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Sample records for autonomous region china

  1. Hantaviruses in Rodents and Humans, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Feng-Xian; Gao, Na; Wang, Jian-bo; Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ming-hui; Chen, Hua-Xin; Zou, Yang; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Surveys were carried out in 2003–2006 to better understand the epidemiology of hantaviruses in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China (Inner Mongolia). Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was first reported in this region in 1955 and has been an important public health problem here since then. During 1955–2006, 8,309 persons with HFRS were reported in Inner Mongolia (average incidence rate 0.89/100,000), and 261 (3.14%) died. Before the 1990s, all HFRS cases occurred in northe...

  2. The 3rd China Standardization Forum Held in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On Aug. 14th-15th, the 3rd China Standardization Forum, hosted by Standardization Administration of China(SAC), sponsored by China Association for Standardization (CAS) and associated by the Bureau of Quality &Technical Supervision of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, was held in Urumqi, Xinjiang.

  3. China's ethnic groups: fertility change in five autonomous regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Zhu, H

    1993-08-01

    The ethnic population of China increased from 35 million in the early 1950s to more than 90 million in 1990. They make up about 8% of China's population. The changes in the fertility levels of the Mongolian, the Tibetan, the Zhuang, the Hui, and the Uygur ethnic peoples inhabiting autonomous regions were investigated. The total fertility rates (TFRs) of the Mongolian, the Zhuang, and the Hui had declined to below 3.5 by the late 1980s. The TFR of the Mongolians dropped from 6.5 in the early 1970s to 3.0 in the late 1970s, rose to 3.6 in 1981 and 1982, and fell again to 2.3 in 1989. During 1985-89 the TFR of the Uygurs was 5.09 compared to 2.42 of the Han (Chinese) women in the region. The average life-time births during this period were: 2.7 for Mongolians, 3.5 for the Zhuang, 3.6 for the Hui, 0.8 higher than for the Han women. The average TFR of the Han women declined to 3.19 during 1985-89. Implementation of the same family planning program could account for the similar fertility levels of the latter 2 groups. The TFR of the Hui women was 7.0 before 1976, staying at 6.7 during the 1970s. However, it dropped from 6.5 in 1983 to 3.58 during 1985-89. The TFR of Tibetans was 5.0 in the early 1960s, and 30 years later it hovered between 4.0 and 5.0. The Uygurs maintained a TFR of 5.0 to 6.0 in the 20 years prior to 1993, although in 3 successive years after 1985 a decline started. 10% of Uygur women aged 18 already had 1 child. 5% of Hui women aged 20 in 1988 had born children. The infertility rates of ethnic women aged 49-57 in 1988 were; 14% for the Tibetans, 5% for the Uygurs, 2% for the Mongolians, and 1% each for the Hui and the Zhuang. The decline of fertility of ethnic groups started in the 1980s, and it was rather uneven as a consequence of implementation of family planning programs after a major decline of the fertility rate of the national population in the 1970s. PMID:12287606

  4. Drought Adaptation in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China: Actions, Planning, Pathways and Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping Yang; Chunping Tan; Shijin Wang; Shengxia Wang; Yuan Yang; Hongju Chen

    2015-01-01

    The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NX region) of Northwestern China is threatened by increased meteorological drought induced by climate change (CC) and constraints on water supply from the Yellow River. Thus, the NX region is representative of attempts to adapt to CC and variability in China’s arid regions. Field visits, a questionnaire and in situ inspections were conducted in 2012–2014 to understand people’s perception and awareness of drought and its impact, particularly with respect to a...

  5. Bear-proof fences reduce livestock losses in the Tibetan Autonomous Region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Papworth, Sarah K.; Kang, Aili; Rao, Madhu; Chin, Suk Teng; Zhao, Huaidong; ZHAO, XIAOYAN; Carrasco, L. Roman

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan brown bears Ursus arctos pruinosus in the Tibetan Plateau attack and kill livestock and ransack homes for food, causing significant economic costs for local herders. Although a government fund compensates herders for livestock lost to bear attacks in the Tibetan Autonomous Region (China), compensation may not reflect the real cost of losing livestock and payments can be delayed. We investigate whether bear-proof fences are a cost-effective method for reducing bear attacks and livestoc...

  6. An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wujisguleng Wujisguleng; Khasbagen Khasbagen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples' health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a litera...

  7. An outbreak following importation of wild poliovirus in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wang, Xin-Qi; Wushouer, Fuerhati; Wang, Jian-Ping; WANG, DONG-YAN; Cui, Fu-Qiang; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Wen, Ning; Ji, Yi-Xin; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Hui-Ling; Ning, Gui-Jun; Huang, Guo-Hong; Yan, Dong-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Background After more than 10 years without a case of wild poliovirus (WPV) in China, an outbreak occurred in 2011 in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Methods Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case surveillance was strengthened with epidemiological investigations and specimen collection and serological surveys were conducted among hospitalized patients. Results There were 21 WPV cases and 23 clinical compatible polio cases reported. WPV was isolated from 14 contacts of AFP cases and 13 in the h...

  8. Introduction of Action Plan of Forestry Sustainable Development of Qinzhou-Fangchenggang area, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Guanngxi Autonomous Region is an important tropical forestry region in south of China. The main purpose of this research supported by FAO is to generate action plan for sustainable forestry development of this region. Through two-year broad and deep investigation, the programme of the action plant has been made, which includes 12 fields, 38 projects, with duration of 5 years.

  9. Characteristics and Advantages of Regional Grain Production in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the latest Land Use Planning of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangxi is divided into five regions, which are eastern Guangxi, western Guangxi, southern Guangxi, northern Guangxi, and central Guangxi. Regional variation characteristics of grain production are introduced from two aspects of the decline of grain sowing area and the increase of grain output. According to the data in Guangxi Statistical Yearbook, comparative advantages of regional grain production in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region are analyzed by the method of Comprehensive Comparative Dominance Index. Result shows that eastern Guangxi and northern Guangxi have the maximum comprehensive dominance indices with the minimum increasing amount of dominance indices. Their advantages in grain production are gradually diminished; and the grain production center is moving to central Guangxi and southern Guangxi. In order to solve the problems in grain production, Guangxi should make full use of the comparative advantage in agricultural production, carry out structural adjustment of agricultural production, and try to realize the rational distribution and specialization of agricultural production.

  10. Rehabilitation and reconstruction of Islamic Architectural Heritage in China: the example of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Lijun; François N. Dubé

    2015-01-01

    The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, located in Northwestern China, has the highest concentration of Hui Muslims in China: around 34% of the local population is Hui Muslim. Following the anti-religious campaigns of the communist regime and the wide destruction of the Cultural Revolution, Hui Muslims began gradually to reclaim their Muslim heritage in the late 70's. A major aspect of the rediscovery of their Islamic heritage was the Rehabilitation and reconstruction of Islamic Architectural buil...

  11. Drought Adaptation in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China: Actions, Planning, Pathways and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NX region of Northwestern China is threatened by increased meteorological drought induced by climate change (CC and constraints on water supply from the Yellow River. Thus, the NX region is representative of attempts to adapt to CC and variability in China’s arid regions. Field visits, a questionnaire and in situ inspections were conducted in 2012–2014 to understand people’s perception and awareness of drought and its impact, particularly with respect to adaptation strategies. We mainly focused on drought adaptation actions and planning implemented at the government level under the double pressures of drought and allocation. We described a suitable adaptation pathway for socio-economic sustainable development and discussed existing adaptation barriers. Construction of modern efficient water-saving agriculture lies at the core of drought adaptation, with socio-economic sustainable development being the ultimate goal. To achieve this, policies and institutional, engineering, technological, structural and social initiatives and measures—classified into macro adaptation strategies and specific coping measures—are implemented. Adaptation often encounters obstacles, e.g., policy issues from household contract responsibility systems, funding difficulties of low-income farmers, traditional behavioral habits and low education and literacy levels among farmers. The adaptation pathway involves the construction of modern efficient water-saving agriculture. Agricultural water savings are then transferred to developed industries, which back-feed socio-economic sustainable development in the NX region.

  12. Genetic Variation Analyses of nsp2 Gene of PRRSV in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong TIAN; Jing-yan WU; Shuang-hui YIN; You-jun SHANG; Zi-ping MAN; Na ZHAO; Ye JIN; Xiang-tao LIU

    2009-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of PRRSV in the Ningxia Hui Nationality Autonomous Region (Ningxia) of China, the nsp2 genes from a series of PRRSV strains collected from the region in 2007 were partially sequenced. These sequences were then analyzed along with the classical strain (ch-la) and two other epidemic strains SD (3) and SD2006. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence with ch-la indicated that nsp2 genes of seventeen Ningxia isolates (NX strain) have deletions of 87 nucleotides. Sequence analysis indicated that homology between the Ningxia strain and ch-la was 60.3%-79.9% in the nucleotide sequence, and homology between the NX strains and SD strains was 80.3%-98.8% in the nucleotide sequence. The nsp2 genes of the seventeen isolates had 74.9%-100% nucleotide sequence identities with each other. This study was undertaken to assess the regional variation of prevalent PRRSV and to establish a sequence database for PRRSV molecular epidemiological studies.

  13. Emergy analysis of cropping-grazing system in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ecological energetic evaluation is presented in this paper as a complement to economic account for the cropping-grazing system in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China in the year 2000. Based on Odum's well-known concept of emergy in terms of embodied solar energy as a unified measure for environmental resources, human or animal labors and industrial products, a systems diagram is developed for the crop and livestock productions with arms and sub-arms for free renewable natural resource input, purchased economic investment, yields of and interactive fluxes between the cropping and grazing sub-industries. In addition to conventional systems indices of the emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI) introduced for congregated systems ecological assessment with essential implication for sustainability, new indicators of soil emergy cost (SEC), self-support intensity (SSI) and self-support orientation (SSO) are defined to characterize the desertification and internal recycling associated with the special agricultural system. Extensive emergy accounting is made for the cropping-grazing system as a whole as well as for the cropping and grazing subsystems. The overall cropping-grazing system is shown with outstanding production competence compared with agricultural systems in some other provinces and the national average in China, though confronted with severe desertification associated with soil loss. The production of crops has higher emergy density and yield rate per unit area as well as higher rate of soil loss than grazing system. The soil emergy cost defined as the soil loss emergy divided by the yield emergy is estimated to be of the same value for both of the subsystems, but the grazing activity is with less extraction intensity, leaving rangeland to rest and rehabilitate. Suggestions with regard to the local sustainability and national ecological security in

  14. A Remote Sensing Model to Estimate Sunshine Duration in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓晨; 邱新法; 曾燕; 高佳琦; 何永健

    2015-01-01

    Sunshine duration (SD) is strongly correlated with solar radiation, and is most widely used to estimate the latter. This study builds a remote sensing model on a 100 m × 100 m spatial resolution to estimate SD for the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Digital elevation model (DEM) data are employed to refl ect topography, and moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products (Aqua MYD06−L2 and Terra MOD06−L2) are used to estimate sunshine percentage. Based on the terrain (e.g., slope, aspect, and terrain shadowing degree) and the atmospheric conditions (e.g., air molecules, aerosols, moisture, cloud cover, and cloud types), observation data from weather stations are also incorporated into the model. Verifi cation results indicate that the model simulations match reasonably with the observations, with the average relative error of the total daily SD being 2.21%. Further data analysis reveals that the variation of the estimated SD is consistent with that of the maximum possible SD; its spatial variation is so substantial that the estimated SD diff ers signifi cantly between the south-facing and north-facing slopes, and its seasonal variation is also large throughout the year.

  15. Chlorophytes of biological soil crusts in Gurbantunggut Desert, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, chlorophytes collected from 253 biological soil crust samples in Gurbantunggut Desert in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China were studied by field investigation and microscopical observation in lab. The flora composition, ecological distribution of chlorophytes in the desert and dynamic changes of species composition of chlorophytes in different developing stages of biological soil crusts are preliminarily analyzed. Results showed that there were 26 species belonging to 14 genera and 10 families, in which unicellular chlorophytes were dominant. There existed some differences in distribution of varied sand dune positions. The taxa of chlorophytes in leeward of sand dunes are most abundant, but the taxa in windward, interdune and the top of sand dunes reduced gradually. Chlorophytes were mainly distributed within the crust and the taxa of chlorophytes decrease obviously under the crust. In the devel-oping stages of the biological soil crust, species diversity of chlorophytes changed a little, but species composition pre-sented some differences. Chlorococcum humicola, Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas ovalis and Chlamydomonas sp. nearly existed in all developing stages of biological crusts. In several former stages of the biological soil crust there were spherical chlorophytes and filamentous ones. When moss crust formed, filamentous chlorophytes disappeared, such as Microspora and Ulothrix.

  16. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  17. Raman microscopy of hand stencils rock art from the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernanz, Antonio; Chang, Jinlong; Iriarte, Mercedes; Gavira-Vallejo, Jose M.; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Bueno-Ramírez, Primitiva; Maroto-Valiente, Angel

    2016-07-01

    A series of rock art pictographs in the form of hand stencils discovered in two sites of the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (China) has been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for the first time. These studies have made possible to characterise the materials present. The minerals α-quartz, phlogopite, albite and microcline have been identified in the granitic rocks supporting the paintings. Calcite and dolomite micro-particles detected on the rock surface have been attributed to desert dust. Accretions of gypsum, anhydrite and whewellite have also been identified on the rock surface. Haematite is the pigment used in the red pictographs, whereas well-crystallised graphite has been used in the black ones. The use of crystalline graphite instead of amorphous carbon (charcoal, soot or bone black) as a black pigment in rock art is an interesting novelty. Overlapped hands are proposed as a new type of hand stencils to make an unusual pictorial symbol in rock art that has been found in these sites.

  18. New coxsackievirus B4 genotype circulating in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tian

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD surveillance was initiated in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China in 2007, a crucial scrutiny for monitoring the prevalence of enterovirus serotypes associated with HFMD patients. However, this surveillance mostly focused on enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 and coxsackievirus A16; therefore, information on other enterovirus serotypes is limited. To identify the other circulating enterovirus serotypes in the HFMD outbreaks in Inner Mongolia in 2010, clinical samples from HFMD patients were investigated. Six coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4 strains were isolated and phylogenetic analyses of VP1 sequences were performed. Full-length genome sequences of two representative CVB4 isolates were acquired and similarity plot and bootscanning analyses were performed. The phylogenetic dendrogram indicated that all CVB4 strains could be divided into 5 genotypes (Genotypes I-V with high bootstrap support (90-100%. The CVB4 prototype strain (JVB was the sole member of genotype I. CVB4 strains belonging to genotype II, which were once common in Europe and the Americas, seemingly disappeared and gave way to genotype III and IV strains, which appear to be the dominant circulating strains in the world. All Chinese CVB4 strains belonged to Genotype V, a newly identified genotype supported by a high bootstrap value (100%, and are circulating only in mainland of China. Intertypic recombination occurred in the Chinese CVB4 strains with novel unknown serotype EV-B donor sequences. Two Chinese CVB4 strains had a virulent residue at position 129 of VP1, and one strain also had a virulent residue at position 16 of VP4. Increased surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of new genetic lineages of enteroviruses in areas that are often associated with large-scale outbreaks. In addition, continued monitoring of enteroviruses by clinical surveillance and genetic characterization should be enhanced.

  19. Sero-Survey of Polio Antibodies during Wild Poliovirus Outbreak in Southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Bo Wang; Shuang-Li Zhu; Jing-Shan Zheng; Ai-Li Gou; Hui Cui; Yong Zhang; Gui-Jun Ning; Chun-Xiang Fan; Yuan-Sheng Chen; Ke-Li Li; Ping Yuan; Chao Ma; Jing Ma; Hui Zheng; Xin-Chun Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak following importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) was confirmed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, in 2011. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted prior to supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), immediately after the confirmation of the WPV outbreak. In selected prefectures, participants aged ≤60 years old who visited hospitals at county-level or above to have their blood drawn for reasons not related to...

  20. Regional Evaluation of Wind Erosion of the Loess Plateau in Pengyang County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baoping; Ding Guodong; Li Yubao

    2003-01-01

    The loess plateau in China is well-known for its severe water erosion. A nationwide soil erosion survey discovered that wind erosion of the loess land is also greatly concerned. The severity of wind erosion for each land use in Pengyang County of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, was evaluated according to the national standard of soil erosion classification. The evaluation system includes a GIS database, an evaluation indicator system and a classification system for land and land use. The erodible nature of soil and annual soil loss of the most erodible land were obtained as follows: (1) Croplands plowed and harrowed in late autumn were the most erodible land,with an erosion intensity of medium grade and an erodible proportion of 46%; (2) The erodible proportion of natural grasslands was between 19.3% and 21.5%, whose erosion intensity was of mostly tolerable grade; (3) When it came to the whole county, there was 21.3% of the total area in tolerable grade in terms of wind erosion intensity, 42.1% slight and 34.8% medium.

  1. Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in multi-ethnic region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Cheng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR tuberculosis (TB has emerged as a global threat. Xinjiang is a multi-ethnic region and suffered second highest incidence of TB in China. However, epidemiological information on MDR and XDR TB is scarcely investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A prospective study was conducted to analyze the prevalence of MDR and XDR TB and the differences of drug resistance TB between Chinese Han and other nationalities population at Chest Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. We performed in vitro drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs for all 1893 culture confirmed positive TB cases that were diagnosed between June 2009 and June 2011. Totally 1117 (59.0%, 95% CI, 56.8%-61.2% clinical isolates were resistant to ≥1 first-line drugs; the prevalence of MDR TB was 13.2% (95% CI, 11.7%-14.7%, of which, 77 (30.8%; 95% CI, 25.0%-36.6% and 31 (12.8%; 95% CI, 8.6%-17.0% isolates were pre-XDR and XDR TB respectively. Among the MDR/XDR TB, Chinese Han patients were significantly less likely to be younger with an odds ratio 0.42 for age 20-29 years and 0.52 for age 40-49 years; P(trend = 0.004, and Chinese Han patients has a lower prevalence of XDR TB (9.6% than all the other nationality (14.9%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The burden of drug resistance TB cases is sizeable, which highlights an urgent need to reinforce the control, detection and treatment strategies for drug resistance TB. However, the difference of MDR and XDR TB between Chinese Han and other nationalities was not observed.

  2. The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region: A major role in China's renewable energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the IMAR is China's second largest coal producing region and the entire nation depends on over half of its energy demand from coal, the issue about more coal becoming part of the energy supply is of grave concern to the region and central government. In addition to that, China has been building more structures that demand more and more energy. The options for energy in China are to dig for more coal, discover oil and gas or import these fossil fuels. However, consideration for the environment and climate change along with concern for national security has forced China to consider a non-fossil fuel option: conservation and efficiency along with renewable energy power generation. IMAR has vast regions and areas where wind and solar have already been installed. By 2009, almost 1 GW of renewable energy systems had been installed and operating in all of China. Most of the energy was generated by hydroelectricity, though wind power - a rapidly technology in China- accounted for almost one fourth. More GWs of energy are possible along with geothermal and related renewable power sources such as the run of river and bio-mass. Major energy companies in the region are now advancing and exploring these renewable energy options along with western companies as joint ventures that create new industries, create jobs and lessen both IMAR and China's dependency on fossil fuels. (author)

  3. Active faults and seismogenic models for the Urumqi city, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingzhen; Yu, Yang; Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of the active faults and seismicity in the vicinity of Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, and have proposed a seismogenic model for the assessment of earthquake hazard in this area. Our work is based on an integrated analysis of data from investigations of active faults at the surface, deep seismic reflection soundings, seismic profiles from petroleum exploration, observations of temporal seismic stations, and the precise location of small earthquakes. We have made a comparative study of typical seismogenic structures in the frontal area of the North Tianshan Mountains, where Urumqi city is situated, and have revealed the primary features of the thrust-fold-nappe structure there. We suggest that Urumqi city is comprised two zones of seismotectonics which are interpreted as thrust-nappe structures. The first is the thrust nappe of the North Tianshan Mountains in the west, consisting of the lower (root) thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front. Faults active in the Pleistocene are present in the lower and upper parts of this structure, and the detachment in the middle spreads toward the north. In the future, M7 earthquakes may occur at the root thrust fault, while the seismic risk of frontal fold-uplift at the front will not exceed M6.5. The second structure is the western flank of the arc-like Bogda nappe in the east, which is also comprised a root thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front, of which the nappe stretches toward the north; several active faults are also developed in it. The fault active in the Holocene is called the South Fukang fault. It is not in the urban area of Urumqi city. The other three faults are located in the urban area and were active in the late Pleistocene. In these cases, this section of the nappe structure near the city has an earthquake risk of M6.5-7. An earthquake M S6.6, 60 km east to Urumqi city occurred along the

  4. Rehabilitation and reconstruction of Islamic Architectural Heritage in China: the example of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lijun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, located in Northwestern China, has the highest concentration of Hui Muslims in China: around 34% of the local population is Hui Muslim. Following the anti-religious campaigns of the communist regime and the wide destruction of the Cultural Revolution, Hui Muslims began gradually to reclaim their Muslim heritage in the late 70's. A major aspect of the rediscovery of their Islamic heritage was the Rehabilitation and reconstruction of Islamic Architectural buildings. As of today, Ningxia counts 4,500 mosques and other religious buildings. The present article seeks to introduce the architectural tendencies at play in this reconstruction, specifically the role of competing Arabic and Chinese influences.

  5. Arsenic (As) contamination: A major risk factor in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Santosh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Xinjiang province is one of the unhealthiest region in China due to natural as well as man-made activities. Here soil and water having high concentration of multi-metals especially arsenic content in the soil and water is a major threat to the peoples which suffers regularly from arsenic contamination therefore multiple diseases and illness is the common phenomenon. Therefore this area urgently needed a comprehensive assessment by governmental and nongovernmental organization to cope up with this problem and find a miracle solution which can remediate soil and water quality. There peoples suffers much for the above mentioned reason. PMID:25983049

  6. Temporal-Spatial Variation of Drought Indicated by SPI and SPEI in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China (Ningxia is an important food production area in northwest China severely affected by drought. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI were calculated based on monthly meteorological data to explore climate change and variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency, and spatial extent in Ningxia during 1972–2011. Results show that the SPEI is more applicable than the SPI for exploring climate change and drought variation in Ningxia. The Ningxia climate experienced a significant drying tendency. Annual SPEI decreased about 0.37 decade−1 during 1972–2011. Drought was exacerbated by this drying tendency. Regional average duration, maximum duration, intensity, and frequency of drought identified by the SPEI increased by one month, three months, 0.15%, and 36.1%, respectively, during 1992–2011 compared to the period of 1972–1991. The spatial extent of drought identified by the SPEI increased about 14.4% decade−1 in the spring during 1972–2011. Spatially, drought frequency increased from north to south. Average intensity (maximum duration of drought calculated by the SPEI increased (decreased northward and southward from the central arid area.

  7. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  8. SUSTAINABLE USE OF LAND RESOURCE AND ITS EVALUATION IN COUNTY AREA--A Case of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable use of natural resources is different from sustainable development. As the most important natu-ral resource, sustainable use of land resource is the essential guarantee of sustainable development. The nature of sustain-able use of land resource is to retain the quantity and productivity of land resource from generation to generation. The evalua-tion of sustainable use of land resource is an important method to ensure land-use to get onto the sustainable track. Further-more, building index system is the key of the evaluation. In view of tendency of the evaluation indexes chosen so widely,the evaluation indexes should include only three kinds in the researches on the evaluation of sustainable use of land re-source. The first is the stock and structure index of land resource, viz. Areas quantity structure of land resources. In Chi-na, it is especially paid attention to the per person index of land quantity and rate between cultivated land and farmland.The second is the productive index of land, which includes the productivity, potentiality, stability and renewal situationof land. The third is the sustained index of land environment. On the evaluation research of area level, we should layparticular emphasis on statistic indexes. With a case of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China, the evaluationindex system of sustainable land-use in county area has been built in this thesis. Using the weighted average method tocalculate the means of sustainable land-use in each county, according to the land-using situation, all counties in the au-tonomous region have been divided into three types. (1) Sustainable Pattern contains 18 counties, which have higherland resource productivity, stronger sustained abilities of land environment. The economic benefits of land-using in thesecounties are obviously higher. These counties have gotten highly intensive farming, and they are all in the good circum-stance. (2) Basically Sustained Pattern contains 48 counties, which

  9. Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Utilizes Standardization to Promote Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China, 10 ethnic minorities with a combined population of over 20 million people are followers of Islam. In Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the population is nearly 6 million, among which the Islamic population is about 2 million.

  10. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland. PMID:26675454

  11. Community surveys and risk factor analysis of human alveolar and cystic echinococcosis in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the true community prevalence of human cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis (hydatid disease) in a highly endemic region in Ningxia Hui, China, by detecting asymptomatic cases. METHODS: Using hospital records and "AE-risk" landscape patterns we selected study communities predicted to be at risk of human echinococcosis in Guyuan, Longde and Xiji counties. We conducted community surveys of 4773 individuals from 26 villages in 2002 and 2003 using questionnaire ana...

