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Sample records for autonomously functioning thyroid

  1. TSH RECEPTOR GENETIC ALTERATIONS IN THE AUTONOMOUSLY FUNCTIONING THYROID ADENOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施秉银; 李雪萍; 李社莉; 薛明战; 王毅; 徐莉

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between TSH receptor gene mutations and autonomously functioning thyroid adenomas (AFTAs). Methods The thyroid samples from 14 cases of diagnosed AFTAs were analyzed, with normal thyroid specimens adjacent to the tumors as controls. The 155 base pairs DNA fragments which encompassed the third cytoplasmic loop and the sixth transmembrane segments in the TSH receptor gene exon 10 were amplified by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analyzed by the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Direct sequencing of the PCR products was performed with Prism Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Core Kit. Results 6 of 14 AFTA specimens displayed abnormal migration in SSCP analysis. In sequence analysis of 3 abnormally migrated samples, one base substitution at nucleotide 1957 (A to C) and two same insertion mutations of one adenosine nucleotide between nucleotide 1972 and 1973 were identified. No mutations were found in controls. Conclusion This study confirmed the presence of TSH receptor gene mutations in AFTAs; both one-point substitution mutation and one-base insertion mutation were found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AFTAs.

  2. Therapeutic options in the management of autonomously functioning thyroid adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules or adenomas (AFTN or AFTA) was established as a clinical entity in 1918 by Goetsch correlating cellular mitochondrial content with nodular function and showing the inverse correlation between AFTN function and extra nodular tissue function. They are almost always benign and degeneration, which is common in AFTN, can result in the development of hyperthyroidism. It is therefore important to know the function of these nodules by requesting for the thyroid function tests namely T3, T4, and TSH. They are diagnosed by thyroid scans using I-131 or Tc 99m as a hot solitary nodule in one lobe with the other lobe not appearing on scan or suppressed. The frequency of AFTA worldwide is quite variable depending on geography. It ranges from 1% in North America to 10 % in some areas in Europe and Asia or in areas of iodine deficiency. The traditional methods of treatment of these nodules have been surgery and radioactive iodine ablation. Surgical treatment as a rule is indicated in young patients with nodules larger than 3 cm and those with local compressive symptoms. RAI is used in elderly patients and those who are poor surgical risks. The usual dose ranges from 20 to 30 mCi and is definitely larger that when treating Graves' disease. Others have resorted to PEI or percutaneous ethanol injection with reported success. There has been no definite management of these AFTA due to the variable natural history and some would only recommend observation for asymptomatic small adenomas, which are euthyroid. Therefore this paper studied the results of treatment using RAI ablation, surgery or plain observation for AFTA. Percutaneous ethanol injection is not being done in our center. In the local setting, where thyroid disease is still endemic, the incidence of AFTA is not so high. Graves' disease is still the predominating cause of hyperthyroidism followed by multinodular goiter. Toxic AFTA occurs in 3% of the total hyperthyroid

  3. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  4. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Mehmet; Aygun, Nurcihan; Ozel, Alper; Yener Ozturk, Feyza; Karasu, Rabia; Ozguven, Banu Yilmaz; Citgez, Bulent; Mihmanli, Mehmet; Isgor, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS) is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) with Graves' disease (GD). Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed. PMID:27110424

  5. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Uludag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN with Graves’ disease (GD. Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves’ ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed.

  6. Thyroid function in pregnancy☆

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones. Normal thyroid function during pregnancy is important for both the mother and developing fetus. This review discusses the changes in thyroid physiology that occur during pregnancy, the significance of thyroid function tests and thyroid antibody titers assessed during pregnancy, and the potential obstetric complications associated with maternal hypothyroidism.

  7. Treatment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules at a single institution. Radioiodine therapy, surgery, and ethanol injection therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of radioiodine (RI) therapy in Japanese patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs). We performed a retrospective analysis to assess the management of AFTN patients. Thyroid lobectomy was performed to treat toxic adenoma (TA) patients, and total thyroidectomy to treat toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) patients. RI therapy was administered in the form of a single dose (500 MBq) of isotope in the outpatient clinic. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) was performed under ultrasound guidance. Of the total 205 patients, consisting of 159 TA and 46 TMNG patients, 99 underwent surgery, 50 received RI therapy, and 56 received PEIT. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was achieved in all of the patients who were treated surgically. Hypothyroidism was documented in six of the 72 patients who were treated surgically other than by total thyroidectomy. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was observed in 43 of the 50 patients who were treated by RI therapy. Nine TA patients developed hypothyroidism during the follow-up period after RI therapy. Several PEIT sessions were required to achieve a remission of thyrotoxicosis. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was achieved in 29 of the 56 patients treated by PEIT, and thyrotoxicosis recurred in 17 these 56 patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice for large nodules and nodules that are resistant to other treatments, because it allows prompt control of thyrotoxicosis. RI therapy is a safe and effective means of controlling thyrotoxicosis in AFTN patients. We conclude that RI therapy is the treatment of choice for definitive treatment of AFTN patients who do not have local compression symptoms. (author)

  8. Thyroid function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short revision of thyroid physiology is done. The radioisotopes of common use in thyroid investigation and the choice of the most appropriated ones are discussed. A table showing radioisotopes frequently used in this study, with their main characteristics is presented. Among several isotopic assays in thyroid propaedeutics, those that refer to the function study, topographic studies and tests 'in vitro' are pointed out. Exploration methods 'in vivo' are treated, such as: thyroid uptake; urinary excretion; thyroid scintigraphy, with scintigraphic imagings; stimulation test by TSH; suppression test; pbi; clearance test with perchlorate; iodine deficiency test and thyroid study with technetium. 'In vitro' proofs like triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) assays, as well as free thyroxine index, are treated. At last, the therapeutics by Iodine 131 is commented and emphasis is given to its application on the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma

  9. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of autonomous (toxic) thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe, 9-10% of hyperfunctioning thyroid glands have toxic, autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN). Since 1994, in the Municipal hospital of Marl, Germany, 186 patients have performed percutaneous ethanol ablation of toxic thyroid nodules with very good or at least sufficient results. In this article, the ablation technique is described in detail and the costs of therapy of ATN are given.(authors)

  10. Thyroid function and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Silvia; Radetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional and structural alterations seem to improve after weight loss and therefore no treatment is needed. PMID:23149391

  11. Randomized prospective study comparing a single radioiodine dose and a single laser therapy session in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Bonnema, Steen Joop;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) with radioiodine in hot thyroid nodules. DESIGN: Thirty consecutive outpatients with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism and a scintigraphically solitary hot nodule with extraglandular suppression were randomized to...... effects were seen. CONCLUSIONS: This first randomized study, comparing ILP with standard therapy, demonstrates that ILP and (131)I therapy approximately halves thyroid nodule volume within 6 months; but in contrast to (131)I, extranodular thyroid volume is unaffected by ILP and no patient developed...... hypothyroidism. Using the present design, ILP seems inferior to (131)I therapy in normalization of serum TSH. The potential value of ILP as a non-surgical alternative to (131)I needs further investigation...

  12. Exercise and autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, R L; Bloomfield, D M; Rosenwinkel, E T

    2000-03-01

    The complex interplay between the dichotomous subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system establishes and maintains a delicately tuned homeostasis in spite of an ever-changing environment. Aerobic exercise training can increase activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and decrease sympathetic activity. Conversely, it is well-documented that cardiac disease is often characterized by attenuated parasympathetic activity and heightened sympathetic tone. A correlation between autonomic disequilibrium and disease has led to the hypothesis that exercise training, as a therapy that restores the autonomic nervous system towards normal function, may be associated with, and possibly responsible for, outcome improvements in various populations. This is merely one of the many benefits that is conferred by chronic exercise training and reviewed in this issue. PMID:10758814

  13. Evaluation of autonomic functions in subclinical hypothyroid and hypothyroid patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Aarti S.; Ram Lal; Dhanwal, Dinesh K.; Jain, Ajay K.; Veena Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Background: Autonomic dysfunction may contribute to cardiovascular morbidity in subclinical hypothyroid patients. It is controversial whether the abnormality exists in sympathetic or the parasympathetic function. It is also not known whether the severity of autonomic dysfunction is related to the degree of thyroid deficiency. Design of Study: Prospective case control. Materials and Methods: Autonomic functions based on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to various maneuvers wer...

  14. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  15. Treatment of solitary, autonomously-functioning, non-toxic thyroid nodules with I131 Adenema tiroideo autónomo no tóxico tratamiento con I131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Uribe Londoño

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Fifteen euthyroid patients (14 women and 1man with solitary autonomously functioning non-toxic thyroid nodules (AFTN were treated with high doses of I131 (mean 19.2 mCi. Diagnosis was made by I131 thyroid scan and triiodothyronine suppression test. The size of the nodule was determined by thyroid ecography both before and after treatment. Evaluation of thyroid function was performed clinically and by T3 T4 and TSH determinations before therapy and during follow.up. AII patients had complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Two cases of hypothyroidism were found in the first two years of follow-up. We have no explanation for this fact since extranodular thyroid tissue was suppressed and the patients were receiving oral triiodothyronine during radioidine treatment. The nodules decreasedin size In 9 of 13 patients followed (average decrease 45% and disappeared in other 2. our findings suggest that solitary non-toxic AFTN should be treated with I131 particularly if complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid tissue is found. If complete disappearance of the nodule is considered desirable surgical removal must be performed.

    Se trataron 14 mujeres y un hombre, con adenomas tiroideos solitarios funcionalmente autónomos, no tóxicos, con I131 a una dosis promedio de 19.2 mCi. La gamagrafía tiroidea demostró hipercaptación del nódulo con supresión total del resto de la glándula. El tamaño del nódulo se determinó por medio de ecografía tiroidea antes y después del tratamiento, y su autonomía por la prueba de supresión con triyodotironina. El estado tiroideo se puso de presente clínicamente y por la medición de T3, T 4 y TSH en el plasma, antes de la terapia con el radiofármaco y durante la evolución postratamiento. En dos

  16. Possibilities of nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules treatment by percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the current principles, autonomous functional thyroid nodules are treated by surgery or by radioiodin therapy. Ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection into solid tumors of the soft tissues was a starting point in attempts to treat the thyroid nodules by the same method. The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of percutaneous injection in treating solitary, nontoxic, autonomous thyroid nodules of up to 15 mL volume. Methods. In 25 patients with solitary nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules diagnosed by tehnetium-99m scanning as an intensive area having a complete supremacy in the paranodal tissue, an ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection was applied. The procedure was carried out repeatedly once a week until the reduction in nodule size to 50% of the initial size was achieved. Results. An average size of the nodule before curing was 9.68 ± 5.01 mL. An average quantity of the injected ethanol was 9.52 ± 5.08 mL, ie 1.06 ± 0.48 mL/mg of the tissue. The regression of the nodule size in the successfully (Δvol% u = - 57.09 ± 13.75%, p < 0.001 and partly successfully cured (Δvol du = -48.45 ± 14.35%, p < 0.05 was statistically significant compared to the size before the treatment. After ceasing ethanol injection, 18 months later, a further size regression (Δvol% = -79.20 ± 9.89% compared to the initial one (p < 0.001 was noticed. Soon, after the procedure was finished, a statistically significant concentration increase of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH was noticed compared to the initial values (0.18 ± 0.16 vs 0.34 ± 0.31 mU/L, p < 0.01. According to the given criteria, in two female patients satisfactory results were not achieved, but, a year later, in one of them the nodule was not seen by repeated scintigram. The number and frequency of side effects were insignificant. Conclusion. Repeated percutaneous ethanol injections into nontoxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules result in

  17. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    involving brain stem areas, which is consistent with the Braak hypothesis. In the narcolepsy patients, it was shown that a reduced HRR to arousals was primarily predicted by hypocretin deficiency in both rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep, independent of cataplexy and other factors. The results......, which includes the cardiac centre and controls autonomic functions, and therefore autonomic dysfunction may be experienced early in the disease course. Sleep disturbances are also common non-motor complications of PD, and therefore PD patients undergo polysomnography at the Danish Center for Sleep...... narcolepsy patients on autonomic function and on the sleep transition rate. The results showed an attenuated heart rate response (HRR) in PD patients compared to controls and early PD (iRBD patients). Also iRBD patients had an attenuated HRR compared to control subjects, and the method to measure the HRR may...

  18. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Main, K.M.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the effects of endocrine disrupters on thyroid function. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in recent years have revealed thyroid-disrupting properties of many environmentally abundant chemicals. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid...... pregnant women, neonates and small children in order to avoid potential impairment of brain development. Future studies will indicate whether adults also are at risk of thyroid damage due to these chemicals Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10...

  19. Evaluation of autonomic functions in subclinical hypothyroid and hypothyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti S Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction may contribute to cardiovascular morbidity in subclinical hypothyroid patients. It is controversial whether the abnormality exists in sympathetic or the parasympathetic function. It is also not known whether the severity of autonomic dysfunction is related to the degree of thyroid deficiency. Design of Study: Prospective case control. Materials and Methods: Autonomic functions based on heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP responses to various maneuvers were evaluated and scored in twenty two subclinical hypothyroid patients, 30-50 years and compared with twenty hypothyroid patients. Biochemical estimation of TSH, fT 3 , fT 4 , TPO antibody was done. Result: Sympathetic function abnormalities were seen in 82% subclinical hypothyroid patients and 85%hypothyroid patients when one test was abnormal. Parasympathetic dysfunction was also recorded in eight patients in both groups. When two abnormal tests were used as the selection criteria sympathetic function abnormality was observed in about 41% subclinical hypothyroid and 65% hypothyroid patients. There were no intergroup differences in autonomic functions, score and TPO levels. The TSH levels were not related to type or degree of autonomic dysfunction. Systolic BP in both groups and diastolic BP in hypothyroid patients were higher with lower thyroxine levels but the patients were normotensive. Conclusion: Autonomic dysfunction of comparable degree was seen in subclinical hypothyroid and hypothyroid patients. Sympathetic function abnormality was more common although decreased parasympathetic function reactivity was also present. These abnormalities were unrelated to TSH levels.

  20. Etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in melasma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Nimet; Kılıç, Arzu; Koparal, Suha; Artüz, Ferda; Çakmak, Atıl; Köse, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melasma is a common chronic, acquired pigmentation disorder with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. Aim To investigate the etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with melasma. Material and methods Forty-five women with melasma and 45 age-matched healthy women were included in the study group. A detailed history was taken from the patients including triggering factors of melasma. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin (AbTG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (Ab-TPO) were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed for each subject. Results In 26.7% of patients, pregnancy, in 17.8%, oral contraceptive use and in 13.3%, intense sunlight exposure were the triggering factors. 17.8% of patients had a family history of melasma. FT4, TSH and AbTG levels were significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusions The results suggest that a combination of factors including pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, sunlight and genetic factors often trigger melasma. Thyroid hormones and thyroid autoimmunity may also play a role in the pathogenesis which needs to be proven by further studies. PMID:26759539

  1. Etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in melasma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Çakmak, Seray Külcü; Özcan, Nimet; Kılıç, Arzu; Koparal, Suha; Artüz, Ferda; ÇAKMAK, Atıl; Köse, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melasma is a common chronic, acquired pigmentation disorder with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. Aim To investigate the etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with melasma. Material and methods Forty-five women with melasma and 45 age-matched healthy women were included in the study group. A detailed history was taken from the patients including triggering factors of melasma. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), fre...

  2. Congenital leptin deficiency and thyroid function

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-Filho Gilberto; Delibasi Tuncay; Erol Halil K; Wong Ma-Li; Licinio Julio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid function is closely related to leptin's secretion by the adipose tissue. In states of leptin-deficiency, the circadian rhythm of TSH is altered, leading to central hypothyroidism in animal models. In humans, central hypothyroidism has also been described in rare cases of congenital leptin deficiency. However, the thyroid phenotype in these cases is heterogeneous, with the occurrence of central hypothyroidism in a minority of cases. Here we describe thyroid function in four l...

  3. Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Cunnane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly.

  4. Challenges in Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests in Pregnant Women with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Main; Linda Hilsted; Malene Boas; Anne-Sofie Bliddal Mortensen; Åse Krogh Rasmussen; Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone value...

  5. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonde Jens

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4 (10–16% among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3, free triiodthyroxine (FT3 and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels.

  6. Comparative sonographic and scintigraphic investigations in autonomous adenomas of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of active thyroid tissue can be detected on scintigraphic images and consequently the diagnosis of an autonomous thyroid adenoma is established on the basis of scintigraphic examinations. The sonographic examination is considerably supplemented by scintigraphic information. Domain of sonography is the determination of size and structure of adenomas and of the extranodular tissue. In the primary diagnosis of a decompensated autonomous a adenoma, sonography permits the fast differential diagnostical delineation of a shape anomaly or an aplasia of the thyroid lobes and the detection of the contralateral lobe (for example due to a tumor, a focal inflammation, a cyst). When the diagnosis has been confirmed, besides in-vitro tests sonography is the preferential non-invasive follow-up technique which can be repeated at choice. One disadvantage of this method is that retrosternal parts of larger struma and adenomas cannot be imaged and detected sonographically. (orig./MG)

  7. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies in recurrent miscarriage women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine thyroid status in recurrent miscarriage Sudanese women and to determine the association between thyroid antibodies and miscarriage. The study included patients attending obstetrics and gynecology unit at Khartoum teaching hospital and Omdurman New hospital since June 2008 to Jan 2009, these patients were complaining of vaginal bleeding. Sixty, apparently healthy pregnant women with history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages during the first trimester, their ages ranged between 20 and 45 years were selected as target group. Forty healthy, normal pregnant women of the same gestational age and known to reach term and had healthy labor, patients with age ranged between 17 and 41 years were selected from (SAEC), referral clinic center at Khartoum Teaching and Omdurman New Hospitals as control group. The two groups were physically examined and their thyroid glands were seen by the physician. Questionnaires were completed for all the subjects. Patients with metabolic or endocrinologic disorders, genital organ anamoly, uterine myoma, mal nourishment or exposed to toxic substances were excluded from the study. Five ml of venous blood samples were collected from the target and control subjects. Thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies (TT4, TT3, FT4, FT3, TSH, TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab) were measured for the two groups (target and control ) using RIA technique. The results of this study showed that there was a significant decrease decrease in the concentrations of thyroid hormones (TT4 and TT3) in the target group (p-value = 0.0001 and 0.004 respectively) compared with the control group. Moreover, there was a significant elevation in the concentration of TSH in the target group (p- value = 0.0001). The free T-4 concentration was lower but not significant in the target group (p-value=0.075), FT3 level was similar in both groups (p-value = 0.591). The presence of abnormal high concentrations of TT4 in control and target groups was 37.5% and

  8. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Boas, Malene; Hilsted, Linda; Main, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable for thyr....... Measurement of antithyroperoxidase and/or TSH receptor antibodies adds to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases.......Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable for...... thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age...

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  10. Thyroid scintigraphy in diagnosis of multinodular euthyroid goiter and functional thyroid autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Fadeyev, V.; S M Zacharova; S Pasha; A Kornev; G Melnichenko

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the study. To estimate the meaning of thyroid suppression test as the method for diagnosis of functional thyroid autonomy (FA). Materials and methods. The main group consisted of 50 patients (46 females, 4 males) older 40 yrs with multinodular euthyroid whose basal scintigraphy demonstrated one or more areas of increased Tc 99m thyroid uptake. Twenty two individuals of control group (27.5 [23; 38.75] yrs) with no thyroid abnormalities underwent only basal thyroid scint...

  11. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  12. Peripheral markers of thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulla; Nygaard, Birte; Jensen, Ebbe Winther;

    2013-01-01

    ). This was performed to obtain unaltered serum TSH levels during the trial and between the two treatment groups. Blood sampling was performed 24 h after the last intake of thyroid hormone medication. RESULTS: TSH remained unaltered between the groups ((median) 0.83 vs 1.18 mU/l in T4/T3 combination and T...

  13. Ultrasound-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation of an autonomous thyroid nodule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2003-01-01

    Radioiodine ((131)I) and surgery are the standard therapeutic options for the solitary autonomous thyroid nodule (AFTN). Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) has proven to be an effective technique and possible alternative to the conventional treatment options. However, PEI is not devoid of side.......9 mL (40% reduction) without further alterations during an additional 9 months of follow-up. Side effects were transient thyrotoxicosis and local pain as seen with PEI. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ILP used in a patient with a pretoxic thyroid nodule. US-guided thermic tissue...

  14. Age Related Change in Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakila Rahman, Nasim Jahan, Nayma Sultana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Thyroid hormones play a vital role in metabolism, sensitivity of tissues to other hormones and also in oxygen consumption of almost all cells of the body. However, mild to moderate decrease in function of thyroid gland may occur with advancing age even in apparently healthy elderly subjects.Objectives: To observe age related change in thyroid function status in apparently healthy elderly subjects in Bangladesh.Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2011. Sixty apparently healthy elderly subjects of both sexes aged 50 to 75 years were taken as study group. They were collected from Probin Nibash Hitoishi Shangha, Agargaon, Dhaka. In addition, 30 apparently healthy young adult subjects aged 20-40 years were included as control. For assessment of thyroid function, serum free thyroxine (FT4, free triiodothyronine (FT3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels were estimated by ELISA method. Statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient test as applicable.Results: In this study, mean serum free thyroxine (FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3 levels were significantly (p<0.001 lower and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level was significantly (p<0.001 higher in apparently healthy elderly subjects in comparison to those of the healthy young subjects. Again, serum FT4 and FT3 levels were negatively correlated whereas serum TSH level was positively correlated with age of the subjects.Conclusion: The present study revealed a progressive decrease in thyroid function with advancement of age.

  15. Thyroid functions in young diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the thyroid-pituitary axis was performed in uncontrolled (20 cases) and controlled (22 cases) insulin-dependent young diabetics who were university students attending the university hospital. A third age-matching group (21 normal subjects) was also investigated. The plasma glucose level was determined after fasting as well as 2 hours after an oral glucose meal (50 g). Thyroxine (T4), triiodeothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were assayed by RIA. The data obtained showed a lowered level of T3 and T4 and a raised level of TSH in uncontrolled young diabetics as compared to corresponding values for age matching normals. The group of controlled diabetics showed near normal T3 and increased T4 levels, but still lower than normal. TSH levels dropped significantly to the normal level. (author)

  16. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh;

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable for...... thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age......-related reference ranges. Equally important, the intraindividual variability of the thyroid hormone measurements is much narrower than the interindividual variation (reflecting the reference interval). The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a free thyroid hormone estimate combined with TSH...

  17. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    and REM sleep control, indicating that the disorder may serve as a human model for the sleep-wake and REM sleep flip-flop switches. The increased frequency of transitions may cause increased sympathetic activity during sleep and thereby increased heart rate, or the increased heart rate could be caused...... confirm that hypocretin deficiency affects the autonomic nervous system of patients with narcolepsy and that the hypocretin system is important for proper heart rate modulation at rest.Furthermore, it was shown that hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake...

  18. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake......, and after 6 months, and 5 years of supplementation. RESULTS: Plasma selenium concentrations increased significantly and dose-dependently in treatment groups receiving selenium (P<0.001). Serum TSH and FT4 concentrations decreased significantly and dose-dependently by 0.066 mIU/l (P=0.010) and 0.......11 pmol/l (P=0.015), respectively, per 100 μg/day increase, with insignificant differences between 6 months and 5 years. No significant effects were found for FT3 and FT3:FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid subjects, selenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when...

  19. Association between thyroid function and gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry V(o)lzke; Daniel M Robinson; Ulrich John

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate those associations using data of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania.METHODS: A study population of 3 749 residents aged 20-79 years without previously diagnosed thyroid disease was available for analyses. Serum TSH was used to assess thyroid function. Cholelithiasis was defined by either a prior history of cholecystectomy or the presence of gallstones on ultrasound. Logistic regression was performed to analyze independent associations between thyroid function and cholelithiasis.RESULTS: There were 385 persons (10.3%) with low (<0.3 mIU/L), 3 321 persons (88.6%) with normal and 43 persons (1.2%) with high serum TSH levels (>3 mIU/L).The proportion of cholelithiasis among males and females was 14.4% and 25.3%, respectively. Among males, there was an independent relation between high serum TSH and cholelithiasis (OR 3.77; 95%-CI 1.06-13.41; ,P<0.05). zAlso among males, there was a tendency towards an elevated risk of cholelithiasis in persons with low serum TSH (OR 1.40; 95%-CI 0.96-2.02; P = 0.07). In the female population, no such relation was identified.CONCLUSION: There is an association between thyroid and gallstone disease with a gender-specific relation between hypothyroidism and cholelithiasis.

  20. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: impact on thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2008-01-01

    In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome.......In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome....

  1. Thyroid function and ultrasonically determined thyroid size in patients receiving long-term lithium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrild, H; Hegedüs, L; Baastrup, P C; Kayser, L; Kastberg, S

    1990-11-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 100 manic-depressive patients. Goiter was more common in patients treated with lithium for 1-5 years (44%) or more than 10 years (50%) than in patients who never received lithium (16%). Smoking contributed significantly to thyroid size and goiter. In nonsmoking patients, ultrasonically determined thyroid volume was significantly related to treatment duration. The mechanism behind this increased thyroid volume is unclear, as most patients had normal serum thyrotropin levels and no thyroid autoimmunity. Subclinical or overt hypothyroidism was found in 4% and 21% of patients treated for 1-5 and more than 10 years, respectively. Since few hypothyroid patients had autoimmunity or goiter, lithium may affect the thyroid gland directly. PMID:2221166

  2. Whole-genome sequence-based analysis of thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Peter N.; Porcu, Eleonora; Chew, Shelby;

    2015-01-01

    Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N = 2,287). Using additional whole-genome...... association with FT4 in NRG1. Our results demonstrate that increased coverage in whole-genome sequence association studies identifies novel variants associated with thyroid function....

  3. Normal thyroid function values in Ethiopians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid function values were determined in 56 healthy nongoitrous adult Ethiopians. The mean triiodothyronine (T3) values for 20 males and 36 females were 1.42+-0.32 nmol/L and 1.51+-0.25 nmol/L, and thyroxine (T4) values were 119 22 nmol/L and 116+21 nmol/L respectively. The mean thyrotropin (TSH) values for males and females were identical at 1.86+-0.94 mu/L. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) at 2 hours was 8.6+-4.4% in males and 11.3+-4.3% in females, and at 24 hours 31.7+-11.7% and 38.9+-11.1% respectively. The difference between males and females were significant at both 2 and 24 hours (P<0.05). The ranges for the 3 hormones derived from the mean 2SD values are close to these supplied with the kits but the Ethiopian RAIU values are higher than the values currently applicable in developed countries, probably indicative of the lower level of dietary iodine available to the population here. The values obtained in this study are offered to serve as normal reference for the interpretation of thyroid function results in Ethiopian patients. A strategy for the rational utilization of the available in vitro tests is suggested

  4. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  5. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  6. Low-Normal Thyroid Function and Novel Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnda J.N. van Tienhoven-Wind

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures.

  7. Low-normal thyroid function and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2015-01-01

    The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures. PMID:25690422

  8. Thyroid function in fragile-X syndrome males.

    OpenAIRE

    Bregman, J. D.; Leckman, J. F.; Ort, S. I.

    1990-01-01

    Twelve males with fragile-X syndrome between the ages of three and 28 years underwent assessment of thyroid function. All 12 subjects demonstrated normal baseline values for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine, thyroid binding globulin (TBG), and estimated free thyroxine (EFT). Relative to a control group reported in the literature, however, the fragile-X subjects exhibited a blunted TSH response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). This finding suggests the presence of subtle dys...

  9. Thyroid function in the newborn child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment is made of the thyroid parameters in the early neonatal period against the background of age-related physiological peculiarities of the thyroid function. One hundred infants, born in the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology over the period 25th to 42nd gestation week, are studied. The umbilical cord serum levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroiy-stimulating (TSH) levels are measured by a radioimmunologic method. The values of thyroxine disclose a steady increase with the progress of the gestation age of the fetus, and at childbirth they are higher than in adults. Triiodothyronine is lowered in all instances, and only in full-term infants it augments to reach the lowermost limit of the norm for adults. Reverse triiodothyronine is strongly elevated in all neonates, rather marked in premature infants. TSH exhibits no dependence whatsoever on the gestation age of the fetus, and at childbirth it is slightly above the uppermost limit of the norm for adults. Being aware of the peculiarities outlined has an essenti;l practical bearing on the correct interpretation of the results of ho of the results of hormonal studies, which in turn is closely linked to the problem of early detection and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism. (author)

  10. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  11. Cardiovascular autonomic function in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallo, F; Maffei, P; Dalla Pozza, A; Carli, M; Della Mea, P; Lupia, M; Rabbia, F; Sonino, N

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. No data on sympathovagal balance are available in patients with Cushing's syndrome, in whom cardiovascular risk is high. We studied 10 patients with newly diagnosed Cushing's syndrome (1 male/9 females; age mean+/-SD, 47+/-10 yr) and 10 control subjects matched for age, sex, body mass index, and cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups there were 7 patients with arterial hypertension, 3 with diabetes mellitus, and 2 with obesity. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by analysis of short time heart rate variability (HRV) measures in frequency domain over 24-h, daytime, and nighttime. The 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and echocardiography were also performed. In comparison with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome had lower 24-h (1.3+/-0.6 vs 3.7+/-1.5, mean+/-SD, p<0.01), daytime (2.0+/-1.4 vs 4.5+/-1.6, p<0.01), and night-time (1.0+/-0.4 vs 3.5+/-2.3, p<0.01) low-frequency/ high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio. In the presence of similar LF power, the difference was due to elevation in HF power in Cushing's syndrome compared to controls: 24-h, 12.7+/-6.7 vs 5.8+/-2.8, p<0.01; daytime, 10.2+/-7.3 vs 4.5+/-2.1, p<0.05; nighttime, 14.2+/-7.0 vs 7.8+/-4.7, p<0.05. Eight Cushing patients vs 4 controls had a non-dipping blood pressure profile. At echocardiography, Cushing patients had a greater left ventricular mass index and/or relative wall thickness, and impaired diastolic function, compared with controls. Compared to controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome showed a sympathovagal imbalance, characterized by a relatively increased parasympathetic activity. Whether this autonomic alteration is meant to counterbalance cortisol-induced effects on blood pressure and cardiac structure/function or has a different pathophysiological significance is still unknown. PMID:19337014

  12. Thyroid function after treatment of brain tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvy-Stuart, A L; Shalet, S M; Gattamaneni, H R

    1991-11-01

    In 134 children who had been treated for a brain tumor not involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid function was assessed up to 24 years after treatment with cranial or craniospinal irradiation. In addition, 78 children received up to 2 years of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Of 85 children who received craniospinal irradiation, 30 (35%) had abnormalities of thyroid function, and 10 (20%) of 49 who received cranial irradiation had such abnormalities. Frank hypothyroidism developed in three children and thyrotoxicosis in one. Thirty-six children had an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level in the presence of a normal thyroxine level; in 16 of them the thyroid-stimulating hormone level subsequently returned to normal. Twenty-eight children who were treated between 1960 and 1970 were excluded from the analysis. Of 34 children who received cranial irradiation, five had thyroid dysfunction and 24 of 72 who received craniospinal irradiation had such dysfunction (p = 0.013). Thyroid dysfunction was present in 4 of 35 children who received no chemotherapy and in 25 of 71 who received chemotherapy (p = 0.014). Direct irradiation plus chemotherapy was more damaging than irradiation alone. These data confirm the high incidence of thyroid dysfunction when the thyroid gland is included in the radiation field. However, in a high proportion, the thyroid abnormalities are minor and revert to normal with time; life-long replacement therapy with thyroxine may be unnecessary. PMID:1941379

  13. Progress in standardizing and harmonizing thyroid function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faix, James D; Miller, W Greg

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormone. Because thyroid hormone synthesis is affected by iodine deficiency on the one hand and by excess iodine intake on the other, thyroid function biomarkers may be useful for assessing iodine status and studying the effects of iodine supplementation. However, reference intervals for some of the most useful thyroid function biomarkers, including serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroglobulin, vary widely due to variability in the commercially available immunoassays for these tests. Recognizing the need for standardization of thyroid function testing, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine established a working group, later restructured as the Committee for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests, to examine its feasibility. The committee has established a conventional reference measurement procedure for FT4 and an approach to harmonization of results for TSH. Panels of single-donation human blood specimens that span the measuring interval of the immunoassays were used to assess the performance of commercially available immunoassays and form the basis for their recalibration. Recalibration of the manufacturers' methods for both FT4 and TSH has shown that the variability among immunoassays can be successfully eliminated for euthyroid individuals as well as for patients with thyroid disease. The committee is not investigating the standardization of thyroglobulin at the present time. PMID:27534642

  14. Clinical Assessment of Cardiovascular and Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Benitez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-invasive virtual medical instrument for the clinical assessment of cardiovascular and autonomic function. The virtual instrument was developed with the aim of analysing and understanding the physiological changes that occurs in the heart and circulation during vasovagal blackout attacks. The automated virtual instrument allows impedance cardiography analysis, time and frequency heart rate and blood pressure variability analysis, invasive and non-invasive baroreflex sensitivity assessment and forearm blood flow measurements. Using this virtual instrument five control subjects (3 male, mean age 30.6 ± 5.4 and five vasovagal syncope suffers (2 male, mean age 38.6 ± 6.3 were used in a study to try to identify the differences between the two groups to tilt induced syncope. The results obtained suggest that there are fundamental differences in the physiological responses to orthostatic stress between vasovagal patients and controls, which are evident before the onset of major haemodynamic changes.

  15. Pathophysiological aspects of recent advances in current thyroid function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper first discusses thyroid function and thyroid ''status'', which is determined by thyroid gland function in secreting T4, and peripheral bio-transformation of T4. The accuracy of a current in-vitro diagnostic strategy ensures high reliability in clinical routine. More recent test procedures for iodothyronines and immunological phenomena need further evaluation. Later, the bio-transformation of T4 to bioactive and regulatory iodothyronines is discussed with respect to its possible clinical implications. Finally, the significance of TBG in the interpretation of T4 and T3 concentrations is determined and more attention is directed to its functional heterogeneity. (author)

  16. Pathophysiology of recent advances in current thyroid function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first chapter I have discussed thyroid function and thyroid status which is determined by thyroid gland function in secreting T4 and peripheral biotransformation of T4. The accuracy of a current in-vitro diagnostic strategy allows high reliability in clinical routine. More recent test procedures for iodothyronines and immunological phenomena need further evaluation. In another chapter the biotransformation of T4 to bioactive and regulatory iodothyronines with respect to possible clinical implications is discussed. Finally, the role of TBG for interpration of T4 and T3 concentrations is determined and more attention directed to its functional heterogeneity. (orig.)

  17. A study of autonomic function tests in obese people

    OpenAIRE

    Rinku Garg, Varun Malhotra, Neera Goel, Usha Dhar, Yogesh Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is one of the common significant health hazards and is associated with autonomic dysfunction. Aims and objectives: The present study was designed to assess the underlying autonomic neuropathy in obese subjects and to compare it with age-matched controls. Material and Methods: Thirty obese subjects in the age group of 21-40 years were recruited for the study. Six non-invasive autonomic function tests were performed out of which four were based mainly on parasympathetic cont...

  18. Thyroid tumors and thyroid function in women exposed to internal and external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of tumors and other conditions of the thyroid gland were examined in 686 female radium dial workers first employed before 1930, who had a radium body-burden measurement while living (1958-76). If one assumed that the two thyroid cancers ascertained were radiation-induced and that a linear dose-response relationship existed, the estimated thyroid cancer risk was 69 (4-124, 95% confidence range) per 10(6) person-rem thyroid dose equivalent from internal and external radiation. Using data from the Connecticut tumor registry to obtain expected numbers of thyroid cancer, the estimated risk (2 observed vs. 0.67 expected cases) was 46 (95% confidence interval = -19 to 101) excess cases per 10(6) person-rem. Risk estimates were based on crude estimates of external radiation exposure and uncertain quality factors for internal radiation from alpha particles ingested. The frequencies of benign tumor (adenoma), nodules, and goiters were not significantly higher in the higher thyroid-dose groups (5-19, greater than or equal to 20 or greater than or equal to 50 rem) than in the lowest dose group (less than 5 rem). In 1237 female dial workers first employed before 1930, with or without a radium body-burden measurement, no deaths due to thyroid cancer (underlying cause of death on death certificates) were observed during 1950-76, when 0.4 deaths were expected. In a subgroup of 84 Illinois female dial workers who were long-term survivors, means for thyroid function test (T3 resin uptake and free thyroxine index) results did not differ among the thyroid-dose groups

  19. Autonomic and endocrine control of cardiovascular function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard; Gordan; Judith; K; Gwathmey; Lai-Hua; Xie

    2015-01-01

    The function of the heart is to contract and pump oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs.To achieve this goal,a normal human heart must beat regularly and continuously for one’s entire life.Heartbeats originate from the rhythmic pacing discharge from the sinoatrial(SA) node within the heart itself.In the absence of extrinsic neural or hormonal influences,the SA node pacing rate would be about 100 beats per minute.Heart rate and cardiac output,however,must vary in response to the needs of the body’s cells for oxygen and nutrients under varying conditions.In order to respond rapidly to the changing requirements of the body’s tissues,the heart rate and contractility are regulated by the nervous system,hormones,and other factors.Here we review how the cardiovascular system is controlled and influenced by not only a unique intrinsic system,but is also heavily influenced by the autonomic nervous system as well as the endocrine system.

  20. The association between hypoechogenicity or irregular echo pattern at thyroid ultrasonography and thyroid function in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, Pernille; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Patients with overt hypothyroidism show decreased echogenicity of the thyroid at ultrasonography (US). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between echogenicity of the thyroid/irregular echo pattern, and thyroid function in the general population, i.e. subjects...... without overt thyroid disease. Design: A cross-sectional investigation of 4649 randomly selected adult subjects. Methods: Blood samples were analysed for serum TSH, thyroid hormones and thyroid autoantibodies. US of the thyroid was performed. Results: Participants with decreased echogenicity (n = 379) had...... level of TSH; more subjects with high levels of TSH had decreased echogenicity (P <0.0001). Likewise, more subjects with high levels of TSH had an irregular echo pattern (P <0.0001). Subjects with decreased echogenicity had a higher risk of having thyroid autoantibodies than subjects without decreased...

  1. Association of parathyroid adenoma and autonomous nodule of the thyroid. Diagnostic efficacy of 201thallium-sup(99m)technetium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thallium-technetium subtraction technique, proposed originally by Ferlin and co-workers, is now widely used to localize parathyroid adenoma. We report here the case of a hypercalcemic women, referred to our ward with the biologically assessed diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. Thallium-technetium substraction scintigraphy not only successfully localized the parathyroid adenoma but alsorevealed the existence of an autonomous nodule of the thyroid, which was not suspected. It has previously been shown that this method can localize parathyroid adenoma in cases of cold thyroid nodule. This report shows that this is also true in the case of hot thyroid nodule. No observations of concomitant parathyroid adenoma and autonomous nodule of the thyroid have been reported (at least during the two past decades). Is this association casual or has it never been raticed. Further examinations can be performed with thallium when a hot thyroid is found in a hypercalcemic patient. (orig.)

  2. Thyroid scintigraphy in diagnosis of multinodular euthyroid goiter and functional thyroid autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Fadeyev

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. To estimate the meaning of thyroid suppression test as the method for diagnosis of functional thyroid autonomy (FA. Materials and methods. The main group consisted of 50 patients (46 females, 4 males older 40 yrs with multinodular euthyroid whose basal scintigraphy demonstrated one or more areas of increased Tc 99m thyroid uptake. Twenty two individuals of control group (27.5 [23; 38.75] yrs with no thyroid abnormalities underwent only basal thyroid scintigraphy. Thyroid suppression test protocol for the main group included 10 - 14 days of 2 μg/kg L-thyroxin (L-T4 intake prior to repeated scintigraphy under suppression. Results. Basal TcTU in control group was significantly lower (1.51% [1.16; 1.76] than in the main group (1.67% [1.4; 2.2]. TcTU of the main group did not correlate with thyroid volume (r = 0.012; p = 0.9, “hot” nodule volume (r = 0.08; p = 0.5, TSH (r = 0.026; p = 0.9, and thyroid hormones levels. Thyroid suppression test reviled FA in 62% (31/50 patients. TcTU under suppression (TcTUs in the main group of 50 patients was 0.87% [0.76; 0.87]; it was significantly lower than TcTU (W = 1275; p < 0.001. TcTUs did not depend upon thyroid volume (r = -0.097; p = 0.501, in contrast to TcTU it was a weak negative correlation with basal TSH level (r = -0.328; p = 0.020, a weak positive correlation with basal fT4 (r = 0.38; p = 0.007 and fT3 levels (r = 0.54; p < 0.001, moderate positive correlation with “hot” nodules volume. Comparing the patients who developed thyrotoxicosis with those who stayed euthyroid showed that the usage of Tc 99m uptake decrease degree (% while suppression from the basal, but not TcTUs, is more effective for individual prognosis of thyrotoxicosis development. Patients who demonstrate the decrease of Tc 99m uptake less than 30-35% while thyroid suppression test have the biggest risk of FA decompensation and thyrotoxicosis development independently of absolute TcTUs values.

  3. The correct renal function evaluation in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeoni, Mariadelina; Cerantonio, Annamaria; Pastore, Ida; Liguori, Rossella; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Gulletta, Elio; Brunetti, Antonio; Fuiano, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    Thyroid dysfunction induces several renal derangements involving all nephron portions. Furthermore, dysthyroidism is a recognized risk factor associated with the development of chronic kidney disease. Current data, in fact, demonstrate that either subclinical or overt thyroid disease is associated with significant changes in creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, measured glomerular filtration rate and Cystatin C. Herein, we systematically reviewed several relevant studies aiming at the identification of the most sensitive and specific parameter for the correct renal function evaluation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, that are usually treated as outpatients. Our systematic review indicates that estimated glomerular filtration rate, preferably with CKD-EPI equation, appears to be the most reliable and wieldy renal function parameter. Instead, Cystatin C should be better used in the grading of thyroid dysfunction severity. PMID:26511999

  4. Iodine nutrition and thyroid function in iodized salt supplied regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of different iodine nutrition on thyroid function in adult and pregnant women.Methods A random sampling method was used to select healthy adult and pregnant woman from the communities of coastal city,coastal rural and inland rural areas in Liaoning Province.Drinking water,urine and salt samples were collected to measure urinary iodine(UI),salt iodine(SI)and water iodine content.Fasting venous blood was collected to measure thyroid stimulate hormone

  5. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with

  6. Interconnection between thyroid hormone signalling pathways and parvovirus cytotoxic functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J

    1993-01-01

    Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. M...

  7. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and ...

  8. Double-isotope thyroid functional test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the radioimmunoassay one or two of the thyroid components T4, T3, TSH and TBG are labelled with 75Se and/or 125I. (For the labelled derivates many examples are given.) For measuring the concentration of the bound fractions a double-channel counter is used. (DG)

  9. A population study of the association between thyroid autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Laurberg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Jorgensen, T.; Perrild, H.; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke

    2005-01-01

    autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure, and to study the thyroid volume in subjects with subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. Design A population study including 4649 randomly selected subjects. Measurements Blood tests were used to analyse for thyroid peroxidase......Objective Patients with autoimmune overt hypothyroidism may present with goitrous Hashimoto's disease or autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis. Little is known about the prevalence of subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between thyroid...... autoantibodies (TPO-Ab), thyroglobulin autoantibodies (Tg-Ab), TSH, fT3 and fT4. Results Thyroid volume was categorized as small (<6.6 ml) in 4.7%, normal (6.6-14.9 ml) in 60.4% and large (> 14.9 ml) in 34.9% of participants. Thyroid nodules were found in 29.7%. Serum TSH was low (<0.4 mIU/l) in 4.7%, normal (0...

  10. Preclinical and clinical evaluation of autonomic function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2016-07-15

    This review focuses on how to assess autonomic function in humans including various ways to measure heart rate, catecholamines, and sympathetic neural activity. The need to assess autonomic function is paramount in many experimental paradigms because of the following. (1) Autonomic dysfunction is present in common diseases like hypertension, diabetes and heart failure, and the magnitude of this dysfunction is broadly related to morbidity and mortality in these disorders. (2) The relationship between autonomic dysfunction and morbidity and mortality can be causal. (3) Interventions that modulate or reverse autonomic dysfunction can improve outcomes in the affected patients. The techniques discussed are also frequently used to understand the autonomic response to sympathoexcitatory manoeuvres like exercise, the cold pressor test or mental stress. Because these manoeuvres can engage a variety of sensory and efferent pathways, under some circumstances the physiological responses measured by many of the techniques are directionally similar, in others they are divergent. Thus any investigator seeking to study the autonomic nervous system or its contribution to either normal physiology or pathophysiological conditions must carefully balance a number of considerations to ensure that the right technique is used to address the question of interest. PMID:27098282

  11. Exercise and autonomic function in health and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwinkel, E T; Bloomfield, D M; Arwady, M A; Goldsmith, R L

    2001-08-01

    Autonomic nervous system activity contributes to the regulation of cardiac output during rest, exercise, and cardiovascular disease. Measurement of HRV has been particularly useful in assessing parasympathetic activity, while its utility for assessing sympathetic function and overall sympathovagal balance remains controversial. Studies have revealed that parasympathetic tone dominates the resting state, while exercise is associated with prompt withdrawal of vagal tone and subsequent sympathetic activation. Conversely, recovery is characterized by parasympathetic activation followed by sympathetic withdrawal, although clarification of the normal trajectory and autonomic basis of heart rate decay following exercise is needed. Abnormalities in autonomic physiology--especially increased sympathetic activity, attenuated vagal tone, and delayed heart rate recovery--have been associated with increased mortality. Exercise training is associated with a relative enhancement of vagal tone, improved heart rate recovery after exercise, and reduced morbidity in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, whether exercise training leads to reduced mortality in this population because of its ability to specifically modulate autonomic function is unknown at the present time. Although the results of a recent randomized study in patients with CHF and a meta-analysis in the setting of a recent myocardial infarction determined that exercise training leads to improved outcomes in these populations, neither study measured autonomic function. Improved autonomic function due to exercise training is a promising rationale for explaining improvements in outcome, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:11570111

  12. Thyroid function tests during carbimazole therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, D L; Tymms, D. J.; M. A. Taylor; Chapman, C

    1980-01-01

    Changes in plasma thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine index (FT4I) and thyroid stimulating hormone were studied in 100 patients with Graves' disease treated with carbimazole. During therapy plasma T3 concentrations were disproportionately high compared to those of T4, the T4 : T3 ratio was low, and many patients were clinically euthyroid with a normal plasma T3 but low T4 concentration. Although there was considerable individual variation in response, the order of response w...

  13. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WEIYUAN MA; PENGXIN ZHAO; LEILEI ZANG; KAILI ZHANG; HAIYING LIAO; ZHIGANG HU

    2016-09-01

    HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays animportant role in coordinating diverse cellular processes. It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer typeand its functions in tumorigenesis remain controversial. The potential tumour suppressive role of HUWE1 in thyroidcancer development was investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, WRO,FTC133 and BCPAP, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, scratch wound healing andinvasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour suppressive properties of HUWE1.Small-interfering RNA mediated knockdown of HUWE1 promoted cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion inthyroid cancer cells. Overexpression of HUWE1 conferred partial sensitivity to chemo drugs interfering with DNAreplication in these cells. Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissuescompared with matched normal thyroid tissues. In addition, overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumourgrowth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that HUWE1 can regulate p53protein level through its stabilization. HUWE1 functions as a tumour suppressor in thyroid cancer progression, whichmay represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of thyroid cancer.

  14. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Aakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study. In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L, respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight.

  15. Multifactorial determinants of cognition — Thyroid function is not the only one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Moncayo

    2015-06-01

    General significance: Cognition is a complex process that depends on many determinants and not only on thyroid function. Magnesium deficiency appears to be a basic mechanism for changes in thyroid function as well as of cognition.

  16. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert; Andersen, Stig; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Carlé, Allan

    2010-01-01

    associated with such adaptation leads to thyroid growth, and during follicular cell proliferation there is a tendency to mutations leading to multifocal autonomous growth and function. In populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, such multifocal autonomous thyroid function is a common cause of...... thyroid function by high levels of iodine is especially common in people affected by thyroid autoimmunity (Hashimoto's thyroiditis). In populations with high iodine intake, the average serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) tends to increase with age. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in Caucasian......Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...

