure to be communicatively functional. We investigate the extent to which these two pressures are governed by contextual predictability: the amount of contextual information that a sender can estimate, and therefore exploit, in conveying their intended meaning. In particular, we test the claim that contextual predictability is causally related to signal autonomy: the degree to which a signal can be interpreted in isolation, without recourse to contextual information. Using an asymmetric communication game, where senders and receivers are assigned fixed roles, we manipulate two aspects of the referential context: (i) whether or not a sender shares access to the immediate contextual information used by the receiver in interpreting their utterance; (ii) the extent to which the relevant solution in the immediate referential context is generalisable to the aggregate set of contexts. Our results demonstrate that contextual predictability shapes the degree of signal autonomy: when the context is highly predictable (i.e., the sender has access to the context in which their utterances will be interpreted, and the semantic dimension which discriminates between meanings in context is consistent across communicative episodes), languages develop which rely heavily on the context to reduce uncertainty about the intended meaning. When the context is less predictable, senders favour systems composed of autonomous signals, where all potentially relevant semantic dimensions are explicitly encoded. Taken together, these results suggest that our pragmatic faculty, and how it integrates information from the context in reducing uncertainty, plays a central role in shaping language structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Are the benefits of autonomy satisfaction and the costs of autonomy frustration dependent on individuals' autonomy strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Jasper; van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Audenaert, Elien; De Schryver, Maarten; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-01-29

    From a self-determination theory perspective, individuals are assumed to benefit and suffer from, respectively, the satisfaction and frustration of the psychological need for autonomy, even if they score low on autonomy strength. Yet, previous studies on need strength are scarce, operationalized need strength differently, and produced inconsistent findings. In two studies among 224 South African adults (M age  = 24.13, SD = 4.25; 54.0% male) and 156 Belgian prisoners (M age  = 38.60, SD = 11.68; 88.5% male), we investigated the moderating role of autonomy valuation and desire in the relations of autonomy satisfaction and frustration with a variety of well-being and ill-being indicators. Study 1 provided some evidence for the moderating role of mostly explicit autonomy desire (rather than explicit autonomy valuation). In Study 2, neither explicit nor implicit autonomy desire played a consistent moderating role. Overall, these findings are congruent with a moderate (albeit not with a strong) interpretation of the universality claim made within self-determination theory, provide initial evidence for a differentiation between deficit-based and growth-oriented interpersonal differences in need strength, and indicate that the potential moderating role of need strength deserves continued attention before any firm conclusions can be drawn. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  4. Do Some People Need Autonomy More Than Others? Implicit Dispositions Toward Autonomy Moderate the Effects of Felt Autonomy on Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Julia; Sheldon, Kennon M; Prentice, Mike; Halusic, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The present studies examined whether implicit or explicit autonomy dispositions moderate the relationship between felt autonomy and well-being. Study 1 (N = 187 undergraduate students) presents an initial test of the moderator hypothesis by predicting flow experience from the interaction of autonomy need satisfaction and autonomy dispositions. Study 2 (N = 127 physically inactive persons) used vignettes involving an autonomy (un)supportive coach to test a moderated mediation model in which perceived coach autonomy support leads to well-being through basic need satisfaction. Again, the effects of need satisfaction on well-being were hypothesized to be moderated by an implicit autonomy disposition. Study 1 showed that individuals with a strong implicit autonomy (but not power or achievement) motive disposition derived more flow experience from felt autonomy than individuals with a weak implicit autonomy disposition. Study 2 revealed that perceived autonomy support from sports coaches, which we experimentally induced with a vignette method, leads to autonomy satisfaction, leading in turn to positive effects on well-being. This indirect effect held at high and average but not low implicit autonomy disposition. The results indicate that the degree to which people benefit from autonomy need satisfaction depends on their implicit disposition toward autonomy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Complete NASA Dryden Staff of 1985, in front of building 4800

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In 1985 the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility employees and contractors gathered around the base of the X-1E for a picture. The X-1E is mounted in front of building 4800, the main building at Dryden. On Wednesday, October 1, 1958, the NACA yellow-backed winged symbol (see E-33718) that represented the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for 43-years, was removed from the front of the main building at the NASA High Speed Flight Station, making room for a new insignia belonging to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This NASA Insignia was created by retiree James J. Modarelli, former Chief of Technical Publication of Lewis Research Center; designed by the Army Institute of Heraldry; and approved by the Commission of Fine Arts and the NASA Administrator. This official insignia of the NASA is a dark blue disc with white stars. The white hand-cut letters 'NASA' are in the center of the disc and are encircled by a white diagonal orbit. A solid red 'V' shape appears behind and in front of the letters and extends beyond the disc. The 'V' is patterned after an actual wing design being tested by NACA researchers during the late 1950s. This insignia was used from 1958 to 1975 and was affectionately known at the 'meatball,' returning to NASA Insignia status in 1992. In the photo above the NASA Logotype appearing on the front of the main building replaced the NASA Insignia. The NASA Logotype was developed under the Federal Design Improvement Program initiated by the President in 1972, with the preferred color being red. It was approved by the Commission of Fine Arts and the NASA Administrator in October 1975. It symbolized NASA's role in aeronautics and space from 1975 to 1992 and has since been retired. In the logotype, the letters 'NASA' are reduced with the strokes being of one width; the elimination of cross strokes in the two 'A' letters imparts a quality of uniqueness and contemporary character. This familiar logo was known as 'The Worm'. On

  6. Former Dryden pilot and NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong being inducted into the Aerospace Walk of Hono

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Famed astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon during the historic Apollo 11 space mission in July 1969, served for seven years as a research pilot at the NACA-NASA High-Speed Flight Station, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards, California, before he entered the space program. Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, and today the Glenn Research Center) in 1955. Later that year, he transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards as an aeronautical research scientist and then as a pilot, a position he held until becoming an astronaut in 1962. He was one of nine NASA astronauts in the second class to be chosen. As a research pilot Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100A and F-100C aircraft, F-101, and the F-104A. He also flew the X-1B, X-5, F-105, F-106, B-47, KC-135, and Paresev. He left Dryden with a total of over 2450 flying hours. He was a member of the USAF-NASA Dyna-Soar Pilot Consultant Group before the Dyna-Soar project was cancelled, and studied X-20 Dyna-Soar approaches and abort maneuvers through use of the F-102A and F5D jet aircraft. Armstrong was actively engaged in both piloting and engineering aspects of the X-15 program from its inception. He completed the first flight in the aircraft equipped with a new flow-direction sensor (ball nose) and the initial flight in an X-15 equipped with a self-adaptive flight control system. He worked closely with designers and engineers in development of the adaptive system, and made seven flights in the rocket plane from December 1960 until July 1962. During those fights he reached a peak altitude of 207,500 feet in the X-15-3, and a speed of 3,989 mph (Mach 5.74) in the X-15-1. Armstrong has a total of 8 days and 14 hours in space, including 2 hours and 48 minutes walking on the Moon. In March 1966 he was commander of the Gemini 8

  7. Markets & Myths: Autonomy in Public & Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubin Glass

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available

    School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.

    The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.

  8. Autonomy,Genius,and the Sublime

    OpenAIRE

    デュカウスキー, トム

    2003-01-01

    There has long been a link acknowledged between human autonomy and works of artistic genius, sublime works which are recognised as being somehow divine in nature. It is the purpose of this paper to study this link. In the introduction, I shall discuss what is meant by autonomy, and how it is that we may define a special kind of autonomy as it relates to artistic geniuses and their sublime artistic creations. I shall also define what is meant by the sublime, or divine artistry, in literature u...

  9. Characteristics of Law-Autonomy Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank; Stephan, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    a high number of intra-organizational relationships. Furthermore, such subsidiaries are typically managed by nationals of the MNC’s headquarters home country. Despite the fact that such subsidiaries have low autonomy, they employ a high proportion of professional staff members. We find a negative...... relationship between lower autonomy and the production activities carried out by the subsidiary. In fact, low-autonomy subsidiaries appear to be specialized in that they focus on a few value-chain activities and they typically serve as marketing outlets....

  10. Fairing Well: Aerodynamic Truck Research at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. From Shoebox to Bat Truck and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In 1973 engineers at Dryden began investigating ways to reduce aerodynamic drag on land vehicles. They began with a delivery van whose shape they changed dramatically, finally reducing its aerodynamic drag by more than 5 percent. They then turned their attention to tracator-trailers, modifying a cab-over and reducing its aerodynamic drag by nearly 25 percent. Further research identified additional areas worth attention, but in the intervening decades few of those changes have appeared.

  11. The NASA Dryden 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft crew poses in an engine inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Dryden 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft crew poses in an engine inlet; Standing L to R - aircraft mechanic John Goleno and SCA Team Leader Pete Seidl; Kneeling L to R - aircraft mechanics Todd Weston and Arvid Knutson, and avionics technician Jim Bedard NASA uses two modified Boeing 747 jetliners, originally manufactured for commercial use, as Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). One is a 747-100 model, while the other is designated a 747-100SR (short range). The two aircraft are identical in appearance and in their performance as Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. The 747 series of aircraft are four-engine intercontinental-range swept-wing 'jumbo jets' that entered commercial service in 1969. The SCAs are used to ferry space shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights.

  12. Dryden F-8 Research Aircraft Fleet 1973 in flight, DFBW and SCW

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (left) and F-8 Supercritical Wing in flight. These two aircraft fundamentally changed the nature of aircraft design. The F-8 DFBW pioneered digital flight controls and led to such computer-controlled airacrft as the F-117A, X-29, and X-31. Airliners such as the Boeing 777 and Airbus A320 also use digital fly-by-wire systems. The other aircraft is a highly modified F-8A fitted with a supercritical wing. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb of Langley Research Center originated the supercritical wing concept in the late 1960s. (Dr. Whitcomb also developed the concept of the 'area rule' in the early 1950s. It singificantly reduced transonic drag.) The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide

  13. Autonomy, nudging and post-truth politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Geoff

    2017-11-16

    In his excellent essay, 'Nudges in a post-truth world', Neil Levy argues that 'nudges to reason', or nudges which aim to make us more receptive to evidence, are morally permissible. A strong argument against the moral permissibility of nudging is that nudges fail to respect the autonomy of the individuals affected by them. Levy argues that nudges to reason do respect individual autonomy, such that the standard autonomy objection fails against nudges to reason. In this paper, I argue that Levy fails to show that nudges to reason respect individual autonomy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. How important is Autonomy to Professional Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Mastekaasa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption is that autonomy is crucial to professional workers. I examine this using survey data on a sample of public sector welfare professionals, viz. medical doctors, nurses, teachers, social workers. Comparisons are made with general population data from the International Social Survey Programme. Two methods of assessing the importance of work autonomy are employed; respondents’ direct ratings and statistical associations between work autonomy (and other job characteristics on the one hand and job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the other. Findings: Autonomy is not rated as more important among the professionals than in the general population, and neither is it more strongly related to job satisfaction. Interesting work and workplace social support appear to be more central.

  15. Decision-Making Autonomy and Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vo, Dut; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; de Jong, Gjalt

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how decision-making autonomy affects the possibility and intensity of innovation in subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Subsidiaries are increasingly identified as sources of innovation and as vehicles for cross-border transfer of new competences. The question...... of how much decision-making autonomy subsidiaries should have is a core issue in the management of headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we hypothesize a non-linear relationship between subsidiary’s decision-making autonomy and innovation. We test our...... hypothesis in a multi-country and multiindustry database based on survey evidence of 134 subsidiaries located in five Central and Eastern European countries from 23 home countries. The empirical results provide support for a non-linear U shaped relationship between subsidiary decision-making autonomy...

  16. Heteronomous Citizenship: Civic Virtue and the Chains of Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I distinguish personal autonomy from heteronomy, and consider whether autonomy provides a suitable basis for liberalism. I argue that liberal government should not promote autonomy in all its citizens, on the grounds that not all members of liberal democracies require autonomy for a good life. I then outline an alternative option…

  17. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    J Taylor; S Bradley; A N Nguyen

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  18. The Changing Scope of Professional Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Wrede, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter.......Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter....

  19. Understanding critical care nurses' autonomy in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharmeh, Mahmoud

    2017-10-02

    Purpose The aim of this study was to describe Jordanian critical care nurses' experiences of autonomy in their clinical practice. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive correlational design was applied using a self-reported cross-sectional survey. A total of 110 registered nurses who met the eligibility criteria participated in this study. The data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Findings A majority of critical care nurses were autonomous in their decision-making and participation in decisions to take action in their clinical settings. Also, they were independent to develop their own knowledge. The study identified that their autonomy in action and acquired knowledge were influenced by a number of factors such as gender and area of practice. Practical implications Nurse's autonomy could be increased if nurses are made aware of the current level of autonomy and explore new ways to increase empowerment. This could be offered through classroom lectures that concentrate on the concept of autonomy and its implication in practice. Nurses should demonstrate autonomous nursing care at the same time in the clinical practice. This could be done through collaboration between educators and clinical practice to help merge theory to practice. Originality/value Critical care nurses were more autonomous in action and knowledge base. This may negatively affect the quality of patient care and nurses' job satisfaction. Therefore, improving nurses' clinical decision-making autonomy could be done by the support of both hospital administrators and nurses themselves.

  20. Autonomy and informed consent: a mistaken association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur

    2007-09-01

    For decades, the greater part of efforts to improve regulatory frameworks for research ethics has focused on informed consent procedures; their design, codification and regulation. Why is informed consent thought to be so important? Since the publication of the Belmont Report in 1979, the standard response has been that obtaining informed consent is a way of treating individuals as autonomous agents. Despite its political success, the philosophical validity of this Belmont view cannot be taken for granted. If the Belmont view is to be based on a conception of autonomy that generates moral justification, it will either have to be reinterpreted along Kantian lines or coupled with a something like Mill's conception of individuality. The Kantian interpretation would be a radical reinterpretation of the Belmont view, while the Millian justification is incompatible with the liberal requirement that justification for public policy should be neutral between controversial conceptions of the good. This consequence might be avoided by replacing Mill's conception of individuality with a procedural conception of autonomy, but I argue that the resulting view would in fact fail to support a non-Kantian, autonomy-based justification of informed consent. These difficulties suggest that insofar as informed consent is justified by respect for persons and considerations of autonomy, as the Belmont report maintained, the justification should be along the lines of Kantian autonomy and not individual autonomy.

  1. Autonomy, liberalism and advance care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomidis, S; Singer, P A

    1999-01-01

    The justification for advance directives is grounded in the notion that they extend patient autonomy into future states of incompetency through patient participation in decision making about end-of-life care. Four objections challenge the necessity and sufficiency of individual autonomy, perceived to be a defining feature of liberal philosophical theory, as a basis of advance care planning. These objections are that the liberal concept of autonomy (i) implies a misconception of the individual self, (ii) entails the denial of values of social justice, (iii) does not account for justifiable acts of paternalism, and (iv) does not account for the importance of personal relationships in the advance care planning process. The last objection is especially pertinent in light of recent empirical research highlighting the importance of personal relationships in advance care planning. This article examines these four objections to autonomy, and the liberal theoretical framework with which it is associated, in order to re-evaluate the philosophical basis of advance care planning. We argue that liberal autonomy (i) is not a misconceived concept as critics assume, (ii) does not entail the denial of values of social justice, (iii) can account for justifiable acts of paternalism, though it (iv) is not the best account of the value of personal relationships that arise in advance care planning. In conclusion, we suggest that liberalism is a necessary component of a theoretical framework for advance care planning but that it needs to be supplemented with theories that focus explicitly on the significance of personal relationships. PMID:10635509

  2. Autonomi og informeret samtykke i sygeplejepraksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Morville, Annette

    2006-01-01

    is described as freedom from compulsion and other forms of regulatory influence. In relation to autonomy and informed consent, information is a defined nursing responsibility in connection with self-managed nursing duties, nursing research and duties where nurses have had been entrusted with responsibility......The objective of this article is to describe autonomy and informed consent in nursing practice. The descriptions hereof are primarily written for medical practice. Through the use of literature studies the article describes when, how and under what circumstances informed consent is relevant...... in nursing practice. Autonomy and informed consent are described on the basis of four elements: competencies, voluntariness, information and consent, and these elements are related to nursing practice. Competencies are the ability to comprehend information and to decide based on knowledge. Voluntariness...

  3. Design and utilization of a Flight Test Engineering Database Management System at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, Donna L.

    1992-01-01

    A Flight Test Engineering Database Management System (FTE DBMS) was designed and implemented at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The X-29 Forward Swept Wing Advanced Technology Demonstrator flight research program was chosen for the initial system development and implementation. The FTE DBMS greatly assisted in planning and 'mass production' card preparation for an accelerated X-29 research program. Improved Test Plan tracking and maneuver management for a high flight-rate program were proven, and flight rates of up to three flights per day, two times per week were maintained.

  4. The meaning of autonomy in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skår, Randi

    2010-08-01

    To illuminate the meaning of nurses' experiences of autonomy in work situations. Professional autonomy means having the authority to make decisions and the freedom to act in accordance with one's professional knowledge base. An understanding of autonomy is needed to clarify and develop the nursing profession in rapidly changing health care environments and internationally there is a concern about how the core elements of nursing are taken care of when focusing on expansion and extension of specialist nursing roles. Qualitative study. This paper reports part of a project aimed at exploring the education and work qualifications required by the nursing profession. Eleven Norwegian nurses, each with 2-3 years of work experience since graduation, participated in both in-depth interviews and focus group interviews in 2006. A qualitative hermeneutic approach, inspired by Gadamer's philosophy, guided the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the transcribed interview-texts. The nurses' descriptions of their experiences of autonomy in work situations emerged as four themes: 'to have a holistic view', 'to know the patient', 'to know that you know' and 'to dare'. To be knowledgeable and confident was found to be the coherent meaning of autonomy in nursing practice. Authority of total patient care, the power to make decisions in a relationship with the patient and next of kin and the freedom to make clinical judgements, choices and actions seem to be connected to the meaning of autonomy in nursing practice. To gain autonomous practice, nurses must be competent and have the courage to take charge in situations where they are responsible. This study shows the challenges in handling this autonomous practice.

  5. “He tolle'd and legge'd”: Samuel Beckett and St. Augustine. Habit and Identity in Dream of Fair to Middling Women and Murphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bellini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Samuel Beckett's interest in St. Augustine is manifest throughout his oeuvre, both in terms of content and style, and can be traced from his very first works, such as Whoroscope, to his last plays and short stories. Although this interplay has been touched upon in the critical discourse on Beckett, a systematic analysis is still to be done. This paper represents a preliminary investigation into the Augustinian influence in the early Beckett, in particular Dream of Fair to Middling Women and Murphy. By considering the presence of the Confessions in these two novels I intend to show how St. Augustine's work played a significant role in the development of the young author, offering him the occasion to overcome his theory of habit as outlined in his early essay, Proust. In this text, Beckett posits habit as merely “the generic name for the countless treaties concluded between the countless subjects that constitute the individual and their countless correlative objects”. Dream still endorses this perspective, but already suggests a different dialectic of memory, will, and habit. This shift, I argue, can be connected to Beckett’s reading of Augustine's meditations, in book VIII of the Confessions, on the cleavage between the spirit and the flesh. In Murphy, we see Beckett’s 'Augustinian dialectic' fully formed: habit is no longer a veil of Maya that hides the real essence of the individual, but the condition of possibility for the subject's flight from the “mercantile Gehenna” world towards the truth of the inner self.Riassunto –  L'interesse di Samuel Beckett per Sant'Agostino è evidente nell'intero corpus dell'autore – a partire dai suoi primissimi lavori, in particolare la poesia Whoroscope, fino agli ultimi drammi e racconti – e si manifesta sia sul piano del contenuto che dello stile. Nonostante il rapporto tra i due autori sia già stato oggetto dell'attenzione dei critici, una sua analisi sistematica deve essere

  6. Changing Professional autonomy in the Context of Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi

    The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts......The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts...

  7. Ethical Dimensions of Autonomy in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collopy, Bart J.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term care of the elderly raises conflicts between personal autonomy and well-being. Assessments of decision-making capacity and definitions of negative and positive autonomy pose value-laden dilemmas for caregivers. (SK)

  8. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Washington, Volume IIA, Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage, 1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1984-05-01

    This engineering feasibility and predesign report on the Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Project provides BPA with information for planning purposes and will serve as a discussion document for interested agencies. Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dams, both on the Wenatchee River, were built in the early 1900's as diversions for hydropower, and irrigation and hydropower, respectively. The present fishway facilities at both sites are inadequate to properly pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. These runs include spring and summer chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon and steelhead trout. Predesign level drawings are provided in this report that represent fishway schemes capable of adequately passing present and projected fish runs. The effects of present passage facilities on anadromous fish stocks is addressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative treatment assesses losses of adult migrants due to the structures and places an estimated value on those fish. The dollar figure is estimated to be between $391,000 and $701,000 per year for both structures. The qualitative approach to benefits deals with the concept of stock vigor, the need for passage improvements to help ensure the health of the anadromous fish stock. 29 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Finding Our Drive: Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jim

    2011-01-01

    In his most recent book, "Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us," Daniel Pink argues that people are essentially motivated by three key drivers: (1) Autonomy: The desire to direct their own lives; (2) Mastery: The urge to get better at something that matters; and (3) Purpose: The yearning to do what they do in service of…

  10. Developing a Scale for Learner Autonomy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aytunga

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop a scale to determine how necessary the primary and secondary school teachers view the learner autonomy support behaviours and how much they perform these behaviours. The study group was composed of 324 primary and secondary school teachers. The process of developing the scale involved a literature scan,…

  11. Affiliation, Autonomy and Assessment for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Assessment for Learning (AfL) is an international assessment area of interest, yet, during 20 years of AfL research, the desired outcome of increased learner autonomy remains elusive. This article analyses AfL practices in classrooms as students negotiated identities as autonomous learners within a classroom community of practice. A sociocultural…

  12. Artificial Intelligence Approaches To UCAV Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Amir; Porter, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    This paper covers a number of approaches that leverage Artificial Intelligence algorithms and techniques to aid Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) autonomy. An analysis of current approaches to autonomous control is provided followed by an exploration of how these techniques can be extended and enriched with AI techniques including Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Ensembling and Reinforcement Learning (RL) to evolve control strategies for UCAVs.

  13. Authenticity, Autonomy and Altruism: Keys for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The value of authentic knowing, autonomous behavior and altruistic motivation is presented. Authenticity, autonomy and altruism are primary human capacities and keys for individual and collective transformation. Realizing the full development of these three basic potentialities can serve as goals and standards for well-being. Authenticity,…

  14. Autonomy in the case of enthyreotic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1981-01-01

    To identify, quantify, and exclude thyroidal autonomy, under enthyreotic conditions (positive TRH-test), the in-vivo diagnosing with radionuclides is the only method available to assess the thyroidal trap in connection with the suppression test. Its application is urgently necessary for any goiter patient in the iodine lacking region, the methodical proceeding depends on the individual circumstances. (orig.) [de

  15. The Charter School Experience: Autonomy in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tonya Senne

    2013-01-01

    While traditional public school and charter school systems continue to undergo dramatic reforms in response to the educational crisis, charter schools are praised as possessing the distinguishing characteristic of maintaining autonomy in exchange for increased accountability (Buckley & Schneider, 2009). The expectations for charter schools are…

  16. Codes of Ethics and Teachers' Professional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Marina; Maxwell, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the value of adopting a code of professional ethics for teachers. After having underlined how a code of ethics stands to benefits a community of educators--namely, by providing a mechanism for regulating autonomy and promoting a shared professional ethic--the article examines the principal arguments against codes of ethics.…

  17. Fiscal autonomy of urban councils in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAW

    current system of decentralisation entrenches the financial autonomy of urban councils in Zimbabwe. In this regard the article ..... Corporation to audit the accounts of urban councils.24 The parastatal was furthermore ..... national units, the principle of subsidiarity needs to be reflected in the expenditure of. 79 See Ministry of ...

  18. Patient autonomy: a view from the kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhkamp, Rita M

    2005-01-01

    In contemporary liberal ethics patient autonomy is often interpreted as the right to self-determination: when it comes to treatment decisions, the patient is given the right to give or withhold informed consent. This paper joins in the philosophical and ethical criticism of the liberal interpretation as it does not regard patient autonomy as a right, rule or principle, but rather as a practice. Patient autonomy, or so I will argue, is realised in the concrete activities of day-to-day health care, in the material and technological context of care, in arrangements of health care institutions, in the physical training of people with disabilities, as well as in the concrete activities of care-giving. This move from conversations in the consultation room to other sites and situations in the practice of care takes seriously the empirical reality of medical care and intends to show that patient autonomy is practically realised in a much richer and more creative way than most ethical theory seems to assume.

  19. The autonomy: A challenge in shared spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena NITRI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as a goal, to study a few up- dated alternatives on the field of Teaching Coaching toe the focus of reflection. From the concept to autonomy we built and implement teaching strategies focussing on the development of autonomous working projects and tutorial systems, whose aim is placed in the creation of shared spaces which allow decision-taking.

  20. Supporting Student Autonomy in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana; Webster, Collin A.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of motivation among students is a common challenge in physical education. Studies drawing on the self-determination theory consistently show that perceived autonomy facilitates adaptive motivation in students, which can lead to a wide range of desired educational outcomes. However, instructional strategies designed to support student…

  1. The Erosion of University Autonomy in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Examining legislative change between 1997 and 2013, and analyzing the governance of Manitoba's post-secondary system using military concepts of strategy, operations, and tactics, this article argues that there has been a trend since 2006 of a general loss of university autonomy in the province. The article finds that changes in public policy in…

  2. Introducing, Defining and Balancing 'Autonomy vs. Paternalism'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem); A.I. Ogus (Anthony)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAutonomy is generally regarded as the fundamental right of individuals to shape their own future through voluntary action. In private law, it is associated with freedom of contract and the concept of casum sentit dominus (the loss lies where it falls). As such, it is opposed to legal

  3. University Autonomy: Two Fault-Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    The doctrine of university autonomy in the UK contains a least two major "fault-lines" where the structure is inherently weak and there is danger of functional breakdown. The first occurs at the junction between the institution and the state, the second within the institution, where the unity in policy-making between academic and…

  4. Autonomy and Complexity at Sandia Executive Summary of Academic Alliance Workshop on Autonomy and Complex Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kleban, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Sandia has identified autonomy as a strategic initiative and an important area for providing national leadership. A key question is, “How might autonomy change how we think about the national security challenges we address and the kinds of solutions we deliver?” Three workshops at Sandia early in 2017 brought together internal stakeholders and potential academic partners in autonomy to address this question. The first focused on programmatic applications and needs. The second explored existing internal capabilities and research and development needs. This report summarizes the outcome of the third workshop, held March 3, 2017 in Albuquerque, NM, which engaged Academic Alliance partners in autonomy efforts at Sandia by discussing research needs and synergistic areas of interest within the complex systems and system modeling domains, and identifying opportunities for partnering on laboratory directed and other joint research opportunities.

  5. LEARNER AUTONOMY IN THE INDONESIAN EFL SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Sri Lengkanawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learner autonomy in Indonesian educational institutions has not commonly been listed as a teaching-learning objective, and most teachers seem to be hardly acquainted with learner autonomy (LA.  Therefore, it is very essential  to conduct a study of LA as perceived and experienced by school teachers and to find out the importance of LA training for professional development. A questionnaire was used to collect the data about English teachers’ perceptions regarding LA and LA-based practices. In addition, an LA training was conducted to see its significance for professional development.  After the data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, it was found that the participating teachers tended to maintain that autonomy should be inculcated among learners, and that the LA concept should not be misinterpreted as learning without a teacher. Concerning choices and decisions by  the learners, it was believed that learners’ making choices about how they learned and what activities they did, and involving them to decide what and how to learn could promote autonomy among learners. As regards LA-based teaching-learning practices, it was revealed that most teachers desired to implement LA principles in their teaching-learning contexts, although they identified that many of the LA principles were not that feasible to apply in their situation. It was also found that LA training could improve the teachers’ perceptions regarding LA concepts and principles. There were some constraints which could make learner autonomy difficult to develop among Indonesian learners in general: limited time allotted for the implementation of the curriculum, learners’ lack of autonomous learning experience, too much focus on national examinations, and insufficient proficiency of English.  LA-based teaching-learning practices were most desired; however, many were considered as having insufficient feasibility. In this respect, commitment is certainly the key to

  6. Physicians’ Perceptions of Autonomy across Practice Types: Is Autonomy in Solo Practice a Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y.