  12. Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) Infection in Farmed Ruminants in Three Northeastern Provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Wu-Wen; Kang, Yuan-Huan; Chen, Long; Wang, Wei-Li; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-08-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the pathogenic agent of Q fever, a zoonosis that occurs worldwide. In China, the organism infects people and a wide range of wild and farmed animals. However, little is known about C. burnetii infection in farmed ruminants in northeastern China, and there appears to have been no previous study on sika deer. The present study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in farmed ruminants in this region of China. A total of 3147 domestic ruminants (784 sheep, 1016 cattle, and 1347 sika deer) were randomly collected for this study. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to detect the antibodies to C. burnetii. The results showed an overall seroprevalence of 16.7% in domestic ruminants (24.9%, 13.5%, and 12.3% in cattle, sheep, and sika deer, respectively). This is the first report of C. burnetii seroprevalence in sika deer in China. Protective and hygiene measures should be applied in farm management to reduce the risk of exposure of C. burnetii to humans. PMID:26273813

  13. Transmission of human enterovirus 85 recombinants containing new unknown serotype HEV-B donor sequences in Xinjiang Uighur autonomous region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human enterovirus 85 (HEV85, whose prototype strain (Strain BAN00-10353/BAN/2000 was isolated in Bangladesh in 2000, is a recently identified serotype within the human enterovirus B (HEV-B species. At present, only one nucleotide sequence of HEV85 (the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain is available in the GenBank database. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report the genetic characteristics of 33 HEV85 isolates that circulated in the Xinjiang Uighur autonomous region of China in 2011. Sequence analysis revealed that all these Chinese HEV85 isolates belong to 2 transmission chains, and intertypic recombination was found with the new unknown serotype HEV-B donor sequences. Two HEV85 isolates recovered from a patient presenting acute flaccid paralysis and one of his contacts were temperature-insensitive strains, and some nucleotide substitutions in the non-coding regions and in the 2C or 3D coding regions may have affected the temperature sensitivity of HEV85 strains. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese HEV85 recombinant described in this study trapped a new unknown serotype HEV-B donor sequence, indicating that new unknown HEV-B serotypes exist or circulate in Xinjiang of China. Our study also indicated that HEV85 is a prevalent and common enterovirus serotype in Xinjiang.

  14. Epidemiological trends and characteristics of Japanese encephalitis changed based on the vaccination program between 1960 and 2013 in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Liang, Nengxiu; Tan, Yi; Xie, Zhichun

    2016-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most severe kinds of viral encephalitis and is prevalent in Asia and the Western Pacific. In China, JE was first reported in the 1940s and became the main cause of viral encephalitis, including in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. In 1951, JE was included in the Chinese mandatory disease reporting system. In the pre-vaccine era of the 1960s and 1970s, the incidence of JE continued to rise without any vaccine supply. Since JE vaccines became available in the late 1970s (MBD) and 1989 (LAV-SA-14-14-2), and as JE vaccine became freely available to patients beginning in 2008, the incidence of JE has declined significantly. Despite these gains, outbreaks continue to occur among children in rural and suburban areas. Strengthening vaccine delivery models and improving swine vaccine production are important in order to sustain continuous declines in the incidence of JE in Guangxi. PMID:26972041

  15. Impact of anthropogenic and natural environmental changes on Echinococcus transmission in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echinococcus transmission is known to be affected by various environmental factors, which may be modified by human influence or natural events including global warming. Considerable population growth in the last fifty years in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR, the People’s Republic of China (PRC, has led to dramatic increases in deforestation and modified agricultural practices. In turn, this has resulted in many changes in the habitats for the definitive and intermediate hosts of both Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which have increased the risks for transmission of both parasites, affecting echinococcosis prevalence and human disease. Ecological environmental changes due to anthropogenic activities and natural events drive Echinococcus transmission and NHAR provides a notable example illustrating how human activity can impact on a parasitic infection of major public health significance. It is very important to continually monitor these environmental (including climatic factors that drive the distribution of Echinococcus spp. and their impact on transmission to humans because such information is necessary to formulate reliable future public health policy for echinococcosis control programs and to prevent disease spread.

  16. HIV Screening and Awareness Survey for Pregnant Women in a Remote Area in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuping; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene; Wu, Qiang; Yu, Jiang; Guo, Zhiqiu; Han, Yali; Fan, Yujiang; Qin, Xianfang; Xu, Ping; Bolatihan, Janati; Hoshaerbai, Mayinuer; Yuan, Luping; Hong, Heng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China has increased in recent years. HIV screening for pregnant women was performed in a remote area in Xinjiang, as an effort to promote universal HIV screening in pregnant women and to help prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Methods: Pregnant women in Burqin and Jeminay Counties in Xinjiang were offered free voluntary HIV screening. Local mid-level medical workers were trained to use Determine® HIV-...

  17. SUSTAINABLE USE OF LAND RESOURCE AND ITS EVALUATION IN COUNTY AREA-A Case of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sutainable use of natural resources is different from sustainable development.As the most important natural resource,sustainable use of land resource is the essential guarantee of sustainable development.The nature of sustainable use of land resource is to retain the quantity and productivity of land resource from generation to generation.The evaluaton of sustainable use of land resource is an important method to ensure land-use to get onto the sustainable track.Furthermore,building index system is the key of the evaluation.In view of tendency of the evaluation indexes chosen so widely,the evaluation indexes should include only three kinds in the researches on the evaluation of sustainable use of land resourece.The first is the stock and structure index of land resource,viz,Areas quantity structure of land resources.In China,it is especially paid attention to the per person index of landquantity and rate between cultivated land farmland.The second is the productive index of land,which includes the productivity,potentiality,stability and renewal situation of land.The third is the sustained index of land environment .On the evaluation research of areal level,we should lay particular emphasis on statistic indexes.With a case of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China,the evaluation index system of sustainable land-use in county area has been built in this thesis,Using the weighted average method to calculate the means of sustainable land-use in each county,according to the land-using situation,all counties in the autonomous region have been divided into three types.(1)Sustainable Pattern contains 18 counties,which have higher land resource productivity,stronger sustained abilities of land environment.The economic benefits of land-using in these conties are obviously higher.These counties have gotten highly intensive farming,and tyey are all in the good circumstance.(2)Basically Sutained Pattern contains 48 counties,which productivity of land resource is of middle

  18. Retrospective Study to Determine Diagnostic Utility of 6 Commonly Used Lung Cancer Biomarkers Among Han and Uygur Population in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang-Chun, Feng; Min, Feng; Di, Zhang; Yan-Chun, Huang

    2016-05-01

    serum tumor markers also proved the result of cluster analysis. No matter SCLC or NSCLC, the positives rate of all tumor markers were increasing as clinical stage advancing. Pro-GRP had higher positive rate than NSE in limited stage of SCLC. CA125 had the highest positive rate in I and II stage of NSCLC, and CYFRA21-1 had the highest positive rate in III and IV stage of NSCLC. CEA and CA125 were beneficial to diagnose adenocarcinoma, CYFRA21-1, and SCC identified squamous cell cancer better.Only SCC level was higher in Han population than Uygur population because of the differences of smoking constituent ratio between 2 populations. So, it could be unified to research the application value of the 6 indicators for the Han and Uygur population. Then, we suggested a primary diagnostic utility of 6 commonly by lung cancer biomarkers in both the Han and Uygur populations in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China. PMID:27149479

  19. Evaluation of the tuberculosis programme in Ningxia Hui Autonomous region, the People’s Republic of China: a retrospective case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is a devastating disease due to its rapid transmission and high rate of mortality. Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR, located in the North-west, is one of the poorest provinces in China and national surveys have shown TB has been hyper endemic in NHAR for several decades. As no active surveys had been undertaken since the initiation of the DOTS control program across all of NHAR. Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of all clinical records of TB patients registered from January 2005 to September 2009. Poisson regression was performed to investigate the change in incidence over time and accounted for age, sex and county. Length of time on treatment, disease severity and patient delay were assessed by county. Results More than 30% of patients had been on treatment for over 12 months and 10% for over 3 years, reflecting drug-resistance or failure of DOTS. More than 93% of patients had grade III disease at time of diagnosis and >15% of patients had severe disease grade IV-V in some NHAR counties. Further, 8.8% of patients were not diagnosed for over 6 months from the onset of symptoms; this was as high as 20% in some counties. The reported incidence of TB is most likely grossly underestimated and the data indicate TB is a major public health concern in NHAR. Conclusions It is clear that active surveillance is necessary to determine the full extent of the burden of TB in NHAR. New control and treatment strategies for TB are required that increase awareness in the health-care system and at the individual and community level.

  20. Chinalco Signed Agreement with Guangxi Autonomous Region to Drive Forward Cooperation in Investment Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Recently,the Aluminum Corporation of China Limited and the People’s Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region held signing ceremony for investment cooperation agreement in Nanning City.Luo Jianchuan,member of the CPC Party Leadership Group of Chinalco and President of Chinalco,and Chen Gang,Vice Chairman of the People’s Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous

  1. Research on soil multi-media environmental pollution around a Pb-Zn mining and smelting plant in the karst area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Chaobing; WANG Shuangfei; LI Fasheng

    2009-01-01

    The method of principal component analysis was applied to systematical research on the soil multi-media environment, including soil, surface water, ground water, waterbody sediment and agricultural crops, as well as pollution-inducing wastewater, mullock (or waste ore) and slag in the periphery of a large-sized Pb-Zn mining and smelting plant in a karst area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The results revealed that soils in the area studied have been heavily polluted by Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg, and the levels of these metals in the samples of agricultural crop greatly exceed the standards. The above-mentioned pollutants exist in all soil-multi-media environments. The mullock, slag, wastewater, surface water, ground water, soil, and agricultural crops constitute a composite ecological chain. Therefore, the improper disposal of mullock and slag, and the use of polluted wastewater for agricultural irrigation are the main causes of soil pollution. Heavy metals in the soil have three transition progresses: point (improved soil with slag, ground water inflow plot), linear (river transition) and non-point transition (regional pollution by slag) patterns, and the tailing yard is the most important locus for heavy metals to release into the environment.

  2. Degradation of pyrene and characterization of Saccharothrix sp. PYX-6 from the oligotrophic Tianchi Lake in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuting; REN Fenghua; ZHOU Peijin; XIA Min; LIU Shuangjiang

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial strain PYX-6 that utilizes anthracene, phenanthrene, or pyrene for carbon and energy sources for growth was isolated from a non-polluted lake (Tianchi Lake) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomons Region of China. Its morphology, physiological and biochemical properties, cell wall pattern and G+C mol% content of DNA molecules were characterized. The 16S rRNA gene of strain PYX-6 was sequenced and analyzed for similarities to related bacterial species. Results indicated that strain PYX-6 is a member of the Genus Saccharothrix, and the strain was named Saccharothrix sp. PYX-6. When pyrene was the sole carbon source in cultural medium, the strain PYX-6 assimilated pyrene for growth and 0.005% of yeast extract stimulated pyrene degradation and assimilation. The optimal pH of cultural medium and the optimal shaking frequency during cultivation were 6-8 and 200 r/m, respectively. It was found that the disappearance of pyrene in medium occurred before significant growth of strain PYX-6 took place. Phthalic acid, benzylacetic acid, and benzylpropenoic acid were detected as catabolic intermediates during pyrene degradation with mass spectroscopy and this result indicated that Saccharothrix sp. PYX-6 adopted a pathway that is different from the pathway of the previously reported pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium sp. PYR-1.

  3. Competitiveness of Characteristic Agriculture in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Based on Explanatory Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Ming-lan

    2011-01-01

    The five explanatory indicators of the competitiveness of characteristic agriculture are the agricultural science and technology, the cultural quality of agricultural labor force, the agricultural infrastructure, the resource endowment, and the agricultural management scale. According to these explanatory indicators, competitiveness of characteristic agriculture is relatively strong in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, which is mainly reflected in the resource advantage, irrigation d...

  4. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  5. 螺旋藻属(Spirulina(Arthrospira))一新种%A New Species of Spirulina (Arthrospira) from the Mu Us Sandy Land of Inner Mongolia. Autonomous Region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博生; 乔辰; 曾昭琪

    2001-01-01

    该文论述了螺旋藻属一新种.该新种采集于内蒙古伊克昭盟毛乌素沙地巴彦淖尔湖.通过光学显微镜、扫描和透射电子显微镜照片,描述了这一新种的形态特征,定名为巴彦淖尔螺旋藻(Spirulina)(Arthrosptra)bayannurens B.Sh.Li et C.Qiao sp.nov.).巴彦淖尔螺旋藻的模式标本存放在内蒙古农业大学植物标本室.%A new species, Spirulina (Arthrospira) bayannurensis B. Sh. Li et C. Qiao sp. nov. was firstlycollected from the Lake of Bayannur, Mu Us Sandy Land, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China on April 30, 1996. The morphological characteristics of the new species are described and illustrated by light micrographs,scanning and transmission electron micrographs. The type specimen of this new species is kept in Herbarium of In ner Mongolia Agricultural University.

  6. Source, evolution and emplacement of Permian Tarim Basalts: Evidence from U-Pb dating, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics and whole rock geochemistry of basalts from the Keping area, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dayu; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Jowitt, Simon M.; Fan, Yu; Liu, Shuai

    2012-04-01

    Permian basalts distribute at least 250,000 km2, and underlie the southwest Tarim Basin in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, northwest China. This vast accumulation of basalt is the main part of the Tarim Large Igneous Province (LIP). The basaltic units in the Lower Permian Kupukuziman and Kaipaizileike Formations in the Keping area, Tarim Basin; were the best exposure of the Permian basalt sequence in the basin. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon from the basal basaltic unit in the section gives an age of 291.9 ± 2.2 Ma (MSWD = 0.30, n = 17); this age, combined with previously published geochronological data, indicates that the basalts in the Tarim Basin were emplaced between 292 Ma and 272 Ma, with about 90% of the basalts being emplaced between 292 and 287 Ma. Basalts from the Keping area have high FeOT (10.8-18.6 wt.%), low Mg#s (0.26-0.60), and exhibit primitive mantle normalized patterns with positive Pb, P and Ti but negative Zr, Y and Ta anomalies. The basalts from both formations have similar 206Pb/204Pb (18.192-18.934), 207Pb/204Pb (15.555-15.598) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.643-38.793) ratios. The basalts also have high ɛSr(t) (45.7-62.1), low ɛNd(t) (-3.6 to -2.2) and low zircon ɛHf(t) (-4.84 to -0.65) values. These characteristics are typical of alkali basalts and suggest that the basalts within the Tarim Basin were derived from an OIB-type mantle source and interacted with enriched mantle (EMI-type) before emplacement. Rare earth element systematics indicate that the parental melts for the basalts were high-degree partial melts derived from garnet lherzolite mantle at the base of the lithosphere. Prior to emplacement, the Tarim Permian Basalts (TPB) underwent fractional crystallization and assimilated crustal material; the basalts were finally emplaced during crustal extension in an intra-plate setting. The wide distribution, deep source and high degree partial melting of the TPB was consistent with a mantle plume origin. The TPB and other coeval igneous

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Hypertension in the Labor Force Population in China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De Min; Li, Xue Feng; Goan, Daniel; Yang, De Min; Li, Jun Mei; Wang, Xia; Huang, Yu Lian; Chen, Yuan Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of hypertension and identify its contributory factors in the labor force population in Karamay. A total of 2819 adults (55.9% male adults) were interviewed and examined. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension was 32.4%. Among 914 hypertensive patients, 34.8% were aware of their diagnosis, 22.1% received treatment, and 5.6% achieved blood pressure control. Hypertension was significantly correlated with age, overweight/obesity, central obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in both men and women. In addition, less education, alcohol consumption, and less walking were risk factors for men. Effective hypertension prevention and control programs are urgently needed to decrease the burden of hypertension in this region. PMID:27241740

  8. SOCIO-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT OF EDUCATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF FORMATION HIGH PEDAGOGICAL SCHOOL IN THE INNER ASIA REGIONS (EXAMPLE OF ULAN-UDE (BURYATIA, RUSSIA AND HOHHOT (INNER MONGOLIA AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Innokentievna Garmaeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the some aspects of formation of the pedagogical higher school in Republic of Buryatia and Inner Mongolia Autonomous region. The importance of research is obvious, because it is necessary to comprehend the changes happening in the XX century in educational systems and its influences on modern processes, to analyze and establish the reasons of the transformational processes happening in an education system that is impossible without experience gained from previous generation. Methodological basis of the research is the historical method, and also systematic and structural-functional analysis. Results of the study let us to reveal features of development and formation of the pedagogical higher school of Internal Asia considering their history and national color and also have a direct relation to one of the most actual problem of cultural, information and educational security. The obtained results can be used in the work of public authorities involved in the development of public policy in the field of education, in reading of the lecture course, special seminars on pedagogy and history of education for the students and specialists of humanities.

  9. Textual research of 1219 A.D. Guyuan earthquake in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China and discussion on its causative structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Dao-yang; LEI Zhong-sheng; ZHANG Jun-ling; LIU Bai-chi; LIANG Ming-jian

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of textual research on the historical earthquake data and the field investigation of 1219 A.D. Guyuan earthquake, we suggest that there is only one strong earthquake occurred in Guyuan area in 1219 A.D., instead of two or three strong earthquakes. We further suggest that the earthquake parameters recorded in the present earthquake catalogs are not defimite and should be modified. The occurrence time of this earthquake should be about Ⅱ am, August 7, 1219 A.D. and the heavily-damaged area of this earthquake, the Ⅷ intensity area, should be located among the regions of Guyuan, Pingliang and Longde county cities. The epicenter area should be near Guyuan city. The magnitude of this earthquake is about 7 and it has intensity about larger than or equal to IX within the epicenter area. The major axis direction of the heavily-damaged area strikes in north-northwest that is approximately consistent with the strike of the Liupan Shan thrust fault zone. The new tectonic activity of the Liupan Shan thrust fault zone resulted in the M7 Guyuan earthquake in 1219 A.D.

  10. Regional Population Projections for China

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, F.L.; Cao, G.-Y.; Hizsnyik, E.

    2003-01-01

    Considering the size and the regional diversity of China, a prudent analysis of many economic and policy issues needs to consider the regional differences in climate, soil, water, and other natural resource endowments, population density, and social and economic development. Future-oriented multi-regional assessments require regionally detailed scenarios. A key component of such scenarios is the evolution of the population in different regions. For studies of land-use change and agriculture, ...

  11. 西藏自治区2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报%Statistical Communiqué of Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China on the 2009 Regional Economic and Social Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    西藏自治区统计局国家统计局西藏调查总队

    2010-01-01

    @@ In 2009, under the leadership of the CPC Tibet Autonomous Regional Committee and Tibet Autonomous Regional Government, local governments and departments at all levels, taking as the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of "Three Represents," implemented earnestly the scientific outlook on development, focused on the guiding working principle of the region in the new era and the principles of central and regional economic work conferences, and adhered to the development path with Chinese and Tibetan characteristics.

  12. Regional distribution of urban population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoye, E

    1970-03-01

    The attempt is made to clarify the regional distribution of population in China, particularly the urban population, and to trace the course of changes which have occurred under the new regime. As this study was conducted as a part of a study of the industrial location in China, the relation of industrial location to the regional distribution of population must be clarified first. The major statistics regarding the regional distribution of various economic values including population are given on the basis of administrative division. Population by province and the population density are given for mid-year of 1953 and year end of 1954 and 1957. The population density by province shows considerable variety, the average having no significance in itself. The density is high in the eastern provinces and low in the western provinces. The population density of 17 provinces was higher than the national average and that of 8 provinces was below the average. It can be pointed out from the changes in 1953-1957 that population grew in size in all provinces and autonomous districts except for the slight decrease in Tibet. The growth rate almost reached the national average in most provinces. No change was seen in the ranking by population density. Very little data is available to show the situation after 1957. The economic geography of China is characterized by the distinctive contrast between the well developed regions of 3 provinces in Northwest Region, as well as Hopei and Kiangsu and other undeveloped regions. The long-term policy on industrial location is based on several principles but practically aims at the locational dispersion of industry and the elimination of differences in income standard and industrial structure among regions. Provinces of China can be divided into 3 groups according to the urban population ratio. The 1st group is Liaoning with the highest ratio of approximately 33%; the 2nd group consists of 4 provinces, i.e., Heilungkiang, Kiangsu, Kirin, and

  13. Enterobius vermicularis Infection Status among Children in 9 Provinces/Autonomous regions/Municipalities of China%中国9省(区、市)儿童蛲虫感染调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖丹; 王聚君; 朱慧慧; 诸廷俊; 臧炜; 钱门宝; 李红梅; 周长海; 王国飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infection status of Enterobius vermicularis among children in 9Provinces/Autonomous regions/Municipalities (P/MM) of China,and analyze its risk factors.Method From April to December 2011,one provincial capital (prefecture-level city) and one county (city,district) were chosen as investigation spots from Guangdong,Guangxi,Hainan,Chongqing,Sichuan,Zhejiang,Fujian,Anhui and Guizhou,respectively.Children aged 2 to 12 were examined by using adhesive cellophane anal swab with round-bottom tube.Information of children's family condition,health behavior and school environment were collected by questionnairing.Results 14 964 children were examined,and 14 582 qualified questionnaires were collected.The total prevalence was 17.8% (2659/14964).Of the 9 P/A/M,the prevalence was highest in Hainan Province (51.1%,869/1701) and lowest in Anhui Province(0.8%,13/1 589).The prevalence in urban areas (7.3%,552/7581) was lower than that of rural areas (28.5%,2 107/7 383)(x2=1156.73,P<0.01).The highest prevalence in urban and rural areas was found in Haikou City(38.0%,322/847) and Wanning City (64.1%,547/854) of Hainan Province.The prevalence rate in males and females was 17.4%(1410/8 128) and 18.3% (1249/6834),respectively (x2=2.192,P>0.05).The highest prevalence in males (61.2%,300/490)and females (67.9%,247/364) was found in children of Wanning City.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that residence,education level of parents,occupation of parents,nail biting,types of classroom ground and type of boarding were the risk factors on E.vermicularis infection.Conclusion The prevalence of enterobiasis in children is still high in many areas of China,and the prevention and control measures should be taken according to the risk factors.%目的 了解中国9省(区、市)城乡儿童蛲虫感染情况,分析蛲虫病感染的危险因素,为蛲虫病的防治提供指导. 方法 于2011年4~12月分别选取广东、广西

  14. A feasibility study on using cassava stems for the production of bioenergy in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,China%广西木薯茎秆资源的能源利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶光灿; 谢光辉; H(a)kan (O)rberg; 熊韶峻

    2011-01-01

    文章分析了广西木薯茎秆资源可获得性及燃料性状,进而讨论了开发木薯茎秆资源的可行性及商业价值,证明木薯茎秆是优秀的生物质原材料,具有开发固体成型燃料及热电联产的价值.%Based on the evaluate of the resource availability and combustion characteristic of cassava stems in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, this paper focused on the feasibility of pelletizing and commercial value of cassava stens as a biomass feedstock. Cassava stems were proved a promising biofuel, and can be produced as pellets/briquettes, then production of electricity, heat and pellets/briquettes.

  15. Overall Evaluation on the Level of Rural Economic Development in 31 Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking China Rural Statistical Yearbook in 2008 as the data source, we select 10 indices scientifically and rationally. By using SPSS statistical software, factor analysis method and cluster analysis method in multivariate statistical analysis, we conduct analysis on the level of rural economic development in 31 provinces, municipalities directly under the Central Government, autonomous regions in China. Finally we extract 4 composite factors and offer the overall ranking of them. We divide the 31 regions of China into four types, namely the regions with developed agricultural economy, the regions with relatively developed agricultural economy, the regions with less-developed agricultural economy, and the regions with underdeveloped agricultural economy.

  16. Competitiveness of Characteristic Agriculture in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Based on Explanatory Indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The five explanatory indicators of the competitiveness of characteristic agriculture are the agricultural science and technology,the cultural quality of agricultural labor force,the agricultural infrastructure,the resource endowment,and the agricultural management scale.According to these explanatory indicators,competitiveness of characteristic agriculture is relatively strong in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China,which is mainly reflected in the resource advantage,irrigation degree,and road construction level.However,the agricultural technology level,the cultural quality of agricultural labor force,the agricultural mechanization,and the agricultural management scale have relatively poor competitiveness.Therefore,more attention should be paid in these aspects,in order to improve the competitiveness of characteristic agriculture in Guangxi.

  17. EU-China cooperation on regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Minarčíková

    2016-01-01

    Although the European Union and China are different in terms of area, population, economic, social, political and cultural development, both of them have to face similar challenge – the significant regional disparities and unbalanced regional development. Based on this the EU-China cooperation on regional policy has been launched and there is huge potential to develop mutual learning initiatives to allow their regions developed. The main aim of this paper is to outline the trends in evolution...

  18. Comparing regional development in China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanrui

    2008-01-01

    Economic growth in China and India has attracted many headlines recently. As a result, the literature comparing the two Asian giants has expanded substantially. This paper adds to the literature by comparing regional growth, disparity and convergence in the two economies. This is the first of its kind. The paper presents a detailed examination of economic growth in the regions of China and India over the past twenty years. It also provides an assessment of regional disparity in the two countr...