  17. Thyroid organotypic rat and human cultures used to investigate drug effects on thyroid function, hormone synthesis and release pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug induced thyroid effects were evaluated in organotypic models utilizing either a rat thyroid lobe or human thyroid slices to compare rodent and human response. An inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) function led to a perturbation in the expression of key genes in thyroid hormone synthesis and release pathways. The clinically used thiourea drugs, methimazole (MMI) and 6-n-propyl-2-thioruacil (PTU), were used to evaluate thyroid drug response in these models. Inhibition of TPO occurred early as shown in rat thyroid lobes (2 h) and was sustained in both rat (24–48 h) and human (24 h) with ≥ 10 μM MMI. Thyroid from rats treated with single doses of MMI (30–1000 mg/kg) exhibited sustained TPO inhibition at 48 h. The MMI in vivo thyroid concentrations were comparable to the culture concentrations (∼ 15–84 μM), thus demonstrating a close correlation between in vivo and ex vivo thyroid effects. A compensatory response to TPO inhibition was demonstrated in the rat thyroid lobe with significant up-regulation of genes involved in the pathway of thyroid hormone synthesis (Tpo, Dio1, Slc5a5, Tg, Tshr) and the megalin release pathway (Lrp2) by 24 h with MMI (≥ 10 μM) and PTU (100 μM). Similarly, thyroid from the rat in vivo study exhibited an up-regulation of Dio1, Slc5a5, Lrp2, and Tshr. In human thyroid slices, there were few gene expression changes (Slc5a5, ∼ 2-fold) and only at higher MMI concentrations (≥ 1500 μM, 24 h). Extended exposure (48 h) resulted in up-regulation of Tpo, Dio1 and Lrp2, along with Slc5a5 and Tshr. In summary, TPO was inhibited by similar MMI concentrations in rat and human tissue, however an increased sensitivity to drug treatment in rat is indicated by the up-regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis and release gene pathways at concentrations found not to affect human tissue. -- Highlights: ► Novel model of rat thyroid or human thyroid slices to evaluate pathways of injury. ► TPO inhibition by MMI or PTU altered

  18. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:27221367

  19. Pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Olympia; Moran, Carla; Halsall, David; Chatterjee, Krishna; Gurnell, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are amongst the most commonly requested laboratory investigations in both primary and secondary care. Fortunately, most TFTs are straightforward to interpret and confirm the clinical impression of euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. However, in an important subgroup of patients the results of TFTs can seem confusing, either by virtue of being discordant with the clinical picture or because they appear incongruent with each other [e.g. raised thyroid hormones (TH), but with non-suppressed thyrotropin (TSH); raised TSH, but with normal TH]. In such cases, it is important first to revisit the clinical context, and to consider potential confounding factors, including alterations in normal physiology (e.g. pregnancy), intercurrent (non-thyroidal) illness, and medication usage (e.g. thyroxine, amiodarone, heparin). Once these have been excluded, laboratory artefacts in commonly used TSH or TH immunoassays should be screened for, thus avoiding unnecessary further investigation and/or treatment in cases where there is assay interference. In the remainder, consideration should be given to screening for rare genetic and acquired disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis [e.g. resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), thyrotropinoma (TSHoma)]. Here, we discuss the main pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of TFTs, and propose a structured algorithm for the investigation and management of patients with anomalous/discordant TFTs. PMID:24275187

  20. Ultrasound-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation of an autonomous thyroid nodule: the introduction of a novel alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2003-09-01

    Radioiodine ((131)I) and surgery are the standard therapeutic options for the solitary autonomous thyroid nodule (AFTN). Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) has proven to be an effective technique and possible alternative to the conventional treatment options. However, PEI is not devoid of side effects and often necessitates multiple treatment sessions. We present a case of a 17-year-old female successfully treated with ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) for an AFTN. Initially, she had a serum thyrotropin (TSH) of 0.01 mU/L and normal peripheral thyroid hormone levels. Scintigraphically it was a hot nodule with suppression of extranodular uptake, and ultrasonographically it was a solitary solid 8.2-mL nodule. One treatment session (3 W for 650 seconds [1950 J]) normalized serum thyrotropin (TSH) level within 2 months and decreased the nodule volume to 4.9 mL (40% reduction) without further alterations during an additional 9 months of follow-up. Side effects were transient thyrotoxicosis and local pain as seen with PEI. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ILP used in a patient with a pretoxic thyroid nodule. US-guided thermic tissue coagulation with ILP could become a useful alternative for the AFTN in patients who cannot or will not undergo surgery or treatment with (131)I. PMID:14588105

  1. The effect of opium addiction on thyroid function tests

    OpenAIRE

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Mohammadzadeh, Elham; Divsalar, Kouros; Shokoohi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of abnormalities has been identified among drug addicted users especially heroin addicts. However, there are a few studies to assess the opium effects on thyroid hormones. the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of opium on the thyroid function tests. Method In this case–control, 50 male addicts, aged 20–50 years, with history of addiction to opium lasting more than two years, and 50 male non-addicts as control group were randomly selected. 10 cc blood sa...

  2. Thyroid function following neck irraidation for malignant lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.H.; Fayos, J.V.; Sisson, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid function tests for T/sub 3/ resin (T/sub 3/-r), serum thyroxine (T/sub 4/), and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in 70 consecutive patients who had previously undergone lymphangiography and neck irradiation for malignant lymphoma. All were in remission and clinically euthyroid. The abnormalities found were: 23 (33%) patients hypothyroid by TSH, 14 (20%) with subnormal T/sub 4/, and 21 (30%) with subnormal T/sub 3/-r values. None of the patients were biochemically hyperthyroid. The prevalence and magnitude of abnormalities were highest during the third year after irradiation, thereafter decreasing with time.

  3. Effect of drugs on the thyroid function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of drugs in the results of thyroid function tests, which could lead to misinterpretation of the real clinical state of the patients, are reviewed. The aspects of the metabolism of the thyreoidean hormones which could be related to these alterations are presented. (Author)

  4. Thyroid Function Test Imbalance in Epileptic Children Under Anticonvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad TORKAMAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Ravi Torkaman M, Amirsalari S, Saburi A. Thyroid Function Test Imbalance in Epileptic ChildrenUnder Anticonvulsive Therapy. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1:43-44. Dear Editor,There have been many studies regarding the impact of antiepileptic drugs(AEDs on thyroid function. There are some challenging scopes which must beconsidered for conducting the study adressing the focused question. “Which oneof the thyroid hormones is related to the AEDs consumption?”. Some studiesdemonstrated that there may be alterations in all thyroid function tests (T3, T4 andTSH after antiepileptic therapy in children (1. Some studies concluded that longtermprescription of anticonvulsive medications resulted in a decline in serum T4levels, although it had no effect on serum TSH levels. However, changes in serumT3 level was challenging and it must be investigated further (2.There were some confounding factors which may interfere with the conclusion.One of them is the type of the study. There are various study plans for this purposesuch as cross-sectional, case-control, experimental, self-controlled cohort anddouble-blind randomized clinical trial studies. It seems that the proper protocol ofstudy for this propose is a double-blind randomized clinical trial study. By usingother designs, the authors cannot interpret the effect of AEDs on thyroid function;however, they can discuss the prevalence of thyroid hormone imbalance and thecoordination among T3, T4 and TSH.Moreover, one of the confounding factors is the thyroid binding globulin (TBGeffect. It has appeared that some of the AEDs may change the amount of TBGand in this way may affect the amount of thyroid hormones (3. Clonazepamand valproic acid do not have any enzyme inducing effects, but phenobarbital,carbamazepine, phenytoin and primidone may induce the hepatic enzyme (4-6. Therefore, it seems necessary to analyze each group of patients based on thetype of drug which is

  5. Separation of autonomous function from cell density in non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism. Pt. 1. Quantification by double-isotope parametric scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new quantitative subtraction method of thyroid scans is proposed which shows that regional function (F) by far exceeds regional cellularity or cell density (C) in potentially toxic thyroidal areas of non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism (NH). A multistep processing of radioiodine and MIBI thyroid scans of patients with non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism led to normalized images of regional function excess and of perinodular enhancement. Two numeric factors were derived from regions of interest: Q (cell density ratio) comparing MIBI uptake in autonomous and suppressed areas and T (toxicity index): The maximal F/C contrast. Q never exceeded 61; T, however, expanded toxicity levels over a range of 6-8735 with toxic adenomas (median=165) and with hot areas of multifocal functional autonomy (median=15). T was weakly correlated to serum TT3 (r=0.41), but not to autonomous tissue mass, ultrasonographic or cytologic criteria. T is governed by inherent features of autonomous tissue and the response of the imbedded thyroid tissue to TSH stimulation. This standardized technique consolidates experiences from visual analysis; the huge T range mirrors the natural evolution from compensated autonomy towards hyperthyroid, decompensated stages. (orig.)

  6. Strategies of current thyroid function testing and it's cost-effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategies of current Thyroid Function Testing and Cost-Effect Analysis were reviewed. The sTSH IRMA is the keystone for confirmation and exclusion of thyroid dysfunction. The FT4 and FT3 RIA are useful assays. How to use the new strategies of thyroid function testing in China was also discussed

  7. μ-Crystallin controls muscle function through thyroid hormone action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Daiki; Ogawa, Shizuka; Li, Tao-Sheng; Taimura, Akihiro; Ono, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    μ-Crystallin (Crym), a thyroid hormone-binding protein, is abnormally up-regulated in the muscles of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, a dominantly inherited progressive myopathy. However, the physiologic function of Crym in skeletal muscle remains to be elucidated. In this study, Crym was preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle throughout the body. Crym-knockout mice exhibited a significant hypertrophy of fast-twitch glycolytic type IIb fibers, causing an increase in grip strength and high intensity running ability in Crym-null mice. Genetic inactivation of Crym or blockade of Crym by siRNA-mediated knockdown up-regulated the gene expression of fast-glycolytic contractile fibers in satellite cell-derived myotubes in vitro These alterations in Crym-inactivated muscle were rescued by inhibition of thyroid hormone, even though Crym is a positive regulator of thyroid hormone action in nonmuscle cells. The results demonstrated that Crym is a crucial regulator of muscle plasticity, controlling metabolic and contractile properties of myofibers, and thus the selective inactivation of Crym may be a potential therapeutic target for muscle-wasting diseases, such as muscular dystrophies and age-related sarcopenia.-Seko, D., Ogawa, S., Li, T.-S., Taimura, A., Ono, Y. μ-Crystallin controls muscle function through thyroid hormone action. PMID:26718889

  8. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

    2009-10-01

    Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant

  9. Cooperative Control for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Using Descriptor Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Niccolini; Lorenzo Pollini; Mario Innocenti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a novel methodology for the control management of a swarm of autonomous vehicles. The vehicles, or agents, may have different skills, and be employed for different missions. The methodology is based on the definition of descriptor functions that model the capabilities of the single agent and each task or mission. The swarm motion is controlled by minimizing a suitable norm of the error between agents’ descriptor functions and other descriptor functions which models the enti...

  10. Human Skin Hypoxia Modulates Cerebrovascular and Autonomic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Pucci; Clifford Qualls; Anne Battisti-Charbonney; Balaban, Dahlia Y.; Fisher, Joe A.; Jim Duffin; Otto Appenzeller

    2012-01-01

    Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the exp...

  11. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones; Der Schilddruesenknoten. TSH und periphere Hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, M. [Klinikum Hanau (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  12. Decrease of {sup 99m}Tc-uptake in autonomous thyroid tissue in Germany since the 1970s. Clinical implications for radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthardt, M.; Corstens, F.H.M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Stuebinger, M.; Pansegrau, J.; Buchwald, B.; Goecke, J.; Pfestroff, A.; Behr, T.M. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Marburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Aim: the clinical relevance of thyroidal autonomy, i.e. the risk of a patient to become hyperthyroid after exposure to iodine, can be estimated by measurement of the thyroidal {sup 99m}Tc uptake under suppression of TSH (TcTUs). The upper tolerable limit has been set to 2% some 25 years ago. Considering the increase in nutritional iodine uptake over the last 15 years, we wanted to find out if the TcTUs per ml of autonomous volume may have changed. Patients, methods: we performed a pilot study in 1166 randomly chosen patients from 1980-2003 with different kinds of benign thyroid disorders to determine changes in TcTU or TcTUs over time. A second analysis was performed in 1063 patients from 1987-2004 with unifocal autonomy (UFA). In these patients, the volume of the autonomous tissue can be determined precisely thus allowing for exact determination of TcTUs per ml of autonomous volume. Results: the pilot study demonstrated that the TcTUs or the TcTU has been falling over the last 25 years in all benign thyroid disorders (p < 0.01). The total thyroid volume has also been decreasing in all disorders. In the second analysis of UFA only, 500 from the 1063 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In these patients, the TcTUs per ml of autonomous volume has fallen from an average of 0.48% to an average of 0.28%. These results are statistically significant as determined by ANOVA testing (p = 0.032). Conclusion: as the TcTUs in relation to autonomous volume has dropped by approximately 40% over the last 25 years, the upper limit for a normal TcTUs should be reduced to 1-1.4%, dependent on regional factors. (orig.)

  13. Decrease of 99mTc-uptake in autonomous thyroid tissue in Germany since the 1970s. Clinical implications for radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: the clinical relevance of thyroidal autonomy, i.e. the risk of a patient to become hyperthyroid after exposure to iodine, can be estimated by measurement of the thyroidal 99mTc uptake under suppression of TSH (TcTUs). The upper tolerable limit has been set to 2% some 25 years ago. Considering the increase in nutritional iodine uptake over the last 15 years, we wanted to find out if the TcTUs per ml of autonomous volume may have changed. Patients, methods: we performed a pilot study in 1166 randomly chosen patients from 1980-2003 with different kinds of benign thyroid disorders to determine changes in TcTU or TcTUs over time. A second analysis was performed in 1063 patients from 1987-2004 with unifocal autonomy (UFA). In these patients, the volume of the autonomous tissue can be determined precisely thus allowing for exact determination of TcTUs per ml of autonomous volume. Results: the pilot study demonstrated that the TcTUs or the TcTU has been falling over the last 25 years in all benign thyroid disorders (p < 0.01). The total thyroid volume has also been decreasing in all disorders. In the second analysis of UFA only, 500 from the 1063 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In these patients, the TcTUs per ml of autonomous volume has fallen from an average of 0.48% to an average of 0.28%. These results are statistically significant as determined by ANOVA testing (p = 0.032). Conclusion: as the TcTUs in relation to autonomous volume has dropped by approximately 40% over the last 25 years, the upper limit for a normal TcTUs should be reduced to 1-1.4%, dependent on regional factors. (orig.)

  14. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiago, Adam; Binder, Devin K

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) into a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target. PMID:27537920

  15. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Basiago

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS into a well-established therapy for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target.

  16. Separation of autonomous function from cell density in non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism. Pt. 2. Quantified comparison before and after radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional autonomous cell mass (Q: cell density ratio) and function (T: toxicity index) were compared by double isotope parametric thyroid scintigraphy (Als et al., Nucl. Med. 1995; 34) in 53 patients with non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism before and after radioiodine therapy (aRIT) and showed a break-down (medians) of Q: 4.3→1.0 (toxic adenomas: TA), 2→1.1 (multifocal functional autonomies: MFA) (p1 may represent a clinically sub-critical mass of residual autonomous tissue. This new technique facilitates individual pretherapeutic evaluations and aRIT quality control. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of autonomic function in untreated adult coeliac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gian Marco Giorgetti; Antonio Tursi; Cesare Iani; Flavio Arciprete; Giovanni Brandimarte; Ambrogio Capria; Luigi Fontana

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Some recent studies showed that alteration of upper-gut motility in coeliac disease may be related to dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. The aim of our study was to investigate whether autonomic nervous system was altered in untreated and unselected coeliac disease patients.METHODS: We studied 8 untreated and consecutive coeliac disease patients (2 males and 6 females, age range 37±14.5 years). Histological evaluation of duodenal mucosa, anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA), antiendomysial antibodies (EMA) and anti-tTG antibodies and sorbitol H2 breath test were performed in all patients. Extrinsic autonomic neuropathy was assessed by the standardized measurement of cardiovascular reflexes (lying-to-standing, Valsalva manoeuvre, deep breathing, sustained handgrip). The results obtained were compared with a healthy, asymptomatic control group (6 males and 7females, age range 42.3±13.5 years). RESULTS: Coeliac patients exhibited a lower increase of PAS as a response to isometric effort, a reduction of spectral power LF as a response to clinostatic position, but without statistical significance. Also they showed a lower tolerance to orthostatic position, associated with a latent disequilibrium of sympathetic-vagal balance, a relative prevalence of parasympathetic component of the autonomic function. However, these results were not statistically significant when compared with control group (P = n.s.). And they were unchanged after 6 and 12 mo of gluten-free diet.CONCLUSION: This study failed to confirm a significant correlation between autonomic dysfunction and coeliac disease, yet we could not exclude a role of autonomic dysfunction in the genesis of systemic symptoms in some coeliacs.

  18. Antithyroid Antibodies and Thyroid Function in Pediatric Patients with Celiac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease, persistence of antithyroid antibodies, effect of gluten-free diet, and long-term outcome of thyroid function in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). Methods. 67 patients with CD aged from 1 year to 16 years were screened for thyroid antithyroperoxidase, antithyroglobulin and anti-TSH receptor antibodies, serum free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) at diagno...

  19. Identifying functional thermodynamics in autonomous Maxwellian ratchets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alexander B.; Mandal, Dibyendu; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a family of Maxwellian Demons for which correlations among information bearing degrees of freedom can be calculated exactly and in compact analytical form. This allows one to precisely determine Demon functional thermodynamic operating regimes, when previous methods either misclassify or simply fail due to approximations they invoke. This reveals that these Demons are more functional than previous candidates. They too behave either as engines, lifting a mass against gravity by extracting energy from a single heat reservoir, or as Landauer erasers, consuming external work to remove information from a sequence of binary symbols by decreasing their individual uncertainty. Going beyond these, our Demon exhibits a new functionality that erases bits not by simply decreasing individual-symbol uncertainty, but by increasing inter-bit correlations (that is, by adding temporal order) while increasing single-symbol uncertainty. In all cases, but especially in the new erasure regime, exactly accounting for informational correlations leads to tight bounds on Demon performance, expressed as a refined Second Law of thermodynamics that relies on the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for dynamical processes and not on changes purely in system configurational entropy, as previously employed. We rigorously derive the refined Second Law under minimal assumptions and so it applies quite broadly—for Demons with and without memory and input sequences that are correlated or not. We note that general Maxwellian Demons readily violate previously proposed, alternative such bounds, while the current bound still holds. As such, it broadly describes the minimal energetic cost of any computation by a thermodynamic system.

  20. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Lindström, Emma Sofie; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Frisch, Thomas; Main, Katharina M.; Bendtzen, Klaus; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)) on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg) secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor) by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells. PMID:26985823

  1. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells.

  2. Cardiac autonomic functions in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Murat; Kır, Mustafa; Makay, Balahan; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Bora, Elçin; Ünsal, Erbil; Ünal, Nurettin

    2016-05-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common inherited autoinflammatory disease in the world. The long-term effects of subclinical inflammation in FMF are not well recognized. Some studies have suggested that FMF is associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction in adult FMF patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiac autonomic functions in pediatric FMF patients by using several autonomic tests. Thirty-five patients with FMF and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Demographic data, disease-specific data, and orthostatic symptoms were recorded. In all participants, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG), 24 h ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill exercise test, and head upright tilt-table (HUTT) test were performed. The heart rate recovery (HRR) indices of the two groups were similar. Also, chronotropic response was similar in both groups. The time-domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were similar in both groups, except mean RR (p = 0.024). Frequencies of ventricular and supraventricular ectopic stimuli were similar in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in average QT and average corrected QT interval length, average QT interval dispersion, and average QT corrected dispersion. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the ratio of clinical dysautonomic reactions on HUTT. However, we observed a significantly higher rate of dysautonomic reactions on HUTT in patients with exertional leg pain than that in patients without (p = 0.013). When the fractal dimension of time curves were compared, FMF patients exhibited significantly lower diastolic blood pressure parameters than controls in response to HUTT. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in children with FMF is not prominent. Particularly, patients with exertional leg pain are more prone to have dysautonomic features

  3. Non-autonomous morse-decomposition and Lyapunov functions for gradient-like processes

    OpenAIRE

    Aragão Costa, Eder Ritis; Caraballo Garrido, Tomás; Carvalho, Alexandre Nolasco; Langa Rosado, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We define (time dependent) Morse-decompositions for non-autonomous evolution processes (non-autonomous dynamical systems) and prove that a non-autonomous gradient-like evolution process possesses a Morsedecomposition on the associated pullback attractor. We also prove the existence of an associated Lyapunov function which describes the gradient behavior of the system. Finally, we apply these abstract results to non-autonomous perturbations of autonomous gradient-like evolution processes (s...

  4. New Developments in Radioisotopic In Vitro Thyroid Function Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current views on thyroid hormone transport are summarized. Recent work suggests that thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA) plays only a minor part in thyroxine transport. It is doubtful whether changes in the concentration of this protein are of importance in determining the concentration of free thyroxine. Various methods for measuring T3 uptake are compared. These tests provide information about the number of unoccupied binding sites on thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and this information is best utilized in conjunction with a PBI or serum thyroxine determination. The measurement of serum thyroxine by competitive protein binding analysis has certain advantages over the PBI, and is a useful addition to existing thyroid function tests. Various methods for the measurement of free thyroxine are outlined. The use of a free thyroxine factor is a simpler alternative to the direct measurement of free thyroxine. (author)

  5. Study of eventual alterations of the thyroid function in the irradiation of head-and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid function of forty-one patients with head and neck tumors, submmited to radiotherapy, were analyzed before and after the treatment through radioassay, thyroid uptake and thyroid scanning. The pathophysiology of the gland irradiated is analysed and the almost absence of modifications of the thyroid function is reported. (Author)

  6. Evaluation of hearing functions in patients with euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduc, Ayse; Isık, Serhat; Allusoglu, Serpil; Iriz, Ayse; Dogan, Bercem Aycicek; Gocer, Celil; Tuna, Mazhar Muslim; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2015-12-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss has been reported in various autoimmune diseases. The relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and the auditory system has not been previously evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effect of euthyroid HT on the hearing ability of adult patients. The study included 30 patients with newly diagnosed euthyroid HT and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry, and they were negative for rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, anti-smooth muscle, antimitochondrial, antineutrophilcytoplasmic, and antigliadin antibodies. Pure tone audiometry exams at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz) were performed in both groups. Thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg) levels were higher in HT group while TSH, free T4, free T3, plasma electrolytes, glucose, lipid profile, vitamin B12, and blood pressure measurements were similar between the two groups. Higher audiometric thresholds and a higher prevalence of hearing loss at 250, 500, and 6000 Hz were detected in the HT patients than in the healthy controls (P functions are impaired in HT patients. Thyroid autoimmunity seems to have an important impact on a decreased hearing ability, particularly at lower frequencies, in this population of patients. PMID:25963023

  7. A study of cardiovascular autonomic function in normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana Panja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the physiological responses to noninvasive cardiovascular autonomic function tests in normal pregnancy and compare them with non- pregnant controls. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of 90 apparently healthy, pregnant women divided equally into three groups based on their period of gestation and 30 otherwise healthy, non-pregnant women as controls. The standard autonomic function tests based on cardiovascular reflexes, including heart rate response tests and blood pressure response tests were performed. Result: It was observed that variability of mean between and within all the population groups and controls was significantly different. Multiple comparison analysis revealed a significantly lower Deep Breathing Difference in pregnant subjects, significant difference in Valsalva Ratio in third trimester group, a significantly lower Postural Tachycardia Index only during last trimester and a significantly higher fall in systolic blood pressure on standing only during 1st trimester. A significantly lower alteration in diastolic blood pressure during isometric handgrip in later trimesters and a significant increase in overall cardiovascular autonomic score between and within all groups were also observed. Conclusion: The observations serve to corroborate that the cardiovascular indices in pregnant women are significantly altered in comparison to non-pregnant women, thus highlighting the importance of cardiovascular monitoring during pregnancy. The study also helped to reaffirm the efficacy of simple cardiovascular reflex tests in research on pregnancy physiology.

  8. Marine-Lenhart syndrome with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulusi Atmaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease with accompanying functioning nodules is known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs also within Graves′ thyroid tissue are almost always bening in nature. A 45-year-old man developed hyperthyroidism due to the coexistence of Graves′ disease and AFTN. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The hyperfunctioning nodule with centrally hypoactive foci detected by technetium-99m thyroid scanning was histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that was 2.5 cm in diameter. We report the presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma within AFTN in patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, which has not been reported so far.

  9. Study on the autonomic dispersion cooperation function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to conduct to further promoting study under the research results of nuclear energy basic crossover study of ''Artificial intelligence for nuclear energy'' started under a five-year plan from fiscal year of 1989. In detail, it was conducted to pay an attention for the system of monitoring if autonomic dispersion cooperation function containing plant operation, robot group action and others does its correct function, to promote the study on a system technique to propose some informations widely to its operator on cooperation, judgement process, judgement results and others between artificial intelligence agencies dispersed everywhere. Concretely, some investigations were also conducted on integration with study on agent technique, study on systemization technique, and study executed in the other institute joining to the crossover study. Present study has been promoted under a five-year plan on 6 thema shown as follows: 1) Study on stepwise expression technique of the autonomic function, 2) Study on action state expression technique of the dispersion cooperation function, 3) Study on expression technique of decision making process, 4) Integration with operation control system, 5) Integration with maintenance control system, and 6) Comprehensive evaluation experiment. In fiscal year of 1995, upgrading of image displaying function using three dimensional image displayer for a part of plant state expression technique and trial production and investigation of plan state automatic classifying function were conducted. (G.K.)

  10. Cardiac Autonomic Function in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cheng-Yu; Kung, Woon-Man; Chou, Yi-Sheng; Wang, Yao-Chin; Tai, Hsu-Chih; Wei, James Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involing spine and enthesis. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function and the association between ANS and the functional status or disease activity in AS. The study included 42 AS patients, all fulfilling the modified New York criteria. All the patients are totally symptom free for ANS involvement and had normal neurological findings. These AS patients and 230 healthy volunteers receive analysis of 5 minutes heart rate variability (HRV) in lying posture. In addition, disease activity and functional status of these AS patients are assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G). Both groups were age and sex-matched. Although the HRV analysis indicates that the peaks of total power (TP, 0–0.5 Hz) and high-frequency power (HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz) are similar in both groups, the activities of low-frequency power (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz), LF in normalized units (LF%), and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) in AS patients are obviously lower than healthy controls. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein revealed negative relationship with HF. The AS patients without peripheral joint disease have higher LF, TP, variance, LF%, and HF than the patients with peripheral joint disease. The AS patients without uvetis have higher HF than the patients with uvetis. The total scores of BASDI, BASFI, and BAS-G do not show any association to HRV parameters. AS patients have significantly abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation. This is closely related with some inflammatory activities. Reduced autonomic function may be one of the factors of high cardiovascular risk in AS patients. PMID:27227940

  11. [Modification of endocrine function of trophoblasts by thyroid hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, H; Maruo, T; Hayashi, M; Mochizuki, M

    1991-11-01

    Direct effects of L-triiodothyronine(T3) on placental endocrine function were investigated in vitro with an organ culture system for human placental tissues. Explants of trophoblastic tissues obtained from early and term placentas were cultured with or without graded doses of T3 in a serum-free condition. The addition of an optimal concentration of T3(10(-3) M T3) stimulated daily secretion of progesterone and estradiol from cultured early placental tissues by acting at the level of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and aromatase enzyme activity, together with the enhancement of hCG(alpha, beta) and hPL secretion. The addition of higher or lower concentrations of T3 gave attenuated effects and the addition of an excessive concentration of T3(10(-3) M T3) resulted in remarkable inhibition of progesterone and estradiol secretion by cultured early placental tissues. These results suggest that the optimal concentration of thyroid hormone acts as a biological amplifier of endocrine function of cultured trophoblasts obtained from early placentas. Unlike the early placental tissues, cultured term placental tissues did not respond to the addition of graded doses of T3 with increased endocrine function. Thus, the frequent occurrence of spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy during the state of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may represent a direct consequence of inadequate thyroid hormone availability at the level of the trophoblast, followed by diminished endocrine function of early placental trophoblasts. PMID:1940550

  12. Leader-follower function for autonomous military convoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Laurent; Lecointe, Olivier; Dento, Jerome; Cherfaoui, Nourrdine; Marion, Vincent; Morillon, Joel G.

    2004-09-01

    The French Military Robotic Study Program (introduced in Aerosense 2003), sponsored by the French Defense Procurement Agency and managed by Thales Airborne Systems as the prime contractor, focuses on about 15 robotic themes which can provide an immediate "operational added value." The paper details the "robotic convoy" theme (named TEL1), which main purpose is to develop a robotic leader-follower function so that several unmanned vehicles can autonomously follow teleoperated, autonomous or on-board driven leader. Two modes have been implemented: Perceptive follower: each autonomous follower anticipates the trajectory of the vehicle in front of it, thanks to a dedicated perception equipment. This mode is mainly based on the use of perceptive data, without any communication link between leader and follower (to lower the cost of future mass development and extend the operational capabilities). Delayed follower: the leader records its path and transmits it to the follower; the follower is able to follow the recorded trajectory again at any delayed time. This mode uses localization data got from inertial measurements. The paper presents both modes with detailed algorithms and the results got from the military acceptance tests performed on wheeled 4x4 vehicles (DARDS French ATD).

  13. Thallium-201 distribution in the thyroid: relationship to thyroidal trapping function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the behavior of thallium-201 in the thyroid in relation to the iodide-trapping mechanism in rats. Iodide trapping was compared to thyroidal thallium-201 trapping 30 minutes after intravenous injection. Thallium-201 uptake followed iodide uptake in control rats, TSH- and T3-treated rats but did not decrease in the same manner as iodide concentration in perchlorate-treated rats. These studies suggest that thallium-201 distribution in the thyroid may reflect the cationic side of the iodide pump or possible thyroidal blood flow

  14. The effect of chemoradiation therapy on pituitary-thyroid system function in children suffering Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional status of the thyroid gland was evaluated in 63 children with Hodgkin's disease, aged 4-15 years, before, in the course of and 5 years after chemoradiation therapy. Thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood were assayed. The disease was shown to disrupt the pituitary-thyroid system leading to hypothyroidism development which progressed as the disease advanced. While chemotherapy brought the balance between the peripheral thyroid hormone levels and TSH back to normal, thyroid function decrease again following radiotherapy of the neck. The most pronounced and persistent failure of the pituitary-thyroid system was registered with the total target dose of 30 Gy and higher. Irradiation in a dose of 20 Gy caused less disruption and the function was spontaneously restored within 12 months after the treatment

  15. Accessing autonomic function can early screen metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend <0.0001. Moreover, EZSCAN value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (p for trend <0.0001. Compared with the no risk group (EZSCAN value 0-24, participants at the high risk group (EZSCAN value: 50-100 had a 2.35 fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.64 for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome.

  16. The Automated Hamolsky Test: Its Value in Thyroid Function Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest aroused by the Hamolsky test is due essentially to the fact that this test, which is performed in vitro, does not involve irradiation of the patient and that it is in general the only test capable, in the presence of iodine saturation of exogenic origin, of providing information on the functional state of the thyroid. In the authors' method, the adsorbents used in classical manual techniques have been replaced by a dialysis membrane which effects continuous separation of the free radioactive T3 (l-tri-iodothyronine-131I) from the protein-bound hormone after incubation with the plasma for analysis. The automatic recording of a non-stop dialysis and the continuous comparison of the plasmas with a reference plasma enable variations to be detected in the analytical device, thus ensuring very great accuracy in the results. Critical examination of this method, which has been performed since 1966 on almost 400 patients, shows that the automated version of the Hamolsky test can be adopted as a routine technique in the functional investigation of the thyroid. The advantages and disadvantages of this test and of the manual tests using resins are studied in detail in the latter part of the paper. (author)

  17. Correlation between thyroid function and nodular goiter accompanied with gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihong Ma; Qinjiang Liu; Xiaofeng Hou

    2014-01-01

    The-purpose-of-the-study-wass-to-explore-the-correlation-between-thyroid-function-and-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone.-Methods:We-col-ected-120-cases-about-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-and-128-cases-about-nodular-goiter-and-establish-50-healthy-control-groups.-Detected-t-level-of-hyrotropic-hormone-(TSH),-total-tri-o-dothyronine-(TT3),-total-thyroxine-in-the-peripheral-venous-blood-of-these-cases-in-the-three-groups-by-using-electrochemilu-minescence-immunoassay,-measure-level-of-total-cholesterol-(TC),-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-(HDL-C),-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-(LDL-C)-and-total-bile-acid-(TBA)-levels-by-using-enzymic-method,-and-observed-the-changes-of-thyroid-function-and-blood-lipid-among-the-three-groups.-Results:The-serum-TT3-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-and-the-nodular-goiter-group-was-significantly-lower-than-that-in-control-group-(P0.05).-Accordingly,-TC-and-LDL-C-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-was-significantly-higher-than-that-in-nodular-goiter-and-control-group-(P0.05).-The-HDL-C-level-in-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-group-and-control-group-was-higher-than-that-in-simple-nodular-goiter-group-(P<0.01).-Conclusion:The-originating-etiologic-factor-of-nodular-goiter-accompanied-with-gal-stone-may-be-related-to-that-the-decreased-TT3-induced-sub-clinical-hypothyroidism.

  18. Thyroid function in children and adolescents after combined therapy of Hodgkin disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Feoktistov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases, especially hypothyroidism, are among the most frequent endocrine complications in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma whohave received neck irradiation. Thyroid function was evaluated in 34 patients (11 males and 23 females after combined chemo radiotherapyof Hodgkin lymphoma according to modified DAL-HD-90M and GPOH-HD-2002 protocols. The median age was 15.9 years (range 5–18 years, the median time from the end of therapy was 1.08 years (range 1 month–4.9 years. 33 patients received radiotherapy to the neck region: 12 children — 20 Gy, 9 — 25 Gy, 10 — 30 Gy, 2 — 35 Gy. These patients were investigated by clinical examination, thyroid ultrasound and thyroid function tests. Thyroid abnormalities were detected in 4 of 21 patients who received 20–25 Gy (1 case of autoimmune thyroiditis and 3 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism and in 3 of 12 patients who received 30–35 Gy (2 cases of autoimmune thyroiditis and 1 case of subclinical hypothyroidism. Autoimmune thyroiditis also developed in patient who received only 35 Gy mediastinum irradiation. Age, sex, follow-up time, irradiation dose were not significant factors in the thyroid dysfunction development. Thyroid examination must be obligatory part of the follow-up examination of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.

  19. Thyroid function in children and adolescents after combined therapy of Hodgkin disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Feoktistov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases, especially hypothyroidism, are among the most frequent endocrine complications in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma whohave received neck irradiation. Thyroid function was evaluated in 34 patients (11 males and 23 females after combined chemo radiotherapyof Hodgkin lymphoma according to modified DAL-HD-90M and GPOH-HD-2002 protocols. The median age was 15.9 years (range 5–18 years, the median time from the end of therapy was 1.08 years (range 1 month–4.9 years. 33 patients received radiotherapy to the neck region: 12 children — 20 Gy, 9 — 25 Gy, 10 — 30 Gy, 2 — 35 Gy. These patients were investigated by clinical examination, thyroid ultrasound and thyroid function tests. Thyroid abnormalities were detected in 4 of 21 patients who received 20–25 Gy (1 case of autoimmune thyroiditis and 3 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism and in 3 of 12 patients who received 30–35 Gy (2 cases of autoimmune thyroiditis and 1 case of subclinical hypothyroidism. Autoimmune thyroiditis also developed in patient who received only 35 Gy mediastinum irradiation. Age, sex, follow-up time, irradiation dose were not significant factors in the thyroid dysfunction development. Thyroid examination must be obligatory part of the follow-up examination of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.

  20. Effects of amiodarone on thyroid function in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work studies the effects of the anti-arrhythmic drug amiodarone on thyroidal release slopes (TRS) and peripheral kinetics of /sup 125/I-thyroxine (/sup 125/I-T/sub 4/) and /sup 125/I-triiodothyronine (/sup 125/I-T/sub 3/) during chronic (200-800 mg/day, 2-5 years) or acute (400 mg/day, 5-8 days) treatment with amiodarone. Each patient received a tracer does of /sup 125/I-T/sub 4/ or /sup 125/I-T/sub 3/ iv. TRS were derived from daily plasma ratios of /sup 127/I-T4//sup 125/I-T4 and /sup 127/I-T3//sup 125/I-T3. Double antibody radioimmunoassay techniques were employed to measure serum T4, T3, reverse T3 and thyrotropin (TSH). In the /sup 125/I-T4 studies, 8 chronically-treated patients had a mean TRS value of 0.063 +- 0.033 (SD) versus 0.110 +- 0.030 in controls (NS). Fractional T4 turnover (k) was 70% metabolic clearance rate (MCR) 80% and disposal rate (DS) 79% (NS) of the respective value in control subjects. The acute studies in 5 normal subjects showed no changes with amiodarone. In the /sup 125/I-T3 studies chronic patients had a decreased TRS, k MCR and DR whereas the acute studies showed similar, significant changes during amiodarone treatment. Serum T4 and reverse T3 were significantly elevated serum T3 was decreased and serum TSH was non-significantly increased. The authors conclude that despite the supranormal serum T4 and TSH, amiodarone appeared to depress thyroidal function and to block the thyroid gland response to a peripheral decrease in T4 conversion to T3

  1. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22 and a control group (CG; n = 25. The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05. The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05. However, the FG performed better (P < 0.05 in Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (1394 ± 558 vs. 778 ± 408 m and 15-m sprint test (3.06 ± 0.17 vs. 3.20 ± 0.23 s. Also, the FG presented enhanced autonomic function. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05 between groups for low frequency normalized units (38.0 ± 15.2 vs. 47.3 ± 14.2 n.u (normalized units, high frequency normalized units (62.1 ± 15.2 vs. 52.8 ± 14.2 n.u., and LF:HF ratio (0.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.6 ms2. Conclusions Children engaged with regular football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest.

  2. Peculiarities of hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid function in children born from the Chornobyl NPP accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 168 children born to parents exposed after the Chernobyl accident were examined to study the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system function in descendants of the Chernobyl survivors. Clinical, hormonal, ultrasound examinations and challenge test with tyroliberynum were conducted. Some abnormalities that might explain the functional strain of the hypothalamic-pituitary system were identified being of a great role in origination and progress of thyroid disease. The prolonged strain leads to decreased production of thyroid hormone, which causes an increased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone. Under the influence of TSH the thyroid gland in the first stage becomes increased in its mass, which leads to the formation of endemic goiter. Stable and permanent thyroid gland enlargement often leads to formation of the nodular goiter and other proliferative processes, namely to carcinogenesis

  3. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, on a base of result of a nuclear substrate cross-over study on 'Artificial intelligence for nuclear plant' promoted by 5 years plan since 1989 fiscal year, further developed studies are conducted. The studies are promoted by next 5 years plan on following 6 items: (1) Study on stratified expression technique of autonomous function. (2) Study on expression technique of motion state in decentralized-cooperative function. (3) Study on expression technique of decision making process. (4) Integration to operation control system. (5) Integration to maintenance system. And, (6) Comprehensive evaluation experiment. In 1996 fiscal year, improvement and investigation on automatic classification function of plant state were executed. And, preparation of development environment for expression of robot group motion state was conducted. Furthermore, communication experiment using network to realize integration to operation control and maintenance systems and periodical meetings with other institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  4. The impact of thyroid function on intrauterine insemination outcome - a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jatzko, Birgit; Vytiska-Bistorfer, Elisabeth; Pawlik, Alexandra; Promberger, Regina; Mayerhofer, Klaus; Ott, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common endocrinopathy in premenopausal women, and is associated with various gynecological problems, including recurrent miscarriage and unexplained infertility. A possible influence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis on the success of intrauterine insemination seems likely, but has not been evaluated as yet. Therefore, the aim of our study was to retrospectively analyze the impact on intrauterine insemination outcome of thyroid function and markers sugg...

  5. Thyroid Function in Pregnancy and Its Influences on Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Saki, Forough; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemi, Seyede Zahra; Forouhari, Sedighe; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein; Bakhshayeshkaram, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal thyroid function alters during pregnancy. Inadequate adaptation to these changes results in thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy complications. Objectives: This prospective study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid diseases in pregnancy and its outcomes in south of Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 600 healthy singleton pregnant women who aged 18 to 35 years old at 15 to 28 weeks of gestation. We investigated the prevalence of thyro...

  6. Characteristics of radiation-induced pituitary-thyroid functional disturbance in relation to pituitary and thyroid tumors in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute response of the rat thyroid gland to head-neck x irradiation at the maximal tumor inductive dose is mainly manifested by a depression of serum thyroxine level. This acute disturbance normalizes within 8 weeks after x irradiation. In unirradiated animals, thyroid necrotic changes appear that are age related. In head-neck x irradiated rats, however, such changes show an apparent peak at one week after treatment. Thereafter, it subsides to the level indistinguishable from the controls. Except for an enlarged nucleus that occurs at one year after x irradiation, no other histologic features can distinguish radiation necrosis from spontaneous necrosis. Acutely after x irradiation, increase and decrease in serum thyrotropin (TSH) level is observed. The TSH elevation is apparently associated with decreased thyroxine. However, rats with TSH depression had a normal thyroxine level. Thus, it is suggested the set-point of the thyrostat has changed as a result of head-neck x irradiation. One year after x irradiation, increased TSH is needed to maintain the thyroxine level in the x-irradiated rats similar to that of controls. At the same time, the thyroid gland was smaller than the controls, although the degree of necrosis was not different from controls. Increased TSH level is maintained in the x irradiated rats that do not have encocrine neoplasms. Other than medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, the thyroid and/or pituitary neoplasms obliterate the functional aspects of the pituitary-thyroid axis. The results are inconsistent thyroxine-TSH levels. Radiation-induced thyroid neoplasms were observed

  7. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a study further advanced on a base of results of study on artificial intelligence for nuclear power', one of nuclear basis crossover studies, conducted at five years planning from 1989 fiscal year was executed. Here was conducted on study on a system technology for supplying cooperation, judgement process, judgement results, and so forth between decentralized artificial intelligent elements (agents) to operation managers (supervisors) by focussing a system for monitoring if autonomous decentralized system containing plant operation and robot group action functioned appropriately. In 1997 fiscal year, by mainly conducting development for displaying working state of robot group, some investigations on integrated management of each function already development and maintained were executed. Furthermore, some periodical meetings on realization of its integration with operation control system and maintenance system with other research institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  8. A morphofunctional quantitative evaluation of thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new procedure for the quantitative analysis of data from thyroid scintigraphy is presented, based on the association of time/activity curves prepared for a specific thyroid region of interest with the determination of temporal factors of the pertechnetate uptake, transition and clearance through the thyroid compartments. A dynamic pertechnetate study was performed in 28 cases of thyroid goitres in a variety of morphological shapes and functions to assess the potential of time/activity curves in information about the thyroid gland's, lobes' and nodes' function. Studies were initiated by bolus intravenous injection of 99Tcm pertechnetate. After the acquisition of a series of images, computer generated time/activity curves were helpful in distinguishing simple goitres from hyperfunctioning thyroids or toxic adenomas. A large number of selected images added to a display of high statistics and improved quality. Lobes and nodes percentage of total thyroid function show the contribution of the two lobes as well as the increased autonomous function of a toxic adenoma. Toxic goitres may also be differentiated. Curves for regions of total thyroid gland, lobes or suspicious nodes were displayed after normalization and extrathyroid radioactivity subtraction. The numerical data regarding peak time, uptake and clearance slope of the curves were computed and displayed using the image sequence taken for at least 64 minutes, one image per minute. The parameters of the 99Tcm pertechnetate behaviour for the euthyroid lobes do not differ from those obtained for the corresponding thyroid gland as a whole. Early peak times were derived for hyperfunctioning thyroids. Total thyroid and lobe time/activity curves for toxic adenomas present as flat, unlike the autonomous tissue curve which has high maximum uptake concentration and late clearance time. The above numerical parameters and the characteristic sequences of images permit identification and classification of differnt thyroids in

  9. Amiodarone: Effects on thyroid function and the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braverman, L.E.; Safran, M.; Bambini, G.; Pinchera, A.; Martino, E.

    1985-11-01

    In addition to the effects of Amiodarone on the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones and on pituitary TSH secretion, a major complication of therapy is the relatively high frequency of iodide-induced thyroid dysfunction. The mean T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ concentration following Amiodarone application was measured in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients and in control patients with and without cardiac disorders. Furthermore, the serum TSH was determined in euthyroid Amiodarone-treated euthyroid patients. /sup 131/I uptake was studied in patients with Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. The difficulties of the therapy of Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism are outlined. Preliminary studied of the effect of Amiodarone and its analogues on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in the rat indicate that Amiodarone may act as a thyroid hormone agonist in the pituitary. (MG).

  10. THYROID GLAND DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION IN THE ZEBRAFISH MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Porazzi, P; D. Calebiro; Benato, F.; N. Tiso; Persani, L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid development has been intensively studied in the mouse, where it closely recapitulates the human situation. Despite the lack of a compact thyroid gland, the zebrafish thyroid tissue originates from the pharyngeal endoderm and the main genes involved in its patterning and early development are conserved between zebrafish and mammals. In recent years, the zebrafish has become a powerful model not only for developmental biology studies, but also for large-scale genetic...

  11. Human skin hypoxia modulates cerebrovascular and autonomic functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Pucci

    Full Text Available Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen or skin normoxia (with air. The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor.

  12. Human skin hypoxia modulates cerebrovascular and autonomic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Olivia; Qualls, Clifford; Battisti-Charbonney, Anne; Balaban, Dahlia Y; Fisher, Joe A; Duffin, Jim; Appenzeller, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen) or skin normoxia (with air). The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor. PMID:23056597

  13. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathor...

  14. Characteristics of radiation-induced pituitary-thyroid functional disturbance in relation to pituitary and thyroid tumors in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute response of the rat thyroid gland to head-neck x-irradiation at the maximal tumor inductive dose is mainly manifested by a depression of serum thyroxine level. This acute disturbance normalizes within 8 weeks after x-irradiation. In unirradiated animals, thyroid necrotic changes appear that are age related. In head-neck x-irradiated rats, however, such changes show an apparent peak at one week after treatment. Thereafter, it subsides to the level indistinguishable from the controls. Except for an enlarged nucleus that occurs at one year after x-irradiation, no other histologic features can distinguish radiation necrosis from spontaneous necrosis. After x-irradiation, increase and decrease in serum thyrotropin (TSH) level is observed. The TSH elevation is apparently associated with decreased thyroxine. However, rats with TSH depression had a normal thyroxine level. Thus, it is suggested that the set-point of the thyrostat has changed as a result of head-neck x-irradiation. One year after x-irradiation, increased TSH is needed to maintain the thyroxine level in the x-irradiated rats similar to that of controls. At the same time, the thyroid gland was smaller than the controls, although the degree of necrosis was not different from controls. Increased TSH level is maintained in the x-irradiated rats that do not have endocrine neoplasms. Other than medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, the thyroid and/or pituitary neoplasms obliterate the functional aspects of the pituitary-thyroid axis. The results are inconsistent with thyroxine-TSH levels

  15. DETECTION OF THYROID FUNCTIONS IN EARLY PREGNANCY AS A UNIVERSAL SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Thyroid disease is particularly common in women of child bearing age. It is estimated that 2.5% of all pregnant women have some degree of hypothyroidism (1, 2. Thyroid disorders are the second are the second most common endocrine disorders found in pregnancy. Maternal complications of untreated hypothyroidism include microcytic anaemia, placental abruption, preeclampsia, postpartum haemo rrhage, cardiac dysfunction and miscarriage (3. Fetal or neonatal complications include prematurity, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, stillbirth and poor neuropsychological development (1. In particular, as fetal thyroid cannot concentrate iodine until 10 - 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore before this time, the mother must provide for all the fetus’ thyroxine (T4 requirements. This study focuses on thyroid screening in first trimester of pregnancy (1. OBJECTIVE : The aim of the study was to determin e the incidence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in pregnancy during the first trimester. With the evidence provided by these results, we have studied if thyroid screening should be made as a routine screening in pregnancy. Materials and methods: Tota l 400 pregnant women were screened for thyroid functions during the first trimester of pregnancy using FT3, FT4 and TSH as criteria. RESULTS: Increased prevalence of thyroid with increasing age. Abnormal thyroid profile seen in patients with recurrent abor tions. CONCLUSION: Mandatory to screen to include the thyroid screening in the first trimester antenatal profile

  16. Effects of work stress and home stress on autonomic nervous function in Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Eri; IWATA, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic imbalance is one of the important pathways through which psychological stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases/sudden death. Although previous studies have focused mainly on stress at work (work stress), the association between autonomic function and stress at home (home stress) is still poorly understood. The purpose was to clarify the effect of work/home stress on autonomic function in 1,809 Japanese male workers. We measured corrected QT (QTc) interval and QT index on the e...

  17. Nuclear medicine procedures for diagnosis of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In critically ill patients very often all diagnostic tools are needed to exclude or prove a dysfunction of the thyroid gland. In a high percentage, immunological parameters, like autoantibodies against thyroglobulin and thyroid-peroxidase, allow to differentiate immunological from non-immunological diseases of the thyroid. High titters of TSH-receptor stimulating antibodies prove the immunological aetiology of a hyperthyroidism; their absence, however, does not rule it out. Determination of these parameters is useful for primary diagnosis, but their value for follow-up studies is not established. Thyroglobulin serves as a tumour marker, its increase indicates new tumour growth of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in follow-up studies, and should initiate whole-body-scanning with radio-iodine. Sonography and scintigraphy are complementary methods. A scintigram is also needed for the diagnosis of tumours of the base of the tongue and of the retrosternal space; further to demonstrate possible uptake of metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinomas. (orig./MG)

  18. Few items in the thyroid-related quality of life instrument ThyPRO exhibited differential item functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Grønvold, Mogens; Hegedüs, Laszlo;

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of differential item functioning (DIF) within the thyroid-specific quality of life patient-reported outcome measure, ThyPRO, according to sex, age, education and thyroid diagnosis.......To evaluate the extent of differential item functioning (DIF) within the thyroid-specific quality of life patient-reported outcome measure, ThyPRO, according to sex, age, education and thyroid diagnosis....

  19. Thyroid function and obesity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichel, H; l'Allemand, D; Grüters, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency of thyroid dysfunction as assessed by TSH, T3 and T4 in a large cohort of 290 obese and 280 healthy children. In addition, thyroid autoantibodies were measured in random subgroups of 123 obese and 80 control children, iodine excretion in 50 and thyroid volume in 23 of the obese children. Elevated TSH levels (>4 U/l) were found in 22 obese children (7.5%), but only in one control (0.3%). The medians of TSH and T3 concentrations were normal, but significantly higher in the obese group than in the controls, while T4 levels did not differ. The prevalence of positive thyroid autoantibodies was increased in the obese children, for the most part in those with elevated TSH. There was no evidence for iodine deficiency as a cause of the average increase of TSH. We conclude that in childhood obesity TSH and T3 levels are significantly increased; in most cases, however, these increases are not accounted for by thyroid autoimmunity or iodine deficiency. As a consequence, TSH elevations with normal thyroid hormone levels in obese children don't need any thyroxine treatment, if thyroid disorders were definitely excluded beforehand. PMID:11182630

  20. The effect of lithium on thyroid function in patients with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraszewska, Agnieszka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1963 lithium treatment has been the best proven long-term pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BD, both in the prevention of depressive and manic episodes, along with the reduction of the suicide risk. Thyroid gland and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis play a role in the pathophysiology, clinical course and treatment of BD. The influence of lithium on the thyroid gland is one of the key side effects in the long-term therapy with this drug. Lithium is accumulated in the thyroid gland at 3 to 4-fold higher concentrations as compared to its plasma levels. Its administration results in the reduced production with release inhibition of thyroid hormones, altering the immune processes of this gland. The most common thyroid side effects associated with long-term lithium treatment are goiter and hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of lithium therapy. Lithium may also induce an increase in the thyroid autoimmunity, especially if such change had been present before lithium treatment producing structural changes in this gland. This paper reviews the management of complications described above as well as recommendations for monitoring of thyroid function in patients receiving long-term lithium treatment are discussed.