    2013-01-01

    Physicians in the United States are now less likely to practice in smaller, more traditional, solo practices, and more likely to practice in larger group practices. Though older theory predicts conflict between bureaucracy and professional autonomy, studies have shown that professions in general, and physicians in particular, have adapted to organizational constraints. However, much work remains in clarifying the nature of this relationship and how exactly physicians have adapted to various organizational settings. To this end, the present study examines physicians’ autonomy experiences in different decision types between organization sizes. Specifically, I ask: In what kinds of decisions do doctors perceive autonomous control? How does this vary by organizational size? Using stacked “spell” data constructed from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey (1996–2005) (n=16,519) I examine how physicians’ perceptions of autonomy vary between solo/two physician practices, small group practices with three to ten physicians, and large practices with ten or more physicians, in two kinds of decisions: logistic-based and knowledge-based decisions. Capitalizing on the longitudinal nature of the data I estimate how changes in practice size are associated with perceptions of autonomy, accounting for previous reports of autonomy. I also test whether managed care involvement, practice ownership, and salaried employment help explain part of this relationship. I find that while physicians practicing in larger group practices reported lower levels of autonomy in logistic-based decisions, physicians in solo/two physician practices reported lower levels of autonomy in knowledge-based decisions. Managed care involvement and ownership explain some, but not all, of the associations. These findings suggest that professional adaptation to various organizational settings can lead to varying levels of perceived autonomy across different kinds of decisions. PMID:24444835

  7. The use of new technologies in language Educationand learner autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Koryakovtseva, N.

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the concept of learner autonomy in the context of the use of new technologies in foreign language learning and teaching; outlines the possibilities new technologies offer for language learning and language use; discusses the concepts of learner autonomy, mature language learner and productive language learning; highlights the challenges of developing learner autonomy in language education.

  8. Autonomy and Interests: The Social Life of a Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddiford, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Examines the arguments that students should determine their own curriculum. Reviews the case for student autonomy based on philosophical anarchism and Immanuel Kant's views on autonomy. Argues that curriculum should be a result of the shared autonomy of students and teachers. (CFR)

  9. Fathers' Autonomy Support and Social Competence of Sons and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between paternal autonomy support and four aspects of adolescent social competence and responsibility at age 16 were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. With controls on maternal autonomy support, significant relations were observed between paternal autonomy support and three of the four…

  10. "It's My Life": Autonomy and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristín; Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún V; Stefánsdóttir, Ástríður

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, we examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is,…

  11. Advancing Learner Autonomy in TEFL via Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; Shan, Tan Hui

    2015-01-01

    The present paper begins by situating learner autonomy and collaborative learning as part of a larger paradigm shift towards student-centred learning. Next are brief discussions of learner autonomy and how learner autonomy links with collaborative learning. In the main part of the paper, four central principles of collaborative learning are…

  12. Measuring the e-Learning Autonomy of Distance Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence that learner autonomy is an important factor in academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated the autonomy of distance education students in e-learning environments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the e-learning autonomy of distance education students who are responsible for their…

  13. American nurses' work autonomy on patient care and unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Majd T

    Work autonomy is an essential aspect of nurses' professional lives. The aim of this research was to study American nurses' work autonomy and, in particular, autonomy over patient care and unit operations decisions. Data were collected electronically during July of 2004. A total of 300 American nurses were recruited from two clinical listserves in which nurses communicate electronically as a group. Nurses were more autonomous about decisions relating to patient care than unit operations, and their total work autonomy was moderate. Correlations and stepwise regression analyses revealed that nurses' experience, education, and time commitments influenced their work autonomy. Findings suggest that nurses' work autonomy should be enhanced to reach its full potential and that nurse administrators should promote their nurses' work autonomy.

  14. A balanced intervention ladder: promoting autonomy through public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P E; West, C

    2015-08-01

    The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Building up Autonomy Through Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Izquierdo Castillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project conducted with six ninth grade students in a rural public school in Colombia. The purpose of the study was to determine how the implementation of three reading strategies (skimming, scanning, and making predictions, when reading topics selected by learners, helps them to improve their reading comprehension and promotes their autonomy in the learning process. The results show that these learners developed some autonomous features such as making decisions for learning and doing assigned homework, increasing reading awareness and motivation. Additionally, the training on reading strategies allowed them to succeed in their reading comprehension. We conclude that these reading strategies are tools that take learners along the path of autonomy.

  16. [Euthanasia and the paradoxes of autonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2008-01-01

    The principle of respect for autonomy has proved very useful for bioethical arguments in favor of euthanasia. However unquestionable its theoretical efficacy, countless aporiae can be raised when conducting a detailed analysis of this concept, probably checkmating it. Based on such considerations, this paper investigates the principle of autonomy, starting with its origins in Greek and Christian traditions, and then charting some of its developments in Western cultures through to its modern formulation, a legacy of Immanuel Kant. The main paradoxes of this concept are then presented in the fields of philosophy, biology, psychoanalysis and politics, expounding several of the theoretical difficulties to be faced in order to make its applicability possible within the scope of decisions relating to the termination of life.

  17. [School nutrition and autonomy - challenges and opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Najla Veloso Sampaio; Machado, Neila Maria Viçosa; Soares, Maria Cláudia Veiga; Pinto, Anelise Regina Royer

    2013-04-01

    This study seeks to emphasize school food as an important policy to promote student autonomy by means of food and nutrition education included in the curriculum, integrated with different actors and based on the standpoint of citizenship. It seeks to return to fundamental concepts in the context of school food reflecting on them through theoretical assumptions to identify possible strategies to promote citizenship and autonomy in school. The strategies involved food and nutrition education with the daily presence of quality and suitability in school meals, discussions on the various dimensions of food in the curriculum and integrating food in the pedagogical project extended to various areas of the education system. School food fosters the need for integration of actions, actors and the various social spaces interested in the food issue, such as ministries, education systems, departments and schools, so that they may tackle the demands of contemporary reality in an integrated, systematic, consistent and efficient manner.

  18. Demonstration of Human-Autonomy Teaming Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert Jay

    2016-01-01

    Known problems with automation include lack of mode awareness, automation brittleness, and risk of miscalibrated trust. Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) is essential for improving these problems. We have identified some critical components of HAT and ran a part-task study to introduce these components to a ground station that supports flight following of multiple aircraft. Our goal was to demonstrate, evaluate, and refine HAT principles. This presentation provides a brief summary of the study and initial findings.

  19. Autonomy Mediated through University-Business Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration between universities and industry is on the agenda in most countries. The old formula of theory production and subsequent application in practice has been replaced by a new formula of interaction between theory and practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss the university-industr......-sum game, but a relationship with a synergistic potential and with university autonomy as one important parameter in the collaboration formula....

  20. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  1. Maximing Learning Strategies to Promote Learner Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning a new language is ultimately to be able to communicate with it. Encouraging a sense of responsibility on the part of the learners is crucial for training them to be proficient communicators. As such, understanding the strategies that they employ in acquiring the language skill is important to come to ideas of how to promote learner autonomy. Research recently conducted with three different groups of learners of English at the tertiary education level in Malang indicated that they used metacognitive and social startegies at a high frequency, while memory, cognitive, conpensation, and affective strategies were exercised at a medium frewuency. This finding implies that the learners have acquired some degrees of autonomy because metacognive strategies requires them to independently make plans for their learning activities as well as evaluate the progress, and social strategies requires them to independently enhance communicative interactions with other people. Further actions are then to be taken increase their learning autonomy, that is by intensifying the practice of use of the other four strategy categories, which are not yet applied intensively.

  2. Vaccination refusal. Autonomy and permitted coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Patryn, Rafał K; Sak, Jarosław; Zagaja, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The article presents vaccination obligation in relation to the existing or newly enacted legislation. Mass vaccinations and a wave of criticism they cause, forces us to reflect on the limits of medical intervention in the human body and the boundaries granted to individual's freedom and autonomy. This problem is universal and exists mainly in countries without mandatory vaccinations. Analyzing recent years, it must be underlined that a process in some legislatures has been introduced to enforce various forms of vaccination coercion. Although, refusing vaccinations has been treated liberally, the last wave of epidemics in the United States and Europe forced the creation of a different approach. Gradually in the USA, a duty (not a 'coercion') of vaccination is being enforced. Occurring epidemics, (e.g. measles) and dangers resulting from them, force authorities to violate the principle of autonomy and restrict individuals' freedoms regarding their own body. The article presents legal solutions relating to vaccinations in the United States and Europe i.e. administrative decisions imposing vaccinations, solutions conditioning social existence and financial penalties for not complying with this obligation and proposes a solution based on financial liability that will balance out patients' autonomy and public security.

  3. Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Autonomy-Supportive Sibling Interactions: The Role of Mothers' and Siblings' Psychological Need Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Loeys, Tom; Mabbe, Elien; Gargurevich, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers' satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother-child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers' psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Development of a hydrogen external burning flight test experiment on the NASA Dryden SR-71A aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John W.

    1992-01-01

    A captive-carry flight test experiment of the transonic external burning concept using gaseous hydrogen fuel has ben proposed for the SR-71A flight research test bed aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. This program will be the first large-scale, near-field flight test investigation of this base drag reduction technique at Mach numbers up to 3. Low-speed base drag reduction for supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles is important in reducing vehicle drag and improving nozzle efficiency. Flight data will be correlated with a concurrent wind tunnel ground test of a similar test apparatus to confirm geometry and component performance scalability predictions and to investigate design parametrics under actual flight conditions. This paper describes the problem of transonic base drag for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, a planned flight research program to address this problem, the test bed aircraft, and the flight experiment apparatus.

  5. Integrating NASA Dryden Research Endeavors into the Teaching-Learning of Mathematics in the K-12 Classroom via the WWW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robin A.

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to continue populating the currently existing web site developed in 1998 in conjunction with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and California Polytechnic State University, with more mathematics lesson plans and activities that K-12 teachers, students, home-schoolers, and parents could access. All of the activities, while demonstrating some mathematical topic, also showcase the research endeavors of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The website is located at: http://daniel.calpoly.edu/dfrc/Robin. The secondary goal of this project was to share the web-based activities with educators at various conferences and workshops. To address the primary goal of this project, over the past year, several new activities were posted on the web site and some of the existing activities were enhanced to contain more video clips, photos, and materials for teachers. To address the project's secondary goal, the web-based activities were showcased at several conferences and workshops. Additionally, in order to measure and assess the outreach impact of the web site, a link to the web site hitbox.com was established in April 2001, which allowed for the collection of traffic statistics against the web site (such as the domains of visitors, the frequency of visitors to this web site, etc.) Provided is a description of some of the newly created activities posted on the web site during the project period of 2001-2002, followed by a description of the conferences and workshops at which some of the web-based activities were showcased. Next is a brief summary of the web site's traffic statistics demonstrating its worldwide educational impact, followed by a listing of some of the awards and accolades the web site has received.

  6. Motivating protégés' personal learning in teams: a multilevel investigation of autonomy support and autonomy orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Fu, Ping-Ping

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the roles of 3 multilevel motivational predictors in protégés' personal learning in teams: an autonomy-supportive team climate, mentors' autonomy support, and protégés' autonomy orientation. The authors followed 305 protégés in 58 teams for 12 weeks and found that all 3 predictors were positively related to the protégés' personal learning in teams and that an autonomy-supportive team climate augmented the effects of mentors' autonomy support and protégés' autonomy orientation on protégés' personal learning in teams. Protégés' personal learning in teams mediated the interactive effects of an autonomy-supportive team climate with mentors' autonomy support or protégés' autonomy orientation on protégés' behavioral and attitudinal outcomes, including their organizational citizenship behaviors and job involvement. The findings of this study provide business researchers and practitioners with valuable insights into the management of autonomy. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Euthyroid goitre with and without functional autonomy: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenhinrichs, H.; Emrich, D.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre. Methods: In an area of moderate iodine deficiency 163 goitrous patients without and 179 with functional autonomy all clinically euthyroid were compared by sex, age, signs and symptoms, sonographic results, qualitative and quantitative scintigraphy without and with suppression, TRH test, hormone concentrations and iodine excretion in the urine. Results: Age, signs and symptoms, thyroid volume and structure did not contribute sufficiently to diagnosis. To detect functional autonomy quantitative scintigraphy under suppression was superior to the TRH test. Increased hormone concentrations were observed in 15% of patients with functional autonomy. A global 99m Tc thyroid uptake of ≥3% under suppression indicates a higher risk of spontaneous hyperthyroidism. It was present in 20% of patients with functional autonomy. Conclusion: to diagnose and treat adequately functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre quantitative scintigraphy, determination of TSH and hormone concentrations are inevitable. (orig.) [de

  8. Autonomy and Housing Accessibility Among Powered Mobility Device Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Åse; Lexell, Eva Månsson; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To describe environmental barriers, accessibility problems, and powered mobility device (PMD) users’ autonomy indoors and outdoors; to determine the home environmental barriers that generated the most housing accessibility problems indoors, at entrances, and in the close exterior surroundings; and to examine personal factors and environmental components and their association with indoor and outdoor autonomy. METHOD. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected from a sample of 48 PMD users with a spinal cord injury (SCI) using the Impact of Participation and Autonomy and the Housing Enabler instruments. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used. RESULTS. More years living with SCI predicted less restriction in autonomy indoors, whereas more functional limitations and accessibility problems related to entrance doors predicted more restriction in autonomy outdoors. CONCLUSION. To enable optimized PMD use, practitioners must pay attention to the relationship between client autonomy and housing accessibility problems. PMID:26356666

  9. Attachment and autonomy problems in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koemans, Rosalien G; van Vroenhoven, Susanne; Karreman, Annemiek; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2015-05-01

    Attachment security and autonomy were examined in adults with ADHD. Insecure attachment and autonomy problems were expected to be negatively associated with general psychological functioning. Questionnaires were administered (Relationship Questionnaire, Autonomy-Connectedness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory) in 84 late-diagnosed adults with ADHD. Only 18% of participants were securely attached, as opposed to 59% in the normal population. Concerning autonomy, participants scored below average on self-awareness, above average on sensitivity to others, and average on capacity to manage new situations compared with the normal population. The preoccupiedly attached group reported more problems in psychological functioning than the secure and dismissive group. Sensitivity to others and capacity to manage new situations were associated with psychological functioning; self-awareness was not. Attachment security and autonomy contributed to general psychological functioning. Attachment and autonomy problems do exist in adults with ADHD and contribute negatively to their psychological functioning. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  10. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT) classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  11. Relationship between Teacher Professional Competences and Teacher Work-Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Fachrurrazi

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with the relationship between Teacher Professional Competences and Teacher Work-Autonomy. The purposes of this research were to investigate; first, what are Teacher professional competences of Sekolah Sukma Bangsa teachers in Aceh; second, what is Teacher work-autonomy of Sekolah Sukma Bangsa teachers in Aceh; third, what relationships can be found between teacher professional competences and Teacher Work-Autonomy and of Sekolah Sukma Bangsa teachers in Aceh; fourth, is there...

  12. Resource Analysis of Cognitive Process Flow Used to Achieve Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    RESOURCE ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE PROCESS FLOW USED TO ACHIEVE AUTONOMY LOCKHEED MARTIN MARCH 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...RESOURCE ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE PROCESS FLOW USED TO ACHIEVE AUTONOMY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-C-0278 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...88ABW-2016-0930 Date Cleared: 2 MAR 2016 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The current challenge of autonomy is to achieve a reasonable scaling

  13. A defence of medical paternalism: maximising patients' autonomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Komrad, M S

    1983-01-01

    All illness represents a state of diminished autonomy and therefore the doctor-patient relationship necessarily and justifiably involves a degree of medical paternalism argues the author, an American medical student. In a broad-ranging paper he discusses the concepts of autonomy and paternalism in the context of the doctor-patient relationship. Given the necessary diminution of autonomy which illness inflicts, a limited form of medical paternalism, aimed at restoring or maximising the patient...

  14. Autonomy and couples’ joint decision-making in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Osamor, Pauline E.; Grady, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Background Respect for autonomy is a key principle in bioethics. However, respecting autonomy in practice is complex because most people define themselves and make decisions influenced by a complex network of social relationships. The extent to which individual autonomy operates for each partner within the context of decision-making within marital or similar relationships is largely unexplored. This paper explores issues related to decision-making by couples (couples’ joint decision-making) f...

  15. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A. Kusurkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion: Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion: Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  16. L’AUTONOMIE DU CONTRAT DE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Ana CĂLIN

    2006-01-01

    The autonomy of the transport contract was developed over time having as basis few elements of legislation. Practice was the one that, in need of moving goods and persons, outlined the elements that are the basis of the transport contract. It was said that it is a civil or a commercial contract, which is distinguished by the quality of trader or non-trader of the carter. The essential element that distinguishes it from other contracts is that during the execution of the transport contract the...

  17. Learner Autonomy, Self Regulation and Metacognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal CUBUKCU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Different theories try to explain why some students are more successful than the others. Phenomenologists (Mc Combs, 1989 study self concepts of the students and find such students prone to achieve more. Attributional Theorists (Dweck, 1986; Weiner, 2005 focus on personal outcome such as effort or ability. Metacognitive theorists (Pressley, 2000; Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2007 examine students’ self regulated learning strategies whereas Constructivists (Maxim, 2009; Paris & Byrnes, 1989 believe supportive environments are important to be successful. In this study, the metacognitive theory will be given more importance and the purpose of the article is to find the correlation between self regulation, metacognition and autonomy.

  18. [Autonomy and the work of the nurse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Fernanda Zanoto; Duarte, Maria de Lourdes Custódio; Kaiser, Dagmar Elaine

    2011-09-01

    This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study that aimed to describe nurses'perceptions on the autonomy they hold in the practice they work in. Ten nurses working in the hospital or primary care centers participated in the study. A semistructured interview was used to gather data. The data were analyzed using content analysis, which led to three thematic areas: nursing education, nursing work processes and interpersonal relations. The study highlights the importance that nurses and their personal stories have in organizing and directing nursing work processes, especially decision-making in a responsible autonomous action.

  19. Autonomie du groupe restreint et performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Nissen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Un groupe est autonome lorsqu'il prend lui-même en charge sa gestion (Abric, 1996 et lorsque celle-ci fonctionne bien. L'autonomie du groupe restreint est une caractéristique revendiquée dans le cadre actuel de l'expansion de dispositifs collaboratifs à distance entre apprenants. La question qui se pose alors est de savoir si un groupe restreint autonome est plus performant qu'un groupe moins autonome. L'autonomie d'un groupe d'apprentissage en ligne est-elle en relation avec la qualité de la réalisation de la tâche ? Est-elle en relation avec les progrès réalisés par les membres du groupe ? Dans le cadre de notre étude expérimentale, menée dans deux dispositifs pédagogiques différents (l'environnement d'apprentissage Babbelnet et une formation sur la plate-forme Acolad, des étudiants ont réalisé en groupes restreints, avec l'accompagnement d'un tuteur, une tâche de type actionnel – en l'occurrence une rédaction en langue étrangère (allemand ou anglais. Pour ce faire, ils disposaient d'aides méthodologiques et linguistiques dans l'environnement pédagogique en ligne. Ils ont interagi par le biais d'Internet au moyen de différents outils de communication. Une analyse de l'interaction qui a eu lieu dans chaque groupe, l'évaluation des rédactions réalisées conjointement, deux tests réalisés respectivement avant et après la phase de travail en groupe ainsi qu'un formulaire auto-administré nous permettent de mettre en lien l'autonomie des groupes, d'une part, et leur performance, voire leur apprentissage, d'autre part. Au vu de cette étude, il apparaît que l'autonomie du groupe n'a pas d'influence directe sur l'apprentissage des groupes restreints. En revanche, un rapport est visible entre l'appréciation du fonctionnement du groupe par ses membres et l'évolution de la performance des groupes.

  20. Learner autonomy, self regulation and metacognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal Çubukcu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Different theories try to explain why some students are more successful than the others. Phenomenologists (Mc Combs, 1989 study self concepts of the students and find such students prone to achieve more. Attributional Theorists (Dweck, 1986; Weiner, 2005 focus on personal outcome such as effort or ability. Metacognitive theorists (Pressley, 2000; Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2007 examine students’ self regulated learning strategies whereas Constructivists (Maxim, 2009; Paris & Byrnes, 1989 believe supportive environments are important to be successful. In this study, the metacognitive theory will be given more importance and the purpose of the article is to find the correlation between self regulation, metacognition and autonomy.

  1. Oughtonomy in healthcare. A deconstructive reading of Kantian autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisch, Ignaas

    2010-11-01

    For years now, autonomy has been discussed as one of the central values in health care. Understood as self-realization, it is opposed to paternalism which is conceived as an intolerable occurrence of heteronomy. Although different concepts have been developed to nuance this opposition, when it comes to health care discourse, heteronomy is still the enemy of autonomy. In our article, we defend the thesis that autonomy is only achievable as heteronomy. We are not arguing for an expansion of the meaning of autonomy, but are attempting to conduct an analysis which lays bare the 'disrupting' attendance of heteronomy within the principle of autonomy. Autonomy does not begin where heteronomy ends, but can only begin if heteronomy is already involved. To emphasize this, we prefer to elaborate a new concept: 'oughtonomy'. This concept is inspired by Jacques Derrida's distinction between 'difference' and 'differance'. We will develop the concept of oughtonomy from a deconstructive reading of Kant's idea of autonomy, inspired by philosophers such as Jacob Rogozinski, Jean-Luc Nancy and others. In addition to a first exploration of this concept, this article also discusses the possible consequences of oughtonomy for current debates concerning health care. Our quest for a new understanding of autonomy is motivated by the concern that, although the accent on autonomy as self-realization and independence has many advantages, we should also bear in mind the countless disadvantages.

  2. Learning to Foster Autonomy: The Role of Teacher Education Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayo Reinders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increased appreciation of the interrelationship between learner autonomy and teacher autonomy, both in the classroom and in the self-access centre. One obvious impact on learners’ autonomy is their teachers’ understanding of what autonomy means, and their ability to implement it in the classroom. Especially for beginning teachers, knowledge of learner autonomy is likely to be shaped in large part by the professional training they receive and the amount of attention given to the topic during their teacher education. It is therefore important to ask to what extent teacher training courses prepare teachers for fostering autonomy, including those teachers working in self-access centres. This study attempts to answer that question by critically investigating a range of popular teacher training course materials widely used in professional programmes worldwide. We apply an evaluative framework to identify 1 what information teachers are given about learner autonomy, and 2 the extent to which the materials cover the teaching of different skills for independent learning. Perhaps surprisingly, despite the growing interest in autonomy, it was found that the selected books included almost no information about learner autonomy at all and did not, with one or two minor exceptions, focus on the development of skills for supporting autonomous learning.

  3. Concept analysis: patient autonomy in a caring context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Catharina; Fagerström, Cecilia; Sivberg, Bengt; Willman, Ania

    2014-10-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of patient autonomy Many problems regarding patient autonomy in healthcare contexts derive from the patient's dependent condition as well as the traditional authoritarian position of healthcare professionals. Existing knowledge and experience reveal a lack of consensus among nurses regarding the meaning of this ethical concept. Concept analysis. Medline, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and PsycINFO were searched (2005-June 2013) using the search blocks 'autonomy', 'patient' and 'nursing/caring'. A total of 41 articles were retrieved. The Evolutionary Method of Concept Analysis by Rodgers was used to identify and construct the meaning of the concept of patient autonomy in a caring context. Five attributes were identified, thus creating the following descriptive definition: 'Patient autonomy is a gradual, time-changing process of (re-)constructing autonomy through the interplay of to be seen as a person, the capacity to act and the obligation to take responsibility for one's actions'. Patient vulnerability was shown to be the antecedent of patient autonomy and arises due to an impairment of a person's physical and/or mental state. The consequences of patient autonomy were discussed in relation to preserving control and freedom. Patient autonomy in a caring context does not need to be the same before, during and after a care episode. A tentative model has been constructed, thus extending the understanding of this ethical concept in a caring context. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Autonomy and reason: treatment choice in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Mary

    2012-10-01

    The practice of offering choice to those women with breast cancer for whom either breast conserving surgery or mastectomy would be equally beneficial has come to be seen as an important aspect of medical care. As well as improving satisfaction with treatment, this is seen as satisfying the ethical principle of respect for autonomy. A number of studies, however, show that women are not always comfortable with such choice, preferring to leave treatment decisions to their surgeons. A question then arises as to the extent that these women can be seen as autonomous or as exercising autonomy. This paper argues, however, that the understanding of autonomy which is applied in current approaches to breast cancer care does not adequately support the exercise of autonomy, and that the clinical context of care means that women are not able to engage in the kind of reasoning that might promote the exercise of autonomy. Where respect for autonomy is limited to informed consent and choice, there is a danger that women's interests are overlooked in those aspects of their care where choice is not appropriate, with very real, long-term consequences for some women. Promoting the exercise of autonomy, it is argued, needs to go beyond the conception of autonomy as rational individuals making their own decisions, and clinicians need to work with an understanding of autonomy as relational in order to better involve women in their care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. [Autonomy: to what extent is the concept relevant in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, F A

    2012-01-01

    Autonomy is an important concept in psychiatry, but because it is a somewhat abstract and ambiguous notion, it is not applicable in its entirety in a psychiatric context. This becomes obvious in situations where patients are receiving long term care and treatment. To modify the concept of autonomy in such a way that it acquires an extra dimension that renders it applicable to daily psychiatric practice. The literature was reviewed in order to find articles that reveal the tensions that arise between autonomy and dependence in psychiatry and that reflect the human characteristics that are concealed behind the modern concepts of autonomy, freedom and respect for autonomy. Concepts such as person, identity, acknowledgement, dialogical ethics and life histories are used as an addition to the concepts of autonomy of Kant and Mill. A phenomenological and a context sensitive conception of autonomy is needed within the perspective of dialogical ethics. A dialogical perspective requires from psychiatric professionals a susceptibility for what the patient as a human being really has to say. On the basis of a dialogue where there is space and attention for life histories, backgrounds and the potentials of patients, a new perspective can be developed that is shared by the persons involved. In psychiatry, statements about real autonomy and genuine respect for autonomy are only truly meaningful within the context of doctors, nurses and patients. A hermeneutic approach to patients which involves dialogue creates new opportunities in the field of staff-patient relations.