  19. China's Policymaking for Regional Economic Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    Yang Jiang opens the black box of China's policymaking for free trade agreements and key regional financial initiatives. Using first-hand interview data, she sheds light on the key trends of China's trade and financial politics after its WTO entry in 2001. In particular, she highlights the...

  20. Uranium Potential and Regional Metallogeny in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jindai; LI Ziying

    2008-01-01

    This paper is briefly involved in distributions of China's uranium metallogenic types,provinces, regions and belts. Eight target regions have been pointed out to be worthy of prospectingfor uranium resources. The regional uranium metallogeny is discussed and great uranium potentialpointed out from many aspects. Generally speaking, there are favorable conditions for uraniummineralization and good perspective to explore for uranium resources.

  1. Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.

  2. Education for Sustainable Development in Ethnic Autonomous Areas of China: A Comparison of Two Curriculum Initiatives and Their Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Yishin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of two curriculum initiatives in China that have produced curricular materials promoting education for sustainable development (ESD) in minority-populated ethnic autonomous areas in China. The two curriculum projects present distinctive discourses, conceptions, models, frameworks and scopes of ESD…

  3. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations in Breast Cancer Women of Multiple Ethnic Region in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Jianghua; Wu, Tao; Sijmons, Rolf; Ni, Duo; Xu, Wenting; Upur, Halmurat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to further understand the status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation among Chinese high-risk breast cancer patients in multiple-ethnic regions of China. Methods: A total of 79 blood samples of high-risk breast cancer patients from Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region were anal

  4. Comparison of mineral intake between children from endemic and non-endemic areas for Kashin-Beck disease in Tibet Autonomous Region: Pilote study

    OpenAIRE

    Dermience, Michael; Maesen, Philippe; Mathieu, Françoise; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Lognay, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy affecting between 0.74 million and 2.5 million people in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People’s Republic of China. The etiology remains unclear, although a multifactorial hypothesis has been proposed (selenium/iodine deficiency; high concentration of organic matters in drinking water; and mycotoxin poisoning by fungi infecting cereals). The rural population is almost exclusive...

  5. REGIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM: THEORETICAL APPROACH AND EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-guang; CHEN Cai

    2003-01-01

    Regional innovation system (RIS) is the new research field of modern economic geography in the age of knowledge economy. Based on the researches of regional economic geography, the authors of the paper consider RIS as the integrated and interactive systems with innovation milieu, elements, units, structure and functions. Five aspects of evaluation indicators including innovation input scale and output scale, innovation milieu transition, innovation in-ner operation, as well as innovation outer impact are worked out for final indicators of RIS scale and quality. Accord-ing to different RIS situations, three patterns of independent, imitative and cooperative development are put forward for choosing. At the latter part of the paper, we select 12 provincial regions (including three municipalities and one au-tonomous region) of China for empirical study. The results show that there exists great difference among each region from the aspects of innovation scale and quality mainly owning to the diversification of RIS social and economic mi-lieu, the major innovative units of enterprises, universities and R&D institutes. Finally, the paper points out the innova-tion development decisions for each region.

  6. An epidemiological investigation on the pathogenic factors of knee osteoarthritis in Uygur, Kazakh and Han populations in pastoral areas of northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China%新疆北疆牧区维、哈、汉族膝骨性关节炎致病因素的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈明球; 刘俊昌; 王新军; 张彦峰; 张超凡; 马鑫文; 栾立

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The living standard of farmers and herdsmen in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China is significantly lower than that of urban residents in general. Meanwhile, the shortage of doctors and medicines and lack of medical knowledge are the main reasons for local farmers and herdsmen to suffer from knee osteoarthritis. Most of the farmers and herdsmen are not aware of or prevent knee osteoarthritis in the early days to remove pathogenic factors, which results in a serious condition at the time of their medical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main pathogenic factors of knee osteoarthritis in Uygur, Kazakh and Han populations in pastoral areas of northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.METHODS:The permanent residents of Uygur, Kazakh and Han ethnic groups in northern Xinjiang, China who met the criteria were selected by the method of stratified, multistage and cluster random sampling during June 2012 to October 2014. The investigation of knee osteoarthritis was conducted among al the residents who meet the inclusion criteria using the method of home scene closed questionnaire. X-ray lateral plain film examination of the knee joint was performed among the patients presenting with the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. The database was established. The multi-factor and unconditional Logistic regression analysis was conducted among the 40 variables using SPSS 20.0 software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The 3 402 of 3 540 questionnaires were valid. The Logistic regression analysis suggest that the common pathogenic factors in Han, Uygur and Kazakh ethnic groups are associated with older ages, female gender, high body mass and drink alcohol. Smoking, history of internal disease, high education level, standing position, climbing, trauma, family history, fried food, housing conditions and amenorrhea, different nationalities, churchgoing of ethnic minorities are also the major risk factors. Among the three ethnic groups, the prevalence of female patients in

  7. Regional aging and longevity characteristics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Holdaway, Jennifer; Hao, Zhe; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The factors that influence the length of human life are complex and longevity remains a controversial topic, particularly in China. This paper demonstrates the spatial patterns and changes of the elderly group (65 years old and over), the oldest old (80 years old and over) and the centenarians in China in the last decade, analyzes the influence of economic development on aging, and in the end, using a case study, explores the characteristics of the centenarians' behavior. The results indicate that high elderly and the oldest old proportions are more common in regions with higher socio-economic development and that have a favorable climate. Centenarian distribution pattern is less influenced by economic but only for few regions. Lifestyle factors, such as sufficient sleep, positive mental state and a light diet are also largely found among the centenarian group. PMID:27544461

  8. Dynamics of China's Regional Development and Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Henri L.F.M. de Groot; Cees A. Withagen; Minliang, Zhou

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve for China, using a sampleof thirty regions and covering the period 1982-1997. The types of pollution included in the studyare wastewater, waste gas and solid waste. We consider the development of the sources ofpollution in a pooled cross-section analysis considering the pollution in absolute levels, in percapita terms and relative to real GDP. At intermediate levels of GDP per capita, the increase of solidand gas emissions t...

  9. THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDYING OF RADON INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION IN THE JEWISH AUTONOMOUS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Surits

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An article presents the results of radon indoor air concentration estimations for dwellings and public buildings of the Jewish Autonomous region in 2000–2011. More than 15 000 measurements were carried out in all areas of the region during the entire observation period. Areas with an enhanced radon content in indoor air were revealed. The maximum values are registered in Obluchensky area, in separate buildings reaching 2 000 Bq/m3.

  10. Somatotype and body mass of Minority students in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China A 3-year follow-up%广西边远少数民族学生体型及体质量指数3年追踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃明路; 何江川; 杨放

    2009-01-01

    背景:前期研究表明广西18~22岁少数民族学生体质最偏轻.目的:拟进一步了解广西2645名少数民族学生体型及体质健康状况,寻找影响的关联因子.设计、时间及地点:追踪调查,于2004-12/2007-12在广西民族大学完成.对象:广西民族大学200312005三次体质健康测试的全体学生2645人.男1337人,女1308人,年龄为18~20岁,共15个民族.方法:根据2003年教育部、体育总局和实施方法分为形态指标、技能指标和身体素质指标3大类.对2645名少数民族身体机能与体质量指数变化的跟踪调查.主要观察指标:身高、体质量、肺活量、立定跳远、坐位体前屈、体质量指数.结果:①广西民族大学2003级学生大学3年期间男生身高、体质量增长率比全国同期多2.45%,身体形态发育正处于高峰期,女生成偏瘦型体型,身体形态发育情况总体欠佳.②男女学生在刚入校时肺活量机能较差,远远低于同期全国平均水平.3年后男生肺活量增长率为11.55%、女生肺活量增长率为27.72%,分别高于全国同期肺活量增长率.③坐位体前屈机能高于同期全国平均水平,男生呈逐年上升趋势,同期全国男性呈下降趋势:同期全国乡村女生均呈逐年上升趋势.④立定跳远机能提高较大,3年后增长率为18.15%.明显高于全国同期立定跳远增长率水平的2.61%.女生立定跳远机能总体不如全国同期水平.⑤体质罩指数总体与同期全固乡村男女学生体质量指数比较稍低一些(P<0.01).结论:2645名少数民族学生发育正处于高峰期:肺活耸机能不及全国同期平均水平.男女体质量指数分布有所不同,体质量偏轻者女生多于男生,表明学生营养状况总体欠佳.%BACKGROUND: Pdor findings have demonstrated that body mass of Minority students aged 18-22 years old in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China is slightly lower than concurrent nationwide level.OBJECTIVE: To

  11. Regional management strategy of cotton bollworm in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important insect pests in cotton, corn and vegetable production of China. Its regional population dynamics and management strategy derived from Bt-transgenic cotton were investigated in recent years. The researches indicated that the populations of H. armigera in the whole country can be divided into four regional groups, namely, the tropical, subtropical, temperate and Xinjiang geotypes. Their adaptive zones are respectively in southern China, middle and lower Changjiang River Region, including Sichun Province, Hunan Province, Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province etc., Yellow River Region, including Henan Province, Hebei Province, and Shandong Province etc., and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Gansu Province. Based on the analysis of H. armigera population dynamics and climate environment, it is suggested that the Beijing area is probably the northern boundary for the temperate zone geotype of the cotton bollworm. Damage to cotton by larvae of the temperate zone geotype can extend into areas of northeastern China such as Liaoning and Jilin provinces by long distance, facultative migration during the summer East Asia monsoon. Transgenic cotton that expresses a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been deployed for combating the pest since 1997. Its use expanded rapidly to 1.1 million ha in 2000 and 2.8 million ha in 2003, equivalent to 58% of the total cotton area of 4.8 million ha in 2003. The pest management tactics associated with Bt-cotton have resulted in a drastic reduction in insecticide use, which usually caused a significantly increase in populations of beneficial insects and thus contributed to improved natural control of some pests. The risk assessment shows that the natural refuges derived from the mixed planting system of cotton, corn, soybean and peanut on small-scale single-family holdings, play an important function in delaying the development of cotton bollworm

  12. Wind speed change regionalization in China(1961-2012)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Pei-Jun; ZHANG; Gang-Feng; KONG; Feng; YE; Qian

    2015-01-01

    This research quantitatively recognized the wind speed change using wind speed trend and trend of wind speed variability from 1961 to 2012 and regionalized the wind speed change on a county-level basis.The mean wind speed observation data and linear fitting method were used.The findings suggested that level-I regionalization includes six zones according to wind speed trend value in different regions,viz.Northeast ChinaeNorth China substantial declining zone,EasteCentral China declining zone,Southeast China slightly declining zone,Southwest China very slightly declining zone,Northwest China declining zone,and QinghaieTibetan Plateau slightly declining zone.Level-II regionalization divides China into twelve regions based on trend of wind speed variability and the level-I regionalization results.

  13. China and regional conflictivity: a panoramic look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Soto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Chinese-American détente of the 1980s until present-day China, we should examine and compare the challenges of a de-ideologised environment in a new framework of confrontation with the United States. An attentive look at the map will verify that several of China’s neighbouring countries have drawn closer to Washington in the context of its new doctrine of security, and they have even accepted American troops, advisers and economic aid. In relation to its neighbours, Beijing finds itself in a strategic position in which its northwestern flank is more favourable than its eastern one. On the other hand, Beijing has displayed a promising relationship with regional organisations, like the Regional Forum of ASEAN and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Nevertheless, it has little real maneuverability today in managing the Taiwan and North Korean conflicts.

  14. Wind speed change regionalization in China (1961–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jun Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research quantitatively recognized the wind speed change using wind speed trend and trend of wind speed variability from 1961 to 2012 and regionalized the wind speed change on a county-level basis. The mean wind speed observation data and linear fitting method were used. The findings suggested that level-I regionalization includes six zones according to wind speed trend value in different regions, viz. Northeast China–North China substantial declining zone, East–Central China declining zone, Southeast China slightly declining zone, Southwest China very slightly declining zone, Northwest China declining zone, and Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau slightly declining zone. Level-II regionalization divides China into twelve regions based on trend of wind speed variability and the level-I regionalization results.

  15. Analysis of HBV genotype distribution and its association with liver cirrhosis in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,China%新疆地区HBV基因分型构成特点及其与肝硬化的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓忠; 王燕; 马燕; 郭峰; 庄小芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨新疆地区HBV基因分型构成特点及其与肝硬化之间的关系。方法收集2011年10月至2013年6月新疆维吾尔自治区中医医院收治的慢性HBV感染者1018例。其中检测出基因型、资料完整的828例。根据实验室检查及彩超或CT结果将患者分为慢性乙型肝炎组、肝硬化组、原发性肝癌组。采用PCR法对HBV基因分型,运用列联卡方、秩和检验、多因素Logistic回归分析等方法对HBV基因型与临床病情及相关慢性肝病结局进行分析。结果828例患者中,以C型为主,占总样本的54.11%(448/828),B型占25.15%(200/828),D型占16.18%(134/828);各基因型病情程度构成差异无统计学意义(H=0.1689,P>0.05);116例肝硬化患者中基因C型占20.84%,与B型和D型相比较差异均有统计学意义(χ2值分别为25.486、20.947,P值均为0.000);乙型肝炎病程10年以上、基因C型、HBV DNA高病毒载量、ALT>ULN进入回归模型(P<0.05)。其中基因C型与肝硬化的相关度最高(OR=2.819,95%CI:1.582~5.021)。结论新疆地区HBV基因分型以C型为主,其次为B型、D型。基因C型是HBV相关肝硬化患者的独立危险因素。%Objective To investigate the distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV)genotypes among patients in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,China,and to explore its association with liver cirrhosis.Methods HBV genotypes of 1018 hepatitis B patients were determined by PCR analysis.The relationship of HBV genotype with clinical outcomes and relevant chronic liver diseases was assessed by contingency chi-square test,Kruskal-Wallis test,and multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis.Results Among the 828 patients whose HBV genotyping was completed in this study,type C was the major genotype and the percentage was 54.11%(448/828),25.15%(200/828) had type B,and 16.18%(134/828)had type D.Among the

  16. 西部民族自治地区人口年龄结构变化对居民消费的影响研究--基于动态面板数据模型的实证分析%Autonomous Region Population Age Structure effects on Household Consumption in West of China:Based on the Empirical Research of Dynamic Panel Data Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志仪; 刘那日苏

    2013-01-01

    本文以生命周期假说为基础,运用动态面板数据GMM估计方法,对我国西部民族自治地区人口年龄结构与居民消费的关系进行了实证考察。发现老年抚养系数和少儿抚养系数均与居民消费率显著正相关。结果还发现这些地区居民消费习惯较为稳定。控制了影响居民消费的其他因素后,本文的结果基本稳健。%Started from the life-cycle hypothesis ,this paper studies the relationship between the age structure of population and household consumption with dynamic panel analysis in the autonomous region west of China. This paper reaches the conclu-sion that there is an obvious positive effect on household consumption rate caused by elderly dependency coefficient and coef-ficient of raising children. The spending habit of household is relatively stable. After controlling the potential factors which af-fect household consumption, this paper gets almost stable.

  17. The Formation of the “Sichuan Model” with Regard to Legislation in Ethnic Autonomous Regions and Its Basic Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Enmei

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic regional autonomy with Chi ̄nese characteristics is a proper way to handle eth ̄nic issues, and is a fundamental national political system established in the Constitution. The legisla ̄tion in ethnic autonomous regions is important,and creates the basic laws for realizing autonomous rights. The legislation in ethnic autonomous re ̄gions is a generic term which refers to the activities that the people’s congresses of the ethnic autono ̄mous regions undertake,to formulate,amend and a ̄bolish autonomous regulations and specific regula ̄tions in accordance with relevant provisions found in the Constitution, the Law of Ethnic Regional Au ̄tonomy and the Law of Legislation, and which are based on local ethnic political, economic and cul ̄tural characteristics.

  18. A Seroprevalence Survey of Maedi-Visna Among Twenty-Four Ovine Floks from Twelve Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke-shan; HE Ji-jun; LIU Yong-jie; SHANG You-jun; LIU Xiang-tao

    2013-01-01

    Maedi-visna virus (MVV) is an ovine lentivirus that is widespread in many countries worldwide. Both clinical and subclinical MVV infections cause substantial economic losses. MVV infection in live sheep is usually diagnosed serologically, with antibody-positive sheep being regarded as infected. There have been few reports of maedi-visna in China, with no detailed epidemic analysis of MVV infection in ovine herds. In order to investigate the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of maedi-visna among ovine lfocks in China, a total of 672 serum samples were collected from different ovine lfocks in 12 regions (provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities) of China in 2011, and serum antibody levels were determined using a commercial ELISA Kit. This study represents the ifrst investigation of the seroepidemiology of maedi-visna in China, indicating a circulation of MMV among sheep.

  19. A critical review of regional economic integration in China

    OpenAIRE

    Rui, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Under the circumstances of economic globalization, regional economic integration has become the mainstream of current economic development for each country, so China has to pay more attention to it. The critical review on regional economic integration in China can lay a certain foundation and provide experience for the in-depth research. Main contents of regional economic integration are refined according to the previous studies and realities, including the integration of regional economic re...

  20. Theory and Practice of Marine Regional Management in China

    OpenAIRE

    JI, Shangjie; Qu, Qunzhen

    2014-01-01

    With the development of marine economy in coastal provinces and cities, there comes a series of environmental problems. Marine regional management, as a completely new marine management mode, transforms traditional management mode and can protect marine ecosystem. Thus, the marine regional management is feasible and applicable in China. This paper firstly discussed connotation and development of the marine regional management in China and pointed that the marine regional management is integra...

  1. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  2. The Quaternary fault in Jiamu area, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    OpenAIRE

    Huafu, Lu; Shengli, Wang; Suppe, John; Hubert, Aurelia; DONG, Jia; Fuli, Yan; Donghau, Yin; JIAN, CHEN

    2002-01-01

    The Quaternary Tailan River fault has been found in the Tianshan foothills area, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It is the recent boundary fault of the Tarim Basin coupling with the West Tianshan Mountains. In the light of measurement data of the slip which cuts the Quaternary deposits of different ages, the Quaternary kine- matic figures of the Tailan River fault are estimated as fol- lows: crustal shortening 3.7 km and shortening rate 1.59 mm/a, uplift of Tianshan Mountains 1.34 km an...

  3. Dynamic Changes of the Farmers and Herdsmen's Income Sources in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-mei; LIU Hua; PENG Chuan-zhong; ZHONG Xiang-hao

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Tibet Autonomous Region's statistic yearbooks and the data from the two household surveys in 2002 and 2004, this paper has comprehensively analyzed the pattern of changes on the farmers and herdsmen's income sources in the Tibet Autonomous Region since 1990 with the main findings as follows: ① The change of income from the labor payment is the fastest; ② There is no regular pattern of income variation for the household economic activities, the farmers and herdsmen's household income generation projects are impacted by the elements like prices and returns, and there is a lack of appropriate direction; ③ The income structure of labor payment shows that the income from the farmers and herdsmen working outside grows fastest; ④ The income from the farmers and herdsmen's labor payment correlate positively to their net income per capita; ⑤ From the perspective of the variation by region, labor payment income has changed fastest in the counties of Rutok, Nyerong and Khangmar compared the data from the household survey in 2002 with that of 2004.

  4. Study on Investing and Financing Development in Rural Area:A Case Study of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junyong; HUANG; Bin; YAO

    2013-01-01

    "Surplus income" of farmers has been increasing steadily with the marked improvement of rural economy. However,development of rural financing market in China is rather backward. To satisfy the financing requirement of farmers and meet the demand of the construction of new countryside as well as harmonious society,development of financing market in rural area is eager to be quickened. Taking Guangxi Autonomous Region as an example,there are problems in rural investing and financing development. Firstly,farmers are in lacking of accurate understanding of investing and financing. Secondly,investors in rural area lack professional knowledge about financing generally. Thirdly,rural area has underdeveloped information degree as well as imperfect investing and financing environment. Fourthly,there are no financial products developed for rural area. Fifthly,economic development is unbalanced and relatively underdeveloped in rural area. Lastly,rural financial market has long been neglected by financial intermediaries. In order to cope with these problems,firstly,farmers should be assisted to establish accurate financial awareness and master necessary financial knowledge. Secondly,local intermediaries like securities firms and banks should be encouraged to exert impact on rural financial market. Thirdly,financial products suitable for Guangxi rural area are to be developed. Fourthly, construction and perfection of rural financial market should be quickened. Lastly,rural economic development should be quickened to enlarge capital source of financing.

  5. China's Regional Disparity in Demographic Transition: A Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiamin

    2008-01-01

    China's regional income gap has given rise to different socio-economic characteristics of its core and periphery, leading to different expressions in demographic transition. This paper explores the spatial pattern of China's fertility, age, migration, and household transition and finds that the regional pattern of demographic transition roughly follows a gradient of provinces' economic status. Further analysis indicates that this pattern is more sensitive to economic conditions in rural areas...

  6. Assessment of Regional Trade and Virtual Water Flows in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, D.; Hubacek, K.

    2006-01-01

    The success of Chinas economic development has left deep marks on resource availability and quality. Some regions in China are relatively poor with regards to water resources. This problem is exacerbated by economic growth. Flourishing trade activities on both domestic and international levels have resulted in significant amounts of water withdrawal and water pollution. Hence the goal of this paper is to evaluate the current inter-regional trade structure and its effects on water consumption ...

  7. Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) energy base: Additional final report and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Woodrow W. II.; Isherwood, William [Clark Strategic Partners, PO Box 17975, Beverly Hills, CA 90210 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The ADB authors felt that an additional set of recommendations were needed to the final Report. Two reasons guided that decision: one was simply that the planned and budgeted final presentation of the Report was to be made in December 07 in Beijing to high level members of the Central Government. That meeting was cancelled. No reason was given but due to the upcoming Olympic Games in August 2008, perhaps discussion of the energy issues in China were too sensitive. But the other reason for the need to state additional recommendations was basically to help support the IMAR government in its direction for the future. The IMAR Government throughout the two years of research for this Report were extremely supportive and actively following the presentations and data. It was obvious that they felt that the Report or parts of it, for example, helping the next Five Year Plan for all of China define what sustainable development was and was not. However there were other elements that emerged including strong support for new alternative energy business development, education in this area, and strong resistance to the IMAR becoming a pipeline for natural gas coming from Russia to China. In short IMAR and China did not want to become another dependent region on Russian fossil fuels. These issues and recommendations are built upon the ADB Report but did not become apart of it. (author)

  8. Analysis of Income Structure of Farmer (Herdsman) of the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiXiang-mei; LiuJian; ZhongXiang-hao

    2003-01-01

    Based on the sampling data this paper analyzes income structure of farmer (herdsman) of the Tibet Autonomous Region, including source, characteristics and cash. Situation of income structures and income sources of the farmers in different areas (agricultural, animal husbandry areas and half agricultural and half animal husbandry areas etc. )was approached. The following features were found through an analysis of surveyed data; ① In Tibetan peasant household goods and products instead of money, disposable income and cash are very little. ② The variety index of income is higher in the outskirt than it in rural, the index has a direct bearing on net income. ③ The income ways are simplistic and outdate in the poor households, they have no ability to resist and guard against any risk, it is very difficult to increase their receipts. ④ The living standard in agricultural areas is better than in pastoral areas, it is the worst in half agriculture and half animal husbandry areas.

  9. A Multi-regional CGE Model for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Shi, Minjun; Wang, Fei

    With the development of China’s economy, the regional diversity and interregional economic linkage have become more and more remarkable and been two important factors to study China’s national and regional economy. Based on the multi-regional input-output table for China, this paper develops a multi-regional CGE (MRCGE) model for China that is expected to provide a useful tool for analysis of regional economy and regional policies. This model depicts regional diversities on scale and structure and interregional economic linkages, i.e. commodity flow, labor flow and capital flow. As an application of this model, this paper designs to increase the investment for Northwestern region to reveal the important effect that comes from the regional differences and linkages.

  10. Theory and Practice of Marine Regional Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangjie; JI; Qunzhen; QU

    2014-01-01

    With the development of marine economy in coastal provinces and cities,there comes a series of environmental problems. Marine regional management,as a completely new marine management mode,transforms traditional management mode and can protect marine ecosystem. Thus,the marine regional management is feasible and applicable in China. This paper firstly discussed connotation and development of the marine regional management in China and pointed that the marine regional management is integrated management of a certain marine region. Next,it summarized characteristics of the marine regional management at current stage,for example,land-based pollution of trans-geographic system and marine management under regional government cooperative mechanism. Finally,it came up with recommendations including combining theory and practice of the marine regional management,and establishing marine regional management system as soon as possible,to realize benign interaction and sustainable development of marine economy and ecological environment.