  1. Interactions between thyroid and kidney function in pathological conditions of these organ systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Ingrid; Daminet, Sylvie

    2009-02-01

    Thyroidal status affects kidney function already in the embryonic stage. Thyroid hormones influence general tissue growth as well as tubular functions, electrolyte handling and neural input. Hyper- and hypo-functioning of the thyroid influences mature kidney function indirectly by affecting the cardiovascular system and the renal blood flow, and directly by affecting glomerular filtration, electrolyte pumps, the secretory and absorptive capacity of the tubuli, and the structure of the kidney. Hyperthyroidism accelerates several physiologic processes, a fact which is reflected in the decreased systemic vascular resistance, increased cardiac output (CO), increased renal blood flow (RBF), hypertrophic and hyperplastic tubuli, and increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Renal failure can progress due to glomerulosclerosis, proteinuria and oxidative stress. Hypothyroidism has a more negative influence on kidney function. Peripheral vascular resistance is increased with intrarenal vasoconstriction, and CO is decreased, causing decreased RBF. The influence on the different tubular functions is modest, although the transport capacity is below normal. The GFR is decreased up to 40% in hypothyroid humans. Despite the negative influences on glomerular and tubular kidney function, a hypothyroid state has been described as beneficial in kidney disease. Kidney disease is associated with decreased thyroid hormone concentrations caused by central effects and by changes in peripheral hormone metabolism and thyroid hormone binding proteins. Geriatric cats form an animal model of disease because both hyperthyroidism and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalence among them, and the link between thyroid and kidney affects the evaluation of clinical wellbeing and the possible treatment options. PMID:19133263

  2. Thyroid Function and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Children Living Near a Chemical Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Mondal, Debapriya; Armstrong, Ben; Bloom, Michael S.; Fletcher, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background: Animal studies suggest that some perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) may impair thyroid function. Epidemiological findings, mostly related to adults, are inconsistent. Objectives: We investigated whether concentrations of PFAAs were associated with thyroid function among 10,725 children (1–17 years of age) living near a Teflon manufacturing facility in the Mid-Ohio Valley (USA). Meth...

  3. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma thyroid from functionally cured cancer cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a very unusual occurrence of a metastatic squamous carcinoma to thyroid gland from a treated squamous cell carcinoma cervix 12 years before with no recurrence at the primary site. The case also has an additional complexity of rapid progression of the metastatic thyroid carcinoma to wide spread dissemination to lungs and bones while on concurrent chemo radio therapy confirming the aggressiveness of the entity

  4. Radioiodine-treatment (RIT) of functional thyroidal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1942, therapy with radioiodine (RIT) has gained a major role in the treatment of benign thyroid disorders, notably hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease or toxic multinodular goitre (thyroid autonomy). In iodine deficient areas thyroid autonomy accounts for 40-50% of all cases with hyperthyroidism. RIT has become a cost-effective first-line procedure in autonomy-patients with latent or overt hyperthyroidism, especially in the absence of a large goitre, after thyroid surgery and in elderly patients with associated conditions who carry a high intra- or perioperative risk. Decisions concerning the definitive treatment of thyroid autonomy should take into account previous episodes of hyperthyroidism, objective parameters of risk stratification in euthyroid patients as well as concomitant diseases and the probability of iodine exposure in the future. In Central Europe the majority of investigators prefer to estimate the therapeutic activity individually by a radioiodine test. TCTUs (global 99m-Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression) - based dose concepts have been proven to be highly effective in the elimination of autonomy and carry a low (< 10%) risk of postradioiodtherapeutic hypothyroidism. Radioiodine therapy for autonomy has been found to be both effective and safe and without major early or late side effects. The most frequent complication is hypothyroidism requiring lifelong follow-up. (author)

  5. Is there still a role for thyroid scintigraphy in the workup of a thyroid nodule in the era of fine needle aspiration cytology and molecular testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Kyrilli, Aglaia; Lytrivi, Maria; Bourmorck, Carole; Chami, Rayan; Corvilain, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is now rarely used in the work-up of a thyroid nodule except in the presence of a low TSH value. Therefore, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) with a normal TSH value are diagnosed only in the rare medical centers that continue to use thyroid scan systematically in the presence of a thyroid nodule. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of AFTN with a normal TSH level and the possible consequences of performing fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in an undiagnosed AFTN. We also discuss the risk of malignant AFTN which may be higher than previously stated. PMID:27158470

  6. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giovanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  7. Structure and Function of Thyroid Hormone Plasma Membrane Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Ulrich; Johannes, Jörg; Bayer, Dorothea; Braun, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) cross the plasma membrane with the help of transporter proteins. As charged amino acid derivatives, TH cannot simply diffuse across a lipid bilayer membrane, despite their notorious hydrophobicity. The identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8, SLC16A2) as a specific and very active TH transporter paved the way to the finding that mutations in the MCT8 gene cause a syndrome of psychomotor retardation in humans. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current model of transmembrane transport and highlight the diversity of TH transmembrane transporters. The interactions of TH with plasma transfer proteins, T3 receptors, and deiodinase are summarized. It is shown that proteins may bind TH owing to their hydrophobic character in hydrophobic cavities and/or by specific polar interaction with the phenolic hydroxyl, the aminopropionic acid moiety, and by weak polar interactions with the iodine atoms. These findings are compared with our understanding of how TH transporters interact with substrate. The presumed effects of mutations in MCT8 on protein folding and transport function are explained in light of the available homology model. PMID:25538896

  8. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of ionizing radiation in the introduction of thyroid carcinoma is discussed. In the treatment of thyroid cancer, radioiodine administration is of value as an ablation procedure, completing the thyroidectomy and as a method to irradiate selectively functioning thyroid carcinoma tissue that cannnot be removed surgically. Results of the clinical management of 155 patients with malignant thyroid tumours are presented. The ablation dose of iodine-131 can be decreased to 40 millicuries thus effectively reducing the patients whole body radiation dose

  9. Expression and function of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Bai, Qianming; Lu, Yongming; Lu, Yiqiong; Zhu, Linlin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wu, Lijing

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis to cancer progression has been increasingly recognized. However, its role in thyroid cancer development remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the expression and function of CXCL12 and its receptors in thyroid cancer. The expression of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 in human tissue specimens of papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, follicular adenoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and nodular goiter were examined by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were over-expressed in human thyroid cancer cells K1 by transduction of recombinant lentivirus. The effect of overexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 on K1 cell proliferation and invasion and the molecular mechanism underlying the effect were investigated. CXCL12 was exclusively expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue but absent in other types of thyroid malignancies and benign lesions. CXCR7 was widely expressed in the endothelial cells of all types of malignancy but only occasionally detected in benign lesions. CXCR4 was expressed in 62.5% of papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue specimens and in 30-40% of other types of malignancy, and it was either absent or weakly expressed in benign lesions. CXCL12 stimulated the invasion and migration of K1 cells overexpressing CXCR4, but did not affect K1 cells overexpressing CXCR7. K1 cell proliferation was not affected by overexpression of CXCR4 or CXCR7. Overexpression of CXCR4 in K1 cells significantly increased AKT and ERK phosphorylation and markedly induced the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP‑2). Thus, CXCL12 may be an effective diagnostic marker for papillary thyroid carcinoma, and CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis may contribute to thyroid cancer development by regulating cancer cell migration and invasion via AKT and ERK signaling and MMP-2 activation. PMID:27082011

  10. Evaluation of Thyroid Disorders During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy by Using Functional Analysis and Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate thyroid function and vascular changes during radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were prospectively evaluated. The serum samples (triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free triiodothyronine [FT3], and free thyroxine [FT4]), the echo level of the thyroid gland, and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) parameters of the right inferior thyroid artery (RITA) of the patients were measured before and at regular intervals during radiotherapy. The thyroid gland dose-volume histograms of the patients were derived from their computed tomography-based treatment plans. Results: There was a significant fall in TSH level (p 2). There were significant rises in the patients’ pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity, blood volume flow levels, and RITA diameter (p < 0.0001), as detected by CDU during radiotherapy, compared to those parameters measured before the treatment. Hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns (p < 0.0001) were seen during radiotherapy compared to those before treatment. There was significant Pearson’s correlation between the CDU parameters and T4, FT4, and TSH levels. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroiditis is regarded as primary damage to the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can subsequently result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Our results demonstrated that changes in thyroid vessels occur during radiotherapy delivered to patients. Vessel changes also can be attributed to the late effect of radiation on the thyroid gland. The hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns observed in patients may result from the increase in intrathyroidal flow.

  11. Evaluation of Thyroid Disorders During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy by Using Functional Analysis and Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seyed Rabie [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikoofar, Alireza [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Edraki, Hamid Reza [Department of Radiology, Panzdahe-Khordad Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate thyroid function and vascular changes during radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were prospectively evaluated. The serum samples (triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free triiodothyronine [FT3], and free thyroxine [FT4]), the echo level of the thyroid gland, and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) parameters of the right inferior thyroid artery (RITA) of the patients were measured before and at regular intervals during radiotherapy. The thyroid gland dose-volume histograms of the patients were derived from their computed tomography-based treatment plans. Results: There was a significant fall in TSH level (p < 0.0001) but an increase in FT4 (p < 0.0001) and T4 (p < 0.022) levels during the radiotherapy course. The threshold dose required to produce significant changes was 12 Gy (Biologically Effective Dose in 2-Gy fractions, BED{sub 2}). There were significant rises in the patients' pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity, blood volume flow levels, and RITA diameter (p < 0.0001), as detected by CDU during radiotherapy, compared to those parameters measured before the treatment. Hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns (p < 0.0001) were seen during radiotherapy compared to those before treatment. There was significant Pearson's correlation between the CDU parameters and T4, FT4, and TSH levels. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroiditis is regarded as primary damage to the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can subsequently result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Our results demonstrated that changes in thyroid vessels occur during radiotherapy delivered to patients. Vessel changes also can be attributed to the late effect of radiation on the thyroid gland. The hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns observed in patients

  12. Thyroid function in mothers who gave birth to neonates with transient congenital hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the thyroid status of mother's of newborns with primary congenital hypothyroidism. Methodology: Thyroid function tests were carried out on 80 mothers of hypothyroid newborns and 80 mothers of non-hypothyroid newborns as control. Results: The mean difference of the tests revealed that mothers of congenitally hypothyroid infants had a lower triiodothyronine resin uptake (T3RU) concentrations compared with the control population. The higher value of free thyroxin index (FTI) in case group showed a tendency to significance. The proportional frequency distribution showed; T3RU and triiodothyronine (T3) had a significant difference, and FTI showed a tendency to significance. There were no significant differences between; thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) in two groups. Conclusions: These results indicated that at least some cases of primary congenital hypothyroidism were attributable to the maternal thyroid disease. Therefore, we recommend that each pregnant woman should be assessed for thyroid function in region with a high prevalence of thyroid disease. (author)

  13. Interaction of selenium and lead on several aspects of thyroid function in Pekin ducklings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead shot recovered at necropsy 2 and 3 weeks after being dropped down the throats of Pekin ducklings caused significant increases in thyroid gland weight and 24-hr thyroid uptake of 125I while serum PB125I levels were maintained at or above control values. Supplementation of lead shot with 1 ppm selenium in drinking water reduced these increases. Selenium in the drinking water incurred no increase in thyroid gland weight at 2 weeks but some goitrogenicity at 3 weeks and significant reductions in thyroid radioiodine uptake and serum PB125I levels at 2 and 3 weeks. Chromatographic analyses of thyroid hydrolysates demonstrated a depression in iodothyronine (T4 and T3) labeling in lead shot-treated and selenium-treated animals which was corrected by addition of selenium to lead shot-treated ducklings. These findings indicate that while either lead or selenium treatment, independently, exerts a selective toxic effect on thyroid function, selenium supplementation of lead-treated Pekin ducklings does protect against the toxicity of lead on thyroid function

  14. Analysis of Autonomic Nervous System Functional Age and Heart Rate Variability in Mine Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicko T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy working conditions and many unpropitious factors influencing workers health participate in development of various health disorders, among other autonomic cardiovascular regulation malfunction. The aim of this study is to draw a comparison of autonomic nervous system functional age and heart rate variability changes between workers with and without mining occupational exposure.

  15. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M;

    2000-01-01

    elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  16. Assessment of thyroid function in patients with laryngeal carcinoma treated surgically and with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 40 patients with laryngeal carcinoma after total laryngectomy and radiotherapy the triiodotyronine binding index, total thyroxine level, serum free thyroxine index were determined before, during and after treatment. At the same time thyroid iodine uptake was determined by the routine method. Surgical treatment as well as radiotherapy caused lowering of thyroid functions. These changes had a high tendency for return to normal values, not earlier, however, than 6 months after treatment. The authors stress that endocrine thyroid disturbances may have an important influence on delay of psychic rehabilitation and speech training in laryngectomized patients. (author)

  17. Functional status of thyroid of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators after 10 years after disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' complaints is carried out and their clinical surveillance is conducted as well. Pronounced disorders of neuro-immune-endocrine system of the liquidators majority and ahill reflex latency half-period prolongation have been observed. By data of ultrasonic study the majority of examined ones have thyroid hyperplasia without features of chronic autoimmune inflammation and formation of adenomatous knots. Thyroid levels of hormone concentration are reduced. There is direct dependence between hormones levels and irradiation dose. The is concluded, that in delayed period after irradiation by low doses the hypo-function status of thyroid is observing

  18. G raves’ disease – anti-thyroid autoantibodies and function thyroid status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disease in the pathogenesis of which a key role play the antibodies against the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TRAb). The aim of this study is to analyze the immune and hormonal status in patients with Graves' disease, who are on thyreostatic therapy and in remission. Materials and methods: 67 patients were studied - 11 men and 56 women - with Graves' disease, mean age 49.7 years (range - 20-76 ). Of these, 55 were on thyreostatic therapy (two subgroups: 27 - treated up to 24 months , and 28 with relapsed disease ) and 12 were in remission up to a year. Patient's condition is assessed as a complex of clinical, biochemical, including hormonal, immune status and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland. We examined thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, antityreoperoxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO) and TRAb. The patients on therapy are: in hyperthyroidism - 10/ 14 with subclinical hyperthyroidism - 9/8, euthyroid - 7/6 and with subclinical hypothyroidism - 1/0. Results: The patients with hyperthyroidism ( 43.6% ) in both thyreostatic therapy groups have a significantly higher average values of TRAb. The patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism and relapse showed higher levels of TRAb in comparison with those undergoing therapy to 24 months after diagnosing. The values of TRAb in the euthyroid patients in both groups of treatment were 1,5 IU / l. The Anti-TPO values were increased in 78.2% of the patients on therapy and 55.5% of those in remission. Conclusion: With the decrease of thyroid hormones during treatment of Hyperthyroidism the levels of TRAb and Anti-TPO decrease. The TRAb values are useful for the monitoring the effect of the thyreostatic treatment, determining the therapeutic approach in patients with a sustained reduction of TRAb in the course thyreostatic therapy and particularly for relapse

  19. Functional Condition of Thyroid Gland in the Perimenopausal Period at the Women in Iodine Deficient Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E G Deryabina

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study features of a functional condition of thyroid gland in the perimenopausal period at the women in iodine deficient region. Material and methods. Population study of 512 women in the age of 45—55 years chosen by a casual way on a database of obligatory medical insurance of Ekaterinburg. The inspection included definition thyroid stimulating hormone, autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase, ultrasonic research of thyroid gland. Three groups are allocated: premenopause (n = 282; natural menopause till 2 years (n = 94; natural menopause more than 2 years (n = 90. Results. The disfunction of thyroid gland revealed at 19.5% (100/512 perimenopausal women. The most often infringement was hypothyroidism — 16.7% (86/512. Its reasons were autoimmune thyroiditis — 86.0% (74/86 and surgical intervention on thyroid gland — 14.0% (12/86. The frequency of hypothyroidism was higher in 1,9 times (р = 0.03 per first two years of menopause, and was higher in 1,6 times (р > 0.05 the next years, than in premenopause. Hyperthyroidism met more often per first two years of menopause (р > 0.05. Autoimmune thyroid pathology per first two years was at 25.5% (24/94 women, that in 1,9 times is more often (р = 0.03, than in premenopause — 13.5% (38/282, and in 1.6 times are more often (Р > 0.05, than in menopause more than 2 years — 15.6% (14/90. Conclusions. During perimenopause most of all functional thyroid disorders revealed per the first two years of menopause. These infringements frequently have autoimmune nature. These changes can be temporary and require the observation in dynamics. Key words: thyroid gland, hypothyroidism, menopause.

  20. Thyroid function in fasting rats: variations in 131I uptake and transient decrease in peroxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, radioiodide thyroid uptak and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity were studied over a 2 to 5 day period in fasting rats treated (F+) or not (F-) with TSH. In F-rats, TPO activity was transiently decreased on the 3rd day, whereas in F+ it was always higher than in controls. On the 5th day, the 2 h thyroid uptake of 131I decreased in F-, while the 24 h uptake increased in both F- and F+. Serum T3 and T4 decreased in both fasting groups. Thus, not all effects of fasting on rat thyroid function are reverted by TSH administration, suggesting intrinsic impairment of glandular function. (author)

  1. Effect of steroid replacement on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in Addison′ s disease with primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prakash Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Steroid replacement without thyroxine supplementation normalizes thyroid function test (TFT in some but not all Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to this improvement in TFT. However, the documentation of the change in thyroid autoimmunity after cortisol replacement is very limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steroid replacement on TFT and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. Six Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism, who were only on steroid replacement, were included in the study. Low serum cortisol (22 pmol/L and/or hyperpigmentation of skin/mucous membranes was considered as the diagnostic criteria for Addison's disease. Primary hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical was defined as high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with/without low free thyroxine (fT4. TFT and anti-TPO-Ab were performed before and after steroid replacement in all of them. Results: Poststeroid replacement, there was a normalization of TSH in all but one subjects. In overt hypothyroidism patients, fT4 also normalized. The improvement in TFT was not associated with decreasing titer of the anti-TPO-Ab in all six patients. However, there was a significant difference in TSH after steroid replacement compared to the baseline status. Conclusions: The concept of normalization of primary hypothyroidism with cortisol replacement in patients with Addison's disease should be recognized to avoid iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis caused by thyroxine replacement. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to these alterations.

  2. Renal function markers and thyroid hormone status in undialyzed chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Rajagopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to quantify thyroid hormones in undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses controls and to study the correlation between renal function markers and thyroid hormones. Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with a higher prevalence of primary hypothyroidism (HT, but at the same studies on thyroid hormone status in uremic patients has reported conflicting results. Methods: Thyroid hormones and renal function parameters like serum urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, total protein and albumin were estimated and correlations between thyroid hormones and renal function parameters were studied in 60 undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses 100 healthy controls. Results: We found both T3 and T4 were significantly reduced (p<0.0001 for T3 and 0.007 for T4 whereas TSH remains to be unchanged in patient group compared to controls. We also observed that urea and creatinine were negatively correlated whereas creatinine clearance was positively correlated with both T3 and T4 that has high statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.01 level. But urea alone is negatively correlated with TSH that has statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.05 level. Conclusion: From our data, we speculate that renal insufficiency may lead to thyroid hormone disturbances.

  3. Alterations of Thyroid Morphology and Function After Long-Term Exposure to Low Doses of Endocrine Disruptor Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaglov V.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to evaluate changes in thyroid morphology and function after different long-term exposure to low doses of endocrine disruptor dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT under the maximum permissible levels in food products. Materials and Methods. The experiment was performed on adult male Wistar rats (n=62. Drinking water was substituted for water solution of o,p-DDT 20 and 80 μg/L. Mean daily consumption of DDT was 1.89±0.86 and 7.77±0.17 µg/kg body weight, respectively. Rat serum thyroid hormone content and histology of the thyroid glands were studied after 6 and 10 weeks of exposure to DDT. Results. 6-week exposure to DDT caused inhibition of thyroid function followed by reactive increase of thyroid stimulating hormone secretion and triiodothyronine production. These symptoms were similar to those of the early stage of iodine deficiency. Restoration of rat thyroid status after 10 weeks of exposure was achieved due to diffuse microfollicular transformation of thyroid parenchyma. Conclusion. Exposure to low doses of DDT inhibits thyroid function. Reactive increase of thyroid hormone production after exposure to DDT and in iodine deficiency is similar, but early changes in thyroid histology are different. Long-term exposure to DDT is supposed to aggravate iodine deficiency and to be a risk factor of thyroid tumors.

  4. Myocardial 123I-MIBG Uptake and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Akira Katagiri; Masato Asahina; Nobuyuki Araki; Anupama Poudel; Yoshikatsu Fujinuma; Yoshitaka Yamanaka; Satoshi Kuwabara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) showed reduced myocardial 123I-MIBG uptake, which may affect autonomic regulation. We investigated correlation between MIBC accumulation and cardiovascular autonomic function in PD. Methods. We performed myocardial MIBG scintigraphy, heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, and the head-up tilt test (HUT) in 50 PD patients (66.4 ± 7.8 years; duration 5.5 ± 5.9 years). Autonomic function tests were also performed in 50 healthy controls (66.5 ±...

  5. Thyroid function 10-18 years after mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid function was measured in 81 patients who had been curatively irradiated on a mantle field for Hodgkin's disease 10-18 years ago. 47 patients (58%) had elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, indicating hypofunction of the thyroid gland, compared with 4.6% of controls (hospital visitors) matched for age and sex. The mean free thyroxine index (FTI) was significantly lower in patients than in controls, but all FTI values were still normal. Age at the time of irradiation, sex, time since irradiation and administration of chemotherapy were not significant factors in the development of thyroid dysfunction. A life-long awareness of the possibility of insidiously developing myxedema in these patients is strongly advocated. (Author)

  6. Extended architecture for autonomous robots (architecture for robotic autonomy functionality)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březina, Tomáš; Ehrenberger, Zdeněk; Houška, P.; Singule, V.

    Brno : VUT, 2003 - (Březina, T.; Ehrenberger, Z.; Houška, P.; Singule, V.), s. 1-2 ISBN 80-214-2312-9. [Mechanortonics, robotisc and biomechanics 2003. Hrotovice (CZ), 24.03.2003-27.03.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : mobile robots * autonomous operation * control Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  7. Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Smita Ambekar; Rajiv Singla; Ansumali Joshi; Anju Dhawan; Neeta Kumar; Deepak, K. K.; Sreenivas, V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to observe the effect comprehensive yogic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga [SKY] and Pranayam) had on cardiac autonomic functions in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 64 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and c...

  8. Autonomic nervous regulation of ovarian function by noxious somatic afferent stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that ovarian function is regulated by hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian hormones. However, although several histological studies have described the autonomic innervation of the ovary, the involvement of these autonomic nerves in ovarian function is unclear. Recently, it has been shown that both the superior ovarian nerve (SON) and the ovarian nerve plexus (ONP) induce vasoconstrictor activity by activation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors, whereas the SON, but not the ONP, inhibits ovar...

  9. Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanta Guria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. 200 hypothyroid patients (case and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14 was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTION IN ASYMPTOMATIC OBESE YOUNG ADULTS - PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vijetha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Obesity is emerging global epidemic in young adults who form the productive group of the society. This has been called as new world syndrome and is a massive reflection of social, economic and cultural problems currently faced by the developing and developed countries. As cardiac autonomic dysfunction often coexists with obesity, early detection of autonomic impairment by simple investigations of autonomic function, can be potentially important to prevent future complications. Objective: To identify cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in asymptomatic obese young adults. Study design: This study was conducted in the department of Physiology at Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, A.P, 30 apparently healthy obese subjects of both sex with BMI > 25 kg/sqm were taken as study group. Age and sex matched 30 normal weight subjects (BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/ sqm taken as control group. Methods: Ewing’s battery of 5 noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests were done for assessing autonomic function. These autonomic function parameters were correlated with BMI, Unpaired Student‘t’ test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean values of all cardiovascular reflex tests were significantly lower in the study group. Conclusion: The results indicate that cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present in otherwise healthy obese young adults.

  11. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... determine thyroid function include: Free T4 test Serum TSH T3 Thyroid autoantibodies Imaging studies are generally not ... signs of mild thyroid failure (such as elevated TSH). This condition is also known as subclinical hypothyroidism. ...

  12. TSH alone is not sufficient to exclude all patients with a functioning thyroid nodule from undergoing testing to exclude thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado-Lopez, Luis-Mauricio; Monroy-Lozano, Blanca-Estela [General Hospital of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Martinez-Duncker, Carlos [Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez, Medicina Nuclear Molecular, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) alone avoids tests to exclude malignancy in all patients with functional thyroid nodules (FTN). Sixty-nine patients with FTN on {sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy, radioiodine uptake test (RIU), {sup 99m}Tc thyroid uptake, TSH assay, T3, and T4 obtained within 48 h were retrospectively identified out of 2,356 thyroid scans performed from January 2000 to April 2007. FTNs were classified as causing total, partial, or no inhibition of the thyroid as group 1, 2, or 3, respectively. TSH was subnormal in 21 of 69 (30.43%) patients. In group 1 (N = 23, 33.3%), TSH was subnormal, normal, and high in eight, nine, and six patients; in group 2 (N = 17, 24.6%), TSH was subnormal, normal, and high in four, six, and seven patients, and in group 3 (N = 29, 42%), TSH was subnormal, normal, and high in 9, 13, and 7 patients, respectively. TSH was significantly lower in group 1. In T3, T4, {sup 99m}Tc thyroid uptake, and RIU, there were no differences between the three groups. Only 30.43% of patients had subnormal TSH. TSH alone cannot avoid tests to exclude malignancy in all patients with FTN. FTN existence can only be accurately assessed by thyroid scintigraphy. The current incidence of FTN may be unknown because scintigraphy is not routinely performed in all patients with thyroid nodules. Thyroid scintigraphy of patients with high TSH can detect diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and identify patients with FTN in whom no further diagnostic procedures would be needed in patients with normal TSH levels with nondiagnostic fine-needle aspiration results. (orig.)

  13. Influence of excessive iodine intake on the thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in population of Turinsk, Sverdlovsk Region, of Russia

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    Aleksey Vasil'evich Kiyaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background.Previous surveys showed chronic iodine excess - median urinary iodine concentration (UIC over 500 mcg/l — supposedly due to water contamination in population of Turinsk, a town in Sverdlovsk Region of Russia.Aim.Conduct an assessment of the effects of chronic iodine excess on thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in schoolchildren and adults.Materials and methods.Assessment was conducted in 100 schoolchildren and 100 adults residing in Turinsk and 97 schoolchildren and 100 adults in the control site (city of Pervouralsk with optimal UIC. Assessment included thyroid ultrasonogrpahy, urinary iodine and dry spot TSH in schoolchildren and TSH and TPO-ab in adults. Iodine was also measured in random water samples from 10 households in Turinsk.Results.Median UIC in schoolchildren in Turinsk (719 mcg/l was significantly higher (129 mcg/l than in Pervouralsk resulting in higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement and TSH level. In adults TSH level as well as prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis were higher in residents of Turinsk compared to control group from Pervouralsk.Conclusions.Iodine excess alters thyroid function in schoolchildren and adults increasing prevalence of thyroid enlargement in children and autoimmune thyroidis in adults.

  14. Thyroid hormone signaling: Contribution to neural function, cognition, and relationship to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Prescott T; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is common despite its adverse effects on health, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the addictive properties of nicotine makes it possible to target them to prevent the initiation of smoking behavior and/or increase the chance of successful quit attempts. While highly addictive, nicotine is not generally considered to be as reinforcing as other drugs of abuse. There are likely other mechanisms at work that contribute to the addictive liability of nicotine. Nicotine modulates aspects of the endocrine system, including the thyroid, which is critical for normal cognitive functioning. It is possible that nicotine's effects on thyroid function may alter learning and memory, and this may underlie some of its addictive potential. Here, we review the literature on thyroid function and cognition, with a focus on how nicotine alters thyroid hormone signaling and the potential impact on cognition. Changes in cognition are a major symptom of nicotine addiction. Current anti-smoking therapies have modest success at best. If some of the cognitive effects of nicotine are mediated through the thyroid hormone system, then thyroid hormone agonists may be novel treatments for smoking cessation therapies. The content of this review is important because it clarifies the relationship between smoking and thyroid function, which has been ill-defined in the past. This review is timely because the reduction in smoking rates we have seen in recent decades, due to public awareness campaigns and public smoking bans, has leveled off in recent years. Therefore, novel treatment approaches are needed to help reduce smoking rates further. PMID:26344666

  15. Influence of chronic stress and terahertz radiation at nitric oxide frequency on functional activity of thyroid gland

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    Tsymbal А.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the chronic stress conditions oppression of functional activity of thyroid gland is revealed. Influence of terahertz radiation at the nitric oxide frequency of 150,176-150,664 GHz on functional activity of thyroid gland in the conditions of chronic experimental stress was studied. It was shown that during 15 minutes of influence of terahertz waves at nitric oxide frequency partial restoration of studied indicators of activity of thyroid gland was observed in stressed animals. At 30 minute mode of influence of specified waves a complete recovery of broken indicators of functional condition of thyroid gland was determined

  16. Perchlorate Exposure and Thyroid Function in Ammonium Perchlorate Workers in Yicheng, China

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    Hongxia Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of low level dust on the thyroid function of workers chronically exposed to ammonium perchlorate (AP is uncertain and controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether workers in China with long-term (>3 years occupational exposure to low levels of AP dust had affected thyroid homeostasis. Mean occupational exposures to AP dust ranged from 0.43 to 1.17 mg/m3. Geometric means of post-shift urinary perchlorate levels were 20.5 µg/L for those exposed and 12.8 µg/L for the controls. No significant differences were found for thyroid function parameters of FT3, FT4, or log TSH or for TPO prevalence or thyroglobulin levels. Additionally, no differences in findings were observed for complete blood count (CBC, serum biochemical profile, or pulmonary function test. Median urinary iodine levels of 172 and 184 µg/L showed that the workers had sufficient iodine intake. This study found no effect on thyroid function from long term, low-level documented exposure to ammonium perchlorate. It is the first study to report both thyroid status parameters and urinary perchlorate, a biomarker of internal perchlorate exposure, in occupationally exposed workers in China.

  17. Narrow intra-individual variation of maternal thyroid function in pregnancy based on a longitudinal study on 132 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Forman, Julie Lyng; Juul, A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Hilsted, L.; Chellakooty, M.; Larsen, T.; Larsen, J.F.; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    the assessment of the intra-individual variation as well as the longitudinal course of thyroid hormones during normal pregnancy and factors that influence the normal reference range for thyroid function. For this purpose, a longitudinal statistical model was applied. DESIGN: In a cohort of 132...... free T(3) (b=0.017; <0.001 and b=0.007; P<0.001). Smoking was positively associated with T(4) and FT(4), but it was modulated by gestational age. Gestation-specific reference intervals for thyroid function variables from autoantibody-negative participants are presented. CONCLUSIONS: In accordance with...... the data from nonpregnant adults, intra-individual variations of thyroid hormones were smaller than inter-individual variations also during pregnancy. In the evaluation of thyroid function in pregnancy, the individual longitudinal course of thyroid hormones rather than absolute values should be...

  18. A study of autonomic functions and obesity in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Arunima Chaudhuri; Borade, Nirmala G.; Jyotsna Tirumalai; Daniel Saldanha; Balaram Ghosh; Kalpana Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Background: Easy accessibility to Medicare and better living conditions has increased life expectancy in recent years. There are over 60 million postmenopausal women above 55 years in India. Obesity, physical inactivity, and altered estrogen metabolism play an integrated role in contributing to the disease risk profile of postmenopausal women. These same risk factors also affect modulation of the autonomic nervous system. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis whether there is indeed a...

  19. Genome-wide analysis of Pax8 binding provides new insights into thyroid functions

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    Ruiz-Llorente Sergio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor Pax8 is essential for the differentiation of thyroid cells. However, there are few data on genes transcriptionally regulated by Pax8 other than thyroid-related genes. To better understand the role of Pax8 in the biology of thyroid cells, we obtained transcriptional profiles of Pax8-silenced PCCl3 thyroid cells using whole genome expression arrays and integrated these signals with global cis-regulatory sequencing studies performed by ChIP-Seq analysis Results Exhaustive analysis of Pax8 immunoprecipitated peaks demonstrated preferential binding to intragenic regions and CpG-enriched islands, which suggests a role of Pax8 in transcriptional regulation of orphan CpG regions. In addition, ChIP-Seq allowed us to identify Pax8 partners, including proteins involved in tertiary DNA structure (CTCF and chromatin remodeling (Sp1, and these direct transcriptional interactions were confirmed in vivo. Moreover, both factors modulate Pax8-dependent transcriptional activation of the sodium iodide symporter (Nis gene promoter. We ultimately combined putative and novel Pax8 binding sites with actual target gene expression regulation to define Pax8-dependent genes. Functional classification suggests that Pax8-regulated genes may be directly involved in important processes of thyroid cell function such as cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, cell polarity, motion and adhesion, and a plethora of DNA/protein-related processes. Conclusion Our study provides novel insights into the role of Pax8 in thyroid biology, exerted through transcriptional regulation of important genes involved in critical thyrocyte processes. In addition, we found new transcriptional partners of Pax8, which functionally cooperate with Pax8 in the regulation of thyroid gene transcription. Besides, our data demonstrate preferential location of Pax8 in non-promoter CpG regions. These data point to an orphan CpG island-mediated mechanism

  20. Changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function in postmenopausal women after hormone replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shu-lan; Yu Shan-shan; Cao Zuan-sun

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function in postmenopausal women; and the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and thyroid and adrenal function. Methods:The levels of tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, TSH and cortisol were measured in 60 postmenopausal women (30 cases in HRT group; 30 cases in control group) before and 12 months after HRT.Results:The serum levels of tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, TSH and cortisol had no significant difference before and 12 months after HRT in postmenopausal women. The values of them were all in normal ranges.Conclusion:Changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function was not as significant as that of gonads in postmenopausal women and the impact of HRT on it was not so significantly evident.

  1. Maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Donk Riet W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the relation between maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version (ECV in breech presentation. Methods Prospective cohort study in 141 women (≥ 35 weeks gestation with a singleton fetus in breech. Blood samples for assessing thyroid function were taken prior to ECV. Main outcome measure was the relation between maternal thyroid function and ECV outcome indicated by post ECV ultrasound. Results ECV success rate was 77/141 (55%, 41/48 (85% in multipara and 36/93 (39% in primipara. Women with a failed ECV attempt had significantly higher TSH concentrations than women with a successful ECV (p Conclusions Higher TSH levels increase the risk of ECV failure. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00516555

  2. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    Whereas the consequences of extremes in iodine intake are well described, much less is known about the effect of more moderate variations in maternal iodine intake on fetal thyroid function. The present study performed in Denmark with mild to moderate iodine deficiency dealt with the effect of...... maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in the fetus/neonate. Serum was collected consecutively from pregnant women at term (n = 144) and from cord blood (n = 139). Forty-nine women had a regular intake of vitamin and mineral tablets with iodine (150 microg/day) during...... pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P < 0.05). In cord blood, on the contrary, TSH was 27.3% higher in...

  3. Functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes in Hurthle cell thyroid neoplasm - an association of GPX1 polymorphism and recurrent Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma

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    Krhin Blaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hurthle cells of the thyroid gland are very rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes. As a high level oxidative metabolism may lead to higher level of oxidative stress and can be associated with an increased risk for cancer, we investigated whether common functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, GPX, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with the development or clinical course of Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC.

  4. Adiponectin Depolarizes Parvocellular Paraventricular Nucleus Neurons Controlling Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyda, Ted Donald; Samson, Willis Kendrick; Ferguson, Alastair Victor

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin plays important roles in the control of energy homeostasis and autonomic function through peripheral and central nervous system actions. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a primary site of neuroendocrine (NE) and autonomic integration, and, thus, a potential target for adiponectin actions. Here, we investigate actions of adiponectin on parvocellular PVN neurons. Adiponectin influenced the majority (65%) of parvocellular PVN neurons, depolarizing 47%, whereas...

  5. Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Orlo H.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with thyroid nodules must be treated selectively because these nodules develop far more frequently than does thyroid cancer. A thorough clinical history, family history and history of radiation, as well as an accurate physical examination, are very important in determining whether surgical treatment is indicated. Thyroid function tests, a radioactive isotope scan, a thyroid echogram and fine-needle biopsy are also useful.

  6. Thyroid size change by CT monitoring after sorafenib or sunitinib treatment in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Comparison with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Hypothyroidism is a common complication in patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We evaluated the relationship between thyroid size evident on CT and thyroid function in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Materials and methods: Forty-two patients with metastatic RCC receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib n = 25; sunitinib n = 17) and, followed-up for ≥12 months were eligible. Patients who had ever shown an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of >10 mU/l were defined as having “hypothyroidism”. CT scans were performed before, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of treatment. The area of the thyroid in the maximum section at each examination was measured and compared with that before treatment. Using repeated-measures ANOVA, differences in thyroid size were compared over time between patients with and without “hypothyroidism”, in relation to the type of drug employed. Results: Twenty-one patients (sorafenib 9, sunitinib 12) developed “hypothyroidism” 95 ± 88 days (range 12–315 days) after the start of treatment. In such patients, the thyroid was reduced in size to 89 ± 16% after 3 months, 81 ± 21% after 6 months, 71 ± 21% after 9 months and 68 ± 21% after 12 months, whereas the patients without “hypothyroidism” maintained a thyroid size of 90 ± 12% even after 12 months (p = 0.0030). Among the patients with “hypothyroidism”, those treated with sunitinib tended to show greater thyroid size reduction than those with sorafenib (59 ± 23% vs. 79 ± 13%, after 12 months). Conclusion: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors cause an apparent thyroid size reduction in patients with “hypothyroidism”

  7. Thyroid size change by CT monitoring after sorafenib or sunitinib treatment in patients with renal cell carcinoma: Comparison with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kitajima@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Takahashi, Satoru; Maeda, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Fujii, Masahiko [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato [Department of Urology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: Hypothyroidism is a common complication in patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We evaluated the relationship between thyroid size evident on CT and thyroid function in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Materials and methods: Forty-two patients with metastatic RCC receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib n = 25; sunitinib n = 17) and, followed-up for ≥12 months were eligible. Patients who had ever shown an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of >10 mU/l were defined as having “hypothyroidism”. CT scans were performed before, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of treatment. The area of the thyroid in the maximum section at each examination was measured and compared with that before treatment. Using repeated-measures ANOVA, differences in thyroid size were compared over time between patients with and without “hypothyroidism”, in relation to the type of drug employed. Results: Twenty-one patients (sorafenib 9, sunitinib 12) developed “hypothyroidism” 95 ± 88 days (range 12–315 days) after the start of treatment. In such patients, the thyroid was reduced in size to 89 ± 16% after 3 months, 81 ± 21% after 6 months, 71 ± 21% after 9 months and 68 ± 21% after 12 months, whereas the patients without “hypothyroidism” maintained a thyroid size of 90 ± 12% even after 12 months (p = 0.0030). Among the patients with “hypothyroidism”, those treated with sunitinib tended to show greater thyroid size reduction than those with sorafenib (59 ± 23% vs. 79 ± 13%, after 12 months). Conclusion: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors cause an apparent thyroid size reduction in patients with “hypothyroidism”.

  8. Is there still a role for thyroid scintigraphy in the workup of a thyroid nodule in the era of fine needle aspiration cytology and molecular testing? [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid scintigraphy is now rarely used in the work-up of a thyroid nodule except in the presence of a low TSH value. Therefore, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs with a normal TSH value are diagnosed only in the rare medical centers that continue to use thyroid scan systematically in the presence of a thyroid nodule. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of AFTN with a normal TSH level and the possible consequences of performing fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in an undiagnosed AFTN. We also discuss the risk of malignant AFTN which may be higher than previously stated.

  9. The diagnostic effects of s-TSH and TRH stimulating test on subclinical thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to investigate the diagnostic effects of supersensitive TSH on diagnosing subclinical thyroid function with only once s-TSH detection and with TRH stimulating tests. TRH stimulating tests have been undertaken for 90 patients with different thyroid disease and 58 normal subjects. Diagnostic basal levels of s-TSH test in control group, subclinical hyperthyroidism group and subclinical hypothyroidism group were 2.20 +- 1.85 mIU/L, 0.54 +- 0.3 mIU/L and 9.08 +- 6.3 mIU/L, respectively, the levels of subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism group were significantly higher than that of normal subjects group (Ps-TSH>30 mIU/L. Dynamic observing of TRH stimulating tests have more effect than that of only once s-TSH detection in diagnosing subclinical thyroid function

  10. A simplified scheme for the investigation of thyroid function in chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, P; Shapiro, L; Faye, S; Bolton, R

    1988-07-01

    The investigation of thyroid disease in the presence of chronic liver disease (CLD) is difficult. Conventional tests are influenced by chronic illness and abnormal concentrations of binding proteins. A three tier system is normally used; thyroxine (T4), then T3 or TSH and an index for binding proteins. The recently introduced TSH immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) offer the potential of a single test assessment of thyroid function. This was assessed by the measurement of T4, T3, THBC and the free thyroxine indices in subjects with CLD. Conventional tests showed a high number of abnormal T4 values but binding indices were normal. The TSH-IRMA results were all normal. TSH-IRMA assays are rapid, easy to use and cheap. They remove the uncertainties in assessing thyroid function in CLD and may be the test of choice. PMID:3214117

  11. Antithyroid antibodies and thyroid function in pediatric patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, Derya; Urganci, Nafiye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease, persistence of antithyroid antibodies, effect of gluten-free diet, and long-term outcome of thyroid function in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). Methods. 67 patients with CD aged from 1 year to 16 years were screened for thyroid antithyroperoxidase, antithyroglobulin and anti-TSH receptor antibodies, serum free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) at diagnosis and during follow-up. Results. None of the patients had antithyroid antibodies at diagnosis. Antithyroid antibodies became positive in 16.4% of the patients (11/67) 2 to 3 years after the diagnosis of CD. Clinical hypothyroidism was observed only in 3 of 11 CD patients with positive antithyroid antibodies (27.2%). The antithyroid antibodies positive and negative patients did not differ significantly according to compliance to GFD (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed only in age, in which the patients with positive antithyroid antibodies were younger than the patients with negative antithyroid antibodies (P = 0.004). None of the patients had any change in their thyroid function and antibody profile during their follow-up. Conclusion. Antithyroid antibodies were detected in younger pediatric patients with CD and the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies did not correlate with the duration of gluten intake. PMID:25788942

  12. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UIsalt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; Pchildren had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  13. Management of thyroid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Premawardhana, L D K E; Lazarus, J H

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease is the predominant form of thyroid dysfunction in the developed world. Although its precise cause is currently unclear, principles of management have been established. There is a vigorous debate about the management of the increasingly commonly recognised subclinical forms of thyroid dysfunction despite recent recommendations. Nodular thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma have received wide attention. The effects of drugs and pregnancy on thyroid function have also ...

  14. Thyroid Imaging in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldis, Marina; Waldman, Lindsey; Marginean, Otilia; Rosenberg, Henrietta Kotlus; Rapaport, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. It is important to know the cause of each patient's thyroid dysfunction to foresee the course of therapy and outcomes. Imaging methods, such as ultrasound and thyroid scan, help determine the anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. Although thyroid scan is considered superior in detecting ectopic thyroid tissue, ultrasound is able to detect the presence of thyroid tissue not otherwise visualized in 15% of patients. PMID:27241963

  15. The thyroid gland function assessment in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy during breast cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: For many years much attention has been focused on an interaction between the breast disease and the thyroid gland function in the literature. In those studies the question whether disease changes in the thyroid gland can induces the breast disease was addressed. On the other hand there are a few works concerning the inverted question whether the breast cancer therapy, in particular after mastectomy and chemotherapy, can disturb the thyroid gland function. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the mastectomy and chemotherapy on the thyroid gland function in women after breast cancer therapy. Material and methods: 173 patients aged 30 - 80 (average 56) were included in this study. The studied group comprised 97 women after breast cancer therapy (average age 60). The control group consisted of 76 patients (average age 55). 75 patients after mastectomy of the studied group were additionally treated with chemotherapy, but in 22 women chemotherapy was not applied. The following methods were used to carry out the research: the USG method was applied to evaluate thyroid morphological condition in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy; the color Doppler technique was used for dynamic presentation and fine- needle aspiration biopsy: examination of the thyroid functional state by measuring the TSH, fT3, fT4 hormone concentration and the level of antithyroid antibodies. Results: An average concentration of antithyroid antibodies: anti-TPO and anti-Tg was found significantly higher in the studied group of women after chemotherapy, comparing with the control group. The level of fT3 hormone concentration was comparable in all investigated groups. Nevertheless, the average concentration of TSH was found higher in women after mastectomy and chemotherapy and as a consequence leading to hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the high level of the concentration of antithyroid antibodies: (anti-TPO and anti- Tg), which lead to

  16. Zebrafish model of tuberous sclerosis complex reveals cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous functions of mutant tuberin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyung Kim

    2011-03-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in either the TSC1 (encodes hamartin or TSC2 (encodes tuberin genes. Patients with TSC have hamartomas in various organs throughout the whole body, most notably in the brain, skin, eye, heart, kidney and lung. To study the development of hamartomas, we generated a zebrafish model of TSC featuring a nonsense mutation (vu242 in the tsc2 gene. This tsc2vu242 allele encodes a truncated Tuberin protein lacking the GAP domain, which is required for inhibition of Rheb and of the TOR kinase within TORC1. We show that tsc2vu242 is a recessive larval-lethal mutation that causes increased cell size in the brain and liver. Greatly elevated TORC1 signaling is observed in tsc2vu242/vu242 homozygous zebrafish, and is moderately increased in tsc2vu242/+ heterozygotes. Forebrain neurons are poorly organized in tsc2vu242/vu242 homozygous mutants, which have extensive gray and white matter disorganization and ectopically positioned cells. Genetic mosaic analyses demonstrate that tsc2 limits TORC1 signaling in a cell-autonomous manner. However, in chimeric animals, tsc2vu242/vu242 mutant cells also mislocalize wild-type host cells in the forebrain in a non-cell-autonomous manner. These results demonstrate a highly conserved role of tsc2 in zebrafish and establish a new animal model for studies of TSC. The finding of a non-cell-autonomous function of mutant cells might help explain the formation of brain hamartomas and cortical malformations in human TSC.

  17. Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka P Jyotsna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to observe the effect comprehensive yogic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga [SKY] and Pranayam had on cardiac autonomic functions in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 64 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program. Standard therapy included dietary advice, brisk walking for 45 min daily, and administration of oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was introduced to the participants through a course of 12 h spread over 3 days. It was an interactive session in which SKY, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam is taught under the guidance of a certified teacher. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and after 6 months of intervention. Results: In the intervention group, after practicing the breathing techniques for 6 months, the improvement in sympathetic functions was statistically significant (P 0.04. The change in sympathetic functions in the standard therapy group was not significant (P 0.75.Parasympathetic functions did not show any significant change in either group. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P 0.06. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P 0.99. Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic functions improved in patients with diabetes on standard treatment who followed the comprehensive yogic breathing program compared to patients who were on standard therapy alone.