  6. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G; Verhoeven, Corine J

    2017-11-01

    High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care system and whether they expect a new system of integrated maternity care to affect their experienced job autonomy. A cross-sectional survey. The Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire was used to assess experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals. Data were collected in the Netherlands in 2015. 799 professionals participated of whom 362 were primary care midwives, 240 obstetricians, 93 clinical midwives and 104 obstetric nurses. The mean score for experienced job autonomy was highest for primary care midwives, followed by obstetricians, clinical midwives and obstetric nurses. Primary care midwives scored highest in expecting to lose their job autonomy in an integrated care system. There are significant differences in experienced job autonomy between maternity care professionals. When changing the maternity care system it will be a challenge to maintain a high level of experienced job autonomy for professionals. A decrease in job autonomy could lead to a reduction in job related wellbeing and in satisfaction with care among pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. One of NASA's Two Modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier (SCA) Aircraft in Flight over NASA Dryden Flig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    One of NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft flies over the Dryden Flight Research Center main building at Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California, in May 1999. NASA uses two modified Boeing 747 jetliners, originally manufactured for commercial use, as Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). One is a 747-100 model, while the other is designated a 747-100SR (short range). The two aircraft are identical in appearance and in their performance as Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. The 747 series of aircraft are four-engine intercontinental-range swept-wing 'jumbo jets' that entered commercial service in 1969. The SCAs are used to ferry space shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights. Features which distinguish the two SCAs from standard 747 jetliners are: o Three struts, with associated interior structural strengthening, protruding from the top of the fuselage (two aft, one forward) on which the orbiter is attached o Two additional vertical stabilizers, one on each end of the standard horizontal stabilizer, to enhance directional stability o Removal of all interior furnishings and equipment aft of the forward No. 1 doors o Instrumentation used by SCA flight crews and engineers to monitor orbiter electrical loads during the ferry flights and also during pre- and post-ferry flight operations. The two SCAs are under the operational control of NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Tex. NASA 905 NASA 905 was the first SCA. It was obtained from American Airlines in 1974. Shortly after it was accepted by NASA it was flown in a series of wake vortex research flights at the Dryden Flight Research Center in a study to

  8. Remission of systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity with regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-35 in Murphy Roths Large (MRL)/lpr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Z; Wong, C K; Dong, J; Chu, M; Jiao, D; Kam, N W; Lam, C W K; Tam, L S

    2015-08-01

    The immunological mechanisms mediated by regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-35 are unclear in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated the frequency of CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) regulatory T (Treg ) and IL-10(+) regulatory B (Breg ) cells and related immunoregulatory mechanisms in a female Murphy Roths Large (MRL)/lpr mouse model of spontaneous lupus-like disease, with or without IL-35 treatment. A remission of histopathology characteristics of lupus flare and nephritis was observed in the MRL/lpr mice upon IL-35 treatment. Accordingly, IL-35 and IL-35 receptor subunits (gp130 and IL-12Rβ2) and cytokines of MRL/lpr and BALB/c mice (normal controls) were measured. The increased anti-inflammatory cytokines and decreased proinflammatory cytokines were possibly associated with the restoration of Treg and Breg frequency in MRL/lpr mice with IL-35 treatment, compared to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) treatment. mRNA expressions of Treg -related FoxP3, IL-35 subunit (p35 and EBI3) and soluble IL-35 receptor subunit (gp130 and IL12Rβ2) in splenic cells were up-regulated significantly in IL-35-treated mice. Compared with the PBS treatment group, IL-35-treated MRL/lpr mice showed an up-regulation of Treg -related genes and the activation of IL-35-related intracellular Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signal pathways, thereby indicating the immunoregulatory role of IL-35 in SLE. These in vivo findings may provide a biochemical basis for further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms of IL-35 for the treatment of autoimmune-mediated inflammation. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  9. L’AUTONOMIE DU CONTRAT DE TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana CĂLIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The autonomy of the transport contract was developed over time having as basis few elements of legislation. Practice was the one that, in need of moving goods and persons, outlined the elements that are the basis of the transport contract. It was said that it is a civil or a commercial contract, which is distinguished by the quality of trader or non-trader of the carter. The essential element that distinguishes it from other contracts is that during the execution of the transport contract there are involved three persons, namely: the consignor, the carter and the consignee.The legal form and the autonomy of the transport contract result from the fact that there is a real and a consensual contract, that has an economic content in different ways; the parties of the transport contract must understand that the general conditions on the ability to control the consent lawfully expressed, has a determined object, licit and moral feature and the form required by law. It is a commutative contract. The transport contract is concluded in written form. E. Cristoforeanu, Constantin Stătescu, Cezare Vivante investigated about the autonomy’s development and stability of the transport contract. Such distinguished personalities expressed their opinions regarding the definition of transport contract as an autonomous contract, even though it borrowed elements of civil law and commercial law.

  10. Governmentality, student autonomy and nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Chris; Fleming, Valerie E M

    2008-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore how governmental practices operated in nurse education. Background. Since the 1980s nurse education internationally has been strongly influenced by educational theories that aim to promote student autonomy by encouraging self-direction and critical thinking. Newer curriculum models advocate transformative approaches leading to greater emancipation, social equity and inclusion. Although these changes have been positively evaluated there had been limited critical research on how student behaviour is governed. A discourse analytic study was conducted from 2000 to 2004 using interviews (n = 30) with a purposive sample students and teachers in one United Kingdom university. Data were also collated from the course curriculum and student handbook for the students' programme. Data were analysed to identify how student behaviour is governed. Two governing practices are described: control and technologies of the self. These practices contribute to an overall system of governing student behaviour that creates tension between the avowed progressive empowerment discourse and taken for granted everyday educational practices. Students are subjected to a range of governmental and disciplinary strategies and, through a process of normalization, ultimately become their own supervisors within the system. The tensions between the demands of a professional outcome-based nursing programme and notions of empowerment and student autonomy have not been resolved. Instead, present educational practice is characterized by normalizing discursive practices that aim to produce a specific version of a student subject as autonomous learner. Thus, discourses of both empowerment and professional behaviour govern students.

  11. Mount Athos: Between autonomy and statehood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Dragutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal status of the Mount Athos is characterized by many special features that make it internationally unique legal regime. The author analyzes peculiarities of Mount Athos territorial status, legal position of residents and visitors, as well as organization of Mount Athos authorities. The author concludes that the Mount Athos is characterized by a kind of para-sovereignty. Its autonomy involves not only the internal organization, autonomous governance and religious autonomy, but it also includes many elements of secular life of their visitors. Mount Athos has its own, separate legislative, administrative and judicial powers, while the Statute of the Mount Athos has greater legal force than all the other laws of the Greek state, because the state can not unilaterally change its provisions. Having in mind that the wide self-government is vested in church authorities and that the monks have very specific way of living, the author takes a position that the Mount Athos represent 'monastic state', but without statehood. The author also states that the Mount Athos will be faced with many challenges in the context of spreading of an assimilating, universal conception of human rights.

  12. [Respecting minors' autonomy in child custody cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rosa, Bárbara; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Child custody decisions are among the most difficult for judges to make. The possibility of child abuse allegations or parents' deviant/ psychopathologic behaviours within this context, make the decision further complicated. Based on jurisprudence the listening of children opinion is a way to protect their best interest. In fact children have the right to express an opinion in all matters affecting their life. It should be given proper consideration to children opinion according with his/her age and maturity. Nonetheless custody disputes are emotionally draining issues. Asking the child to express an opinion during a public hearing, most likely in the presence of both parents, its not recommended because this is a potential stressful experience. Child interviews should take place in a proper environment and be set to their age. Medicine and Psychology have an important role in assessing children cognitive, emotional and volitional abilities, which is essential to properly account their opinions according to autonomy degree. This essay analyses the contribution of medico-legal and/or psychological exams to respect the autonomy of the child in cases of regulation of parental responsibilities. The conclusion is the need to establish a symbiotic relationship between the medical and legal perspectives of the (open) concept of child's best interests.

  13. Resident Autonomy in the Operating Room: Expectations Versus Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Shari L; Sternbach, Joel M; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Bender, Edward M

    2017-09-01

    There is concern about graduating thoracic trainees' independent operative skills due to limited autonomy in training. This study compared faculty and trainee expected levels of autonomy with intraoperative measurements of autonomy for common cardiothoracic operations. Participants underwent frame-of-reference training on the 4-point Zwisch scale of operative autonomy (show and tell → active help → passive help → supervision only) and evaluated autonomy in actual cases using the Zwisch Me!! mobile application. A separate "expected autonomy" survey elicited faculty and resident perceptions of how much autonomy a resident should have for six common operations: decortication, wedge resection, thoracoscopic lobectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, aortic valve replacement, and mitral valve repair. Thirty-three trainees from 7 institutions submitted evaluations of 596 cases over 18 months (March 2015 to September 2016). Thirty attendings subsequently provided their evaluation of 476 of those cases (79.9% response rate). Expected autonomy surveys were completed by 21 attendings and 19 trainees from 5 institutions. The six operations included in the survey constituted 47% (226 of 476) of the cases evaluated. Trainee and attending expectations did not differ significantly for senior trainees. Both groups expected significantly higher levels of autonomy than observed in the operating room for all six types of cases. Although faculty and trainees both expect similar levels of autonomy in the operating room, real-time measurements of autonomy show a gap between expectations and reality. Decreasing this gap will require a concerted effort by both faculty and residents to focus on the development of independent operative skills. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. John Dryden, Chairman, Deputy Director, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. John Dryden, Chairman, Deputy Director, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

  15. Creating Space for Learner Autonomy: An Interactional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepek Reed, Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with teachers' and learners' collaborative pursuit of learner autonomy in a highly asymmetrical education setting, the music masterclass. Evaluations are identified as a potential opportunity for the mutual construction of learner autonomy. The analysis shows that, while teaching professionals mitigate interactional…

  16. Exploring the Unknown: The Autonomy of Saudi EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabai, Fakieh

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses a new area of research in Saudi Arabia. Using a sample of 630 Saudi students, it investigates learners' level of autonomy and its relationship to academic achievement in English as a foreign language (EFL). Learners' level of autonomy was measured by a survey, whereas their achievement was evaluated using standardized…

  17. Teaching for Learner Autonomy: The Teacher's Role and Sociocultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feryok, Anne

    2013-01-01

    What is the role of the teacher in developing learner autonomy? The limited research in this area is seldom situated in theory and often based on self-reported data. This study is situated in sociocultural theory and draws on two constructs, the zone of proximal development and imitation, to explain the teacher's role in developing autonomy. The…

  18. An Investigation of Learner Autonomy in Turkish EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the teachers' perceptions as to what extent learners should be involved in decision making processes concerning the general aspects of learner autonomy. The primary aim of the research was to find out learning autonomy perceptions of Turkish prospective teachers of English. It is also aimed to explore the effect of gender…

  19. Documenting Different Domains of Promotion of Autonomy in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Pelucchi, Sara; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Parental promotion of autonomy for offspring well-being has been widely recognized in developmental psychology. Recent studies, however, show that this association varies across cultures. Such variation may reflect inappropriate measurement of this dimension of parenting. Therefore, three existing measures of promotion of autonomy were used to…

  20. School Autonomy: A Comparison between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Gao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined and compared school autonomy in China and the United States. Based on the international PISA 2012 school data, the authors examined three aspects of school autonomy. We found that in comparison with the United States, (1) principals from China were less likely to have responsibility over eleven school decisions (hiring…

  1. The Determinants Of Female Autonomy And Influence On Fertility In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the various indicators of a woman‟s autonomy and fertility among women aged 15-49 years in Ibadan, Oyo state. The study conceptualized autonomy in decision making as either decision made by the woman alone or jointly with her husband. Quantitative data was generated from 500 respondents of ...

  2. 40 CFR 73.86 - State regulatory autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State regulatory autonomy. 73.86 Section 73.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... regulatory autonomy. Nothing in this subpart shall preclude a State or State regulatory authority from...

  3. Attachment, Autonomy, and Emotional Reliance: A Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a test of a multilevel model investigating how attachment security and autonomy contribute to emotional reliance, or the willingness to seek interpersonal support. Participants ("N" = 247) completed online measures of attachment, autonomy, emotional reliance, and vitality with respect to several everyday…

  4. The Need for Authenticity-Based Autonomy in Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lucie

    2017-08-11

    The notion of respect for autonomy dominates bioethical discussion, though what qualifies precisely as autonomous action is notoriously elusive. In recent decades, the notion of autonomy in medical contexts has often been defined in opposition to the notion of autonomy favoured by theoretical philosophers. Where many contemporary theoretical accounts of autonomy place emphasis on a condition of "authenticity", the special relation a desire must have to the self, bioethicists often regard such a focus as irrelevant to the concerns of medical ethics, and too stringent for use in practical contexts. I argue, however, that the very condition of authenticity that forms a focus in theoretical philosophy is also essential to autonomy and competence in medical ethics. After tracing the contours of contemporary authenticity-based theories of autonomy, I consider and respond to objections against the incorporation of a notion of authenticity into accounts of autonomy designed for use in medical contexts. By looking at the typical problems that arise when making judgments concerning autonomy or competence in a medical setting, I reveal the need for a condition of authenticity-as a means of protecting choices, particularly high-stakes choices, from being restricted or overridden on the basis of intersubjective disagreement. I then turn to the treatment of false and contestable beliefs, arguing that it is only through reference to authenticity that we can make important distinctions in this domain. Finally, I consider a potential problem with my proposed approach; its ability to deal with anorexic and depressive desires.

  5. On the relations between parents' ideals and children's autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Schinkel, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents' ideals can enhance children's autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children's autonomy. After describing the concept of ideals and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of

  6. Evaluation of Existing Situation of University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Gulieva, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces four studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. At the same time it discusses the methodology employed in the study, provide a brief introduction to the higher education sector in Moldova and summaries key findings from...... the evaluation of organizational, financial, HR and academic autonomy in Moldova....

  7. Environmental Pressure, Professional Autonomy, and Coping Strategies in Academic Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, J. Victor

    The paper offers this basic proposition: The higher the social insulation of professional organizations, the higher the professional autonomy within them--and vice versa. Essentially the paper offers an interconnected set of propositions dealing with environmental pressures on the autonomy of college/university faculties coupled with a discussion…

  8. Relations among Autonomy, Attribution Style, and Happiness in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Susan L.; Chang, Kelly B.; Miller, Kristen S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a personal sense of autonomy supports individuals' success in a variety of domains, but information regarding these processes remains unclear. This paper attempts to establish a link between personal autonomy and cognitive processes, in the form of attributions for success and failure, in establishing a sense of subjective…

  9. Iranian EFL Students' Emotional Intelligence and Autonomy in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify EFL learners' conceptions of autonomy and whether their autonomy was correlated with their emotional intelligence. The research was carried out with the participation of 110 learners at Distance Education University in Urmia, Iran. Questionnaires were emailed to the participants. Results of statistical analyses…

  10. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, J. de; Schellevis, F.; Verhoeven, C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  11. A Study of Autonomy English Learning on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yunsheng

    2008-01-01

    With the variety of environment and method of English learning, Autonomy English learning on the Internet is playing a more and more important role in modern English learning. It challenges the traditional learning approach, and also is forwardness. This paper points out that autonomy English learning on the Internet facilitates the improvement of…

  12. In defence of institutional autonomy and academic freedom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argue, firstly, that state 'regulation' is inextricably connected with the practice of exercising 'power-over' institutions, a trend which could undermine institutional autonomy and academic freedom. Secondly, we maintain that higher education institutions lack autonomy since they are controlled by the state through ...

  13. Issues of promoting learner autonomy in EFL context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichugova Inna L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focuded on investigating the phenomenon of learner autonomy, which has mostly been explored in Europe and the USA and is now attracting attention of researchers and academics in many other countries including Russia. Learner autonomy through a focus on learner reflection and taking responsibility for one’s own learning processes has become a central concern in the recent history of language teaching. However, many language teachers, who are committed to concepts of learnercentredness and autonomy, struggle with the ways to foster learner autonomy or at least to encourage the idea of learner autonomy in language classroom. The study aims at investigating what the most important issues which have a great impact on developing learner autonomy are. Having given special attention to conditions which can insure development of learner autonomy, a model covering seven issues relating to the subject matter has been designed. The authors state that such aspects as choice, goals and needs, support, emotional climate, learning strategies, learner attitude and motivation, and self-esteem should be considered as the goal to promote learner autonomy in EFL context.

  14. Worker autonomy and the drama of digital networks in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    1999-01-01

    This essay considers the impact of digital networks in organizations on worker autonomy. Worker autonomy, the control that workers have over their own work situation, is claimed in this essay to be a key determinant for the quality of work, as well as an important moral goal. Digital networks pose

  15. Measuring local autonomy: A decision-making approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke, F.; Willemse, R.

    2006-01-01

    In studies on central-local relations it is common to assess local autonomy in a deductive way. The extent of local autonomy is determined by measuring the central legal and financial competence, after which the remaining room for local decision-making is determined. The outcome of this indirect

  16. How do pressure from above, mindset and motivation influence the autonomy supportive teaching style?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Marjolein Heijne-Penninga; Dr. Marca Wolfensberger; Drs. Tineke Kingma; Dr. Elanor Kamans

    2016-01-01

    Presentation Self Determination Conference in Victoria BC, 2-5 June 2016 Autonomy supportive teachers provide autonomy, structure learning activities and connect with their students (Belmont, Skinner, Wellborn, & Connell, 1988). Autonomy supportive teachers increase students levels of intrinsic

  17. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  18. On display during a technical exposition at Dryden are NASA's B-52 launch aircraft, Boeing's X-37, B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace industry representatives view actual and mock-up versions of 'X-Planes' intended to enhance access to space during a technical exposition on June 22, 2000 at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. From left to right: NASA's B-52 launch aircraft, in service with NASA since 1959; a neutral-buoyancy model of the Boeing's X-37; the Boeing X-40A behind the MicroCraft X-43 mock-up; Orbital Science's X-34 and the modified Lockheed L-1011 airliner that was to launch the X-34. These X-vehicles are part of NASA's Access to Space plan intended to bring new technologies to bear in an effort to dramatically lower the cost of putting payloads in space, and near-space environments. The June 22, 2000 NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Exposition included presentations on the history, present, and future of NASA's RLV program. Special Sessions for industry representatives highlighted the X-37 project and its related technologies. The X-37 project is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama.

  19. On display during a technical exposition at NASA Dryden are L to R: Boeing's X-37, the flight-articl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace industry representatives view actual and mock-up versions of 'X-Planes' intended to enhance access to space during a technical exposition on June 22, 2000 at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. From left to right: NASA's B-52 launch aircraft, in service with NASA since 1959; a neutral-buoyancy model of the Boeing's X-37; the Boeing X-40A behind the MicroCraft X-43 mock-up; Orbital Science's X-34 and the modified Lockheed L-1011 airliner that was to launch the X-34. These X-vehicles are part of NASA's Access to Space plan intended to bring new technologies to bear in an effort to dramatically lower the cost of putting payloads in space, and near-space environments. The June 22, 2000 NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Exposition included presentations on the history, present, and future of NASA's RLV program. Special Sessions for industry representatives highlighted the X-37 project and its related technologies. The X-37 project is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama.

  20. Patient autonomy and informed consent in critically lll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Zoran M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient autonomy has been a cornerstone of contemporary clinical ethics since the Nuremberg trial, especially in American school of bioethics. Topic: Patient autonomy has been defined in the Nuremberg Code, and re-defined in the Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report and Barcelona Declaration. Founders and followers of the rights-oriented bioethics (for example, Hellegers, Beauchamp and Childers have established and promoted the patient autonomy as the main principle of bio(medical ethics since 1970s. However, there is a lot of controversy surrounding such a principle, especially in vulnerable patients. We aimed at evaluating the real meaning and value of patient autonomy in critical care settings regarding the communication between health workers and their patients and families. Conclusion: Protection of patients autonomy in critically ill is a complex issue. Careful benefit-risk assessment is needed in order to find the most appropriate way of obtaining the informed consent, proxy consent or to omit or delay it.

  1. LEARNER AUTONOMY ON ESSAY WRITING ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hafidz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Learner autonomy on writing is independently teaching and learning that keeps students’ control to explore their knowledge and experiences in written language, find out and evaluate their errors based on the conceptual courses to make accurately simple essay. The aim was to know the effectiveness of the learner autonomy on writing accuracy. This quantitative research conducted in one group pretest and posttest design. The number of samples was 21 students in Bangkalan. The instrument were tests to gain students’ writing score before and after treatment. Researcher statistically analyzed the data using SPSS 23 version by running a Paired Samples Test. The result shown the means of pretes score was 66,83 and posttest score was 74,57, Paired Samples Correlations was 0,614 (strong correlation. Significance was 0,005, it means that  a (0,05 is higher than r value (0,005 with high variance of mean value (14,091. As a result, the hypothesis (H1­ was received that learner autonomy contributed effectively to learners’ in organizing own ideas (Ene, 2006 such as making a topic  map becomes some explanable sub-topics, writing down main and supporting idea, clustering some objects, editing next and learners  absolutely accumulate some selected vocabularies inappropriate topics  (Chengping W, 2008. Keyword: Learner Autonomy, Learning process, outcomes Absrak: Pembelajaran otonomi  adalah pembelajaran mandiri yang mengontrol mahasiswa untuk menyampaikan gagasan dan pengalamannya, mencatat dan mengevaluasi kesalahan yang terjadi dalam penulisan esai sederhana berdasarkan pembelajaran yang tersetruktur. Tujuan adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas pembelajaran otonomi terhadap akurasi tulisan secara statistik. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan desain tes awal dan akhir. Jumlah sampel terdiri dari 21 siswa di Bangkalan. Isntrumen yang digunakan adalah tes untuk mengetahui hasil nilai mahasiswa sebelum dan sesudah melakukan

  2. Agrarian law: judicial autonomy or methodological justification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nolbert Dicsón-Reyes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present time the agricultural sector has great importance in the economic development in Cuba for their contributions to food security, industry, services and exportaciones, so it is necessary to promote studies directed to the legal framework governing the agricultural activity in order to achieve proper development and efficiency. This article aims to provide some elements of the jurisdictional autonomy of Agrarian Law, taking into account the various positions that have been presented by the doctrine based on an analysis of conceptions about the purpose and content of Agrarian Law. For its development they were also used empirical methods the theoretical modeling, to critically evaluate major trends or regularities of the doctrine, specifying which are considered more accurate and propose the most appropriate should be relevant definitions or explanations

  3. A compassionate autonomy alternative to speciesism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C K

    2001-06-01

    Many people in the animal welfare community have argued that the use of nonhuman animals in medical research is necessarily based on speciesism, an unjustified prejudice based on species membership. As such it is morally akin to racism and sexism. This is misguided. The combined capacities for autonomy and sentience with the obligations derived from relations support a morally justifiable rationale for using some nonhuman animals in order to limit the risk of harm to humans. There may be a few cases where it is morally better to use a never sentient human than a sentient animal, but these cases are few and would not fulfill the current need for research subjects. The use of nonautonomous animals instead of humans in risky research can be based on solid moral ground. It is not necessarily speciesism.

  4. Why job autonomy matters for young companies' performance: company maturity as a moderator between job autonomy and company performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Howaldt, J.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.O.; Jansen, E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the positive impact of job autonomy has been widely shown for individual-level employee outcomes, research on job autonomy and company-level outcomes has been surprisingly scarce. Therefore, among 3,311 companies in the Netherlands, we investigate the relationship between employees' job

  5. Model Based Autonomy for Robust Mars Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, James A.; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Williams, Brian C.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Space missions have historically relied upon a large ground staff, numbering in the hundreds for complex missions, to maintain routine operations. When an anomaly occurs, this small army of engineers attempts to identify and work around the problem. A piloted Mars mission, with its multiyear duration, cost pressures, half-hour communication delays and two-week blackouts cannot be closely controlled by a battalion of engineers on Earth. Flight crew involvement in routine system operations must also be minimized to maximize science return. It also may be unrealistic to require the crew have the expertise in each mission subsystem needed to diagnose a system failure and effect a timely repair, as engineers did for Apollo 13. Enter model-based autonomy, which allows complex systems to autonomously maintain operation despite failures or anomalous conditions, contributing to safe, robust, and minimally supervised operation of spacecraft, life support, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and power systems. Autonomous reasoning is central to the approach. A reasoning algorithm uses a logical or mathematical model of a system to infer how to operate the system, diagnose failures and generate appropriate behavior to repair or reconfigure the system in response. The 'plug and play' nature of the models enables low cost development of autonomy for multiple platforms. Declarative, reusable models capture relevant aspects of the behavior of simple devices (e.g. valves or thrusters). Reasoning algorithms combine device models to create a model of the system-wide interactions and behavior of a complex, unique artifact such as a spacecraft. Rather than requiring engineers to all possible interactions and failures at design time or perform analysis during the mission, the reasoning engine generates the appropriate response to the current situation, taking into account its system-wide knowledge, the current state, and even sensor failures or unexpected behavior.

  6. Authenticity and autonomy in deep-brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrope, Alistair

    2014-08-01

    Felicitas Kraemer draws on the experiences of patients undergoing deep-brain stimulation (DBS) to propose two distinct and potentially conflicting principles of respect: for an individual's autonomy (interpreted as mental competence), and for their authenticity. I argue instead that, according to commonly-invoked justifications of respect for autonomy, authenticity is itself in part constitutive of an analysis of autonomy worthy of respect; Kraemer's argument thus highlights the shortcomings of practical applications of respect for autonomy that emphasise competence while neglecting other important dimensions of autonomy such as authenticity, since it shows that competence alone cannot be interpreted as a reliable indicator of an individual's capacity for exercising autonomy. I draw from relational accounts to suggest how respect for a more expansive conception of autonomy might be interpreted for individuals undergoing DBS and in general. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Autonomy and social functioning of recently admitted nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paque, Kristel; Goossens, Katrien; Elseviers, Monique; Van Bogaert, Peter; Dilles, Tinne

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines recently admitted nursing home residents' practical autonomy, their remaining social environment and their social functioning. In a cross-sectional design, 391 newly admitted residents of 67 nursing homes participated. All respondents were ≥65 years old, had mini-mental state examination ≥18 and were living in the nursing home for at least 1 month. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and validated measuring tools. The mean age was 84, 64% were female, 23% had a partner, 80% children, 75% grandchildren and 59% siblings. The mean social functioning score was 3/9 (or 33%) and the autonomy and importance of autonomy score 6/9 (or 67%). More autonomy was observed when residents could perform activities of daily living more independently, and cognitive functioning, quality of life and social functioning were high. Residents with depressive feelings scored lower on autonomy and social functioning compared to those without depressive feelings. Having siblings and the frequency of visits positively correlated with social functioning. In turn, social functioning correlated positively with quality of life. Moreover, a higher score on social functioning lowered the probability of depression. Autonomy or self-determination and maintaining remaining social relationships were considered to be important by the new residents. The remaining social environment, social functioning, quality of life, autonomy and depressive feelings influenced each other, but the cause--effect relation was not clear.

  8. The meaning of autonomy: on and beyond the interpersonal circumplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmel, Beverly A; Pincus, Aaron L

    2002-06-01

    Review of existing psychological literature suggests that conceptions of autonomy as an individual difference have taken several forms. Structural analyses of 15 self-report autonomy scales utilizing the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality as structural referents confirmed the presence of diverse conceptualizations of this construct. Two hundred ninety undergraduate students completed 15 autonomy scales, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), and the Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IAS). Factor analysis revealed three unique conceptualizations of autonomy. Each factor was further differentiated from the others by its unique location on the IPC and its distinct relationships with the domains and facets of the NEO-PI-R. Evaluation of these findings within the context of existing autonomy research leads to the conclusion that only two of the three identified factors reflect autonomy. Factor I, Depressogenic Vulnerability, though relatively consistent with its theoretical foundation, lacks the agentic quality one would expect in an autonomy construct. Factors II and III, presently labeled Self-governance and Agentic Separation, respectively, share an agentic core but differ considerably in their interpersonal content. Theoretical and empirical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Perceived Autonomy Support in the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Bauer, Daniel J; Meyer-Kalos, Piper; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Addington, Jean; Schooler, Nina R; Glynn, Shirley M; Gingerich, Susan; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    This study examined perceived support for autonomy-the extent to which individuals feel empowered and supported to make informed choices-among participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether NAVIGATE, the active treatment studied in RAISE ETP, was associated with greater improvements in perceived autonomy support over the two-year intervention, compared with community care, and to examine associations between perceived autonomy support and quality of life and symptoms over time and across treatment groups. This study examined perceived autonomy support among the 404 individuals with first-episode psychosis who participated in the RAISE ETP trial (NAVIGATE, N=223; community care, N=181). Three-level conditional linear growth modeling was used given the nested data structure. The results indicated that perceived autonomy support increased significantly over time for those in NAVIGATE but not in community care. Once treatment began, higher perceived autonomy support was related to higher quality of life at six, 12, and 18 months in NAVIGATE and at 12, 18, and 24 months in community care. Higher perceived autonomy support was related to improved scores on total symptoms and on excited symptoms regardless of treatment group and time. Overall, perceived autonomy support increased in NAVIGATE but not for those in community care and was related to improved quality of life and symptoms across both treatment groups. Future research should examine the impact of perceived autonomy support on a wider array of outcomes, including engagement, medication adherence, and functioning.