  11. MECHANISM OF INITIATING ENDOGENOUS GROWTH IN PERIPHERAL REGIONS: IN CASE OF AUTONOMOUS TERRITORIAL UNIT GAGAUZIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla LEVITSKAIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the possible mechanism of initiation endogenous growth in peripheral regions with poorly developed industry and innovation infrastructure (in case of Autonomous Territorial Unit Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. Understanding of scientific problem has required an attempt to create the concept of Innovation Development Systems in peripheral rural areas of countries with emerging market economies identifing the goal of this study. The empirical research base consists of two units: statistical data and the results of special studies conducted by the author. The analysis used the theoretical and empirical methods, including synthesis, scientific generalization, analogy forecasting, observation, interviews, document analysis, comparative analysis of scientific sources and documentation of legal framework forregion, a secondary analysis of data definition obtained from other research groups. Proposed mechanism will demonstrate the impact of Innovation and Education Cluster activity on increasing the innovative entrepreneurship activity, building relationships between cluster members and other elements of the Regional Innovation System. Subsequent investigations can be dedicated to search relationships in the development of innovative activity between regions of the RM and other countries in which universities play an important role in building the regional innovation development.

  12. Dynamic Changes, Regional Differences, and Influencing Factors of CO2 Emission Performance in China%Dynamic Changes, Regional Differences, and Influencing Factors of CO2 Emission Performance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qunwei; Zhou Peng; Zhou Dequn

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to use DEA models with undesirable outputs to construct the Malmquist index that can be use to investigate the dynamic changes of CO2 emission performance. With the index, the authors have measured the CO2 emission performance of 28 provinces and autonomous regions in China from 1996 to 2007; with the convergence theory and panel data regression model, the authors analyze the regional differences and the influencing factors. It is found that the performance of CO2 emissions in China has been continuously improved mainly due to the technological progress, and the average improvement rate is 3.25%, with a cumulative improvement rate of 40.86%. In addition, the CO2 emission performance varies across four regions. As a whole, the performance score of eastern China is the highest. The northeastern and central China has relatively lower performance scores, and the western China is relatively backward. The regional differences are decreasing, and the performance of CO2 emissions is convergent. The influence of some factors on the performance of CO2 emissions is significant, such as the level of economic development, the level of industrial structure, energy intensity, and ownership structure. The influence of some factors, such as opening-up to the outside world, on the performance of CO2 emissions is not significant.

  13. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes energy efficiencies of 29 administrative regions in China for the period 1995-2002 with a newly introduced index. Most existing studies of regional productivity and efficiency neglect energy inputs. We use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the target energy input of each region in China at each particular year. The index of total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) then divides the target energy input by the actual energy input. In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, energy consumption, and total sown area of farm crops used as a proxy of biomass energy are the four inputs and real GDP is the single output. The conventional energy productivity ratio regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index is computed for comparison in contrast to TFEE; our index is found fitting better to the real case. According to the TFEE index rankings, the central area of China has the worst energy efficiency and its total adjustmentof energy consumption amount is over half of China's total. Regional TFEE in China generally improved during the research period except for the western area. A U-shape relation between the area's TFEE and per capita income in the areas of China is found, confirming the scenario that energy efficiency eventually improves with economic growth

  14. Regional Economic Development Strategy in Preparation for the Establishment of a New Autonomous Region in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Lepi Ali Firmansyah; Endriatmo Soetarto; Nunung Kusnadi

    2014-01-01

    In general, the purpose of this study is to analyze the economic potential readiness in South Cianjur Development Region and formulate economic development strategies in an effort to achieve independence in the execution of development. The method of analysis used in this study are the analysis of Location Quotient, analysis of Limpitan Sejajar system, analysis of Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE Matrix) and External Factor Evaluation Matrix analysis (EFE matrix), analysis of matrix Str...

  15. Second Order Sliding Mode Control Scheme for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Dynamic Region Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zool H. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in developing closed loop control system for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV is to make a robust vehicle from natural and exogenous perturbations such as wind, wave, and ocean currents. However a well-known robust control, for instance, Sliding Mode Controller (SMC, gives a chattering effect and it influences the stability of an AUV. Furthermore, some researchers combined other controls to get better result but it tends to present long computational time and causes large energy consumption. Thus, this paper proposed a Super Twisting Sliding Mode Controller (STSMC with dynamic region concept for an AUV. STSMC or a second order SMC is adopted as a robust controller which is free from chattering effect. Meanwhile, the implementation of dynamic region is useful to reduce the energy usage. As a result, the proposed controller obtains global asymptotic stability which is validated by using Lyapunov-like function. Moreover, some simulations present the efficiency of proposed controller. In conclusion, STSMC with region based control is effective to be applied for the robust tracking of an AUV. It contributes to give a fast response when handling the perturbations, short computational time, and low energy demand.

  16. Advance in Application of Regional Climate Models in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; YAN Minhua; CHEN Panqin; XU Helan

    2008-01-01

    Regional climate models have become the powerful tools for simulating regional climate and its changeprocess and have been widely used in China. Using regional climate models, some research results have been obtainedon the following aspects: 1) the numerical simulation of East Asian monsoon climate, including exceptional monsoonprecipitation, summer precipitation distribution, East Asian circulation, multi-year climate average condition, summerrain belt and so on; 2) the simulation of arid climate of the western China, including thermal effect of the Qing-hai-Tibet Plateau, the plateau precipitation in the Qilian Mountains; and the impacts of greenhouse effects (CO2 dou-bling) upon climate in the western China; and 3) the simulation of the climate effect of underlying surface changes, in-cluding the effect of soil on climate formation, the influence of terrain on precipitation, the effect of regional soil deg-radation on regional climate, the effect of various underlying surfaces on regional climate, the effect of land-sea con-trast on the climate formulation, the influence of snow cover over the plateau regions on the regional climate, the effectof vegetation changes on the regional climate, etc. In the process of application of regional climate models, the prefer-ences of the models are improved so that better simulation results are gotten. At last, some suggestions are made aboutthe application of regional climate models in regional climate research in the future.

  17. INDO- CHINA: THE PROSPECTIVE ECONOMIC REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Asiya Chaudhary; Sabiha Khatoon

    2012-01-01

    The segmentation of global manufacturing and services provided China and subsequently India with a golden opportunity to make full use of their absolute advantage – low cost yet educated labour-to integrate into the world economy within a comparatively shorter period of time than some earlier industrialists. Though international trade functions as a vent of surplus in view of the narrowness of their domestic market at the beginning of their economic catch-up, the label of export-led model may...

  18. Soil Ecosystem Degradation of Karst Regions in Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Shi-you; Wang, Ju

    2012-01-01

    Deeply influenced by karst geological environment, the structure of the soil ecosystem in the southwest karst area of China is characterized by strong vertical variation and space variation, structural feature of nonrenewable soil, and functional feature of poor circulation of nutrient elements and limited vegetation growth. On the basis of analyzing vulnerability in structure and function of soil ecosystem in China’s southwestern karst regions, we discussed the degradation process and mech...

  19. China's regional inequality in innovation capability, 1995 - 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Peilei; Wan, Guanghua

    2006-01-01

    Relying on a recently developed decomposition framework, this paper explores spatial distribution of innovation capability in China. It is found that at the regional level, China's inequality in innovation capability increased from 1995 to 2004. At the provincial level, the inequality decreased from 1995 to 2000, but increased from 2000 to 2004. Location, industrialization and urbanization, human capital, and openness (foreign direct investment) are significant contributors to the inequality ...

  20. Socialist state planning reconsidered: regional policy in China, 1949 - 1989

    OpenAIRE

    O-K Lai; T-K Lai

    1991-01-01

    In this paper regional policy in the People's Republic of China over the last four decades is critically reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the ideological and political dimensions, and their changes, as guided by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), which accompany the need to modernize China's underdeveloped economy. In part 1 of the paper the interpretations of the urban question, within the Marxist - Maoist school of thought, upon which the policy rationales and justifications are ba...

  1. Natural conditions and cropping regionalization of rice area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXianzhang

    1994-01-01

    The formation of rice distribution is based on certain natural ecological conditions and social economic environments. In China, rice cropping is distributed in a vast area extending across 5 temperature belts, the northernmost of rice growing area in the world being in China. Distribution of rice cropping is characterized by a gradual decrease from south to north, from large and concentrated regions in Southeast to small and separated areasin Northwest.

  2. Educational Leadership as Best Practice in Highly Effective Schools in the Autonomous Region of the Basque County (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intxausti, Nahia; Joaristi, Luis; Lizasoain, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This study presents part of a research project currently underway which aims to characterise the best practices of highly effective schools in the Autonomous Region of the Basque Country (Spain). Multilevel statistical modelling and hierarchical linear models were used to select 32 highly effective schools, with highly effective being taken to…

  3. Balancing regional industrial development: analysis on regional disparity of China's industrial emissions and policy implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Luo, Xiao;

    2016-01-01

    Efficient industrial emissions mitigation strategy is critical for China's national action on climate change and sustainable development, considering its rapid industrialization. Regional disparity brings difficulties and uncertainties to policy implementation in China. Therefore, an investigation...... on the regional features of industrial emissions is critical to better decision makings. While to date, related studies have been rather few. This paper applies a spatial analysis on regional features of China's industrial emissions (SO2, NOx and PM2.5 and CO2 emission) in 31 provinces. Spatial autocorrelation...

  4. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  5. Regional Economic Development Strategy in Preparation for the Establishment of a New Autonomous Region in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepi Ali Firmansyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In general, the purpose of this study is to analyze the economic potential readiness in South Cianjur Development Region and formulate economic development strategies in an effort to achieve independence in the execution of development. The method of analysis used in this study are the analysis of Location Quotient, analysis of Limpitan Sejajar system, analysis of Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE Matrix and External Factor Evaluation Matrix analysis (EFE matrix, analysis of matrix Strength-Weakness-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT, and analysis of Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM. The analysis showed that South Cianjur has potential, especially on: (1 agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry sector; (2 the mining and quarrying sector; and (3 the tourism sector. Based on IFE- EFE matrix analysis and SWOT analysis, South Cianjur district has priority strategy that uses internal strength to take advantage of external opportunities (S-O strategies. Selected strategic priorities are: (1 the development of agriculture by ecotourism, ecotourism and community forestry pattern; (2 the development of agroindustry; and (3 select and promote the spesific commodity to provide value-added (GDP and PAD.

  6. Ecological total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most existing energy efficiency indices are computed without taking into account undesirable outputs such as CO2 and SO2 emissions. This paper computes the ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) of 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009 through the slack-based model (SBM) with undesirable outputs. We calculate the ETFEE index by comparing the target energy input obtained from SBM with undesirable outputs to the actual energy input. Findings show that China's regional ETFEE still remains a low level of around 0.600 and regional energy efficiency is overestimated by more than 0.100 when not looking at environmental impacts. China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced: the east area ranks first with the highest ETFEE of above 0.700, the northeast and central areas follow, and the west area has the lowest ETFEE of less than 0.500. A monotone increasing relation exists between the area's ETFEE and China's per capita GDP. The truncated regression model shows that the ratio of R and D expenditure to GDP and the degree of foreign dependence have positive impacts, whereas the ratio of the secondary industry to GDP and the ratio of government subsidies for industrial pollution treatment to GDP have negative effects, on the ETFEE. - Highlights: ► Most energy efficiency indices ignore undesirable outputs such as CO2 and SO2 emissions. ► The ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) is computed by slack-based model (SBM). ► The datasets contains 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009. ► China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced. ► A monotone increasing relation exists between ETFEE and per capita GDP.

  7. THE CHARACTERISTICS AND MAIN PROBLEMS OF MINORITY REGIONS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    China is a country that has a large number of minorities, who live in specific regions which are mainly located in central and west China. These regions are abundant in natural resources, which are potential advantages and also an important basis for economic development in these regions. They are of general importance for China in strategic and ecological terms. They will not only affect the environment for survival of the minority regions but also affect the sustain able development of the eastern and central parts of China and even the survival and development of the Chinese nation as a wbole. Minorities live in relatively compact communities, among the 55 minorities, 35 of them were highly compact minorities, with a compact level of more than 90%. Here the development in infrastructure as well as social and econonic development (e. g. export-oriented economy) has been and is still slow, regional poverty are most concentrated. The economic structures in minority areas are still in the low stage, which have resulted in underdevelopment in these regions.

  8. Study on the Comprehensive Tourism Development Pattern in Periphery Minority Area:A Case Study of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lin; Li Yu; Wang Lili

    2007-01-01

    The paper took the human-land relations as a basic point,and the theories of tourism industry system and sustainable development as the guidance,with Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture(Gannan)as the case study area.From microcosmic and macroscopic viewpoints,the author carried out function orientation and evaluation to the tourism industry development,and research on the comprehensive tourism industry development pattern of Gannan.Results show that the fragile ecological environment and the traditional economic growth pattern have restricted regional sustainable development,and made Gannan to bocome a representative of the periphery minonty areas in Northwest China.Tourism development of Gannan is at the primary phase,with the characteristics of short industry chain and low economic efficiency.It iS an inevitable choice to transform the way of regional economic growth and the development pattern of tourism industry from the traditional pattern to the pattern of snstainable development.Simultaneously,Gannan's natural,uational and religious culture makes Gannan a broad prospect on the comprehensive tourism development.Gannan should choose the comprehensive tourism industry as its scientific pattern to realize sustainable development,promote harmonious social,economic and ecological development,alleviate the human-land contradictory,and realize dual goals in terms of ecology construction and economical development. For Gannan and the similar areas in China,studies on the sustainable development pattern of tourism have extremely important strategic sense with respect to tourism development and the sustainable development of regional economy.

  9. Genetic analysis of the br gene in halophilic archaea isolated from Xinjiang region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong XU; Min WU; Huibin ZHANG; Zhihu LIU

    2008-01-01

    Some novel members of extremely halophilic archaea, strains AJ 11, AJ 12 and AJ 13, were isolated from the Aularz Lake located in the Altun Mountain National Nature Reserve of Xinjiang, Uygur Autonomous Region in China. Partial DNA fragments encoding a bacteriorho-dopsin (BR), as well as for 16S rRNA of isolated strains, were amplified by PCR and their DNA sequences were determined subsequently. On the basis of homology and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA, we thought that the isolated strains forming a microbiological population are the members of the genus Natrinema. The results of genetic analysis, such as GC content, transition/transver-sion (Ti/Tv) rate ratios and synonymous substitution rates (Ks) indicate that the br fragments, with a high level of genetic divergence, are faced with both purifying selection and bias mutation pressure. The study provides the basis for use of species and BR proteins resources.

  10. ON THE E XTENT OF POWER AND THE WORKS OF AUTONOMOUS LEGISLATION IN AUTONOMOUS REGIONS%论自治立法权限与自治区自治立法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙成平

    2015-01-01

    立法权限明晰是立法顺利进行的前提。全国五个自治区至今既没有制定出自治条例也没有制定出单行条例的重要原因之一,就是由于现行法律没有明确自治区的自治立法权限,给自治区依法行使自治权造成了一定困难。为促进自治区自治立法,必须明确自治区自治立法的权力限度和事项范围。%The clarity of the extent of power in legislation is a prerequisite for smooth legisla-tion.Neither does the five autonomous regions has worked out autonomous legislations nor separated regula-tions so far.One of the reasons is that the existing laws do not clarify the extent of power in autonomous leg-islation.This makes it hard for autonomous regions to exercise their rights of autonomy.For the promotion of autonomous legislation in autonomous regions, the extent of power and the scope of the matters in autono-mous legislation must be clarified.

  11. Industrialization Development of Korla Fragrant Pear in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Qiong; Li, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the natural and geographic conditions in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang(Bazhou), development status of Korla Fragrant Pear is introduced from the two aspects of the production status and the storage and processing status of Korla Fragrant Pear. Among them, production status of Korla Fragrant Pear is analyzed from the aspects of the rapid growth of planting area and the stable growth of output. And the storage and processing status of Korla Fra...

  12. Soil characterization and vulnerability indices of the Autonomous region of Madrid. Scale 1:200.000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of the soil due to a nuclear accident is a risk for the population. A research project, within the program of Radiological Protection by Intervention in CIEMAT, has been developed to study the behaviour of radionuclides in soils. An evaluation of the radiological vulnerability considering the external irradiation and the food chain pathway for caesium and strontium has been determined using partial and global indices, which indicate the potential transfer of the radionuclides via the two mentioned pathways. A detailed study of the soils found in the Autonomous Region of Madrid was carried out with data from individual soil profiles and combining data obtained from maps with a Geographic Information System in order to obtain a spatial distribution of the results. The soil vulnerability for the external irradiation pathway of caesium and strontium is in general found to be higher in more developed soils located in the south and leading to the foothills of the Sierra of Madrid in the north. The vulnerability for the food chain pathway is found to be higher in the less developed soils in acid conditions situated in the Sierra of Madrid. (Author) 11 refs

  13. Response of Coarse Root Distribution of Populus euphratica Oliv. to Soil Moisture in Extreme Arid Region China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianlin; Feng, Qi; SI, Jianhua; CHANG, Zongqiang; Wang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Generally root systems of tree are divided into coarse root system and fine root system. As well as fine root system, coarse root system is important to well growth of tree too. Based on the data observed at Ejina Banner Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China from May to July of 2006, using fractal theory and statistical method, the relationship between coarse root system distribution of Populus euphratica Oliv. and soil moisture in root zone was analyzed. Root system of tree has a typical f...

  14. Regional Evolution Features and Coordinated Development Strategies for Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Lin; XU Xiaopo; CHEN Mingxiu

    2006-01-01

    Northeast China, as the most important production base of agriculture, forestry, and livestock-breeding as well as the old industrial base in the whole country, has been playing a key role in the construction and development of China's economy. However, after the policy of reform and open-up was taken in China, the economic development speed and efficiency of this area have turned to be evidently lower than those of coastal area and the national average level as paper firstly reviews the spatial and temporal features of the regional evolution of this area so as to unveil the profound ploration into the status quo of this region and its forming causes by analyzing its economy gross, industrial structure,product structure, regional eco-categories, etc. At the end of the paper, the authors put forward the basic coordinated development strategies for Northeast China, namely we can revitalize this area by means of adjustment of economic structure, regional coordination, planning urban and rural areas as a whole, institutional innovation, etc.

  15. The regional characteristics of climatic change in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using abundant historical records, the Chinese climatologists have analyzed regional climatic change during the past 2,000 years. Recently, more research on regional climatic change has been done by using the data of the instrumental period. The data show that Chinese climatic change has obvious regional characteristics. The average temperature in the whole country has kept increasing since the last century, and reached its highest value in the 1940s, then it decreased. Although there was a warming trend in the 1980s, the temperature declined again. Especially in the area south of 35 degree N and east of 100 degree E in the mainland China, the air temperature decreased continuously from the 1940s. So climatic change in China is not consistent with global warming, but has its own regional characteristics

  16. Regional ground deformation and its controlling measures in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhifang; Zhu, Haisheng; Huang, Yong

    2006-12-01

    With the development of construction of China Cities, there exist a lot of environmental geological problems involved in the geofracture, land subsidence, collapse, landslide, devolution, mudrock flow, floating sand, piping and soft ground deformation. Of big cities whose population is over one million in China, about 30 cities appears the land subsidence region. Other cities locate in the regions of collapse yellow earth or expand soil of strong swell-shrink charasteristic, soft ground and karst. In the paper, the cause and hazard of regionality ground deformation is summed up. The causes of regional land deformation caused by the natural geological effect and activities of human being are analyzed. According to the length of deformation course and endanger of society, economy and life, land deformation involves three types, that is, the delay, rapid and break land deformation. And the concrete countermeasure and method are provided.

  17. Household Income Determination and Regional Income Differential in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xin; Wu, Harry

    1994-01-01

    Regional income dispersion is a sensitive issue in China in terms of judging the impact of economic reform. This study looks closely at the issue as to what are the determinants of income variation among households in general, and which are the key determinants of income dispersion among different regions. The study uses the data from a sample survey on 1000 rural households in five Chinese provinces. Household income equations are estimated to assess the determinants of income variations am...

  18. Renewables portfolio standard and regional energy structure optimisation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastern Coastal areas of China have been developing rapidly since the implementation of reforms and the opening of China's economic markets in 1978. As in most areas of the world, this rapid economic growth has been accompanied by large increases in energy consumption. China's coal-dominated energy structure has resulted in serious ecological and environmental problems. Exploiting renewable energy resources and introducing Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) are some of the most important approaches towards optimising and sustaining the energy structure of China. This paper discusses international experiences in the implementation of RPS policies and prospects for using these policies to encourage renewable energy development in China, establishes a concise definition of renewable resources, differentiating between the broad definition (which includes hydro over 25 MW in size) from the narrow definition (which limits the eligibility of hydro to below 25 MW in size), and quantitatively analyses the potential renewable energy target. The research shows that: (1) Under the narrow hydro definition the renewable energy target would be 5.1% and under the broad hydro definition it would be 18.4%. (2) Western China has contributed 90.2% of the total renewable electricity generation in the country (if big and medium hydropowers are not included). Including big and medium hydropower, the figure is 63.8%. (3) Eastern electricity companies can achieve their quota by buying Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (TRCs or Green Certificates) and by exploiting renewable energy resources in Western China. The successful implementation of the RPS policy will achieve the goal of sharing the benefits and responsibilities of energy production between the different regions of China

  19. Forest Fires and Prevention Strategies in Northwestern Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The paper described the natural conditions and forest types in Northwestern Region of China. Most forests in the region are distributed in subalpine areas. It is important to protect the existent forests in the region for maintaining ecological balance. According to the statistics results of 1991~2000, the paper analyzes the forest fires distribution and fire severity. Annually the numbers of forest fires range from 52 to 240. The incidence rate of forest fires in Northwestern Region is under 0.33 per t...

  20. 宁夏中奥陶统香山群徐家圈组内波、内潮汐沉积类型%Sedimentary Types of Internal-wave and Internal-tide Deposits of Middle Ordovician,Xujiajuan Formation,Xiangshan Group, Ningxia Autonomous Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向东; 何幼斌; 张铭记; 刘训; 姚建新

    2011-01-01

    The study of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits is a very young research field with twenty years of history in the deep-water deposition,and there is no study on its sedimentary types.Here,we forcus on the internal-wave and internal-tide deposits developed in Xujiajuan Formation,Xiangshan Group,Ningxia Autonomous Region and describe related sedimentary structures in detail.We interpret combined-flow-ripple lamination and the cross beddings with undulatory laminations,offshooting laminations and cross-laminated lenses as combined-flow and oscillatory flow generated by short-period internal waves respectively.According to these new interpretations and the interpretations of deep-water bidirectional cross-beddings and unidirectional cross-beddings in literatures,we attribute internal-wave and internal-tide deposits to short-period internal-wave deposits,internal-tide deposits and interaction internal-wave deposits.Here,we use internal-wave and internal-tide deposits instead of internal-wave deposits because of the special origin and research status of internal tides.%内波、内潮汐沉积是深水沉积研究中一个非常年轻的研究领域,自发现到现在仅仅20年时间,对其沉积类型的研究目前尚未涉及。以宁夏香山群徐家圈组中的内波、内潮汐沉积为对象,详细描述了深水环境中形成的双向交错层理、单向交错层理、复合流层理及具有波状纹层、束状纹层和交错纹层透镜体的交错层理,并探讨了其成因机制,识别出了短周期内波沉积。在此基础之上,结合已有的内波、内潮汐沉积鉴别标志,从沉积构造的角度对内波、内潮汐沉积类型进行了探讨。将内波、内潮汐沉积分为短周期内波沉积、内潮汐沉积和叠加内波沉积。鉴于内潮汐形成机制的独特性和海洋物理学中内波的研究现状,三者仍统称为内波、内潮汐沉积。

  1. Fukien region, China (summary): terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1944-01-01

    Population of the Fukien region is estimated from census figures (1928-1935) for Fukien, Kiangsi, Chekiang, and Kwangtung Pro vlnces at 15 to 20 ipillion. At the coast are several important cities: Min-hou (390,363 inhabitants), Ssu-ming (219,974), Pfu-tlien, Chin-chiang, and Lung-chfi. Nmerous towns and villages are scattered throughout the region. - B. Climate is wann humid temperate in the north and hmid subtropical in the south. Typhoons occur in late summer, especially in the area from Min-hu north. Precipitation averages 40 to 80 inches per year; It is generally highest in the interior. Mean monthly tamperature range is 55O to 850 F at coast; greater range inland

  2. Regional inequality in health and its determinants: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Pengqian; Dong, Siping; Xiao, Jingjing; Liu, Chaojie; Feng, Xianwei; Wang, Yiping

    2010-01-01

    Health inequality is a problem with great political importance all over the world. Urban-rural inequality in health has attracted great attentions in recent years in China, but very few researches have been undertaken into regional discrepancies in health. This research aims at measuring the degree of regional health inequality in China and identifying its determinants. Indicators for health, socioeconomic status, health resources and health services delivery were selected through Delphi consultations from 18 experts. With cross-sectional data from 31 provinces, composite health indexes were generated. The regional inequality in health was described by Lorenz curve and measured by Gini coefficient. The determinants of health inequality were identified through canonical correlation analysis. The results showed that there existed distinct regional disparities in health in China, which were mainly reflected in "Maternal & Child Health" and "Infectious Diseases", not in the most commonly used health indicator average life expectancy. The regional health inequality in China was increasing with the rapid economic growth. The regional health inequality was associated with not only the distribution of wealth, but also the distribution of health resources and primary health care services. Policy makers need to be aware of three major challenges when they try to achieve and maintain equality in distribution of health: First, the most commonly used health indicators are not necessarily sensitive enough to detect health inequalities. Second, increase in health inequality is often accompanied with rapid economic growth and increase in life expectancy. Countries in transition are facing the greatest challenge in developing a fair and equitable health care system. Finally, investment in health resources does bring about differences in distribution of health. However, primary health care plays a more important role than hospital services in reducing regional disparities in health

  3. Heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of urban areas of Yamal autonomous region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Ivan; Abakumov, Evgeny; Shamilishvili, George

    2016-04-01

    This investigation is devoted to evaluation of heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of different functional localities within the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region (YaNAR, North-Western Siberia, Russia). Geo-accumulation indices Igeo (Müller 1988) were calculated in order to assess soil contamination levels with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, As, Hg) in the studied settlements: Harsaim, Aksarka, Labytnangy, Harp and Salekhard. The degree of soil pollution was assessed according to seven contamination classes (Förstner et al. 1990) in order of increasing numerical value of the index. Cd's regional soil background concentrations of the Yamal peninsula (Moskovchenko 2010), Hg's Earth crust clarke (Greenwood & Earnshaw 2008) and concentrations of the rest trace elements in natural sandy soil from the Beliy island, YaNAR (Tomashunas & Abakumov, 2014) were used in calculations. In general terms, obtained Igeo values in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. However, considerable Igeo values of Zn, Pb and Ni were revealed in several samples, suggesting different soil pollution levels, namely: Zn Igeo in Harsaim soil sample of 2.22 - moderate polluted to highly polluted soil; Pb Igeo in Aksarka soil sample of 4.04 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil; Ni Igeo in Harp soil sample of 4.34 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil. Soil contamination level was additionally evaluated, comparing with the maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) of the trace elements in soil (SANPIN 4266-87), established by the national legislation. Almost all samples exceeded the MPC for As in soils (2 mg•kg-1). Concentrations of Ni in several soil samples taken in Harp were 19 times higher than recommended level (20 mg•kg-1). Moderate excess of Zn, Pb and Cu MPCs was also noted. Data obtained will be used in further environmental researches and environmental management purposes in this key

  4. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  5. Regional Differences in China's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Dan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the maximum energy efficiency level and the energy saving potentials in each region in China that can be practically attained at current economic and technological development levels. Most of the nation's energy efficient provinces are found along the coast of southeast China, while most of its least energy efficient provinces are in the hinterland that is rich in coal resources, and which depends heavily on coal consumption. China's low efficiency in energy resource allocation stems from its secondary industry, which is handicapped by the lowest energy efficiency and the most striking regional differentials. 4comparison of the factors affecting the energy efficiency shows that the provinces being compared in this study differ tremendously in energy consumption structure, technological level of the secondary industry, and abundance of energy resources, and that the other factors are only adequate, rather than necessary, conditions. It is imperative to rectify the behaviors of provinces in balancing local energy allocation, to channel energy resources to energy efficient provinces, and to improve the national energy efficiency as a whole. When taking energy-saving steps, provinces must take into full consideration both the national and local factors that affect energy efficiency. Furthermore, it is unrealistic for China to set a unified energy saving goal for different provinces.