  18. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations. PMID:26689929

  19. Radiochemical studies on thyroid function in Sudanese newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study two thyroid related hormones of 200 neonates were investigated, in order to study the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in Khartoum state. Radiochemical iodinated anti-thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) monoclonal antibody and and thyroxine labeled antigen were used as a radiotracer. Radiochemical chlora min T method of radioiodination, which based on chlomin T as strong oxidizing agent and sodium metabisulphite as strong reducing agent was used to prepare the iodine 125 labeled radio tracer of TSH and T4 hormones. There for two radiotracer were used in sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for T4 and TSH. Cord blood was used at the moment of delivery to obtain serum samples for the investigations. The mean of most neonates was normal in T4 (117 nmol/1) and the TSH (1.8 mu/1), while the normal levels ranging from (50-150 nmol/ 1) and (0.4-4 mu/1) respectively. There was strong correlation between T4 and TSH, p>0.01. Two neonates showed high TSH level and low T4 level. In this study the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism was found to be 1% which correlates with the international incidence. (Author)

  20. GATE based Monte Carlo simulation of planar scintigraphy to estimate the nodular dose in radioiodine therapy for autonomous thyroid adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommended target dose in radioiodine therapy of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules is 300-400 Gy and therefore higher than in other radiotherapies. This is due to the fact that an unknown, yet significant portion of the activity is stored in extranodular areas but is neglected in the calculatory dosimetry. We investigate the feasibility of determining the ratio of nodular and extranodular activity concentrations (uptakes) from post-therapeutically acquired planar scintigrams with Monte Carlo simulations in GATE. The geometry of a gamma camera with a high energy collimator was emulated in GATE (Version 5). A geometrical thyroid-neck phantom (GP) and the ICRP reference voxel phantoms 'Adult Female' (AF, 16 ml thyroid) and 'Adult Male' (AM, 19 ml thyroid) were used as source regions. Nodules of 1 ml and 3 ml volume were placed in the phantoms. For each phantom and each nodule 200 scintigraphic acquisitions were simulated. Uptake ratios of nodule and rest of thyroid ranging from 1 to 20 could be created by summation. Quantitative image analysis was performed by investigating the number of simulated counts in regions of interest (ROIs). ROIs were created by perpendicular projection of the phantom onto the camera plane to avoid a user dependant bias. The ratio of count densities in ROIs over the nodule and over the contralateral lobe, which should be least affected by nodular activity, was taken to be the best available measure for the uptake ratios. However, the predefined uptake ratios are underestimated by these count density ratios: For an uptake ratio of 20 the count ratios range from 4.5 (AF, 1 ml nodule) to 15.3 (AM, 3 ml nodule). Furthermore, the contralateral ROI is more strongly affected by nodular activity than expected: For an uptake ratio of 20 between nodule and rest of thyroid up to 29% of total counts in the ROI over the contralateral lobe are caused by decays in the nodule (AF 3 ml). In the case of the 1 ml nodules this effect is smaller: 9

  1. GATE based Monte Carlo simulation of planar scintigraphy to estimate the nodular dose in radioiodine therapy for autonomous thyroid adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, Jochen; Schmidt, Matthias; Schicha, Harald; Eschner, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Pietrzyk, Uwe [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM-4); Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich C - Physik

    2011-07-01

    The recommended target dose in radioiodine therapy of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules is 300-400 Gy and therefore higher than in other radiotherapies. This is due to the fact that an unknown, yet significant portion of the activity is stored in extranodular areas but is neglected in the calculatory dosimetry. We investigate the feasibility of determining the ratio of nodular and extranodular activity concentrations (uptakes) from post-therapeutically acquired planar scintigrams with Monte Carlo simulations in GATE. The geometry of a gamma camera with a high energy collimator was emulated in GATE (Version 5). A geometrical thyroid-neck phantom (GP) and the ICRP reference voxel phantoms 'Adult Female' (AF, 16 ml thyroid) and 'Adult Male' (AM, 19 ml thyroid) were used as source regions. Nodules of 1 ml and 3 ml volume were placed in the phantoms. For each phantom and each nodule 200 scintigraphic acquisitions were simulated. Uptake ratios of nodule and rest of thyroid ranging from 1 to 20 could be created by summation. Quantitative image analysis was performed by investigating the number of simulated counts in regions of interest (ROIs). ROIs were created by perpendicular projection of the phantom onto the camera plane to avoid a user dependant bias. The ratio of count densities in ROIs over the nodule and over the contralateral lobe, which should be least affected by nodular activity, was taken to be the best available measure for the uptake ratios. However, the predefined uptake ratios are underestimated by these count density ratios: For an uptake ratio of 20 the count ratios range from 4.5 (AF, 1 ml nodule) to 15.3 (AM, 3 ml nodule). Furthermore, the contralateral ROI is more strongly affected by nodular activity than expected: For an uptake ratio of 20 between nodule and rest of thyroid up to 29% of total counts in the ROI over the contralateral lobe are caused by decays in the nodule (AF 3 ml). In the case of the 1 ml nodules this

  2. Thyroid function in children and adolescents after combined therapy of Hodgkin disease

    OpenAIRE

    R. I. Feoktistov; Y. G. Abugova; Y. Y. Dyakonova; O. V. Makarova; N. V. Myakova

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid diseases, especially hypothyroidism, are among the most frequent endocrine complications in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma whohave received neck irradiation. Thyroid function was evaluated in 34 patients (11 males and 23 females) after combined chemo radiotherapyof Hodgkin lymphoma according to modified DAL-HD-90M and GPOH-HD-2002 protocols. The median age was 15.9 years (range 5–18 years), the median time from the end of therapy was 1.08 years (range 1 month–4.9 years). 33 patients r...

  3. Insights into the clinical and functional significance of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Junqueira Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exclusive or associated lesions in various structures of the autonomic nervous system occur in the chronic forms of Chagas disease. In the indeterminate form, the lesions are absent or mild, whereas in the exclusive or combined heart and digestive disease forms, they are often more pronounced. Depending on their severity these lesions can result mainly in cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction but also in sympathetic dysfunction of variable degrees. Despite the key autonomic effect on cardiovascular functioning, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease remains unknown. METHODS: Review of data on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease and their potential consequences, and considerations supporting the possible relationship between this disturbance and general or cardiovascular clinical and functional adverse outcomes. RESULTS: We hypothesise that possible consequences that cardiac dysautonomia might variably occasion or predispose in Chagas disease include: transient or sustained arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, adverse overall and cardiovascular prognosis with enhanced morbidity and mortality, an inability of the cardiovascular system to adjust to functional demands and/or respond to internal or external stimuli by adjusting heart rate and other hemodynamic variables, and immunomodulatory and cognitive disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired cardiac autonomic modulation in Chagas disease might not be a mere epiphenomenon without significance. Indirect evidences point for a likely important role of this alteration as a primary predisposing or triggering cause or mediator favouring the development of subtle or evident secondary cardiovascular functional disturbances and clinical consequences, and influencing adverse outcomes.

  4. Some parameters of thyroid function in Dutch-Miranda rats submitted to chronic treatment of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of thyroid function in rats whose blood lithium levels were maintained are investigated. At therapeutic levels during 1,5 to 2 months. Adult young male rats (isogenic Dutch-Miranda) of the same litter were randomly distributed into paired experimental and control groups of 3 animals. The animals were fed comercial chow and received tap water or LiCl 12,5 mM in distiled water to drink, ad-libitum. At the end of experimental period each animal received an intraperitoneal tracer dosis of I-131 (5-6 uCi), 72 h later their thyroids were removed, weighed and counted to determine the I-131 uptake. The pooled thyroids of each group were homogeneized and supernadant and particulate fractions were separed by centrifugation. TPO activity was determined in the pseudosolubilized particulate feaction. (Author)

  5. Marginal Iodide Deficiency and Thyroid Function: Dose-response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe iodine deficiency is known to cause adverse health outcomes and remains a benchmark for understanding the effects of hypothyroidism. However, the implications of marginal iodine deficiency on function of the thyroid axis remain less well known. The current study examined t...

  6. Study of serum TSH content in functioning thyroid gland adenoma by 'supersensitive' immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determinations of serum TSH levels by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)-math TSH (Mallinckrodt) kit and of the thyroid function by scintiscanning using 99mTc-pertechnetate (20-40 MBq) were carried out paralelly in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients. A comparison of the two tests allowed a better distinction of preclinical hyperthyreosis from toxic adenomas. (L.E.)

  7. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie; Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Ellervik, Christina; Jelstrup, Søren; Kvetny, Jan

    2014-01-01

    weight (69.3 versus 69.3 kg, P = 0.71). Patients on thyroxin treatment did not gain weight. TSH increase was significantly correlated with weight gain (r = 0.43, P < 0.01). Conclusion. Two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, thyroid function is lowered within the laboratory...

  8. Spectrum of thyroid function in children among the patients attending to examine thyroidal illness at CNMU, Dhaka - A retrospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of a standard range of thyroid hormones for Bangladesh younger population is very essential. Trials were conducted to standardize the normal range of thyroid hormones i.e. T3, T4 and TSH level, at 95% confidence limit (2sd) of age ranging from 1 day to 12 yrs of Bangladesh children group, which were differ by sex. The ranges of different thyroid status were evaluated in the In vitro Laboratory of Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Dhaka. Comparing three stages (Table 2,3, and 4) observed hormone ranges at euthyroid stage marked off for overlapping the higher level of hypo thyroidal stage by lower side and the lower level of hyper thyroidal stage by higher side. Present work calculated the mean values of thyroid hormones of both sexes, which were found not affected by the sex. (author)

  9. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Bodner, D;

    2008-01-01

    of both ASIA and ISCoS for comment and re-revised through webcasts. Topics include an overview of autonomic anatomy, classification of cardiovascular, respiratory, sudomotor and thermoregulatory function, bladder, bowel and sexual function. CONCLUSION:This document describes a new system to document...

  10. Substantial interobserver variation of thyroid volume and function by visual evaluation of thyroid (99m)Tc scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin K; Grupe, Peter; Boel-Jørgensen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Peter; Fast, Søren; Nielsen, Viveque E; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Bonnema, Steen J

    2014-01-01

    (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is much used in the evaluation of patients with nodular goitre. We investigated the ability of experienced observers to estimate the thyroid 24-h (131)I uptake (RAIU) and the thyroid volume by visual evaluation of the scintigram.......(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is much used in the evaluation of patients with nodular goitre. We investigated the ability of experienced observers to estimate the thyroid 24-h (131)I uptake (RAIU) and the thyroid volume by visual evaluation of the scintigram....

  11. The assessment of cardiac autonomic functions in adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Huseyin; Kilicaslan, Baris; Aydin, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Subclinical atherosclerosis has been recently detected in adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis. However, no studies in the literature have assessed the cardiac autonomic functions of these adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic functions of adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis compared with those of age- and gender-matched adolescents without a family history of atherosclerosis. METHOD: We evaluated the cardiac autonomic functions of 36 adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis (Group 1) and compared them with those of 31 age- and gender-matched adolescents whose parents did not have premature atherosclerosis (Group 2). Twenty-four-hour time domain (standard deviation of all normal sinus RR intervals [SDNN], standard deviation of the mean of normal RR intervals in each 5-minute segment [SDANN], root-mean-square differences in successive RR intervals) and frequency domain (very low frequency, low frequency, high frequency, low frequency/high frequency) parameters of heart rate variability were used for the evaluation of cardiac autonomic functions. RESULTS: There were no differences in the time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability between the two groups. Heart rate was negatively correlated with SDNN (r = -0.278, p = 0.035), while age was significantly correlated with root-mean-square differences in successive RR intervals, high frequency, low frequency and low frequency/high frequency (r = -0.264, -0.370, 0.265 and 0.374, respectively; p<0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: We found that the cardiac autonomic functions of adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis were not different compared with those of adolescents without a positive family history of premature atherosclerosis. It appears that subclinical atherosclerosis does not reach a critical value such that it can alter cardiac autonomic functions

  12. T-screen to quantify functional potentiating, antagonistic and thyroid hormone-like activities of poly halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.; Vrabie, C.M.; Gutleb, A.C.; Faassen, E.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates chemical thyroid hormone disruption at the level of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) functioning. To this end the (ant)agonistic action of a series of xenobiotics was tested in the newly developed T-screen. This assay makes use of a GH3 rat pituitary cell line, that speci

  13. Comparative genomics reveals a functional thyroid-specific element in the far upstream region of the PAX8 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Felice Mario

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms leading to a fully differentiated thyrocite are still object of intense study even if it is well known that thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase, NIS and TSHr are the marker genes of thyroid differentiation. It is also well known that Pax8, TTF-1, Foxe1 and Hhex are the thyroid-enriched transcription factors responsible for the expression of the above genes, thus are responsible for the differentiated thyroid phenotype. In particular, the role of Pax8 in the fully developed thyroid gland was studied in depth and it was established that it plays a key role in thyroid development and differentiation. However, to date the bases for the thyroid-enriched expression of this transcription factor have not been unraveled yet. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a functional thyroid-specific enhancer element located far upstream of the Pax8 gene. Results We hypothesized that regulatory cis-acting elements are conserved among mammalian genes. Comparison of a genomic region extending for about 100 kb at the 5'-flanking region of the mouse and human Pax8 gene revealed several conserved regions that were tested for enhancer activity in thyroid and non-thyroid cells. Using this approach we identified one putative thyroid-specific regulatory element located 84.6 kb upstream of the Pax8 transcription start site. The in silico data were verified by promoter-reporter assays in thyroid and non-thyroid cells. Interestingly, the identified far upstream element manifested a very high transcriptional activity in the thyroid cell line PC Cl3, but showed no activity in HeLa cells. In addition, the data here reported indicate that the thyroid-enriched transcription factor TTF-1 is able to bind in vitro and in vivo the Pax8 far upstream element, and is capable to activate transcription from it. Conclusions Results of this study reveal the presence of a thyroid-specific regulatory element in the 5' upstream

  14. Cortical activation during finger tapping in thyroid dysfunction: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Khushu; S Senthil Kumaran; T Sekhri; R P Tripathi; P C Jain; V Jain

    2006-12-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is associated with attention deficit and impairment of the motor system (muscle weakness and fatigue). This paper investigates possible motor function deficit in thyroid patients, compared to the controls. Functional MRI studies (fMRI) were carried out in five hypo and five hyperthyroid patients and six healthy volunteers. Whole brain imaging was performed using echo planar imaging (EPI) technique, on a 1.5T whole body MR system (Siemens Magnetom Vision). The task paradigm consisted of 8 cycles of active and reference phases of 6 measurements each, with right index finger tapping at a rate of 120 taps/min. Post-processing was performed using statistical parametric mapping on a voxel-by-voxel basis using SPM99. Clusters of activation were found in the contralateral hemisphere in primary somatomotor area (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), somatosensory, auditory receptive and integration areas, inferior temporal lobe, thalamus and cerebellum. Increased clusters of activation were observed in M1 in thyroid subjects as compared to controls and with bilateral activation of the primary motor cortex in two hyperthyroid patients. The results are explained in terms of increased functional demands in thyroid patients compared to volunteers for the execution of the same task.

  15. Changes in the Pulmonary Function Test after Radioactive Iodine Treatment in Patients with Pulmonary Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Eun Kyung; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Huh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Hyemi; Choi, Yun Mi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary function test (PFT) is a useful tool for an objective assessment of respiratory function. Impaired pulmonary function is critical for the survival and quality of life in patients with pulmonary metastases of solid cancers including thyroid cancer. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with severely impaired pulmonary function by serial assessment with PFT in patients with pulmonary metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who received radioactiv...

  16. Influence of x irradiation and diet on pituitary/thyroid function in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were maintained on low iodine diet or treated with T4. A significant increase in thyroid weight was observed in rats on low iodine diet whereas among rats on normal diet with thyroxine injections, the thyroid was lower in weight than thyroids of control animals. Pituitary weight increased significantly in rats on low iodine diet or T4 treatment. Labelling index was significantly higher in the group on low iodine diet. A significantly lower labelling index was observed after thyroxine treatment. Where PTU was administered to rats pretreated with either normal diet, normal diet plus T4, or maintained on low iodine diet and then exposed to radiation (100 to 400R) to the neck, it was not possible to distinguish the effect of such local radiation on body growth. The pre-radiation treatment did not have any effect on thyroid weight during two weeks post-radiation, suggesting that a four week post-radiation period is essential to elicit radiation effects on the thyroid. Contrary to low iodine treatment, administration of PTU did not result in any increase in pituitary weight in rats maintained on normal diet prior to radiation or in rats maintained on low iodine diet prior to radiation. There was, however, a significant increase in pituitary weight in rats injected with thyroxine prior to radiation (250R or 400R). A significant increase in serum TSH was observed two weeks after radiation and PTU treatment. A lower TSH level was observed, however, in the 250R sub-group (normal diet or T4 injection) and in the 400R sub-group (low iodine diet). There was a significant difference among sham-irradiated and the three x-irradiated sub-groups maintained on low iodine diet. The results of these studies indicate that local x irradiation with 100 to 400R to the neck may influence thyroid/pituitary function in the rat

  17. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  18. Identification of organ-autonomous constituents of the molecular memory conferred by thyroid hormone exposure in cold temperature-arrested metamorphosing Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Hammond, S; Jackman, Kevin W; Partovi, Shireen H; Veldhoen, Nik; Helbing, Caren C

    2016-03-01

    Environmental temperature modulates thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis in some amphibian species. The North American bullfrog - Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana - tadpole is naturally adapted to a wide range of temperatures over multiple seasons. Cold temperatures delay while warmer temperatures accelerate metamorphosis. Exogenous TH exposure of premetamorphic tadpoles results in a rapid precocious induction of metamorphosis at warm temperatures (20-25°C). The same exposure at cold temperatures (4-5°C) does not elicit an overt metamorphic response. However, a molecular memory of TH exposure is established such that cold, TH-exposed tadpoles returned to permissive warm temperatures will rapidly execute TH-induced genetic programs. Previous mRNA profiling has identified TH-regulated transcription factors encoded by thra, thrb, thibz, klf9, and cebp1 as components of the molecular memory after one week post-exposure. However, a further hierarchy may exist within the initiation phase since many gene transcripts demonstrated tissue-specific patterns. Whether the molecular memory is organ autonomous or requires additional modulating factors is unknown. Herein we examine tail fin and back skin and determine that thibz is the only transcript that is TH-responsive after 2 days post-exposure at low temperature in both tissues in the intact animal. In back skin, cebp1 is also TH-responsive under these conditions. Serum-free tail fin organ culture (C-Fin) reveals that the thibz response is organ autonomous whereas cultured back skin (C-Skin) results suggest that thibz and cebp1 require an additional factor for induction from elsewhere within the intact animal. Subsequent investigations are now possible to identify endogenous factors that modulate the molecular memory in intact animals. PMID:26795672

  19. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  20. Exposure to non-persistent pesticides and thyroid function: A systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Élida; Freire, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous pesticides are recognized for their endocrine-disrupting properties. Non-persistent pesticides such as organophosphates, dithiocarbamates and pyrethroids may interfere with thyroid function as suggested by animal studies. However, the influence of chronic exposure to these compounds on thyroidal functions in humans remains to be determined. The present study aimed to review epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to non-persistent pesticides and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (thyroxin [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3]) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library (BVS) databases. Articles were limited to original studies and reports published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Nineteen epidemiological studies were identified, 17 of which were cross-sectional, 14 were of occupationally exposed workers and 11 used exposure biomarkers. Fungicides and organophosphates (OP) insecticides were the most studied pesticides. Although methodological heterogeneity between studies was noted, particularly regarding study design, exposure assessment, and control of confounding, most of them showed associations with changes in T3 and T4, and/or TSH levels, while results from a few of these are consistent with experimental data supporting the findings that non-persistent pesticide exposure exerts hypothyroid-like effects. However, reporting quality was moderate to poor in 50% of the studies, particularly regarding method of selection of participants and discussion of external validity. Overall, current knowledge regarding the impact of non-persistent pesticides on human thyroid function is still limited. Given the widespread use of pesticides, future research should assess effects of exposure to currently-used pesticides in cohort studies combining comprehensive questionnaire-based assessment and biomarkers. Investigators need to pay particular attention to exposure

  1. Thyroid function test in pre-term neonates during the first five weeks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Torkaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT is one of the most common congenital endocrinal disorders. The prevalence of CHT is estimated about 1 in 3,000 newborns. The prevalence, etiology and associated disorders of abnormal thyroid screening tests are reported in different ranges. In this study, we assessed the pre-term newborns for CHT and associated factors that influence thyroid function. Methods: One hundred newborns with the gestational age fewer than 35 weeks were investigated. Baseline serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxin (FT4 levels were measured during the first 5 days of life and were repeated during the first 5 weeks. We analyzed the effects of demographic factors and the presence of respiratory distress syndrome on the alteration of thyroid function tests during the first 5 weeks of life. Results: The mean gestational age (GA at delivery was 32.35΁1.97 (range 28 to 35 weeks. CHT was observed in 13(13% preterm infants. GA was the only factor which affect the FT4 changes over the two weeks follow-up (P < 0.001, b: -2.783, Power: 70.2% although the differences between baseline and follow-up amount of TSH were not significantly influenced by GA (P = 0.062, power: 46%. However, the adjusted TSH and FT4 serum level changes during follow-up were significantly different between two groups (between CHT and normal, P = 0.006, 0.000, respectively. Conclusions: It seems that thyroid function tests should be repeated in preterm infants, especially for patients with lower gestational age, to confirm the diagnosis of CHT. Also, CHT should be considered among the newborns that are affected by RDS.

  2. Thyroid function and autoimmunity in Danish pregnant women after an iodine fortification program and associations with obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Boas, Malene; Hilsted, Linda;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aberrations in maternal thyroid function and autoimmunity during pregnancy have been associated with negative obstetric outcome. In Denmark, a national iodine fortification program was implemented in the year 2000 with the aim to alleviate the mild-moderate iodine deficiency. Following...... outcome. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the benefit of treating slight aberrations in pregnant women's thyroid function.......OBJECTIVE: Aberrations in maternal thyroid function and autoimmunity during pregnancy have been associated with negative obstetric outcome. In Denmark, a national iodine fortification program was implemented in the year 2000 with the aim to alleviate the mild-moderate iodine deficiency. Following...

  3. Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Crea; Carla Bizzarri; Marco Cappa

    2011-01-01

    The two major autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) include Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT); both of which are characterized by infiltration of the thyroid by T and B cells reactive to thyroid antigens, by the production of thyroid autoantibodies and by abnormal thyroid function (hyperthyroidism in GD and hypothyroidism in AT). While the exact etiology of thyroid autoimmunity is not known, it is believed to develop when a combination of genetic susceptibility and environment...

  4. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  5. Changes of Pain Perception, Autonomic Function, and Endocrine Parameters during Treatment of Anorectic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Karl-Jurgen; Boettger, Silke; Wagner, Gerd; Wilsdorf, Christine; Gerhard, Uwe Jens; Boettger, Michael K.; Blanz, Bernhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The underlying mechanisms of reduced pain perception in anorexia nervosa (AN) are unknown. To gain more insight into the pathology, the authors investigated pain perception, autonomic function, and endocrine parameters before and during successful treatment of adolescent AN patients. Method: Heat pain perception was assessed in 15…

  6. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William; Kennelly, Michael; Kirshblum, Steven; Krogh, Klaus; Alexander, Marca Sipski; Vogel, Lawrence; Wecht, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the...

  7. Teaching Cardiac Autonomic Function Dynamics Employing the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Luiz Fernando, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, a brief history of the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) maneuver is outlined, followed by an explanation on the use of this approach for the evaluation of cardiac autonomic function based on underlying heart rate changes. The most important methodological and interpretative aspects of the Valsalva-Weber maneuver are critically updated,…

  8. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  9. Correlation Functions of an Autonomous Stochastic System with Nonlinear Time Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The auto-correlation function and the cross-correlation of an autonomous stochastic system with nonlinear time-delayed feedback are investigated by using the stochastic simulation method. There are prominent differences between the roles of quadratic time-delayed feedback and cubic time-delayed feedback on the correlations of an autonomous stochastic system. Under quadratic time-delayed feedback, the nonlinear time delay fails to improve the noisy state of the autonomous stochastic system, the auto-correlation decreases monotonously to zero, and the cross-correlation increases monotonously to zero with the decay time. Under cubic time-delayed feedback, the nonlinear time delay can improve the noisy state of the autonomous stochastic system; the auto-correlation and the cross-correlation show periodical oscillation and attenuation, finally tending to zero with the decay time. Comparing the correlations of the system between with nonlinear time-delayed feedback and linear time-delayed feedback, we find that nonlinear time-delayed feedback lowers the correlation strength of the autonomous stochastic system. (general)

  10. Effects of Excess Fluoride and Iodide on Thyroid Function and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaqiu; Guo, Xiujuan; Sun, Qiuyan; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to high levels of iodide in Cangzhou, Shandong Province, China has been associated with increased incidence of thyroid disease; however, whether fluoride can affect the thyroid remains controversial. To investigate the effects of excess fluoride, we evaluated thyroid gland structure and function in rats exposed to fluoride and iodide, either alone or in combination. Five-week-old Wistar rats (n = 160 total) were randomly divided into eight groups: three groups that were given excess fluoride (15, 30, or 60 ppm F); one group given excess iodide (1200 μg/L I); three groups given excess iodide plus fluoride (1200 μg/L I plus 15, 30, or 60 ppm F); and one control group. The serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones TT3 and TT4 on day 150 were significantly reduced for certain fluoride groups; however, no significant differences were observed in concentrations for the pituitary hormone TSH among any groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that iodide causes an increase in the areas of the colloid lumens and a decrease in the diameters of epithelial cells and nuclei; however, fluoride causes an increase in nuclear diameters. The damage to follicular epithelial cells upon fluoride or iodide treatment was easily observed by transmission electron microscopy, but the effects were most dramatic upon treatment with both fluoride and iodide. These results suggest that iodide causes the most damage but that fluoride can promote specific changes in the function and morphology of the thyroid, either alone or in combination with iodide. PMID:26319807

  11. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  12. Short-term effect on parathyroid function after 131I treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the short-term effect on parathyroid function after 131I treatment for DTC. Methods: Seventy-three patients (15 males, 58 females, mean age (44.59 ± 12.89) y) who underwent 131I treatment for thyroid remnant ablation were enrolled in the study. Serum PTH and Ca2+ levels were evaluated at baseline and at 5 d after 131I administration. PTH levels were compared based on gender, age and residual thyroid mass. The t-test, analysis of variance and χ2 test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-eight patients showed decreased PTH (79.45%), and 8 patients (10.95%) were below normal levels. Serum PTH levels significantly decreased at 5 d from baseline at (37.33 ± 17.71) ng/L to (27.19 ± 11.58) ng/L, respectively (t=6.76, P<0.01), but serum Ca2+ levels were within the normal range. There were statistically significant differences between gender (χ2=4.37, P=0.036), but no differences in age and quantity of residual thyroid mass (F=0.58, 0.61, 0.46, 0.76, all P>0.05). Conclusions: 131I treatment for DTC may induce decreased PTH levels in the short-term,particularly for female patients; though, serum Ca2+ concentration shows no statistically significant decrease. These changes are irrelevant to age and quantity of residual thyroid mass. (authors)

  13. Study on the changes of leptin levels in females with abnormal thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of leptin levels in females with abnormal thyroid function. Methods: Serum leptin levels were determined with RIA in 60 cases of hyperthyroidism, 36 cases of hypothyroidism and 30 normal controls. In patients with thyroid dysfunction and treated, serum leptin levels were again measured after completion of therapy. Results: The serum leptin levels were positively correlated to BMI in all the cases (p 0.05). The serum leptin levels in hypothyroid patients after treatment (6.77 ± 2.35 μg/L) were significantly higher than those before treatment (4.19 ± 1.84 μg/L) (p < 0.05). No obvious differences in the levels of serum leptin were observed before and after treatment in the hyperthyroid group. Conclusion: Normal thyroid hormone levels may be an important factor to achieve an adequate leptin gene expression so as to maintain an energy metabolic balance and thyroid dysfunction will influence the normal regulation of leptin

  14. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones

  15. Grading of methods of thyroid diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfannenstiel, P. (Stiftung Deutsche Klinik fuer Diagnostik, Wiesbaden (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Nuklearmedizin)

    1980-09-24

    After anamnesis and physical examination, the first step in thyroid diagnosis is the determination of serum thyroxine, if necessary together with a parameter to determine the free thyroxine. If the findings are still unclear and if hypo- or hyperthyroidism are suspected, triiodothyronine determination, the TSH-TRH test, and in some cases also the two-phase radioiodine test are applied. The functional diagnosis is supplemented by thyroid scintiscanning, with the aid of short-lived radionuclides, e.g. /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-O/sub 4/ or /sup 123/I. If an autonomous transformation of part of the thyroid is suspected, scintiscanning is repeated after suppression of the thyroid by thyroid hormone. If scintiscanning has shown a cold area inside the thyroid, biopsy followed by a cytological evaluation of the aspirate is indicated. Depending on the suspected clinical diagnosis, the available tests should be used carefully and efficiently for the initial diagnosis as well as for course control of thyroid diseases.

  16. Impaired Neural Structure and Function Contributing to Autonomic Symptoms in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Harper

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS patients show major autonomic alterations in addition to their better-known breathing deficiencies. The processes underlying CCHS, mutations in the PHOX2B gene, target autonomic neuronal development, with frame shift extent contributing to symptom severity. Many autonomic characteristics, such as impaired pupillary constriction and poor temperature regulation, reflect parasympathetic alterations, and can include disturbed alimentary processes, with malabsorption and intestinal motility dyscontrol. The sympathetic nervous system changes can exert life-threatening outcomes, with dysregulation of sympathetic outflow leading to high blood pressure, time-altered and dampened heart rate and breathing responses to challenges, cardiac arrhythmia, profuse sweating, and poor fluid regulation. The central mechanisms contributing to failed autonomic processes are readily apparent from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, which reveal substantial cortical thinning, tissue injury, and disrupted functional responses in hypothalamic, hippocampal, posterior thalamic, and basal ganglia sites and their descending projections, as well as insular, cingulate, and medial frontal cortices, which influence subcortical autonomic structures. Midbrain structures are also compromised, including the raphe system and its projections to cerebellar and medullary sites, the locus coeruleus, and medullary reflex integrating sites, including the dorsal and ventrolateral medullary nuclei. The damage to rostral autonomic sites overlaps metabolic, affective and cognitive regulatory regions, leading to hormonal disruption, anxiety, depression, behavioral control, and sudden death concerns. The injuries suggest that interventions for mitigating hypoxic exposure and nutrient loss may provide cellular protection, in the same fashion as interventions in other conditions with similar malabsorption, fluid turnover

  17. Maternal Thyroid Function in Pregnancy may Program Offspring Blood Pressure, but not Adiposity at 20 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Dorte; Andersen, Stine L; Bech, Bodil H; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Henriksen, Tine B; Laurberg, Peter; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence exists indicating that maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy may affect the metabolic set point and cardio-vascular function in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between maternal thyroid function in week 30 of......-reported anthropometrics (N=645) and a clinically measured blood pressure (N=425). Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the association between maternal thyroid function and offspring BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure. RESULTS: Offspring of subclinical hypothyroid women had higher systolic blood...... circumference. CONCLUSION: Maternal thyroid function during 3rd trimester of pregnancy may affect long term blood pressure in the offspring.Pediatric Research (2016); doi:10.1038/pr.2016.56....

  18. Thyroid scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PET scan Skin nodules Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma Toxic nodular goiter ... Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid Tests Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  19. Marginal iodide deficiency and thyroid function: Dose-response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe iodine deficiency (ID) results in adverse health outcomes and remains a benchmark for understanding the effects of developmental hypothyroidism. The implications of marginal ID, however, remain less well known. The current study examined the relationship between graded levels of ID in rats and serum thyroid hormones, thyroid iodine content, and urinary iodide excretion. The goals of this study were to provide parametric and dose-response information for development of a quantitative model of the thyroid axis. Female Long Evans rats were fed casein-based diets containing varying iodine (I) concentrations for 8 weeks. Diets were created by adding 975, 200, 125, 25, or 0 μg/kg I to the base diet (∼25 μg I/kg chow) to produce 5 nominal I levels, ranging from excess (basal + added I, Treatment 1: 1000 μg I/kg chow) to deficient (Treatment 5: 25 μg I/kg chow). Food intake and body weight were monitored throughout and on 2 consecutive days each week over the 8-week exposure period, animals were placed in metabolism cages to capture urine. Food, water intake, and body weight gain did not differ among treatment groups. Serum T4 was dose-dependently reduced relative to Treatment 1 with significant declines (19 and 48%) at the two lowest I groups, and no significant changes in serum T3 or TSH were detected. Increases in thyroid weight and decreases in thyroidal and urinary iodide content were observed as a function of decreasing I in the diet. Data were compared with predictions from a recently published biologically based dose-response (BBDR) model for ID. Relative to model predictions, female Long Evans rats under the conditions of this study appeared more resilient to low I intake. These results challenge existing models and provide essential information for development of quantitative BBDR models for ID during pregnancy and lactation.

  20. A Coherent Organization of Differentiation Proteins Is Required to Maintain an Appropriate Thyroid Function in the Pendred Thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Senou, Maximin; Khalifa, Céline; Thimmesch, Matthieu; Jouret, François; Devuyst, Olivier; Col, Vincent; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Lipnik, Pascale; Moreno, Jose C.; Van Sande, Jacqueline; Dumont, Jacques E.; Many, Marie-Christine; Colin, Ides M.; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pendred syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene coding for pendrin, an apical Cl-/I- exchanger. OBJECTIVE: To analyze intrathyroidal compensatory mechanisms when pendrin is lacking, we investigated the thyroid of a patient with Pendred syndrome. The expression of proteins involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, markers of oxidative stress (OS), cell proliferation, apoptosis, and antioxidant enzymes were analyzed. RESULTS: Three morphological zones were identified: nearly normal fo...

  1. EXACT NULL CONTROLLABILITY OF NON-AUTONOMOUS FUNCTIONAL EVOLUTION SYSTEMS WITH NONLOCAL CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianlong FU; Yu ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In this article,by using theory of linear evolution system and Schauder fixed point theorem,we establish a sufficient result of exact null controllability for a non-autonomous functional evolution system with nonlocal conditions.In particular,the compactness condition or Lipschitz condition for the function g in the nonlocal conditions appearing in various literatures is not required here.An example is also provided to show an application of the obtained result.

  2. Effect of Sustained Human Centrifugation on Autonomic Cardiovascular and Vestibular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Repeated exposure to +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, both sustained exposure to +Gx and changes in otolith function resulting from the gravitational changes of space flight and parabolic flight may adversely affect autonomic cardiovascular function and orthostatic tolerance. HYPOTHESES: Baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single sustained (30 min) exposure to +3Gz but not +3Gx. Moreover, after 30 min of +3Gx, any changes that occur in autonomic cardiovascular function will relate commensurately to changes in otolith function. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy human subjects were first exposed to 5 min of +3 Gz centrifugation and then subsequently up to a total of30 min of either +3Gz (n = 15) or +3Gx (n = 7) centrifugation. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after both types of centrifugation included: (a) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; (b) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; ( c) Valsalva tests; and (d) 30-min head-up tilt (HUT) tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: All four +3Gz subjects who were intolerant to HUT before centrifugation became tolerant to HUT after centrifugation. The operational point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex and the Valsalva-related baroreflex were also enhanced in the +3Gz group but not in the +3Gx group. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected, other than a significant vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: A single, sustained exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance whereas a similar exposure to +3 Gx centrifugation appears to have less effect.

  3. Effects Of Treatment With Radioactive Iodine On Gonadal Functions In Patients With Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fard Esfahani A; Eftekhari M; Aliyari Zenooz N; Saghari M

    2004-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with radioactive iodine on the function of gonads in males and females with follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Consenting patients in the reproductive age were grouped according to the cumulative dose of received radioiodine and followed for at least 12 months. For all men, serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured; some (53 cases) were also studied by semen analysis. Fo...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Hashimoto thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Hashimoto thyroiditis is a condition that affects the function ...

  5. Autonomic response to approachability characteristics, approach behavior, and social functioning in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is saliently characterized by a unique social phenotype, most notably associated with a dramatically increased affinity and approachability toward unfamiliar people. Despite a recent proliferation of studies into the social profile of WS, the underpinnings of the pro-social predisposition are poorly understood. To this end, the present study was aimed at elucidating approach behavior of individuals with WS contrasted with typical development (TD) by employing a multidimensional design combining measures of autonomic arousal, social functioning, and two levels of approach evaluations. Given previous evidence suggesting that approach behaviors of individuals with WS are driven by a desire for social closeness, approachability tendencies were probed across two levels of social interaction: talking versus befriending. The main results indicated that while overall level of approachability did not differ between groups, an important qualitative between-group difference emerged across the two social interaction contexts: whereas individuals with WS demonstrated a similar willingness to approach strangers across both experimental conditions, TD individuals were significantly more willing to talk to than to befriend strangers. In WS, high approachability to positive faces across both social interaction levels was further associated with more normal social functioning. A novel finding linked autonomic responses with willingness to befriend negative faces in the WS group: elevated autonomic responsivity was associated with increased affiliation to negative face stimuli, which may represent an autonomic correlate of approach behavior in WS. Implications for underlying organization of the social brain are discussed. PMID:26459097

  6. Analytical solution to a non-autonomous second order differential equation with modified hyperbolic tangent function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution to a non-autonomous second order ordinary differential equation is presented. The real function, dependent on the differentiation variable, is a squared hyperbolic tangent function plus a term that involves the quotient of hyperbolic functions. This function varies from one limiting value to another without having any singularities. The solution is remarkably simple and involves only trigonometric and hyperbolic trigonometric functions. The solution is analyzed in the context of wave propagation in an inhomogeneous one-dimensional medium. The profile is shown to act as a perfect anti-reflection interface, providing a possible alternative route to the fabrication of reflectionless surfaces. (paper)

  7. PET imaging of the autonomic myocardial function: methods and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Noordzij, Walter; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) is mainly applied in myocardial perfusion and viability detection. Noninvasive imaging of myocardial innervation using PET is a valuable additional methodology in cardiac imaging. Novel methods and different PET ligands have been developed to measure presynaptic and postsynaptic function of the cardiac neuronal system. Obtained PET data can be analysed quantitatively or interpreted qualitatively. Thus far, PET is not a widely used clinical applicatio...

  8. The Changes of Serum TSH in Various States of Thyroid Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH) were measured by means of radioimmunoassay, in 98 cases of normal controls, 51 cases of hyperthyroidism, 80 cases of primary hypothyroidism and 4 cases of secondary hypothyroidism to evaluate the diagnostic significance in various functional states of the thyroid. The obtained data were analyzed in correlation with other thyroid function test values in various phases of the functional thyroid diseases. The results were as follows: 1) The serum TSH concentration in normal control group was (1.3-8.0 μU/ml). 2) The measurement of serum TSH was more significant in diagnostic accuracy compared with that of serum T4 (75.0±12.2%). Free T-4 Index (64.2±15.2%), serum T3(41.0±21.0%) or T3 resin uptake (41.1±15.8%) in evaluation of primary hypothyroidism. 3) In case of overt hypothyroidism, the serum TSH and T4 were both abnormal, compatible with the clinical diagnosis, while in case of preclinical or mild hypothyroidism, the serum T4 (41.2±23.8% or 50.0±25.0%) was much less reliable than serum TSH. 4) In the treatment of primary hypothyroidism with desiccated thyroid, the administration of 1 grain of the hormone per day was sufficient to suppress the serum concentration of TSH to normal range. It showed that the measurement of serum TSH concentration was a significant criteria in evaluating the efficiency of the treatment of hypothyroidism. 5) The measurement of serum TSH concentration is a very significant method in the early detection of hypothyroidism induced during or after the treatment of the hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs or radioactive Iodine (131I).

  9. [Alteration of neurobehavioral and autonomic nervous function in aluminum electrolytic workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuchang; Zhang, Aimin; Niu, Qiao; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Yilan

    2003-05-01

    In order to explore the impairment of Aluminum on the neurobehavioral, autonomic nervous function. Neurobehavioral test battery (NCTB) recommended by WHO and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function test recommended by Ewing DJ were conducted in 32 Al electrolytic workers and 34 controls. Results showed that the scores of confusion-bewilderment and tension-anxious in Al exposed workers were higher than that of control group, while the scores of POMSA, POMSD, POMSF and POMSV in Al-exposed group had no obvious change. The scores of DSY, PA and PAC were lower than that of control group. The scores of DSPF, DDSPB, DSP, SANN, SANP and BVR had no significant alteration. R-R interval variability of maximin ratio of immediate standing up, which reflects parasympathetic nervous modification ability in aluminum electrolytic workers, was lower than that of the control group. This implied that Al exposure had adverse impact on workers' mood state, neurobehavioral and parasympathetic nervous function. PMID:12914271

  10. Exploring the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, H.C.M.; Verhoeven, E.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social fun

  11. Dissociation of thyrotropin receptor function and thyrotropin dependency in rat thyroid tumour cell lines derived from FRTL-5.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kallen, C. J.; Coes, J. H.; van Grafhorst, J. P.; Schuuring, E. M.; Ossendorp, F. A.; Thijssen, J. H.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Bruin, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneously transformed somatic thyrocyte mutants, FRTL-5/TA and FRTL-5/TP, are thyrotropin (TSH) independent for growth and show loss of the thyroid-specific phenotype, with absent thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase gene expression. To investigate the role of TSH-receptor (TSH-R) activation in rat thyroid growth and function, binding of TSH and TSH-induced cAMP production were measured in intact cells under identical assay conditions. TSH binding did not differ in terms of affinity and r...

  12. Integrated Control Strategies Supporting Autonomous Functionalities in Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Sights

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available High-level intelligence allows a mobile robot to create and interpret complex world models, but without a precise control system, the accuracy of the world model and the robot's ability to interact with its surroundings are greatly diminished. This problem is amplified when the environment is hostile, such as in a battlefield situation where an error in movement or a slow response may lead to destruction of the robot. As the presence of robots on the battlefield continues to escalate and the trend toward relieving the human of the low-level control burden advances, the ability to combine the functionalities of several critical control systems on a single platform becomes imperative.

  13. Motion planning for autonomous vehicle based on radial basis function neural network in unstructured environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Zhao, Pan; Liang, Huawei; Mei, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The autonomous vehicle is an automated system equipped with features like environment perception, decision-making, motion planning, and control and execution technology. Navigating in an unstructured and complex environment is a huge challenge for autonomous vehicles, due to the irregular shape of road, the requirement of real-time planning, and the nonholonomic constraints of vehicle. This paper presents a motion planning method, based on the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network, to guide the autonomous vehicle in unstructured environments. The proposed algorithm extracts the drivable region from the perception grid map based on the global path, which is available in the road network. The sample points are randomly selected in the drivable region, and a gradient descent method is used to train the RBF network. The parameters of the motion-planning algorithm are verified through the simulation and experiment. It is observed that the proposed approach produces a flexible, smooth, and safe path that can fit any road shape. The method is implemented on autonomous vehicle and verified against many outdoor scenes; furthermore, a comparison of proposed method with the existing well-known Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) method is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is highly effective in planning the vehicle path and offers better motion quality. PMID:25237902

  14. Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicle Based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Unstructured Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous vehicle is an automated system equipped with features like environment perception, decision-making, motion planning, and control and execution technology. Navigating in an unstructured and complex environment is a huge challenge for autonomous vehicles, due to the irregular shape of road, the requirement of real-time planning, and the nonholonomic constraints of vehicle. This paper presents a motion planning method, based on the Radial Basis Function (RBF neural network, to guide the autonomous vehicle in unstructured environments. The proposed algorithm extracts the drivable region from the perception grid map based on the global path, which is available in the road network. The sample points are randomly selected in the drivable region, and a gradient descent method is used to train the RBF network. The parameters of the motion-planning algorithm are verified through the simulation and experiment. It is observed that the proposed approach produces a flexible, smooth, and safe path that can fit any road shape. The method is implemented on autonomous vehicle and verified against many outdoor scenes; furthermore, a comparison of proposed method with the existing well-known Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT method is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is highly effective in planning the vehicle path and offers better motion quality.

  15. Cardiovascular autonomic function tests in type 2 diabetes mellitus with micro albuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhavana S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in type2 diabetes (DM. Microalbuminuria (MAis strongly associated with cardiovascular complications in type2 diabetes. Impaired cardiovascular autonomicfunction and increased albumin excretion are related in patients with diabetes. So this study is designed toinvestigate the relationship between cardiovascular autonomic function and microalbuminuria in type2 diabetes.Methods: The study comprised of 180 subjects of age group>50 years, classified into 3 groups of 60 subjects each.DM without MA, DM with MA and controls. The tests performed were 1 Heart rate response to deep breathing,valsalva maneuver and standing; 2 Blood pressure response to standing and to sustained handgrip. Individual testswere given score of 0, 1, or 2 and an overall autonomic test score of 0-10 was obtained.Results: Mean autonomic score in control, DM without MA and DM with MA are 1.97 ± 0.81, 5.73 ± 1.26 and 7.00± 1.80 respectively. The Coefficient of variation (% of control, DM without MA, DM with MA is 41.1, 21.9 and25.7 respectively. A significant difference in autonomic score was observed in the DM without MA (P<0.01 andDM with MA (P<0.01 when compared to controls.Conclusion: In conclusion type2 diabetic individuals should be diagnosed early to prevent disease progression tomicroalbuminuria and thus minimize complications.

  16. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of

  17. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of

  18. Interaction between organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agricultural purposes. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated the ability of these chemicals to alter the function of the thyroid gland in human. Moreover, the paraoxonase-1 enzyme (PON1) plays an important role in the toxicity of some organophosphate pesticides, with low PON1 activity being associated with higher pesticide sensitivity. This study evaluates the interaction between exposure to organophosphate compounds and PON1 enzyme activity on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones in a population of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides. A longitudinal study was conducted on a population of floriculture workers from Mexico, during two periods of high and low-intensity levels of pesticide application. A structured questionnaire was completed by workers containing questions on sociodemographic characteristics and other variables of interest. Urine and blood samples were taken, and biomarkers of exposure (dialkylphosphates), susceptibility (PON1 polymorphisms and activity) and effect (thyroid hormone levels) were determined. Interaction between dialkylphosphates and PON1 polymorphisms or PON1 activity on hormone levels was evaluated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. A significant interaction was found between serum diazoxonase activity and total dialkylphosphates (ΣDAP) on TSH levels. Thus, when PON1 activity was increased we observed a decrease in the percentage of variation of TSH level for each increment in one logarithmic unit of the ΣDAP levels. This interaction was also observed with the PON1192RR genotype. These results suggest a stronger association between organophosphate pesticides and thyroid function in individuals with lower PON1 activity.

  19. Functional meaning of scintigraphic and echographic patterns, and of circulating anti-peroxidase antibodies in asymptomatic chronic thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubello, D.; Gasparoni, P. [Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto, Treviso, (Italy). Endocrinology Service; Rota, G.; Borsato, N.; Zanco, P.; Chierichetti, F.; Ferlin, G. [Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto, Treviso, (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Service

    1996-12-01

    Asymptomatic chronic thyroiditis (ACT) is a variant of the autoimmune thyroiditis characterized by the presence of circulating anti-thyroid antibodies and the absence of palpable goiter. Thyroid function can be normal but a considerable percentage of ACT patients tend to develop subclinical hypothyroidism over time and thus periodical controls of thyroid hormones and TSH levels are needed. At present, useful parameters for predicting the functional out-came of ACT patients are lacking. To investigate this aspect, the authors evaluated 57 consecutive ACT patients (51 females, 6 males, aged 22-56 years) by means of thyroid {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy and echography, and by measuring the serum level of anti-peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs), FT4, T3 and TSH. At first observation, 30 patients were euthyroid whereas 27 had subclinical hypothyroidism. No patient had been previously treated with thyroid hormones. Thyroid scan showed a normal pattern or a diffuse and mild irregular uptake, without differences between euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients. TPOAb levels tend to be higher in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism in comparison to the euthyroid patients (5893{+-}1423 and 3943{+-}912 UI/mL, respectively) but the difference was not statistically significant by using Student`s {sup t-}test. Echography showed a normal pattern in 14 patients, while a diffuse hypoechoic pattern in the other cases, mild in 12, moderate in 19 and marked in 12, as found. A significantly higher prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in the group of patients with a moderate or marked hypoechoic pattern in comparison to the group with a normo-echoic or mild hypoechoic pattern (70.4% versus 23.0%, Fisher`s exact test p=0.00003). Furthermore, the 3 patients who developed thyroid failure during a one-year follow-up also presented a moderate or marked hypoechoic pattern. (Abstract Truncated)

  20. The impact of smoking on thyroid volume and function in relation to a shift towards iodine sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the influence of smoking on thyroid volume and function changes in relation to a higher iodine intake in the population. The study comprised a total of 8,219 individuals each examined in one of two separate cross-sectional studies performed before (n = 4,649) and after (n = 3,570) a mandatory iodization of salt in year 2000 in two areas with established mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Participants answered questionnaires regarding life style factors and a thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Blood samples were analysed for serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin and free tri-iodothyronine. All procedures used were similar in the two cross-sectional studies. The overall difference in thyroid volume between heavy smokers and non-smokers across the age groups was reduced after iodization of salt from 24% (19-29%) to 12% (6-18%). After the iodization the odds ratio for having thyroid enlargement was still increased for smokers (OR: 1.9 (CI: 1.5-2.6)) compared to non-smokers. The aetiological fraction of thyroid enlargement due to smoking was 39.3% before the iodization and 24.2% after the iodization. Like before iodization smokers had a lower mean thyroid stimulating hormone and a higher free thyroxin in serum than non-smokers. Conclusively, in areas approaching iodine sufficiency a decline in the impact of smoking on thyroid volume was seen. The effect of smoking on hormonal level was unchanged after the iodization. Thus the effect of smoking on thyroid volume seems to be dependent on iodine intake, whereas the effect on function seems mainly to depend on other factors

  1. EFFECT OF SUKHA PRANAYAMA AND BHASTRIKA PRANAYAMA ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Practice of Yoga causes several changes in normal physiology. Meditation has positive short and longterm rewards which include a balance of the parasympathetic and sympathetic functions. Cardiovascular autonomic functions are quantified by changes in the heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP in response to some of the physiological stimuli and different types of Pranayamas is known to alter the autonomic function. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of Sukha Pranayama and Bhastrika Pranayama on cardiovascular autonomic functions in normal healthy medical students. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 male and female young healthy volunteers studying at PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam belonging to age group of 17-22 years were included for the study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during Valsalva manoeuvre using Biopac Student Lab MP30 device. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip using sphygmomanometer before and after yoga. RESULTS & CONCLUSION The baseline heart rate and blood pressure response to immediate standing showed a tendency to decrease possibly due to increased vagal tone and decreased sympathetic discharge thereby indicating practice of yogasanas and pranayamas would benefit the young population as it would prepare them in overcoming stress by modulating and optimising sympathetic activities in stressful situations.

  2. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  3. Iodine deficiency, thyroid function and hearing deficit: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; MacKenzie, I.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency affects an estimated 241 million school-aged children in the world. Little is known about iodine deficiency in relation to auditory function, except for the fact that deaf-mutism is one of the features of cretinism. In the present review, we documented the scientific knowledge on t

  4. Assesment of Autonomic Function in Metabolic Syndrome using Combination Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Gülay; Sarıkaya, Savaş; Turgut, Okan Onur; Şahin, Şafak; Çakmak, Nuray Yılmaz; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Tandoğan, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is described as a group of various abnormal metabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, increased plasma glucose levels, prothrombotic condition and proinflammatory state. These parameters are related to decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic activity. We aimed to evaluate autonomic function using a combination with  heart rate variability (HRV) and  heart rate turbulence (HRT) in metabolic sy...