  10. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disrespect for diversity only when it is understood as a character ideal that must be promoted as an end in itself. If it by contrast...... is understood as something we should presume everyone possesses, it provides a strong basis for equal respect among people from diverse cultures. A Kantian conception of autonomy can justify the right to freedom of expression while it at the same time requires that we in the exercise of freedom of expression...

  11. Health equality, social justice and the poverty of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newdick, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    How does the concept of autonomy assist public responses to 'lifestyle' diseases? Autonomy is fundamental to bioethics, but its emphasis on self-determination and individuality hardly supports public health policies to eat and drink less and take more exercise. Autonomy rejects a 'nanny' state. Yet, the cost of non-communicable diseases is increasing to individuals personally and to public health systems generally. Health care systems are under mounting and unsustainable pressure. What is the proper responsibility of individuals, governments and corporate interests working within a global trading environment? When public health care resources are unlikely to increase, we cannot afford to be so diffident to the cost of avoidable diseases.

  12. [Adult learning, professional autonomy and individual commitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardell-Alentá, H

    The concept of 'andragogy' is the basis of the adult education which is different from pedagogy in several aspects, particularly in the autonomy of the adult learner in choosing the educational programmes and the methodologies and sites in where learning occurs. This happens very often in the worksite. The professionals have to learn permanently during their active lives in order to maintain their competence updated. In this sense, continuing education correlates with continuing professional development, which is an attempt to enlarge the traditional domains of continuing education. Continuing education must be clearly differentiated from formal education, which is a requirement for granting professional degrees or titles. Very often it arises from the changing health needs and for this reason is necessary to avoid the institutionalization of continuing education programmes. Professional associations should be actively involved in providing and accrediting continuing education-continuing professional development programmes, because this involvement is an essential component of the professionals' self-regulation in the context of the current medical professionalism ideology.

  13. AUTONOMY IN ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION: A BAHRAINI PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay Abdulla Al Khalifa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Formal architectural education in Bahrain is relatively young, born only at the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper discusses autonomy in learning architecture, and the effect of using a mixed methods approach combining theoretical and practical assignments on students’ performance and understanding of complex architectural concepts. The study discusses the performance and progress of 81 undergraduate students in the course of Contemporary Architecture. The paper presents the students’ learning process and engagement that occurred throughout the given assignments, theorizing about how students could build on these processes to support their understanding of contemporary architectural and urban issues. The research concludes that both theoretical and practical educations are very helpful in the learning process. Nevertheless, active learning offers distinct advantages to architectural education, especially when combined with group work. The study also shows that while students were able to plan, design and construct spatial installations, they were less capable of reflecting on their projects philosophically. The results indicate the importance of practical experiences in enhancing overall student understanding of architectural phenomena.

  14. Radioiodine therapy for functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.; Moser, E.

    1995-01-01

    In the last decade, several concepts were developed to improve the outcome of radioiodine therapy for functional thyroid autonomy. These concepts base on Marinellis' formula, which enables for individual dose determination. Each concept is good for an overall success rate between 75-100% and a less than 10% rate of post-treatment hypothyroidism but reveals different problems in its clinical application. Fractionated radioiodine treatment requires often two or more doses, which may delay the final success until two years. The standard concept using a high level target dose of 400 Gy requires accurate determination of the target or autonomous volume. Applied to multiple foci, target volume becomes often overestimated and hypothyroidism after treatment may arise accordingly. The so-called 'dosimetric compromise' foregoes determination of the autonomous volume, using the total thyroid gland as target volume and reducing the accordingly target dose to 150 Gy. This concept gives best results for patients with TcTU s s -level prior to radioiodine treatment. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Reconfigurable Autonomy for Future Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughes, Guy

    Extra-terrestrial Planetary rover systems are uniquely remote, placing constraints in regard to communication, environmental uncertainty, and limited physical resources, and requiring a high level of fault tolerance and resistance to hardware degradation. This thesis presents a novel self-reconfiguring autonomous software architecture designed to meet the needs of extraterrestrial planetary environments. At runtime it can safely reconfigure low-level control systems, high-level decisional autonomy systems, and managed software architecture. The architecture can perform automatic Verification and Validation of self-reconfiguration at run-time, and enables a system to be self-optimising, self-protecting, and self-healing. A novel self-monitoring system, which is non-invasive, efficient, tunable, and autonomously deploying, is also presented. The architecture was validated through the use-case of a highly autonomous extra-terrestrial planetary exploration rover. Three major forms of reconfiguration were demonstrated and tested: first, high level adjustment of system internal architecture and goal; second, software module modification; and third, low level alteration of hardware control in response to degradation of hardware and environmental change. The architecture was demonstrated to be robust and effective in a Mars sample return mission use-case testing the operational aspects of a novel, reconfigurable guidance, navigation, and control system for a planetary rover, all operating in concert through a scenario that required reconfiguration of all elements of the system.

  16. Learner autonomy development through digital gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Playing digital games is undeniably a popular leisure activity, and digital gaming is also gaining academic attention and recognition for enhancing digital literacies and learning motivation. One tricky issue when exploring digital gaming in Asian contexts is the popularity of English and Japanese games. Though Chinese and Korean online games are readily available, many of the more popular commercial off-the-shelf (COTS digital games are in English and Japanese. Students in Hong Kong are required to take English as a foreign language, which resulted in a huge range of proficiency, but Japanese is not offered at public schools. So, most Hong Kong gamers are playing foreign language games. Yet language barriers do not diminish the market demand for foreign language digital games. This paper explores the phenomenon of digital gaming in foreign languages. Based on findings from an on-going research project with ten undergraduate video gamers (F=4, M=6, this paper argues that gamers exercise learner autonomy by managing their gaming both as leisure and learning experiences.

  17. Marketing human organs: the autonomy paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P A; Thomasma, D C; Daar, A S

    1996-03-01

    The severe shortage of organs for transplantation and the continual reluctance of the public to voluntarily donate has prompted consideration of alternative strategies for organ procurement. This paper explores the development of market approaches for procuring human organs for transplantation and considers the social and moral implications of organ donation as both a "gift of life" and a "commodity exchange." The problematic and paradoxical articulation of individual autonomy in relation to property rights and marketing human body parts is addressed. We argue that beliefs about proprietorship over human body parts and the capacity to provide consent for organ donation are culturally constructed. We contend that the political and economic framework of biomedicine, in western and non-western nations, influences access to transplantation technology and shapes the form and development of specific market approaches. Finally, we suggest that marketing approaches for organ procurement are and will be negotiated within cultural parameters constrained by several factors: beliefs about the physical body and personhood, religious traditions, economic conditions, and the availability of technological resources.

  18. Systematization of nursing care in the perspective of professional autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Benchimol Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the perception of nurses about the systematization of nursing care in the perspective of professional autonomy. Methods: a descriptive and exploratory research, carried out with 24 nurses at five inpatient clinics of a large-scale public teaching hospital, through a structured questionnaire evaluated by experts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: nurses claimed that the systematization of nursing care promotes autonomy, emphasizing that the pursuit of knowledge for the development of systematization of nursing care is supported by an exchange of experiences among colleagues. Conclusion: applying the systematization of nursing care generates autonomy, demonstrating that nurses become more apt in developing it, thereby resulting in increased professional autonomy.

  19. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders: functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 15 years, several concepts have been developed to further improve the outcome of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy. Results of radioiodine therapy in functional autonomy are considerably better than in Graves' disease. All of the currently-applied concepts offer healing rates of 75-100%, but they differ considerably in the hypothyreosis rates attained. The target volume can be precisely determined by sonography only in unifocal autonomy. In the case of multifocal and disseminated autonomy, the entire thyroid is taken as the target volume and the focal dose is reduced ('dosimetric compromise'). TcTUs-based dose concepts calculate the functionally autonomous volume from the TcTUs and replace the target volume by sonography, in the TcTUs-adapted dose concepts, sonographic target volume is left and the focal dose varied in dependence of the suppression uptake. The objective is to attain a high rate of success with a low rate of hypothyreosis. (orig.)

  20. Innovations in Computer Generated Autonomy at the MOVES Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiles, John

    2001-01-01

    The M6VES Institute's Computer-Generated Autonomy Group has focused on a research goal of modeling intensely complex and adaptive behavior while at the same time making the behavior far easier to create and control...

  1. Professional autonomy and nursing: representations of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Érick Igor Dos; Alves, Yasmin Rayanne; Silva, Aline Cerqueira Santos Santana da; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli

    2017-05-18

    To analyse the social representations of the professional autonomy of nurses and nursing for non-nursing health professionals. This is a qualitative study based on the theory of social representations. Fifty-three non-nursing professionals of a municipal hospital participated in this study. Data were collected between March and April 2015, from hierarchical free evocations using the inductor terms, "professional autonomy of nurses" and "nursing". The data were analysed using EVOC 2003. The most likely core of the social representation of professional autonomy were the terms care, team, and responsibility. Moreover, the likely core of nursing comprises the elements care, team, responsibility, and work. The professional autonomy of nurses and nursing consists of fairly close objects of representation in the studied group, which makes them non-autonomous representations that are still sensitive to the incorporation of new elements.

  2. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method Participants (N

  3. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Marrie H.J.; Van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method: Participants

  4. The Impact of Autonomy Technology on Spacecraft Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, E. B., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Autonomy technology for high-level, closed-loop control of spacecraft offers considerable benefits to space-flight projects. Those benefits can enable whole new classes of missions; however, they are not without cost.

  5. Crew Autonomy Measures and Models (CAMM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SA Technologies will employ a two-part solution including measures and models for evaluating crew autonomy in exploratory space missions. An integrated measurement...

  6. System-Level Autonomy Trust Enabler (SLATE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project will achieve trusted, reconfigurable, intelligent autonomy through system-level validation. The goal is to design and develop a representation and...

  7. High versus low crewmember autonomy in space simulation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick; Saylor, Stephanie; Harris, Matthew; Neylan, Thomas; Boyd, Jennifer; Weiss, Daniel S.; Baskin, Pamela; Cook, Colleen; Marmar, Charles

    2010-10-01

    Given the long distances involved and the kinds of activities planned, crewmembers participating in long-duration exploratory space missions such as an expedition to Mars will have more autonomy than in previous space missions. In order to study the impact of high versus low crew autonomy on crewmembers and the crew-mission control interaction, we conducted a series of pilot studies involving three space simulation settings: NEEMO missions, the Haughton-Mars Project, and the pilot phase of the Mars 500 Program. As in our previous on-orbit studies on the Mir and International Space Station, crew and mission control subjects working in missions involving these three settings completed a weekly study questionnaire that assessed mood and interpersonal interactions using the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale. The Mars 500 pilot study also directly assessed individual and group autonomy. In these studies, high autonomy periods were those where crewmembers planned much of their work schedule, whereas low autonomy periods were those where mission control personnel developed the schedule, much as happens now during actual space flight conditions. Our results suggested that high work autonomy was well-received by the crews, mission goals were accomplished, and there were no adverse effects. During high autonomy periods, crewmember mood was generally reported as being better and creativity was higher, but mission control personnel reported some confusion about their work role. The crewmember group environment in the Mars 500 pilot study was dependent on the nationality mix. Despite scoring lower in work pressure overall, the four Russian crewmembers reported a greater rise in work pressure from low to high autonomy than the two Europeans. In contrast, the European crewmembers reported a greater rise in dysphoric mood in going from low to high autonomy, whereas the Russians' emotional state remained the same or slightly

  8. Financial side analysis of local autonomy in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2012-01-01

    Financial side of local autonomy expresses the capacity of local communities to have their own revenue and expenditure budget, distinct from that of the state in which revenues can cover expenses incurred to meet their requirements. The analysis of financial autonomy of administrative-territorial units in Romania is an interesting but complex approach given that some factors are actually difficult to predict and quantify. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of financial side o...

  9. Direct-to-consumer genomics on the scales of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayena, Effy

    2015-04-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic services have generated enormous controversy from their first emergence. A dramatic recent manifestation of this is the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) cease and desist order against 23andMe, the leading provider in the market. Critics have argued for the restrictive regulation of such services, and even their prohibition, on the grounds of the harm they pose to consumers. Their advocates, by contrast, defend them as a means of enhancing the autonomy of those same consumers. Autonomy emerges as a key battle-field in this debate, because many of the 'harm' arguments can be interpreted as identifying threats to autonomy. This paper assesses whether DTC genomic services are a threat to, or instead, an enhancement of, personal autonomy. It deploys Joseph Raz's account of personal autonomy, with its emphasis on choice from a range of valuable options. It then seeks to counter claims that DTC genomics threatens autonomy because it involves manipulation in contravention of consumers' independence or because it does not generate valuable options which can be meaningfully engaged with by consumers. It is stressed that the value of the options generated by DTC genomics should not be judged exclusively from the perspective of medical actionability, but should take into consideration plural utilities. Finally, the paper ends by broaching policy recommendations, suggesting that there is a strong autonomy-based argument for permitting DTC genomic services, and that the key question is the nature of the regulatory conditions under which they should be permitted. The discussion of autonomy in this paper helps illuminate some of these conditions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Ny styring af lærernes autonomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    klasseværelset. Dermed er kapitlets tese, at man ikke – i hvert fald ikke kun – kan tale om et tab af autonomi, men en ændret opfattelse og indhold heraf. Opgaven er derfor at indkredse, hvordan danske læreres autonomi til at udøve professionel dømmekraft forandrer sig, hvis man realiserer idéen om en...

  11. The Chains on All My People Are the Chains on Me: Restrictions to Collective Autonomy Undermine the Personal Autonomy and Psychological Well-Being of Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachanoff, Frank J; Taylor, Donald M; Caouette, Julie; Khullar, Thomas H; Wohl, Michael J A

    2018-01-11

    Four studies assessed the potentially detrimental effects that restrictions to collective autonomy (i.e., a group's freedom to determine and practice its own identity) may have for the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members. In Study 1, using 3 distinct samples (NSample1a = 123, NSample1b = 129, NSample1c = 370), correlational and cross-cultural evidence indicates that perceived restrictions to the collective autonomy of one's group is directly associated with reduced personal autonomy, and indirectly associated with diminished well-being through personal autonomy. In Study 2 (N = 411), a longitudinal assessment of group members over 3 time-points during a 4-month period found that group members who perceived greater collective autonomy restriction also experienced reduced personal autonomy, and in turn, reduced psychological well-being over time. In Study 3 (N = 255), group members described a time during which their ingroup had (or did not have) its collective autonomy unduly restricted by other groups. Participants who were primed to think that their group lacked collective autonomy reported reduced feelings of personal autonomy, and reduced psychological well-being (compared with those primed to think their group had collective autonomy). In Study 4 (N = 389), collective autonomy was manipulated within the context of an intensive laboratory simulation. Collective autonomy-restricted group members experienced less personal autonomy than those who did not have their collective autonomy restricted. Together these findings suggest that restrictions to a group's collective autonomy may have detrimental consequences for the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Iranian EFL Experienced vs. Novice Teachers’ Beliefs Regarding Learner Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Bashiri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Learner autonomy has been described as the ultimate objective in many language teaching programs since the third quarter of the twentieth century and educators have highlighted the significant role of promoting learner autonomy in the process of language learning and teaching. However, only limited number of studies has been awarded to what leaner autonomy mean to teachers. This study addressed the gap and investigated novice and experienced teachers’ beliefs regarding learner autonomy. Forty teachers participated in two groups who were grouped based on their teaching experiences as novice and experienced teachers. A questionnaire which was adapted from British Council was administered to elicit the teachers’ beliefs regarding learner autonomy. The independent samples t-test analysis of the data revealed a significant difference between novice and experienced teachers beliefs. The findings of the present study may have some implications for teachers in promoting learner autonomy in their classes, in general, and involving learners in the process of teaching and learning, in particular.

  13. Radioiodine-treatment (RIT) of functional thyroidal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Becker, W.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1942, therapy with radioiodine (RIT) has gained a major role in the treatment of benign thyroid disorders, notably hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease or toxic multinodular goitre (thyroid autonomy). In iodine deficient areas thyroid autonomy accounts for 40-50% of all cases with hyperthyroidism. RIT has become a cost-effective first-line procedure in autonomy-patients with latent or overt hyperthyroidism, especially in the absence of a large goitre, after thyroid surgery and in elderly patients with associated conditions who carry a high intra- or perioperative risk. Decisions concerning the definitive treatment of thyroid autonomy should take into account previous episodes of hyperthyroidism, objective parameters of risk stratification in euthyroid patients as well as concomitant diseases and the probability of iodine exposure in the future. In Central Europe the majority of investigators prefer to estimate the therapeutic activity individually by a radioiodine test. TCTUs (global 99m-Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression) - based dose concepts have been proven to be highly effective in the elimination of autonomy and carry a low (< 10%) risk of postradioiodtherapeutic hypothyroidism. Radioiodine therapy for autonomy has been found to be both effective and safe and without major early or late side effects. The most frequent complication is hypothyroidism requiring lifelong follow-up. (author)

  14. Volitional Trust, Autonomy Satisfaction, and Engagement at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyns, Marita; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2018-02-01

    This study tested a structural model that identifies the nature of relationships between trust, autonomy satisfaction, and personal engagement at work. A cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample ( n = 252) was used. The Behavioral Trust Inventory, Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. While reliance-based trust did not have a significant influence on engagement, disclosure-based trust in a focal leader was found to predict satisfaction of autonomy needs and employee engagement. Mediation analyses revealed that satisfaction of the need for autonomy facilitates the influence of trust on work outcomes. More specifically, disclosure (a dimension of trust) impacted engagement via autonomy satisfaction. Overall, the model explained 44% of total variance in engagement, to which the variables proportionately contributed as follows: autonomy satisfaction = 79.58%, disclosure = 18.22%, and reliance = 2.20%. The findings provide possible directions for how leaders can leverage trust to facilitate autonomy support and higher levels of engagement.

  15. Effect of Autonomy Support on Self-Determined Motivation in Elementary Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Chang, Senlin Chen, Kun-Wei Tu, Li-Kang Chi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the quasi-experimental design, this study examined the effect of autonomy support on self-determined motivation in elementary school physical education (PE students. One hundred and twenty six participants were assigned to either the autonomy support group (n = 61 or the control group (n = 65 for a six-week intervention period. Perceived teacher autonomy, perceived autonomy in PE, and self-determined motivation in PE were pre- and post-tested using validated questionnaires. Significant increases in perceived teacher autonomy and perceived autonomy in PE were observed in the autonomy support group, but not in the control group. Intrinsic motivation was higher in the autonomy support group than that in the control group. From an experimental perspective, these findings suggest that the autonomy support was successfully manipulated in the PE classes, which in turn increased the students’ perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation.

  16. Autonomy and the human element in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    productivity. Extended operations can in turn enhance critical technologies and contribute to the competitive economic abilities of the United States. A high degree of automation and autonomy may be required to reduce dependence on ground systems, reduce mission costs, diminish complexity as perceived by the crew, increase mission lifetime and expand mission versatility. However, technologies dealing with heavily automated, long duration habitable spacecraft have not yet been thoroughly investigated by NASA. A highly automated station must amalgamate the diverse capabilities of people, machines, and computers to yield an efficient system which capitalizes on unique human characteristics. The station also must have an initial design which allows evolution to a larger and more sophisticated space presence. In the early years it is likely that AI-based subsystems will be used primarily in an advisory or planning capacity. As human confidence in automated systems grows and as technology advances, machines will take on more critical and interdependent roles. The question is whether, and how much, system autonomy will lead to improved station effectiveness.

  17. Autonomy in robots and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, T

    1997-06-01

    The word "autonomous" has become widely used in artificial intelligence, robotics, and, more recently, artificial life and is typically used to qualify types of systems, agents, or robots: we see terms like "autonomous systems," "autonomous agents," and "autonomous robots." Its use in these fields is, however, both weak, with no distinctions being made that are not better and more precisely made with other existing terms, and varied, with no single underlying concept being involved. This ill-disciplined usage contrasts strongly with the use of the same term in other fields such as biology, philosophy, ethics, law, and human rights, for example. In all these quite different areas the concept of autonomy is essentially the same, though the language used and the aspects and issues of concern, of course, differ. In all these cases the underlying notion is one of self-law making and the closely related concept of self-identity. In this paper I argue that the loose and varied use of the term autonomous in artificial intelligence, robotics, and artificial life has effectively robbed these fields of an important concept. A concept essentially the same as we find it in biology, philosophy, ethics, and law, and one that is needed to distinguish a particular kind of agent or robot from those developed and built so far. I suggest that robots and other agents will have to be autonomous, i.e., self-law making, not just self-regulating, if they are to be able effectively to deal with the kinds of environments in which we live and work: environments which have significant large scale spatial and temporal invariant structure, but which also have large amounts of local spatial and temporal dynamic variation and unpredictability, and which lead to the frequent occurrence of previously unexperienced situations for the agents that interact with them.

  18. Evidence-Responsiveness and the Ongoing Autonomy of Treatment Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Steven

    2017-06-14

    To be an autonomous agent is to determine one's own path in life. However, this cannot plausibly be seen as a one-off affair. An autonomous agent does not merely set herself on a particular course and then lock the steering wheel in place, so to speak, but must maintain some form of ongoing control over her direction in life-must keep her eyes on the road and her hands on the wheel. Circumstances often change in important and unexpected ways, after all, and it is reasonable to think that a crucial part of autonomy consists of the ability and disposition to recognize and properly respond to such changes. This implies, I contend, that a patient whose initial decision to undergo a given treatment satisfied plausible requirements of autonomy, but who is now unable to recognize that available evidence indicates the need to reconsider her medical situation and options has come to lack autonomy with respect to her desire to continue that treatment. However, and despite its importance with respect to both theoretical understandings of autonomy and applications of the concept to clinical ethics, this ongoing aspect of autonomy has received little attention. This paper aims to go some way toward remedying that. I first critically review two of the few theories of autonomy that do address "evidence-responsiveness" so as to identify and elaborate what I take to be the most promising way in which to account for this aspect of autonomy. After considering and responding to a possible objection to the evidence-responsiveness condition I propose, I conclude by discussing its clinical implications. That condition, I argue, is not merely theoretically sound, but can and should be applied to clinical practice.

  19. Instructors' Support of Student Autonomy in an Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicholas; Webb, David

    2014-12-01

    The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a self-determination theory perspective. A correlational study investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (versus controlling) students perceived their instructors to be. An autonomy-supportive instructor acknowledges students' perspectives and feelings and provides students with information and opportunities for choice while minimizing external pressures (e.g., incentives or deadlines). It was found that the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was positively correlated with student interest and enjoyment in learning physics (β =0.31***) and negatively correlated with student anxiety about taking physics (β =-0.23**). It was also positively correlated with how autonomous (versus controlled) students' reasons for studying physics became over the duration of the course (i.e., studying physics more because they wanted to versus had to; β =0.24***). This change in autonomous reasons for studying physics was in turn positively correlated with student performance in the course (β =0.17*). Additionally, the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was directly correlated with performance for those students entering the course with relatively autonomous reasons for studying physics (β =0.25**). In summary, students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy supportive tended to have a more favorable motivational, affective, and performance experience in the course. The findings of the present study are consistent with experimental studies in other contexts that argue for autonomy-supportive instructor behaviors as the cause of a more favorable student experience.

  20. A biochemistry laboratory course designed to enhance students autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laboratory sessions are responsible for promoting instrumentation skills desirable in biochemistry and biochemistry related careers. They are traditionally based on experimental protocols that lead to the expected results, and students usually have not autonomy to plan and execute their experiments. GOALS: This work aimed to enhance a traditional biochemistry lab course, applying pre-lab quizzes on protein biochemistry and lab techniques in order to have students better prepared to plan, execute and interpret experiments. This approach also aims to bring the laboratory sessions into an inquiry-based environment capable to improve students’ independent capabilities in 2 autonomy domains: learning and communication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Online quizzes are delivered one week before each laboratory session, containing questions regarding the experimental techniques and theoretical basis related to them. Laboratory activities are presented in an inquiry-based approach where the first class of each activity is dedicated to plan experiments in order to answer the research questions presented by instructors. Activities are also organized in order to enhance students’ autonomy. The first activity is the simplest and more instructor-controlled and the last one is the most complex and less driven, transferring gradually to students the responsibility for their decisions in laboratory, supporting students’ autonomy. RESULTS: Online quizzes allowed instructors to identify students’ difficulties and to timely intervene. Scientific reports presented by students at the end of each activity showed that they performed better on less driven activities in which autonomy support were more complex than in the instructor controlled activities. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific reports analysis reveals students capabilities related to different scopes of autonomy, such as: discuss different strategies; find multiple solutions to solve problems; make their

  1. Regions’ Economic Autonomy in the New Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Bochko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discloses the understanding of new reality (normality for Russia that consists in the strengthening of the role of a man-personality and in the expansion of the economic autonomy of the territories in their interaction with the federal center. The rationale is based on a hypothesis according to which in the conditions of new reality, the increase of the well-being of the population and the overcoming of economic inequality between the territories are provided by the expansion of their economic independence as it leads to the increase of their intellectual, engineering and manufacturing potential. In the research, the author used the basic concepts of the classical economic theory, the theory of behavioural economics, interdisciplinary approach and statistical grouping method. The dynamics of the economic independence of the territories, which is manifested in the decrease in a number of donor regions and the socio-economic dividing of the territories, is shown. The assumption is proved that the consequences of the territorial stratification are the restraining of the growth of their socio-economic development and possibility probable emergence of «regional peripheral economy» with the property of the dependence of the periphery on the center, the decrease in a local initiative, the inhibition of technological development. The need to use the social psychology of the population, the psychological sets of economic development, «the second invisible hand of the market» and soft power to overcome the «regional peripheral economy» is revealed. The result of the research is the proof that the expansion of the economic independence of the territories is not only the increase of the self-isolation of regions and municipalities, but also the need to save the considerable part of the income from the production of goods and services created by the local population under control of the regional and municipal authorities and direct it to the

  2. Recentralization within decentralization: County hospital autonomy under devolution in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwine W Barasa

    Full Text Available In 2013, Kenya transitioned into a devolved system of government with a central government and 47 semi-autonomous county governments. In this paper, we report early experiences of devolution in the Kenyan health sector, with a focus on public county hospitals. Specifically, we examine changes in hospital autonomy as a result of devolution, and how these have affected hospital functioning.We used a qualitative case study approach to examine the level of autonomy that hospitals had over key management functions and how this had affected hospital functioning in three county hospitals in coastal Kenya. We collected data by in-depth interviews of county health managers and hospital managers in the case study hospitals (n = 21. We adopted the framework proposed by Chawla et al (1995 to examine the autonomy that hospitals had over five management domains (strategic management, finance, procurement, human resource, and administration, and how these influenced hospital functioning.Devolution had resulted in a substantial reduction in the autonomy of county hospitals over the five key functions examined. This resulted in weakened hospital management and leadership, reduced community participation in hospital affairs, compromised quality of services, reduced motivation among hospital staff, non-alignment of county and hospital priorities, staff insubordination, and compromised quality of care.Increasing the autonomy of county hospitals in Kenya will improve their functioning. County governments should develop legislation that give hospitals greater control over resources and key management functions.

  3. Measuring the e-Learning Autonomy of Distance Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Firat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided evidence that learner autonomy is an important factor in academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated the autonomy of distance education students in e-learning environments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the e-learning autonomy of distance education students who are responsible for their own learning. For this purpose, as the first step of the study, an e-learning autonomy scale was developed. Analyses of the validity and reliability of the scale were carried out with the participation of 1,152 distance education students from Anadolu University, Open Education System. The scale has an internal consistency coefficient of α = 0.952 and a single factorial model that explains 66.58% of the total variance. The scale was implemented with 3,293 students from 42 different programs. According to the findings, student autonomy in e-learning environments is directly proportional to level of ICT use but not affected by program or gender.