  6. Economic growth, regional disparities and energy demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the panel data of 27 provinces between 1978 and 2008, we employed a instrumental regression technique to examine the relationship between economic growth, energy demand/production and the related policies in China. The empirical results show that forming a cross-province integrated energy market will in general reduce the response of equilibrium user costs of energy products to their local demand and production, through cross-regional energy transfer (including both energy trade and cross-regional reallocation). In particular, reducing transportation costs and improving marketization level are identified as two important policy instruments to enhance the role of energy market integration. The findings support the argument for a more competitive cross-province energy transfer policies and calls for more developed energy connectivity and associate institutional arrangements within China. These policy implications may also be extended to the East Asia Summit region where energy market integration is being actively promoted. - Highlights: • Development driving energy demand has different impacts on energy prices than others. • EMI will reduce the response of equilibrium energy prices to local demand and production. • Reducing transportation costs and improving marketization level enhance the role of EMI. • More market competition and better physical and institutional connectivity are better. • Policy implications to China may be extended to the East Asia Summit region

  7. Public finance of the autonomous regions of Spain. Reflections and proposals for reform

    OpenAIRE

    A Pedros Abello

    1987-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that the present fiscal imbalance in the finance of the autonomous communities can be remedied only by consideration of a number of principles of financial structure -- in particular, sufficiency and solidarity. This leads to a proposal for reform which is based on (1) the fixing, as a percentage of GDP, of a global sum of revenue required for each level of government; (2) allowing autonomous tax-rate setting of ceded taxes; and (3) the introduction of a reformed bl...

  8. Factors controlling regional grain yield in China over the last 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaobin; Cai, Dianxiong; Grant, Cynthia; Hoogmoed, Willem B.; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Food production is highly dependent on regional yields of crops. Regional differences in grain yields could be due to fertilizer management and climate variability. Here, we analyze trends of grain yields in North China, Northeast China, East China, and Central and Southwest China from 1992 to 2012, using the Chinese statistical yearbooks. We estimate the major factors influencing yield by regression analysis. Results show that fertilizer indices were 40 % for Northeast China, 36 % for East C...

  9. Regional Development in China: Interregional Transportation Infrastructure and Regional Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Lining He; Faye Duchin

    2007-01-01

    Significant economic disparities among China's Eastern, Central, and Western regions pose unequivocal challenges to social equality and political stability in the country. A major impediment to economic development, especially in the poor, remote Western region, is the shortage of transportation infrastructure. The Chinese government has committed to substantial investment for improving the accessibility of this vast, land-locked region as a mechanism for promoting its development. The paper ...

  10. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration over Northwest China using remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is a very complicated problem to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) over a large area of land surface. In this paper, the evapotranspiration estimation models for dense vegetation and bare soil are presented, based on the information of parameters like vegetation cover-degree and surface albedo. Combined with vegetation cover-degree data, a model for regional evapotranspiration estimation over the heterogeneous landscape is derived. Through a case study using remote sensing data over Northwest China, the accuracy of the model for regional evapotranspiration estimation is checked. The result shows that the accuracy of the model is satisfactory. The features of evapotranspiration over Northwest China are also discussed with the application of the model.

  11. Migration, urban population growth and regional disparity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Mary-Françoise RENARD; Xu, Zelai; Zhu, Nong

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the determinants of city population growth in China during the 1990s', as well as the determinants of migrations towards cities, which constitutes the main source of urban population growth in this period. A second objective is to identify regional differences in the urban growth and migrations, that is, whether urban growth and migration patterns are different between coastal and inland provinces. Additionally, we are interested in the differences...

  12. Establishment of nature reserves in administrative regions of mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Guo

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature

  13. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Huabei is a part of eastern China located between 32° N and 42° N latitude. Administratively it is a region including Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC.

    Our estimates are based on the data from the statistical yearbooks of state and provinces as well as local districts including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2, 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC.

    For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2, 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into

  14. Identifying Regional Prolonged Low Temperature Events in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zongjie; QIAN Weihong

    2011-01-01

    This study examined regional prolonged low temperature (PLT) events in China from the observational station data for the period 1960-2008 using the new criteria. The new definition of a site PLT event is that the daily minimum temperature does not exceed the 10th percentile threshold of the local daily minimum temperature climatology for at least 5 days at a station. The regional PLT event is defined as at least five adjacent stations exhibiting site PLT simultaneously for >5 d. Under the new definition, 552 regional PLT events were identified, and three indices: duration, extent, and intensity, as well as a comprehensive index (CI) were used to quantify the event severity. In addition, geographical patterns and temporal variations of regional PLT events were investigated using three event categories: strong, moderate, and weak. Spatially,strong events were mainly located in the north of Xinjiang and along the Yangtze River to the south of the Yangtze River; moderate events occurred in Xinjiang and south of the Yangtze River; and weak events occurred south of the Yellow River. The variation for the annual frequency of regional PLT events in China in the last 49 years showed a significant decreasing trend with a rate of -1.99 times per decade, and the significant transition decade was the 1980s.

  15. Impact of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area on China's International Agricultural Trade and Its Regional Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanguang Qiu; Jun Yang; Jikun Huang; Ruijian Chen

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) on China's international agricultural trade and its regional agricultural development, using the Global Trade Analysis Project model and the China Agricultural Decision Support System. Our analysis showed that: (i) CAFTA will improve resource allocation efficiencies for both China and ASEAN and will promote bilateral agricultural trade and, hence, will have positive effects on the economic development of both sides; (ii) CAFTA will accelerate China's export of the agricultural commodities in which it has comparative advantages,such as vegetables, wheat and horticultural products, but at the same time bring about a large increase in imports of commodities such as vegetable oil and sugar; and (iii) CAFTA will have significantly varying impacts on China's regional agricultural development because of large differences in the agricultural production structure in each region. Our results indicate that agriculture in the northern, northeastern and eastern regions of China will benefit from CAFTA, whereas agriculture development in southern China will suffer Those regional specific impacts are quite different from the effects brought by multilateral free trade treaties, such as those of the WTO, which usually have positive effects on south China but negative impacts on the northern and western parts of China.

  16. China's regional CO2 emissions: Characteristics, inter-regional transfer and emission reduction policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of China's regional CO2 emissions and effects of economic growth and energy intensity using panel data from 1997 to 2009. The results show that there are remarkable regional disparities among eastern, central and western areas, regional elasticities of per capita GDP and energy intensity on CO2 emissions, which reflect the regional differences in economic development, economy structure and restraining function of energy intensity decrease on the emission. Energy intensity reducing is more effective to emission abatement for provinces with higher elasticity of energy intensity, but may not be significant for provinces with lower elasticity. The inverse distribution of energy production and consumption, regional unfairness caused by institutional factors like energy price and tax system result in inter-regional CO2 emission transfer embodied in the power transmission. The calculation indicates that the embodied emission transfer was gradually significant after 2003, from eastern area to the central and western areas, especially energy production provinces in central area, which leads to distortion on the emission and emission intensity. The regional emission reduction targets and supporting policies should be customized and consistent with the actual situations rather than setting the same target for all the provinces. - Highlights: → We analyze growth trend and spatial distribution of China's regional CO2 emission. → Elasticities of GDP and energy intensity have diverse effects on regional emission. → There is inter-regional emission transfer embodied in the power transmission. → The emission transfer makes distortion of regional emission and emission intensity.

  17. Spatial distribution of China׳s renewable energy industry: Regional features and implications for a harmonious development future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei; Gao, Zhiqiu;

    2016-01-01

    China applies no efforts to promote the development of renewable energy (REE) so as to enhance China׳s energy security and address climate change. National top-down support scheme and the local renewable energy industry (REEI) development are the two important and intervened countermeasures...... for promoting REEI development in China. Considering China׳s vast regional disparity, the review on the spatial distribution of REEI in provincial level is critical and enlightening for future appropriate policy-making, while to date, there has been few related studies. With this circumstance, this paper made...... an empirical study on the distribution and cluster pattern of China׳s REEI based on the analysis on the industrial output value, the number and location of key companies/industrial bases, through on-site survey and updating statistical data. Results highlighted that in general, four REEI clusters were formed...

  18. Latest Sea-Operations in the Macaronesian region with Unmanned Autonomous Marine Gliding Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Carlos; Lorenzo, Alvaro; Viera, Josue; Morales, Tania; Vega, Daura; Rueda, Maria Jose; Llinas, Octavio

    2013-04-01

    Current advances on key marine technology fields provide nowadays a broad range of autonomous unmanned platforms addressed for an efficient and cost-effective ocean observation, with a suitable level of success in terms of endurance, reliability and useful gathered information. In this context, a multidisciplinary family of unmanned autonomous vehicles addressed to monitor both coastal and open-ocean areas plays a relevant role. During the last month, some of the newest unmanned gliding vehicle technologies have been tested within the context of the Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) in varied operational scenarios aiming different technical and scientific purposes, all of them joined in direct partnership with the company provider and other R&D institutions in some cases. Among others, representative examples in this way are the missions under the name Challenger One, Vulcano and SB02 through surface and underwater gliding vehicles, performed mostly in the surrounding subtropical waters of the ESTOC site observatory in the Canary Islands archipelago. The main gathered operational and scientific results from these missions are presented in this work as a sign of new ocean observing technologies within the framework of the Macaronesian Marine and Maritime Observation Strategy (R3M) and linked with the current European rules programs and projects in this field. Keywords: autonomous vehicle, gliders, R3M, ocean observatory, monitoring, marine robotics, ESTOC,

  19. Trends and responses to global change of China's arid regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixi YANG

    2009-01-01

    Ⅰ analyzed and elaborated the trends in and responses to global change in arid regions of China, from the perspective of nine variables, i.e., temperature, precipitation, river runoff, melting glaciers, water level of lakes, wind power and evaporation, vegetation, oases, and desertification. The climate and hydrology data Ⅰ citedrepresent many years of observations. Ⅰ conclude that, since the 1980s, the climate in arid regions of China has clearly changed with rising temperatures and precipitation in most areas. Wind power and the number of galestorm days have continuously decreased, which resulted in an improvement of humid conditions and increases in river discharge and water levels of lakes. Simultaneously, vegetation also has improved and the process of deserti-fication has essentially been arrested. Although there are some unfavorable developments, such as decreased river flows or flow interruptions and downstream oases have suffered from degradation, these incidental cases should not distract our attention from the generally favorable trends during the middle and late 20th century. These discordant phenomena are not consequences of climate change but rather of unsuitable human activities. Despitea substantial increase in precipitation, the level of the original precipitation was so small that any increase in precipitation was still small. As a result, none of the fundamental conditions such as a scarcity of water resources and precipitation nor the landscape of drought-ridden deserts in the arid regions will change. The vulnerability of the eco-environmental system in the arid regions will not change fundamentally either in the near future.

  20. Decentralisation and devolution in Nicaragua’s North Atlantic autonomous region: Natural resources and indigenous peoples’ rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Larson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of governments, particularly in Latin America, have begun to recognise the rights of indigenous peoples and traditional communities to the lands on which they live. Recognition has often taken the form of constitutional provisions or laws that grant use rights in perpetuity or provide land titles. These provisions usually establish rights for multiple communities over a large territory, at a scale that may be ideal for promoting broader, ecosystem management approaches. At the same time, however, indigenous communities often do not have existing territorial governance structures at these scales. Nicaragua’s North Atlantic Autonomous Region provides a rich setting in which to study issues of multilevel natural resource governance. In addition to the devolution policies that have created official indigenous territories, the central government has decentralised important powers over natural resources to the regional autonomous authority, while municipal authorities still exist but have been marginalised. At the same time, however, the community scale is the one at which local people have traditionally managed resources. This paper examines these issues in light of efforts to establish democratic governance institutions at the territory level and argues that communities continue to lose out under multilevel governance regimes without concerted efforts to level the playing field. The findings are based on several years of research in the region, emerging research on newly titled territories and a six month training and dialogue with territory leaders, organised by a consortium of international and local NGOs.

  1. Mapping the Energy Flow from Supply to End Use in three Geographic Regions of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Xiong, Weiming

    China's past economic development policies resulted in different energy infrastructure patterns across China. There is a long tradition in analysing and discussing regional disparities of China's economy. For more than 20 years, regional differences in GDP, industrial outputs, household income and...... consumption were analysed across China's provincial units. Regional disparities in China's current energy flow are rarely visualised and quantified from a comprehensive, system-wide perspective that is tracing all major fuels and energy carriers in supply, transformation and final end-use in different sectors....... A few national and provincial energy flow diagrams of China were developed since 2000, althoug with limited detail on major regional disparities and inter-regional fuel flows. No regional energy flow charts are yet available for East-, Central- and West-China. This study maps and quantifies energy...

  2. Investigation of mtDNA control region sequences in a Tibetan population sample from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Ke; Yao, Jun; Han, Xuan; Ding, Mei; Pang, Hao; Wang, Bao-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial hypervariable region sequences including HVI and HVII (15,751-520) were investigated from 174 unrelated Tibetan individuals living in Tibet Autonomous Region in People's Republic of China. The resulted sequences were aligned and compared with revised Cambridge sequence (rCRS). This sequence variability rendered a high gene diversity value (0.9940 ± 0.0021) and a high random match probability (0.0118) was determined with PIC of 0.9882. Among a total of 174 samples, 217 polymorphic sites were identified, which defined 135 haplotypes. A total of 135 different haplotypes were detected, 113 of them were unique and 22 were shared. The most common haplogroup was M9a1a1c1b1 (16.09%), followed by A11 (6.32%), A (5.17%), R (4.60%), A15 (4.60%), and G3a1 (3.45). The proportions of macro-haplogroups M, N, and L were 54.60%, 42.53%, and 2.87%, respectively. By principal component analysis (PCA), there was no special cluster between Tibetans and other populations except that the structure of Tibetans closely resembled that of Uygur in component 2. PMID:25423521

  3. Mapping autonomously replicating sequence elements in a 73-kb region of chromosome II of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinay Kumar Srivastava; Dharani Dhar Dubey

    2007-08-01

    Autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) elements are the genetic determinants of replication origin function in yeasts. They can be easily identified as the plasmids containing them transform yeast cells at a high frequency. As the first step towards identifying all potential replication origins in a 73-kb region of the long arm of fission yeast chromosome II, we have mapped five new ARS elements using systematic subcloning and transformation assay. 2D analysis of one of the ARS plasmids that showed highest transformation frequency localized the replication origin activity within the cloned genomic DNA. All the new ARS elements are localized in two clusters in centromere proximal 40 kb of the region. The presence of at least six ARS elements, including the previously reported ars727, is suggestive of a higher origin density in this region than that predicted earlier using a computer based search.

  4. Variation and Trends of Regional Drought in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Lu, G.; Wen, L.; Kuang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a long-lasting and widespread natural disaster that casts shadow on socioeconomic development and ecological environment. A comprehensive study of drought holds the key to achieve effective disaster prevention and mitigation. Variation and trends of regional drought in China are analyzed using a soil moisture based drought index derived from a 59-year (1951-2009) simulation of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface macro-scale hydrology model is used for the soil moisture simulation and is driven by observed air temperature and precipitation. The simulated soil moisture values are used to calculate the Soil Moisture Anomaly Percentage Index (SMAPI) as an indicator for measuring the severity of agricultural and hydrological droughts on a global basis. A SMAPI-based drought identification procedure is developed for practical uses in the identification of both grid point and regional drought events. As a result, a total of 325 regional drought events varying in time and strength are identified from China's nine drought study regions during 1951-2009. These drought events can thus be assessed quantitatively at different spatial and temporal scales. The result shows that on average, up to 30% of the total area of China is prone to drought over the past 59 years. There exist two regional dry centers. The first center is located in the area partially covered by two drought study regions North and Northwest, which extends to the southeastern portion of Inner Mongolia and the southwest part of Northeast. The second one is found in the central to southern portion of the drought study region South. Regionally, Inner Mongolia was often hit by successive droughts during autumn-winter months. However, such a characteristic is likely to undergo change in the future as more and more successive droughts observed in all four seasons in recent 10 year. Two regions (Northeast and North) are prone to multi-year drought

  5. Soil Ecosystem Degradation of Karst Regions in Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shi-you; WANG Ju

    2012-01-01

    Deeply influenced by karst geological environment, the structure of the soil ecosystem in the southwest karst area of China is characterized by strong vertical variation and space variation, structural feature of nonrenewable soil, and functional feature of poor circulation of nutrient elements and limited vegetation growth. On the basis of analyzing vulnerability in structure and function of soil ecosystem in China’s southwestern karst regions, we discussed the degradation process and mechanism of soil structure, nutrient, water and microorganism in the course of soil erosion from the perspective of material and energy cycle. Finally, we put forward some recommendations for recovery of degraded soil, transformation and rational utilization of soil.

  6. The New China and the New Regional Balance of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bueno Martínez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The People’s Republic of China has turned 50. Many things have changed since that first day of October when the Great Leader solemnly declared the proclamation of the birth of a new nation. More than that, though, what he proclaimed that day was the return ofChinese pride - the Chinese people had finally arisen after having knelt before the Western powers for the last century. The end of the Second World and its aftermath facilitated the Communistís triumph in China. The end of the Cold War left in its wake a wide range ofuncertainties and hopes in the zone, the Pacific, where the different Asian powers finally have much to say and decide on regarding the fate of the world as a whole. This new multipolarity has led to the rise of a new balance of power throughout Asia. The Korean peninsulaand Taiwan continue being the most dangerous flash points for conflict, albeit more controlled ones given the tragic consequences that could unfold if they developed into armed conflicts. This article provides a brief analysis of the roles that the leading powers play in the zone within both the regional and global contexts. Among these powers is, obviously, China, viewed in comparison with its neighbor and maximum rival for occupying a dominant role, the Japanese empire. Meanwhile, the two superpowers have seen their influence vary considerably in this area for different reasons: Moscow, in full political decline and economic chaos, with its nuclear arsenal intact; and Washington, with its puzzling and shifting policy towards China, and its military presence in the zone that is both unwanted yet desired by all except Beijing and Pyongyang. The relations among these countries will mark the future of a large part of the planet and that of most of its inhabitants.

  7. The COMRADE System for Multirobot Autonomous Landmine Detection in Postconflict Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithviraj Dasgupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of autonomous landmine detection using a team of mobile robots. Previous research on robotic landmine detection mostly employs a single robot equipped with a landmine detection sensor to detect landmines. We envisage that the quality of landmine detection can be significantly improved if multiple robots are coordinated to detect landmines in a cooperative manner by incrementally fusing the landmine-related sensor information they collect and then use that information to visit locations of potential landmines. Towards this objective, we describe a multirobot system called COMRADES to address different aspects of the autonomous landmine detection problem including distributed area coverage to detect and locate landmines, information aggregation to fuse the sensor information obtained by different robots, and multirobot task allocation (MRTA to enable different robots to determine a suitable sequence to visit locations of potential landmines while reducing the time required and battery expended. We have used commercially available all-terrain robots called Coroware Explorer that are customized with a metal detector to detect metallic objects including landmines, as well as indoor Corobot robots, both in simulation and in physical experiments, to test the different techniques in COMRADES.

  8. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Huabei, located between 32° N and 42° N, is part of eastern China and includes administratively the Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC.

    Our estimates are based on data from the statistical yearbooks of the state, provinces and local districts, including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2, 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC.

    For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2, 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into industrial, civil, traffic, and

  9. Analysis of the Ecological Migration Pattern in Ethnic Minority Areas——A Case Study of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By taking Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as an example,this paper analyzes the ecological migration pattern in ethnic minority areas.The basic patterns of development for poverty relief in Ningxia are in-situ migration and new area development pattern.The new area development pattern includes three types,namely small town development pattern around urban radiation districts,urban labor migration pattern,and large-scale ecological migration pattern.Finally,successful experience of ecological migration in Ningxia is summarized.First,scientific industrial planning shall be made on the basis of proper selection of ecological migration location in immigrant settlement regions.Second,scientific and comprehensive ecological migration policies should be formulated.

  10. Nature Reserve and Ecotourism Development in China's Wuzhishan Mountain Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Genzong; Qiu Penghua; Tang Shaoxia

    2007-01-01

    As the protected areas of land and coastal environment,nature reserves are designed to address how to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity, the quest for economic and social development and the maintenance of cultural values. This paper establishes a framework for nature reserve development that seeks to incorporate ecotourism into its strategies. The overall purpose was to identify the information needs required for a comprehensive nature reserve that incorporates ecotourism related values. It also illustrates the utility of this framework in the context of the Wuzhishan Mountain Region of China. A literature review, the first phase of a visionary strategy and a subsequent gap analysis for available management information were undertaken in order to achieve this paper's purpose. Finally, recommendations are presented for integrating ecotourism into nature reserve development in the Wuzhishan Mountain Region

  11. Probing the severe haze pollution in three typical regions of China: Characteristics, sources and regional impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongzhen; Zhuang, Guoshun; Huang, Kan; Liu, Tingna; Deng, Congrui; Xu, Jian; Lin, Yanfen; Guo, Zhigang; Chen, Ying; Fu, Qingyan; Fu, Joshua S.; Chen, Jiakuan

    2015-11-01

    PM2.5 with its major chemical components were measured and analyzed during a concurrent haze in Jan. 1-19, 2013 at three sites (Shanghai, Beijing, and Huaniao, a remote isle over the East China Sea) to probe the sources and formation process of such a severe haze over three typical regions in China. The mean PM2.5 concentrations during the severely polluted days reached 180.8 μg m-3, 299.2 μg m-3, and 131.1 μg m-3 in Shanghai, Beijing, and the Huaniao Isle, respectively. The mass ratio of the sum of SO42- , NO3-, and NH4+ to PM2.5 were over 1/3 during the polluted days at all the three sites. Promoted gas-to-particle transformations from acidic SO2 and NOx to SO42- and NO3- under high relative humidity conditions played a major role in the formation of this severe haze. Significant contribution of traffic emissions to the haze formation over China was suggested to be one of the major sources in triggering the heavy haze over China. Specifically, there was a more contribution from traffic in Shanghai than in Beijing as indicated by the higher NO3-/SO42- ratio in Shanghai. In Beijing, the enhanced coal combustion for winter heating along with the traffic emission was suggested to be the major two sources of this haze episode. Typical pollution elements such as As, Cd, and Pb as well as Cl- and K+ were substantially enhanced in the severely polluted days. Although the Huaniao Isle is located in the remote oceanic area as a background site, pollution elements, secondary ions, and K+ all increased substantially during the polluted days. As visualized by the backward air mass trajectories associated with the potential source region identification technique, air masses that passed over Northern China and Yangtze River Delta evidently invaded the offshore areas of Eastern China. The ratios of As, Cd, Cu, Zn, and K+ to Al at the Huaniao Isle were closer to those of Beijing rather than Shanghai, indicating that the marine aerosol over the East China Sea had been

  12. Research on Harmony between Agricultural Modernization and Regional Economy Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The inharmonious development of agricultural modernization and regional economy is a major cause to the imbalanced development of regional economy in China.The evaluation index system of modern agriculture is established according to the relevant data from Chinese Agricultural Yearbook 2009,China Rural Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook.By using the Grey Relation Analysis,the developmental level of agricultural modernization of 31 provinces and cities in China is ranked and compared by combining the overall regional economic strength.The results show that the developmental level of agricultural modernization in each area of China is different;the agricultural modernization level of each area in China is inharmonious with the total economic strength;inharmonious characteristic is presented between agricultural modernization development and regional overall economy development in China.