  5. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats

  6. Pulmonary function, cholinergic bronchomotor tone, and cardiac autonomic abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study analyzed the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in pulmonary and cardiac function by evaluating cardiovascular reflex and its correlation with pulmonary function abnormalities of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (N = 17 and healthy subjects (N = 17 were evaluated by 1 pulmonary function tests including spirometry, He-dilution method, N2 washout test, and specific airway conductance (SGaw determined by plethysmography before and after aerosol administration of atropine sulfate, and 2 autonomic cardiovascular activity by the passive tilting test and the magnitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA. Basal heart rate was higher in the diabetic group (87.8 ± 11.2 bpm; mean ± SD than in the control group (72.9 ± 7.8 bpm, P<0.05. The increase of heart rate at 5 s of tilting was 11.8 ± 6.5 bpm in diabetic patients and 17.6 ± 6.2 bpm in the control group (P<0.05. Systemic arterial pressure and RSA analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups. Diabetes intragroup analysis revealed two behaviors: 10 patients with close to normal findings and 7 with significant abnormalities in terms of RSA, with the latter subgroup presenting one or more abnormalities in other tests and clear evidence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. End-expiratory flows were significantly lower in diabetic patients than in the control group (P<0.05. Pulmonary function tests before and after atropine administration demonstrated comparable responses by both groups. Type 2 diabetic patients have cardiac autonomic dysfunction that is not associated with bronchomotor tone alterations, probably reflecting a less severe impairment than that of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Yet, a reduction of end-expiratory flow was detected.

  7. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, Cristiano [Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA), São Luís, MA (Brazil); Figueroa, Diego Mendrot [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelis, Kátia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.rodrigues@incor.usp.br [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  8. Effects of persistent organic pollutants on the thyroid function of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an endocrine disruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitzler, Joseph; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Siebert, Ursula; Das, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) have the characteristic to influence the endocrine system of many fish species and mammals and are thus qualified as endocrine disruptors. The objective of this project aims a better understanding of the effects of these compounds on the thyroid function of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Thyroid tissue and muscle of 46 seabass from t...

  9. Thyroid Function and Anti-Thyroid Antibodies in Iranian Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Influences of Age and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Sharifi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD.Genetic susceptibility for autoantibody formation in association with ATD and type 1 diabetes mellitus has been described with varying frequencies, but there is still debate about its prevailing situation in Iran. We have therefore investigated the prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO and anti thyroglubolin (Anti TG antibodies in type 1 diabetic patients, and compared the effect of age and sex on the thyroid autoimmunity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Iran.Ninety one subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and one hundred and sixty three unrelated normal controls under the age of thirty years were recruited for the detection of anti-TPO and anti-TG. Radio Immuno Assay and chemiluminescence methods were used for anti-TPO and anti-TG detection respectively.Among 91 type 1 diabetic patients, 36 (39.6% were positive for anti-TPO and 27(30% were positive for antiTG. Anti-TPO antibodies were detected only in 6.7% of control group. Comparing with those without thyroid autoimmunity, there was a female preponderance for the type 1 diabetic patients with thyroid autoimmunity (female: male, 28:14 vs. 28:20 respectively. Among the type 1 diabetic patients those with thyroid autoimmunity, tended to be older (p: 0.04 and to have higher TSH concentration (p: 0.03. Patients with high anti-TPO levels had longer duration of diabetes (P: 0.02.The presence of anti-TPO in 39.6% of our type 1 diabetic patients comparing with 8.5% of normal subjects confirmed the strong association of ATD and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  10. The influence of abnormal thyroid function on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases

  11. Abnormalities of Thyroid Function in Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: are Transient or Permanent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğrul Karakuş

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence and short term outcome of abnormal thyroid functions in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.Materials and Methods: Fourty-two patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who were diagnosed and observed in our department of pediatrics between 2001-2006 were retrospectively evaluated. The thyroid function tests of the patients were measured within four and a half days of the initial diagnosis of diabetes and at least one follow-up test median on day 180 after diagnosis.Results: Twenty-two (52.4% of the patients were female and 20 (47.6% were male. Mean age of the patients was 9.4 (±3.6 years. Twenty-three patients (54.8% were diagnosed as diabetic ketoacidosis, 15 (35.7% as ketosis and 4 (9.5% as hyperglycemia at the time of initial presentation. Thyroid functions were normal in 26 (61.9% subjects. Thyroid function tests were abnormal in 16 (38.1% subjects of whom 12 (75.0% had biochemical findings compatible with sick euthyroid syndrome and of these 10 (83.3% had diabetic ketoacidosis. All of these abnormalities were transient and thyroid function tests all returned to normal except for one patient. Antithyroid antibodies were positive in 7 (16.7% subjects 2 (10.5% with ketosis or hyperglycemia and 5 (21.7% diabetic ketoacidosis. Thyroid function tests were abnormal in 6 (14.3.1% subjects at follow-up. Thyroid disfunction rate decrased the 38.1% to 14.3% at the follow-up.Conclusion: This retrospective study revealed that abnormalities in thyroid function tests in subjects with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes mellitus were frequent and mostly transient. For this reason, in the absence of any clinical situation suggesting a thyroid disorder, we think it would be better to assess thyroid function tests at least one mouth after theinitial diagnosis of diabetes. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 5-9

  12. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Page Content On this page: ... responds by decreasing TSH production. [ Top ] How does pregnancy normally affect thyroid function? Two pregnancy-related hormones— ...

  13. First results of radioiodine therapy of multifocal and disseminated functional thyroid autonomy using a TcTUs-adapted dose concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The presented study examines prospectively the efficiency of a dose concept for radioiodine therapy (RIT) adapted to the pretherapeutic 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTUs) in patients with multifocal (MFA) and disseminated (DISA) autonomy. This concept considers the total thyroid as target volume and uses target doses from 150 Gy to 300 Gy according to the TcTUs, which is as a measure for the 'autonomous volume' of the thyroid. Methods: The data of 75 patients (54 female, 21 male; age 71±9 years) with MFA or DISA were evaluated. RIT was performed on patients presenting with normal values for free triiodothyronine and thyroxine and endogenous suppression of the basal thyrotropin (TSH). The following target doses were used: For a TcTUs of 1,5-2,5% 150 Gy, for 2,51-3,5% 200 Gy, for 3,51-4,5% 250 Gy, and for >4,5% 300 Gy. The radiation dose to be administered was calculated using a modified Marinelli formula. The therapy was considered as successful when the basal TSH was above 0,5 mU/l and autonomous areas had disapeared in thyroid scintigraphy or the TcTU was below 1,5%, respectively. The average follow-up period was 8±4 months. Results: The success rates average to 92%. Only in one case a subsequent subclinical hypothyroidism and in a further case an immunogenic hyperthyroidism occured. Conclusion: The presented data indicate, that even patients with a marked autonomy (TcTUs>3,5%) can thus expected to be cured by of a onetime therapy with success rate of over 90% using the presented dose concept. The rate of early hypothyroidism can alltogether be estimated as very low. (orig.)

  14. Thyroid function in HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Altered thyroid function parameters have been reported in HIV patients also during therapy. We further investigated whether thyroid disorders occur in HIV patients both naive or on HAART. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 168 HIV patients aged 20 to 62 yrs, 110M and 58F: 95 patients (G1) were on HAART including protease inhibitors-PI (36.89±13.0 mths); 58 (G2) were on HAART (Nevirapine or Efavirenz) without PI (13.22±8.68 mths) and previously submitted to other HAART regimens (28.10±12.3 mths); 15 (G3) were naive. In all patients and in 44 age-sex matched normal subjects (C) we measured in serum by IRMA, FT3 and FT4 (pg/ml), TSH (μU/ml), antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) and hTG (U/ml) antibodies (Ab). Results: Thyroid function test abnormalities were found in 18/153 patients treated with HAART (11.7%), 9 G1 and 9 G2 patients, while the tests were normal in naive cases. Both FT3 and FT4 were above normal range and TSH suppressed in one G1 patient with clinical signs of hyperthyroidism; FT4 was low and TSH elevated in 2 G2 cases with slight clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Moreover, TSH values >3.5 μU/ml and normal FT3 and FT4 levels were ascertained in 7 further cases as probable subclinical hypothyroidism. Only FT4 was low in 3 further cases and FT3 high in 5 others, all asymptomatic. hTG-Ab were present in 2 subclinical hypothyroidism patients and in 3 further cases with normal thyroid tests. Mean TSH levels were higher but not significantly in G1 than in G2; both were higher than in G3 and C. FT4 levels were significantly lower in G1 (12.294±2.938; p<0.002), G2 (11.091±2.453; p<0.00002) and G3 (10.186±2.537; p<0.00004) than in C (13.734±2.205). FT4 was significantly lower in G2 (p<0.006) and G3 ( p<0.01) than in G1; there was no difference between G2 and G3. FT3 was higher in G1 (3.711±0.559) and G2 (3.60±0.581) than in G3 (3.42±0.549) and C (3.452±0.343); the difference was significant (p<0.01) only between G1 and C. Neither FT3, FT4 nor TSH

  15. Effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy on autonomic functions in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H T Vinutha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT had shown beneficial effects in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Autonomic dysfunction is one of the major complications of type 2 DM. Research studies have demonstrated that yoga can modulate autonomic functions. Hence, the current study was designed to assess the effect of IAYT on autonomic functions in type 2 diabetics. Materials and Methods: 15 patients of type 2 DM with ages ranging from 35 to 60 years were recruited for the study. They were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes from 1-year to 15 years. Assessments were made on day 1 (before yoga and day 7 (after 1-week of yoga practice. Heart rate variability (HRV, blood pressure (BP response to the isometric handgrip and heart rate response to deep breathing were assessed before and after 1-week of IAYT. Results: There was a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose from 154.67-130.27 mg/dL (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.029 following 1-week of IAYT. BP response to isometric hand grip improved significantly (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.01. There was no statistical significant change in HRV components and heart rate response to deep breathing test. However, there was a trend of increase in the low frequency power (41.07%, high frequency power (6.29%, total power (5.38%, and standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN (6.29%. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, IAYT improved autonomic functions in type 2 diabetes patients.

  16. Biochemical markers of liver and kidney function are influenced by thyroid function-a case-controlled follow up study in Indian hypothyroid subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Sarika; Chawla, Ranjna; Tayal, Devika; Gupta, Vinod K.; Mr. Jagdeep S Sohi; Mallika, V.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate the renal hemodynamics and basal metabolic rate of most cells. This hospital-based case-control study was done to evaluate the changes in biochemical markers of liver and kidney function in hypothyroid subjects before and after treatment. The study included 176 subjects randomly selected from Thyroid clinics. Serum T3, T4, TSH, Liver and Kidney Function tests were analysed using standard kits. Forty-six hypothyroid patients were re-evaluated 6 weeks after thyroxine s...

  17. Functional evaluation of thyroid by dynamic uptake slope index using 99mTc- Pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using 99mTc-Pertechnetate, we evaluated the thyroid function of 136 persons with uptake slope index (U.S.I.) which was calculated by computerized dynamic flow study. Also, we compared our results of U.S.I. with those established 131I-24 hr uptake % in given materials by comparative analysis of their correlation with the hormonal values of T3, T4, Free T4. The results were as follows: 1. The U.S. I. of euthyroidismal group and hyperthyrodismal group were 4.87 ± 2.26, 27. 67 ± 9.56 respectively. The 1'31I-24 hr uptake % of above groups were 29.22 ± 10.23, and 71.45 ± 15.51. So the differentiation of the two groups could be done more easily by using 99mTc- Pertechnetate U. S. I. than using 131I-24 hr uptake %. 2. The correlation rates between 99mTc- Pertechnetate U. S. I. and other labotory hormon levels, T3, T4, Free T4, are almost parallel with those between 131I-24 hr uptake % and the values of T3, t4, Free T4. Also the direct correlation rate between 99mTc-Pertechnetate U. S. I. and 131I-24 hr uptake % was 0.898. So, the method of thyrodial function evaluation by 99mTc-Pertechnetate U. S. I. is very reliable. 3. The 99mTc-Pertechnetate U.S. I. is very helpful to evaluate the functions of each lobe espectively in case of having obviously different radioactivity between with lobes. 4. 99mTc- Pertechnetat used dynamic thyroid function study and scan can be performed during the short time without preparation and especially helpful in debilitating patient and patients under anti-thyroid drug therapy, who need repetitive follow-up examination.

  18. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 14. Read More Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Laryngeal nerve damage Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid gland removal Patient Instructions Thyroid gland ...

  19. Management of hyper and hypo thyroid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, W.

    1982-03-01

    In hyperthyroidism, the primary objective of therapy is to reduce secretion of thyroid hormone, which can be accomplished in various ways. The stimulus to hypersecretion can be removed in some causes of hyperthyroidism; in others, hormone synthesis and release can be inhibited by drugs such as thioamides, adrenergic blocking agents, or possibly lithium or glucocorticoids. Radioactive iodine is indicated for primary therapy of uncomplicated hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease in persons over 30 years of age (myxedema may be a complication) and for treatment of autonomous thyroid adenoma in patients who are not suitable candidates for surgery. Surgical ablation is preferred for some causes of hyperthyroidism but may induce postoperative hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism due to thyroid failure usually presents few therapeutic difficulties and can be managed simply by long-term hormone replacement. Before hormone replacement is prescribed for secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism, the other pituitary functions should be assessed.

  20. Cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability and turbulence in pre-hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Alim; Uenishi, Masahiro; Küçükdurmaz, Zekeriya; Matsumoto, Kazuo; Kato, Ritsushi; Hara, Motoki; Yazıcı, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Non-dipping blood pressure pattern was shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular events. In addition, cardiac autonomic dysfunction was found to be associated with non-dipper phenomenon. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cardiac autonomic functions in dipper and non-dipper pre-hypertensive subjects. A total of 65 pre-hypertensive subjects were enrolled in this study. They were divided into two groups as non-dippers (40 subjects, 52% female) and dippers (25 subjects, 52.5% female). Cardiac autonomic functions of the two groups were compared with the aid of heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence (HRT), atrial premature contractions (APCs), ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), and mean heart rate (MHR). There was no significant difference between non-dippers and dippers in basal characteristics. The two parameters of HRT, turbulence onset and turbulence slope, were found to be significantly abnormal in non-dippers than in dippers (P < .011 and P < .002, respectively). Heart rate variability parameters, including SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, and pNN50, were found to be similar in dipper and non-dipper pre-hypertensive subjects (P < .998, P < .453, P < .205, and P < .788, respectively). APCs, VPCs, and MHR were compared, and there were statistical differences between the groups (APCs 5.80 ± 4.55, 9.14 ± 7.33, P < .024; VPCs 8.48 ± 8.83, 13.23 ± 9.68, P < .044; and MHR 70.16 ± 11.08, 76.26 ± 11.31, P < .035; respectively). This study demonstrated a possible cardiac autonomic dysfunction in pre-hypertensive subjects with non-dipper pattern. This may be a basis for future studies related to pre-hypertension and non-dipping BP pattern. PMID:22676318

  1. Effect of 30-min +3 Gz centrifugation on vestibular and autonomic cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Repeated exposure to increased +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, it is not known whether such enhancements might also result from a single, more prolonged exposure to increased +Gz. Our study was designed to investigate whether baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz, and moreover, whether changes in autonomic cardiovascular function resulting from exposure to increased +Gz are correlated with changes in otolith function. METHODS: We exposed 15 healthy human subjects to +3 Gz centrifugation for up to 30 min or until symptoms of incipient G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) ensued. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after centrifugation included: 1) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; 2) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; 3) Valsalva tests; and 4) 30-min head-up tilt tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: Of the 15 subjects who underwent prolonged +3 Gz, 4 were intolerant to 30 min of head-up tilt before centrifugation but became tolerant to such tilt after centrifugation. The Valsalva-related baroreflex as well as a measure of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex were also enhanced after centrifugation. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected beyond a vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported earlier in a subset of seven participants. CONCLUSIONS: A single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance.

  2. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  3. Reference intervals for common thyroid function tests, during different stages of pregnancy in Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jian-xia; HAN Mi; TAO Jun; LUO Jun; SONG Meng-fan; YANG Shuai; KHOR Shu-zin

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy has been widely recognized.Our study was designed to compare two different detection reagents between Abbott and Roche and to establish the gestational-related reference intervals for thyroid function tests (TFT) in Chinese women and to assay the reference ranges with the American Thyroid Association recommended standard.Methods Serum samples were collected from 693 normal pregnant Chinese women and divided into five groups according to their gestational age:9-13,16-20,24-28,32-34 and 37-40 weeks.Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels were determined by two different detection reagents:Abbott Architect l 2000 and Roche Cobas Elecsys 600.The reference ranges of the TFT indexes were calculated according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB).The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of each stage were calculated,and the results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variances,t-test,and Spearman correlation analysis.Results Thyroid hormone levels varied greatly among different gestational stages.TSH levels,as assessed via two different TSH ELISA kits showed consistent changing pattern during pregnancy and displayed linear correlation (P <0.001).In 9-13 gestational weeks,TSH levels were significantly lower than that of other groups; and in 37-40 gestational weeks,it was higher than that of other groups (all P <0.001).TSH reference ranges determined by Roche detection reagent in each group were higher than those by Abbott detection reagent (P <0.01 respectively).FT4 levels were higher in 9-13 gestational weeks than that of other groups (P <0.001).FT4 levels determined by Roche reagent were higher than Abbott reagent in 9-13 weeks,(P <0.001),and lower in 24-28 and 37-40 weeks (P <0.001 and P=0.016,respectively).The TSH level was correlated with FT4 levels in 9-13 gestational weeks by detection reagents (for Abbott reagent,r=-0.319 for FT4 P <0

  4. Existence of solutions for non-autonomous functional evolution equations with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlong Fu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study the existence of mild solutions and strict solutions of semilinear functional evolution equations with nonlocal conditions, where the linear part is non-autonomous and generates a linear evolution system. The fraction power theory and alpha-norm are used to discuss the problems so that the obtained results can be applied to the equations in which the nonlinear terms involve spatial derivatives. In particular, the compactness condition or Lipschitz condition for the function g in the nonlocal conditions appearing in various literatures is not required here. An example is presented to show the applications of the obtained results

  5. Thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid function in subjects exposed to Chernobyl fallout during childhood: evidence for a transient radiation-induced elevation of serum thyroid antibodies without an increase in thyroid autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agate, Laura; Mariotti, Stefano; Elisei, Rossella;

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies (ATAs) was reported 6-8 yr after the Chernobyl accident in radiation-exposed children and adolescents.......An increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies (ATAs) was reported 6-8 yr after the Chernobyl accident in radiation-exposed children and adolescents....

  6. The effect of 131I on salivary glands function in 131I treated thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary glands can accumulate 131I and may damage its function during 131I treated thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study is to understand the extent of the injury and its relation with dosage after high-dose radioiodine therapy. Radionuclide dynamic imaging is used to quantitatively calculate the absorption rate and excretion rate of salivary glands. There was no significant difference between patients group and normal controls in absorption rate (P > 0.05), but there existed difference in excretion rate (P 37 MBq but among the groups with dosage 131I treatment

  7. Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T3), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals

  8. Assessment of Autonomic Function by Phase Rectification of RRInterval Histogram Analysis in Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivassé Nasari Junior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In chronic Chagas disease (ChD, impairment of cardiac autonomic function bears prognostic implications. Phase‑rectification of RR-interval series isolates the sympathetic, acceleration phase (AC and parasympathetic, deceleration phase (DC influences on cardiac autonomic modulation. Objective: This study investigated heart rate variability (HRV as a function of RR-interval to assess autonomic function in healthy and ChD subjects. Methods: Control (n = 20 and ChD (n = 20 groups were studied. All underwent 60-min head-up tilt table test under ECG recording. Histogram of RR-interval series was calculated, with 100 ms class, ranging from 600–1100 ms. In each class, mean RR-intervals (MNN and root-mean-squared difference (RMSNN of consecutive normal RR-intervals that suited a particular class were calculated. Average of all RMSNN values in each class was analyzed as function of MNN, in the whole series (RMSNNT, and in AC (RMSNNAC and DC (RMSNNDC phases. Slopes of linear regression lines were compared between groups using Student t-test. Correlation coefficients were tested before comparisons. RMSNN was log-transformed. (α < 0.05. Results: Correlation coefficient was significant in all regressions (p < 0.05. In the control group, RMSNNT, RMSNNAC, and RMSNNDC significantly increased linearly with MNN (p < 0.05. In ChD, only RMSNNAC showed significant increase as a function of MNN, whereas RMSNNT and RMSNNDC did not. Conclusion: HRV increases in proportion with the RR-interval in healthy subjects. This behavior is lost in ChD, particularly in the DC phase, indicating cardiac vagal incompetence.

  9. Thyroid and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ghianda, S; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population especially in women. All thyroid diseases are in fact more common in women than in men and may interfere with the reproductive system. Thyroid function and the gonadal axes are related throughout the woman's fertile period. The relationship between the two glands is mutual. In particular, thyroid hormones affect the reproductive function both directly and indirectly through several actions. Studies on the relationship between menopause and thyroid function are few and do not allow to clarify whether menopause has an effect on the thyroid regardless of aging. With aging, the main changes regarding thyroid physiology and function are: a reduction of thyroid iodine uptake, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine synthesis and catabolism of free thyroxine while reverse triiodothyronine increases; the level of thyroid stimulating hormone remains normal with sometimes a tendency to higher limits. These changes are present in both sexes without distinction between males and females. The complexity of the relationships can be summarized in three aspects: thyroid status does not influence significantly the climacteric syndrome; menopause may modify the clinical expression of some thyroid diseases, particularly the autoimmune ones; thyroid function is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of menopause. However, coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis may be aggravated in the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on thyroxine requirements in women with hypothyroidism should be considered. PMID:23998691

  10. Separation of autonomous function from cell density in non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism. Pt. 2. Quantified comparison before and after radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Als, C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Univ. Bern (Switzerland); Roesler, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Univ. Bern (Switzerland); Listewnik, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Univ. Bern (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    Regional autonomous cell mass (Q: cell density ratio) and function (T: toxicity index) were compared by double isotope parametric thyroid scintigraphy (Als et al., Nucl. Med. 1995; 34) in 53 patients with non-immunogenic hyperthyroidism before and after radioiodine therapy (aRIT) and showed a break-down (medians) of Q: 4.3{yields}1.0 (toxic adenomas: TA), 2{yields}1.1 (multifocal functional autonomies: MFA) (p<0.0001) as of T: 96{yields}1.7 (TA), 15{yields}1.1 (MFA) (p<0.001). Five functional aRIT patterns resulted: euthyroidism (n=37, 70%), at half with scarred/non-scarred autonomous areas (low/higher T, respectively), primary hypothyroidism (n=4), residual hyperthyroidism (n=7), secondary hyperthyroidism (n=5). The last two groups with persistent subnormal TSH values were clearly separated by divergent T, thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels. A resulting T>1 may represent a clinically sub-critical mass of residual autonomous tissue. This new technique facilitates individual pretherapeutic evaluations and aRIT quality control. (orig.) [Deutsch] Regionale autonome Zellmasse (Q: Zelldichtequotient) und Funktion (T: Toxizitaetsindex) wurden bei 53 Patienten mit nichtimmunogener Hyperthyreose vor und nach Radiojodtherapie (nRJT) mittels einer parametrischen Doppelisotopen-Schilddruesenszintigraphie (Als et al., Nucl. Med. 1995; 34) untersucht, und ergaben einen Zusammenbruch (Medianen) von Q: 4,3{yields}1,0 (toxische Adenome: TA), 2{yields}1,1 (multifokale funktionelle Autonomien: MFA) (p<0,0001) sowie von T: 96{yields}1,7 (TA), 15{yields}1,1 (MFA) (p<0,001). Fuenf funktionelle Muster wurden nRJT unterscheidbar: Euthyreose (n=37, 70%), zur Haelfte mit vernarbten/nichtvernarbten autonomen Arealen (respektive niedrige/hoehere T); primaere Hypothyreose (n=4), Rest-Hyperthyreose (n=7), sekundaere Hyperthyreose (n=5). Die beiden letzten Gruppen mit persistierend subnormalen TSH-Werten wurden eindeutig anhand divergierender T-, Trijodthyronin- und Thyroxin

  11. Functional autonomic nervous system profile in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kushki, Azadeh; Brian, Jessica; Dupuis, Annie; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    Background Autonomic dysregulation has been recently reported as a feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the nature of autonomic atypicalities in ASD remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize the cardiac autonomic profile of children with ASD across four domains affected in ASD (anxiety, attention, response inhibition, and social cognition), and suggested to be affected by autonomic dysregulation. Methods We compared measures of autonomic cardiac regulat...

  12. ROLE OF YOGA ON CARDIC AUTONOMIC FUNCTION TESTS AND COGNITION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, Santhakumari Nagothu; Indla, Yogananda Reddy; Archana, R; Rajesh, P

    2016-01-01

    According to International Diabetic Federation, type 2 diabetic population is on the rise globally and cognitive decline is one of the complications seen in type 2 diabetes. The present study is aimed at exploring the role of regular practice of yoga on cognition in type 2 diabetes and also to study the relation between the cognition and functional status of autonomic nervous system by considering the Cardiac Autonomic (CAN) function tests. Ten type 2 diabetic subjects of both the sex, aged between 35-55 years, who practiced yoga for a period of six months at Yogi Vemana Yoga Research Institute were recruited as test group. Age and sex matched ten type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited as control group; both the group subjects are on oral hypoglycemic agents. Glycosylated hemoglobin concentration was estimated with Bio-Rad instrument, cognition was assessed with Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised battery and Cardiac autonomic function tests were also conducted. Unpaired student t test was performed and p<0.05 is considered statistically significant. The mean HbA1c concentration in control and test group subjects is 7.8±1.84 and 6.9±0.4% (p=0.03) respectively. Mean cognitive scores in test and control group subjects are 93±4.5 and 85±4.0 (p=0.008) respectively. CAN test results didn't showed any significance between the test and control group. But CAN functions are affected in both the groups. Regular practice of yoga in combination with oral hypoglycemic agents has a positive effect on cognition in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27390720

  13. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Sominsky

    Full Text Available Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p. exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli. Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of

  14. Trans-activation by thyroid hormone receptors: functional parallels with steroid hormone receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, C C; Evans, R M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of thyroid hormones are mediated through nuclear receptor proteins that modulate the transcription of specific genes in target cells. We previously isolated cDNAs encoding two different mammalian thyroid hormone receptors, one from human placenta (hTR beta) and the other from rat brain (rTR alpha), and showed that their in vitro translation products bind thyroid hormones with the characteritistic affinities of the native thyroid hormone receptor. We now demonstrate that both of th...

  15. Small differences in thyroid function may be important for body mass index and the occurrence of obesity in the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, N.; Laurberg, P.; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Bulow, I.; Perrild, H.; Ovesen, Lars; Jorgensen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Increasing prevalence of overweight in the population is a major concern globally; and in the United States, nearly one third of adults were classified as obese at the end of the 20th century. Few data have been presented regarding an association between variations in thyroid function seen...... in the general population and body weight. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thyroid function and body mass index (BMI) or obesity in a normal population. Design: A cross-sectional population study (The DanThyr Study) was conducted. Participants: In all, 4649...... gain during 6 months ( P = 0.17). There was an association between obesity ( BMI > 30 kg/m2) and serum TSH levels ( P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that thyroid function ( also within the normal range) could be one of several factors acting in concert to determine body weight in a...

  16. Early deprivation and autonomic nervous system functioning in post-institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisa A; Koss, Kalsea J; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The relations between early deprivation and the development of the neuroendocrine and central components of the mammalian stress response have been examined frequently. However, little is known about the impact of early deprivation on the developmental trajectories of autonomic function. Children adopted between 15-36 months from institutional care were examined during their first 16 months post-adoption (N = 60). Comparison groups included same-aged peers reared in their birth families (N = 50) and children adopted internationally from overseas foster care (N = 46). The present study examined trajectories of baseline autonomic nervous system function longitudinally following entry into adopted families. Post-institutionalized children had higher sympathetic tone, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP). Individual differences in PEP soon after adoption served as a mediator between early deprivation and parent-reported behavioral problems 2 years post-adoption. There were no group differences in parasympathetic function, indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. All three groups showed similar trajectories of ANS function across the 16 month period. PMID:26497289

  17. The exploration of the changes in bone metabolism in patients with abnormal thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, BGP and PTH in 91 patients with hyperthyroidism, 37 patients with hypothyroidism, 51 controls, were measured by means of IRMA, calcaneus heel bone density (BMD) was measured by means of 241Am single photon absorptiometry. BGP levels in hyperthyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). BGP levels in hypothyroidism were significantly lower than those in controls (P < 0.001). PTH levels in hyperthyroidism were a little lower than those in controls (P < 0.05). PTH levels in hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). The measurement of BMD showed that the prevalence rates of osteoporosis (OP) in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls. In hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism groups the age of OP tends to be younger. The patients with hyperthyroidism over 55 years of age were all suffered from OP. The changes in BGP and PTH were earlier than BMD, so BGP and PTH can be used as sensitive indicator of the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, especially for curative effect observations

  18. Functional Based Adaptive and Fuzzy Sliding Controller for Non-Autonomous Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiuh-Jer; Chen, Hung-Yi

    In this paper, an adaptive sliding controller is developed for controlling a vehicle active suspension system. The functional approximation technique is employed to substitute the unknown non-autonomous functions of the suspension system and release the model-based requirement of sliding mode control algorithm. In order to improve the control performance and reduce the implementation problem, a fuzzy strategy with online learning ability is added to compensate the functional approximation error. The update laws of the functional approximation coefficients and the fuzzy tuning parameters are derived from the Lyapunov theorem to guarantee the system stability. The proposed controller is implemented on a quarter-car hydraulic actuating active suspension system test-rig. The experimental results show that the proposed controller suppresses the oscillation amplitude of the suspension system effectively.

  19. Thyroid function abnormalities associated with the chronic outpatient administration of recombinant interleukin-2 and recombinant interferon-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, E L; Clare-Salzler, M J; Chopra, I J; Figlin, R A

    1991-12-01

    We prospectively examined thyroid function during and following chronic, outpatient therapy with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) and Roferon-A (rIFN-alpha 2a). Twenty-two of 30 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated on a phase II open pilot study of concomitant rIL-2 and rIFN-alpha 2a were included. Serum levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine index, thyrotropin, antithyroid antibodies, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor binding antibodies were measured before therapy and after every other cycle. Selected patients underwent studies after every cycle and following completion of therapy. Twenty patients (91%) developed laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction, 11 (50%) developed hypothyroidism, five (23%) had a biphasic pattern, and four (18%) had hyperthyroidism. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction increased with increased number of treatment cycles. Transient hyperthyroidism was noted in six of the 11 patients studied after the first cycle and persisted after cycle three in only two patients. Hypothyroidism was not observed after cycle 1, but became increasingly frequent between cycles 2 (56%) and 6 (90%). Thyroid function normalized following therapy in nine of 12 patients tested. Antithyroid antibodies were identified pretherapy in five patients (23%) and de novo in none; TSH receptor binding antibodies were not detected. This study demonstrates a remarkably high frequency of reversible thyroid dysfunction in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with repeated cycles of rIL-2 plus rIFN-alpha 2a. We conclude that chronic therapy with rIL-2 and rIFN-alpha 2a produces thyroid dysfunction in virtually all patients most likely secondary to a nonspecific, nonautoimmune, toxic manifestation of prolonged treatment. IL-2 therapy may, therefore, produce thyroid dysfunction by more than one mechanism. PMID:1768679

  20. Thyroid Functions in Long-Term Survivors of Pediatric Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Treated with Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Demirkaya, Metin; Sevinir, Betül; Sağlam, Halil; Özkan, Lütfi; Akacı, Okan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Post-treatment endocrine disturbances are common in cancer patients who have received radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thyroid functions of long-term survivors of pediatric Hodgkin’s lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods: Thyroid functions of 55 Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients (M/F:2.05/1) in complete remission were evaluated retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 10.35±4.09 (range: 2.8...

  1. Prospective randomized controlled intervention trial: Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Improves Cardiac autonomic functions and Quality of life in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Program on glycemic control, quality of life, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Material and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 120 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes (n = 56 and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program (n = 64. Standard therapy included advice on diet, walk, and oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was an interactive session in which Sudarshan kriya yoga, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam was taught under guidance of a certified teacher. Change in fasting, post prandial blood sugars, glycated hemoglobin, and quality of life were assessed. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and six months after intervention. Results: There was significant improvement in psychological (P = 0.006 and social domains (P = 0.04 and total quality of life (P = 0.02 in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing program as compared to the group following standard therapy alone. In the group following breathing program, the improvement in sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions was statistically significant (P = 0.01, while the change in the standard group was not significant (P = 0.17. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P = 0.07. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P = 0.76. The parameters of glycemic control were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: There was significant improvement in quality of life and cardiac autonomic functions in the diabetes patients practicing comprehensive yogic breathing

  2. Changes in thyroid function following iodine-containing contrast administration in patients in an endemic goitre area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grehn, S.; Steidle, B.; Seif, F.J.

    1981-08-01

    A prospective study of thyroid function after the administration of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media was carried out on 119 patients from an area where goitres are endemic. Eighteen patients had a negative TRH test after 28 days. Results showed hyperthyroid function in 27.9% of patients after oral cholecystography, 15.1% of patients after intravenous cholangiography and 5.3% of patients after infusion urography. In these patients, thyroxin and triiodothyronin levels were higher than in euthyroid patients. Thyroid stimulating antibodies could not be demonstrated. Induction of hyperthyroidism by iodine is considered to be due to autonomy of the thyroid gland parenchyma. For this reason the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is greater in patients from a goitre endemic region (by a factor of 1.3 to 17.1).

  3. Effect of enpishin (press tack acupuncture needles on autonomic function, WBC count and oxidative stress

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    Mitsunori Tsumaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture as a vital component of traditional medical systems of the Far East has been used to restore and maintain health for over three millennia. However, the neurobiological correlates of this therapy remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the effect of enpishin acupuncture (press tack needles (PTN on autonomic function, WBC count, and oxidative stress between subjects that received either verum or placebo PTN treatment. Twenty men (mean(SD age: 36.7(5.1 years who provided oral consent were randomized to receive either verum PTN (n = 9 or placebo PTN (n = 11. Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT was used to select the acupoints for each participant. Autonomic function and oxidative stress level were analyzed before and after the treatment via heart rate variability (HRV and free radical analysis system (FRAS4, respectively. Pre- and post-treatment WBC count was also evaluated. Verum PTN group had a statistically significant increase (p = 0.008 in Ln TP, an index of overall autonomic activity. Subjects in this group also had a significantly greater (p = 0.006 variation in Ln TP than the placebo PTN group in response to the treatment. Similarly, Ln HF of subjects receiving verum PTN showed a marked increase (p = 0.0026 after the treatment. Moreover, a significantly greater (p < 0.001 variation in mean Ln HF before and after the treatment was noted in the verum group than the placebo group, reflecting a greater parasympathetic activation in the former. In contrast, sympathetic activity was not significantly influenced by verum PTN based on the lack of observed changes in LF/HF ratio. In addition, both groups failed to demonstrate significant variations in pre- and post-treatment mean Ln LF/HF ratio. Further, no significant intergroup difference was found with regard to mean variation in Ln LF/HF ratio. Verum PTN did not induce significant changes in WBC count and markers of oxidative stress, namely reactive

  4. Modelling of Thyroid Peroxidase Reveals Insights into Its Enzyme Function and Autoantigenicity.

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    Sarah N Le

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO catalyses the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones and is a major autoantigen in Hashimoto's disease--the most common organ-specific autoimmune disease. Epitope mapping studies have shown that the autoimmune response to TPO is directed mainly at two surface regions on the molecule: immunodominant regions A and B (IDR-A, and IDR-B. TPO has been a major target for structural studies for over 20 years; however, to date, the structure of TPO remains to be determined. We have used a molecular modelling approach to investigate plausible modes of TPO structure and dimer organisation. Sequence features of the C-terminus are consistent with a coiled-coil dimerization motif that most likely anchors the TPO dimer in the apical membrane of thyroid follicular cells. Two contrasting models of TPO were produced, differing in the orientation and exposure of their active sites relative to the membrane. Both models are equally plausible based upon the known enzymatic function of TPO. The "trans" model places IDR-B on the membrane-facing side of the myeloperoxidase (MPO-like domain, potentially hindering access of autoantibodies, necessitating considerable conformational change, and perhaps even dissociation of the dimer into monomers. IDR-A spans MPO- and CCP-like domains and is relatively fragmented compared to IDR-B, therefore most likely requiring domain rearrangements in order to coalesce into one compact epitope. Less epitope fragmentation and higher solvent accessibility of the "cis" model favours it slightly over the "trans" model. Here, IDR-B clusters towards the surface of the MPO-like domain facing the thyroid follicular lumen preventing steric hindrance of autoantibodies. However, conformational rearrangements may still be necessary to allow full engagement with autoantibodies, with IDR-B on both models being close to the dimer interface. Taken together, the modelling highlights the need to consider the oligomeric state of TPO, its

  5. Modelling of Thyroid Peroxidase Reveals Insights into Its Enzyme Function and Autoantigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Sarah N; Porebski, Benjamin T; McCoey, Julia; Fodor, James; Riley, Blake; Godlewska, Marlena; Góra, Monika; Czarnocka, Barbara; Banga, J Paul; Hoke, David E; Kass, Itamar; Buckle, Ashley M

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) catalyses the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones and is a major autoantigen in Hashimoto's disease--the most common organ-specific autoimmune disease. Epitope mapping studies have shown that the autoimmune response to TPO is directed mainly at two surface regions on the molecule: immunodominant regions A and B (IDR-A, and IDR-B). TPO has been a major target for structural studies for over 20 years; however, to date, the structure of TPO remains to be determined. We have used a molecular modelling approach to investigate plausible modes of TPO structure and dimer organisation. Sequence features of the C-terminus are consistent with a coiled-coil dimerization motif that most likely anchors the TPO dimer in the apical membrane of thyroid follicular cells. Two contrasting models of TPO were produced, differing in the orientation and exposure of their active sites relative to the membrane. Both models are equally plausible based upon the known enzymatic function of TPO. The "trans" model places IDR-B on the membrane-facing side of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-like domain, potentially hindering access of autoantibodies, necessitating considerable conformational change, and perhaps even dissociation of the dimer into monomers. IDR-A spans MPO- and CCP-like domains and is relatively fragmented compared to IDR-B, therefore most likely requiring domain rearrangements in order to coalesce into one compact epitope. Less epitope fragmentation and higher solvent accessibility of the "cis" model favours it slightly over the "trans" model. Here, IDR-B clusters towards the surface of the MPO-like domain facing the thyroid follicular lumen preventing steric hindrance of autoantibodies. However, conformational rearrangements may still be necessary to allow full engagement with autoantibodies, with IDR-B on both models being close to the dimer interface. Taken together, the modelling highlights the need to consider the oligomeric state of TPO, its conformational

  6. Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1: its clinical significance and functional role in human thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yan Zhang,* Gang Liu,* Shihe Wu, Futing Jiang, Jiangping Xie, Yuhong WangDepartment of General Surgery, Navy General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: Transcription factor zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1, as one of the key inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, has been reported to be regulated by microRNA-144 and Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3, which both promote thyroid cancer cell invasion. However, the involvement of ZEB1 in thyroid cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role and clinical implication of ZEB1 in this disease.Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the subcellular localization and the expression level of ZEB1 protein in 82 self-pairs of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cancerous and adjacent noncancerous tissues obtained from patients with thyroid cancer. The roles of ZEB1 in thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation were also detected by transwell and MTT analyses, respectively.Results: Immunohistochemistry showed that ZEB1 was predominantly localized in the nucleus of thyroid cancer cells. Its immunoreactive score in thyroid cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues (P=0.01. In addition, ZEB1 overexpression was significantly associated with the advanced tumor node metastasis staging (P=0.008, the positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.01 and distant metastasis (P=0.02. Furthermore, ZEB1 knockdown by siRNA could efficiently inhibit the migration, invasion, and proliferation abilities of thyroid cancer cells in vitro.Conclusion: These findings indicated that ZEB1 might function as an oncogene, the overexpression of which was associated with the aggressive tumor progression of human thyroid cancer. Interestingly, ZEB1 also could promote thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation, suggesting that

  7. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in comparison with human (Homo sapiens: quantitative and functional implications.

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    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5 µm(3 and 7.02×10(5 µm(3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  8. A study on the observation system for autonomous, distributed and cooperative function in a future type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of advanced future plants are discussed by five research institutes; Ship Research Institute, Electrotechnical Laboratory, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (Cross-over group). And, an autonomous plant is identified as a future type plant. In this future type plant, there are many agents that consist plant sub-systems or plant components and have artificial intelligence. They are distributed in plant and have autonomous functions, and cooperate each other to establish total plant function. Even if the plant has autonomous function, human operators have to always watch the plant state. Therefore, the needs of the observation system for autonomous, distributed, and cooperative functions are strongly required. The present paper has presented a new idea about the observation system, and developed fundamental functions for this observation system, that is, plant function model, auto-classification of plant states, three dimensional graphical display, expression of robot group's activity. Also, autonomous plant simulator has been developed for this research activity. Finally, the effectiveness of this observation system has been evaluated by experiments of operator's reaction to this system. (author)

  9. Reciprocal changes in parathyroid hormone and thyroid function after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.; Nussbaum, S.R.

    1989-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with negative calcium balance, normal to increased serum calcium concentrations, and decreased cortical bone mass. There is no agreement concerning serum PTH levels in such patients. In this study, we measured serum PTH concentrations using a newly developed sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay in 17 hyperthyroid patients before and after radioiodine therapy. The mean serum PTH and calcium concentrations were 28 +/- 15 (+/- SD) ng/L (normal range, 12-65 ng/L) and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L (normal range, 2.1-2.6 mmol/L) before therapy. After therapy serum PTH concentrations increased in 16 of the 17 patients. The increase in serum PTH was greater in the 9 patients who became hypothyroid rapidly (29 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 29 ng/L) compared with that in the 8 patients who became euthyroid gradually (26 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 24 ng/L). Serum PTH rose along with TSH as the patients became hypothyroid after radioiodine, and both serum PTH and TSH fell when L-T4 therapy was given. The reciprocal changes in serum PTH concentrations and thyroid function over time suggest a strong association of bone mineral metabolism and thyroid status.

  10. Thyroid hormone signaling in the Xenopus laevis embryo is functional and susceptible to endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, J B; Le Mével, S; Palmier, K; Darras, V M; Punzon, I; Richardson, S J; Clerget-Froidevaux, M S; Demeneix, B A

    2012-10-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for vertebrate brain development. Most research on TH and neuronal development focuses on late development, mainly the perinatal period in mammals. However, in human infants neuromotor development correlates best with maternal TH levels in the first trimester of pregnancy, suggesting that TH signaling could affect early brain development. Studying TH signaling in early embryogenesis in mammals is experimentally challenging. In contrast, free-living embryos, such as Xenopus laevis, permit physiological experimentation independent of maternal factors. We detailed key elements of TH signaling: ligands, receptors (TR), and deiodinases during early X. laevis development, before embryonic thyroid gland formation. Dynamic profiles for all components were found. Between developmental stages 37 and 41 (~48 h after hatching, coincident with a phase of continuing neurogenesis) significant increases in T(3) levels as well as in mRNA encoding deiodinases and TR occurred. Exposure of embryos at this developmental stage for 24 h to either a TH antagonist, NH-3, or to tetrabromobisphenol A, a flame retardant and known TH disruptor, differentially modulated the expression of a number of TH target genes implicated in neural stem cell function or neural differentiation. Moreover, 24-h exposure to either NH-3 or tetrabromobisphenol A diminished cell proliferation in the brain. Thus, these data show first, that TH signaling exerts regulatory roles in early X. laevis neurogenesis and second, that this period represents a potential window for endocrine disruption. PMID:22968643

  11. Reciprocal changes in parathyroid hormone and thyroid function after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with negative calcium balance, normal to increased serum calcium concentrations, and decreased cortical bone mass. There is no agreement concerning serum PTH levels in such patients. In this study, we measured serum PTH concentrations using a newly developed sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay in 17 hyperthyroid patients before and after radioiodine therapy. The mean serum PTH and calcium concentrations were 28 +/- 15 (+/- SD) ng/L (normal range, 12-65 ng/L) and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L (normal range, 2.1-2.6 mmol/L) before therapy. After therapy serum PTH concentrations increased in 16 of the 17 patients. The increase in serum PTH was greater in the 9 patients who became hypothyroid rapidly (29 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 29 ng/L) compared with that in the 8 patients who became euthyroid gradually (26 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 24 ng/L). Serum PTH rose along with TSH as the patients became hypothyroid after radioiodine, and both serum PTH and TSH fell when L-T4 therapy was given. The reciprocal changes in serum PTH concentrations and thyroid function over time suggest a strong association of bone mineral metabolism and thyroid status

  12. Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Thyroid Function Parameters in Depressed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akbari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A considerable portion of patients with depressive disorders do not respond properly to medical treatment and need Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. On the other hand, as some beneficial effects of ECT are attributed to increase in thyroid hormones, levothyronin is used as an adjuvant prior to ECT. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function changes after ECT. Methods: This was an out come study done on depressed patients attending the psychiatric clinic who were resistant to medical therapy and therefore candidates for ECT. Blood samples were drawn before the first and the last ECT and serum levels of T3, T4, T3RU and TSH were measured. Results: Thirty-one patients (19 males and 12 females were enrolled the study. Serum levels of T3 and T3RU significantly increased by ECT (p-values of 0.0001 and 0.029, respectively. T3 increased in all 31 patients and this was true for both genders and all age groups and also for various durations of depression, but T4 and TSH levels decreased significantly (p-values of 0.025 and 0.0001, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that some effects of ECT may be primarily due to increased T3 levels and other parameters change accordingly. These findings need to be confirmed by further studies

  13. EFFECT OF SPECIFIC “YOGASANAS” ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTION TEST

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    Sahoo J K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of cardiovascular autonomic functions before and after four yogasanas viz. “Vajrasana” with “Yogamudra”, “Paschimmotanasana”, “Dwipad sahajhasta Bhujangasana”, “Padmasana Yogasana” was carried out. Seventy healthy adults (30 males and 40 females in the age group of 16-20years were studied. They were trained for 15 days by a certified yoga teacher. Autonomic function tests were carried out before and after 2 and 4 months of yoga practice. Resting heart rate (HR, BloodPressure (BP, heart rate and blood pressure response to standing, deep breathing and valsalva maneuver and pressure response to cold pressor test were studied. A statisticaly significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure after 2 and 4 months of yoga training in both males and females was found. There was also statistical significant increase in heart response to deep breathing (E:I ratio from 1.4 (mean to 1.56 in males and 1.4 to 1.49 in females. Valsalva ratio also increased from 1.09 to 1.17 in males and 1.09 to 1.21 in females after 4 months training. Our results indicate that the effects of these asanas is to increase vagal modulation of R:R intervals and reduce sympathovagal balance. However, the study is limited by the facts that it is not controlled.

  14. Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Left Ventricular Volume and Function in Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of thyroid hormone on the left ventricular (LV) volume and function in man with untreated hyperthyroidism and to determine the effects of successful therapy for thyrotoxicosis on the ventricular pathophysiology. In the present study, equilibrium ralhianuclide cardiac angiography was performed and LV volume index, ejection phase indexes of LV performance, serum thyroid hormone levels and other hemodynamic parameters were measured in 28 normal subjects and 39 patients with hyperthyroidism before treatment and again every 4 weeks for the first 2 months after the initiation of effective therapy. The result obtained were as follows; 1) In the untreated hyperthyroid state heart rate, blood volume, cardiac index and stroke volume index (97±14 beats/min, 73.5±11.8 ml/kg, 6.9±1.4 l/min/m2 and 77.6±13.8 ml/m2, respectively) were increased significantly compared to those in normal control (74±12 beats/min, 65.6±14.8 ml/kg, 3.8±1.2 l/min/m2 and 56.6±13.2 ml/m2 respectively). (Mean±SD). 2) There was a significant increase in LV end-diastolic volume index in patients with hyperthyroidism (30.5±7.5 for hyperthyroid group compared to a normal control of 22.2±6.5; P<0.001), whereas end-systolic volume index remained unchanged 9.6±3.6 and 8.8±3.3 respectively. 3) In patients with hyperthyroidism, LV ejection fraction was 70.0±5.6%, fractional shortening 32.9±5.1%, mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (mean Vcf) 1.34±0.31 circ/sec and maximum ejection rate 3.47±0.80. All the ejection phase indexes were significantly greater than those in normal control (65.2±5.7%, 28.8±3.2%, 0.88±0.37 circ/sec and 2.27±0.50, respectively; p<0.001). 4) Effective therapy produced significant decrease in all the values of serum thyroid hormone concenrations (p<0.001), hemodynamic parameters (p<0.001), end-diastolic volume index (p<0.01) and ejection phase indexes of LV contractility in patients with hyperthyroidism

  15. Management implications from routine needle biopsy of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfish, P G; Strawbridge, H T; Rosen, I B

    1985-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic and treatment consequences of using a routine needle biopsy procedure on all thyroid nodules without a radioisotopic scintigraphic study, 12 patients with documented hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were retrospectively evaluated regarding the physical and cytologic observations obtained after a fine-needle (22 to 27-gauge) aspiration biopsy (FNB) procedure. Among the seven solid lesions, features of marked cellularity and nuclear pleomorphism were present in three and moderate sheets of epithelium in four raising the suspicion of underlying malignancy, while five mixed (cystic and solid) lesions were larger than 3 cm, hemorrhagic, and recurrent, with two having detectable sheets of epithelium. Evidence for concomitant lymphocytic thyroiditis was seen in five of 12 (42%) patients, and nine had positive serum antithyroid antibody titers as well. In conclusion, total reliance on FNB without scintigraphy could lead to operations on hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas for suspected malignancy, of whom the vast majority would be benign, and could expose some unprepared patients with thyrotoxicosis to surgical morbidity. Routine thyroid hormone suppression therapy for apparently benign inflammatory or cystic degenerative lesions could also induce hyperthyroidism in patients with hyperfunctional or autonomous (nonsuppressible) nodules. When using an initial FNB approach, the need for thyroid function studies and scintigraphy before undertaking surgery or thyroid hormone feeding, as well as the consequences of omitting such studies, should be considered. PMID:4071393

  16. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M U Sujan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head in migraine patients. Methods: Forty chronic migraine patients fulfilling the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria were recruited from the neurology outpatient clinic. Patients were randomized to receive either hydrotherapy plus conventional pharmacological care (n = 20 or conventional medication only (n = 20. Hydrotherapy group received treatment with hot arm and foot bath (103°F to 110°F and ice massage to head daily for 20 min for 45 days. Patients were assessed using headache impact test (HIT, visual analog scale for pain and cardiac autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV before and after intervention period. Results: There was a significant decrease in HIT score, frequency, and intensity of headaches following treatment in both the groups. However, it was more evident in add on hydrotherapy group compared to pharmacological treatment alone group. There was also significant improvement in the HRV parameters. In particular, there was a significant decrease in heart rate (P = 0.017, increase in high frequency (HF (P = 0.014 and decrease in low frequency/HF ratio (P = 0.004 in add on hydrotherapy group. Conclusion: Our study shows that add on hydrotherapy enhanced the vagal tone in addition to reducing the frequency and intensity of headaches in migraine patients.