  4. ARMD Strategic Thrust 6: Assured Autonomy for Aviation Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark; Holbrook, Jon; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with the external community and other government agencies, NASA will develop enabling technologies, standards, and design guidelines to support cost-effective applications of automation and limited autonomy for individual components of aviation systems. NASA will also provide foundational knowledge and methods to support the next epoch. Research will address issues of verification and validation, operational evaluation, national policy, and societal cost-benefit. Two research and development approaches to aviation autonomy will advance in parallel. The Increasing Autonomy (IA) approach will seek to advance knowledge and technology through incremental increases in machine-based support of existing human-centered tasks, leading to long-term reallocation of functions between humans and machines. The Autonomy as a New Technology (ANT) approach seeks advances by developing technology to achieve goals that are not currently possible using human-centered concepts of operation. IA applications are mission-enhancing, and their selection will be based on benefits achievable relative to existing operations. ANT applications are mission-enabling, and their value will be assessed based on societal benefit resulting from a new capability. The expected demand for small autonomous unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) provides an opportunity for development of ANT applications. Supervisory autonomy may be implemented as an expansion of the number of functions or systems that may be controlled by an individual human operator. Convergent technology approaches, such as the use of electronic flight bags and existing network servers, will be leveraged to the maximum extent possible.

  5. Recentralization within decentralization: County hospital autonomy under devolution in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyara, Anthony M.; Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2013, Kenya transitioned into a devolved system of government with a central government and 47 semi-autonomous county governments. In this paper, we report early experiences of devolution in the Kenyan health sector, with a focus on public county hospitals. Specifically, we examine changes in hospital autonomy as a result of devolution, and how these have affected hospital functioning. Methods We used a qualitative case study approach to examine the level of autonomy that hospitals had over key management functions and how this had affected hospital functioning in three county hospitals in coastal Kenya. We collected data by in-depth interviews of county health managers and hospital managers in the case study hospitals (n = 21). We adopted the framework proposed by Chawla et al (1995) to examine the autonomy that hospitals had over five management domains (strategic management, finance, procurement, human resource, and administration), and how these influenced hospital functioning. Findings Devolution had resulted in a substantial reduction in the autonomy of county hospitals over the five key functions examined. This resulted in weakened hospital management and leadership, reduced community participation in hospital affairs, compromised quality of services, reduced motivation among hospital staff, non-alignment of county and hospital priorities, staff insubordination, and compromised quality of care. Conclusion Increasing the autonomy of county hospitals in Kenya will improve their functioning. County governments should develop legislation that give hospitals greater control over resources and key management functions. PMID:28771558

  6. Patient autonomy in chronic care: solving a paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reach G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Reach Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital AP-HP, and EA 3412, CRNH-IdF, Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France Abstract: The application of the principle of autonomy, which is considered a cornerstone of contemporary bioethics, is sometimes in obvious contradiction with the principle of beneficence. Indeed, it may happen in chronic care that the preferences of the health care provider (HCP, who is largely focused on the prevention of long term complications of diseases, differ from those, more present oriented, preferences of the patient. The aims of this narrative review are as follows: 1 to show that the exercise of autonomy by the patient is not always possible; 2 where the latter is not possible, to examine how, in the context of the autonomy principle, someone (a HCP can decide what is good (a treatment for someone else (a patient without falling into paternalism. Actually this analysis leads to a paradox: not only is the principle of beneficence sometimes conflicting with the principle of autonomy, but physician's beneficence may enter into conflict with the mere respect of the patient; and 3 to propose a solution to this paradox by revisiting the very concepts of the autonomous person, patient education, and trust in the patient–physician relationship: this article provides an ethical definition of patient education. Keywords: preference, autonomy, person, reflexivity, empathy, sympathy, patient education, trust, respect, care

  7. A Feasible Approach for Implementing Greater Levels of Satellite Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Steve; Zetocha, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a means for achieving increasingly autonomous satellite operations. We begin with a brief discussion of the current state-of-the-art in satellite ground operations and flight software, as well as the real and perceived technical and political obstacles to increasing the levels of autonomy on today's satellites. We then present a list of system requirements that address these hindrances and include the artificial intelligence (AI) technologies with the potential to satisfy these requirements. We conclude with a discussion of how the space industry can use this information to incorporate increased autonomy. From past experience we know that autonomy will not just "happen," and we know that the expensive course of manually intensive operations simply cannot continue. Our goal is to present the aerospace industry with an analysis that will begin moving us in the direction of autonomous operations.

  8. Our experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Otakar

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the author presents his experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies. The objectives of this study were to establish the efficacy and determine the adverse effects of radioiodine therapy of patients with thyroid functional autonomies. The main pathologic attribute of thyroid functional autonomies is the loss of regulation in the axis of hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid. The main cause of functional autonomy of the thyroid is iodine deficiency. Over a period of 30 years (1974-2004) 799 patients (age from 33 to 86 years; average age 58.7 years; the female: male ration was 7.4:1) with unifocal functional autonomy (UFA), multifocal functional autonomy (MFA) and disseminated functional autonomy (DFA) received at least one treatment of radioiodine. For diagnostics and the evaluation of radioiodine therapeutic effect of functional autonomies a thyroid scintigraphy is the basic and necessary procedure. In some patients a common scintigraphy with special imaging modulation, in some patients a scintigraphy after suppression or stimulation by means of thyroid hormones or TSH were done. We have also performed a thyroid ultrasonography, an assessment of a serum level of a total and free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, TSH, radioiodine accumulation test, estimation of radioiodine effective half-life, in some patients TRH-TSH test. The follow-up examinations were done in all patients after 4-6 months, another examination after one year in 545 patients and after two years in 254 patients. One therapeutic dose received 733 patients (91.74%) and it was sufficient for an elimination of functional autonomies. Some patients were retreated if there was the evidence of small or no treatment effect and no elimination of functional autonomies. Two radioiodine treatments received 62 patients (7.76%) and three treatments 4 patients (0.5%). We advocate individual pre-therapeutic dosimetry to determine the activity necessary to achieve a

  9. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  10. Autonomy and exclusion among Danish prisoners in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    2018-01-01

    A prison sentence necessarily means that the person receiving the sentence is in essential ways excluded from the surrounding society. This exclusion means fewer choices and, in the long run, this may affect the person’s ability to actively make choices – therefore, autonomy is an important theme...... in relation to exclusion. In Denmark, there is a political desire to increase the level of education among prison inmates, because this is regarded as a way out of crime. But taking an education while in prison can, for various reasons, be difficult and it very much requires the ability to actively make...... choices as well as a high degree of autonomy on the part of the individual inmate. This article focuses on the interplay between exclusion and autonomy in relation to Danish prison inmates who are in education. Alongside this, a more general insight into the educational life of Danish prisoners...

  11. The Impact of Autonomy on Women’s Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyle Ortiz-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kabeer’s simple and illustrative definition of empowerment is “the expansion in people’s ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them” (Kabeer, 1999: 437. Women’s empowerment, then, is conceptualized as an increase in agency over time. Little is it known about the importance of the effect of ‘self directed motivations and desires’ and autonomy on women’s agency. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationships among women’s autonomy and labor force participation along with their effects on women’s agency in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. For this, we use the structural equation modeling approach. Our results reveal that women’s autonomy and participation in the labor market positively influence their agency levels.

  12. Autonomy of the state and development in the democratic capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ianoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that if the state, as an expression and part of a pact of domination, operates as a corporate actor with relative autonomy, vision and capacity to promote the development, it is a key institution to the economic transformation. Supported in the neo-Marxism, exposes the limits of institutionalist approach of autonomy of the state to explain its origin, but does not rule out this approach. Maintains that the class-balance theory of the state may explain its relative autonomy and at the same time aid in understanding the historical experiences of social-developmentalist state action, particularly in the social democratic regimes and in the current Latin America.

  13. The history of autonomy in medicine from antiquity to principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Toni C

    2018-03-01

    Respect for Autonomy (RFA) has been a mainstay of medical ethics since its enshrinement as one of the four principles of biomedical ethics by Beauchamp and Childress' in the late 1970s. This paper traces the development of this modern concept from Antiquity to the present day, paying attention to its Enlightenment origins in Kant and Rousseau. The rapid C20th developments of bioethics and RFA are then considered in the context of the post-war period and American socio-political thought. The validity and utility of the RFA are discussed in light of this philosophical-historical account. It is concluded that it is not necessary to embrace an ethic of autonomy in order to guard patients from coercion or paternalism, and that, on the contrary, the dominance of autonomy threatens to undermine those very things which have helped doctors come to view and respect their patients as persons.

  14. Limits to relational autonomy--the Singaporean experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha; Watkinson, Deborah S; Beng, Ng Lee

    2015-05-01

    Recognition that the Principle of Respect for Autonomy fails to work in family-centric societies such as Singapore has recently led to the promotion of relational autonomy as a suitable framework within which to place healthcare decision making. However, empirical data, relating to patient and family opinions and the practices of healthcare professionals in Confucian-inspired Singapore, demonstrate clear limitations on the ability of a relational autonomy framework to provide the anticipated compromise between prevailing family decision-making norms and adopted Western led atomistic concepts of autonomy. Evidence suggests that despite a growing infusion of Western influence, there is still little to indicate any major shift to individual decision making, particularly in light of the way society and healthcare are structured. Similarly, the lack of employing a shared decision-making model and data that discredit the notion that the complex psychosocial and cultural factors that affect the decision making may be considered "content neutral" not only prevents the application of relational autonomy but questions the viability of the values behind the Principle of Respect for Autonomy. Taking into account local data and drawing upon a wider concept of personhood that extends beyond prevailing family-centric ideals along with the complex interests that are focused upon the preservation of the unique nature of personhood that arises from the Ring Theory of Personhood, we propose and "operationalize" the employing of an authoritative welfare-based approach, within the confines of best interest decision making, to better meet the current care needs within Singapore. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Progressive Surgical Autonomy in a Plastic Surgery Resident Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jillian K.; Gao, Lani; Lee, Tara M.; Waldrop, Jimmy L.; Sargent, Larry A.; Kennedy, J. Woody; Rehm, Jason P.; Brzezienski, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Resident clinics are thought to catalyze educational milestone achievement through opportunities for progressively autonomous surgical care, but studies are lacking for general plastic surgery resident clinics (PSRCs). We demonstrate the achievement of increased surgical autonomy and continuity of care in a PSRC. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients seen in a PSRC from October 1, 2010, to October 1, 2015, was conducted. Our PSRC is supervised by faculty plastic surgery attendings, though primarily run by chief residents in an accredited independent plastic surgery training program. Surgical autonomy was scored on a 5-point scale based on dictated operative reports. Graduated chief residents were additionally surveyed by anonymous online survey. Results: Thousand one hundred forty-four patients were seen in 3,390 clinic visits. Six hundred fifty-three operations were performed by 23 total residents, including 10 graduating chiefs. Senior resident autonomy averaged 3.5/5 (SD = 1.5), 3.6/5 (SD = 1.5), to 3.8/5 (SD = 1.3) in postgraduate years 6, 7, and 8, respectively. A linear mixed model analysis demonstrated that training level had a significant impact on operative autonomy when comparing postgraduate years 6 and 8 (P = 0.026). Graduated residents’ survey responses (N = 10; 100% response rate) regarded PSRC as valuable for surgical experience (4.1/5), operative autonomy (4.4/5), medical knowledge development (4.7/5), and the practice of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education core competencies (4.3/5). Preoperative or postoperative continuity of care was maintained in 93.5% of cases. Conclusion: The achievement of progressive surgical autonomy may be demonstrated within a PSRC model. PMID:28607848

  16. Enhancing Learner Autonomy in an On-line Editing Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Wong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Little (1999 argues that in formal educational contexts, “the basis of learner autonomy is acceptance of responsibility for one’s own learning” (p.11. An autonomous learner takes responsibility for various aspects of learning (Benson & Voller, 1997; Holec, 1981. This study examines how learner autonomy opportunities were provided at various stages of writing in an on-line editing programme for a group of electronic engineering students and how the students took charge of their language learning when receiving feedback on their technical writing. The impact on their own learning effectiveness of the decisions students made is also discussed.

  17. Effective Autonomy, Organisational Relationships and Skilled Jobs in Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank; Tüselmann, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    , specialization within the multinational corporation supply chain and enhancement of absorptive capacity on the proportion of skilled jobs. Originality/value – This paper is the first to describe subsidiary development from a skilled job perspective. It further develops the concept of autonomy and introduces...... implications – The conceptual model can help parent company managers assess the likely effects of developments in effective autonomy and organisational relationships in their subsidiaries. Subsidiary managers can assess the possible impact of such factors as development of entrepreneurial activities...

  18. Autonomy and Vulnerability of Elderly People: Emblematic Judicial Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isolina Dabove

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the private autonomy of older people when they are in situations of dependency according to the “Law of Old Age”. For this, the author presents the autonomy system: the capacity, the will, the guardianship and the schemes of support, assistance and representation according to the Argentinean Civil and Commercial Code, in force since August 2015, its scope and the jurisprudence. In addition, it is considered the recent Inter-American Convention on the Protection of the Human Rights of Older Persons (CIDHPM of the OAS, in force since January 11, 2017.

  19. Representations of Patients' Experiences of Autonomy in Graphic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschaepe, Mark

    2018-02-01

    I advocate using graphic medicine in introductory medical ethics courses to help trainees learn about patients' experiences of autonomy. Graphic narratives about this content offer trainees opportunities to gain insights into making diagnoses and recommending treatments. Graphic medicine can also illuminate aspects of patients' experiences of autonomy differently than other genres. Specifically, comics allow readers to consider visual and text-based representations of a patient's actions, speech, thoughts, and emotions. Here, I use Ellen Forney's Marbles: Mania, Depression, Michelangelo, and Me: A Graphic Memoir and Peter Dunlap-Shohl's My Degeneration: A Journey Through Parkinson's as two examples that can serve as pedagogical resources. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Robot Science Autonomy in the Atacama Desert and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Wettergreen, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Science-guided autonomy augments rovers with reasoning to make observations and take actions related to the objectives of scientific exploration. When rovers can directly interpret instrument measurements then scientific goals can inform and adapt ongoing navigation decisions. These autonomous explorers will make better scientific observations and collect massive, accurate datasets. In current astrobiology studies in the Atacama Desert we are applying algorithms for science autonomy to choose effective observations and measurements. Rovers are able to decide when and where to take follow-up actions that deepen scientific understanding. These techniques apply to planetary rovers, which we can illustrate with algorithms now used by Mars rovers and by discussing future missions.

  1. Parental influences on the development of adolescent autonomy and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, R D; Lapsley, D K; Drivas, A E; Fehr, L A

    1980-12-01

    Two studies were undertaken to examine parental influences on autonomy and identity development. In Study 1, 262 adolescents in seventh and eleventh grades were given Kurtines's autonomy measure, Simmons's identity measure, and Elder's questions regarding the adolescents' perceptions of their parents' autocratic, democratic, or permissive parenting styles. Study 2 was a replication with 168 subjects. Across both studies it was found that sex-role socialization is more influential for automony development than is either level of parental power or age. Both age and father's use of democracy were the most influential variables on identity development.

  2. Professional Autonomy and Security Risks of Journalists in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Garcés Prettel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between professional autonomy and security risks of journalists in Colombia. A correlational-transversal research was conducted with a sample of 751 journalists who filled out the questionnaire “Worlds of Journalism Study”. The results show significant differences on the attacks received by the journalists depending on gender, news beat, region, news media, years of experience, capacity and educational level of journalists. Attacks on journalists correlates positively with the autonomy to publish and write news on governments, armed forces, criminal gangs and structural social problems (poverty, status of ethnic minorities, socioeconomic inequality, environmental damage the latter being a predictor of high risk security.

  3. Does Country Context Distance Determine Subsidiary Decision-Making Autonomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Gjalt; Van Vo, Dut; Marek, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    We studied an underrepresented area in the international business (IB) literature: the effect of country context distance on the distribution of decision-making autonomy across headquarters and foreign affiliates. Foreign affiliates directly contribute to the competitive advantages of multinational...... enterprises, highlighting the importance of such intra-firm collaboration. The division of decision-making autonomy is a core issue in the management of headquarters–subsidiary relationships. The main contribution of our paper is that we confront two valid theoretical frameworks – business network theory...

  4. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  5. Closeness, autonomy, equity, and relationship satisfaction in lesbian couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, KMG; Buunk, BP

    1996-01-01

    It is often assumed that in lesbian relationships a high degree of closeness is reached at the expense of autonomy of the partners. The present study among 119 Dutch lesbian couples examined the effect on relational satisfaction of two dimensions of closeness, emotional dependency and intimacy, and

  6. Impact of School Autonomy on Student Achievement: Cases from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Brian John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report four case studies in Australia that respond to the question: "How have schools with a relatively high degree of autonomy used their increased authority and responsibility to make decisions that have led in explicit cause-and-effect fashion to higher levels of student achievement"?…

  7. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  8. Autonomy and Accountability in Standards-Based Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Watson

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the effects of one urban school district's efforts to increase the autonomy and accountability of schools and teams of teachers through a standards-based reform known as team- based schooling. Team-based schooling is designed to devolve decision-making authority down to the school level by increasing teachers' autonomy to make decisions. Increased accountability is enacted in the form of a state-level standards-based initiative. Based on our evaluation over a two-year period involving extensive fieldwork and quantitative analysis, we describe the ways that teachers, teams and school administrators responded to the implementation of team-based schooling. What are the effects of increasing school-level autonomy and accountability in the context of standards- based reform? Our analysis highlights several issues: the "lived reality" of teaming as it interacts with the existing culture within schools, the ways that teachers respond to the pressures created by increased internal and external accountability, and the effects of resource constraints on the effectiveness of implementation. We conclude by using our findings to consider more broadly the trade-off between increased autonomy and accountability on which standards-based reforms like team-based schooling are based.

  9. Woolf’s Weighty Gifts: The Measure of Modernist Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Colesworthy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own (1929 provides a critical counterpoint to a cluster of recent discourses on the gift, autonomy, and the changing nature of labor in the contemporary creative economy. From Lewis Hyde’s best-selling The Gift to neo-Marxist accounts of post-Fordism, these discourses routinely adopt modernist notions of autonomy in order to characterize creative labor today. Woolf’s feminist vision of autonomy in A Room of One’s Own at once dovetails with and complicates these discourses. In suggesting that feminine creative power, or “gifts,” both are and are not measurable by a monetary standard, she reinforces a familiar tension between gifts and commodities. But in her attentiveness to the material conditions of creativity, she also refuses to let the ideal of autonomy become an alibi for precarity, as is so often the case with feminized labor in our own creative economy. Ultimately, I argue that A Room of One’s Own reads as notes toward the possibility of a measure of the value of the gift as a gift—a measure that need not come at the expense of economic equality.

  10. Enhancing Learner Autonomy through Reciprocal Approach to Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on how a heterogeneous mixed-ability large class (63 students) turned into a cohesive and functioning class. To promote learner autonomy, students were made responsible to identify their own needs and objectives. The participants of this study consisted of undergraduate chemistry students who had taken the English for General…

  11. Developing Learner Autonomy through Project Work in an ESP Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Ramírez, Martha Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an action research study on developing learner autonomy through project work in an English for Specific Purposes class. The study was conducted at a Colombian regional and public university with environmental engineering undergraduates. The instruments for data collection were field notes, semi-structured…

  12. Learner Autonomy in Language Learning: Student Teachers' Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcikanli, Cem

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate student teachers' beliefs about learner autonomy in the Turkish educational context. In a study in the ELT Department, Gazi University, a questionnaire developed by Camilleri (1997) was administered to 112 student teachers. Twenty volunteer student teachers were interviewed in groups to identify their further general…

  13. Teachers' Roles in Promoting Students' Learner Autonomy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumin, Fang; Li, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007, the Ministry of Education of China has been promoting a shift from traditional teaching models to a new teaching model where students' autonomous learning skills can be enhanced. In particular, college students are encouraged to learn English free from the constraints of time or place. While learner autonomy has been perceived as…

  14. Matching concepts and phenomena: A review of Biological Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses Moreno and Mossio’s book Biological autonomy: A philosophical and theoretical enquiry. The book provides an up to date overview of the authors’ work within the organizational approach to mind and life, which is linked to the work of Maturana and Varela but which is here

  15. Space autonomy as migration of functionality: the mars case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, T.; Bos, A.; Neerincx, M.; Soler, A.O.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops Grandjean and Lecouat's insight that spacecraft autonomy can be seen as the migration of functionality from the ground segment to the space segment. Their insight is extended to manned planetary exploration missions and applied to an IT-based crew assistant for supporting manned

  16. Major Hindrance to the Development of Autonomy among Grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to find out the major hindrances to the development of autonomy among Grade Nine students at Baso General Secondary School in learning English, necessary data were collected from one hundred-fifty students, three English teachers and ten students through questionnaire, semi-structured interview and focus ...

  17. The Candu system - The way for nuclear autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, H.

    1987-01-01

    The experience acquired by Canada during the development of Candu System is presented. Some basic foundations of technology transfer are defined and, the conditions of canadian nuclear industry to provide developing countries, technical assistence for acquisition of nuclear energy autonomy, are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Managerial autonomy, optimal security issuance and capital structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we address two related puzzles: (i) why do firms issue equity when stock prices are high and (ii) why do firms so often not issue securities to counteract the mechanical effect of their stock returns on their leverage ratios? Our theory builds on the importance of managerial autonomy

  19. Practical Identity: an essay on personhood, autonomy and pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.J. Delaere (Patrick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation is a two-stage project. In the second part (chapter four) I apply an account of personhood and autonomy to the use of advance directives in mental health care. In the first part (the chapters one, two and three) I try to provide that account in terms of agency. In the

  20. Measuring autonomy, competence and relatedness of users needs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of literature on users‟ need satisfaction from the psychological (mental and emotional) aspects of the variable as it affects usage of reference sources and services hence this study to measure autonomy, competence and relatedness of users needs‟ satisfaction on use of reference sources and services ...

  1. Genetic testing and human autonomy | Beckmann | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author inquires into the relation between the production of genetic knowledge on the one hand, and human autonomy and self-determination on the other. He does so by specifying the notions of “genetic test” and “human autonomy”; by discussing the epistemic status of genetic knowledge, given its importance for the ...

  2. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  3. Dispositional and Situational Autonomy as Moderators of Mood and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yinghe; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that mood can influence creativity, the controversy about the effects of positive and negative moods has raged for years. This study investigated how the relationship between induced mood and creativity is moderated by dispositional and situational autonomy. It contrasted the different moderating effects of the…

  4. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic condition.…

  5. Political Dissent and Autonomy in Wum Local Government, Southern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local governments are often regarded as instruments for mitigating conflicts and enhancing cohesion, integration and unity in pluralistic societies. However, these institutions have been hijacked by dissent and the quest for autonomy by disgruntled groups and politicians making it difficult for these goals to be attained.

  6. African communal basis for autonomy and life choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuenobe, Polycarp

    2017-09-05

    I argue that the metaphysical capacity of autonomy is not intrinsically valuable; it is valuable only when used in relation to a community's values and instrumentally for making the proper choices that will promote one's own and the community's well-being. I use the example of the choice to take one's life by suicide to illuminate this view. I articulate a plausible African conception of personhood as a basis for the idea of relational autonomy. I argue that this conception is better understood as a social-moral thesis, and not a metaphysical thesis. A metaphysical thesis gives an account of the abstract nature of an atomic individual, his agency, and rational choice. The social-moral thesis indicates that personhood and autonomy are positive and relational to the life plans, well-being, material conditions, and the best means for achieving them that are made available and possible by harmonious living in a community. This idea of autonomy is not just having the capacity of freewill; it also involves how such freewill is used, in terms of how an individual's choices are guided by internalized communal values. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fiscal autonomy of urban councils in Zimbabwe: A critical analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing realisation that urbanisation has overstretched the ability and efforts of central governments to serve from the centre, giving rise to the search for a robust decentralisation policy that vests urban local government with some level of autonomy. However, efforts to capacitate urban councils through the ...

  8. Conditional autonomy and responsible Action: A response to Yusef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    way of making sense of some of the conceptual and pragmatic links between academic freedom and institutional autonomy. Nevertheless Waghid critiques Hall's uncritical treatment of prominent theoretical positions for his claims, which Waghid thinks leaves some of Hall's arguments truncated. This response finds Hall's ...

  9. Autonomy and Accountability in Schools Serving Disadvantaged Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Esther Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increased school autonomy and accountability have been a common denominator of national reforms in otherwise heterogeneous governance systems in Europe and the USA. The paper argues that because schools serving disadvantaged communities (SSDCs) often have lower average performance, they are more often sanctioned or under closer scrutiny,…

  10. Academic freedom, institutional autonomy, and responsible action: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martin Hall's essay does offer us a way to make better sense of some of the conceptual and pragmatic links between academic freedom and institutional autonomy in relation to higher education. His analysis of the classic and contextual views of the two concepts also gives us some pathways according to which we could ...

  11. Stimulating Autonomy of FSL Students at Secondary Level Through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sheds light on the correlation between the research question, the key concepts of Inquiry-based Learning and of learner autonomy in the learning process of French as second language (Cuq, 1991) to be analyzed from a socioconstructivism perspective (Bruner, 1960, 1985; Dewey, 1938; Piaget, 1953; Vygotsky, ...

  12. Self-Access and Culture: Retreating from Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeremy F.

    1995-01-01

    Reflecting on the experience of creating a university self-access center in Cambodia, this paper challenges the idea that individual autonomy is a necessary goal in self-access. It proposes ideas for self-access design that offer the prospect of a more friendly environment to learners whose culture and upbringing may predispose them against…

  13. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning and Language Learner Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the modern age of exponential knowledge growth and accelerating technological development, the need to engage in lifelong learning is becoming increasingly urgent. Successful lifelong learning, in turn, requires learner autonomy, or "the capacity to take control of one's own learning" (Benson, 2011, p. 58), including all relevant…

  14. Assessing Learner Autonomy and EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Feng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of autonomy learning is widely acknowledged in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL in Asian contexts. The present study attempted to report low proficiency level students’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The first part of the present study focused on exploring how learners perceived and experienced their autonomous vocabulary learning, with a questionnaire and group discussion applied to collect data. During the second part of the study, the data were discussed collaboratively by six teachers to identify the different approaches utilized by learners. Priorities included setting weekly goals, self-planning and self-monitoring the process of learning vocabulary. Results also revealed that a weak ‘top-down’ approach in implementing learner autonomy is inadequate. Teachers need to provide scaffolding skills tailored to learners’ context-specific needs, for which a strong ‘bottom-up’ approach is more appropriate in supporting autonomous learning. In this case, classroom time should be allocated to demonstrate the strategies and teachers should work collaboratively to develop resources and materials for learners’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The present study also addressed the need for establishing an effective intervention for supporting learner autonomy. Keywords: learner autonomy, vocabulary learning, self-plan, self-monitor

  15. Accounting for autonomy | Jansen | South African Journal of Higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Originally presented as the 41st T. B. Davie Memorial Lecture at the University of. Cape Town, this article offers a critical review of the changing meanings of and challenges to institutional autonomy since the coming to power of the first democratic government in 1994. The argument has less to do with enumerating the

  16. Local government autonomy and development of localities in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper found that inadequate handling of virtually all the above issues has posed some challenges for LGs' developmental efforts in the localities. Inadequate autonomy has been found to be the independent variable in the challenges. Other challenges include inadequate finances, weak intergovernmental relations, ...

  17. Perceived autonomy of robots : Effects of appearance and context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Peeters, M.M.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to advances in technology, the world around us contains an increasing number of robots, virtual agents, and other intelligent systems. These systems all have a certain degree of autonomy. For the people who interact with an intelligent system it is important to obtain a good understanding of its

  18. Perceived Autonomy of Robots: Effects of Appearance and Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Peeters, M.M.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in technology, the world around us contains an increasing number of robots, intelligent virtual agents, and other intelligent systems. These systems all have a certain degree of autonomy. For the people who interact with an intelligent system it is important to obtain a good

  19. the search for local government autonomy in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    THE SEARCH FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY. IN NIGERIA: LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL. PATHWAYS TO ITS REALIZATION. Ifeolu J. Koni*. ABSTRACT. This article examines the status of the local government under the tripartite governmental system in Nigeria that has been in operation since 1979. It reviews ...