  13. Influence of aerosol on regional precipitation in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Jing; MAO JieTai

    2009-01-01

    The possible anthropogenic aerosol effect on regional precipitation is analyzed based on the historical data of precipitation and visibility of North China. At first, the precipitation amounts from 1960 to 1979 are considered as natural background values in our study for relatively less intensive industrial activi-ties and light air pollution during that period of time, then the region is divided into different subregions by applying the clustering method including the significance test of station rainfall correlations to the time series of 10-day mean rainfall amounts in this period. Based on the rule that the precipitation characteristics are similar in the same clustering region, the correlation of precipitation amounts among all stations in each region is thus established. Secondly, for the period from 1990 to 2005, during which, the economy had experienced a rapid development in this region, the variations of visibility at each station are analyzed. The stations with the absolute change in visibility less than 0.1 km/a are used as the reference stations, at which it is assumed that precipitation has not been seriously influ-enced by anthropogenic aerosols. Then the rainfall amounts of reference stations are used to estimate the natural precipitation values of the other stations in each clustering region. The difference between estimated precipitation and measured precipitation amount is thought to result from changes in an-thropogenic aerosols. These changes in precipitation amounts caused by anthropogenic aerosols at each station are calculated using the 10-day mean rainfall values from 1990 to 2005. The analysis re-suits obtained with this method are remarkable if it passes the significance test, and therefore, the suppression of regional precipitation over the region by anthropogenic aerosol is proved. It is found that this effect is most remarkable in summer. The influence of anthropogenic aerosols on convective precipitation possibly plays an important

  14. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China's Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qiang; Luo, Min; Ping WANG

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions as research object, on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China's southwestern mountainous regions, we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science, we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years. Finally w...

  15. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  16. An integrated stochastic multi-regional long-term energy planning model incorporating autonomous power systems and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power sector faces a rapid transformation worldwide from a dominant fossil-fueled towards a low carbon electricity generation mix. Renewable energy technologies (RES) are steadily becoming a greater part of the global energy mix, in particular in regions that have put in place policies and measures to promote their utilization. This paper presents an optimization-based approach to address the generation expansion planning (GEP) problem of a large-scale, central power system in a highly uncertain and volatile electricity industry environment. A multi-regional, multi-period linear mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, combining optimization techniques with a Monte Carlo (MCA) method and demand response concepts. The optimization goal concerns the minimization of the total discounted cost by determining optimal power capacity additions per time interval and region, and the power generation mix per technology and time period. The model is evaluated on the Greek power system (GPS), taking also into consideration the scheduled interconnection of the mainland power system with those of selected autonomous islands (Cyclades and Crete), and aims at providing full insight into the composition of the long-term energy roadmap at a national level. - Highlights: • A spatial, multi-period, long-term generation expansion planning model is presented. • A Monte-Carlo method along with a demand response mechanism are incorporated. • Autonomous power systems interconnection is considered. • Electricity and CO2 emission trade are taken into account. • Lignite, natural gas and wind power comprise the dominant power technologies

  17. 网络环境下中韩自主学习研究现状比较分析%A comparative analysis of autonomous learning under the network environment in China and South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔相哲

    2013-01-01

    Through the retrieve of text database from China and South Korea, the author compared and analyzed the research process of autonomous learning, the ability of autonomous learning, and the research of developing the ability of autonomous learning under the network environment of two countries.%  本文通过中韩两国论文数据库的检索,比较分析了两国自主学习研究过程、自主学习能力研究及网络环境下培养自主学习能力的研究。

  18. Determination and Distribution of Critical Loads: Application to the Forest Soils in the Autonomous Region of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The critical loads of acidity and sulphur have been determined for forest soils within the north and northwest of the Autonomous Region of Madrid. The SMB-CCE and SMB-PROFILE steady state models have been applied using a 1 km x 1 km resolution. The forest ecosystems have been characterised according to the soil and forest type, slope and climatic data using a Geographic Information System. In order to estimate the critical loads, processes such as weathering rate of the parent material, atmospheric deposition. critical alkalinity leaching rate and nutrients absorbed by the vegetation have been considered. In general the forest soils present high critical load values for acidity and sulphur. The more sensitive zones are found in the north of the Sierra of Guadarrama. Independent of the applied methods, the results are associated to the types of soils where Leptosols have the lowest, Cambisoles and Regosoles intermediate and Luvisoles the most elevated values. (Author) 40 refs

  19. Analysis on the Status of Farmers,Agriculture and Countryside,and Development Strategies and Measures in Tibet Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xianghao; LI Xiangmei; PENG Chuanzhong

    2004-01-01

    Coordinated and sustainable development of farmers, agriculture and countryside (FAC) is key to realize the national objective of comprehensively developed well-off society. Since the peaceful liberation of Tibet,outstanding achievements have been made in FAC work. However, compared with East and Middle China, there still exists a big gap. The farmers' net income per capita in 2001 was 1,404 yuan, 962 yuan lower than the nation's average. In late 9o's the farmers' income growth slowed down. Agricultural industrialization is at low level, technologies play a small role in agricultural development, rural infrastructure is weak, the rural grass root organization is much underdeveloped, and construction of towns is behind the other regions of China. Based on the problems of FAC development there, this paper proposes FAC development strategies and measures for accelerating rural development in Tibet.

  20. China's regional carbon emissions change over 1997-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Lan-Cui Liu; Jin-Nan Wang; Gang Wu; Yi-Ming Wei

    2009-01-01

    The increased demand for energy in China has generated concomitant increase of carbon emissions, which poses an unprecedented challenge to China's, and even global, sustainable development. In this paper, from the perspective of provincial carbon emissions, we analyze China's carbon emissions changes during 1997-2007 based on the index decomposition analysis method. We find that: (1) China's CO2 emissions from end-use energy consumption mainly originated from such major industrial provinces a...

  1. Ensuring 3es and Responsiveness in the Delivery of Educational Services in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapia Moalam Abdulrachman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM is a public organization in the Philippines located in between the national government and the local governments. It performs unique functions quite distinct from other public organizations in the coun-try, as it performs both political and administrative functions. Using unobtrusive research design, as it relies on mostly secondary data, this paper analyzes the educational system in the region and proposes strategies in attaining administrative efficiency, economy, effectiveness and responsiveness. The paper starts with the introduction which consist of the background and statement of the problem. It is followed by a review of theoretical perspective and then by the research methodology. The fourth part portrays the findings of the study which include: DepEd ARMM resources; the management of DepEd ARMM, and the management outputs such as: net enrollment ratio, achievement rate and literacy rate. The fifth part of the paper deals with the analyses and conclusion. The paper concludes that in addition to certain structural innovation, inculcation of appropriate work ethics in accordance with the Ethi-cal Standards Act, the Anti-Corruption Law, the Civil Service Rules and Regulations as well as the Islamic Practices on Employment must be enshrined in the reform agenda. Finally, among other things that could facilitate the attainment of 3Es and R in the delivery of educational services is a strategy that requires the joint collaboration and teamwork between the civil society, non-government organizations and government organizations in the region.

  2. Characteristics of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 at the Shangdianzi regional background station in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shuang-xi; Tans, Pieter P.; Dong, Fan; Zhou, Huaigang; Luan, Tian

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 have been continuously measured at the Shangdianzi regional background station (SDZ) in China from 2009 to 2013. Based on the influences of local surface wind and long-distance transport, the observed records were flagged into locally influenced, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) influenced, and Russia, Mongolia, and Inner Mongolia autonomous region influenced (RMI). ∼ 81.4% of CO2 and ∼75.6% of CH4 mole fractions were flagged as locally representative, indicating that the atmospheric CO2 and CH4 at SDZ were strongly influenced by local sources and sinks. Cluster analysis of back trajectories proved that the atmospheric CO2 and CH4 were influenced by air masses from northwest (RMI) or from south and southeast (BTH). The CO2 and CH4 mole fractions in BTH are always higher than in RMI, with the largest difference of 11.5 ± 0.3 ppm for CO2 and 102 ± 1 ppb for CH4 in July. The annual growth rates of CO2 and CH4 in BTH are 3.8 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 and 10 ± 0.1 ppb yr-1, respectively, which are apparently higher than those of the RMI and the global means. The long-term trends of CO2 and CH4 in BTH are deviating from those in RMI, with ratios of ∼1.0 ppm yr-1 for CO2 and ∼2 ppb yr-1 for CH4, indicating the strengths of CO2 and CH4 emission in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei plain increased more than 20% every year.

  3. Emergy assessment of three home courtyard agriculture production systems in Tibet Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fa-Chun; Sha, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Wang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Home courtyard agriculture is an important model of agricultural production on the Tibetan plateau. Because of the sensitive and fragile plateau environment, it needs to have optimal performance characteristics, including high sustainability, low environmental pressure, and high economic benefit. Emergy analysis is a promising tool for evaluation of the environmental-economic performance of these production systems. In this study, emergy analysis was used to evaluate three courtyard agricultural production models: Raising Geese in Corn Fields (RGICF), Conventional Corn Planting (CCP), and Pea-Wheat Rotation (PWR). The results showed that the RGICF model produced greater economic benefits, and had higher sustainability, lower environmental pressure, and higher product safety than the CCP and PWR models. The emergy yield ratio (EYR) and emergy self-support ratio (ESR) of RGICF were 0.66 and 0.11, respectively, lower than those of the CCP production model, and 0.99 and 0.08, respectively, lower than those of the PWR production model. The impact of RGICF (1.45) on the environment was lower than that of CCP (2.26) and PWR (2.46). The emergy sustainable indices (ESIs) of RGICF were 1.07 and 1.02 times higher than those of CCP and PWR, respectively. With regard to the emergy index of product safety (EIPS), RGICF had a higher safety index than those of CCP and PWR. Overall, our results suggest that the RGICF model is advantageous and provides higher environmental benefits than the CCP and PWR systems. PMID:27487808

  4. 内蒙古自治区乙型脑炎流行与防治状况%Prevalence of epidemic encephalitis B and the status of its control in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武斌; 张瑜; 周红宁

    2013-01-01

    The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region has one of the highest rates of prevalence of epidemic encephalitis B (Japanese encephalitis B, or JE) in China. Cases of JE have markedly decreased each year as various control measures have been carried out. This review discusses the prevalence, distribution, vectors, and intermediate hosts of JE in Inner Mongolia as well as JE control strategies.%内蒙古自治区(内蒙古)曾是乙脑流行较高的地区之一,随着几十年来对该疾病各项措施的开展,病例逐年明显减少.本文就内蒙古乙脑疫情与分布、媒介蚊种及中间宿主等研究情况进行了综述,并探讨了该疾病的防治对策.

  5. Regional Institutions and Organizational Capabilities --- An Analysis of the Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu and Shandong Regions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Studying organizational capabilities from the perspective of national institutions has been widely adopted in high tech industries in developed countries, but scarcely in developing countries. This research applies this framework into China to study the solar PV industry, but at the regional level. The solar PV industry in China has strongly developed in the global market in recent years, having been the biggest solar PV producer since 2007. However, there are contrast regional differences in...

  6. Characteristics of regional new particle formation in urban and regional background environments in the North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M; Sun, J. Y.; Wu, Z. J.; D. L. Yue; X. J. Shen; Zhang, Y M; Pei, X. Y.; Wiedensohler, A

    2013-01-01

    Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions were carried out in the North China Plain both at an urban background site (Peking University, PKU) and a regional Global Atmospheric Watch station (Shangdianzi, SDZ) from March to November in 2008. In total, 52 new particle formation events were observed simultaneously at both sites, indicating that this is a regional phenomenon in the North China Plain. On average, the mean condensation sink value before the nucleation even...

  7. DIRECT ELECTION OF THE HEAD OF REGIONAL URGENCY (DESCRIPTION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE THREE AUTONOMOUS REGIONS ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of problem and the political turmoil in some regions election last time appears in the event of a State feedback control Centre to the area. In the new order era regional chief election controversy cannot be released from the intervention Center. Usually the battle's political elite in Jakarta imposes to the area. When the issue blew up in the area, Settlement is the effort, he brought the case to Jakarta. In accordance with the implementation, the Hall of the Central Government has a dominant power in the determination of the head region. Legislative involvement only in the process of being formalistic. It is seen clearly in Article 15 and 16 regarding the appointment of the head region, where only the legislative vote and the results presented at least two names for approval and/or designation from President to Governor, and Minister of the Interior for Regent and Mayor. The aegis of the Centre to all and sundry, who has strong access to the Centre, he will be the winner, either for political affairs, economy, law even though. The most votes is not a legislative guarantee of choice became the head of the area. The Center has the absolute power to determine the opposite although sound support. Conflicts often occur, regional Centre but ended with the defeat of the area

  8. Assessing changes in water flow regulation in Chongqing region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Xiao, Qiang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Maomao, Qin

    2015-06-01

    Water flow regulation is an important ecosystem service that significantly impacts on ecological quality and social benefits. With the aim of improving our understanding of ecosystems and proposing strategies for optimizing ecosystem services, a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach was designed to estimate and map regulated water flow in the Chongqing region of China. In this study, we applied the integrated valuation of environmental services and tradeoffs (InVEST) model and mathematical simulations to estimate the provision of the regulated water flow across space and time in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The results indicated that this ecosystem service had improved by 2.07 % from 2000 to 2010 as a result of human activities (such as vegetation restoration) and climatic interaction. Places with positive changes mainly occurred in high mountain areas, whereas places with negative changes were mainly distributed in resettlement areas along the Yangtze River. The type of ecosystem in areas with high mountains and steep slopes was a relatively minor contributor to the total service, but this ecosystem had the higher water flow regulation capacity. Moreover, with the increase in altitude and slope, the percentage contribution of forest increased significantly from 2000 to 2010; by contrast, the percentage contribution of cropland decreased rapidly. As for the impacts, the spatial variation of water flow regulation in the Chongqing region had a significant relation with climate and human activities at the regional scale. These results provided specific information that could be used to strengthen necessary public awareness about the protection and restoration of ecosystems. PMID:25980726

  9. Multi-regional input-output model for regional energy requirements and CO2 emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, China is divided into eight economic regions. A multi-regional input-output model for energy requirements and CO2 emissions in China was established, and employed to perform scenario and sensitivity analysis for each economic region in year 2010 and 2020. Results show that up to year 2020, improvement in energy end-use efficiency for each region could generate intra-regional energy savings. Therefore, continuing efforts should be taken to advance improvements of energy end-use efficiency for each region. At the national level, the effectiveness of inter-regional energy transfers, and efficiency improvements in Central and Northwest regions should be accelerated as much as possible. However, population growth will be an obvious driving force for additional energy requirements and cause greater CO2 emissions across all regions. This demand will increase with the growth of the economy and improvement in household incomes. Population growth in one region will not only significantly affect energy requirements of the region itself, but also drive up energy requirements of the other regions. During this important period in time when China is making efforts to build a well-rounded society, the basic state policy of family planning should be enforced for each region. Model results indicate that there exists relative error between emissions caused by a region and emissions emitted by that region. Different identification of responsibility will have understandable different impacts on most regions in environmental policy reform. (Author)

  10. Development and Wellbeing: The Relationship between Hydropower Development in the Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in China and the Wellbeing of the Local Population

    OpenAIRE

    Parshina, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies the relationship between the ecosystem services of the Nujiang Valley in Yunnan province in south-west China and the wellbeing of the local population, and how this relationship will be influenced by hydropower development on the Nujiang (Salween River). The Nujiang Valley is a culturally and biologically diverse border region between China and Myanmar of great natural beauty. The steep gorges and steadily dropping Nujiang make the area extremely attractive for hydropower ...

  11. Long-term regional precipitation disparity in northwestern China and its driving forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Subject to the unique physical setting of northwestern China (NW China, precipitation in the region is characterized by salient regional differences. Yet, the long-term regional precipitation disparity in NW China still remains insufficiently-explored. In the present study, we base on historical documentation to reconstruct the precipitation indices of two macro regions in NW China between AD580–1979 to address the following issues: (1 determine the multi-decadal to centennial regional precipitation disparity in NW China, a topic which has not been systematically examined in previous paleo-climate/paleo-environment studies; and (2 find the major driving forces behind it. Wavelet analysis, which is ideal for analyzing non-stationary systems, is applied. Our results show that there is significant regional discrepancy of precipitation change in NW China over extended period. Although there is significant association between the regional precipitation disparity in NW China and various modes of atmospheric circulation, the association is characterized by a regime shift during the transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. Most importantly, the low-frequency cycle of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation is found to be the most prominent pacemaker of regional precipitation disparity in NW China at the multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Our findings help to demonstrate which atmospheric circulation is primarily responsible for the long-term regional precipitation disparity in NW China, which may have important implications for water resource management in NW China in the near future.

  12. Making Education Spending Count for the Children of Autonomous Muslim Region of Mindanao

    OpenAIRE

    Australia DFAT; World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The project builds on support to DepEd ARMM through the Australian Aid Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) activity, and further initiatives by the World Bank and partners. Chapter two of this report proceeds with an introduction to ARMM’s development context, including the evolution of regional institutions and the basic education system. Chapter three describes the unique ARMM...

  13. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of this tumor

  14. AN ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPING CAPABILITY OF INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL REGIONALIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the provincial units evaluation, this paper makes an assessment for sustainable developingcapability of the integrated agricultural regionalization in China. At first, an index system of agricultural sustainabledevelopment in China is built up, which includes 5 supporting subsystems of agricultural resources, agricultural develop-ment, environment and ecosystem, rural society, sciences-education and management. We selected 95 factors on provin-cial level as basic indexes. Second, a relative assets/debt assessing method is used to gain relative net assets values(relative superiority) of every provincial unit, which are as supporting data for assessment. We also overlaid the Administra-tive Divisions Map of China and the Map of Integrated Agricultural Regionalization of China by Geography Information Sys-tem (GIS) to gain the area units of assessment. Third, according to the relative coherence principle of regionalization,we transform administration units to natural units through homogenizing all provincial relative net assets values in everyagricultural assessing unit. After making order and grade, we complete the sustainable developing capability assessmentto integrated agricultural regionalization in China. The assessing outcome shows that the total sustainable agricultural develop-ing capability of China is not high. Only about 1/3 in number or in area has reached the level of agricultural sustainabledevelopment. The relative net assets values exists a reducing trend from East China to West China. It needs a long periodand great efforts to realize sustainable agricultural development over all China. Finally, there is a discussion to the studymethod.

  15. Demonstration Site for Seagrass Protection and Management First Launched in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recently the CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology and the Coordinating Unit for the UNEP/GEF Project on Reversing Environmental Degradation Trends in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand signed an agreement on Hepu Seagrass Demonstration Site in Southwest China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  16. Investigation on the Development of Preschool Education Informationization of Ethnic Region in Gansu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the informationization situation of preschool education taking Linxia City in Gansu province. The analysis was conducted by the mean of questionnaire survey and individual interview which was collected in July 2013 in seven ethnic counties in Hui autonomous prefecture of Linxia. As a typical ethnic region, Linxia can…

  17. The Compulsory Education in the Underdevelopment Western Rural Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐嘉梨

    2014-01-01

    Education plays a dominant role in contemporary society and is debated and contested all over the world. It is also the gateway to the wider world, but educational opportunities are frequently constrained by geographical locality. The rural infra-structure of China, for example, presents major challenges to educators seeking to open this door for the children of rural China. The objective of this research is to identify and analyse educational problems existing in western rural regions in China.

  18. Responses of Terrestrial Ecosystems’ Net Primary Productivity to Future Regional Climate Change in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dongsheng Zhao; Shaohong Wu; Yunhe Yin

    2013-01-01

    The impact of regional climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) is an important aspect in the study of ecosystems' response to global climate change. China's ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change owing to the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model for China (LPJ-CN), a global dynamical vegetation model developed for China's terrestrial ecosystems, was applied in this study to simulate the NPP changes affected by future clim...

  19. Rurality Evaluation of Rural Tourism Destinations:A Case Study of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Wen-jun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rurality is the source of rural tourism attraction, and rurality evaluation is the most important basis of sustainable development of rural tourism destinations. The rurality evaluation system containing 12 evaluation factors was constructed by 4 element layers which contained geographical environment, economic basis, landscape characteristics and rural atmosphere. Then rurality of 7 typical rural destinations in Liuzhou of Guangxi was analyzed by using the method of gray correlation analysis. The results showed that the rurality of rural tourism destinations ranking result from high to low was ‘Dragon-girl valley, Chengyang Eight Stockade, Xialun Village, Zhongdu Ancient Town, Cormorant Island, Sun Village, Jingquan Leisure Farm’. The results can provide certain references and guidance for rural tourism development in southwest ethnic regions. Finally, it put forward some suggestions on keeping rurality of rural tourism destinations such as strengthening differentiability, maintaining authenticity and creating local atmosphere.

  20. The Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley. A professional research centre in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcidese, P.; Bernagozzi, A.; Bertolini, E.; Carbognani, A.; Damasso, M.; Pellissier, P.; Recaldini, P.; Soldi, M.; Toso, G.

    The Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley (OAVdA), in the Alps at the border with France and Switzerland, is located in the Saint-Barthélemy Valley at 1675 m a.s.l. and 16 km from the town of Nus (AO). Managed by the Fondazione Clément Fillietroz-ONLUS with funding from local administrations, the OAVdA opened in 2003. For the first years its initiatives were focused on public outreach & education. Since 2006 the main activity has been scientific research thanks to an official agreement of cooperation established with the italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). The OAVdA researchers, with Research Grants from the European Social Fund (EU-ESF), have been authors and/or coauthors of several papers on international journals. Here we present in detail the scientific projects developed at the OAVdA and describe some public outreach & education initiatives proposed at the OAVdA and the Planetarium of Lignan, also managed by the Fondazione Clément Fillietroz-ONLUS since 2009.

  1. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  2. New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region%New Insights on US Aggregate and State Level Trade with the China Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Y. Co

    2011-01-01

    Aggregate trade data with breakdown into related and non-related party components show that US multinational enterprises use different trading strategies in the China region relative to other countries. US trade with the China region in 2002-007 is characterized by arm 's- length transactions. State-level trade data show great variability in state engagement with the region through trade: exports to the region range from 1 to 28 percent of state exports. In addition, compared to exports to other countries, exports to the region are highly concentrated. At the extreme, for some states, 96-98 percent of exports to the region are computer and electronic products. Finally, gravity regressions show that state exports to Hong Kong are posflively associated with the relative size of the ltong Kong-born population in the states. There is no evidence that stricter labor regimes lead to lower state exports.

  3. School Psychology in China (PRC), Hong Kong and Taiwan: A Cross-Regional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Although China (People's Republic of China [PRC]), Hong Kong and Taiwan have many similarities in language, culture, values, Confucian traditions, family systems and other social-environmental variables, school psychological services in the three regions are distinctly different in both history and practice. Few studies in the psychology…

  4. Autonomous Image Processing Algorithms Locate Region-of-Interests: The Mars Rover Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Claudio; Azzariti, Michela; Stark, Lawrence W.

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that bottom-up IPA's, image-processing algorithms, can perform a new visual task to select and locate Regions-Of-Interests (ROIs). This task has been defined on the basis of a theory of top-down human vision, the scanpath theory. Further, using measures, Sp and Ss, the similarity of location and ordering, respectively, developed over the years in studying human perception and the active looking role of eye movements, we could quantify the efficient and efficacious manner that IPAs can imitate human vision in located ROIS. The means to quantitatively evaluate IPA performance has been an important part of our study. In fact, these measures were essential in choosing from the initial wide variety of IPAS, that particular one that best serves for a type of picture and for a required task. It should be emphasized that the selection of efficient IPAs has depended upon their correlation with actual human chosen ROIs for the same type of picture and for the same required task accomplishment.