  17. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Body in Balance › Thyroid Nodules Fact Sheet Thyroid Nodules March 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Hindi ... Singer, MD Leonard Wartofsky, MD What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped ...

  18. Dual Ectopic Thyroid with Normally Located Thyroid: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Santanu Barua; Sarojini Dutta Choudhury; Mihir Saikia; Dipti Sarma; Uma Kaimal Saikia; Bipul Kumar Choudhury; Swapna Dewri

    2011-01-01

    Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary h...

  19. Changes in the autonomic endocrine system in children from zones of radioactive contamination under the effect of spa treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical and functional examinations were carried out in 175 children aged 9 to 15 years living at territories contaminated with radionuclides, and 57 children from ecologically pure regions. Blood concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), thyrotropic hormone (TTH), thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG), and hydrocortisone were radioimmunoassayed. Ultrasonic scanning was carried out using Aloca device with 7.5 MHz pick-up. The status of the autonomic nervous system was assessed in all the children. Analysis of the results of studies before and after spa treatment revealed hyperplasia (72,6%), changes in the structure of thyroid tissue presenting as nodular formations, and signs of thyroiditis. The parameters of the endocrine and autonomic regulation of the organism correlated. Spa treatment promoted normalization of the thyroid hormone production and of the autonomic nervous regulation

  20. Evaluation of functional, autonomic and inflammatory outcomes in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Dantas Gomes, Evelim Leal; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-03-16

    Asthma is common in childhood. This respiratory disease is characterized by persistent inflammation of the airways even when the child is not in the throes of an attack. Chronic inflammation is caused by an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms as well as autonomic dysfunction, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis and control of this condition. The impact of these physiopathological aspects leads to inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle, which exerts an influence on functional capacity and control of the disease. The main objective of non-pharmacological therapy is the clinical control of asthma and the minimization of airway obstruction and hyperinflation during an attack. These factors can be controlled with noninvasive ventilation. The aim or the present review was to describe important neural, inflammatory and functional mechanisms that affect children with asthma. PMID:25789303

  1. Effect of occupational exposure to cobalt blue dyes on the thyroid volume and function of female plate painters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Netterstrøm, B; Faber, J;

    1992-01-01

    It has previously been shown that long-term oral exposure to cobalt can cause goiter and myxedema. The effect of industrial cobalt exposure on thyroid volume and function was determined for 61 female plate painters exposed to cobalt blue dyes in two Danish porcelain factories and 48 unexposed...

  2. Neonatal thyroid function in Seveso 25 years after maternal exposure to dioxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baccarelli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypothyroidism has been associated in animal models with maternal exposure to several environmental contaminants; however, evidence for such an association in humans is inconsistent. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a persistent and widespread toxic environmental contaminant, is associated with modified neonatal thyroid function in a large, highly exposed population in Seveso, Italy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 1994 and 2005, in individuals exposed to TCDD after the 1976 Seveso accident we conducted: (i a residence-based population study on 1,014 children born to the 1,772 women of reproductive age in the most contaminated zones (A, very high contamination; B, high contamination, and 1,772 age-matched women from the surrounding noncontaminated area (reference; (ii a biomarker study on 51 mother-child pairs for whom recent maternal plasma dioxin measurements were available. Neonatal blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (b-TSH was measured on all children. We performed crude and multivariate analyses adjusting for gender, birth weight, birth order, maternal age, hospital, and type of delivery. Mean neonatal b-TSH was 0.98 microU/ml (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.08 in the reference area (n = 533, 1.35 microU/ml (95% CI 1.22-1.49 in zone B (n = 425, and 1.66 microU/ml (95% CI 1.19-2.31 in zone A (n = 56 (p 5 microU/ml was 2.8% in the reference area, 4.9% in zone B, and 16.1% in zone A (p < 0.001. Neonatal b-TSH was correlated with current maternal plasma TCDD (n = 51, beta = 0.47, p < 0.001 and plasma toxic equivalents of coplanar dioxin-like compounds (n = 51, beta = 0.45, p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that environmental contaminants such as dioxins have a long-lasting capability to modify neonatal thyroid function after the initial exposure.

  3. Impact of environmental chemicals on the thyroid hormone function in pituitary rat GH3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are widespread in the environment and suspected to interfere with the function of thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the TH disrupting activity of different classes of EDCs including plasticizers (bisphenol A, bisphenol A dimethacrylate), alkylphenols (4-n......-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol), pesticides (prochloraz, iprodion, chlorpyrifos), PCB metabolites (OH-PCB 106, OH-PCB 121, OH-PCB 69) and brominated flame-retardants (tetrabromobisphenol A). The ED potential of a chemical was determined by its effect on the cell proliferation of TH-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cell...... line. All tested chemicals significantly interfered with the cell proliferation alone or upon co-treatment with T3. The growth of GH3 cells was stimulated by all tested chemicals, but 4-n-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, prochloraz and iprodion elicited an inhibitory effect on cell growth. In conclusion...

  4. Role of scintigraphy in the current diagnosis and management of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments have resulted in important changes in the diagnosis and management of thyroid diseases. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy has now supplanted imaging studies as the initial procedure for differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules. However, thyroid scintigraphy may be helpful in the management of patients without a definitive result of cytology and in Grave's disease with a nodule found in ultrasound scanning. On the other hand, scintigraphy remains critical for the determination of autonomously functioning tissue, and hyperthyroidism (over or subclinical) is an indisputable indication for scintigraphy in patients with a thyroid nodule. Besides, radionuclide scanning has retained its significance in the diagnosis of ectopic thyroid tissue, in the monitoring effects of radioiodine therapy, and in the evaluation of relapses in patients treated by surgery for benign thyroid diseases. The 131I scintigraphy is commonly used in the postoperative follow-up of patients with the differentiated thyroid carcinoma, although the role of this procedure in management of the disease may change in the near future. Nowadays, the 123I thyroid scintigraphy has been proposed as a safe and clinically important procedure for accurately counselling patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Moreover, the problem of underestimation of thyroid scintigraphy in diagnosis and management of benign diseases of gland in some regions of Poland has also been discussed. (author)

  5. Testicular function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can affect endocrine testicular function. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) concentrations were measured in 103 patients periodically submitted for radioiodine therapy for residual or metastatic disease. Mean follow-up was 93.7±54 mo (range 10-243 mo). Mean FSH values in 131I-treated patients tested after their last treatment were 15.3±9.9 mU/ml, significantly higher than those of 19 untreated patients (6.5±3.1 mU/ml). Considering the mean +3 s.d. FSH of untreated subjects as the upper limit of normal range, 36.8% of the patients had an abnormal increase in serum FSH. Longitudinal analysis performed in 21 patients showed that the behavior of FSH in response to 131I therapy was not universal. Six patients had no change or a slight increase in serum FSH after 131I administration; eleven patients had a transient increase above normal values 6-12 mo after 131I treatment, with return to normal levels in subsequent months. The administration of a second dose was followed by a similar increase in FSH levels. Finally, four patients, followed for a long period of time and treated with several 131I doses, showed a progressive increase in serum FSH, which eventually became permanent. Semen analysis, performed in a small subgroup of patients, showed a consistent reduction in the number of normokinetic sperm. No change was found in serum T levels between treated and untreated patients. The results indicate that 131I therapy for thyroid carcinoma is associated with transient impairment of testicular germinal cell function. The damage may become permanent for high-radiation activities delivered year after year and might pose a significant risk of infertility. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Aloe vera on Antioxidant Status and Thyroid Functions in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the antioxidant status and thyroid functions of female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) when exposed to 3.0 Gy of gamma ray (dose rats = 0.696 Gy/min.) as s single dose and the role of 0.25 ml Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate/kg body weight against the damage caused by gamma irradiation. Total number of 50 female albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups; normal control group, irradiated group, Aloe vera administered group, irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 1 week and the 5th group is the irradiated rats followed by Aloe vera administration for 2 weeks starting from 24 h post-irradiation. Total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured in serum of all groups. The results of this study revealed that 3.0 Gy of gamma irradiation resulted in a highly significant reduction in serum total antioxidant capacity (39.89%), highly significant increase in TBARs (29.19%) and a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels (8.21 and 25.51%, respectively) compared to control group. There was a non-significant change in serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs, and a highly significant decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels (31.00 and 36.57%) in rats administered Aloe vera alone. Concerning rats administered Aloe vera whole leaf juice filtrate post-irradiation, serum total anti-oxidant capacity and TBARs were restored to the normal levels after 2 weeks. Serum levels of T3 and T4 (represent thyroid functions) were restored to the normal levels after 1 week and found to be inhibited (20.41 and 22.62%, respectively) after 2 weeks of administration. (author)

  7. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  8. Adverse Impact of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment on Autonomic Function in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Carter, Jason R; Van Cauter, Eve; Leproult, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in epidemiological studies, but experimental evidence for a causal link is scarce. The present study compares the impact of circadian misalignment (CM) to circadian alignment (CA) on human autonomic function using a nonrandomized parallel group design to achieve the same total sleep time in both conditions. After baseline assessments (3 days with 10-hour bedtimes), 26 healthy young adults were assigned to sleep restriction (SR; eight 5-hour bedtimes) with either fixed nocturnal bedtimes (CA; n=13) or bedtimes delayed by 8.5 hours on 4 of the 8 days (CM; n=13). Daytime ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (HR; CA, n=11; CM, n=10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine levels (CA, n=13; CM, n=13) were assessed at baseline and the end of SR. Nocturnal HR and HR variability were analyzed during sleep at baseline and during the fourth and seventh nights of SR (CA, n=8; CM, n=12). SR resulted in a significant increase in daytime HR in both groups, without changes in blood pressure. SR increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine in the CM group (30±4 versus 21±2 μg), but not in the circadian alignment group (group×condition, P=0.005). In contrast to the lack of detectable impact of CM on daytime autonomic function, SR with CM elicited greater increases in nocturnal HR, as well as greater reductions in vagal indices of HR variability, than SR without CM (group×condition, Pautonomic function that could lead, under chronic conditions, to enhanced cardiovascular risk. PMID:27271308

  9. Physiological changes in thyroid function during pregnancy: an approach to the interpretation of thyroid tests = Cambios fisiológicos de la función tiroidea en el embarazo: bases para la interpretación de las pruebas tiroideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba Ramírez, Nathalia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A proper understanding of thyroid physiology and its changes through pregnancy is critical to suspect diseases affecting the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and to make a proper interpretation of the tests that measure its function. Alterations in thyroid function tests are common during pregnancy, and it may be difficult to distinguish them from those due to disease. Clinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are rare during pregnancy (0.2% to 0.36%, but subclinical forms are more frequent (around 2%. Iodine is essential as substrate for thyroid hormone synthesis, and the requirements vary according to the population and the moment of pregnancy. Infertile couples have five to ten times more thyroid disorders; for that reason they should be studied as to thyroid function when searching for the cause of the infertility. Autoimmunity has been associated with maternal and perinatal complications such as abortion, preterm delivery and postpartum thyroiditis; some studies have shown that their incidence decreases with levothyroxine. This review includes the following aspects: thyroid physiology during pregnancy, thyroid function and fertility, iodine and pregnancy, anti-thyroid antibodies and pregnancy, thyroid function tests during pregnancy, and screening for thyroid disorders in pregnant women.

  10. Vagus nerve stimulation: state of the art of stimulation and recording strategies to address autonomic function neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Bonnet, Stéphane; Carrault, Guy; Couderc, Pascal; Hagège, Albert; Henry, Christine; Hernandez, Alfredo; Karam, Nicole; Le Rolle, Virginie; Mabo, Philippe; Maciejasz, Paweł; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Marijon, Eloi; Maubert, Sandrine; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Bonnet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Neural signals along the vagus nerve (VN) drive many somatic and autonomic functions. The clinical interest of VN stimulation (VNS) is thus potentially huge and has already been demonstrated in epilepsy. However, side effects are often elicited, in addition to the targeted neuromodulation. Approach. This review examines the state of the art of VNS applied to two emerging modulations of autonomic function: heart failure and obesity, especially morbid obesity. Main results. We report that VNS may benefit from improved stimulation delivery using very advanced technologies. However, most of the results from fundamental animal studies still need to be demonstrated in humans.

  11. Body fatness and markers of thyroid function among U.S. men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari M Kitahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of central versus overall adiposity on levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine (fT(3, and free thyroxine (fT(4 among euthyroid subjects taken from a cross-sectional, representative sample of the adult non-institutionalized U.S. population. METHODS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008 included 1,623 men and 1,491 women who were 20 years and older, with no history of thyroid or liver disease, kidney failure, diabetes, or thyroid function-altering prescription medication use (based on self-report, and having TSH, fT(3, and fT(4 levels between 0.5-4.49 mIU/L, 2.5-3.9 pg/mL, and 0.6-1.6 ng/dL, respectively. Associations between body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (measures of overall and central adiposity, respectively and TSH, fT(3, and fT(4 levels were estimated using multivariable linear regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for age, race, smoking status, and alcohol intake. RESULTS: An increase in serum TSH levels was observed for every 1-quartile increase in BMI in euthyroid men (3.8% [95% CI 0.8%, 6.8%] and euthyroid women (4.0% [95% CI 1.6%, 6.5%]. Similar, albeit slightly weaker, associations were observed with waist circumference. We also found increases in fT(3 levels with every 1-quartile increase in BMI (1.0% in men and 1.3% in women and waist circumference (1.2% in men and 1.2% in women. No associations were observed with fT(4. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide support that BMI and waist circumference are positively associated with levels of serum TSH and f T(3 but not fT(4 among euthyroid adults. Longitudinal studies are needed to define the temporality of these associations and their potential health implications.

  12. Clinical investigation: thyroid function test abnormalities in cardiac arrest associated with acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltumur, Kenan; Olmez, Gonul; Arıturk, Zuhal; Taskesen, Tuncay; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2005-01-01

    Introduction It is known that thyroid homeostasis is altered during the acute phase of cardiac arrest. However, it is not clear under what conditions, how and for how long these alterations occur. In the present study we examined thyroid function tests (TFTs) in the acute phase of cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and at the end of the first 2 months after the event. Method Fifty patients with cardiac arrest induced by ACS and 31 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who did not require cardioversion or cardiopulmonary resuscitation were enrolled in the study, as were 40 healthy volunteers. The patients were divided into three groups based on duration of cardiac arrest (10 min). Blood samples were collected for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3), free T3, thyroxine (T4), free T4, troponin-I and creatine kinase-MB measurements. The blood samples for TFTs were taken at 72 hours and at 2 months after the acute event in the cardiac arrest and AMI groups, but only once in the control group. Results The T3 and free T3 levels at 72 hours in the cardiac arrest group were significantly lower than in both the AMI and control groups (P 0.05). At the 2-month evaluation, a dramatic improvement was observed in T3 and free T3 levels in the cardiac arrest group (P < 0.0001). In those patients whose cardiac arrest duration was in excess of 10 min, levels of T3, free T3, T4 and TSH were significantly lower than those in patients whose cardiac arrest duration was under 5 min (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion TFTs are significantly altered in cardiac arrest induced by ACS. Changes in TFTs are even more pronounced in patients with longer periods of resuscitation. The changes in the surviving patients were characterized by euthyroid sick syndrome, and this improved by 2 months in those patients who did not progress into a vegetative state. PMID:16137355

  13. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  14. Perception system and functions for autonomous navigation in a natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatila, Raja; Devy, Michel; Lacroix, Simon; Herrb, Matthieu

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the approach, algorithms, and processes we developed for the perception system of a cross-country autonomous robot. After a presentation of the tele-programming context we favor for intervention robots, we introduce an adaptive navigation approach, well suited for the characteristics of complex natural environments. This approach lead us to develop a heterogeneous perception system that manages several different terrain representatives. The perception functionalities required during navigation are listed, along with the corresponding representations we consider. The main perception processes we developed are presented. They are integrated within an on-board control architecture we developed. First results of an ambitious experiment currently underway at LAAS are then presented.

  15. Examining the Roles of Work Autonomous and Controlled Motivations on Satisfaction and Anxiety as a Function of Role Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Huyghebaert, Tiphaine

    2016-07-01

    Past research in the self-determination theory has shown that autonomous motivation is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., work satisfaction), whereas controlled motivation is related to negative outcomes (e.g., anxiety). The purpose of the present research was to examine the moderating function of role ambiguity on the relationships between work autonomous and controlled motivations on the one hand, and work satisfaction and anxiety on the other. Six hundred and ninety-eight workers (449 men and 249 women) participated in this study. Results revealed that autonomous motivation was most strongly related to satisfaction when ambiguity was low. In addition, controlled motivation was most strongly related to anxiety when ambiguity was high. In other words, the present findings suggest that the outcomes associated with each form of motivation may vary as a function of role ambiguity. The present study thus offers meaningful insights for organizations, managers, and employees. PMID:27027579

  16. Childhood exposure to phthalates: associations with thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor I, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Frederiksen, Hanne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Hilsted, Linda Maria; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2010-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals, and human exposure is extensive. Recent studies have indicated that phthalates may have thyroid-disrupting properties.......Phthalates are widely used chemicals, and human exposure is extensive. Recent studies have indicated that phthalates may have thyroid-disrupting properties....

  17. Genetic and environmental interrelations between measurements of thyroid function in a healthy Danish twin population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pia Skov; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Iachine, Ivan; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2007-01-01

    free T3 levels mediated by common genetic factors was 48%. Only 7% of the genetic component of serum free T3 levels is shared with serum free T4. Serum TSH and thyroid hormone levels did not share any genetic influences. In conclusion, thyroid hormone levels are partly genetically correlated genes that...

  18. Functioning pulmonary metastases of thyroid cancer: does radioiodine influence the prognosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functioning pulmonary metastases are the most common distant lesions of differentiated thyroid cancer. About 50% of patients with such metastases die within 10 years. The impact of iodine-131 therapy is controversial. In this study we examined: (1) the early diagnostic value of post-surgery 131I ablation for lung invasion and (2) the survival of patients receiving periodic 131I therapy. Between January 1970 and December 1995 we provided initial treatment for 509 patients with thyroid cancer. Most of them (74%) underwent total thyroidectomy and 131I ablation. Functioning pulmonary metastases occurred in 20 patients. All these patients received periodic 131I therapy for as long as 131I uptake persisted. Additional therapy consisted of lung surgery in three patients and local treatment of bone lesions in four patients. Follow-up data were recorded up to December 2001. Functioning pulmonary metastases occurred late in one patient, and were visible on the post-surgery 131I therapy scan in the other 19 patients. At diagnosis of lung invasion, 11 patients had negative chest X-ray findings, and serum thyroglobulin levels were not suggestive of metastatic disease in 56% of these cases. One of the 11 patients with negative chest X-ray findings died with a neck recurrence, two have persistent pulmonary 131I uptake, and the other eight are in apparent remission after receiving an average cumulative 131I activity of 338 mCi (12.51 GBq). The nine patients with positive chest X-ray findings received an average of 939 mCi (34.74 GBq); two of them died, five are continuing to receive therapy and two are in apparent remission. Overall survival at 10 years is 84%. The average follow-up of the 17 survivors is 12.7 years. These results suggest that patients with functioning pulmonary metastases, even in advanced stages, may survive for many years on 131I therapy. Early diagnosis, during post-surgery 131I scanning, of radiologically inapparent metastases is associated with a better

  19. Influence of thyroid hormones on biochemical parameters of liver function: a case-control study in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal level of thyroid hormones is important for normal hepatic function and thyroid dysfunction may modulate metabolic function of liver. The purpose of this study is to determine whether liver function is associated with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. Thyroid and liver function tests were evaluated in 47 patients with overt (TSH ≥10.0 mIU/L and 77 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH 6.0-9.9mIU/L and compared with 120 age-matched euthyroid controls. Subjects with overt hypothyroidism had significantly raised serum ALT, AST, ALP and total protein levels as compared to controls whereas subclinical hypothyroid patients had significantly increased levels of serum ALT, ALP and total protein. Further, TSH showed significant positive correlation with AST and ALP values whereas fT3 and fT4 had a negative correlation with AST in overt hypothyroidism. Thus, overt hypothyroid state is associated with significant derangement in biochemical parameters of liver function. Hence, liver function should be regularly monitored in hypothyroid patients.

  20. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Neonatal Thyroid Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate obstetric features of pregnant women with thyroid disorders and thyroid function tests of their newborn infants. Methods. Women with hypothyroidism and having anti-thyroglobulin (ATG and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibodies were assigned as group I, women with hypothyroidism who did not have autoantibodies were assigned as group II, and women without thyroid problems were assigned as group III. Results. Pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism (group I had more preterm delivery and their babies needed more frequent neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission. In group I, one infant was diagnosed with compensated hypothyroidism and one infant had transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Five infants (23.8% in group II had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels >20 mIU/mL. Only two of them had TSH level >7 mIU/L at the 3rd postnatal week, and all had normal free T4 (FT4. Median maternal TSH level of these five infants with TSH >20 mIU/mL was 6.6 mIU/mL. In group III, six infants (6.5% had TSH levels above >20 mIU/mL at the 1st postnatal week. Conclusion. Infants of mothers with thyroid problems are more likely to have elevated TSH and higher recall rate on neonatal thyroid screening. Women with thyroid disorders and their newborn infants should be followed closely for both obstetrical problems and for thyroid dysfunction.

  1. Emotional Responses to Odors in Children with High-Functioning Autism: Autonomic Arousal, Facial Behavior and Self-Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legisa, Jasna; Messinger, Daniel S.; Kermol, Enzo; Marlier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Although emotional functioning is impaired in children with autism, it is unclear if this impairment is due to difficulties with facial expression, autonomic responsiveness, or the verbal description of emotional states. To shed light on this issue, we examined responses to pleasant and unpleasant odors in eight children (8-14 years) with…

  2. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of equilibrium in abstract non-autonomous functional differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    non-autonomous finite-delay functional differential equations without any monotone conditions assumed.A minimal set is constructed in terms of which necessary and sufficient conditions for a continuous equilibrium to exist are also obtained.Several illustrative examples are employed to demonstrate our results.

  3. Thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptor function and expression during sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Lori A; Youson, John H; Holzer, Guillaume; Staiano, Leopoldo; Laudet, Vincent; Manzon, Richard G

    2014-08-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are members of the ancient class Agnatha and undergo a metamorphosis that transforms blind, sedentary, filter-feeding larvae into free-swimming, parasitic juveniles. Thyroid hormones (THs) appear to be important for lamprey metamorphosis, however, serum TH concentrations are elevated in the larval phase, decline rapidly during early metamorphosis and remain low until metamorphosis is complete; these TH fluctuations are contrary to those of other metamorphosing vertebrates. Moreover, thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors (goitrogens) induce precocious metamorphosis and exogenous TH treatments disrupt natural metamorphosis in P. marinus. Given that THs exert their effects by binding to TH nuclear receptors (TRs) that often act as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), we cloned and characterized these receptors from P. marinus and examined their expression during metamorphosis. Two TRs (PmTR1 and PmTR2) and three RXRs (PmRXRs) were isolated from P. marinus cDNA. Phylogenetic analyses group the PmTRs together on a branch prior to the gnathostome TRα/β split. The three RXRs also group together, but our data indicated that these transcripts are most likely either allelic variants of the same gene locus, or the products of a lamprey-specific duplication event. Importantly, these P. marinus receptors more closely resemble vertebrate as opposed to invertebrate chordate receptors. Functional analysis revealed that PmTR1 and PmTR2 can activate transcription of TH-responsive genes when treated with nanomolar concentrations of TH and they have distinct pharmacological profiles reminiscent of vertebrate TRβ and TRα, respectively. Also similar to other metamorphosing vertebrates, expression patterns of the PmTRs during lamprey metamorphosis suggest that PmTR1 has a dynamic, tissue-specific expression pattern that correlates with tissue morphogenesis and biochemical changes and PmTR2 has a more uniform expression pattern. This TR

  4. Assessment of electrosurgical hemostasis and morphological changes in thyroid function in perifocal areas of influence of high-frequency current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnar T.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to the literature data, there are no comparative characteristics of morphological changes after application of scalpel for tissue dissection and ligation of vessels with atraumatic thread and monopolar and bipolar coagulation. Objective. To demonstrate the feasibility of electrosurgical coagulation in surgery of the thyroid gland. Methods. The study was conducted on 80 laboratory rats. Studied animals were divided into groups according to the surgical intervention methods. Results were analyzed with histological methods on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days. Results. Histological examination of soft tissues in the area of wound on the third postoperative day showed pronounced inflammatory reaction against the foreign body. The inflammatory infiltrate had spread to the thyroid tissue. In general morphological changes were characterized by non-specific aseptic necrosis and development of granulation tissue at the site of coagulation. Conclusion. This analysis of wounds healing shows the benefits of using thermal factor in thyroid surgery over classic dissection with scalpel and vascular ligation with atraumatic thread. Citation: Bodnar TV. [Assessment of electrosurgical hemostasis and morphological changes in thyroid function in perifocal areas of influence of high-frequency current]. Morphologia. 2016;10(1:26-31. Ukrainian.

  5. Metallothionein 1G functions as a tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer through modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MT1G inactivation mediated by promoter methylation has been reported in thyroid cancer. However, the role of MT1G in thyroid carcinogenesis remains unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the biological functions and related molecular mechanisms of MT1G in thyroid cancer. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was performed to analyze promoter methylation of MT1G and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. Conventional and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to evaluate mRNA expression. The functions of ectopic MT1G expression were determined by cell proliferation and colony formation, cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as cell migration and invasion assays. MT1G expression was frequently silenced or down-regulated in thyroid cancer cell lines, and was also significantly decreased in primary thyroid cancer tissues compared with non-malignant thyroid tissues. Promoter methylation, along with histone modification, contributes to MT1G inactivation in thyroid tumorigenesis. Moreover, our data showed that MT1G hypermethylation was significantly positively associated with lymph node metastasis in PTC patients. Importantly, restoring MT1G expression in thyroid cancer cells dramatically suppressed cell growth and invasiveness, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt and Rb. We have for the first time revealed that MT1G appears to be functional tumor suppressor involved in thyroid carcinogenesis mainly through modulating the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and partially through regulating the activity of Rb/E2F pathway in this study

  6. Novel heart rate parameters for the assessment of autonomic nervous system function in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, M; Fifer, W P; Sahni, R; Signorini, M G

    2016-09-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance is a key factor in homeostatic control of cardiac activity, breathing and certain reflex reactions such as coughing, sneezing and swallowing and thus plays a crucial role for survival. ANS impairment has been related to many neonatal pathologies, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Moreover, some conditions have been identified as risk factors for SIDS, such as prone sleep position. There is an urgent need for timely and non-invasive assessment of ANS function in at-risk infants. Systematic measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) offers an optimal approach to access indirectly both sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on ANS functioning. In this paper, data from premature infants collected in a sleep physiology laboratory in the NICU are presented: traditional and novel approaches to HRV analyses are applied and compared in order to evaluate their relative merits in the assessment of ANS activity and the influence of sleep position. Indices from time domain and nonlinear approaches contributed as markers of physiological development in premature infants. Moreover, significant differences were observed as a function of sleep position. PMID:27480495

  7. Celiac Disease and Thyroid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illnesses, so it is important to get a TSH thyroid test if you experience any of the ... Function •It is recommended that people have their TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) measured once a year. This ...

  8. The effect of lithium on thyroid function in patients with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kraszewska, Agnieszka; Abramowicz, Maria; Chłopocka-Woźniak, Maria; Sowiński, Jerzy; Rybakowski, Janusz,

    2014-01-01

    Since 1963 lithium treatment has been the best proven long-term pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BD), both in the prevention of depressive and manic episodes, along with the reduction of the suicide risk. Thyroid gland and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis play a role in the pathophysiology, clinical course and treatment of BD. The influence of lithium on the thyroid gland is one of the key side effects in the long-term therapy with this drug. Lithium is accumulated in the th...

  9. Neonatal Thyroid Function in Seveso 25 Years after Maternal Exposure to Dioxin

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Baccarelli; Giacomini, Sara M; Carlo Corbetta; Maria Teresa Landi; Matteo Bonzini; Dario Consonni; Paolo Grillo; Patterson, Donald G; Pesatori, Angela C.; Pier Alberto Bertazzi

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck, controls the speed at which the human body converts food into the energy and chemicals needed for life. In healthy people, the thyroid makes and releases two hormones (chemical messengers that travel around the body and regulate the activity of specific cells) called thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The release of T4 and T3 is controlled by thyroid secreting hormone (TSH), which is made by the pituitary g...

  10. Variations in thyroid functions following the development of cancer consequent to neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the results of thyroid irradiation tests, which include the TRH test (TRH = thyroid stimulating hormone), and results are quoted on a group of 43 patients, of various ages. Details are included of the medication in each case. Other tests applied include E.C.G. tests, X-ray photographs, studies of the accumulation of antibodies near the thyroid, immuno-electrophoretic surveys and I-131 isotope pick-up by scanning of a radio-active tracer. The tracer activity is checked at intervals of 5, 24 and 48 hours. (G.C.)

  11. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sh Vagapova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different body weight indexes. So, the results of investigation can help to come to the conclusion about the absence of true correlation between body weight and functional thyroid state in female adolescents with irregular menses.

  12. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  13. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-01

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.

  14. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C

    2015-01-01

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks. PMID:25924823

  15. Family conflict, autonomic nervous system functioning, and child adaptation: state of the science and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Erath, Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    The family is one of the primary contexts of child development. Marital and parent-child conflict (family conflict) are common and predict a wide range of negative behavioral and emotional outcomes in children. Thus, an important task for developmental researchers is to identify the processes through which family conflict contributes to children's psychological maladjustment, as well as vulnerability and protective factors in the context of family conflict. In the current paper, we aim to advance a conceptual model that focuses on indices of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning that increase vulnerability or provide protection against psychological maladjustment in the context of family conflict. In doing so, we provide a selective review that reflects the state of the science linking family conflict, children's ANS activity, and child psychological adjustment, and offer directions and guidance for future research. Our hope is to accelerate research at the intersection of family conflict and ANS functioning to advance understanding of risk and resilience among children. PMID:23786705

  16. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... producing a hormone knows as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Most people who have an underactive thyroid gland ... levels of T4 and high blood levels of TSH. Hyperthyroidism Also known as overactive thyroid and thyrotoxicosis, ...

  17. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; ...

  18. Thyroid ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may or may not be cancerous (a tumor ). Sometimes the thyroid is enlarged without any nodules. ... to: Cysts Enlargement of the thyroid gland ( goiter ) Thyroid nodules Your doctor can use these ...

  19. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (2015) Radiation Safety in the Treatment of Patients with Thyroid Diseases by Radioiodine 131 I: Practice Recommendations of the ...

  20. Identification and functional characterization of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations in thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Bojdani, Ermal; Xing, Mingzhao

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the genes for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) have been recently identified in glioblastoma. In the present study, we investigated IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), with the latter, like glioblastoma, having a rapidly aggressive and lethal clinical course. By direct genomic DNA sequencing, we analyzed exon 4 of the IDH1 and IDH2 genes that harbored the mutation hot spots codon 13...

  1. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  2. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.E.; Kintzer, P.P.; Hurley, J.R.; Becker, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB/sup 131/I) after /sup 131/I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine (/sup 131/I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each /sup 131/I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis.

  3. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine (131I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB131I) after 131I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine (131I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each 131I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis

  4. Whether antithyroid drugs influence on the outcome of radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of research was an estimation of the influence of antithyroid medication on efficiency of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in patients with thyroid functional autonomy (FA). 100 patients with various clinical variants of FA were included in research and received treatment with radioiodine. From them uni-focal autonomy (UFA) was diagnosed in 65 person, multifocal (MFA) in 14 and disseminated (DA) in 21. Among the patients included in research 8 had relapse of hyperthyroidism after initial operative treatment and 1 after RIT. The data in work are submitted as a median (1-st and 3-rd quartiles). The age of surveyed was 65.5 (54; 72.5), from them 63 persons were a female, 37 were a male. From surveyed 2 groups of patients were formed. The first group consisted from 50 person, initially accepting during 4 months (2.5; 6) antithyroid drugs (ATD) which cancellation had been made as a rule 2 day prior to RIT, and the second one included 50 person, not accepting ATD neither up to nor after RIT. 9 elderly and multi morbid patients from the first group continued to accept ATD within several months after RIT. Carbimazole (n=45) or methimazole (n=5) in a dose of 10 mg (5; 10) were used as ATD. Therapeutic activity of 131I was calculated by means of Marinelli's formula. The target dose for UFA has made 400 Gy, for MFA and DA - 150 Gy. For calculation of thyroid uptake 24-hour radioiodine test was carried 2-3 day prior to RIT. Used activity of I-131 have made from 4.08 up to 58.89 mCi. Duration of inpatient stay has made 3 days (2; 5). In 4 months (4; 5) after RIT the successful result (euthyroidism or hypothyroidism) has been achieved in 48 (96 %) patients accepting ATD, and in 47 (94 %) patients who were not accepting last. Conclusion: The conclusion that antithyroid medication does not influence on the efficiency of RIT of FA was made. It was revealed that frequency of hypothyroidism after RIT in patients of the first group was higher (36 %) than in patients of

  5. Significance of the changes of pituitary-thyroid axis function in patients with acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of pituitary-thyroid axis function in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods: Serum levels of T3, FT3, T4, FT4, rT3, TSH were measured with RIA in 73 patients with acute pancreatitis and 33 controls. Among them, 57 patients suffered from mild acute pancreatitis (mAP) with 16 suffered from severe acute pancreatitis (sAP). The serum hormone levels were determine for a second time in 39 patients (28 mAP, 11 sAP) during convalescence. Results: The levels of T3, FT3, TSH in patients during acute period were significantly lower than those in controls (p 3 level was higher (p 3 and FT3 rose back somewhat during recovery (vs acute stage: p 3 level returned to normal again. The levels of T4, FT4 in mAP were normal in acute period and levels of TSH came back to normal during recovery (vs controls: p > 0.05). The levels of T4, FT4 in SAP acute stage were significantly lower than those in the controls (p 3, FT3, T4, FT4 in mAP patients were significantly bigger than those the sAP group (p 3, TSH levels in the two groups were about the same. Conclusion: The levels of T3, FT3, T4, FT4 could be taken for appraisal of the severity of acute pancreatitis

  6. Does thyroid function have any relation with components of metabolic syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Shah

    2015-10-01

    Results: There were 28 females and 22 males. Mean BMI was 31.51+/-5.21 kg/m2. The mean systolic blood pressure was 139.04+/-26.67 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure was 88.32+/-14.95 mm Hg. Mean waist circumference was 102+/-10.1 cm and mean waist: hip ratio was 0.97+/-0.094. HDL <50 in males and <40 in females in Euthyroid showed statistical significance (p value 0.05. Other components did not gain a statically significance. Comparing gender wise Subclinical hypothyroidism patients with Euthyroid patients, females having subclinical hypothyroidism are more likely to have metabolic syndrome (p value =0.03. This is not so in case of males. Conclusions: Female patients having subclinical hypothyroidism have higher chances of have metabolic syndrome as compared to males. Euthyroid patients with metabolic syndrome had low cholesterol. Other components of metabolic syndrome had no statically significance with thyroid function. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2682-2685

  7. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U;

    1993-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...

  8. An update on diagnostic methods in the investigation of diseases of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine deficiency and iodine-deficiency disorders continue to be problems in several parts of Europe, requiring further improvements in the techniques employed in thyroid diagnosis, and particularly in the early diagnosis and risk assessment of autonomously functioning thyroid tissue. For the latter purpose, scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate under exogenous or endogenous thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression provides the best results. Significant methodological improvements in laboratory tests have resulted from the application of new luminescent techniques and gene technology to thyroid function tests. Especially TSH measurement using second- or third-generation assays ensures diagnostic accuracy, so that the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test is now almost always unnecessary. The differentiation of blocking and stimulating TSH receptor antibodies is relevant when discrepant results are obtained with respect to thyroid function. Determination of glycosaminoglycans in urine may become a helpful tool in the follow-up of endorine ophthalmopathy. Some new imaging agents have recently been applied in the scintigraphy of thyroid diseases, such as octeotide, or in tyhroid diagnosis, such as fluorodeoxyglucose. Both improve the detectability of metastases of thyroid cancer, especially if the radioiodine scan is negative. (orig.)

  9. Thyroid function in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the thyroid and pituitary hormone levels in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling (21 days. The dams and pups were divided into 2 groups: a control group fed a diet containing 22% protein that supplies the necessary amount of protein for the rat and is the usual content of protein in most commercial rat chow, and a diet group fed a low-protein (8% diet in which the protein was substituted by an isocaloric amount of starch. After weaning all dams and pups received the 22% protein diet. Two hours before sacrifice of pups aged 21, 30 and 60 days, a tracer dose (0.6 µCi of 125I was injected (ip into each animal. Blood and thyroid glands of pups were collected for the determination of serum T4, T3 and TSH and radioiodine uptake. Low protein diet caused a slight decrease in radioiodine uptake at 21 days, and a significant decrease in T3 levels (128 ± 14 vs 74 ± 9 ng/dl, P<0.05, while T4 levels did not change and TSH was increased slightly. At 30 days, T3 and TSH did not change while there was a significant increase in both T4 levels (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 6.1 ± 0.2 µg/dl, P<0.05 and in radioiodine uptake levels (0.34 ± 0.02 vs 0.50 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. At 60 days serum T3, T4 and TSH levels were normal, but radioiodine uptake was still significantly increased (0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. Thus, it seems that protein malnutrition of the dams during suckling causes hypothyroidism in the pups at 21 days that has a compensatory mechanism increasing thyroid function after refeeding with a 22% protein diet. The radioiodine uptake still remained altered at 60 days, when all the hormonal serum levels returned to the normal values, suggesting a permanent change in the thyroid function

  10. Exponential stability for abstract linear autonomous functional differential equations with infinite delay

    OpenAIRE

    Tijun Xiao; Falun Huang; Jin Liang

    1998-01-01

    Based on our preceding paper, this note is concerned with the exponential stability of the solution semigroup for the abstract linear autonomous functional differential equation x˙(t)=L(xt)                              (∗) where L is a continuous linear operator on some abstract phase space B into a Banach space E. We prove that the sol...

  11. Using the Initial Systolic Time Interval to assess cardiac autonomic function in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Meijer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI has been defined as the time difference between the peak electrical and peak mechanical activity of the heart. ISTI is obtained from the electro-cardiogram and the impedance cardiogram. The response of ISTI while breathing at rest and to a deep breathing stimulus was studied in a group of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD and a group of healthy control subjects. ISTI showed substantial variability during these manoeuvres. The tests showed that the variability of RR and ISTI was substantially different between PD patients and controls. It is hypothesized that in PD patients the sympathetic system compensates for the loss of regulatory control function of the blood-pressure by the parasympathetic system. It is concluded that ISTI is a practical, additional and independent parameter that can be used to assist other tests in evaluating autonomic control of the heart in PD patients.doi:10.5617/jeb.216 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 98-101, 2011

  12. Functional state of the autonomic nervous system in bronchial asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    HONKELDIEVA HURMATHON KAMCHIEVNA; ALIMDZHANOV IBRAHIM INAMOVICH; ABDULLAEVA МAVJUDA ERGASHEVNA; TOJIBOEV TEMUR TOPVOLDI YGLI; MAMATKHYJAEV MIRHOJIDDIN SADRIDDINKHOJI YGLI

    2016-01-01

    These shifts vegetative status have undoubted positive effect on the microcirculation and the rhythm of the circulatory system, facilitating a more rapid liquidation of clinical manifestations of autonomic dysfunction and create psihoemotsinalnogo patient comfort mode.

  13. Evaluation of blood glucose and thyroid function in Sudanese diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study composes of two parts. The first one is a survey of thyroid abnormalities, and the second one is experiment to estimate the level of thyroid hormones (T4, T3, TSH) among diabetic population and the relationship between the level of glucose, thyroid hormones and lipid profile (TC, LDL, TG, HDL) and comparison of the results with non diabetic group. The survey part of the study to determine the thyroid abnormalities, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism clinical or subclinical. Also the study group was divided in to two groups according to insulin requirement. Type I is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and type II is non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The study subjects selected for this study consist of one hundred Sudanese diabetic patients, they had mean age of 46.51±10.672 years, a mean height of 162.06±10.77 cm and a mean weight of 73.47±14.91 kg. Fifty healthy non-diabetic people without endocrine disease were chosen as controls. Glucose, and thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine (total T4 and T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. In addition hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were also measured in both groups. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated for each sample. Physical examinations such as height, weight, and history of diabetes, family history, treatment were recorded in both groups. Determination of serum hormones concentration was carried out using highly sensitive RIA technique. While determination of blood glucose, hemoglobin, and lipid profile was carried out using enzymatic colorimetric method. The results of this study showed that: 13 patients of the population screened had thyroid disease. The commonest diagnosis was sub clinical hyperthyroidism (6%), followed by sub clinical hypothyroidism (5%) and hyperthyroidism (2%). Female patients with diabetes had the highest annual risk of developing thyroid disease but all patient groups had a

  14. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients

    OpenAIRE

    M U Sujan; M. Raghavendra Rao; Ravikiran Kisan; Hulegar A Abhishekh; Atchayaram Nalini; Trichur R Raju; Sathyaprabha, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head) in migraine pati...

  15. Association of thyroid function with arterial pressure in normotensive and hypertensive euthyroid individuals: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltiki Katerina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt hypothyroidism has been associated with arterial hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. Results in euthyroid individuals have been conflicting. We investigated associations of thyroid function with systolic (SAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressure in euthyroid subjects. Methods 311 euthyroid individuals (185 women, mean age 43.9 ± 9 without a history of diabetes attending a preventive medicine program were examined. Subjects receiving thyroxine (10.6% were excluded; 19.3% had hypertension, 43% had a family history for hypertension. TSH, fT4, thyroid autoantibodies, insulin, glucose were measured. The "fT4.TSH product", which has been suggested as a T4 resistance-index, was calculated. Results TSH range was 0.1–8, median 1.4 mU/L, fT4 range was 11.5–25.2 pmol/L, median 17.4. TSH and the "fT4.TSH product" were positively associated with DAP (p 2 mU/L (35.3% vs 21.3%, p = 0.045. Conclusion In euthyroid individuals the association of thyroid function with diastolic arterial pressure remains significant even when a stricter "normal range" for TSH levels is considered. The "freeT4.TSH" product appears to be an even stronger predictor of DAP, independently of HOMA insulin resistance index and obesity.

  16. The study of parotid function with radionuclide imaging after 131I therapy in thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the uptake and excretion function of parotid by radionuclide imaging after Iodine radioisotopes [131I] therapy in thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy. Methods: 32 cases of 131I therapy in thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy, 20 of them were treated by first 131I therapy with 3.7 GBq dose (group 1). The other 12 cases were treated by repetitive 131I therapy with 3.7 GBq dose (group 2), all patients before and after 131I therapy performed parotid imaging and both uptake index (UI) and excretion index (EI) after acid stimulation were calculated. Results: Average UI and EI after three months later in group 1 decreased 24.7% and 25.5% respectively (t=2.0265, 2.1043, P=0.049 8, 0.0420), and the other group decreased 34.4% and 39.7% respectively (t=2.1204, 2.1575, P=0.0455, 0.0422), but there was significant no difference between them (t'(UI)=1.2331, t'(EI)=1.0474, all P>0.05). Conclusions: Parotid imaging is sensitive for monitoring parotid function, and it is also reliable to evaluate the safety after 131I therapy in thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy to parotid. (authors)

  17. Urticaria crónica con alteraciones de la función tiroidea y anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea Chronic urticaria with alterations of the thyroid function and thyroid peroxidase antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego S. Fernández Romero

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La urticaria crónica es una enfermedad frecuente, caracterizada por la presencia de ronchas y/o angioedema con una duración superior a las 6 semanas. En un número importante de pacientes se comporta como una enfermedad autoinmune asociada frecuentemente con alteraciones en la función tiroidea y con la presencia de anticuerpos antitiroideos. Presentamos una serie de 70 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de urticaria crónica a los cuales les investigamos la función tiroidea y la presencia de anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea. Siete (10% tenían diagnóstico de enfermedad tiroidea previa al momento de la consulta. A los 63 pacientes restantes se les estudió los niveles de tirotrofina sérica, 11 de los cuales (17% presentaron valores anormales, que sumados a los 7 con enfermedad previa llegan a 18 (26% con función tiroidea alterada. A 61 pacientes se les investigó anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea, 22 (36% fueron positivos. De 57 pacientes sin diagnóstico de patología tiroidea previa al momento de la consulta por urticaria, a los que se les estudió tanto los niveles de tirotrofina sérica como la presencia de anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea, 24 (42% presentaron alguno de los estudios alterados. El alto porcentaje de alteraciones tiroideas en nuestra serie de pacientes resalta la necesidad de estudiar la función tiroidea y la presencia de anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea en pacientes con urticaria crónica.Chronic urticaria is a frequent pathology, characterized by the presence of hives and/or angioedema lasting longer than 6 weeks. In an important number of patients it behaves as an autoimmune illness, frequently associated with alterations in thyroid function and thyroid antibodies. We herein describe a consecutive series of 70 patients with a diagnosis of chronic urticaria. Seven (10% had a diagnosis of thyroid illness previous to their first consultation. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies were studied in the

  18. Intake of phthalate-tainted foods alters thyroid functions in Taiwanese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsang Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On April-May, 2011, two Taiwan chemical companies were found to have intentionally added phthalates, Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and/or Di-isononyl phthalate, as a substitute of emulsifier to many foodstuffs. This study aimed to investigate whether exposure to these foods altered endocrine functions in children aged ≤10 years and, if so, whether those changes could be reversed by stopping exposure. METHODS: One Phthalates Clinic for Children was established in southern Taiwan between May 31 and June 17, 2011. All eligible children had their exposure information, blood and/or urine specimens collected. Endocrine functions were assessed in serum. The exposure groups were categorized into three (High, >500 ppm, Low, 1-500 ppm, and No, <1 ppm of DEHP. After six months, some children were followed up for the selected endocrine hormones. RESULTS: Sixty children were eligible in this study; all were Tanner stage 1 with no pubic hair. Compared to non-exposed group, both high and low exposure groups had significantly lower serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels (P = 0.001 and 0.024. At six months follow-up, serum triiodothyronine (T3 levels was significantly changed (P = 0.034 in high exposure group (n = 13. For serum estradiol (E2, the detectable rate (≥8 pg/mL decreased from 76.9% (10/13 to 30.8% (4/13 (P = 0.070. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that serum TSH levels can be altered when children were exposed to high concentrations of phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Serum E2 and T3 may be partially recovered after stopping exposure.

  19. Clinical Concepts on Thyroid Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    AlfredoPontecorvi; GiampaoloPapi; SalvatoreMariaCorsello

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland that are so severe that require admission to intensive care units frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including ther...

  20. Revisiting Thyroid Hormones in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Correia Santos; Patrício Costa; Dina Ruano; António Macedo; Maria João Soares; José Valente; Ana Telma Pereira; Maria Helena Azevedo; Joana Almeida Palha

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial during development and in the adult brain. Of interest, fluctuations in the levels of thyroid hormones at various times during development and throughout life can impact on psychiatric disease manifestation and response to treatment. Here we review research on thyroid function assessment in schizophrenia, relating interrelations between the pituitary-thyroid axis and major neurosignaling systems involved in schizophrenia’s pathophysiology. These include the ser...