  20. Levels of autonomy control approach for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorehead, Stewart J.

    2003-09-01

    Increasingly mobile robots are finding applications in the military, mining, nuclear and agriculture industries. These fields require a robot capable of operating in a highly unstructured and changing environment. Current autonomous control techniques are not robust enough to allow successful operation at all times in these environments. Teleoperation can help with many tasks but causes operator fatigue and negates much of the economic advantages of using robots by requiring one person per robot. This paper introduces a control system for mobile robots based on the concept of levels of autonomy. Levels of autonomy recognizes that control can be shared between the operator and robot in a continuous fashion from teleoperation to full autonomy. By sharing control, the robot can benefit from the operator's knowledge of the world to help extricate it from difficult situations. The robot can operate as autonomously as the situation allows, reducing operator fatigue and increasing the economic benefit by allowing a single operator to control multiple robots simultaneously. This paper presents a levels of autonomy control system developed for use in exploration or reconnaissance tasks.

  1. [Celibacy, solitude, and personal autonomy: personal choice and social restrictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelin, E

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between celibacy and the status of single persons is examined at the individual and societal levels, with a focus on the impact of social changes in marriage patterns, family structure, and personal autonomy. The geographical scope is worldwide, with some emphasis on Latin America. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  2. Local government autonomy and development of localities in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OSA IDEHEN

    d'etre of LGs, has been examined in this paper. Proceeding from theoretical framework and conceptualizations for clearer understanding, the paper discusses some dominant autonomy issues. These include representative LGs, the size of LGs, revenue, and personnel. The paper found that inadequate handling of virtually ...

  3. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…

  4. Cognitive Distortions and Autonomy among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of university students' cognitive distortions in their sense of autonomy. One hundred and three third-year university students from Shanghai, The People's Republic of China, responded to the Cognitive Distortion Scales [Briere, J. (2000). "Cognitive Distortion Scales: Professional…

  5. Local government autonomy and development of localities in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other challenges include inadequate finances, weak intergovernmental relations, fledging democracy and grand corruption. These must be adequately tackled for LGs to make more positive impact in the localities. Some pertinent recommendations are as follows. LGs need adequate autonomy, hard work rather than verbal ...

  6. Using eHealth to Increase Autonomy Supportive Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helle; Blom, Karina Fischer; Lee, Anne

    2018-01-01

    eHealth solutions are increasingly implemented in antenatal care to enhance women's involvement. The main aim of this study was to evaluate women's assessment of autonomy supportive care during the antenatal care visits among low-risk pregnant women. An intervention study was conducted including ...

  7. DEGAS : a temporal active data model based on object autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.P. van den Akker; A.P.J.M. Siebes (Arno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis report defines DEGAS, an advanced active data model that is novel in two ways. The first innovation is object autonomy, an extreme form of distributed control. In comparison to more traditional approaches, autonomous objects also encapsulate rule definitions to make them active. The

  8. Neo-Colonialism and the Question of National Autonomy | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is to critically analyze the place of national autonomy in a neocolonised state. National autonomy– the ability of a nation–state to make and enforce decisions which shape its political and economic future, has greatly been subjugated by neocolonialism- the efforts of the former colonial and new ...

  9. The multifaceted concept of autonomy of international organizations and international legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    d' Aspremont, J.; Collins, R.; White, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of the autonomy of international organizations classically reflects the political independence of the organization when it comes to making its own decisions. Autonomy as political independence essentially touches upon the multifold relationships - e.g. of control, subordination, partnership - existing between the organization and Member States. An account of autonomy restricted to the political independence of the organization would certainly be too narrow, however. Indeed, autonomy ...

  10. Women's autonomy and maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Fentanesh Nibret; Chuang, Kun-Yang; Chuang, Ying-Chih

    2017-11-13

    Most previous studies on healthcare service utilization in low-income countries have not used a multilevel study design to address the importance of community-level women's autonomy. We assessed whether women's autonomy, measured at both individual and community levels, is associated with maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia. We analyzed data from the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (N = 6058 and 7043, respectively) for measuring women's decision-making power and permissive gender norms associated with wife beating. We used Spearman's correlation and the chi-squared test for bivariate analyses and constructed generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to analyze the associations between women's autonomy indicators and maternal healthcare service utilization with control for other socioeconomic characteristics. Our multivariate analysis showed that women living in communities with a higher percentage of opposing attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to use all three types of maternal healthcare services in 2011 (adjusted odds ratios = 1.21, 1.23, and 1.18 for four or more antenatal care visits, health facility delivery, and postnatal care visits, respectively). In 2005, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.16 and 1.17 for four or more antenatal care visits and health facility delivery, respectively. In 2011, the percentage of women in the community with high decision-making power was positively associated with the likelihood of four or more antenatal care visits (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14). The association of individual-level autonomy on maternal healthcare service utilization was less profound after we controlled for other individual-level and community-level characteristics. Our study shows that women's autonomy was positively associated with maternal healthcare service utilization in Ethiopia. We suggest addressing woman empowerment in national policies and programs would be the optimal solution.

  11. The Differences in the Conceptualizations of Autonomy by English Language Instructors Regarding Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükyavuz, Oya

    2014-01-01

    With the changing trends and approaches in education various new concepts have emerged. Of these, learner autonomy stands out as a major concept. This study examined how Turkish instructors of English conceptualize learner autonomy and what they do to promote learner autonomy in their particular teaching contexts. Additionally, the study aimed at…

  12. Learner Autonomy as a Predictor of Course Success and Final Grades in Community College Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Liu, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study employed a quantitative research design to examine the predictive relationships between: (a) learner autonomy and course success; and (b) learner autonomy and final grades in community college online courses. Learner autonomy was defined as the characteristic of an individual who exhibited intentional behavior in learning activities.…

  13. Threats to autonomy in consumer societies and their implications for education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, A.; de Ruyter, D.J.; Steutel, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The development of autonomy in children is a central concern of liberal philosophers of education. We endorse the liberal intuition that autonomy matters and that it is an appropriate aim of education. However, we divert from autonomy liberals, who defend a rather limited and demanding conception of

  14. Seeking Moral Autonomy in a Chinese Context: A Study of Elementary Moral Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena; Misco, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explored Chinese moral education standards for grades one and two by using the heuristic of moral autonomy and by employing a typology of moral autonomy, one based on Kantian and Deweyan ideas about moral autonomy and agency. Given the larger charge for all of schooling to develop independence, problem-solving, and creativity…

  15. On the Relations between Parents' Ideals and Children's Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents' ideals can enhance children's autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children's autonomy. After describing the concept of "ideals" and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of autonomy, de Ruyter and…

  16. Teachers' Autonomy in Today's Educational Climate: Current Perceptions from an Acceptable Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Luman E. G.; Yoshida, Roland K.

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluated the psychometric properties of Friedman's (1999) Teacher Work-Autonomy Scale (TWA) to determine whether it was an acceptable instrument to measure U.S. teacher autonomy in the present educational context. A second purpose was to ascertain the current status of teachers' perceptions of their autonomy from a sample of U.S.…

  17. Managerial autonomy: Does it matter for the performance of water utilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, O.D.; Eybergen, Van N.; Hoffer, J.

    2007-01-01

    The public administration literature asserts that autonomy is central to performance. In this article we develop a managerial autonomy index, which we apply to 22 water utilities in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The 16 items that underlie our composite autonomy index display a high degree of

  18. School Autonomy and Accountability in Thailand: Does the Gap between Policy Intent and Implementation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…

  19. The Role of Teachers in Promoting Learner Autonomy in Secondary Schools in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Saleema M.

    2017-01-01

    Today, learner autonomy is considered as a desirable goal in language education. The movement towards learner-centered approaches has resulted in more emphasis on the benefits of learner autonomy in the success of language education. The objective of the study was to investigate the roles of the teachers in promoting learner autonomy in Saudi EFL…

  20. The Practice of Promoting Primary Pupils' Autonomy: Examples of Teacher Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some authors consider the ultimate purpose of Assessment for Learning to be the promotion of pupils' autonomy. But the concept of autonomy is problematic and teachers' attempts to promote autonomy in the classroom can seem both vague and impractical. Purpose: In this paper, following Ecclestone (2002), I suggest that a full definition…

  1. Making Room for Children's Autonomy: Maria Montessori's Case for Seeing Children's Incapacity for Autonomy as an External Failing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick R.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on Martha Nussbaum's distinction between basic, internal, and external (or combined) capacities to better specify possible locations for children's "incapacity" for autonomy. I then examine Maria Montessori's work on what she calls "normalization", which involves a release of children's capacities for…

  2. Juridical-Criminal Paternalism, Autonomy and Vulnerability: Legitimation Criteria of Paternalistic Interventions on Individual Autonomy in Criminal Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heráclito Mota Barreto Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper has as objective questioning the legitimacy of state's paternalistic interventions on individual autonomy by using institutional-criminal instruments. In this path, the paper aims to understand in which cases the State is allowed to interfere in private individual lives under the justification of being promoting a well or avoiding a harm and, as well, in which cases such interference is abusive of individuals self-determination. Into this analysis, the work will study the current concepts of paternalism, the theoretical classifications on paternalistic interventions which will be useful to demonstrate admissible and inadmissible species of paternalism and Joel Feinberg and Gerald Dworkin's anti- paternalistic theories. Following, this subject will be analyzed in association with the implications of juridical-criminal goods involved in conflicts between autonomy, human vulnerabilities and paternalism, specially regarding to the (unavailability of those goods. In the end, the work intends to define legitimation criteria for paternalistic interventions inserted in criminal laws, which superimpose themselves on the individual autonomy, in order to harmonize constitutional values of respect for autonomy, protection of vulnerable individuals and the Criminal Law functions of exclusive protection of juridical goods.

  3. Autonomy and control of public bodies: legal and economic autonomy and parliamentary control on service provision by ZBOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijf, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The study focuses on a particular group of arm’s length public service providers in the Netherlands, Zelfstandige Bestuursorganen [ZBO]. A ZBO provides authoritative services outside the hierarchical structure of government. Autonomy and control on ZBOs has been debated for some 30 years and has

  4. Autonomy and couples' joint decision-making in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Pauline E; Grady, Christine

    2018-01-11

    Respect for autonomy is a key principle in bioethics. However, respecting autonomy in practice is complex because most people define themselves and make decisions influenced by a complex network of social relationships. The extent to which individual autonomy operates for each partner within the context of decision-making within marital or similar relationships is largely unexplored. This paper explores issues related to decision-making by couples (couples' joint decision-making) for health care and the circumstances under which such a practice should be respected as compatible with autonomous decision-making. We discuss the concept of autonomy as it applies to persons and to actions, human interdependency and gender roles in decision-making, the dynamics and outcomes of couples' joint decision-making, and the ethics of couples' joint decision-making. We believe that the extent to which couples' joint decision-making might be deemed ethically acceptable will vary depending on the context. Given that in many traditional marriages the woman is the less dominant partner, we consider a spectrum of scenarios of couples' joint decision-making about a woman's own health care that move from those that are acceptably autonomous to those that are not consistent with respecting the woman's autonomous decision-making. To the extent that there is evidence that both members of a couple understand a decision, intend it, and that neither completely controls the other, couples' joint decision-making should be viewed as consistent with the principle of respect for the woman's autonomy. At the other end of the spectrum are decisions made by the man without the woman's input, representing domination of one partner by the other. We recommend viewing the dynamics of couples' joint decision-making as existing on a continuum of degrees of autonomy. This continuum-based perspective implies that couples' joint decision-making should not be taken at face value but should be assessed against

  5. The moral agency of institutions: effectively using expert nurses to support patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sonya

    2017-08-01

    Patient autonomy-with an emphasis on informed consent and the right to refuse treatment-is a cornerstone of modern bioethics. Within discussions about patient autonomy, feminist bioethicists have argued for a relational approach to autonomy. Under a relational framework, we must look beyond the individual moment of choice to include the role relationships and specific contexts can play in supporting or undermining autonomy. Given the day-to-day interactions they have with patients, nurses play a significant role in helping patients understand the nature of their illnesses and make truly informed decisions. However, the skills of expert nurses also support patient autonomy in more subtle ways. Specifically, nurses develop skills of attunement that help them to find subtle ways to support patient autonomy. However, in order to effectively do this, nurses need institutions that support their professional autonomy. In this paper, I look at the ways nurses have been inhibited in their professional autonomy both as a profession and as individual practitioners. I argue that turning our attention to institutions and the role they play in supporting or undermining nurses' autonomy can help promote nurses' professional autonomy and thereby enhance patient autonomy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. TEACHERS’ UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNER AUTONOMY IN INDONESIAN CONTEXTS: FINDINGS FROM HIGH SCHOOLS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Agustina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Learner autonomy has become one of the main topics in the current research and conferences in Indonesia. This suggests that learner autonomy has received more attention in Indonesian contexts. However, there has been no space for discussions about the meaning of learner autonomy from high school teachers’ points of view. A multi-case study conducted by Agustina (2017 has found diverse understanding of autonomy as reported by Junior High School English teachers in Magelang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. This paper discusses those teachers’ understanding in a more detailed way along with the implications when the concept is understood differently. This paper supports Agustina’s argument that the diversity in understanding and developing autonomy should be anticipated since teachers have different beliefs about autonomy. Referring to Agustina’s findings this paper proposes the need to consider the consequences of allowing the presence of various understanding of learner autonomy particularly when it is set as an educational goal.

  7. Editorial - Special issue on advising for language learner autonomy

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    Katherine Thornton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A very warm welcome to the first issue of SiSAL journal of 2012, a special issue associated with the recent IATEFL Learner Autonomy SIG-sponsored conference, Advising for Language Learner Autonomy, held on November 12, 2011, at Kanda University of International Studies. This issue features papers from presenters at the conference who are all involved in advising for language learning (ALL. This conference was the first to be entirely dedicated to the field of language advising, and as such marks another significant landmark in the journey of ALL towards being fully recognized as a professional field in its own right (previous landmarks being the publication of the first book on advising in 2001 by Mozzon-McPherson and Vismans, a special issue of System in 2007, and the introduction of a professional qualification in learning advising at the University of Hull.

  8. Authenticity and psychiatric disorder: does autonomy of personal preferences matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, Manne; Juth, Niklas

    2014-02-01

    In healthcare ethics there is a discussion regarding whether autonomy of personal preferences, what sometimes is referred to as authenticity, is necessary for autonomous decision-making. It has been argued that patients' decisions that lack sufficient authenticity could be deemed as non-autonomous and be justifiably overruled by healthcare staff. The present paper discusses this issue in relation certain psychiatric disorders. It takes its starting point in recent qualitative studies of the experiences and thoughts of patients' with anorexia nervosa where issues related to authenticity seem particularly relevant. The paper examines different interpretations of authenticity relevant for autonomy and concludes that the concept, as it has been elaborated in recent debate, is highly problematic to use as a criterion for autonomous decision-making in healthcare.

  9. Radioiodine therapy of functional autonomy using the functional autonomous volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, T.; Emrich, D.; Sandrock, D.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the effective radiation dose to be delivered by 131 I in functional autonomy we have used the functional autonomous volume calculated from the global 99m Tc thyroid uptake under exogenous or endogenous suppression before and 3 to 7 months after treatment. The radiation dose to the autonomous volume was calculated retrospectively in 131 patients with unifocal, multifocal and disseminated autonomy (75 hyperthyroid, 56 euthyroid) who received 131 I treatment of 200-300 Gy to the total volume of the gland. It could be shown that at least 350 Gy to the autonomous volume are required to reach the desired effect of treatment which was dependent only on the radiation dose delivered to the functional autonomous volume. (orig.) [de

  10. The complex nature of autonomy A natureza complexa da autonomia

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    Vera Lúcia Menezes de Oliveira e Paiva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Complexity Theory and on the literature of autonomy, the discussions herein presented will center around the language learner process of autonomy as a complex system. As empirical evidence to defend our assumptions, a corpus of 80 English language learning narratives, collected in Brazil, were examined and interwined with the theoretical discussion.Tendo a teoria da complexidade e a literatura sobre autonomia como suporte, apresentamos uma discussão sobre o processo de autonomia do aprendiz de língua estrangeira como um sistema complexo. Para defender nossa proposta, utilizamos como evidências empíricas, em diálogo com a discussão teórica, um corpus de 80 narrativas de aprendizagem de língua inglesa, coletadas no Brasil.

  11. CONDITIONS, MEANS OF OPTIMISATION AND THE LIMITS OF LOCAL AUTONOMY

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    Eliza Adela VOICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of local autonomy, as right and capacity of local authorities to address and manage public issues, on behalf of and in the interests of the local communities they represent, requires meeting the following cumulative conditions: recognition of the legal personality of the local communities and the election of their administrative authorities. The author brings arguments relevant to point out that local authorities must have the power of self-regulation, contractual freedom and adequate financial resources. Local autonomy limits are imposed by the need to respect the character of the decentralised unitary State and are guaranteed through the administrative control exercised by the central power. The originality of this article lies in the fact that the analysis of the legal texts was done in correlation with how they have been applied by the courts, particular relevance being given by the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Romania.

  12. How much we know about university internationalization and university autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gullieva, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    in their mission statements and strategic plans. Conventional wisdom suggests that universities should adapt their strategies, resources, and structures and organizations to international environments. However, recent examples of university internationalization failures and withdrawals from international markets......In this paper we aim to deepen our theoretical and practical understanding of internationalization of universities by exploring the relationship between university internationalization and university autonomy. It has become an accepted practice for universities to incorporate internationalization...... raise concerns about the sustainability of university internationalization efforts as well as about the erosion of individual and university-wide autonomy. Herein, we conjecture that the process of university internationalization and its sustainability is determined by the structure and exercise...

  13. Exploring the relationship between university internationalization and university autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gullieva, Valeria

    this paper is addressing is whether there is a scope for international business theories in explaining university internationalization or in light of recent findings from successes and failures of university internationalization international business theories ought to be revised?......This paper explores a research gap at the intersection of university internationalization and university autonomy. A process model of university internationalization is put forward whereby the process of university internationalization is mediated by university internationalization capacity...... and moderated by target country institutional autonomy and globalization; and entry modes, timing and pace, as well as product mix of internationalization define university’s internationalization pattern. A systematic review is conducted to identify empirical studies at this intersection. One of the questions...

  14. Autonomy vs. control: Quality assurance and governmental policy in Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt De Wit; Jef C. Verhoeven

    2004-01-01

    Higher education in Flanders has seen some major changes in the 1990s. One of the key elements of the new higher education regulations was the quality assessment system. This exemplified best the government's policy of granting all institutions of higher education autonomy, making them responsible for their policies, while still keeping the quality of higher education somewhat under governmental control. In this article, we focus on the tension between the government's aim of improving and co...

  15. The Argument for a Narrow Conception of 'Religious Autonomy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    This article argues for a both horizontal and vertical narrow concept of collective freedom of Religion. The most recent ECtHR judgments as well as the US Supreme Court Hosanna-Tabor case leads theory to establish religious autonomy based on parallel legal roders. Nordic theory has been based on ...... on lack of acknowledgement of Canon Law, which is no longer possible. A future path might be to accept overlapping normative orders, however with secular courts as the final institutions....

  16. FT4 and FT3 in euthyroid states with autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Schoendube, H.; Sehlen, S.; Schreivogel, I.

    1985-01-01

    The results presented here are obtained by the analogue tracer method. Our results indicate that whatever we are measuring with FT 4 and FT 3 in patients with autonomy these parameters behave in nearly the same way as the FT 4 I and TT 3 . There was no clear evidence that FT 4 and FT 3 were more sensitive that FT 4 I and TT 3 . (orig./MG)

  17. Assessing Learner Autonomy and EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Teng Feng

    2015-01-01

    The importance of autonomy learning is widely acknowledged in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Asian contexts. The present study attempted to report low proficiency level students’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The first part of the present study focused on exploring how learners perceived and experienced their autonomous vocabulary learning, with a questionnaire and group discussion applied to collect data. During the second part of the study, the data were discussed collabo...

  18. The place of autonomy in postmodern pedagogy and education

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    Xavier Laudo Castillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 149 820 USAL 6 1 968 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} In this paper we intend to deal with that can occupy the place of autonomy to the postmodern educational reality. Autonomy has been, in Modernity, a central argument in both theory and educational practices. However, the current context of epistemological postmodernity and sociological liquidity draws probably a moment of transition where the knowledge and values, as well as the methodologies and theories that advocate for or are based on the autonomy of the subject, are being questioned its legitimacy. Postmodern education, one which does not allow the universality of truths, values and practices, and promotes social bonds more and more fluids and disengaged, is in contradiction with a whole lot of educational elements that, until recently, we naturalized and took for granted. Is the idea of autonomy in education one of the elements that we should rethink? This paper aims to substantiate this question and try out some possible ways to try to answer it.

  19. CONDITIONS, MEANS OF OPTIMISATION AND THE LIMITS OF LOCAL AUTONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza Adela VOICU

    2014-01-01

    The principle of local autonomy, as right and capacity of local authorities to address and manage public issues, on behalf of and in the interests of the local communities they represent, requires meeting the following cumulative conditions: recognition of the legal personality of the local communities and the election of their administrative authorities. The author brings arguments relevant to point out that local authorities must have the power of self-regulation, contractual freedom and ad...

  20. Autonomy and street-level bureaucrats’ coping strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Vedung, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Frontline practitioners like teachers in public-sector education systems are not policy takers but policy makers, according to Michael Lipsky’s seminal treatise Street-Level Bureaucracy, first published in 1980. They make policy by using their wide autonomy to adopt coping mechanisms, such as limiting client demand and creaming (cherry-picking). Winter and Nielsen have developed this into (1) reducing demand for output, (2) rationing output and (3) automating output. These distinctions are br...

  1. TERRITORIAL AND NON-TERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: “ROMANIAN PARADOX”

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    CRISTIAN JURA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas in Romania there are 19 national minorities officially acknowledged by Romanian state, up to present, one did not manage to adopt a special law of national minorities. We identify special disposals related to national minorities in Romanian Constitution, in the law of local public administration, the law of education, the law concerning the election of the Chamber of Deputies and Senate, the law related to political parties, the law for the election of the authorities of local public administration, the law concerning the combating of all forms of discrimination. In the last project of the Law concerning the statute of national minorities in Romania, a new concept is introduced: cultural autonomy of minorities. The cultural autonomy is a form of non-territorial autonomy. Nevertheless, Romania is criticised by some international organisations for the fact that the organisations of national minorities represented in the Parliament of Romania have instituted a monopole, therefore no other organisation of any minority is allowed to participate to the elections.

  2. Evaluating Learner Autonomy: A Dynamic Model with Descriptors

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    Maria Giovanna Tassinari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Every autonomous learning process should entail an evaluation of the learner’s competencies for autonomy. The dynamic model of learner autonomy described in this paper is a tool designed in order to support the self-assessment and evaluation of learning competencies and to help both learners and advisors to focus on relevant aspects of the learning process. The dynamic model accounts for cognitive, metacognitive, action-oriented and affective components of learner autonomy and provides descriptors of learners’ attitudes, competencies and behaviors. It is dynamic in order to allow learners to focus on their own needs and goals.The model (http://www.sprachenzentrum.fuberlin.de/v/autonomiemodell/index.html has been validated in several workshops with experts at the Université Nancy 2, France and at the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany and tested by students, advisors and teachers. It is currently used at the Centre for Independent Language Learning at the Freie Universität Berlin for language advising. Learners can freely choose the components they would like to assess themselves in. Their assessment is then discussed in an advising session, where the learner and the advisor can compare their perspectives, focus on single aspects of the leaning process and set goals for further learning. The students’ feedback gathered in my PhD investigation shows that they are able to benefit from this evaluation; their awareness, self-reflection and decision-making in the autonomous learning process improved.

  3. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H. J.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method Participants (N = 5,525) from a representative community sample in the Netherlands filled out questionnaires regarding the variables under study. Results Autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness, SA; sensitivity to others, SO; capacity for managing new situations, CMNS) fully mediated the sex differences in depression and anxiety, and partly in eating disorder -(drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction) and anti-social personality disorder characteristics. The mediations followed the expected sex-specific patterns. SO related positively to the internalizing disorder indices, and negatively to the anti-social personality disorder. SA related negatively to all disorder indices; and CMNS to all internalizing disorder indices, but positively to the anti-social personality disorder. Conclusion Treatment of depression, anxiety, but also eating disorders and the antisocial personality disorder may benefit from a stronger focus on autonomy strengthening. PMID:28771498

  4. The Degree of Autonomy of the Romanian Local Public Expenditures

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    Maria Letitia Andronic (Bratulescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of local public spending optimization is extensively studied by those who have the power of decision towards saving. Even if the goal is to adjust the imbalance revenues/expenditures, the trend to spend more than accumulated is still a matter of concern. Our objective is that of analyzing the local governments’ functional expenditures by measuring the degree of decentralization/autonomy. The value of the paper is given by the model we applied for Romania which is based on spending management. By analyzing different types of expenses, we have highlighted that local expenditures represent instruments of strengthening or weakening local autonomy. The indicators measure the effectiveness of local expenditures by using the model published by The World Bank in 2006. We gathered information through interviewing different Town-Hall representatives from Brasov County and then we gave scores and established ranks. As the degree of autonomy reached a score of about 3 on a scale of 1-4, we identified that the class in which Romania is placed (B is mostly defined in terms of delegated powers and not decentralized competences. The study is significant for politicians, for those responsible for implementing decentralization, but also for the taxpayers who deserve the best public services.

  5. [Autonomy and practical identity. Cornerstones to ethical physician behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Three frequent problems of daily medical practice are analyzed: (1) a physician's perceived obligation to provide medical services regardless of whether one's health care institution provides monetary compensation for the medical act, (2) increasing pressures to obtain informed consent in a national context where paternalistic physician-patient interactions have been customary, and (3) a physician's professional responsibility to offer internationally recognized standard of care even if this means allocating expensive tertiary healthcare resources to a small number of patients in spite of one's knowledge that national governments are unable to provide primary care to millions of their citizens. These problems are discussed from the point of view of the ethical principle of respect for patient autonomy. Potential limiting factors (cultural, financial, religious or disease-related influences) on autonomy of patients and doctors are identified. The functions of patient autonomy in the framework of four different patient-doctor interaction models (paternalist, informative, interpretative and deliberatibe) are described. Physician leaders, health care institutions, and professional organizations are responsible for creating an environment in which doctors can discuss ethical issues as comfortably and as frequently as they discuss biological matters. Health care providers should do their best to recover the human side of medical practice which, undoubtedly, would create a greater likelihood that appropriate decisions will be made when facing complex ethical dilemmas.

  6. Medical Systems Engineering to Support Mars Mission Crew Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik; Mindock, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Human spaceflight missions to Mars face exceptionally challenging resource limitations that far exceed those faced before. Increasing transit times, decreasing opportunity for resupply, communications challenges, and extended time to evacuate a crew to definitive medical care dictate a level of crew autonomy in medical care that is beyond the current medical model. To approach this challenge, a medical systems engineering approach is proposed that relies on a clearly articulated Concept of Operations and risk analysis tools that are in development at NASA. This paper proposes an operational clinical model with key terminology and concepts translated to a controls theory paradigm to frame a common language between clinical and engineering teams. This common language will be used for design and validation of an exploration medical system that is fully integrated into a Mars transit vehicle. This approach merges medical simulation, human factors evaluation techniques, and human-in-the-loop testing in ground based analogs to tie medical hardware and software subsystem performance and overall medical system functionality to metrics of operational medical autonomy. Merging increases in operational clinical autonomy with a more restricted vehicle system resource scenario in interplanetary spaceflight will require an unprecedented level of medical and engineering integration. Full integration of medical capabilities into a Mars vehicle system may require a new approach to integrating medical system design and operations into the vehicle Program structure. Prior to the standing-up of a Mars Mission Program, proof of concept is proposed through the Human Research Program.