  5. Employment Effect of the Resource-abundant Industrial Cluster in Southwestern Region of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China——A Case of Chongzuo City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Chongzuo City of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region as an example, the employment effect of the resource-abundant industrial cluster in southwestern Guangxi Province is analyzed according to the data from the Chongzuo Statistical Yearbook , Guangxi Statistical Yearbook from 2003 to 2008 and the data from the relevant sections of Chongzuo City, and the four employment effects of industrial cluster--the spatial expansion effect of employment chain, optimizing effect of employment structure, the multiplier effect of employment absorption and the effect of improving the quality of labors and the degree of the intensity of employment and location quotient of employment. Results show that the employment absorption of sugar industry in Chongzuo City is stable and upward slightly, and it shows strong employment effect; the sugar industry in Chongzuo is not only competitive, but also has a great share of market in employment, so it owns strong absorption of employment. The countermeasures for improving the employment level of resource-abundant and industrial cluster in southwest of Guangxi Province are put forward, including elongating industrial chain and widening employment space; strengthening various kinds of formal and informal training to improve the employment capability of laborers; laying stress on industrial structure and optimizing the employment structure; strengthening the construction of the industrial economic zone towards ASEAN(Association of Southeast Asian Nations), and fully displaying the regional advantages of the offshore border.

  6. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  7. The study on variation of influential regions in China from a perspective of asymmetry economic information flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxia; Tang, Minxuan; Cao, Yongjian; Chen, Yanhua; Deng, Qiangqiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on the annual GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in 27 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions, the asymmetric economic information flows between different regions are calculated by the symbolic transfer entropy method and corresponding economic information flow networks are built over two periods, one is before the reform and opening up policy, the other is after that. By analyzing such networks, the obtained results are as follows. First, before the policy, balanced development strategy weakens or cuts off the ties between adjacent areas, resulting in a slow regional economic development, does not conform to the law of scientific development. Second, with introducing market mechanisms and promoting the reform and opening up policy, increasing economic activities have gradually shifted from coast to inland of China over Period II. Last but not least, there has a dramatic alternation of the influential centers that Jilin, Beijing and Jiangsu become new influential centers. Especially, at Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolis circle Beijing becomes an influential center after the policy.

  8. Divergent Projections of Catecholaminergic Neurons in the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract to Limbic Forebrain and Medullary Autonomic Brain Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Beverly A. S.; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a critical structure involved in coordinating autonomic and visceral activities. Previous independent studies have demonstrated efferent projections from the NTS to the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in rat brain. To further characterize the neural circuitry originating from the NTS with postsynaptic targets in the amygdala and medullary autonomic targets, distinct green or red fluorescent latex micr...

  9. China and India in the Indian Ocean Region

    OpenAIRE

    C. Uday Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    China and India have divergent political ideologies, characteristics, aspirations, anxieties, and hence their strategic perceptions and orientations differ. Their strategic interaction in southern Asia has for its backdrop the 1962 border conflict. In terms of maritime security, the Pacific–Indian Ocean continuum has become the centre of gravity post-9/11 with both China and India having long-term growth trajectories in terms of naval power, a process skewed in favour of the PLA Navy (PLAN)...

  10. China's regional carbon emissions change over 1997-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Lan-Cui Liu, Jin-Nan Wang, Gang Wu, Yi-Ming Wei

    2010-01-01

    The increased demand for energy in China has generated concomitant increase of carbon emissions, which poses an unprecedented challenge to China’s, and even global, sustainable development. In this paper, from the perspective of provincial carbon emissions, we analyze China’s carbon emissions changes during 1997-2007 based on the index decomposition analysis method. We find that: (1) China's CO2 emissions from end-use energy consumption mainly originated from such major industrial provinces a...

  11. IEA: China Will Become World's Second Largest Energy Investment Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ International Energy Agency IEA) has recently released a research report on the investment by China's energy departments in the next few decades. The study quantitatively describes the demand for investment in China's energy sector in the upcoming 30 years. The investment for energy supplies will be as high as US$3 trillion in this period of time because the country's energy demand will account for 20 percent of the world's total primary energy demand growth by 2030.

  12. Regional difference of aridity/humidity conditions changeover China during the last thirty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yunhe; WU Shaohong; ZHENG Du; YANG Qingye

    2005-01-01

    The meteorological data of 616 stations in China were used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration and aridity/humidity index by applying the modified FAO-Penman-Monteith model. Regional difference of trends in precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and aridity/humidity index over China and their interdecadal variations were analyzed from 1971 to 2000. The results show that all the four climatic factors trends have obvious regional difference and interdecadal variations. Annual precipitation during the 30-year period shows an increasing trend over most regions of China, with decreasing trends in potential evapotranspiration and aridity/humidity index. Most regions in China become more humid, especially significant in northern Xinjiang, eastern Tibet, western Sichuan, and northern Yunnan. The average value over China would mask the regional difference of climate change because of the complex environmental condition in China. Therefore regional difference should be analyzed to further understand climate change and its impacts. Both water supply and demand need to be considered when attempting to study regional aridity/humidity conditions.

  13. Index-based assessment of agricultural drought in a semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui; LI; Atsushi; TSUNEKAWA; Mitsuru; TSUBO

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural drought is a type of natural disaster that seriously impacts food security.Because the relationships among short-term rainfall,soil moisture,and crop growth are complex,accurate identification of a drought situation is difficult.In this study,using a conceptual model based on the relationship between water deficit and crop yield reduction,we evaluated the drought process in a typical rainfed agricultural region,Hailar county in Inner Mongolia autonomous region,China.To quantify drought,we used the precipitation-based Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI),the soil moisture-based Crop Moisture Index(CMI),as well as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI).Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between dekad-scale drought indices during the growing season(May–September)and final yield,according to data collection from 2000 to 2010.The results show that crop yield has positive relationships with CMI from mid-June to mid-July and with the NDVI anomaly throughout July,but no correlation with SPI.Further analysis of the relationship between the two drought indices shows that the NDVI anomaly responds to CMI with a lag of 1 dekad,particularly in July.To examine the feasibility of employing these indices for monitoring the drought process at a dekad time scale,a detailed drought assessment was carried out for selected drought years.The results confirm that the soil moisture-based vegetation indices in the late vegetative to early reproductive growth stages can be used to detect agricultural drought in the study area.Therefore,the framework of the conceptual model developed for drought monitoring can be employed to support drought mitigation in the rainfed agricultural region of Northern China.

  14. Index-based assessment of agricultural drought in a semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui LI; Atsushi TSUNEKAWA; Mitsuru TSUBO

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural drought is a type of natural disaster that seriously impacts food security. Because the rela-tionships among short-term rainfall, soil moisture, and crop growth are complex, accurate identification of a drought situation is difficult. In this study, using a conceptual model based on the relationship between water deficit and crop yield reduction, we evaluated the drought process in a typical rainfed agricultural region, Hailar county in Inner Mongolia autonomous region, China. To quantify drought, we used the precipitation-based Standardized Precipita-tion Index (SPI), the soil moisture-based Crop Moisture Index (CMI), as well as the Normalized Difference Vegeta-tion Index (NDVI). Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between dekad-scale drought indices during the growing season (May-September) and final yield, according to data collection from 2000 to 2010. The results show that crop yield has positive relationships with CMI from mid-June to mid-July and with the NDVI anomaly throughout July, but no correlation with SPI. Further analysis of the relationship between the two drought indices shows that the NDVI anomaly responds to CMI with a lag of 1 dekad, particularly in July. To examine the feasibility of employing these indices for monitoring the drought process at a dekad time scale, a detailed drought assessment was carried out for selected drought years. The results confirm that the soil moisture-based vegetation indices in the late vegetative to early reproductive growth stages can be used to detect agricultural drought in the study area. Therefore, the framework of the conceptual model developed for drought monitoring can be employed to support drought mitigation in the rainfed agricultural region of Northern China.

  15. Assessment of Regional Human Health Risks from Lead Contamination in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, XueLian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk...

  16. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation

  17. The influential factors of China's regional energy intensity and its spatial linkages: 1988–2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of literature on China's energy intensity seldom considers the regional differences of energy intensity inside China and the spatial effects. Based on spatial statistics methods, this paper explores the regional imbalance of China's provincial energy intensity and the spatially correlation of energy intensity among provinces. Using spatial panel data models, this paper finds that GDP per capita, transportation infrastructure, the level of marketization, and scientific and technological input significantly reduce the energy intensity; the ratio of heavy industries to total industries and the ratio of coal consumption to total energy consumption significantly expand the energy intensity; meanwhile, the coefficient of the ratio of export to GDP is not significant. Then, the spillover and convergence of China's regional energy intensity have been tested. The results indicate that the spillover effect between the eastern and western China is remarkable, and there exist absolute β-convergence of provincial energy intensity. Moreover, GDP per capita, transportation infrastructure, the level of marketization and scientific and technological input are conducive to conditional convergence after the spatial effects are controlled. According to the empirical results, this paper proposes some policy suggestions on reducing China's energy intensity. - Highlights: ► I discuss the regional differences and spatial linkages of China's energy intensity. ► The influential effect of seven factors on energy intensity is empirically tested. ► There exist positive spillover effect between the eastern and western China. ► There exist absolute and conditional β-convergence of energy intensity. ► Narrowing the regional gaps is a promising way for reducing China's energy intensity.

  18. Regional allocation of CO2 emissions allowance over provinces in China by 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitigation efforts of China are increasingly important for meeting global climate target since the rapid economic growth of China has led to an increasing share in the world's total CO2 emissions. This paper sets out to explore the approach for realizing China's national mitigation targets submitted to the UNFCCC as part of the Copenhagen Accord; that is, to reduce the intensity of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020, as well as reducing the energy intensity and increasing the share of non-fossil fuel consumption, through regional allocation of emission allowance over China's provinces. Since the realization of China's mitigation target essentially represents a total amount emission allowance allocation problem, an improved zero sum gains data envelopment analysis optimization model, which could deal with the constant total amount resources allocation, is proposed in this study. By utilizing this model and based on several scenarios of China's economic growth, CO2 emissions, and energy consumption, a new efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level for China by 2020 is proposed. The allocation results indicate that different provinces have to shoulder different mitigation burdens in terms of emission intensity reduction, energy intensity reduction, and share of non-fossil fuels increase. - Highlights: ► We explore the approach to realize national CO2 emissions reduction target of China by 2020. ► The CO2 emissions allowance is allocated over China's 30 administrative regions. ► Several scenarios of China's regional economy, emission, energy consumption are given. ► The zero sum gains data envelopment analysis model is applied in emission allowance allocation. ► An efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level is proposed

  19. Energy Production and Regional Economic Growth in China: A More Comprehensive Analysis Using a Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobin Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available China has witnessed a fast economic growth in the recent two decades. However, the heavy energy exploitation seems to show a negative relation to regional economic growth. Thus, the issue is whether the energy production is a curse or blessing for the regional economic growth in China. The present study deploys a comprehensive approach to rigorously prove the validity of a proposed panel data model that includes a second generation panel unit root test and panel cointegration and a spatial panel model. The results from the second generation panel unit root test and panel cointegration allowing for cross-sectional dependences show the differenced series are stationary and there exists a cointegration relationship among these variables for all sub-regions. The results from the spatial panel data model support the conjecture of the spatial dependent and show that there is a “resource curse” only for the Western region and Central region in China.

  20. The barrier layer in the southern region of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By analysing the CTD data in the southernregion of the South China Sea gathered during six cruises between 1989 and 1999, a barrier layer with seasonal variation just like what exists in the equatorial oceans is found in this region. It is the first discovery in such a marginal sea yet.It is strong in autunm and a little weak in summer and winter. The thicker the barrier layer, the higher the average temperature of the upper mixed layer. The region with the thicker barrier layer overlaps the region with the higher average temperature of the upper mixed layer, and accords with the thicker region of the warm pool in the South China Sea got from the Levitus data. The barrier layer in the southern region of the South China Sea has significant influence on the heat storage of the upper ocean there.``

  1. The impact of domestic trade on China's regional energy uses: A multi-regional input–output modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To systematically reveal how domestic trade impacts on China's regional energy uses, an interprovincial input–output modeling is carried out to address demand-derived energy requirements for the regional economies in 2007 based on the recently available data. Both the energy uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade are investigated from the regional and sectoral insights. Significant net transfers of embodied energy flows are identified from the central and western areas to the eastern area via interregional trade. Shanxi is the largest energy producer and interregional embodied energy deficit receiver, in contrast to Guangdong as the largest energy user and surplus receiver. By considering the impacts of interregional trade, the energy uses of most eastern regions increase remarkably. For instance, Shanghai, Hainan, Zhejiang, Beijing, Jiangsu and Guangdong have their embodied energy requirements 87.49, 19.97, 13.64, 12.60, 6.46 and 6.38 times of their direct energy inputs, respectively. In contrast, the embodied energy uses of some central and western regions such as Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Shaanxi and Guizhou decrease largely. The results help understand the hidden network linkages of interregional embodied energy flows and provide critical insight to amend China's current end-reduction-oriented energy policies by addressing the problem of regional responsibility transfer. - Highlights: • Demand-derived energy requirements for China's regional economies are addressed. • Significant interregional transfers of embodied energy flows are identified. • Energy surpluses are obtained by 19 regions and deficits by the other 11 regions. • The eastern regions should take more responsibility for reducing China's energy uses

  2. Resource integration of regional economic development in northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Northwestern area is the most arid and underdeveloped area in China. Lots of researches have been done to find the approaches to alleviate poverty. But there are some problems, for example, how to invest, how to use capital,and why the utilization rate is ambiguous. Water, capital and human resources are analyzed in this paper to be compared with their Utilization rates. As a result, according to the dependences of economic growth on those resources, a new approach has been selected to organize the integration ways among these resources for economic development in northwestern China. The efficient ways to develop northwestern China are: firstly, use the wanting resources most effectively to make an efficient integration model of multiple resources. For example, enhance the utilization rate of water to raise the value of other resources. Secondly, invest more in basic factors for economic development to upgrade the competitiveness in the western China. For example, invest more in primary education and sustainable development of basic natural resources in order to have more power for sustainable development.

  3. Regional Distribution of Cotton Fiber Quality in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fiber quality status is very important for super quality cotton production and diverse requirements of textile industry in China.In this study,the quality of cotton fiber samples which are collected from 13 major cotton production provinces between 2001 to 2005 were analyzed.Eight quality traits

  4. Heterogeneous convergence of regional house prices and the complexity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the convergence of regional house prices and its complexity in China. In this purpose it used nonlinear time varying factor model. The obtained results have provided evidences for the existence of some degree of segmentation in China’s housing market. By further dynamic analysis of the convergence, we have found that important housing policies from Chinese central government can significantly alter the housing market but with a time lag of 4 to 5 months, and that quite different behaviors exist between the new house market and the second-hand house market in China, which provides the evidence for the complexity of housing market in China. Multiple factors together are the driving forces for the regional house price convergence. And the driving forces differ among three clubs. The basic conclusion provided from the realized research is that the conventional definitions of economic regions may not be appropriate to analyze house price segregation in China. Heterogeneous convergence exists in China’s regional house prices, indicating the complexity of regional house prices in China. And housing policies should be implemented with different focus among the regions. The way of the central government is to make housing policies aiming at different sub-markets of the new house market and the second-hand house market.

  5. Regional variations in the prevalence and misdiagnosis of air flow obstruction in China: baseline results from a prospective cohort of the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB)

    OpenAIRE

    Kurmi, Om P; Li, Liming; Smith, Margaret; Augustyn, Mareli; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Guo, Yu; Han, Yabin; Qin, Jingxin; Xu, Guanqun; Wang, Jian; Bian, Zheng; Zhou, Gang; Davis, Kourtney; Peto, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the great burden of chronic respiratory diseases in China, few large multicentre, spirometry-based studies have examined its prevalence, rate of underdiagnosis regionally or the relevance of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods We analysed data from 512 891 adults in the China Kadoorie Biobank, recruited from 10 diverse regions of China during 2004–2008. Air flow obstruction (AFO) was defined by the lower limit of normal criteria based on spirometry-measured lung fu...

  6. Regional allocation of carbon emission quotas in China: Evidence from the Shapley value method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is an important task for China to allocate carbon emission quotas among regions so as to realize its carbon reduction targets and establish the national cap-and-trade carbon market. Meanwhile, it is supposed to be cost-effective to jointly reduce China's carbon emissions through some collaborative activities among regions. Then a natural question is how to allocate the quotas among regions in light of the collaboration. For this purpose, the Shapley value method is adopted and the results show that, first, the regions with higher GDP, higher carbon outflow and higher carbon reduction connection should be allocated more carbon quotas. Moreover, when the collaboration is considered, the optimal allocation of carbon quotas among regions will change significantly compared to the basic quotas by the entropy method; and the Central region is allocated the largest proportion of carbon quota among regions, which indicates its largest radiation effect. Besides, the collaboration between the Central region and Northern coast region, and that between the Central region and the Eastern region should be paid close attention. These results may provide insightful support for decision makers to promote collaborative carbon reduction and allocate carbon quotas in China. - Highlights: • The paper allocates carbon quotas given the collaboration among regions in China. • The Shapley value method coupled with the entropy and gravity models is adopted. • The regions with higher GDP, carbon outflow and reduction connection allocate more. • The Central region has the largest radiation effect on others among all regions. • The collaboration of the Central and Northern coast regions should have priority

  7. China's regional carbon emissions change over 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Cui Liu, Jin-Nan Wang, Gang Wu, Yi-Ming Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for energy in China has generated concomitant increase of carbon emissions, which poses an unprecedented challenge to China’s, and even global, sustainable development. In this paper, from the perspective of provincial carbon emissions, we analyze China’s carbon emissions changes during 1997-2007 based on the index decomposition analysis method. We find that: (1 China's CO2 emissions from end-use energy consumption mainly originated from such major industrial provinces as Hebei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Henan and Guangdong. (2 Economic growth and decline in energy intensity will have the greatest impact on CO2 emissions from end-use energy consumption. Economic growth is the key factor driving the increase of CO2 emissions. Change in energy intensity can more or less decrease CO2 emissions. In the future, China’s carbon emissions mitigation policies should be developed to address these differences in provincial carbon emissions.

  8. Study on the Characteristics of Seismic Activity in West China and Its neighboring Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yuwei; Shen Yelong; Ling Xueshu

    2001-01-01

    The controlling and influencing effects of the joint action of plates surrounding China on strong earthquakes in Chinese mainland are discussed, and the characteristics of seismic activities in the West of China and neighboring regions are further studied. The results show that the seismic activity in the West of China and neighboring regions not only has the characteristics of high tide and low tide alternation but also has the characteristics of rising in one region while falling in another, and the rise and fail of seismicity are in some proportion. The above characteristics are useful for the prediction of main body region of strong earthquakes in Chinese mainland, especially for the judgement of the ending time of the high fide period.

  9. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  10. Characteristics of regional new particle formation in urban and regional background environments in the North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M; Sun, J. Y.; Wu, Z. J.; D. L. Yue; X. J. Shen; Zhang, Y M; Pei, X. Y.; Y. F. Cheng; Wiedensohler, A

    2013-01-01

    Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions were carried out both at an urban background site (Peking University, PKU) and a regional Global Atmospheric Watch station (Shangdianzi, SDZ) from March to November in 2008. In total, 52 new particle formation (NPF) events were observed simultaneously at both sites, indicating that this is a regional phenomenon in the North China Plain. On average, the mean condensation sink value before the nucleation events start...

  11. Development of regionalized multimedia chemical fate models for China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To balance the economic development with environmental safety and human health, China has released chemicals management legislation for which chemical prioritization and risk assessment are key issues. To support these ambitions two versions of an environmental fate and behaviour model SESAMe (Sino Evaluative Simplebox-MAMI models), have been developed with different resolutions and structures in this thesis. SESAMe is applied to hypothetical chemicals to investigate the influence of environm...

  12. China:a key region for marine biodiversity studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ There are nearly 24,000 validated marine species in China,accounting for one sixth of the world total,which makes the country a key area for studies of marine biodiversity in the world,says Dr.lan Poiner,chair of the International Scientific Steering Committee of the Census of Marine Life (CoML),the largestever global marine biology research project.

  13. China's regional disparities in energy consumption: An input–output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While most of previous studies on China's energy conservation took the huge country as a whole, this manuscript revealed the obvious regional disparities in energy consumption of China's 30 provinces. Based on a hybrid energy input–output model, the total energy consumption of different regions was decomposed and compared using three measurements of embodied energy in inter-regional trade: 1) only considered inter-regional energy trade; 2) considered embodied energy in flow-out of final goods and services; 3) considered embodied energy in flow-in of final goods and services. Based on the second and third measurements, the 30 regions were categorized into four groups by their energy intensity and per capita GDP (gross domestic production). Common characteristics of decomposed regional energy intensity are discussed, and policy implication for regional energy conservation is provided. For developed regions with low energy intensities, such as Shanghai, energy conservation should focus on promoting low energy-consuming life style. For under-developed regions with low energy intensities, such as Guangxi, economic development is more urgent than energy conservation. For developing and energy absorbing regions, improving energy efficiency in industries is significant. For developing and energy exporting regions, transforming primary energy into high value-added products would be beneficial for economic development and energy conservation. - Highlights: • A hybrid input–output model for the decomposition of regional energy consumption. • A discussion of China's regional disparities in energy consumption by model results. • Regional energy consumption was compared by three measurements of embodied energy. • 30 regions of China were categorized into four groups by energy intensity and GDP

  14. Seeking Solutions though the Mirror of Finnish Experience: Policy Recommendations for Regional University Transformation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Yang, Po; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    China has recently launched a radical reform to transform over 600 regional universities into application and technology oriented institutions. The reform is a response to diverse labour market demands, regional economic development and the suboptimal structure of the higher education system, and uses international experiences as a reference.…

  15. The red bed period of geological history in northwest China and regional uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper clarifies that uranium mineralization temporally occurs in the period of regional tension and red beds and spatially belongs to rich uranium geological body and overlapped area of downfaulted red basin by comprehensively analysing the geological development history in Northwest China, regional red beds and uranium mineralization

  16. Population and sustainable development in China: Population and household scenarios for two regions

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, L.

    1999-01-01

    China's notoriously bulging population has challenged the government's and the land's ability to provide sufficient food, employment, housing, education, and the like. The Chinese environment and resources have been further fatigued by rapid economic development and modernisation. This precarious situation has attracted world-wide concern and the extensive attention of research scholars, policy-makers, and the general public. This study focuses on two regions of China, Shenzhen and Taihe, whi...

  17. Prospects of economic cooperation in the Bangladesh, China, India and Myanmar region: A quantitative assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Tariqur; Al Amin, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    This paper quantifies the economic impact of Bangladesh, China, India and Myanmar (BCIM) economic cooperation and compares it with the alternative option of expanding South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) with China and Myanmar. The paper examines the macro-economic performance of the individual countries and the current level of trade among the BCIM member countries at the regional level. In addition, the paper attempts to explore the level underlying rationale, peripheral benefits and primacy...

  18. Simulation of Effects of Land Use Change on Climate in China by a Regional Climate Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学杰; 罗勇; 林万涛; 赵宗慈; FilippoGIORGI

    2003-01-01

    Climate effects of land use change in China as simulated by a regional climate model (RegCM2)are investigated. The model is nested in one-way mode within a global coupled atmosphere-ocean model(CSIRO R21L9 AOGCM). Two multi-year simulations, one with current land use and the other with potential vegetation cover, are conducted. Statistically significant changes of precipitation, surface air temperature, and daily maximum and daily minimum temperature are analyzed based on the difference between the two simulations. The simulated effects of land use change over China include a decrease of mean annual precipitation over Northwest China, a region with a prevalence of arid and semi-arid areas;an increase of mean annual surfaoe air temperature over some areas; and a decrease of temperature along coastal areas. Summer mean daily maximum temperature increases in many locations, while winter mean daily minimum temperature decreases in East China and increases in Northwest China. The upper soil moisture decreases significantly across China. The results indicate that the same land use change may cause different climate effects in different regions depending on the surrounding environment and climate characteristics.

  19. Integrated Prevention and Control System for Soil Erosion in Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-ying; CAI Qiang-guo; CHEN Sheng-yong; HE Ji-jun

    2012-01-01

    The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important food production bases and commodity grain bases in China. However, the continual loss and degradation of precious black soil resources has led to direct threats to national food security and regional sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize integrated prevention and control experience of small watersheds in black soil region of Northeast China. Tongshuang small watershed, a typical watershed in rolling hills of typical black soil areas in Northeast China, is selected as the study area. Based on nearly 50 years’ experience in prevention and control of soil and water loss, the structures and overall benefits of an integrated prevention and control system for soil and water loss are investigated. Then, the ’three defense lines’ tri-dimensional protection system with reasonable allocation of different types of soil and water control measures from the hill top to gully is systematically analyzed. The first line on the top hill can weaken and block uphill runoff and sediment, hold water resources and improve soil property. The second line on the hill can truncate slope length, slow down the runoff velocity and reduce erosion energy. The third line in the gully is mainly composed of waterfall engineering, which can inhibit soil erosion and restore land resources. The ’three defense lines’ system is feasible for soil and water loss control of small watersheds in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. Through the application of the in Tongshuang small watershed, There are effective improvements in ecological conditions in Tongshuang small watershed after the application of ’three defense lines’ soil and water control system. Moreover, the integrated treatment paradigm for soil and water loss in typical black soil region is compared with that in loess region. The results of this study could offer references and experiences for other small watersheds in

  20. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  1. Genetic disorders and malaria in Indo-China region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of malaria in Southeast Asia including Thailand is believed to be a major public health problem to the population in this area since time immemorial. Adaptation of the population in this area following the principle of natural selection coupled with genetic disorders can be expected. Some good examples for natural selection of malaria are the co-existence of high prevalence of thalassaemia as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. In this report, general aspects of some important genetic disorders and malaria in Indo-China area (Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam, Yunnan and Manipur are summarized and discussed.