  1. In-vivo isotope diagnosis and radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vivo diagnoses of thyroid diseases can be carried out using 123I, 131I, and 99sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate. For the thyroid scintiscan, 99sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate or 123I are used. Some functional parameters can be determined using 99sup(m)Tc-pertechnetate, but iodine is more accurate, so that thyroid clearance examinations with 123I are rapidly gaining importance. However, the iodine turnover in the thyroid can only be determined by a several-days' test using 131I. The available techniques of diagnosis are employed in several steps. Most thyroid diseases can already be diagnosed on the basis of the hormone parameters and a thyroid scan; otherwise, a TRH test and suppression and functional studies will be necessary. Treatment of enthyroid struma is limited to inoperable cases with functional blockage or compression of the trachea. In the treatment of diffuse hyperthyroidism, doses should be exact enough to counteract the hyperthyroid metabolism without inducing hypothyroidism. With exact doses, a second radioiodine therapy will only be necessary in about 40% of all cases. High doses should not be applied in the treatment of hyperthyroidism unless it is a case of excessive clinical hyperthyroid somatics as the risk of hypothyroidism is high. The diagnostic problem of autonomous adenoma is the highly varying hormone activity. The intention of radioiodine therapy here is a functional elimination of the autonomous adenoma. Radioiodine resection is indicated in cases where there are several small autonomous adenomas or where the operability of the patient is limited. (orig./MG)

  2. Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apneas on Endothelial Function and Autonomic Modulation in Adult Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhong; Yi Xiao; Rong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of obstructive sleep apneas on endothelial function and autonomic modulation.Methods From June 2009 to June 201 1,male patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) were consecutively enrolled in this study.Patients with an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of greater than 15 and without previous treatment for OSAHS were included as Group OSAHS and obese subjects with an AHI of less than 5 were included as non-OSAHS controls (Group Control).Electrocardiography and beat-to-beat blood pressure were continuously recorded from the radial artery by applanation tonometry which was synchronized with polysomnography recording.Endothelial function was measured by arterial augmentation index (AAI).Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) were computed for cardiac parasympathetic modulation (high frequency power,HF); sympathetic modulation (low frequency power,LF),sympathovagal balance (LF/HF power of R-R variability,LF/HF)and BPV sympathetic modulation (BPV LF) in normalized units [total power of the components/(total power-very LF power) × 100].Results Finally,27 moderate-severe OSAHS patients and 22 non-OSAHS obese controls were recruited in the Group OSAHS and Group Control,respectively.In Group OSAHS,the age was 43.3±9.3 year-old,body mass index (BMI) was 36.8±8.7 kg/m2; in Group Control,the age was 42.9±8.6 year-old,BMI was 34.4±7.9 kg/m2; there were no significant differences in age and BMI between the Group OSAHS and Group Control (all P>0.05).The baseline AAI (12.5%±2.2% vs.8.2%±2.1%) and BPV LF (68.3%± 13.5% vs.61.1%±11.7%) of the Group OSAHS were significantly higher than those of the Group Control (all P<0.05).And after overnight sleep,systolic BP (143.7± 14.2 vs.132.8± 13.3 mm Hg),diastolic BP (87.7±7.7 vs.78.6±5.5 mm Hg),HRV LF (69.7%±14.4% vs.64.3%±12.1%),HRV LF/HF (3.7±2.0 vs.2.3± 1.3) and BPV LF (77.8%± 15.6% vs.68.3%±13

  3. Thyroid function and prevalence of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies in a population with borderline sufficient iodine intake: influences of age and sex.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Hermus, A. R. M. M.; Vegt, F. de; Ross, H. A.; Verbeek, A L M; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Sweep, C G J; Heijer, M. den

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a large European population-based study of thyroid function, performed in a population with longstanding borderline sufficient iodine intake. METHODS: The Nijmegen Biomedical Study is a population-based survey conducted in the eastern part of The Netherlands. Randomly selected inhabitants received a postal questionnaire on lifestyle and medical history, which was filled out by 9371 individuals (41.7%). We measured serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine ...

  4. Thyroid and parathyroid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, J E; Freitas, A E

    1994-07-01

    With the advent of better thyroid function tests, a tumor marker, and fine-needle aspiration, the role of thyroid imaging studies in the evaluation of the patients with thyroid disease has diminished. Although multimodality thyroid imaging had improved our understanding of thyroid disease, current indications for thyroid imaging are the solitary or dominant thyroid nodule, an upper mediastinal mass, differentiation of hyperthyroidism, detection and staging of postoperative thyroid cancer, neonatal hypothyroidism, thyroid developmental anomalies, and the thyroid mass post-thyroidectomy for benign disease. To provide optimal, cost-effective, care for the thyroid patient, the physician must understand the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality--scintigraphy, real-time sonography (RTS), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance--in specific clinical settings. Similarly, preoperative noninvasive localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing their initial neck exploration usually is not warranted. In this situation, the best localization procedure is to enlist the services of an experienced parathyroid surgeon. However, if this is not feasible because of local constraints, both sestamibi methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide excellent localization (< 90%) of juxta-thyroidal and ectopic parathyroid adenomas. Hyperplastic glands are more difficult to detect because of their smaller size, and tandem studies (MIBI and MRI) should provide higher sensitivity before initial exploration, especially in patients with ectopic glands. In patients with persistent or recurrent disease, multimodality imaging with MIBI, MR, computed tomography and RTS in a sequential fashion is warranted to optimize two-test, site-specific localization. PMID:7973759

  5. Effect of long-term music therapy intervention on autonomic function in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih-Yuan; Han, Wei-Ru; Li, Pei-Chun; Song, Mi-Yun; Young, Shuenn-Tsong

    2011-12-01

    Anthracyclines are potent antineoplastic agents associated with cardiotoxicity, which may lead to congestive heart failure, causing impairment of autonomic cardiovascular function as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). This decreases survival rates. This study aimed to determine whether music therapy intervention improves autonomic function in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients, and if so, whether such improvements persist after cessation of the intervention. Participants were 12 women with breast cancer who had undergone mastectomy or breast-conserving treatment and adjuvant chemotherapy; they attended 8 weekly music therapy sessions, each lasting 2 hours. Electrocardiogram traces (5 minutes) for HRV analysis were recorded 4 times: prior to the first music session, T1; after the fourth music session, T2; after the eighth music session, T3; and 4 weeks after the completion of music therapy, T4. HRV parameters were subjected to a nonparametric Friedman test on the differences between T1 and T2, T3, and T4. The standard deviation of normal intervals and the total power of HRV parameters, related to global autonomic function, were significantly higher at T3 than at T1. The root-mean-square differences of successive normal R-R intervals and high-frequency (HF) HRV parameters, related to parasympathetic activity, were significantly increased, but no change was seen in the LF/HF ratio of HRV parameters (which is related to sympathetic activity) during the music therapy. Global autonomic function and parasympathetic activity had not changed significantly at T4 relative to T1. The authors provide preliminary evidence of the benefits of music therapy for anthracycline-treated breast cancer survivors. PMID:21382955

  6. Longitudinal study on thyroid function in patients with thalassemia major: High incidence of central hypothyroidism by 18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary hypothyroidism is one of the most frequent complications observed in-patients suffering from thalassemia. We investigated and reviewed the thyroid function in all thalassemic patients attending the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic of Hamad Medical Center, Doha, Qatar during the last 10 years of follow-up. Patients and Methods: A total of 48 patients with ί-thalassemia major between 5 years and 18 years of age. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as follows: Overt hypothyroidism (low Free thyroxine [FT4] and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] levels >5 μIU/ml; subclinical hypothyroidism (normal FT4, TSH between 5 μIU/ml and 10 μIU/ml and central (secondary hypothyroidism (low FT4 and normal or decreased TSH. Results: A total of 48 patients (22 males and 26 females completed a 12 year-period of follow-up. During this period, hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 17/48 (35% of patients. There was no significant difference in the prevalence in males 7/22 (32% versus females 10/26 (38%. Sixteen of the patients had hypothyroidism after the age of 10 years (94%. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism had risen from 0% at the age of 7 years to 35% at the age of 18 years. None of the patients had high anti-thyroperoxidase antibody titers. Out of 17 patients, 13 patients with hypothyroidism had normal or low TSH level (not appropriately elevated indicative of defective hypothalamic pituitary response to low FT4 (central hypothyroidism. Three patients (6.3% had subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH between 5 uIU/ml and 10 uIU/ml and normal FT4. The general trend of FT4 level showed progressive decrease over the 12 years, whereas, TSH levels did not show a corresponding increase. These data suggested defective hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis involving both TSH and FT4 sretion in patients with thalassemia major over time. There was a significant negative correlation between serum ferritin and FT4 (r = −0.39, P = 0.007, but no correlation

  7. Effect of Low Aflatoxin- B1 Levels Administration on Thyroid Function in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) represents an endemic constant low pollutant, under Egyptian environment. Extensive studies were performed of carcinogenic effects in experimental animals employing large doses of AFB1. This study was performed to investigate the effect of AFB1 on thyroid functions of rats. A total of 108 adult male Wister rats of 100±10 gm body weight were used in this study which divided into 9 groups each of 12 animals. Six rats from each group were sacrificed by the end of 6, and 12 weeks respectively, from beginning of the experiment. Rats were injected via intraperitoneal (l.P.). Treated rats groups received AFB1 (acute, low, high and chronic doses) in DMSO (0.1 ml/rat) while normal control group received DMSO as a solvent Vehicle. Hormonal analysis of serum samples were performed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) for quantitative determination of tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) . The results revealed that AFB1 caused highly decrease in rats body weight. Serum triiodothyronine showed a very high significant increase in AFB1 treated rats of (Gr.IISL), (Gr.IIISH) and (Gr. VCH) after 12 weeks respectively. Also, a highly significant increase in (Gr.VI), (6 weeks), Gr.VII, (Gr.VIII), (6 and 12 weeks and Gr.I X (6 weeks), respectively, while nonsignificant changes were observed in other groups. On the other hand serum tetraiodothyronine (T4) showed a significant decrease in AFB1 treated rats of Gr. VI (6 and 12 weeks), Gr. IISL (6 weeks), (Gr. IV CI), (6 weeks) and Gr. VCHI (6 and 12 weeks) while insignificant changes were observed in other AFB1 treated groups

  8. The thyroid function of Graves' disease patients is aggravated by depressive personality during antithyroid drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyauchi Akira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that depressive personality (the scores of hypochondriasis, depression and psychasthenia determined by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI and daily hassles of Graves' disease (GD patients treated long trem with antithyroid drug (ATD were significantly higher in a relapsed group than in a remitted group, even in the euthyroid state. The present study aims to examine the relationship among depressive personality, emotional stresses, thyroid function and the prognosis of hyperthyroidism in newly diagnosed GD patients. Methods Sixty-four untreated GD patients responded to the MMPI for personality traits, the Natsume's Stress Inventory for major life events, and the Hayashi's Daily Life Stress Inventory for daily life stresses before and during ATD treatment. Results In the untreated thyrotoxic state, depressive personality (T-scores of hypochondriasis, depression or psychasthenia greater than 60 points in MMPI were found for 44 patients (69%. For 15 (23% of these patients, the scores decreased to the normal range after treatment. However, depressive personality persisted after treatment in the remaining 29 patients (46%. Normal scores before treatment were found for 20 patients (31%, and the scores were persistently normal for 15 patients (23%. The remaining 5 patients (8% had higher depressive personality after treatment. Such depressive personality was not associated with the severity of hyperthyroidism. Serum TSH receptor antibody activity at three years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0351 greater in the depression group than in the non- depression group. The remission rate at four years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0305 lower in the depression group than in the non- depression group (22% vs 52%. Conclusion The data indicate that in GD patients treated with ATD, depressive personality during treatment reflects the effect of emotional stress more than that of

  9. Comparison of radioimmunological and enzyme-immunological methods of determination in thyroid function studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the study described here parallel investigations were carried out using radio-immuno-assays (RIA) and enzyme-immuno-assays (EIA) in order to assess the quality and diagnostic value of both these techniques as well as to weigh up their relative advantages and disadvantages in connection with thyroid function studies. The following comparisons were made: T4 RIA versus T4 EIA, T3 RIA versus T3 EIA, T3 uptake versus thyroxine binding capacity, total balance of free hormone bonds. Correlation coefficients of 0.982 for T4 and 0.989 for T3 proved that the test results obtained using either RIA or EIA were in fairly good agreement. Less satisfactory correlation was suggested by a coefficient of 0.807 between the tests for thyroxine binding capacity and T3 uptake, which was even seen to decrease with increasing binding capacity so that the greatest deviations were observed in hyperthyroidism. The same holds true for the free T4 index and total balance, where the correlation coefficient is altered in a similar way by the inclusion of a thyroxine binding capacity EIA. Better agreement was achieved by optimal adjustment of the defined diagnostic ranges for hypothyroidism, euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The EIA results were biassed in the presence of hyperbilirubinemia. Intra-assay abd inter-assay veriations were analysed and found to range from 8.1 to 16.9% and 13.6 to 28.1%, respectively. EIA offers advantages over RIA inasmuch as it is free from radioactivity and does not require any special safety measures, although it was judged considerably less favourable than RIA in terms of sensitivity. (TRV)

  10. Studies on thyroglobulin-specific suppressor T cell function in autoimmune thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T cell regulation of the generation of thyroglobulin plaque-forming cells (Tg PFC) and protein A plaque-forming cells (Prot A PFC) was investigated using lymphocytes from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. T and B cell mixed cultures (T-B MC) were carried out without mitogenic or antigenic stimulation to identify physiological T cell effects in the system. Tg PFC were found in 8 (44%) of 18 patients who had high titers of thyroglobulin antibody in their sera. Tg-specific and nonspecific immunoregulation by T cells from patients and normal subjects was studied using B cells from these eight patients in the T-B MC system. Remarkably lower values of Tg PFC induction compared to Prot A PFC induction were found after T cell addition. Normal T cells inhibited Tg PFC induction, but patient T cells did not, while the same extent of helper effects were found on Prot A PFC induction by the addition of patient and normal T cells. Irradiation (1500 rads) of T cells from patients and normal subjects significantly enhanced both Tg PFC and Prot A PFC induction. Thus, Tg-specific suppressor T cells are present in all normal subjects as part of the radiosensitive suppressor T cell subset. The increase in Tg-PFC caused by irradiation-induced inhibition of Tg-specific suppressor T cell function was significantly greater in normal subjects than in patients. Histamine type 2 receptor-bearing T cells inhibited Prot A PFC induction, but not Tg PFC induction, in the autologous T-B MC system. No Tg PFC were induced from normal B cells in any combination with untreated T cells, irradiated T cells, or histamine type 2 receptor-negative T cells from patients or normal subjects

  11. The Evaluation of Thyroid Function Disorders in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Akkoca

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we aimed to determine the ratio of thyroid hormone disorders in subjects with allergic rhinitis and investigate the association between these two diseases. Material and Method: 62 patients who presented with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and have positive skin prick test and 62 patients as a control group were included in the study to examine thyroid hormone disorders. Results: Mean age of patients with allergic rhinitis were 43.20 ± 18.55. 54.4% of the patients were femal...

  12. The Relation of Thyroid Function to Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sat Byul; Choi, Ho Chun; Joo, Nam Seok

    2011-01-01

    This study was to assess the relation of thyroid dysfunction to metabolic syndrome (MetS) at an earlier stage in Korean population. Metabolic parameters such as body composition, blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine 4 (fT4) were measured. During a mean follow-up of 3 yr, 5,998 Koreans ages over 18 yr were assessed. There were 694 cases of MetS at follow...

  13. Cerebral Hemispheric Lateralization Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis May Affect Interictal Cardiovascular Autonomic Functions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokia Ghchime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is linked to the autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Seizures alter the function of different systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible factors which may be involved in interictal cardiovascular autonomic function in temporal lobe epilepsy with complex partial seizures, and with particular attention to hippocampal sclerosis. The study was conducted in 30 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (19 with left hippocampal sclerosis, 11 with right hippocampal sclerosis. All subjects underwent four tests of cardiac autonomic function: heart rate changes in response to deep breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure variations throughout resting activity and during hand grip, mental stress, and orthostatic tests. Our results show that the right cerebral hemisphere predominantly modulates sympathetic activity, while the left cerebral hemisphere mainly modulates parasympathetic activity, which mediated tachycardia and excessive bradycardia counterregulation, both of which might be involved as a mechanism of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP.

  14. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  15. Thyroid carcinoma in solitary hot thyroid lesions on Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen patients with nonsuppressible solitary hot thyroid lesions (SHTL) identified on T3 suppression images using Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate were studied over a period of 5 years. Of the 16 patients, 7 (44%) had papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC) and 9 (56%) had follicular adenoma (FA), 2 were toxic and 7 nontoxic. The Tl-201 chloride thyroid scans were useful in locating SHTL and revealing extranodular thyroid tissue. The echography was sensitive to visualization of the nodule structures. However, there were no significant differences between the clinical findings, radionuclide images, and echograms between for PAC and FA. All patients with PAC were treated by partial thyroidectomy and there were neither regional nor distant metastasis in any of them. In conclusion, our study provided the following extremely interesting results: SHTL in the present series have a higher incidence of malignancy than previously reported autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL). Histological examinatinon is necessary for the diagnosis and management of SHTL and surgical treatment should be considered. (author)

  16. Kidney, thyroid and other organ functions after 40 years or more of lithium therapy: a case series of five patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permoda-Osip, Agnieszka; Abramowicz, Maria; Kraszewska, Agnieszka; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Chlopocka-Wozniak, Maria; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-08-01

    We present the cases of five patients (two men aged 64 years and 79 years) and three women (aged 64 years, 65 years and 75 years) who have received lithium treatment for 40-45 years, with particular regard to kidney and thyroid functions, hypercalcaemia and cognition, in the context of disease course and overall functioning. Lithium was initiated in the early phase of the illness (in three patients within the first 2 years). In four patients, lithium concentration was between 0.60 and 0.65 mmol/l and in one patient, between 0.7 and 0.8 mmol/l. Four were very good lithium responders. One man had stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and the other stage 2/3 chronic kidney disease. All three women had asymptomatic stage 2 chronic kidney disease. One woman had severe thyroid dysfunction (Hashimoto's disease) with extremely high levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies and was receiving thyroxine. Serum calcium levels were normal or borderline in all five patients, and most cognitive functions were comparable to healthy persons of similar gender, age and years of education. All the patients were professionally active until 55-65 years and their family and social functioning were satisfactory. It was concluded that, in good lithium responders, ultra-long-term treatment with lithium enables good professional and psychosocial functioning, and the possible somatic side effects are manageable. PMID:27536347

  17. Role of thyroid function tests in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangala Gowri

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: As there is high incidence of thyroid diseases in our area, women with abnormal uterine bleeding are to be screened. This would also avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgery in these patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 54-57

  18. Assessment of laboratory values of thyroid function tests in Sudanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid diseases comprise a major health problem in Sudan. Although clinical diagnosis of thyroid diseases often easy, there are many diagnostic difficulties. So, laboratory investigations are essential in certain conditions. 97 Sudanese subjects were included in this study. According to the clinical features, patients were divided into three groups, either hyper or hypothyroid, and the control group. Laboratory diagnosis of these individuals was established in the diagnostic and research laboratory centre in Khartoum teaching hospital. The thyroid hormones studied are T3, T4, FT4 (by enzyme immunoassay) and TSH (by the ultrasensitive enzyme immunoassay). Serum T3 concentration was found to be high in 66% of the hyperthyroid patients, and low in 75% of the hypothyroid patients, and normal in 66.7% of the control group. Serum T4 concentration was normal in one-third of the hyperthyroid patients, and one-fourth of the hypothyroid patients, and 90.9% of the control group. FT4 was normal in the control group, low in 95% for the hypothyroid patients, and high in 66% of the hyperthyroid patients. Signs of hyperthyroidism were associated with high hormonal levels more than symptoms do. Hyperkinesis and eye signs had a significant correlation with the hormonal levels. No significant correlation was found between symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism and hormonal levels. So, clinical evaluation of patients is very important before assessing the laboratory values, and the free T4 is more specific in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (Author)

  19. Measuring quality of sleep and autonomic nervous function in healthy Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miki Sato,1 Yuko Yasuhara,2 Tetsuya Tanioka,2 Yukie Iwasa,2 Masafumi Miyake,3 Toshiyuki Yasui,2 Masahito Tomotake,2 Haruo Kobayashi,4 Rozzano C Locsin51Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Shikoku University, 2Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3Tokushima Prefectural Minami Health Care Center, Tokushima, 4Faculty of Medical Welfare, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan; 5Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of sleep and autonomic nervous functioning in healthy adult Japanese women using three measures, namely, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI for subjective assessment of sleep quality, actigraphy for objective assessment of sleep, and heart rate variability using high frequency and low frequency domains. Participants were 31 healthy women in their 20s to 40s who met the selection criteria, including having normal monthly menstrual periods. Participants were categorized as good or poor sleepers according to their PSQI score. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency were −0.62 (range −0.43 to −0.84 for good sleepers and −0.45 (range 0.003 to −0.64 for poor sleepers. Good sleepers showed a significantly higher correlation of activity count and high frequency (Z=−2.11, P<0.05. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and low frequency/high frequency were 0.54 (range 0.29–0.73 for good sleepers and 0.41 (range 0.11–0.63 for poor sleepers. The PSQI, actigraphy data, and heart rate variability results showed positive correlations between sleep time as measured by PSQI and duration of inactivity as measured by actigraphy (r=0.446, P<0.05 and sleep time as measured by actigraphy (r=0.377, P<0.05, and a negative correlation between sleep time as measured by PSQI and the

  20. Investigations on the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on the function and structure of the thyroid gland of adult and perinatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent evidence indicates that PCB may cause alterations in thyroid structure and thyroxine metabolism. The administration of PCB to rats results in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, lowered serum thyroxine concentration, and increased conjugation and excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in the bile. These findings suggest that some of the metabolic alterations produced by intoxication with PCB may be related to alterations in thyroid structure and function. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were: (a) to evaluate the acute, subchronic and delayed effects of PCB on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adult Osborne-Mendel rats; (b) to compare the changes produced by PCB with those produced by iodide excess and deficiency, and thyrotropin and thyroxine administration; (c) to investigate the fine structural changes and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to PCB; and (d) to determine the alterations in the biliary excretion of 125I-thyroxine and fine structural changes in thyroid glands of the glucuronyltransferase deficient homozygous Gunn rat exposed to PCB

  1. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    disease, and may be nonspecific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on the physiological basis of the tests and on practical applicability. Finally, diagnostic criteria, based on autonomic nerve function tests, are...

  2. Assessment of autonomic function after acute spinal cord injury using heart rate variability analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Bartholdy, Kim; Krassioukov, A; Welling, K-L; Svendsen, J H; Kruse, A; Hansen, Birgitte; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in severe dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. C1-C8 SCI affects the supraspinal control to the heart, T1-T5 SCI affects the spinal sympathetic outflow to the heart, and T6-T12 SCI leaves sympathetic control to the heart intact. Heart rate...

  3. Impact of the serum thyroglobulin concentration on the diagnostics of benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this study is to evaluate new and controversially discussed indications for determining the thyroglobulin (Tg) level in different thyroid diseases to support routine diagnostics. Methods: The following groups were included: 250 healthy subjects without goiter, 50 persons with diffuse goiter, 161 patients with multinodular goiter devoid of functional disorder (108 of them underwent surgery, in 17 cases carcinomas were detected), 60 hyperthyroid patients with autonomously functioning nodular goiter, 150 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 30 hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Results: The upper limit of the normal range of the Tg level was calculated as 30 ng Tg/ml. The evaluation of the collective with diffuse goiter showed that the figure of the Tg level can be expected in a similar magnitude as the thyroid volume in milliliters. Nodular tissue led to far higher Tg values then presumed when considering the respective thyroid volume, with a rather high variance. A formula for a rough prediction of the Tg levels in nodular goiters is described. In ten out of 17 cases with thyroid carcinoma, the Tg was lower than estimated with thyroid and nodular volumes, but two patients showed a Tg exceeding 1000 ng/ml. The collective with functional autonomy had a significantly higher average Tg level than a matched euthyroid group being under suppressive levothyroxine substitution. However, due to the high variance of the Tg values, the autonomy could not consistently be predicted with the Tg level in individual cases. The patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed slightly decreased Tg levels. In Graves' disease, a significantly higher average Tg level was observed compared with a matched group with diffuse goiter, but 47% of all Tg values were still in the normal range (<30 ng/ml). Conclusion: Elevated Tg levels indicate a high probability of thyroid diseases, such as malignancy, autonomy or Graves' disease. However, as low Tg concentrations cannot

  4. Thyroid function, as assessed by TSH, and future risk of venous thromboembolism: The Tromsø study

    OpenAIRE

    Lerstad, Gunhild; Enga, Kristin Fjeldstad; Jorde, Rolf; Brodin, Ellen Elisabeth; Svartberg, Johan; Brækkan, Sigrid Kufaas; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between thyroid function and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been addressed in population-based cohorts. We investigated the association between TSH levels and the risk of VTE in a general adult population. Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: TSH was measured in 11 962 subjects aged 25–89 years who participated in Tromsø 4–6 starting in 1994–1995. Incident VTE events were recorded through 31st December 2010. Cox's regression mod...

  5. Alterations of Thyroid Morphology and Function After Long-Term Exposure to Low Doses of Endocrine Disruptor Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

    OpenAIRE

    Yaglov V.V.; Yaglova N.V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate changes in thyroid morphology and function after different long-term exposure to low doses of endocrine disruptor dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) under the maximum permissible levels in food products. Materials and Methods. The experiment was performed on adult male Wistar rats (n=62). Drinking water was substituted for water solution of o,p-DDT 20 and 80 μg/L. Mean daily consumption of DDT was 1.89±0.86 and 7.77±0.17 µg/kg body weight, r...

  6. Radioiodine treatment effects of lacrimal glands function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: we studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of 1-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (1 00 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and rythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the

  7. The influence of liver and pancreas surgery on the thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska-Durczynska Katarzyna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, the increasing number of oncologic patients with liver or pancreatic tumours are subjected to surgical treatment, as it can provide a long-term survival or sometimes cure. As a result, numerous new clinical questions regarding metabolic disturbances in these patients have been arisen. Among others, the impact of the pancreas and liver surgery extent in relation to the thyroid function remains to be elucidated. Materials and methods The study comprised 51 patients (25 men and 26 women, mean age ± SD 61.6 ± 10.4 yrs, mean ± SD with pancreatic or liver tumours, qualified for abdominal operation. Serum levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH were measured on the day before (time “0” and on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day after surgery in two (2 subgroups reflecting the extent of surgery: twenty seven (27 patients (14 men and 13 women, mean age ± SD 61.5 ± 11.8 yrs after major surgery (Whipple’s surgery, right and left hemihepatectomy, segmentectomy of the liver, distal pancreatectomy, total duodenopancreatectomy and twenty four (24 patients (11 men and 13 women, mean age ± SD 61.8 ± 8.9 yrs after minor, palliative surgery (exploratory laparotomy, gastroenterostomy, triple by-pass, liver tumour embolization, hepaticojejunostomy. Additionally, the obtained results were analyzed in relation to the type of the disease (pancreatic surgery vs liver surgery. Results Mean serum FT3 level decreased significantly during the study in major and minor surgery subgroups (prd and 5th day after major surgery was lower in pancreatic tumour patients in comparison to liver tumour patients (p=0.002, p=0.032, respectively. Similarly, mean FT3 concentration on the 3rd day in minor surgery subgroup was lower in pancreatic tumour patients in comparison to liver tumour patients (p=0.015. Discussion Our findings have confirmed essential reduction of FT3 values after abdominal surgery, independently of surgery extent. Additionally, pancreatic tumour

  8. Uterine autonomic nerve innervation plays a crucial role in regulating rat uterine mast cell functions during embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xue-Jun; Huang, Li-Bo; Qiao, Hui-Li; Deng, Ze-Pei; Fa, Jing-Jing

    2009-12-01

    To explore the potential mechanism of how uterine innervations would affect the uterine mast cell (MC) population and functions during the periimplantation. We herein first examined the consequence of uterine neurectomy on embryo implantation events. We observed that amputation of autonomic nerves innervating the uterus led to on-time implantation failure in rats. Exploiting MC culture and ELISA approaches, we then further analyzed the effect of neurectomy on cellular histamine levels and its release from uterine MCs, to elucidate the relation of the autonomic nerves and local cellular immunity in the uterine during early pregnancy. We observed that disconnection of autonomic nerve innervation significantly increased the population of uterine MCs. Most interestingly, these increased number of uterine MCs in neuroectomized rats contained a much reduced cellular level of histamine. Our subsequent challenge experiments revealed that uterine MCs in nerve amputated rats exhibited enhanced histamine releasing rate in response to substance P and antiIgE, suggesting loss of nerve innervation in the uterus not only increases the population of uterine MCs, but also facilitates the release of histamine from MCs, thus subsequently interfere with the normal implantation process. Collectively, our findings provide a new line of evidence supporting the concept that immune-neuro-endocrine network plays important role during pregnancy establishment and maintenance. PMID:19765668

  9. Age-related changes in microsome-dependent conversion of T -T ,thyroid function and cadmium toxicity in albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair A. Moustafa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of age on microsomal function, manifested by its ability to convert thyroid hormone thyroxine (T to triiodothyronine (T&, was investigated using four age '& (-months. The data show impaired microsomal function with advancing age represented by a significant decrease in serum levels of T& and T&/T ratio. There was a decline in the liver glutathione (GSH, total proteins and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (*GT. There was an-age associated increase in liver content of the lipid peroxidation products, thiobarituric acid (TBA-reactants and the serum total protein. + +,-.'( +-/' +-old+0-1-mg/kg CdCl 2their controls were injected with distilled water. A higher susceptibility of senile rats to cadmium toxicity was manifested as a significantly higher decrease in their serum T& level and T&/T ratio than adult compared to control. A reduction in the adaptive response of senile animals was manifested by a less increase in hepatic GSH in senile than adult as compared to control. The level of hepatic TBA-reactants was significantly higher in treated than in control group. The increase was more pronounced in the senile group. A marked hepatic cellular damage indicated by an increase in the serum levels of the AST and ALT was more pronounced in senile compared with adult rats. Treatment resulted in a decrease in the serum *GT and liver triglycerides (TG. The decrease in both parameters was more evident in senile as compared to adult group. Key words: Introduction As nations become progressively associated decline in the above more industrialized, the incidence of variables may be further complicated by overweight, non-insulin dependent disturbance in the normal metabolism diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, and related and action of thyroid hormones, metabolic disorders has been shown to particularly T& (Wallace & Hofmann, increase especially at old age. Along ((%263 4(((with those changes

  10. Thyroid diseases and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the most common endocrine diseases during pregnancy. Internal Medicine doctors could be involved in the management of pregnant women affected by thyroid diseases, in particular if an Endocrine Unit lacks in the hospital; it is mandatory that they have the skills to cope with these diseases. METHODS In this work authors describe the most common thyroid abnormalities that can occur during pregnancy: hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical, hyperthyroidism (clinical and sub-clinical, autoimmune thyroiditis (in particular the so called post-partum thyroiditis, nodular diseases and cancer. They discuss moreover the peculiar pathophysiologic mechanisms by which these diseases appear, the diagnostic tools and the therapies, according to their own experience and the more recent international guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS It is important to evaluate thyroid function tests before and during pregnancy, at 16th and 28th gestational week; it is mandatory to cure also the “sub-clinical” hypothyroidism during pregnancy, when TSH level are higher than 5 μIU/mL; the optimal dose of levo-thyroxine during pregnancy is, average, 30-50% higher than that used before pregnancy; it is not correct to treat mild or sub-clinical hyperthyroidism; propylthyouracil is the best drug to treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy; the post-partum thyroiditis is generally transient, so that a careful monitoring of thyroid function is advisable, in particular after 9-12 months of therapy; thyroid cancer, if discovered during pregnancy, generally has no negative effects on the outcome of the pregnancy; it would be better to treat surgically thyroid cancer during the last trimester of the pregnancy.

  11. Guideline for in vivo- and in vitro procedures for thyroid diseases. Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The version 2 of the guideline for diagnostic standards of thyroid disorders is an update of the guideline published in 1999 and describes standards of in vitro and in vivo procedures. The following statements are modified: In vitro procedures: When measurement of the TSH-receptor antibodies is indicated, the guideline recommends the use of a second generation assay (recombinant human TSH-receptor as antigen). The functional assay sensitivity for the measurement of thyroglobulin should reach a value ≤1 ng/ml. Moleculargenetic tests (RET proto-oncogen) are indicated in patients with a newly diagnosed medullary thyroid cancer and in the relatives of patients with hereditary medullary thyroid cancer. In vivo procedures: The sonographic examination should use a probe with a frequency of at least 7.5 MHz. Indications for the thyroid scintigraphy: nodule size ≥1 cm in diameter, autonomous goitre/nodule with clinical or subclinical hyperthyroidism, necessity of a differentiation between Graves' disease and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, therapy control after a definitive treatment and - in individual cases - the follow-up of untreated autonomous nodules. (orig.)

  12. Effects of plasticizers and their mixtures on estrogen Receptor and thyroid hormone functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2009-01-01

    Plasticizers are additives used to increase the flexibility or plasticity of the material to which they are added, normally rigid plastic and as additives in paint and adhesives. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the estrogen and the thyroid hormone (TH) systems....... We investigated in vitro the thyroid hormone-like and estrogenic activities of a range of widely used plasticizers and phenols including benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate...... estrogenic activities of the compounds were assessed in MVLN cells, stably transfected with an estrogen receptor (ER) luciferase reporter vector. Furthermore, the combined effect of a multi-components mixture of six plasticizers was evaluated for its estrogenic and TH-like activities. All the tested...

  13. Thyroid function in dogs with spontaneous and induced congestive heart failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Panciera, D L; Refsal, K R

    1994-01-01

    The effects of spontaneous and experimentally induced congestive heart failure on serum thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3'5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3), free T4, free T3 concentrations, and the serum T4 and T3 concentrations in response to administration of thyrotropin were studied. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations were not different between eight dogs with spontaneous congestive heart failure and normal age matched control dogs. Seven dogs with experimental heart failu...

  14. A Selective TSH Receptor Antagonist Inhibits Stimulation of Thyroid Function in Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Susanne; Nir, Eshel A; Eliseeva, Elena; Huang, Wenwei; Marugan, Juan; Xiao, Jingbo; Dulcey, Andrés E.; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Because the TSH receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease, a TSHR antagonist could be a novel treatment. We attempted to develop a small molecule, drug-like antagonist of TSHR signaling that is selective and active in vivo. We synthesized NCGC00242364 (ANTAG3) by chemical modification of a previously reported TSHR antagonist. We tested its potency, efficacy, and selectivity in a model cell system in vitro by measuring its activity to inhibit stimulation of...

  15. BRAFV600E and microenvironment in thyroid cancer: a functional link to drive cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Nucera, Carmelo; Lawler, Jack; Parangi, Sareh

    2011-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) rates continue to increase in the United States and Europe, and while most patients do well, some recur and die of their disease. Patients with PTC harboring the BRAFV600E mutation appear to display a more aggressive clinical behavior but little is known about the role of this mutation in crucial processes in the tumor microenvironment such as tumor adhesion, migration, invasion, and metastasis. The extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment is not merely a str...

  16. Culture of hormone-dependent functional epithelial cells from rat thyroids.

    OpenAIRE

    Ambesi-Impiombato, F S; Parks, L A; Coon, H G

    1980-01-01

    Primary cultures of rat thyroid cells were made in medium supplemented with 0.1--0.5% calf serum and containing six hormones or growth factors: insulin, thyrotropin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, somatostatin, and glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine acetate. The FRTL strain was purified by successive colonial isolations and was found to maintain highly differentiated features (secretion into the culture medium of physiological amounts of thyroglobulin and concentration of iodide by 100-fold). The FRTL ...

  17. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen Hadj-Kacem; Rihab Kallel; Salima Belguith-Maalej; Mouna Mnif; Ilhem Charfeddine; Abdelmounem Ghorbel; Mohamed Abid; Hammadi Ayadi; Saber Masmoudi

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS), an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA), and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL). However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21) of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junc...

  18. Radioactive iodine therapy: Effect on functioning metastases of adenocarcinoma of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidlin, S.M.; Marinelli, L.D.; Oshry, E. (Montefiore Hospital, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the thyroid is reported in which treatment by means of radioactive iodine has been successful. The patient was completely thyroidectomized for malignant adenoma in 1923, with neither thyrotoxicosis then nor hypothyroidism postoperatively; 15 years later there developed classic symptoms of hyperthyroidism and severe pain in the lower back. In October 1939 a pulsating tumor removed from the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra proved to be metastatic thyroid adenocarcinoma (histologically well differentiated, with small follicles and colloid). In the next two years hyperthyroidism increased and roentgenograms revealed new metastases in the lungs, upper part of the right femur, second rib on the left side, left ilium, and skull. Roentgenologic irradiation of the metastases proved ineffectual. In March 1943 a tracer dose of radioactive iodine revealed iodine retention by all the known lesions and no evidence of residual thyroid tissue in the neck. Therapeutic amounts of radioactive iodine were administered orally between May and October 1943. Definite and lasting clinical improvement followed. In April 1944 and March 1945 additional I* was administered with a resultant disappearance of pain, increase in weight, and progressive change in all clinical criteria in the direction of hypothyroidism. Roentgenographic evidence pointed to an arrest if not a regression of the disease. No untoward effects followed this therapy. Radioactive iodine seems to be an effective therapeutic agent in the control of this type of tumor.

  19. Thyroid function modifies the association between ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and renal function: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Bingchang; Zhang, Haiqing; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Qingbo; Ning, Guang; Gao, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was confirmed to be associated with both dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction. However, the impact of thyroid function on the relationship between serum lipid levels and renal function has never been given sufficient attention. In this large-scale multicenter cross-sectional study, the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and the prevalence of hypothyroidism in CKD subjects were significantly higher than those in non-CKD ones (P lipid profile to prevent or delay the occurrence and progression of renal dysfunction, especially for those with hypothyroidism. PMID:26179571

  20. The effect of aerobic exercise on autonomic function and pain in women with fibromyalgia.

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsarbakken, Håvard

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome often accompanied by an autonomic dysfunction. Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) indicating an enhanced sympathetic drive at rest and a lack of sympathetic reactivity during stress is commonly seen in subjects with FM. Earlier studies have shown that aerobic exercise can increase HRV in healthy persons. The aim of this study was to use recordings of HRV and blood pressure (BP) in the evaluation of the effects of a moderate intensity aerobic exer...

  1. Evaluation of functional, autonomic and inflammatory outcomes in children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas Dantas Gomes, Evelim Leal; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is common in childhood. This respiratory disease is characterized by persistent inflammation of the airways even when the child is not in the throes of an attack. Chronic inflammation is caused by an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms as well as autonomic dysfunction, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis and control of this condition. The impact of these physiopathological aspects leads to inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle, which exerts ...

  2. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It makes hormones that help ... There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater risk if you ...

  3. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders cannot be distinguished from one another on pathology specimens. As in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis is ... associated with symptoms including anxiety, insomnia, palpitations (fast heart rate), fatigue, weight loss, and irritability. Since these ...

  4. Thyroid storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000400.htm Thyroid storm To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thyroid storm is a life-threatening condition that develops ...

  5. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  6. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  7. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2030: The Unexpected Burden of Thyroid, Liver, and Pancreas Cancers in the United States . Cancer Research; 74(11): ... 2030: The Unexpected Burden of Thyroid, Liver, and Pancreas Cancers in the United States . Cancer Research; 74(11): ...

  8. Thyroid expression of an A2 adenosine receptor transgene induces thyroid hyperplasia and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledent, C; Dumont, J E; Vassart, G; Parmentier, M

    1992-02-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is the major intracellular second messenger of thyrotropin (TSH) action on thyroid cells. It stimulates growth as well as the function and differentiation of cultured thyrocytes. The adenosine A2 receptor, which activates adenylyl cyclase via coupling to the stimulating G protein (Gs), has been shown to promote constitutive activation of the cAMP cascade when transfected into various cell types. In order to test whether the A2 receptor was able to function similarly in vivo and to investigate the possible consequences of permanent adenylyl cyclase activation in thyroid cells, lines of transgenic mice were generated expressing the canine A2 adenosine receptor under control of the bovine thyroglobulin gene promoter. Thyroid-specific expression of the A2 adenosine receptor transgene promoted gland hyperplasia and severe hyperthyroidism causing premature death of the animals. The resulting goitre represents a model of hyperfunctioning adenomas: it demonstrates that constitutive activation of the cAMP cascade in such differentiated epithelial cells is sufficient to stimulate autonomous and uncontrolled function and growth. PMID:1371462

  9. Effect of Iron Repletion and Correction of Iron Deficiency on Thyroid Function in Iron-deficient Iranian Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether iron supplementation in iron-deficient adolescent girls would improve thyroid function. A double-blind clinical trial was performed in a region in southern I.R. Iran. A total of 103 iron deficient participants were chosen. In all, 94 participants successfully completed this study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups and treated with a 300 mg ferrous sulfate 5 times/week (n = 47 and placebo 5 times/week (n = 47 for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected and assayed for hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxine (TT4, total triiodothyronine (TT3, free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3, triiodothyronine resin uptake (T3RU, reverse triiodothyronine (rT3, selenium and albumin concentrations. Statistical analysis was performed with parametric and non-parametric methods as appropriate. Data analysis revealed a significant increase in TT4, TT3, T3RU and a significant decrease in rT3 concentration in comparison to initial values in iron treated group (12%, p<0.001; 3.5%, p<0.001; 16%, p<0.05 and 47%, p<0.001, respectively. At 12 week there were significant differences between control and placebo in TT4, TT3, T3RU and rT3 concentrations (9.9 vs 8.4 μg dL-1, 145.2 vs 130.4 μg dL-1, 32.5 vs 28.4% and 23 vs 41 μg dL-1, respectively, all p<0.001. Alterations in FT3 and TSH concentration were not significant, but concentration of FT4 revealed a significant difference between the beginning and the end of the study in iron treated group (10.3 vs 11.4, p<0.001. Iron supplementation improves some indices of thyroid function in iron-deficient adolescent girls.

  10. Characterization of the ligand-dependent transactivation domain of thyroid hormone receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Barettino, D; Vivanco Ruiz, M M; Stunnenberg, H.G.

    1994-01-01

    Transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors is achieved through autonomous activation functions (AFs), a constitutive N-terminal AF-1 and a C-terminal, ligand-dependent AF-2 that comprises a motif conserved between nuclear receptors. We have performed an extensive mutational analysis of the putative AF-2 domain of chicken thyroid hormone receptor alpha (cT3R alpha). We show that the AF-2 region mediates transactivation as well as transcriptional interference (squelching), not only between...

  11. Effects of growth hormone therapy on thyroid function of growth hormone-deficient adults with and without concomitant thyroxine-substituted central hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J O; Pedersen, S A; Laurberg, P; Weeke, J; Skakkebaek, N E; Christiansen, J S

    1989-01-01

    Administration of human GH to GH-deficient patients has yielded conflicting results concerning its impact on thyroid function, ranging from increased resting metabolic rate to induction of hypothyroidism. However, most studies have been casuistic or uncontrolled and have used pituitary-derived GH...... of varying purity, often contaminated with TSH. Therefore, we conducted a double blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of the effect of 4 months of biosynthetic human GH therapy (Norditropin; 2 IU/m2.day) on thyroid function in GH-deficient adults (8 females and 14 males; mean +/- SE age, 23...

  12. Peculiarities of myocardial diastolic function in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis divided according to the mild hypothyroidism range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Nekrasova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate myocardial diastolic function in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT against the TSH level within the reference range and subclinical interval as well as to determine whether it is related to the thyroid function or other metabolic and functional indices. METHODS. We studied diastolic function of left and right ventricles by the ratio of mitral and tricuspid annular early and late diastolic velocities (em/am and et/at respectively using tissue Doppler imaging; structural heart characteristics by echocardiography; lipid profile and peroxidation parameters; serum ferritin and iron concentrations in 132 middle-aged women. 36 of them were euthyroid controls, 96 had AT and were ranged according to their TSH value into 4 groups: women with “low- normal” (0.4–2.5 mU/L and “upper-normal” (2.5–4.0 mU/L TSH range; patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and TSH below and above 6 mU/L. RESULTS. The increase of TSH value within reference range and subclinical interval was associated with the parallel tendency to the em/am and et/at ratio decrease suggesting detrimental effect of the mildest thyroid failure on the left and right ventricles diastolic function. Thus, patients with TSH values >6 mU/L had significantly lower em/am and et/at ratio compared to the “low-normal” TSH group ( p < 0.05 and controls ( p < 0.01. Among them, the highest LDL cholesterol, myocardial mass index and oxidative stress rate were detected as well as lower iron and ferritin serum concentrations ( p < 0.05 compared to controls with regard to all the parameters listed above. Abnormalities in heart structure, lipid and iron metabolism correlated with alterations in ventricular relaxation suggesting that they can contribute, at least partly, to the diastolic dysfunction devel- opment CONCLUSION. The increase of TSH value within reference range and subclinical interval can affect diastolic function of the heart. Its

  13. Cell Autonomous Lipin 1 Function Is Essential for Development and Maintenance of White and Brown Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Nadra, Karim; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Mul, Joram D.; Han, Gil-Soo; Grès, Sandra; Pende, Mario; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Cuppen, Edwin; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Carman, George M.; Desvergne, Béatrice; Chrast, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Through analysis of mice with spatially and temporally restricted inactivation of Lpin1, we characterized its cell autonomous function in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipocyte development and maintenance. We observed that the lipin 1 inactivation in adipocytes of aP2Cre/+/LpfEx2-3/fEx2-3 mice resulted in lipodystrophy and the presence of adipocytes with multilocular lipid droplets. We further showed that time-specific loss of lipin 1 in mature adipocytes in aP2Cre-ERT2/+/LpfEx2-3/fEx2-3 ...

  14. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Grisé, Kenneth N.; T. Dylan Olver; Matthew W. McDonald; Adwitia Dey; Mao Jiang; James C. Lacefield; J. Kevin Shoemaker; Noble, Earl G.; C. W. James Melling

    2016-01-01

    Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV) autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary T1DM (D), control exercise (CX), or T1DM e...

  15. Cardiac autonomic functions and the emergence of violence in a highly realistic model of social conflict in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozsef Haller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the multitude of factors that can transform human social interactions into violent conflicts, biological features received much attention in recent years as correlates of decision making and aggressiveness especially in critical situations. We present here a highly realistic new model of human aggression and violence, where genuine acts of aggression are readily performed and which at the same time allows the parallel recording of biological concomitants. Particularly, we studied police officers trained at the International Training Centre (Budapest, Hungary, who are prepared to perform operations under extreme conditions of stress. We found that aggressive arousal can transform a basically peaceful social encounter into a violent conflict. Autonomic recordings show that this change is accompanied by increased heart rates, which was associated earlier with reduced cognitive complexity of perceptions ("attentional myopia" and promotes a bias towards hostile attributions and aggression. We also observed reduced heart rate variability in violent subjects, which is believed to signal a poor functioning of prefrontal-subcortical inhibitory circuits and reduces self-control. Importantly, these autonomic particularities were observed already at the beginning of social encounters i.e. before aggressive acts were initiated, suggesting that individual characteristics of the stress-response define the way in which social pressure affects social behavior, particularly the way in which this develops into violence. Taken together, these findings suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are valuable external symptoms of internal motivational states and decision making processes, and raise the possibility that behavior under social pressure can be predicted by the individual characteristics of stress responsiveness.

  16. Population of antithyroid autoantibodies as a source of antibodies of various levels of specificity and functionality: the clinical importance of a phenomenon of combination theory at monitoring of patients with autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Andreeva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature is dedicated to comparative analysis of pathogenetic and clinicodiagnostic significance of antithyroid autoantibodies (autoAB differing in their specificity (АB to thyroglobulin (anti-TG and АB to thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, anti-TGPO, and functionality TG- and TPO-antibodies, namely antibodies-proteases in pathogenesis autoimmune diseases thyroid gland and possibility of their use in modern diagnostics of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  17. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  18. Biological half-life of iodine in adults with intact thyroid function and in athyreotic persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.H.; Hauck, B.M.; Chamberlain, M.J

    2002-07-01

    A joint project between the Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) and the Ottawa Hospital has measured the retention of {sup 131}I in patients who have received the radioiodine diagnostically. Thirty-nine subjects with intact thyroid glands and nine athyreotic subjects were measured in the HML's whole-body/thyroid counter to determine the retention of {sup 131}I following its medical administration. The average biological half-life of {sup 131}I in 26 euthyroid subjects was found to be 66.1{+-}6.3 days which may be statistically significantly lower than the ICRP recommended value of 80 days. Nine hyperthyroid patients had a mean biological half-life of 38.2{+-}8.6 days and in three hypothyroid patients the corresponding value was 29.3{+-}8.8 days. Thyroid {sup 131}I uptake was measured in a conventional clinical fashion at the Ottawa Hospital Civic campus 24 h after oral administration of the radioiodine using a collimated thick sodium iodide detector placed over the neck arteriorly. Measured values were 0.144{+-}0.009, 0.314{+-}0.035 and 0.045{+-}0.010 of the administered dose in euthyroid, hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients respectively. The euthyroid range at the hospital is 0.06-0.22. Uptake was significantly lower for the euthyroid group than the ICRP value of 0.3. The radioiodine retention in athyreotic subjects followed a two compartment model with biological half-lives of 1.0{+-}0.2 days and 18.4{+-}1.1. days. (author)

  19. Thyroid function in newborn infants from goitrous and non goitrous mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunartini; Nakamura, H

    1991-12-01

    Endemic goiter is one of the health effects of iodine deficiency. Enlargement of the thyroid is often seen during pregnancy especially in the endemic iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) areas. Thyroid hormones have a vital role in the fetal development and maturation of the brain. The lack of these hormones may result in neurological damage. We measured thyroid hormones and TSH in cord blood and TSH in newborn's blood from dry blood spots on filter paper in 5-14 th days, from 58 non goitrous and 61 goitrous mothers. T4, T3 and TSH concentrations in cord blood were measured by enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) using enzymum test Boehringer and TSH from dry blood spots on filter paper were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Goiter size was graded as follows: O, I, II and III. There were significant differences in cord serum T3 concentrations between non goitrous and goitrous mothers with grade I, II and III. TSH concentration in newborn's blood from goitrous mothers of grade III were significantly higher than those from non goitrous mothers and from goitrous mothers of grade I. T4 concentration in cord blood from non goitrous mothers in IDD area was significantly lower than those from non IDD area and those from goitrous mothers in the IDD area. There were significant differences also between TSH concentration in newborn's blood spots from goitrous mothers in IDD area and those from goitrous mothers in non IDD area and from non goitrous mothers in IDD area. Two cases of congenital hypothyroidism were found in infants from goitrous mothers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1817205

  20. A selective TSH receptor antagonist inhibits stimulation of thyroid function in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Susanne; Nir, Eshel A; Eliseeva, Elena; Huang, Wenwei; Marugan, Juan; Xiao, Jingbo; Dulcey, Andrés E; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2014-01-01

    Because the TSH receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease, a TSHR antagonist could be a novel treatment. We attempted to develop a small molecule, drug-like antagonist of TSHR signaling that is selective and active in vivo. We synthesized NCGC00242364 (ANTAG3) by chemical modification of a previously reported TSHR antagonist. We tested its potency, efficacy, and selectivity in a model cell system in vitro by measuring its activity to inhibit stimulation of cAMP production stimulated by TSH, LH, or FSH. We tested the in vivo activity of ANTAG3 by measuring its effects to lower serum free T4 and thyroid gene expression in female BALB/c mice continuously treated with ANTAG3 for 3 days and given low doses of TRH continuously or stimulated by a single administration of a monoclonal thyroid-stimulating antibody M22. ANTAG3 was selective for TSHR inhibition; half-maximal inhibitory doses were 2.1 μM for TSHR and greater than 30 μM for LH and FSH receptors. In mice treated with TRH, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 44% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 75% and 83%, respectively. In mice given M22, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 38% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 73% and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, we developed a selective TSHR antagonist that is effective in vivo in mice. This is the first report of a small-molecule TSHR antagonist active in vivo and may lead to a drug to treat Graves' disease. PMID:24169564

  1. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iodine and contribution to normal thyroid function pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to iodine and contribution to normal thyroid function. The food constituent, iodine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal thyroid function is a beneficial physiological effect for infants and young children. A claim on iodine and normal thyroid function in the general population has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of iodine on normal thyroid function applies to all ages, including infants and young children (from birth to three years. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of iodine and contribution to normal thyroid function.