  7. Regulatory mode preferences for autonomy supporting versus controlling instructional styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Antonio; Presaghi, Fabio; Higgins, Tory E; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2009-12-01

    Three studies carried out in educational settings examined determinants of teacher's instructional styles and students' degree of satisfaction with the learning climates created by such styles. Based upon regulatory mode theory, Studies 1 and 2 tested the hypotheses that teachers' locomotion orientation will be positively related, and their assessment orientation will be negatively related, to autonomy supportive (vs. controlling) instructional styles. Study 3 tested the hypothesis that students' regulatory mode will exhibit a fit effect with the prevalent learning climate in their school. Participants for Study 1 were 378 teachers (278 females); for Study 2 were 96 teachers (65 females); and for Study 3 were 190 students (all males). Participants completed questionnaires that included measures of teaching styles (Studies 1 and 2), perceived learning climate and satisfaction (Study 3), and regulatory mode orientations (Studies 1 and 3). In Study 2 regulatory mode orientations were experimentally induced. Results confirmed that teachers' autonomy supportive versus controlling styles were positively related to their locomotion orientations and negatively related to their assessment orientation, and that students with a stronger locomotion (vs. assessment) orientation reported a higher level of satisfaction when the learning climate was perceived as autonomy supportive (vs. controlling). The present studies show that teachers' preference for adopting an instructional style is influenced by their regulatory mode orientations, and that the effects of a learning climate on students' satisfaction are contingent on a fit between type of learning climate and students' regulatory mode orientations.

  8. Language Learner Strategies for Building EFL Learners’ Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The critical discussions and matters in enhancing students’ learning performance, knowledge, and language proficiency have received a remarkable degree of attention in educational contexts. This study was undertaken to encourage learners to build the required competence in the foreign language by utilizing learning strategies so that they could become autonomous learners. Language learners' learning difficulties while learning a foreign language were identified in this study. With regard to problems which language learners faced in learning a foreign language, the teachers are able to recognize and to utilize appropriate language learning strategies in order to develop autonomy in learners who conceptualize and use those strategies in the foreign language. The research design adopted for the present study was survey method. The data for the study were collected with the use of a questionnaire. This questionnaire was administered to a total of 60 EFL learners who were selected from a university in Iran. It was used to assess learners’ awareness and perceived use of strategies and to provide data on their best utilized strategies. Results have been driven through statistical analysis. The analyzed data reveal the students’ styles and assist teachers to take part in shifting the strategies and heighten language learners' autonomy. The findings support the claim that knowing and making language learners aware of the most appropriate strategy would assist learners to improve their autonomy and to enhance their learning.

  9. El álbum visual como nueva forma promocional de la industria de la música: el caso de Let England Shake de PJ Harvey y Seamus Murphy

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    Ana María Sedeño-Valdellós

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo modelo de negocio para la industria fonográfica comienza a basar se en los contenidos digitales. Varios autores han estudiado y afirman que la industria musical experimenta un giro hacia el contenido audiovisual. Esto se enmarca en una nueva etapa de estética audiovisual caracterizada por la transmedialidad y la convergencia de medios en torno a formatos audiovi suales complejos. El álbum visual, como concepto formado por videoclips de todas las canciones de un disco, se consolida como un nuevo formato de promocional musical, híbrido entre cine y video musical. En el traba jo se realizará un análisis del álbum visual Let England Shake (PJ Harvey & Seamus Murphy, 2011, con unos criterios que tratan de buscar moti vos visuales que generen continuidad, unidad temática y narrativa para de mostrar su intensa coherencia con el álbum musical precedente. Se trata de definir el álbum visual y comenzar a delimitarlo frente a otros tipos de productos audiovisuales, así como examinar sus posibilidades de creación de sentido en la generación de una narrativa personal diferenciada para un artista/grupo musical.

  10. Autonomy, consent and responsability. Part 1: limitations of the principle of autonomy as a foundation of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, J M

    2016-01-01

    Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent. We approach the subject from philosophical, historical, legal, bioethical, deontological, and professional standpoints. In the second part, we cover the viability of informed consent in health care and its relationship with legal responsibility. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome in couples residing in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Talebian, Ferdos; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the important factors in the prediction of family planning outcome is paying attention to women's role in decision making concerning fertility and household affairs. With the improvement of women's status and autonomy, their control over fertility is expected to increase. The present study aimed to investigate the association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome of the couples residing in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy women of childbearing age, eligible for family planning and residing in Isfahan, were selected through random cluster sampling and they filled a researcher-made questionnaire. Women's autonomy was measured with the questions on their decision-making autonomy concerning household affairs and physical mobility autonomy. The association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome was analyzed through statistical methods. Results: The results showed that the mean of women's decision-making, physical mobility, and general autonomy was 50. Women's autonomy had a direct significant association with the type of contraception method (P = 0.01) and the length of usage of their present contraception method (P = 0.04) as well as where they received family planning services (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Analysis of data revealed women with higher autonomy used a more efficient contraception method and continued their contraception method for a longer time, which leads to improvement of couples’ family planning outcome. Therefore, family planning services should be planned and provided with women's autonomy under consideration. PMID:25400671

  12. Effects of women's autonomy on maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh: Evidence from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Rifat; Qureshi, Zaina P; Khan, M Mahmud

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to construct an index of women's autonomy to analyze its effect on maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh. Empirical modeling of the study used instrumental variable (IV) approach to correct for possible endogeneity of women's autonomy variable. Data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 was used for the study. Women's autonomy variable was obtained through factor analysis of variables related to autonomy in decision making regarding healthcare, financial autonomy and freedom of movement. Conditional mixed process (CMP) models were fitted for three maternal healthcare indicators: at least four antenatal care (ANC) by trained personnel, institutional delivery and postnatal care (PNC) by trained personnel. Study sample consisted of 8753 women with 5.5 mean years of schooling. Women with no formal education, of Islamic faith, from poorest wealth quintile, residing in rural areas and with low autonomy used the maternal healthcare least. Marginal effect shows that if women's autonomy score is increased by one unit, probability of maternal healthcare utilization will increase by 0.14 for ANC, 0.14 for institutional delivery, and 0.13 for PNC. Women's autonomy is an important driver of maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh. Results suggest that women participating in social and economic activities enhances their autonomy. Other factors affecting women's autonomy are female literacy, educational attainment and households' economic status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rights and care for the protection of nonhuman animal’s practical autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present Steven Wise’s concept of practical autonomy and how it is distinguished from the traditional and modern Kantian notion of autonomy. This is justified in order to emphasize the importance of this concept of autonomy for the recognition of legal rights to nonhuman animals, and the protection of its particular way of life through care practices and responsibility in the relations between human and nonhuman animals. By the aid of bibliographical research and theoretical analysis, we foremost present Wise’s main conceptual distinctions and, secondly, indicate the application of the concept of practical autonomy in the legal context, aiming to recognize rights for animals. Finally, we show how the concept of practical autonomy requires more than legal rights. It also implies moral obligations by individual agents and by the State to ensure appropriate conditions for autonomy and freedom of nonhuman animals.

  14. Undermining Adolescent Autonomy With Parents and Peers: The Enduring Implications of Psychologically Controlling Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Amanda L; Szwedo, David E; Schad, Megan M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-12-01

    This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens' perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens' perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens' displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens' autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one's autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens.

  15. Undermining Adolescent Autonomy With Parents and Peers: The Enduring Implications of Psychologically Controlling Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Amanda L.; Szwedo, David E.; Schad, Megan M.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens’ displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens’ autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one’s autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens. PMID:26788023

  16. Characterizing the Relationship Between Surgical Resident and Faculty Perceptions of Autonomy in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Katelyn A; Lane, Samantha M; Widger, John E; Neuhaus, Nina M; Dove, James T; Fluck, Marcus; Hunsinger, Marie A; Blansfield, Joseph A; Shabahang, Mohsen M

    Characterize the concordance among faculty and resident perceptions of surgical case complexity, resident technical performance, and autonomy in a diverse sample of general surgery procedures using case-specific evaluations. A prospective study was conducted in which a faculty surgeon and surgical resident independently completed a postoperative assessment examining case complexity, resident operative performance (Milestone assessment) and autonomy (Zwisch model). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) reaching statistical significance (p autonomy demonstrated a moderate correlation (r = 0.56, p autonomy and operative performance, respectively. General surgery residents generally demonstrated high correlations with faculty perceptions of case complexity, technical performance, and operative autonomy. This generalized accord supports the use of the Milestone and Zwisch assessments in residency programs. However, discordance among perceptions of midlevel resident autonomy and chief resident operative performance suggests that these trainees may need more direct communication from the faculty. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Cascading Development of Autonomy and Relatedness From Adolescence to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Molloy, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    We tested a developmental cascade model of autonomy and relatedness in the progression from parent to friend to romantic relationships across ages 13, 18, and 21. Participants included 184 adolescents (53% female, 58% Caucasian, 29% African American) recruited from a public middle school in Virginia. Parental psychological control at age 13 undermined the development of autonomy and relatedness, predicting relative decreases in autonomy and relatedness with friends between ages 13 and 18 and lower levels of autonomy and relatedness with partners at age 18. These cascade effects extended into adult friendships and romantic relationships, with autonomy and relatedness with romantic partners at age 18 being a strong predictor of autonomy and relatedness with both friends and partners at age 21. PMID:25345623

  18. The role of observed autonomy support, reciprocity, and need satisfaction in adolescent disclosure about friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Dorien; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Petegem, Stijn

    2018-03-26

    Although research increasingly addresses the role of parenting in fostering adolescent disclosure, most research relied on self-report measures of parenting and did not address the role of autonomy support. In the present observational study (conducted in Belgium), with 62 mother-adolescent dyads (mean age mothers = 44 years; mean age adolescents = 14 years; 77% of adolescents female), we rated mothers' provision of autonomy support during a 10-minute conversation about friendships. We found that observed maternal autonomy support was related positively to adolescents' degree of and volitional reasons for disclosure about friends. These associations were mediated by observed non-verbal reciprocity during the conversation and by adolescent satisfaction of their needs for autonomy and relatedness. Mothers' autonomy-support and mother-adolescent reciprocity also predicted mothers' own psychological need satisfaction and conversation pleasure. The relevance of the findings for adolescent autonomy and disclosure are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Development of a non-contextual model for determining the autonomy level of intelligent unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Phillip J.; Gray, Wendell; Trentini, Michael

    2013-05-01

    A simple, quantitative measure for encapsulating the autonomous capabilities of unmanned systems (UMS) has yet to be established. Current models for measuring a UMS's autonomy level require extensive, operational level testing, and provide a means for assessing the autonomy level for a specific mission/task and operational environment. A more elegant technique for quantifying autonomy using component level testing of the robot platform alone, outside of mission and environment contexts, is desirable. Using a high level framework for UMS architectures, such a model for determining a level of autonomy has been developed. The model uses a combination of developmental and component level testing for each aspect of the UMS architecture to define a non-contextual autonomous potential (NCAP). The NCAP provides an autonomy level, ranging from fully non- autonomous to fully autonomous, in the form of a single numeric parameter describing the UMS's performance capabilities when operating at that level of autonomy.

  20. A Social Recognition Approach to Autonomy: The Role of Equality-Based Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renger, Daniela; Renger, Sophus; Miché, Marcel; Simon, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by philosophical reasoning about the connection between equality and freedom, we examined whether experiences of (equality-based) respect increase perceived autonomy. This link was tested with generalized experiences of respect and autonomy people make in their daily lives (Study 1) and with more specific experiences of employees at the workplace (Study 2). In both studies, respect strongly and independently contributed to perceived autonomy over and above other forms of social recognition (need-based care and achievement-based social esteem) and further affected (life/work) satisfaction. Study 3 experimentally confirmed the hypothesized causal influence of respect on perceived autonomy and demonstrated that this effect further translates into social cooperation. The respect-cooperation link was simultaneously mediated by perceived autonomy and superordinate collective identification. We discuss how the recognition approach, which differentiates between respect, care, and social esteem, can enrich research on autonomy.

  1. Autonomy support, basic psychological needs and well-being in Mexican athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Walle, Jeanette; Balaguer, Isabel; Castillo, Isabel; Tristán, José

    2012-11-01

    Based on Basic Needs Theory, one of the mini-theories of Self-determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), the present study had two objectives: (a) to test a model in the Mexican sport context based on the following sequence: perceived coach autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and psychological well-being, and b) to analyze the mediational effect of the satisfaction of perceived coach autonomy support on indicators of psychological well-being (satisfaction with life and subjective vitality). Six hundred and sixty-nine young Mexican athletes (Boys = 339; Girls = 330; M(age) = 13.95) filled out a questionnaire assessing the study variables. Structural equations analyses revealed that perceived coach autonomy support predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Furthermore, basic need satisfaction predicted subjective vitality and satisfaction with life. Autonomy, competence and relatedness partially mediated the path from perceived coach autonomy support to psychological well-being in young Mexican athletes.

  2. Perceived autonomy and self-care resources among senior center users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Miho; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Personal autonomy-the ability to make freely self-directed choices in one's life-is considered critical to an older person's quality of life. Informed by model and role-modelpan>ing nursing theory, this descriptive, correlational study examined the relationship of perceived enactment of autonomy to self-care resources, both internal (age, race, functional ability) and external (social support, living arrangements, community-based service utilization, and service satisfaction) among 120 older adults from 6 Manhattan senior centers. Participants demonstrated positive perceived autonomy. Study participants used a variety of community-based services, and their satisfaction with the services was significantly linked to autonomy. Using multiple linear regression model, the only significant predictors of perceived autonomy were race (white > nonwhite), service satisfaction, and social support. Nursing strategies such as providing information that promotes informed decision making and encouraging independence, as well as working collaboratively with members of an older persons' social network, can enhance an older persons' autonomy.

  3. Women's Autonomy and Its Correlates in Western Nepal: A Demographic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulsi Ram Bhandari

    Full Text Available Despite various efforts for enhancing women's autonomy in developing countries, many women are deprived of their capacity in decision-making on their household affairs as well as social issues. This paper aimed to examine women's autonomy and its associated factors in the Kapilvastu district of Nepal. We measured women's autonomy using a recently developed women's autonomy measurement scale from June to October 2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic multivariate modeling technique were applied for assessing the association of demographic and socio-economic characteristics of women and their autonomy. Mean score for women's autonomy was 23.34 ± 8.06 out of the possible maximum 48. It was found to be positively associated with higher age difference at marriage, advantaged caste/ethnicity, better employment for the husband, couple's education more than 10 years schooling, and higher economic status of the household. We found strong direct effect of women's education (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57, husband's education (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.69-4.10 and economic status of household (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.01-2.03 on women's autonomy. When we adjusted women's education for husband's education, the odds ratio decreased by around 22% {from (OR = 8.14, CI = 3.77-17.57 to (OR = 6.32, CI = 2.77-14.46} and was a mediator effect. The economic status of household also had mediator effect on women's autonomy through their education. Education status of women is a key predictor of women's autonomy in Kapilvastu district. Husband's education and economic status of the household are other important predictors of women's autonomy which have a mediator effect on women's autonomy. Improving educational status and economic conditions of both women and their husbands may be the best solution to promote women's autonomy.

  4. The education form the moral autonomy in the intercultural school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S. Vila Merino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 119 681 Universidad de Salamanca 5 1 836 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper tries to offer elements for the reflection concerning the need of the education for the moral autonomy in the school and the pedagogic capable beginning to bearing in mind from the intercultural perspective. For it there is realized a theoretical and conceptual positioning concerning the education for the moral autonomy and the ethics as modal of the same one, to enter in the reality of the multicultural school and the challenge that involves this education for the moral autonomy in a culturally diverse context, which supposes one of the big challenges in the development of the intercultural education in the educational centers and a mechanism for the development of civic intercultural competences, as well as for the prevention, management and resolution of the conflicts inside the educative community.

  5. Autonomy of imagery and production of original verbal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatena, J

    1976-08-01

    90 college students (31 men and 59 women) were categorized as moderately autonomous, less autonomous (less highly controlled) and non-autonomous (high controlled) imagers according to the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control Moderately autonomous imagers produced significantly more original verbal images than less autonomous and non-autonomous imagers with less autonomous imagers scoring higher than non-autonomous imagers as measured by Onomatopoeia and Images. There were no significant sex main effects of interaction of autonomy of imagery level X sex.

  6. Diversification and autonomy: axes in Argentine rapprochement to Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Rubiolo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2007 onwards, with the change of presidency in Argentina and the consolidation of the internal recovery, the orientation of foreign policy acquires more autonomist nuances. It is in this scenario that the links with less developed countries - or of the South - should be understood, including the ties with the economies of Southeast Asia. Our objective in this work is to analyze the current state of Argentina’s bilateral ties with Southeast Asia - with special emphasis on the Philippines -analyzing these bonds as an alternative for insertion within a strategy of selective diversification and extension of margins of autonomy.

  7. Using Multi-Core Systems for Rover Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Brad; Estlin, Tara; Bornstein, Benjamin; Springer, Paul; Anderson, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Task Objectives are: (1) Develop and demonstrate key capabilities for rover long-range science operations using multi-core computing, (a) Adapt three rover technologies to execute on SOA multi-core processor (b) Illustrate performance improvements achieved (c) Demonstrate adapted capabilities with rover hardware, (2) Targeting three high-level autonomy technologies (a) Two for onboard data analysis (b) One for onboard command sequencing/planning, (3) Technologies identified as enabling for future missions, (4)Benefits will be measured along several metrics: (a) Execution time / Power requirements (b) Number of data products processed per unit time (c) Solution quality

  8. Reduction of thyroid volume following radioiodine therapy for functional autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, M.; Jacob, M.; Thelen, M.H.; Michalowski, U.; Deutsch, U.; Reiners, C.

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study we evaluated the data of 112 patients who underwent radioiodine treatment for functional autonomy of the thyroid at Essen University Hospital from 1988 to 1993. Therapeutic activities of radioiodine were administered after individual determination of activity for intended radiation doses (150-300 Gy) taking into consideration autonomously functioning volume, maximum uptake, and effective half-life. The achieved dose was calculated by means of measurement of the radioiodine kinetics during therapy. Depending on the type of autonomous function of the thyroid (solitary autonomously functioning nodule, multiple autonomously functioning nodules, autonomously functioning thyroid tissue) volume reductions between 39 and 46% were found approximately 6 months after treatment. (orig.) [de

  9. The energy autonomy: a new policy for the renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    2007-01-01

    The energy question is central to control the climatic change and avoid the wars resulting from the foreign resources dependence. But how act for a real energy autonomy? The author explains many ideas and reveals the real stakes of the question. It is time to change now, before the fossil fuels dry up and the nuclear cannot hide its dangerous and expensive face. In this framework, a policy in favor of the energy auto-sufficiency is an action in favor of the peace. (A.L.B.)

  10. CLIL – A way towards autonomy in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Badinska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning means teaching subjects through English, which provides a better preparation for professional life than teaching English as a subject empty of content. It motivates, makes lessons active and interesting. Learners in CLIL programmes are thus learning basic language skills, academic skills and new subject concepts at the same time. CLIL focuses on the subject content, it gives students a feeling of real achievements, closely connected with their career development, since in the future they will be expected to show ”competences“ and autonomy and an approach prioritising highly developed thinking skills and communication.

  11. Autonomy-oriented mechanisms for efficient energy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiming; Shi, Benyun

    2010-09-15

    Due to the uneven geographical availability of energy resources, it is essential for the energy suppliers and consumers in different countries/regions to most efficiently, economically, as well as reliably distribute energy resources. In this paper, starting from a specific energy distribution problem, we present a decentralized behavior-based paradigm that draws on the methodology of autonomy-oriented computing. The goal is twofold: (i) to characterize the underlying mechanism of the energy distribution systems, (ii) to provide scalable solutions for efficient energy distribution. We conjecture that efficient energy trading markets can emerge from appropriate behavior-based mechanisms, which can autonomously improve energy distribution efficiency.

  12. Designing Systems for Health Promotion and Autonomy in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena; Nilsson, Ingeborg

    The inclusion and autonomy of older people in the society where large parts of the life is organized with computer and Internet use as means is addressed in an ongoing project in the rehabilitation and health domains. Part from investigating the potentials of using ICT for rehabilitation of older people with limited or no computer skills, the aim for the project is to develop methods and tools for the purpose, and also for the interaction design domain where systems are developed for older people. The resulting methods are used for informing the design of the system in an iterative process.

  13. The autoscopy and the development of teacher’s autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fogaça Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we bring results on the use of autoscopy in a formative process for students of a teacher education course in Mathematics. The autoscopy is a procedure of data collection that records the subject's action and puts him to observe and to analyse his performance subsequently. The interpretation of our data allowed us to figure out that autoscopy may be characterized as an opportunity for development of the autonomy of the teacher, leading the future teacher to know and question their actions when he teaches mathematics

  14. Dignity, dependence and relational autonomy for older people living in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolo Heggestad, Anne Kari; Høy, Bente; Wilhelm Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Dignity is a core concept in nursing care . In earlier theories on dignity, close links have been drawn between dignity and autonomy, and autonomy has been closely related to independence . These traditional understandings of dignity and autonomy may be challenged when an individual moves...... into a nursing home . Our findings show that negative views about dependence, institutional frames and structures in the nursing home, and the attitudes and actions of healthcare personnel may diminish independence and lead to a lack of autonomy . Each of these areas can be experienced as a serious threat...

  15. Assessment of Parent Orientation towards Autonomy vs. Control in Promoting Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Padilla, Miguel A

    2012-07-01

    Self-determination theory has been widely applied to understanding individuals' health-related behaviors such as eating healthy foods and exercising. Different reasons for engagement are associated with varying levels of personal agency or autonomy. Authority figures in the environment can be supportive of autonomy or, in contrast, controlling. Although researchers have assessed individuals' perceptions of the autonomy-support in their environments, studies have not directly examined the authority figures' orientations to autonomy with respect to health contexts. A new scale, Parent Orientations to Health, was created to investigate parent orientation to autonomy and control with respect to healthy eating and exercise in children. One hundred and forty-three parents of elementary school-aged children responded to the scale. Scale validation and reliability results indicate that the scale successfully assessed parent orientation towards autonomy for children in health contexts. Furthermore, parent autonomy orientation varied according to child weight status and the healthiness of the child's diet. Parent orientation towards autonomy can be evaluated through the use of the Parent Orientations to Health scale. In addition, parent autonomy orientation is associated with both the healthiness of the child's diet (as perceived by the parent) and the child's body mass index. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  16. New Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers for tetraploid oat (Avena magna Murphy et Terrell) provide the first complete oat linkage map and markers linked to domestication genes from hexaploid A. sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, R E; Jellen, E N; Ladizinsky, G; Korol, A B; Kilian, A; Beard, J L; Dumlupinar, Z; Wisniewski-Morehead, N H; Svedin, E; Coon, M; Redman, R R; Maughan, P J; Obert, D E; Jackson, E W

    2011-11-01

    Nutritional benefits of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42, AACCDD) are well recognized; however, seed protein levels are modest and resources for genetic improvement are scarce. The wild tetraploid, A. magna Murphy et Terrell (syn A. maroccana Gdgr., 2n = 4x = 28, CCDD), which contains approximately 31% seed protein, was hybridized with cultivated oat to produce a domesticated A. magna. Wild and cultivated accessions were crossed to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Although these materials could be used to develop domesticated, high-protein oat, mapping and quantitative trait loci introgression is hindered by a near absence of genetic markers. Objectives of this study were to develop high-throughput, A. magna-specific markers; generate a genetic linkage map based on the A. magna RIL population; and map genes controlling oat domestication. A Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array derived from 10 A. magna genotypes was used to generate 2,688 genome-specific probes. These, with 12,672 additional oat clones, produced 2,349 polymorphic markers, including 498 (21.2%) from A. magna arrays and 1,851 (78.8%) from other Avena libraries. Linkage analysis included 974 DArT markers, 26 microsatellites, 13 SNPs, and 4 phenotypic markers, and resulted in a 14-linkage-group map. Marker-to-marker correlation coefficient analysis allowed classification of shared markers as unique or redundant, and putative linkage-group-to-genome anchoring. Results of this study provide for the first time a collection of high-throughput tetraploid oat markers and a comprehensive map of the genome, providing insights to the genome ancestry of oat and affording a resource for study of oat domestication, gene transfer, and comparative genomics.

  17. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; Van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  18. Patient’s autonomy from a biethical perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ribeiro-Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the conflicts arising in the field of Bioethics are generated by biomedical advances, these problems are meta-medical, that is they are transverse to all disciplines with scope in the human health. In this context, the application of bioethical principles such as the principle of autonomy, is considered a starting point, crucial to decision making referring to the exercise of medical and dental practice. In this sense, it is necessary to increase efforts through health policies and formation at the highest level for professionals in health disciplines in order to guide them to reduce violations of bioethical principles, as indeed happens in the day by day practice, in health services, both public and private, clinics or hospitals in order to get a health system with a more humanistic commitment. Thus, bioethics must be the base on which lay the foundations of a necessary dialogue that tends to resolve the observed conflicts, seeking to have the human being, and dignity of life as essential issues of their actions. The aim of this review is not to propose a definition of the Principle of Autonomy, that everyone already handle, but invite to a reflexion which contributes to size it and apply it in the field of dental practice in a bioethical context linked to the human person.

  19. Integrating adjustable autonomy in an intelligent control framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoven, Elyon A. M.; Wood, Scott D.

    2005-10-01

    Currently, multiple humans are needed to operate a single uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV). In the near future, combat techniques will involve single operators controlling multiple uninhabited ground and air vehicles. This situation creates both technological hurdles as well as interaction design challenges that must be addressed to support future fighters. In particular, the system will need to negotiate with the operator about proper task delegation, keeping the operator appropriately apprised of autonomous actions. This in turn implies that the system must know what the user is doing, what needs to be done in the present situation, and the comparative strengths for of the human and the system in each task. Towards building such systems, we are working on an Intelligent Control Framework (ICF) that provides a layer of intelligence to support future warfighters in complex task environments. The present paper presents the Adjustable Autonomy Module (AAM) in ICF. The AAM encapsulates some capabilities for user plan recognition, situation reasoning, and authority delegation control. The AAM has the knowledge necessary to support operator-system dialogue about autonomy changes, and it also provides the system with the ability to act on this knowledge. Combined with careful interaction design, planning and plan-execution capabilities, the AAM enables future design and development of effective human-robot teams.

  20. Human-Autonomy Teaming in a Flight Following Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The NATO HFM-247 Working Group is creating a summary report of the group's activities on human-autonomy teaming. This chapter is a summary of our at NASA Ames work toward developing a framework for human-autonomy teaming (HAT) in aviation. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate and evaluate proposed tenets of HAT. The HAT features were derived from three tenets and were built into an automated recommender system on a ground station. These tenets include bi-directional communication, automation transparency, and operator directed interface. This study focused primarily on interactions with one piece of automation, the Autonomous Constrained Flight Planner (ACFP). The ACFP is designed to support rapid diversion decisions for commercial pilots in off-nominal situations. Much effort has gone into enhancing this tool not only in capability but also in transparency. In this study, participants used the ACFP at a ground station designed to aid dispatchers in a flight following role to reroute aircraft in situations such as inclement weather, system failures and medical emergencies. Participants performed this task both with HAT features enabled and without and provided feedback. We examined subjective and behavioral indicators of HAT collaborations using a proof-of-concept demonstration of HAT tenets. The data collected suggest potential advantages and disadvantages of HAT.

  1. Restoring autonomy. Symmetry and asymmetry in care relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits De Lange

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this article the complexity of a professional care relationship as a whole of symmetrical and asymmetrical, formal and informal dimensions, is presented. Its ethical simplicity, however, is safeguarded as long as the

    telos of a care relationship is seen as the restoration of the autonomy of the care receiver. Autonomy is interpreted as the capability of persons to develop their uniqueness throughout their life course. The undeniable asymmetry of the care relationship is an essential, but temporary moment in its dynamics. The dynamics of a care relationship corresponds to the heart of the Christian ethos: in the Christian narrative, the asymmetry of humiliation precedes the exaltation, understood as the restoration of human dignity as ‘living upright’. The theological concept of exaltation can be interpreted as God’s ‘care for autonomy’ in a ethics of care.

     

     

  2. Hans Loewald, psychoanalysis, and the project of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Joel

    2008-12-01

    For some time psychoanalysts have tended to view Freud's cultural writings--concerning modernity, secularism, science, and religion--disparagingly, seeing them as the unscientific speculations of a misguided genius. But the questions Freud explored in those works are pressing topics that deserve serious attention. Just as fascism provided the historical context in which the critical theorists of the Frankfurt School developed a psychoanalytic social theory in the 1930s and 1940s, so the rise of fundamentalism demands a similar effort today. The "project of autonomy" conceptualized by the psychoanalyst-philosopher Castoriadis can be used to situate psychoanalysis in its broader historical context, as part of the emancipatory movement of modernity, and to elucidate fundamentalism as an attempt to turn back that project and reinstate the values of premodern traditional societies. Because the widespread aversion to secularism today is in no small degree the responsibility of secularists themselves--Freud's relatively crude and simplistic disregard of some of the deepest yearnings of humankind is a case in point--it is time to formulate, using the work of Hans Loewald, a more sensitive and sophisticated psychoanalytic view of religion. Yet psychoanalytic secularists must avoid overcompensating for past mistakes by giving too much ground to antisecularists. The legitimate desire to do justice to religion must not trump the need to advance the project of autonomy as a first priority.

  3. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  4. Science, technology, autonomy, and dependence: a framework for international debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehouse, W.

    1979-01-01

    The role of science and technology in the international system has changed markedly in the past 30 years. Science and technology have emerged as primary instruments of power and social control, with the major industrialized countries, especially the superpowers, relying more and more on science and technology as a means of maintaining their dominance in that system. The technological gap between the North and the South has widened during this period. Development strategies, relying on importation of capital-intensive, socially inappropriate, environmentally destructive Western technologies will lead to a massive global equity crisis in the 1980s. These technologies have been at the heart of the accelerating de-industrialization of the Third World by the First and Second Worlds on a scale far beyond what occurred in historical colonialism. The critical need is to focus the debate at the forthcoming world conferences on these underlying issues, leading to the formulation of concrete action proposals at the national and international levels which will effectively promote the technological autonomy of the Third World. While we cannot be certain that greater autonomy will lad to greater equity, few Southern countries can go very far in meeting the minimum material needs of most, not to speak all, of their people without a greatly strengthened autonomous capacity for creating, acquiring, adapting, and using technology to solve their own urgent economic and social problems.

  5. Persistent Preoccupations: The Rise and Rise of School Autonomy and Accountability in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    In 1975, the fourth Annual Conference of the British Educational Administration Society (BEAS, now BELMAS) had as its theme "Autonomy and Accountability in Educational Administration". In their concluding comments, the editors of the published Proceedings wrote: "Our concern has been with accountability and autonomy, not as…

  6. Using WebQuests as Idea Banks for Fostering Autonomy in Online Language Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghian, Shirin; Marandi, S. Susan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of language learner autonomy has influenced Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) to the extent that Schwienhorst (2012) informs us of a paradigm change in CALL design in the light of learner autonomy. CALL is not considered a tool anymore, but a learner environment available to language learners anywhere in the world. Based on a…

  7. Trust and management : Explaining cross-national differences in work autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, A.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    We open the black box of what goes on in firms in terms of management of their operations. Work autonomy is a key aspect of firm organization and we test the hypothesis that societal trust affects the level of autonomy that firms grant to their employees. Analysis of up to 189,213 individuals from

  8. EFL Proficiency in Language Learning and Learner Autonomy Perceptions of Turkish Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Süleyman; Çeliköz, Nadir; Sari, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of Turkish-English Language Teaching (ELT) learners' perceptions of learner autonomy with ELT learner's proficiency level in language learning. Particularly, the study aimed at investigating to what extent ELT learners' autonomy perceptions are affected by proficiency level of learners.…

  9. The Relationship among Iranian EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy, Autonomy and Listening Comprehension Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Haleh Mojarrabi; Saeidi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interrelationships among EFL learners' self-efficacy, autonomy and listening comprehension ability. Ninety female learners of intermediate level participated in the study. They were between 16 and 24 years old. In order to obtain the required data on the three variables (i.e., self-efficacy, autonomy, and listening…

  10. Promoting Learner Autonomy: Student Perceptions of Responsibilities in a Language Classroom in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shien; Takagi, Akiko; Chu, Man-Ping

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of communicative language teaching in East Asia, the idea of learner autonomy has become a topic of discussion and a goal among language teachers. The idea of autonomy raises important questions that need to be further explored, particularly in terms of students taking responsibility for learning. While examining the English…

  11. The Strategic Development of Learner Autonomy through Enquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhall, Mike D.; Lewis, Justin; Norcliffe, Allan; Radley, Keith; Waldock, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on strategic developments to enhance student learner autonomy skills through the use of enquiry-based learning (EBL) in the design of higher education programmes. The UK's Sheffield Hallam University is a recognized Centre of Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) in the field of developing learner autonomy. Central to the…

  12. Practical Tips on How to Promote Learner Autonomy in Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas; Goksu, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Autonomy is basically described as an individual's taking responsibility for his/her own learning and seen as one of the most significant features of life-long learning process today. Therefore modern language teaching approaches and innovations in this area have made language practitioners focus largely on the concept "autonomy" in…

  13. What Happens in Different Contexts and How to Do Learner Autonomy Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoling

    2011-01-01

    Chongqing University, as one of the experimental universities in China, has implemented computer-assisted language learning to support and practice learner autonomy since 2003. But in 2006, as a Visiting Fellow from Chongqing at the University of Leeds, the author noted pedagogical differences in promoting learner autonomy of language teaching…

  14. Language Learner Autonomy and the European Language Portfolio: Two L2 English Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that the Council of Europe's European Language Portfolio is capable of supporting the implementation of language learner autonomy on a large scale. It begins by explaining what the author understands by "language learner autonomy", then introduces the European Language Portfolio and explains how it can stimulate…

  15. EFL Instructors' Perception and Practices on Learner Autonomy in Some Turkish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Gizem; Mirici, Ismail Hakki

    2017-01-01

    Learner autonomy has become a central ability to develop in learners for a fruitful language learning/teaching process in EFL classes. Particularly, in this world of knowledge, teaching learners how to access resources and how to use them for their learning needs has become increasingly important. Teachers' perception on learner autonomy is…

  16. Iranian EFL Teachers' Practices and Learner Autonomy: Do Gender, Educational Degree, and Experience Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Najmeh; Vahid Dastjerdy, Hossein; Eslami Rasekh, Abbass; Amirian, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the importance of learner autonomy (LA) and considering the prominent role of teachers in this respect, the present study investigated: (1) Iranian English as a foreign language teachers' practices for promoting high school students' autonomy, (2) possible differences among teachers' practices with different educational degrees, levels of…

  17. Teachers' Readiness for Promoting Learner Autonomy: A Study of Japanese EFL High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yoshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate teachers' readiness for promoting learner autonomy. It attempts to do so by exploring the perceived importance of and the use of strategies for promoting learner autonomy among Japanese high school teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL). The paper reports on the research findings from two studies, one…

  18. A Pathway to Learner Autonomy: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pingying; Zhang, Jiaxiu

    2017-01-01

    Concepts of learner autonomy and the self-determination theory provided a theoretical rationale for the action program for learner autonomy. The action program incorporated satisfying learners' basic psychological needs into English Foreign Language (EFL) course education. The action program was implemented for one academic year. Both qualitative…

  19. A deontic implementation of adjustable autonomy for command and control of robotic assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Sean A.; Beard, Jonathan T.; Huber, Marcus H.; Morgan, Geoffrey P.; DeKoven, Elyon A. M.

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a system for implementing adjustable autonomy levels in simulated unmanned vehicles using an approach based upon the fields of deontics and Joint Intention Theory (JIT). It discusses Soar Technology's Intelligent Control Framework research project (ICF), the authors' use of deontics in the creation of adjustable autonomy for ICF, and some possible future directions in which the research could be expanded. Use of deontics and JIT in ICF has allowed us to define system-wide formal limits on the behavior of the unmanned systems controlled by ICF, to increase the flexibility of our adjustable autonomy system, and to decrease the granularity of the autonomy adjustments. This set of formalisms allows the unmanned system maximal autonomy in the default case, while allowing the user and supervisory agents to constrain that autonomy in situations when necessary. Unlike more strictly layered adjustable autonomy formalisms, our adjustable autonomy formalism can be used to restrict subsets of autonomous behaviors, rather than entire systems, in response to situational requirements.

  20. Determinants of resident autonomy in assisted living facilities: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta; Wright, James D

    2007-01-01

    Assisted living (AL) stresses the importance of resident autonomy in the provision of good quality care. Resident autonomy has been linked to better resident well-being, less reliance on supportive services, and greater participation in social activities. Little is known, however, about factors that foster resident autonomy in AL. This article reviews what is currently known about organizational determinants of resident autonomy in AL. The open-natural systems approach to organizational effectiveness, which views organizations in relation to their environment, provides a broad conceptual framework for this analysis. Factors that influence resident autonomy in AL are classified into two categories: (a) external environmental conditions (e.g., ownership status, chain membership, regulatory environment) and (b) internal organizational structures and processes (e.g., facility size, residents' functional ability, resident social resources, and staff work environment). Environmental conditions represent the most antecedent set of factors that influence resident autonomy, indirectly through their effects on internal organizational structures and processes. Internal organizational factors influence resident autonomy through their impact on policies that enable resident choice and control in the facility. More research is needed to better understand the complex mechanism(s) through which organizational factors influence resident autonomy.

  1. What factors influence attending surgeon decisions about resident autonomy in the operating room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Reed G; George, Brian C; Meyerson, Shari L; Bohnen, Jordan D; Dunnington, Gary L; Schuller, Mary C; Torbeck, Laura; Mullen, John T; Auyang, Edward; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Choi, Jennifer; Choti, Michael; Endean, Eric; Foley, Eugene F; Mandell, Samuel; Meier, Andreas; Smink, Douglas S; Terhune, Kyla P; Wise, Paul; DaRosa, Debra; Soper, Nathaniel; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Lillemoe, Keith D; Fryer, Jonathan P

    2017-12-01

    Educating residents in the operating room requires balancing patient safety, operating room efficiency demands, and resident learning needs. This study explores 4 factors that influence the amount of autonomy supervising surgeons afford to residents. We evaluated 7,297 operations performed by 487 general surgery residents and evaluated by 424 supervising surgeons from 14 training programs. The primary outcome measure was supervising surgeon autonomy granted to the resident during the operative procedure. Predictor variables included resident performance on that case, supervising surgeon history with granting autonomy, resident training level, and case difficulty. Resident performance was the strongest predictor of autonomy granted. Typical autonomy by supervising surgeon was the second most important predictor. Each additional factor led to a smaller but still significant improvement in ability to predict the supervising surgeon's autonomy decision. The 4 factors together accounted for 54% of decision variance (r = 0.74). Residents' operative performance in each case was the strongest predictor of how much autonomy was allowed in that case. Typical autonomy granted by the supervising surgeon, the second most important predictor, is unrelated to resident proficiency and warrants efforts to ensure that residents perform each procedure with many different supervisors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Effective School Autonomy Model: Examining Headteachers' Job Satisfaction and Work-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidou Solomou, Galatia; Pashiardis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although school autonomy has been a matter of great interest during the last decades and several relevant measures have been implemented toward this end, the relation between school autonomy and school effectiveness has not been examined thoroughly. The purpose of this paper is to explore this relation and to propose an effective school…

  3. Examination of the Relationship between Autonomy and English Achievement as Mediated by Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbandordinejad, Farhad; Ahmadabad, Roghayyeh Moradian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between autonomy and English language achievement among third-grade high school students as mediated by foreign language classroom anxiety in a city in the north-west of Iran. A sample of 400 students (187 males, and 213 females) was assessed for their levels of autonomy and foreign language anxiety using…

  4. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Method Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual’s demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother’s and adolescents’ behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Results Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Conclusions Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context. PMID:25914852

  5. 20 Years of Autonomy and Technology: How Far Have We Come and Where to Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Hayo; White, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Learner autonomy has become an assumed goal of language education in many parts of the world. In the 20 years since the launch of "Language Learning & Technology," the relationship among computer-assisted language learning research and practice and autonomy has become both more complex and more promising. This article traces how the…

  6. Fostering Autonomy through Syllabus Design: A Step-by-Step Guide for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Espinosa, Alexánder

    2016-01-01

    Promoting learner autonomy is relevant in the field of applied linguistics due to the multiple benefits it brings to the process of learning a new language. However, despite the vast array of research on how to foster autonomy in the language classroom, it is difficult to find step-by-step processes to design syllabi and curricula focused on the…

  7. The Moderating Role of Friendship Quality on Associations between Autonomy and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; LeTard, Amanda J.; Aikins, Julie Wargo

    2016-01-01

    Both autonomy and friendship quality have consistently been associated with adolescent adjustment. To date, the potentially moderating role of peer relationships in the context of autonomy achievement has received less attention. The present study used observational and quantitative data, as well as multiple reporters, to examine interactions…

  8. Women’s decision-making autonomy and children’s schooling in rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Luciana; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Women’s decision-making autonomy in developing settings has been shown to improve child survival and health outcomes. However, little research has addressed possible connections between women’s autonomy and children’s schooling. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between rural women’s decision-making autonomy and enrollment status of primary school-age children living in their households and how this relationship differs by child’s gender. METHODS The analysis uses data from a 2009 survey of rural households in four districts of Gaza province in southern Mozambique. Multilevel logistic models predict the probability of being in school for children between 6 and 14 years old. RESULTS The results show a positive association of women’s decision-making autonomy with the probability of being enrolled in primary school for daughters, but not for sons. The effect of women’s autonomy is net of other women’s characteristics typically associated with enrollment and does not mediate the effects of those characteristics. CONCLUSIONS Based on the results, we argue that women with higher levels of decision-making autonomy may have a stronger preference for daughters’ schooling and may have a greater say in making and implementing decisions regarding daughters’ education, compared to women with lower autonomy levels. Results also illustrate a need for considering a broader set of autonomy-related characteristics when examining the effects of women’s status on children’s educational outcomes. PMID:26491400

  9. Coordination, Competition, and Neutrality: Autonomy and Relatedness Patterns in Girls' Interactions with Mentors and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Christine L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Das, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Healthy development necessitates that adolescents maintain connections with others while developing an autonomous identity. In the extant literature, however, autonomy and relatedness are often placed at odds, particularly in discussions of girls. We explore how autonomy and relatedness co-occur in girls' interactions with peers and mentors in the…

  10. The Limits of Autonomy: Ideals in Care for People with Learning Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, Jeannette; Althoff, Brigitte; Bransen, Els

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, autonomy is a key ideal in visions of care for people with learning disability. This ideal can lead to tension when clients, in the opinion of their caregivers, overuse alcohol or drugs. In this article, we analyze how professional caregivers understand the ideal of autonomy in

  11. Perceived autonomy support from parents and best friends : Longitudinal associations with adolescents' depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.T.J.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the self-determination theory, experiencing autonomy support in close relationships is thought to promote adolescents' well-being. Perceptions of autonomy support from parents and from best friends have been associated with lower levels of adolescents' depressive symptoms. This

  12. Perceived autonomy support from parents and best friends: longitudinal associations with adolescents' depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.; Meeus, W.

    2014-01-01

    According to the self-determination theory, experiencing autonomy support in close relationships is thought to promote adolescents' well-being. Perceptions of autonomy support from parents and from best friends have been associated with lower levels of adolescents' depressive symptoms. This

  13. K-12 STEM Educator Autonomy: An Investigation of School Influence and Classroom Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Williams, Thomas O.; Clark, Aaron C.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Sutton, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, teacher autonomy within the formal educational system has been a central topic of discussion among educational stakeholders. This study explored influence over school policy and classroom control (teacher autonomy) among in-service science, technology, and mathematics (STM) educators within the United States. The National…

  14. Patient autonomy problems in palliative care: systematic development and evaluation of a questionnaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Osse, B.H.P.; Schade, E.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    No instrument to assess autonomy problems in palliative care is currently available. The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive and concise questionnaire to measure autonomy problems in palliative cancer patients and to study its validity and reliability. We systematically developed a

  15. Balancing self-management and standardization to improve learning, autonomy and wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Holt, Helle

    Back to Karasek’s construction of the Demand Control model learning and autonomy in work has been an important factor in conceptualization of health and wellbeing (Karasek 1979). To promote learning and autonomy in work it was suggested to create teamwork, job-enrichment, and influence at work...

  16. Effects of an Autonomy-Supportive Intervention on Tutor Behaviors in a Higher Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Sarah; Hagger, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence has attested to the benefits of autonomy support in a classroom context, in facilitating students' autonomous motivation, well-being, creativity, engagement, and persistence. However, most interventional research aiming to increase teachers' autonomy-supportive behaviors has been conducted in school and college contexts, with…

  17. PREDICTION OF SPORT ADHERENCE THROUGH THE INFLUENCE OF AUTONOMY-SUPPORTIVE COACHING AMONG SPANISH ADOLESCENT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé J. Almagro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key words: Autonomy support, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, sport adherence

  18. Emotional Autonomy versus Detachment: Revisiting the Vicissitudes of Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Lynch, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Emotional autonomy was examined in three studies of adolescents and young adults. Subjects of the studies were 148 seventh graders, 213 high school students, and 104 undergraduates, respectively. Discussion concerns the conceptualization of attachment versus detachment, dependence, and autonomy in theories of adolescence. (RJC)

  19. How to Inspire University Librarians to Become "Good Soldiers"? The Role of Job Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Ping; Hwang, Shiuh-Nan; Wong, Jehn-Yih

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a structural equation model to examine the effect of job autonomy on the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior for university librarians in Taiwan. Findings indicate that this relationship is stronger when job autonomy is high; we then discuss some implications for the librarianship…

  20. The effects of diversity faultlines and team task autonomy on decision quality and social integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Ramon; Molleman, Eric; Sanchez-Manzanares, Miriam; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.

    This study examines the effects of diversity faultlines stemming from educational background and conscientiousness on team decision quality and social integration and the moderating role of team task autonomy. Using a 2 x 2 (Weak/Strong Faultlines x Low/High Team Task Autonomy) factorial design, 52

  1. Nurses' professional autonomy and attitudes toward caring for dying patients in South-East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Razban, Farideh; Ghazanfari, Zahra; Nejad, Afsaneh Tabasi

    2014-06-01

    Nurses in Iran have been found to have less professional autonomy than nurses in Western countries. Professional autonomy is important, affecting nurses' caring behaviour and attitudes. This study aimed to examine the correlation between the professional autonomy of oncology and intensive care unit (ICU) nurses in the south-east of Iran and their attitudes toward the care of dying patients. 155 oncology and ICU nurses in three hospitals supervised by Kerman University of Medical Sciences completed the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) and Pankratz Nursing Questionnaire (PNQ) tools during April-June 2013. The participants had a neutral to moderately positive mean attitude toward caring for dying patients (mean=3.18±0.37 out of 5) and moderate professional autonomy (mean=3.08±0.33 out of 5). There was a significant positive correlation between total scores on professional autonomy and total scores on attitudes toward caring for dying patients. There was also a significant positive correlation between the PNQ subscale of 'patients' rights' and attitudes toward caring for dying patients. Autonomy could be an important component of nurses' attitudes toward caring for dying patients. To improve nurses' autonomy, nursing education in end-of-life care in Iran must be improved. Other factors relating to autonomy and attitudes specific to the Iranian context should also be considered.

  2. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-04-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual's demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother's and adolescents' behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context.

  3. The multifaceted concept of autonomy of international organizations and international legal discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.; Collins, R.; White, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of the autonomy of international organizations classically reflects the political independence of the organization when it comes to making its own decisions. Autonomy as political independence essentially touches upon the multifold relationships - e.g. of control, subordination, partnership

  4. Exploring the relationship between university internationalization and university autonomy:Toward a theoretical understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gullieva, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a research gap at the intersection of university internationalization and university autonomy. A process model of university internationalization is put forward whereby the process of university internationalization is mediated by university internationalization capacity and moderated by target country institutional autonomy and globalization; and entry modes, timing and pace, as well as product mix of internationalization define university’s internationalization pattern. ...

  5. Institutional Size and Professional Autonomy: The Death of the Small College Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, J. Victor; And Others

    This study investigated the effect of institutional size and complexity on professional autonomy in academic institutions. Autonomy was defined as the ability to set goals and to structure the organization to maximize professional concerns; size was measured by the number of faculty members and students in the institutions. Data were gathered from…

  6. The Effect of Online Dictionaries Usage on EFL Undergraduate Students' Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananuraksakul, Noparat

    2015-01-01

    Due to EFL undergraduate students' ineffective learning strategies, which mirror lack of autonomy, this paper is a pilot study into how use of Cambridge Dictionaries Online can affect undergraduate students' autonomy or self-reliance in a Thai EFL context. The link was selectively integrated in a writing classroom as a tool to improve their…

  7. The Relationships between School Autonomy Gap, Principal Leadership, Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Diya; Devos, Geert; Valcke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between school autonomy gap, principal leadership, school climate, teacher psychological factors, teachers' job satisfaction and organizational commitment under the context of school autonomy reform. A path model has been developed to define the relationships between principal leadership and teachers' outcomes…

  8. A Bargain Half Fulfilled: Teacher Autonomy and Accountability in Traditional Public Schools and Public Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberfield, Zachary W.

    2016-01-01

    Public charter schools (PCS) are thought to succeed because they have greater autonomy and are held more accountable than traditional public schools (TPS). Though teachers are central to this expectation, there is little evidence about whether teachers in PCS enjoy more autonomy and are held more accountable than teachers in TPS. Also, it is…

  9. The Belief that Alcohol Use Is Inconsistent with Personal Autonomy: A Promotive Factor for Younger Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…

  10. The Effects of Autonomy Support on Student Engagement in Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangmei; Kim, ChanMin

    2018-01-01

    Although peer assessment is widely implemented in higher education, not all students are highly engaged in it. To enhance student engagement in peer assessment, we designed and developed a web-based tool, autonomy-supportive peer assessment (ASPA), to support students' need for autonomy when they conducted peer assessment. Students' sense of…

  11. Towards a Proposal for a Professional Development Programme in Pedagogy for Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Beltrán, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to share preliminary results of an ongoing research project named "Towards a Pedagogy for Autonomy" carried out at the Languages Department at Universidad Central in Bogotá, Colombia. The final goal of the project is to create a teacher development programme whose emphasis is on pedagogy for autonomy and whose…

  12. Conservation of Autonomy: Toward a Second-Order Perspective on Psychosomatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Considers families of people suffering from psychosomatic disorders from perspective of second-order cybernetics in which emphasis is on autonomy of various levels of system. Describes psychosomatic symptoms and illustrates symptoms as expression of ideas aimed at conservation of autonomy, both at individual and family level. Highlights…

  13. Autonomy-based arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, Manne; Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan; Juth, Niklas

    2013-05-01

    Respect for autonomy is typically considered a key reason for allowing physician assisted suicide and euthanasia. However, several recent papers have claimed this to be grounded in a misconception of the normative relevance of autonomy. It has been argued that autonomy is properly conceived of as a value, and that this makes assisted suicide as well as euthanasia wrong, since they destroy the autonomy of the patient. This paper evaluates this line of reasoning by investigating the conception of valuable autonomy. Starting off from the current debate in end-of-life care, two different interpretations of how autonomy is valuable is discussed. According to one interpretation, autonomy is a personal prudential value, which may provide a reason why euthanasia and assisted suicide might be against a patient's best interests. According to a second interpretation, inspired by Kantian ethics, being autonomous is unconditionally valuable, which may imply a duty to preserve autonomy. We argue that both lines of reasoning have limitations when it comes to situations relevant for end-of life care. It is concluded that neither way of reasoning can be used to show that assisted suicide or euthanasia always is impermissible.

  14. Emotional Autonomy versus Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: A Case Study of Hong Kong Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Wai; Chan, Siu-Mui

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire consisting of two scales was administered to 550 Hong Kong secondary students to examine their emotional autonomy and susceptibility to peer pressure. Emotional autonomy was studied by the scale (EAS) developed by Steinberg and Silverberg (1986) and susceptibility to peer pressure was studied by the scale developed by Sim and Koh…

  15. Students' autonomy and teacher's interpersonal style in self-determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić-Vučetić Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from psychological needs that are considered basic within self-determination theory (autonomy, competence and relatedness, the importance of encouraging students' autonomy in school context is particularly emphasised. Appreciation of students' autonomy has a stimulating effect on school achievement, conceptual understanding, creativity development, strengthening of self-esteem, and students adapt better to school system and demonstrate a larger degree of internalisation of school rules and intrinsic motivation. Teachers' behavioural style largely determines the degree of students' autonomy in school life and work. Self-determination theory implies the necessity of agreement between the developmental need for autonomy in children and the level of adult control and distinguishes between two styles of interpersonal behavior of teachers: (a those who offer support to students' autonomy by their behavior and (b those that are predominantly inclined to control students' behavior. This paper also points out to different strategies that can be applied by teachers in working with students in school, which also contribute to the development of students' autonomy. What is especially encouraging is the fact that it is possible to learn and to develop 'appreciation of students' autonomy' as teacher's interpersonal style.

  16. Autonomy and the Ambiguity of Biological Rationalities: Systems Theory, ADHD and Kant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haye, Andrés; Matus, Claudia; Cottet, Pablo; Niño, Sebastián

    2018-01-01

    We present a theoretical review of notions of autonomy to show how they organize discourses within social sciences around the biological reality of ideal self-regulating individuals. First, we reconstruct key meanings of autonomy in biological theory, focusing on theories of autopoietic systems and their connections to constructivist…

  17. The Changing Nature of Autonomy: Transformations of the Late Swedish Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermke, Wieland; Forsberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses teacher autonomy in the case of the Swedish teaching profession since the 1980s. It is argued that deregulation, decentralization, and marketization reforms of the 1990s have indeed increased teacher autonomy, but in some respects also led to a increase of complexity in the Swedish school system. In order to handle this…

  18. The Effects of Autonomy and Empowerment on Employee Turnover: Test of a Multilevel Model in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lei; Lee, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Extending research on voluntary turnover in the team setting, this study adopts a multilevel self-determination theoretical approach to examine the unique roles of individual and social-contextual motivational precursors, autonomy orientation and autonomy support, in reducing team member voluntary turnover. Analysis of multilevel time-lagged data…

  19. Autonomy of the University: A Financial, Academic and Administrational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rıza ERDEM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “autonomy” is mostly discussed at the institutional level. The term “autonomy” literally refers to “the right of self administration of an institution under its own legal constitution”. It has not only been a subject on which much has been negotiated in the academic world until far and a subject on which has never been reached a full agreement yet but also a subject which has been distinctively interpreted by all sides. To realize their social responsibilities in a best way, universities have to get the opportunity of an autonomous constitution. Moreover, this autonomy essentially depends on the existence of a harmonious financial, academic and administrational system. Today there is no a fully autonomised university but extent of autonomous. For an institution, a financial autonomy is “the state of driving its own expenditures by using freely its own sources”. It is of three dimensions, one of which is preparing its own budget, the other of which is constituting its own financial sources and the last of which is using its own financial sources. Today, in this respect, there is no yet “a fully autonomised university” in the world, because they are not capable of meeting the money which they need for their existence. To all people who have academic titles, “academic autonomy” necessarily refers to a chance of free education and researches free of all kinds of pressure and orientation attempts. According to Turkish constitution, academic freedom is limited to national defense and security & social order. According to a report in the ninth plan of development, released by “High Commission of Academic Education”, there is also not a fully academic autonomy. By the word “Administrational Autonomy” in universities, it is certainly meant that those institutions are driven and inspected by their own democratic organs whose members are necessarily democratically appointed. According to in the ninth plan of

  20. Appendicitis, appendectomie en de wet van Murphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, H. A.; van Lieburg, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-surgical treatment of acute phlegmonous appendicitis has been receiving increasing attention in recent years, representing a reversal of policy. The appendectomy came into vogue at the beginning of the 20th century. It is true that prompt surgical intervention in all patients with appendicitis