  2. Effects of 3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol on Thyroid Function

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Charles Franklin

    1984-01-01

    3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, when administered in the diet, increases the feed efficiency (the ratio of weight gain to feed consumed) in various species of domestic animals and also appears to be retained in the liver at low concentrations, possibly by binding to a specific macromolecule. Because of its structural similarities to the outer ring of the thyroid hormones, trichloropyridinol and three structural analogs (2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 4-bromo-2,5- dichlorophenol, or 4-i odo-2,5-dichlorop...

  3. Concentration-dependent regulation of thyrotropin receptor function by thyroid-stimulating antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Takao; Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F.

    2004-01-01

    Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) Ab’s of the stimulating variety are the cause of hyperthyroid Graves disease. MS-1 is a hamster mAb with TSHR-stimulating activity. To examine the in vivo biological activity of MS-1, mice were treated with purified MS-1 intraperitoneally and the thyroid response evaluated. MS-1 induced a dose-dependent increase in serum thyroxine (T4), with a maximum effect after 10 ∝g of MS-1 was administered. MS-1–secreting hybridoma cells were then transferred into the peritone...

  4. Effect of oral administration of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in combination on thyroid function in dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Panciera, D L; Post, K

    1992-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in combination on serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxine (fT4) and the thyroid hormone response to thyrotropin administration was assessed. Six dogs were administered sulfadiazine (12.5 mg/kg) and trimethoprim (2.5 mg/kg) orally for 28 days; six untreated dogs acted as controls. Serum T4, T3 and fT4 were determined weekly during and for four weeks after treatment. Thyrotropin response ...

  5. The influence of thyroid function and bone turnover on lipoprotein profile in young physically active men with different insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kęska, A; Lutosławska, G; Czajkowska, A; Tkaczyk, J; Mazurek, K; Tomaszewski, P

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity induces changes in the endocrine system. Previous data indicated that changes in insulin secretion and the tissue response to this hormone are very important for energy metabolism. It is believed that they are accompanied by changes in lipid metabolism, but factors contributing to this process are still disputed. The aim of this study was to assess interactions among insulin sensitivity, thyroid function, a bone turnover marker and serum lipid profile in young physically active men. Eighty-seven physical education students, aged 18-23 years, participated in the study. We measured serum levels of glucose, lipids, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), osteocalcin and anthropometric parameters. Insulin sensitivity was determined using homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide the study population into Group A (above the median) and Group B (below the median). Men from both groups did not differ in anthropometric parameters or in daily physical activity. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were higher in Group A (P lipid profile at a certain level of insulin sensitivity. PMID:24899778

  6. The influence of radioactive contamination and iodine prophylaxis after Chernobyl accident on the thyroid morphology and function of the inhabitants of Poznan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive contamination of Poznan region was recognized after Chernobyl accident as average. The predicted values of minimal (inhalation) and maximal (inhalation and ingestion) committed dose equivalent to the thyroid varied from 2.5 (min) to 24.7 (max) mSv in different groups of adults and children. To follow up the results of iodine prophylaxis and some aspects of possible thyroid gland morphological and functional changes 11086 persons were carefully investigated clinically and biochemically. Among these 11086 persons were 42.6% males and 57.4% females both adults from 17 till 40 year and children up to 16 years. The following parameters were reviewed: pregnancy, time of residence in the region, thyroid abnormalities, family history concerning thyroid diseases, iodine intake in April and May 1986 with possible side effects, changes in the thyroid size observed before and after 1986, degree and kind of thyroid enlargement, serum concentration of T3, T4, TSH, ATMA and ATG titration and finally the effectiveness of thyroid blockade at 24, 48 and 72 h after ingestion of Lugol's solution. Side effects of the ingestion of potassium iodine from 30-70 mg were observed in 153 cases, 36 of them consulted medicals doctors but in no case the side effects (dominated by vomiting) threatened the life. The data obtained indicated the existence in Poznan. Region the goiter endemic because 27.5% of investigated children and adults had goiter classified as grades O-B, I, II and III. The elevation or diminution of T3 values were noted in 1164 cases, for T4 in 418 cases and for TSH in 1412 cases. The presence of anti membrane and anti thyroglobulin antibodies were observed in 303 cases. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 18 tabs

  7. Comparison of the Influence on the Liver Function Between Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal and rh-TSH Before High-Dose Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone level (TSH) is essential to stimulate the uptake of radioiodine into thyroid remnants and metastases and metastases of thyroid cancer when a patient under-goes high-dose radioiodine therapy. Nowadays, recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) is increasingly used instead of the classic method of thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). However, beyond the therapeutic effects, clinical differences between the two methods have not yet been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the two methods, especially on liver function. We identified 143 evaluable patients who were further divided into two groups: THW and rh-TSH. We first reviewed the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, which were measured during the admission period for total thyroidectomy. We called these liver enzyme levels 'base AST' and 'base ALT.' We also assessed other chemistry profiles, including AST, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), and triglyceride (TG), which were measured on admission day for high-dose radioiodine therapy. We called these liver enzyme levels 'follow-up AST'and 'follow-up ALT.' We compared the changes in base and follow-up liver enzyme levels and the other chemistry profiles between the two groups. The base AST and base ALT levels of the two groups were within normal range, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. In contrast to these base liver enzyme levels, follow-up AST and ALT levels than did the rh-TSH group. Patients in the THW group. Patients in the THW group also had higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than did the patients in the rh-TSH group. However there were no statistically significant differences in ALP, total bilirubin, and triglyceride levels between the two groups. In this retrospective analysis of liver function, the use of rh-TSH for high

  8. Comparison of the Influence on the Liver Function Between Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal and rh-TSH Before High-Dose Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yeon-Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Yun, Kuk-No; Yim, Sung Kyun; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Sohn, Myung-Hee [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone level (TSH) is essential to stimulate the uptake of radioiodine into thyroid remnants and metastases and metastases of thyroid cancer when a patient under-goes high-dose radioiodine therapy. Nowadays, recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) is increasingly used instead of the classic method of thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). However, beyond the therapeutic effects, clinical differences between the two methods have not yet been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the two methods, especially on liver function. We identified 143 evaluable patients who were further divided into two groups: THW and rh-TSH. We first reviewed the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, which were measured during the admission period for total thyroidectomy. We called these liver enzyme levels 'base AST' and 'base ALT.' We also assessed other chemistry profiles, including AST, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), and triglyceride (TG), which were measured on admission day for high-dose radioiodine therapy. We called these liver enzyme levels 'follow-up AST'and 'follow-up ALT.' We compared the changes in base and follow-up liver enzyme levels and the other chemistry profiles between the two groups. The base AST and base ALT levels of the two groups were within normal range, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. In contrast to these base liver enzyme levels, follow-up AST and ALT levels than did the rh-TSH group. Patients in the THW group. Patients in the THW group also had higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than did the patients in the rh-TSH group. However there were no statistically significant differences in ALP, total bilirubin, and triglyceride levels between the two groups. In this retrospective analysis of liver

  9. Surgical implantation and functional assessment of an invasive telemetric system to measure autonomic responses in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A; Zebunke, M; Bellmann, O; Mohr, E; Langbein, J; Puppe, B

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to establish a surgical procedure to implant a new telemetric device for the continuous recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood pressure (BP) in freely moving pigs. A second aim was the functional assessment of cardiovascular parameters, including heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), so that these data could be used as the basis for the objective evaluation of autonomic activity and balance in different behavioural contexts. Eleven domestic pigs (German Landrace) underwent surgery for the placement of a telemetric device. At day 15 after surgery, 512 consecutive inter-beat intervals and pressure waves were analysed using different detection methods (automatic and manually corrected) while the animals were resting or feeding, respectively. HRV and BPV were calculated. Incomplete datasets were found in four pigs due to missing ECG or BP signals. Technical and surgical issues concerning catheterisation and detachment of the negative ECG lead were continuously improved. In the remaining pigs, excellent signal quality (manually corrected data of 1%) was obtained during resting and acceptable signal quality (ECG recordings. Sympathetic arousal with accompanying vagal withdrawal during feeding was documented. The established surgical implantation and functional assessment of the telemetric system with the reliable registration of cardiovascular parameters in freely moving pigs could serve as a basis for future studies of autonomic regulation in context of stress and animal welfare. PMID:26626089

  10. Social functioning and autonomic nervous system sensitivity across vocal and musical emotion in Williams syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Arnold, Andrew J; Woo-VonHoogenstyn, Nicholas; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Both Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with unusual auditory phenotypes with respect to processing vocal and musical stimuli, which may be shaped by the atypical social profiles that characterize the syndromes. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to vocal and musical emotional stimuli was examined in 12 children with WS, 17 children with ASD, and 20 typically developing (TD) children, and related to their level of social functioning. The results of this small-scale study showed that after controlling for between-group differences in cognitive ability, all groups showed similar emotion identification performance across conditions. Additionally, in ASD, lower autonomic reactivity to human voice, and in TD, to musical emotion, was related to more normal social functioning. Compared to TD, both clinical groups showed increased arousal to vocalizations. A further result highlighted uniquely increased arousal to music in WS, contrasted with a decrease in arousal in ASD and TD. The ASD and WS groups exhibited arousal patterns suggestive of diminished habituation to the auditory stimuli. The results are discussed in the context of the clinical presentation of WS and ASD. PMID:26248474

  11. Major Autonomic Neuroregulatory Pathways Underlying Short- and Long-Term Control of Cardiovascular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ibrahim M

    2016-03-01

    Short-term and long-term blood pressure (BP) regulation and its maintenance at levels adequate to perfuse tissue organs involve an integrated action of multiple neural, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine and local tissue control systems. In the recent year, there has been a growing interest in the understanding of neural pathways key to BP control. For instance, through major advances in studies using both anesthetized and conscious animals, our knowledge of the essential neural mechanisms that subserve the baroreceptor, cardiopulmonary and chemoreceptor reflexes, and those evoked by the activation of stress pathways has dramatically increased. While the importance of these neural pathways in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis is well established, the recognition of the central processing nuclei that integrate various afferent inputs to produce synchronous adjustments of autonomic outflows is still progressively expanding. Based on the literature provided thus far, the present review provides an overview in relation to the important neural determinants of BP control and later offers a concise description of major neuronal pathways that control autonomic outflows to the cardiovascular system in the short and long term. PMID:26838031

  12. Clinicoepidemiological Observational Study of Acquired Alopecias in Females Correlating with Anemia and Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Deo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia can either be inherited or acquired; the latter, more common, can be diffuse, patterned, and focal, each having cicatricial and noncicatricial forms. This observational study of 135 cases in a semiurban Indian population aimed to detect the prevalence of various forms of acquired alopecia in females and correlate the same with levels of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, triiodothyronine, thyroxin, and thyroid stimulating hormone. The majority (84, 62.2% of our cases of alopecia had telogen effluvium followed by female pattern alopecia (32, 23.7%. Stress (86, 63.7%, topical application of chemicals (72, 53.3%, systemic medications for concurrent illnesses (62, 5%, and pregnancy (14, 10.3% were the common exacerbating factors. Neither low hemoglobin (12 μg/L. Though lack of vitamin B12 testing was a limitation of our study, its deficiency could be the probable cause of iron deficiency as the majority (58, 64.4% of these cases, as indeed majority (89, 65.4% of our study population, were vegetarians. Thyroid disorders (23, 17%, including 9 newly diagnosed were not of significance statistically.

  13. Mechanistic aspects of ingested chlorine dioxide on thyroid function: impact of oxidants on iodide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicological studies dealing with recent findings of health effects of drinking water disinfectants are reviewed. Experiments with monkeys and rodents indicate that the biological activity of ingested disinfectants is expressed via their chemical interaction with the mucosal epithelia, secretory products, and nutritional contents of the alimentary tract. Evidence exists that a principal partner of this redox interaction is the iodide of nutritional origin that is ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus the observation that subchronic exposure to chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in drinking water decreases serum thyroxine levels in mammalian species can be best explained with changes produced in the chemical form of the bioavailable iodide. Ongoing and previously reported mechanistic studies indicate that oxidizing agents such as chlorine-based disinfectants oxidize the basal iodide content of the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting reactive iodine species readily attaches to organic matter by covalent bonding. Evidence suggests that the extent to which such iodinated organics are formed is proportional to the magnitude of the electromotive force and stoichiometry of the redox couple between iodide and the disinfectant. Because the extent of thyroid uptake of the bioavailable iodide does not decrease during ClO2 ingestion, it seems that ClO2 does not cause iodide deficiency of sufficient magnitude to account for the decease in hormonogenesis. Absorption of one or more of iodinated molecules, e.g., nutrient, hormones, or cellular constituents of the alimentary tract having thyromimetic or thyroid inhibitory properties, is a better hypothesis for the effects seen

  14. THYROID FUNCTION AND OTHER METABOLIC CHANGES IN MARRIED AND UNMARRIED FEMALES WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf Ban H

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that there are significant differences in some biochemical markers of PCOS between married and unmarried women with this disorder. The present study was designed to evaluate the correlation of marital status with thyroid hormones, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and androgenic activities. Twenty four married and unmarried women with PCOS were evaluated concerning TSH, T3, T4, glycemic control, C-peptide and lipid profile were evaluated in fasting blood samples. The results showed that in both unmarried and married women with PCOS TSH, FPS, C-peptide, and triglycerides levels were significantly elevated compared to healthy control group. Although serum level of TSH was slightly elevated in married women compared to unmarried group, no significant differences were observed in this respect; the same thing was reported for FPS, serum levels of C-peptide and triglycerides, where those parameters shown to be slightly higher in unmarried women but not significantly different from those reported in married group of PCOS women. In conclusion, no correlations were reported for the marital status with thyroid hormones, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Iraqi females with PCOS.

  15. TSH(IRMA)-a new strategy for the diagnosis of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum TSH of 452 patients were measured with a two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). The serum TSH level was 1.69 ± 0.95 μIu/ml in euthyroid subjects, and was much lower in patients with hyperthyroidism (i.e. 0.3μIu/ml) which returned to nearly normal in 85% patients who were in remission stage. On the contrary, serum TSH level elevated to more than 5μIU/ml in patients with hypothyroidism. TRH stimulation test showed that the baseline serum TSH values correlated well with the peak serum TSH value post-TRH(r = 0.88). TSH (IRMA) improved the sensitivity over that of conventional radioimmunoassays, hence has made possible discrimination between hyperthyroid, euthyroid and hypothyroid subjects, and may serve as a first-line test in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction. In addition, when serum thyroid hormone levels have been brought to normal range, a further 'fine adjustment' of treatment based on serum TSH levels appears to be helpful to achieve physiologically and biochemically

  16. Cytoskeletal and functional changes in bioreactor assembled thyroid tissue organoids exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer rat thyroid cells were grown under low-shear stress in a bioreactor to a stage of organization composed of integrated follicles resembling small thyroid glands prior to exposure to 3 Gray-gamma radiation. Bioreactor tissues and controls (both irradiated and non-irradiated) were harvested at 24, 48, 96 and 144 hours post-exposure. Tissue samples were fixed and fluorescently labeled for actin and microtubules. Tissues were assessed for changes in cytoskeletal components induced by radiation and quantified by laser scanning cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA's) were used to quantify transforming growth factor-beta and thyroxin released from cells to the culture supernatant. Tissue architecture was disrupted by exposure to radiation with the structural organization of actin and loss of follicular content the most obviously affected. With time post-irradiation the actin appeared disordered and the levels of fluorescence associated with filamentous-actin and microtubules cycled in the tissue analogs, but not in the flask-grown cultures. Active transforming growth factor-beta was higher in supernatants from the irradiated bioreactor tissue. Thyroxin release paralleled cell survival in the bioreactors and control cultures. Thus, the engineered tissue responses to radiation differed from those of conventional tissue culture making it a potentially better mimic of the in vivo situation. (author)

  17. Clinicoepidemiological Observational Study of Acquired Alopecias in Females Correlating with Anemia and Thyroid Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Kirti; Sharma, Yugal K; Wadhokar, Meenakshi; Tyagi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Alopecia can either be inherited or acquired; the latter, more common, can be diffuse, patterned, and focal, each having cicatricial and noncicatricial forms. This observational study of 135 cases in a semiurban Indian population aimed to detect the prevalence of various forms of acquired alopecia in females and correlate the same with levels of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, triiodothyronine, thyroxin, and thyroid stimulating hormone. The majority (84, 62.2%) of our cases of alopecia had telogen effluvium followed by female pattern alopecia (32, 23.7%). Stress (86, 63.7%), topical application of chemicals (72, 53.3%), systemic medications for concurrent illnesses (62, 5%), and pregnancy (14, 10.3%) were the common exacerbating factors. Neither low hemoglobin (12 μg/L. Though lack of vitamin B12 testing was a limitation of our study, its deficiency could be the probable cause of iron deficiency as the majority (58, 64.4%) of these cases, as indeed majority (89, 65.4%) of our study population, were vegetarians. Thyroid disorders (23, 17%, including 9 newly diagnosed) were not of significance statistically. PMID:26904106

  18. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an enlarged thyroid, but your question has any connection to the thyroid gland, Dr. T will be ... what does the parathyroid gland do in the body? What is its function? It regulates calcium metabolism. ...

  19. Resistance to Thyroid Hormone due to defective thyroid receptor alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Carla; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones act via nuclear receptors (TR?1, TR?1, TR?2) with differing tissue distribution; the role of ?2 protein, derived from the same gene locus as TR?1, is unclear. Resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTH?) is characterised by tissue-specific hypothyroidism associated with near-normal thyroid function tests. Clinical features include dysmorphic facies, skeletal dysplasia (macrocephaly, epiphyseal dysgenesis), growth retardation, constipation, dyspraxia and intellectual deficit...

  20. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  1. ACE2-mediated reduction of oxidative stress in the central nervous system is associated with improvement of autonomic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Xia

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in the central nervous system mediates the increase in sympathetic tone that precedes the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that by transforming Angiotensin-II (AngII into Ang-(1-7, ACE2 might reduce AngII-mediated oxidative stress in the brain and prevent autonomic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, a relationship between ACE2 and oxidative stress was first confirmed in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro2A cells treated with AngII and infected with Ad-hACE2. ACE2 overexpression resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. In vivo, ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/y mice and non-transgenic (NT littermates were infused with AngII (10 days and infected with Ad-hACE2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Baseline blood pressure (BP, AngII and brain ROS levels were not different between young mice (12 weeks. However, cardiac sympathetic tone, brain NADPH oxidase and SOD activities were significantly increased in ACE2(-/y. Post infusion, plasma and brain AngII levels were also significantly higher in ACE2(-/y, although BP was similarly increased in both genotypes. ROS formation in the PVN and RVLM was significantly higher in ACE2(-/y mice following AngII infusion. Similar phenotypes, i.e. increased oxidative stress, exacerbated dysautonomia and hypertension, were also observed on baseline in mature ACE2(-/y mice (48 weeks. ACE2 gene therapy to the PVN reduced AngII-mediated increase in NADPH oxidase activity and normalized cardiac dysautonomia in ACE2(-/y mice. Altogether, these data indicate that ACE2 gene deletion promotes age-dependent oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction and hypertension, while PVN-targeted ACE2 gene therapy decreases ROS formation via NADPH oxidase inhibition and improves autonomic function. Accordingly, ACE2 could represent a new target for the treatment of hypertension-associated dysautonomia and oxidative stress.

  2. [Thyroid and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker-Davis, Françoise; Hiéronimus, Sylvie; Fénichel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the thyroid depends upon the environment for regular iodine supply, avoiding iodine deficiency or excess. Thyroid function may be altered by natural compounds present in water or foodstuff (such as iodine or phyto-goitrogens), or by synthetic compounds, either administered knowingly (in case of medicine), or as an untoward event in case of exposure to industrial products and pesticides, massively produced and polluting the environment. Compounds with an impact on thyroid homeostasis are called thyroid disruptors (TD). TD may disrupt the thyroid economy at any level of regulation: thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism, or transport; cellular level including thyroid hormone signaling; tumorigenesis or more indirectly via the triggering of an autoimmune process. Compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may act at multiple levels. PT effects on human health depend on parameters linked to the individual person (age at exposure, iodine status, diet, professional exposure, place of living, family history of thyroid disease, detoxification enzyme genetic variants) and on parameters linked to the compounds themselves (chemical structure, lipo- or hydro-solubility, modes of exposure, metabolites activity, "cocktail effect"). The toxic effects of TD do not necessarily follow the rules of classical toxicology (low-dose effects, non-monotonic curves). The main clinical risks are the deleterious impact on neurocognition and behavior for the fetus and the young child, and possibly the elderly, while in adults the main concerns are tumori/goitrogenesis and autoimmune thyroid disease. The potential socioeconomic impact for society warrants an active and major involvement in research to find solutions in a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26603908

  3. Correlation of serum lithium levels and thyroid function tests in subjects of bipolar affective disorder: a prospective hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Manjuprasad

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: As already known, Lithium is a drug of narrow therapeutic index and females are more prone for thyroid function abnormalities. Appropriate monitoring of serum lithium levels will aid in necessary dose adjustment and ensure proper utilization of drug. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 51-54

  4. Thyroid function and prevalence of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies in a population with borderline sufficient iodine intake: influences of age and sex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Vegt, F. de; Ross, H.A.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Heijer, M. den

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a large European population-based study of thyroid function, performed in a population with longstanding borderline sufficient iodine intake. METHODS: The Nijmegen Biomedical Study is a population-based survey conducted in the eastern part of The Netherlands. Randomly selected

  5. Treatment of Posttraumatic Abdominal Autonomic Neuropathy Manifesting as Functional Dyspepsia and Chronic Constipation: An Integrative East-West Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubov, Andrew; Taw, Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    A 52-year-old male with a history of spinal cord injury and cauda equina syndrome resulting in neurogenic bladder presented with chronic constipation and functional dyspepsia that was refractory to medical management. He was treated with an integrative East-West approach including acupuncture, trigger point injections, and Tui Na massage. Both his pain and constipation improved after a series of treatments, and this improvement was largely sustained at 2-year follow-up. This patient's symptoms are consistent with damage to the visceral parasympathetic nervous system. Interestingly, many studies evaluating the mechanisms of acupuncture point to restoration of parasympathetic tone as a mechanism of action. In this article, we describe a case of complex functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with posttraumatic autonomic neuropathy that was refractory to pharmacotherapy and was successfully treated with an integrative East-West approach. PMID:26331105

  6. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Symptoms Hypothyroidism Thyroid Nodules Lifestyle and Prevention Thyroid Disorders The thyroid gland is located at the ... lives, and must be closely monitored by physicians. Thyroid Nodules Thyroid disorders can also occur because of ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  8. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Thyroid cancer risk factors What causes thyroid cancer? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be prevented? What ...

  9. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small thyroid growth ( nodule or cyst) A thyroid gland that is so overactive it is dangerous ( thyrotoxicosis ) Cancer of the thyroid Noncancerous (benign) tumors of the thyroid that are causing symptoms Thyroid ...

  10. Gestational Diabetes and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Monaco; Giorgio Napolitano; Cesidio Giuliani; Ester Vitacolonna; Ines Bucci; Barbara Di Nenno; Annalisa Passante; Annunziata Lapolla; Dominique Cerrone; Fabio Capani

    2012-01-01

    Background. About 10% of pregnancies are complicated by previously unknown impairment of glucose metabolism, which is defined as gestational diabetes. There are little data available on prevalence of thyroid disorders in patients affected by gestational diabetes, and about their postgestational thyroid function and autoimmunity. We therefore investigated pancreatic and thyroid autoimmunity in gestational diabetic patients and in women who had had a previous gestational diabetic pregnancy. Met...

  11. The 2015 European Thyroid Association Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Endogenous Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Bartalena, Luigi; Cooper, David S; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Laurberg, Peter; Kahaly, George J

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) is caused by Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and multinodular goitre. Its diagnosis is based on a persistently subnormal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level with free thyroid hormone levels within their respective...... the absence of randomized prospective trials, there is evidence that treatment is indicated in patients older than 65 years with grade 2 SHyper to potentially avoid these serious cardiovascular events, fractures and the risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism. Treatment could be considered in....../or underlying risk factors or co-morbidity. Finally, the task force concluded that there are no data to support treating SHyper in younger asymptomatic patients with grade 1 SHyper. These patients should be followed without treatment due to the low risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism and the weaker...

  12. Impact of co-exposure with lead and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on thyroid function in zebrafish larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PBDEs and metals are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites. • Combined effects of Pb/BDE-209 on thyroid function in zebrafish larvae were studied. • Co-exposure of Pb and BDE-209 elicited synergistic effects on T3 and T4 levels. • BDE-209 enhanced Pb uptake, and Pb decreased bioconcentration/metabolism of BDE-209. • Mixtures of Pb and BDE-209 probably result in an increase in toxicological effects. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals are the main contaminants at waste electrical and electronic equipment (“e-waste”) recycling sites. However, the potential environmental health effects of mixtures of PBDEs and metals are not known. We investigated co-exposure of lead (Pb) with decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on thyroid function in zebrafish larvae. Seven groups of embryos/larvae of zebrafish were treated with Pb (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 μg/L), six groups were exposed to BDE-209 (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μg/L), and nine groups of zebrafish larvae were treated with Pb and BDE-209 (5, 10, and 20 μg/L Pb; 50, 100, and 200 μg/L BDE-209). Embryos/larvae were exposed from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf) until 144 hpf, and thyroid hormone (TH) content measured. Pb exposure significantly decreased whole-body TH contents (triiodothyroxine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)) but BDE-209 exposure significantly increased T3 and T4 levels. Pb or BDE-209 treatment alone caused a predicted downregulation of TH transport (i.e., expression of the mRNA or proteins of transthyretin). Chemical analyses showed Pb uptake to be increased by BDE-209, but BDE-209 bioconcentration was decreased and the ability to metabolize BDE-209 was reduced in the presence of Pb. We also found that a mixture of the two chemicals had a synergistic effect on TH levels in zebrafish

  13. Impact of co-exposure with lead and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on thyroid function in zebrafish larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Biran; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Bingsheng, E-mail: bszhou@ihb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • PBDEs and metals are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites. • Combined effects of Pb/BDE-209 on thyroid function in zebrafish larvae were studied. • Co-exposure of Pb and BDE-209 elicited synergistic effects on T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} levels. • BDE-209 enhanced Pb uptake, and Pb decreased bioconcentration/metabolism of BDE-209. • Mixtures of Pb and BDE-209 probably result in an increase in toxicological effects. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals are the main contaminants at waste electrical and electronic equipment (“e-waste”) recycling sites. However, the potential environmental health effects of mixtures of PBDEs and metals are not known. We investigated co-exposure of lead (Pb) with decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on thyroid function in zebrafish larvae. Seven groups of embryos/larvae of zebrafish were treated with Pb (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 μg/L), six groups were exposed to BDE-209 (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μg/L), and nine groups of zebrafish larvae were treated with Pb and BDE-209 (5, 10, and 20 μg/L Pb; 50, 100, and 200 μg/L BDE-209). Embryos/larvae were exposed from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf) until 144 hpf, and thyroid hormone (TH) content measured. Pb exposure significantly decreased whole-body TH contents (triiodothyroxine (T{sub 3}) and thyroxine (T{sub 4})) but BDE-209 exposure significantly increased T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} levels. Pb or BDE-209 treatment alone caused a predicted downregulation of TH transport (i.e., expression of the mRNA or proteins of transthyretin). Chemical analyses showed Pb uptake to be increased by BDE-209, but BDE-209 bioconcentration was decreased and the ability to metabolize BDE-209 was reduced in the presence of Pb. We also found that a mixture of the two chemicals had a synergistic effect on TH levels in zebrafish.

  14. Cell autonomous lipin 1 function is essential for development and maintenance of white and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadra, Karim; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Mul, Joram D; Han, Gil-Soo; Grès, Sandra; Pende, Mario; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Cuppen, Edwin; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Carman, George M; Desvergne, Béatrice; Chrast, Roman

    2012-12-01

    Through analysis of mice with spatially and temporally restricted inactivation of Lpin1, we characterized its cell autonomous function in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipocyte development and maintenance. We observed that the lipin 1 inactivation in adipocytes of aP2(Cre/+)/Lp(fEx2)(-)(3/fEx2)(-)(3) mice resulted in lipodystrophy and the presence of adipocytes with multilocular lipid droplets. We further showed that time-specific loss of lipin 1 in mature adipocytes in aP2(Cre-ERT2/+)/Lp(fEx2)(-)(3/fEx2)(-)(3) mice led to their replacement by newly formed Lpin1-positive adipocytes, thus establishing a role for lipin 1 in mature adipocyte maintenance. Importantly, we observed that the presence of newly formed Lpin1-positive adipocytes in aP2(Cre-ERT2/+)/Lp(fEx2)(-)(3/fEx2)(-)(3) mice protected these animals against WAT inflammation and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet. Loss of lipin 1 also affected BAT development and function, as revealed by histological changes, defects in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), PGC-1α, and UCP1, and functionally by altered cold sensitivity. Finally, our data indicate that phosphatidic acid, which accumulates in WAT of animals lacking lipin 1 function, specifically inhibits differentiation of preadipocytes. Together, these observations firmly demonstrate a cell autonomous role of lipin 1 in WAT and BAT biology and indicate its potential as a therapeutical target for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23028044

  15. Reevaluation of the Thyroid Scan for the Assessment of Pathophysiologic Status of Thyroid Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, In Sook; Nah, Jung Il; Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    To diagnosis and understand the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease, not only hormonal measurements but also thyroid scan is believed to have a unique role. Especially in the cases of the change of the thyroid function by thyroiditis, it is emphasized that thyroid scan can be helpful in differential diagnosis, Discordant results of thyroid hormone levels and thyroid scan are found in transient hyperthyroidism, or in transient hypothyroidism. We analysed and reevaluated thyroid scan to look at the importance of thyroid scan. The results are summarised as follows: 1) 80%. of hyperthyroid patients had hyperthyroidism increased RAIU with even density, they are compatible with Graves' disease. 2) 2.1% of hyperthyroid patients had normal or decreased RAIU, which are classified as high iodine turn over genuine hyperthyroidism. 3) 8.5% of hyperthyroid patients had markedly decreased RAIU at both 2 hour and 24 hour, whose pathologic processes are suggested to be heterogenous namely subacute thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and pamless thyroiditis. 4) 45% of hypothyroid patients had increased 24 hr RAIU, 30% of hypothyroid patients were normal, 25%, decreased. In conclusion, thyroid scan should be reevaluated its useful role to asses the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease. Especially in cases of transient thyrotoxicosis, thyroid scan is essential to diagnose and follow up the disease process.

  16. Autonomous linear lossless systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Shodhan; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We define a lossless autonomous system as one having a quadratic differential form associated with it called an energy function, which is positive and which is conserved. We define an oscillatory system as one which has all its trajectories bounded on the entire time axis. In this paper, we show that an autonomous system is lossless if and only if it is oscillatory. Next we discuss a few properties of energy functions of autonomous lossless systems and a suitable way of splitting a given ener...

  17. Effects of bedrest and centrifugation of humans on serum thyroid function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in plasma volume and protein concentration have been reported when normal subjects are bedrested or centrifuged. Since thyroid hormones are transported by specific plasma proteins, each of these procedures could be expected to change plasma levels of these hormones. In this study centrifugation of normal healthy human subjects produced an increased concentration of total protein and albumin. When these same subjects were bedrested for six days, no change in total protein, albumin or thyroxine binding globulin were found although there was an eight per cent decrease in plasma volume. Centrifugation and, to a lesser extent, bedrest produced changes in serum T-4 levels and the T-3 test results. The direction of these changes (decreased % T-3 values and increased T-4 levels) indicate that these two situations produce an increased plasma concentration of thyroxine binding sites.

  18. Patterns of Sensitivity to Emotion in Children with Williams Syndrome and Autism: Relations between Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Grichanik, Mark; Arnold, Andrew J.; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with atypical social-emotional functioning. Affective visual stimuli were used to assess autonomic reactivity and emotion identification, and the social responsiveness scale was used to determine the level social functioning in children with WS and ASD contrasted with typical…

  19. Patterns of Sensitivity to Emotion in Children with Williams Syndrome and Autism: Relations Between Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity and Social Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Grichanik, Mark; Arnold, Andrew J; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-08-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with atypical social-emotional functioning. Affective visual stimuli were used to assess autonomic reactivity and emotion identification, and the social responsiveness scale was used to determine the level social functioning in children with WS and ASD contrasted with typical development (TD), to examine syndrome-specific and syndrome-general features. Children with ASD exhibited the highest arousal in response to faces, with a lack of difference in autonomic sensitivity across different emotional expressions, unlike in WS and TD. The WS group demonstrated unique deficits in identifying neutral stimuli. While autonomic responsivity to neutral faces was associated with social functioning in all children, converging profiles characterized children with WS contrasted with TD and ASD. PMID:25800866

  20. Effects of oral contraceptives on the thyroid function in Sudanese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted during the period from 15/01/04 to 24/04/04 at Sudan Fertility Care Association Center. Sixty nine Sudanese females using combined oral contraceptives were chosen for this study and twenty females not using contraceptives were used as controls. All individuals were within the same age group. Thyroid hormones; thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were measured. In addition thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was also measured in both groups. The study groups were divided according to the period of using combined oral contraceptives into four groups group 1 (1-5) months, group 2 (7-16) months and group 3 (18-60) months and the control group of the non users. Determination of hormones concentrations were carried out using a highly sensitive specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The concentrations of serum T4 in group 3 was significantly higher (P4 in group 1 and 2 were found to be lower than in the control and the difference was not significant. Mean serum concentration of triiodothyronine in the study group 1, 2 and 3 were not significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum concentration of free triiodothyronine in the study groups 1, 2 and 3 were not significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum concentration of free thyroxine in the study group 1, 2 and 3 were not significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum concentration of TSH in groups 1, 2 and 3 were significantly (P<0.05) lower than in the control group.(Author)

  1. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Hadj-Kacem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS, an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA, and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL. However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21 of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junctions among patients affected with Graves' disease (GD hyperthyroidism. Ten mono-allelic variants were identified, seven of which are intronic and previously unreported. Two, c.898A>C (p.I300L and c.1061T>C (p.F354S, of the three exonic variants are non synonymous. The p.F354S variant is already described to be involved in PS or NSHL inheritances. The exploration by PCR-RFLP of p.I300L and p.F354S variants among 132 GD patients, 105 Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT, 206 Healthy subjects and 102 families with NSHL have shown the presence of both variants. The p.F354S variation was identified both among patients (1~HT and 3 GD and healthy subjects (n=5. Whereas, the p.I300L variant was identified only in GD patients (n=3. Our studies provide evidence of the importance of systematic analysis of SLC26A4 gene sequences on models other than deafness. This approach allows the identification of new variants and the review of the pathogenic effects of certain mono-allelic variants reported responsible for PS and NSHL development.

  2. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the relationship between A-bomb radiation and thyroid cancer in the literature. The previous studies have showed a similar outcome; that is, the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher with increasing radiation doses. Risk for thyroid cancer is significantly high in women. Latent cancer found at autopsy is also found to be significantly increased with increasing radiation doses, especially for women. (N.K.)

  3. Dose selection for radioiodine therapy of borderline hyperthyroid patients with multifocal and disseminated autonomy on the basis of 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to optimise radioiodine therapy of diffuse and nodular toxic goitre by calculation of the radiation dose delivered to the thyroid on the basis of the pretreatment technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under thyrotropin suppression (TcTUs). The TcTUs value serves as a substitute for the non-suppressible iodine turnover and the functional autonomous mass. Marinelli's formula was used to calculate tissue absorbed doses of 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy and 300 Gy to the thyroids of 438 patients with multifocal and disseminated autonomy. The mean age of patients was 70±9 years, and the mean thyroid volume was 54±26 ml. Two hundred and sixty-one of the patients had at least one documented previous episode of overt hyperthyroidism. Tissue absorbed doses were adapted to the pretreatment TcTUs: 150 Gy for a TcTUs of 1.5%-2.49%, 200 Gy for a TcTUs of 2.5%-3.49%, 250 Gy for a TcTUs of 3.5%-4.49% and 300 Gy for a TcTUs of ≥4.5%. Normalisation of TcTUs and thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid volume reduction and frequency of hypothyroidism and recurrent hyperthyroidism were evaluated 1 year after a single radioiodine therapy. The presented dose strategy resulted in normalisation of TcTUs in 96% and an increase in TSH to the normal range in 92%. Recurrent hyperthyroidism was observed in only five patients. Thyroid volume decreased from 54±26 before treatment to 34±20 ml, a mean reduction of 37%. The frequency of hypothyroidism, at 0.9%, was encouragingly low. Dose selection in accordance with pretreatment TcTUs can be recommended for elimination of functional autonomous tissue with a single radioiodine therapy in patients of advanced age with enlarged thyroid glands and relevant autonomous masses who are at risk of developing iodine-induced hyperthyroidism. (orig.)

  4. Thyroid dysfunction and thyroid antibodies in Iranian patients with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Sedighe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, and the pathogenesis is unknown. An increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases has been described in these patients. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and hypoparathyroidism in patients with vitiligo. Materials and Methods: One hundred and nine patients (38 males and 71 females with vitiligo were enrolled. Thyroid physical examination was carried out. Thyroid function tests, thyroid antibodies, calcium and phosphorus were assessed. The collected data were analysed by SPSS version 11. Results: Thyromegaly was found in 30.1% of patients. Hypothyroidism was found in 16 (15.7% out of 109 cases. Two of them had clinical and 14 had subclinical hypothyroidism. One patient had Grave′s disease. Antibody positivity was the most common disorder (anti-TPO and anti-tg were positive in 36.7 and 32.1%, respectively. No patient had hypoparathyroidism. Conclusion: According to our study, thyroid dysfunction, particulary hypothyroidism and thyroid antibodies increase in patients with vitiligo. We recommend thyroid antibodies assessment and thyroid function evaluation in these patients.

  5. Correlations among autonomic, sensory, and motor neural function tests in untreated non-insulin-dependent diabetic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, M A; Weinberg, C R; Cook, D L; Reenan, A; Halar, E; Halter, J B; LaCava, E C; Porte, D

    1985-01-01

    A well-defined group of untreated non-insulin-dependent (NIDD) subjects were evaluated to determine whether involvement of neural function measurements is generalized and symmetrical and to compare the autonomic, sensory, and motor neural measurements. After age adjustment, the sensory and motor neural function measurements were significantly slower in the diabetic group than in normal subjects (P less than 0.01). Similarly, the autonomic nervous system function measurements were also abnormal in the NIDD group (P less than 0.01). Further analysis revealed that each of the specific measurements--median motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV,P less than 0.005), peroneal motor NCV (P less than 0.005), median sensory NCV (P less than 0.005), dark-adapted pupil size after muscarinic blockade (P less than 0.02), pupillary latency time (P less than 0.02), and RR-variation after beta adrenergic blockade (P less than 0.001)--was significantly less by analysis of covariance after age adjustment in the NIDD group than in normal subjects. Thus, there was evidence of motor and sensory neural impairment in the upper and lower extremities as well as evidence of impairment of the reflex arcs involving the parasympathetic nerves to the heart and eye and the sympathetic nerves to the iris. Further analysis revealed that right and left NCV were correlated (P less than 0.01), as were the median motor and median sensory NCV (P less than 0.01), the median motor and peroneal motor NCV (P less than 0.001), and the peroneal motor and median sensory NCV (P less than 0.001). Thus, there was evidence of symmetrical upper and lower limb, as well as motor and sensory proportional involvement of large nerve fiber NCV in this group of NIDD subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4075943

  6. MR imaging of diffuse thyroid disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masaaki; Fujii, Koichi; Ohnishi, Takuya; Higashikawa, Motoki; Araki, Yutaka; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 38 diffuse goiters, including 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. MR findings were analyzed as to degree of swelling, margin, internal structures including homogeneity and low intensity bands. With regard to signal intensity, thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios on T1 and T2-weighted images were measured in 19 normal thyroid glands, 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. Additionally thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios were compared between 19 hypothyroid glands and 11 euthyroid glands in chronic thyroiditis. Chronic thyroiditis tended to show lobulated margins, inhomogeneous intensity, and low intensity bands connecting with vessels or not. Basedow disease tended to display smooth margins, inhomogeneous intensity and low intensity bands connecting with vessels. Thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of Basedow disease and chronic thyroiditis were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid gland at all sequences. In chronic thyroiditis thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of euthyroid glands were significantly higher than those of hypothyroid glands. MR imaging could reflect pathologic features of diffuse goiters. Moreover, MR imaging is potentially contributory to speculate about thyroid function and degree of serious condition in diffuse thyroid disorders. (author)

  7. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib H, Papini E, Paschke R, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice ...

  8. Nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. ► Using nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. ► Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. ► Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab2) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L−1 H2O2 by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2 as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab2. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab2, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab2, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab2, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab2. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab2 to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 μIU mL−1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 μIU mL−1 TSH at the 3sB criterion. Significantly, no

  9. Nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Yuling; Chen Huafeng; Hou Li; Zhang Bing; Liu Bingqian; Chen Guonan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2012-08-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold-polyaniline-nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab{sub 2}) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2} as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab{sub 2}. Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab{sub 2}, nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}, were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab{sub 2}. With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab{sub 2} to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic

  10. Maternal iodine status and the thyroid function of pregnant mothers and their neonates in Jaffna District of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavukkarasu Yoganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine status of pregnant women and their newborns have not been studied in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. This study was planned to assess the maternal iodine status and thyroid function at the third trimester of gestation and the thyrotrophin level of their neonate. Methods: Four hundred and seventy-seven pregnant women and their newborns were randomly selected among six Medical Officers of Health Divisions out of 12 in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. Maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (fT4, thyroglobulin (Tg, urinary iodine levels, and the neonatal thyrotrophin (nTSH level were assessed. Results: In this study, mean age, weight, height, and gestational age of the mothers were 28.95 (±5.46 years, 63.02 (±11.56 kg, 154.39 (±6.00 cm, and 39.33 (±1.37 weeks, respectively. Maternal median urinary iodine concentration (UIC was 140.0 μg/L (inter-quartile range 126.0–268.0 μg/L. Median values of the maternal serum TSH, fT4,and Tg were 1.9 mIU/L, 12.6 pmol/L, and 21.4 IU/L, respectively. Among the 477 newborns, 50.5% (n = 239 were males. Mean birth weight of newborn was 3.03 (±0.43 kg, while the mean length was 51.1 (±2.1 cm. Among the newborns, 18% (n = 86 had nTSH level > mIU/L and 37.7% (n = 180 within TSH level > mIU/L. nTSH level had positive but very weak correlations with maternal thyroid parameters, that is, UIC (r = 0.06, P = 0.13, fT4 (r = 0.01, P = 0.05, TSH (r = 0.09, P = 0.05, and Tg (r = 0.12, P = 0.03. Conclusion: On the basis of the World Health Organization criteria, the iodine status of pregnant women was inadequate in this region and also nTSH levels indicate moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Therefore, the continuous education on adequate iodine intake during pregnancy and monitoring of iodine status are useful.

  11. Revisiting Thyroid Hormones in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Correia Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are crucial during development and in the adult brain. Of interest, fluctuations in the levels of thyroid hormones at various times during development and throughout life can impact on psychiatric disease manifestation and response to treatment. Here we review research on thyroid function assessment in schizophrenia, relating interrelations between the pituitary-thyroid axis and major neurosignaling systems involved in schizophrenia’s pathophysiology. These include the serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic networks, as well as myelination and inflammatory processes. The available evidence supports that thyroid hormones deregulation is a common feature in schizophrenia and that the implications of thyroid hormones homeostasis in the fine-tuning of crucial brain networks warrants further research.

  12. Evaluation of standard haemodynamic tests of autonomic function and HbA1c as predictors of delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    We examined the relation between chronic glycaemic control (using glycosylated haemoglobin), haemodynamic autonomic function and rate of gastric emptying in 16 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying was measured using a paracetamol absorption technique. Parameters of gastric emptying include area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Patients were classified as diabetic autonomic neuropathy positive or negative using five standardized haemodynamic reflex tests. Area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve in the neuropathy positive (10.36 (4.5) mmol.-1. min) and negative (9.84 (3.0) mmol.-1. min) groups were similar (.P.=0.42) using unpaired Student\\'s.t. -tests. Glycosylated haemoglobin concentration and area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve (.n.=16) demonstrated a Pearson\\'s correlation co-efficient of 0.24. Neither tests of haemodynamic autonomic function, nor concentration of glycosylated haemoglobin, are predictive of diabetic gastroparesis.

  13. A STUDY OF CARDIAC AUTONOMIC CONTROL AND PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN DIFFERENT PHASES OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishrutha KV

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual cycle is a physiological cyclical occurrence in women. This is associated with variationsin metabolism and associated endocrine fluctuations. Among other things, the cardio respiratory changes too havebeen observed. In the present study, we investigated the autonomic control of heart, and concurrent changes in therespiratory system. Material and methods:Forty seven normally menstruating women were recruited from a groupof 80 subjects reported for this study voluntarily. ECG was recorded from limb lead II time domain and frequencydomain analysis of Heart rate Variability (HRV was done. Their respiratory parameters namely PEFR, FEV1weredetermined. Results:The results of this study were analysed by applying Wilcoxon’s signed rank sum test. In Timedomain analysis RMSSD (36.91±2.73, p<0.05 showed significant decrease during ovulation, while otherparameters did not show significant variation among the three phases. Frequency domain analysis yielded results tosuggest that there is increased variability during Ovulatory and Luteal phase (p<0.05. PEFR and FEV1increased inluteal phase (p<0.05.Conclusions:The results of our study reiterated the findings of reports of previous studies onthe heart rate variability suggesting that the HRV was more during ovulatory and luteal phase. This is suggestive ofthe role of Progesterone on the HRV. Similarly the respiratory parameters too showed an increased PEFR and FEV1suggesting a decreased airway resistance, while other parameters remained unchanged.

  14. Correlation between LIFG and autonomic activation during stressful tasks: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Sakatani, Kaoru; Okamoto, Masako; Yamaguchi, Yui; Zuo, Huan-Cong

    2014-10-01

    It remains unclear whether language tasks in one's first (L1) or second (L2) language can cause stress responses and whether frontal, autonomic and behavioral responses to stressful tasks are correlated. In this study, we studied 22 Chinese subjects whose L2 was English and measured the cerebral blood oxygenation in their frontal lobe by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as participants engaged in a mental arithmetic task (MAT) and verbal fluency tasks (VFTs) in L1 (Chinese) and L2 (English). To examine the activated cortical areas, we estimated the channel location based on Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) standard brain space by using a probabilistic estimation method. We evaluated heart rate (HR) changes to analyze autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning. We found that the MAT and VFTs induced greater increases in HR than did the control (Ctrl) task. Furthermore, subjects developed greater increases in HR in the MAT and VFTL2 than they did in the VFTL1. Compared with the Ctrl task, the MAT and both VFTL1 and VFTL2 produced robust and widespread bilateral activation of the frontal cortex. Interestingly, partial correlation analysis indicated that the activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) [Brodmann's area (BA) 47] was consistently correlated with the increases in HR across the three tasks (MAT, VFTL2, and VFTL1), after controlling for the performance data. The present results suggested that a VFT in L2 may be more stressful than in L1. The LIFG may affect the activation of the sympathetic system induced by stressful tasks, including MATs and VFTs. PMID:25318875

  15. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  16. Lipoprotein(a Levels in Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu Cristina Corina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the serum levels of Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] in subjects with thyroid disorders, as well as to investigate their relationship with lipid profile and the markers of thyroid function and autoimmunity, admitting that elevated Lp(a levels and dyslipidemia caused by thyroid disorders synergistically increased the atherogenic process.

  17. Lipoprotein(a) Levels in Thyroid Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pop-Radu Cristina Corina; Gliga Mirela

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the serum levels of Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] in subjects with thyroid disorders, as well as to investigate their relationship with lipid profile and the markers of thyroid function and autoimmunity, admitting that elevated Lp(a) levels and dyslipidemia caused by thyroid disorders synergistically increased the atherogenic process.

  18. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  19. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  20. Radioimmunoassay of Human Thyrotropin - Part 1. Plasma TSH levels in various thyroid functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioimmunoassay of human thyrotropin was performed in various thyroid states, utilizing the anti-h-T.S.H. antibody and purified human thyrotropin supplied from National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, Bethesda, Ma., U.S.A., and human thyrotropin standard-A obtained from National Institute for Biologic Standards, Mill Hill, London, England. 131I labelled h-TSH was prepared after the Chloramine-T method of Greenwood et al. This double antibody system had a assay sensitivity of about l. 0 μU/ml of plasma HTS-A and could detect the plasma h-TSH level in the euthyroid patients. Plasma h-TSH level of the normal 26 Korean was l.1±0. 83 μU/ml, and that of the 8 hypothyroidisms were 8.3 to 67.5 μU/ml. In hyperthyroidisms, no cases showed the plasma h-TSH levels over l. 0 μU/ ml. Between the hypothyroidism and euthyroidism, no overlap is noticed on plasma h-TSH levels. A case of transient hypothyroid state identified by determination of plasma h-TSH level is presented. These results revealed that the radioimmunoassay of h-TSH in plasma could be a sensitive method to diagnose the hypothyroidism, if not caused by a pituitary disease.