  2. Regional Virtual Water Trade Strategy in Drought Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to analyze the virtual water trade in drought area in China.[Method]Taking agricultural production which was related to water resources as study object and by dint of opportunity cost and comparative advantage theory,water resources have been included into a series of state macro-objective models,such as economic growth,crops safety,and increase of people's well-fare.Virtual water resource strategy was verified effectively and relevant suggestions on virtual water trade in the drought...

  3. Edge effect of the ecotone of wetland and arid grassland in a semi-arid region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiping HOU; Rui LI; Kebin ZHANG; Yunfang LIU

    2008-01-01

    The edge effect of plant communities was investigated in a wetland-dry grassland ecosystem at the Siertan Wetland in Yanchi County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Four transects lines, with each about 1 km long, were established for a vegetation survey in July 2005, along biotope gradients in four direc-tions: east, northeast, west and northwest. The data was analyzed using TWINSPAN classification method. The vegetation in this wetland was classified into three vegeta-tion types: halophytic marsh vegetation, meadow vegeta-tion and grassland vegetation. Based on the calculation of the community structure indices, the edge effect was studied which revealed distinct differences among those three vegetation zones along each transect line. The eco-tone had high richness indices (R), a high diversity index (SW) and ecological dominance (SP). Evenness, as mea-sured by the index (E), was less apparent. From the four transect lines, it appears that the ecotone in the northeast-erly direction scored higher in each community structure indicator than any of the other directions and those towards the northwest were least. The variation in the edge effect between the different transect lines is caused by human disturbances and topographic uplift.

  4. Impact of land surface degradation in northern China and southern Mongolia on regional climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingyong; DONG Wenjie; FU Congbin

    2005-01-01

    Clear evidence provided by the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and precipitation data identifies that there exists a sensitive region of vegetation-climate interaction located in the transitional zone over northern China and its surrounding areas, where the vegetation cover change has the most significant influence on summer precipitation over China. Comparison of reanalysis data with station data provides a good method to assess the impacts of land use change on surface temperature, and the most obvious contribution of land use change may be to lead to notable warming over northern China in the interdecadal time scale. Based on the new statistical results, a high-resolution regional integrated environmental model system (RIEMS) is employed to investigate the effects of land surface degradation over the transitional zone and its surrounding areas (northern China and southern Mongolia) on the regional climate. Land degradation results in the decreases in precipitation over northern and southern China, and the increase in between, and increased and decreased temperature over vegetation change areas and the adjacent area to the south, respectively. Not only would it change the surface climate, but also bring the significant influence on the atmospheric circulation. Both the surface climate and circulation changes generally agree to the observed interdecadal anomalies over the last five decades. These integrated statistical and simulated results imply that land surface degradation over the transitional zone in northern China and its surrounding areas could be one of the main causes responsible for the climate anomalies over China, especially the drought over northern China.

  5. Study of Distinctive Regional Features of Surface Solar Radiation in North and East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关福来; 郑有飞; 蔡子颖; 于长文; 张楠

    2011-01-01

    Solar radiation is an important energy source for plants on the earth and also a major component of the global energy balance.Variations in solar radiation incident at the earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment,including the climate change.To provide useful information for predicting the future climate change in China,distinctive regional features in spatial and temporal variations of the surface solar radiation (SSR) and corresponding attributions (such as cloud and aerosol) are analyzed based on SSR observations and other meteorological measurements in North and East China from 1961 to 2007.Multiple models,such as the plane-parallel radiative transfer model,empirical and statistical models,and corrclation and regrcssion analysis methods are used in the study.The results are given as follows.(1) During 1961-2007,the total SSR in North China went through a process from quickly “dimming” to slowly “dimming”,while in East China,a significant transition from “dimming” to “brightening” occurred.Although there are some differences between thc two regional variation trends,long-term variations in SSR in the two regions are basically consistent with the observation worldwide.(2) Between the 1960s and 1980s,in both North and East China,aerosols played a critical rolc in the radiation dimming.However,after 1989,different variation trends of SSR occurred in North and East China,indicating that aerosols were not the dominant factor.(3) Cloud cover contributed less to the variation of SSR in North China,but was thc major attribution in East China and played a promoting role in the reversal of SSR from dimming to brightening,especially in the “remarkable brightening” period,with its contribution as high as 70%.

  6. China's Work Safety Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jiakun

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  7. Characteristics of the Regional Meteorological Drought Events in Southwest China During 1960-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yunjie; REN Fumin; LI Yiping; WANG Pengling; YAN Hongming

    2014-01-01

    An objective identifi cation technique for regional extreme events (OITREE) and the daily composite-drought index (CI) at 101 stations in Southwest China (including Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Chongqing) are used to detect regional meteorological drought events between 1960 and 2010. Values of the parameters of the OITREE method are determined. A total of 87 drought events are identifi ed, including 9 extreme events. The 2009-2010 drought is the most serious in Southwest China during the past 50 years. The regional meteorological drought events during 1960-2010 generally last for 10-80 days, with the longest being 231 days. Droughts are more common from November to next April, and less common in the remaining months. Droughts occur more often and with greater intensity in Yunnan and southern Sichuan than in other parts of Southwest China. Strong (extreme and severe) regional meteorological drought events can be divided into fi ve types. The southern type has occurred most frequently, and Yunnan is the area most frequently stricken by extreme and severe drought events. The regional meteorological drought events in Southwest China have increased in both frequency and intensity over the study period, and the main reason appears to be a signifi cant decrease in precipitation over this region, but a simultaneous increase in temperature also contributes.

  8. Impact of anthropogenic emissions and open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaceous aerosols were studied at three background sites in south and southwest China. Hok Tsui in Hong Kong had the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols (OC = 8.7 ± 4.5 μg/m3, EC = 2.5 ± 1.9 μg/m3) among the three sites, and Jianfeng Mountains in Hainan Island (OC = 5.8 ± 2.6 μg/m3, EC = 0.8 ± 0.4 μg/m3) and Tengchong mountain over the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau (OC = 4.8 ± 4.0 μg/m3, EC = 0.5 ± 0.4 μg/m3) showed similar concentration levels. Distinct seasonal patterns with higher concentrations during the winter, and lower concentrations during the summertime were observed, which may be caused by the changes of the regional emissions, and monsoon effects. The industrial and vehicular emissions in East, Southeast and South China, and the regional open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region of Asia were probably the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in this region. - Anthropogenic emissions in China and open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region were the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in South China region.

  9. Impact of anthropogenic emissions and open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Gan, E-mail: zhanggan@gig.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xu Yue; Guo Lingli [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tang Jianhui [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Lee, Celine S.L. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Liu Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Yingjun [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Carbonaceous aerosols were studied at three background sites in south and southwest China. Hok Tsui in Hong Kong had the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols (OC = 8.7 {+-} 4.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 2.5 {+-} 1.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) among the three sites, and Jianfeng Mountains in Hainan Island (OC = 5.8 {+-} 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 0.8 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and Tengchong mountain over the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau (OC = 4.8 {+-} 4.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 0.5 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) showed similar concentration levels. Distinct seasonal patterns with higher concentrations during the winter, and lower concentrations during the summertime were observed, which may be caused by the changes of the regional emissions, and monsoon effects. The industrial and vehicular emissions in East, Southeast and South China, and the regional open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region of Asia were probably the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in this region. - Anthropogenic emissions in China and open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region were the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in South China region.

  10. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  11. Prediction of Monthly Mean Surface Air Temperature in a Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Keon-Tae SOHN

    2007-01-01

    In conventional time series analysis, a process is often modeled as three additive components: linear trend, seasonal effect, and random noise. In this paper, we perform an analysis of surface air temperature in a region of China using a decomposition method in time series analysis. Applications to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Collaborative Reanalysis data in this region of China are discussed. The main finding was that the surface air temperature trend estimated for January 1948 to February 2006 was not statistically significant at 0.5904℃ (100 yr)-1.Forecasting aspects are also considered.

  12. Regional Tax Reform Goes National

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2011-01-01

    After a year of experimental reform on the resource tax ratio in China's western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,the State Council announced on September 21 to add the method of levying the resource tax ratio by value to the existing practice of levying the ratio by volume only.It will also change resource tax rates on crude oil and natural gas.

  13. Environmental impacts and benefits of regional power grid interconnections for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of China's power industry, present situation, environmental influences and potential benefits of regional power grid interconnections in China. Power plants in China are mainly thermal, burning fossil fuels especially coal which emit a great deal of pollutants and greenhouse gases such as SO2, NOx and CO2. China leads all other countries in emissions of SO2, CO2, and the power industry is the largest contributor to these emissions. There are a number of environmental benefits through regional power grid interconnection. That is, the construction of small electricity generation capacity would be avoided; natural resources would be used to generate electricity on a regional scale; and generating sources can be separated from centers of electricity use, which will decrease emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases and help to reduce human exposure to elevated air pollutant concentrations. Therefore, gradually enlarged power grids, and power grid interconnection, should be part of the general pattern of power system development in China

  14. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  15. Scenarios of building energy demand for China with a detailed regional representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building energy consumption currently accounts for 28% of China's total energy use and is expected to continue to grow induced by floorspace expansion, income growth, and population change. Fuel sources and building services are also evolving over time as well as across regions and building types. To understand sectoral and regional difference in building energy use and how socioeconomic, physical, and technological development influence the evolution of the Chinese building sector, this study developed a building energy use model for China downscaled into four climate regions under an integrated assessment framework. Three building types (rural residential, urban residential, and commercial) were modeled specifically in each climate region. Our study finds that the Cold and Hot Summer Cold Winter regions lead in total building energy use. The impact of climate change on heating energy use is more significant than that of cooling energy use in most climate regions. Both rural and urban households will experience fuel switch from fossil fuel to cleaner fuels. Commercial buildings will experience rapid growth in electrification and energy intensity. Improved understanding of Chinese buildings with climate change highlighted in this study will help policy makers develop targeted policies and prioritize building energy efficiency measures. - Highlights: • We conduct integrated assessment of Chinese building energy use at sub-regional level. • The C and HSCW regions each account for one-third of China's building energy use. • China's building energy use with climate change would decrease by 5% in 2050. • With climate change energy use rises in HSWW region and declines in other regions

  16. Geography and similarity of regional cuisines in China

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Food occupies a central position in every culture and it is therefore of great interest to understand the evolution of food culture. The advent of the World Wide Web and online recipe repositories has begun to provide unprecedented opportunities for data-driven, quantitative study of food culture. Here we harness an online database documenting recipes from various Chinese regional cuisines and investigate the similarity of regional cuisines in terms of geography and climate. We found that the geographical proximity, rather than climate proximity is a crucial factor that determines the similarity of regional cuisines. We develop a model of regional cuisine evolution that provides helpful clues to understand the evolution of cuisines and cultures.

  17. Geography and Similarity of Regional Cuisines in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Huang, Junming; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Food occupies a central position in every culture and it is therefore of great interest to understand the evolution of food culture. The advent of the World Wide Web and online recipe repositories have begun to provide unprecedented opportunities for data-driven, quantitative study of food culture. Here we harness an online database documenting recipes from various Chinese regional cuisines and investigate the similarity of regional cuisines in terms of geography and climate. We find that geo...

  18. Regional characteristics of spring Asian dust and its impact on aerosol chemistry over northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available TSP and PM2.5 aerosol samples were synchronously collected at six sites along the transport pathway of dust storm from desert regions to coastal areas in the spring of 2004. The aerosol concentration and composition were measured to investigate the regional characteristics of spring Asian dust and its impact on aerosol chemistry over northern China. Based on the daily PM10 concentrations in 13 cities, the northern China could be divided into five regions, i.e., Northern Dust Region, Northeastern Dust Region, Western Dust Region, Inland Passing Region, and Coastal Region. Northern Dust Region was characterized by high content of Ca and Northeastern Dust Region was characterized by low one instead. Northeastern Dust Region was a relatively clean area with the lowest concentrations of pollutants and secondary ions among all sites. Inland Passing Region and Coastal Region showed high concentrations of pollutants, of which As and Pb in Inland Passing Region, and Na+, SO42− and NO3 in Coastal Region were the highest, respectively. The impact of dust on air quality was the greatest in the cities near source regions, and this impact decreased in the order of Yulin/Duolun > Beijing > Qingdao/Shanghai as the increase of transport distance. The spring Asian dust was inclined to affect the chemical components in coarse particles near source regions and those in fine particles in the cities far from source regions. Dust storm could mix significant quantities of pollutants on the pathway and carry them to the downwind cities or dilute the pollutants in the cities over northern China. Each dust episode corresponded to a low ratio of NO3/SO42− with the lowest value appearing after the peak of dust storm. Asian dust played an important role in buffering and neutralizing the acidity of atmosphere in the cities over northern China

  19. Analysis of 153 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region%新疆布鲁氏菌病153例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘珂君; 买买提艾力·吾布力; 包依夏姆·阿巴拜克力; 努尔比亚·阿不都克尤木; 孙晓风; 鲁晓擘; 张跃新

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨新疆地区布鲁氏菌病流行情况、临床特征、相关检查及治疗转归情况.方法 回顾性分析新疆医科大学第一附属医院2005年1月-2012年9月收治的153例布鲁氏菌病住院患者的一般情况、临床特征及治疗转归情况.结果 新疆地区的布鲁氏菌病有较为明显的职业特点,每年的4-8月高发,近年发病数有增加趋势.患者症状以发热为主,同时伴有大汗、肌肉骨关节疼痛、肝大和脾大等临床表现,部分患者出现WBC、HGB及PLT不同程度的下降,以及乳酸脱氢酶异常.治疗以利福平+多西环素及利福平+左氧氟沙星为主,好转率达99.12%.结论 新疆地区为布鲁氏菌病的高发区,在接诊以“不明原因发热”为主诉的患者时,应考虑该疾病的可能..布鲁氏菌病发病率在我国有回升趋势,应引起高度重视.%Objective To investigate epidemiology, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome of patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang). Method General data, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of 153 patients with brucellosis hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from Jan. 2005 to Sept. 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in the population with certain occupations in Xinjiang. Brucellosis occurred mainly from April to August each year, and the number of patients with brucellosis had been growing in recent years. The main clinical manifestation was fever, accompanied by sweating, muscle and joint pain, hepatosplenomegaly and so on, while WBC, HGB and PLT decreased in defferent degrees and abnormal lactate dehydrogenase was found in some patients. The combination of rifampicin and doxycycline, or rifampin and levofloxacin achieved a high improvement rate (99.12%). Conclusions The prevalence of brucellosis is high in Xinjiang, so brucellosis should be

  20. 自治区单行条例缺失的原因分析%Causes of the Vacancy of Autonomous Region Special Decree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田聚英

    2014-01-01

    As for the current situation of national autonomy’ legislative power, the phenomenon of the Vacancy of autonomous region special decree should not be ignored.Combining the characteristics of special decree with the current content of the legal system in our country, the main causes of the Vacancy of autonomous region special decree as follows: Firstly, fuzzy discrimination in higher-level Law; Secondly, the vacancy of the superior legislative supervision; Thirdly, legislators’ “rational evasion ”; Fourthly, the lack of direct legal basis.%就民族区域自治地方立法权行使的现状来看,自治区单行条例缺失的现象不容忽视。综合我国现有法律体系的相关内容,并结合单行条例自身的特点,其主要原因至少有以下几个方面:其一,上位法界分不明。其二,上级立法机关监督缺位。其三,立法主体的“理性规避”。其四,立法的直接法律依据缺失。

  1. Growth and yield performance of Jerusalem artichoke clones in a semiarid region of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Z.X.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Sha, J.; Xue, S.; Xie, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated biomass yield and growth characteristics of 26 Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) clones and assessed it as a bioenergy crop for a semiarid region of the Loess Plateau in China. Genotype, year, and genotype ´ year interaction contributed to differences in crop deve

  2. Study on the glacier variation and its runoff responses in the arid region of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潮海; 康尔泗; 刘时银; 陈建明; 刘宗香

    1999-01-01

    The glaciers in the arid region of Northwest China are viewed as an independent system, and glacier variation and mass balance fluctuation since the Little Ice Age and in the recent decades are estimated. Based on the estimation, the threshold time of glacier runoff against the backgrounds of the current and future varying climate conditions is simulated.

  3. Groundwater Systems and Eco-hydrological Features in the Main Karst Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yaoru; ZHANG Feng'e; LIU Changli; TONG Guobang; ZHANG Yun

    2006-01-01

    Different karst water features and related water resources are present both in southern and northern China. There are over 3,358 well-developed karst ground river systems with total discharges in the dry season of about 420×108 m3 in the main karst regions in the southern part of China.Exploitation rates are only 8-15%. Over 100 larger karst spring systems in the main karst regions of northern China cover a catchment area from 500 km2 to over 4,000 km2, of which the average discharge appears to be from about 1 m3/s to 13 m3/s and the exploitation rates are 70-80%. Six aspects of the ecohydrological features of some typical karst regions in China comprising water environment, ecological features, materials and structures between parent rock and soil, bio-geological processes and palynological studies (spore-pollen) are discussed. Qualitative evaluation of eco-geology and rocky desertification in the karst regions should be based on the main karst ecological conditions as well as artificial, i.e., man-made impacts.

  4. Documentation and Revitalization of the Zhuang Language and Culture of Southwestern China through Linguistic Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodomo, Adams

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines innovative strategies, methods, and techniques for the documentation and revitalization of "Zhuang" language and culture through linguistic fieldwork. Zhuang, a Tai-Kadai language spoken mainly in the rural areas of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of southwestern China, is the largest minority language in China, with…

  5. Industries in Western Region Mismatch MNC Investment Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨先明; 张正华

    2008-01-01

    Using the "matching extent" method,this article conducts a multi-perspective analysis on the compatibility of the investment strategies of the western region and MNCs,as well as national policies on foreign investment. Research indicates that low matching extent amongst the above three decision-makers is an important reason for the disadvantage of the western region in terms of FDI attraction,and this situation will not change in the short term. In addition,this article also sheds light on how to increase matching extent.

  6. Changes to the Natural Regional Boundaries in China During 1961-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhen-Yan; FAN Guang-Zhou; DONG Yi-Ping; WANG Lei; HUA Wei; ZHOU Ding-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Daily temperature data from 599 stations across China for the years 1961 to 2007 were used to analyze the changes in the natural regional boundaries. The results show that the accumulated temperature ≥10℃ and its duration changed dramatically from the end of 1990s to the early 21 st century. The amplitude of natural regional boundaries was greater in the 21st century than it was in the 20th century. In the eastern region of China, the climatic zones were migrating generally northward, with the northern edge of the subtropical zone and the eastern section of the warm temperate zone showing an obvious northward shift of up to 1-3° of latitude. The climatic zones moved south in the Qinghal-Tibet Plateau, western Inner Mongolia, and some areas of western Xinjiang, and slightly to the north in other parts of the western region.

  7. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL DISPARITIES OF INTERNET DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU He-li; LIU Gui-fang; QIAN Le-xiang

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the disparities of Intemet development in China spatially-temporally. The major objective is to measure the differences between Eastern, Central and Western China. Methods of map presentation, correlation, Lorenz curve, Gini Coefficient and location quotient analysis are conducted in this study.For convenience, the indicator of regional Internet development is simplified as the number of domain names registered under .CN in each province. The data used are collected from the semi-annual surveys of the Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China since 1999. There are several findings: 1) The number of domain names in each province (city) declines gradually from the east to the west. 2) The gap between the highest growth provinces (cities) and the lowest ones is rather large. 3) Although the absolute differences between the eastern, central and western China have been enlarged, the relative differences in each province (city) have remained constant.4) Provinces (cities) are classified into three types according to location quotient changes, namely, rising type,changeless type and declining type. Compared with industrial and economic growth, Intemet sector in the eastern and western China is relatively ascending, while that in the central China is descending. 5) The number of domain names at provincial level is not statistically consistent with GDP.

  8. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  9. Xinjiang Largest Crude Production Base in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Lei

    2002-01-01

    @@ As of the end of March this year, the oil fields in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the northwestern part of the country, have cumulatively produced 250 million tons of crude oil in total, enabling Xinjiang to become the fourth province (region) in China with the accumulated oil production exceeding 250 million tons after Heilongjiang, Shandong and Liaoning.

  10. Potential impacts of regional climate change on site productivity of Larix olgensis plantations in northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Shen C; Lei X; Liu H.; Wang L; Liang W

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to substantially affect forest site productivity. However, its effects may vary depending on the climate scenario, region and tree species. We chose Larix olgensis in northeast China to investigate the responses of forest site productivity to regional climate change using a generalized additive model (GAM). Based on site index data and climate variables from 335 townships across the Jilin Province, we developed a climate-sensitive forest site index model, which acco...

  11. Evolving into a Regional Innovation System: How Governance impact on Innovation in Shenzhen and Dongguan, China?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenying Fu; Javier Revilla Diez; Daniel Schiller

    2011-01-01

    Governance constitutes elementary supportive infrastructure for regional innovation systems. This paper extends the evolutionary lens of governance into initial industrialization phase and examines the impact of their evolution into regional innovation systems on fostering innovation activities. Drawing on the empirical substances in Shenzhen and Dongguan, China, a path-dependent nature of institutional design on supporting innovation has been discovered. The paper shows that the dirigiste gl...

  12. Study on relationship between historical volcanic eruptions and historical strong earthquakes in China and its adjacent regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This thesis lists and describes 6 pairs of tectonic events, i.e., historical volcanic eruptions associated with historical strong earthquakes, based on the analysis for the records of historical volcanic eruptions and historical strong earthquakes in China and its adjacent region since the first record. And discusses the relationship between historical eruptions and strong earthquakes by means of analyzing the characteristics of tectonic events themselves, plate movement, regional seismicity, and regional stress environment in China and its adjacent region.

  13. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  14. Lifestyles, technology and CO2 emissions in China. A regional comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rapid economic development, higher income levels, urbanization and other socio-economic drivers, people's lifestyles in China have changed remarkably over the last 50 years. This paper uses the IPAT model (where I = Impact representing CO2 emissions, P = Population, A = Affluence, and T = emission intensity) to analyze how these main drivers contributed to the growth of CO2 emissions over this time period. Affluence or lifestyle change has been variously recognized as one of the key factors contributing to CO2 emissions. Through comparative analysis of the development of five regions in China, we trace lifestyle changes since the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949 until 2002. We find that household consumption across the five regions follows similar trajectories, driven by changes in income and the increasing availability of goods and services, although significant differences still exist between and within regions due to differential policies in China and different possibilities for social mobility. There are considerable differences between the southeast and northwest and between urban and rural areas. We also found that technological improvements have not been able to fully compensate for the increase of emissions due to population growth and increasing wealth, which is also in line with results from other studies. Finally, this paper emphasizes that developing countries such as China, which is home to 22% of the world population and a growing middle class, and which is on a fast track to modernization, need to ensure that people's lifestyles are changing towards more sustainable ways of living. China has been investing heavily in infrastructure and thus creating the emissions of tomorrow. Thus investing, for example, in public transport and low energy building today will help reduce emissions in the future and will support more sustainable lifestyles. (author)

  15. Sustainable Irrigation with Brackish Groundwater in Heilonggang Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Saline groundwater is widely distributed in Heilonggang region. While deep confined water is being mined, saline water has not been used in most part of the region. Extension of saline water irrigation is of significance to resolve water shortage, slow down environmental degradation and support the sustainable development of the local agriculture. Four key points are proposed to be managed by comprehensive measures: (1) adapting salt-resistant ability; (2) reducing salt input; (3) decreasing soil surface evaporation and salt accumulation in the root zone, and (4) washing away salt from the root zone. Experiments and farming practices demonstrated that brackish water with TDS (total dissolved solids) of 2-5 g/l can be used for crop irrigation. For example, winter wheat can be sustainably irrigated by brackish water with a water limitation of 120 mm every year. Irrigation in combination with different comprehensive measures can increase the efficiency of saline water irrigation.

  16. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Luo; Yong-Bao Pan; Liping Xu; Michael Paul Grisham; Hua Zhang; Youxiong Que

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the contro...

  17. Energy and CO2 emissions performance in China's regional economies: Do market-oriented reforms matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs a newly developed non-radial directional distance function to evaluate China's regional energy and CO2 emission performance for the period 1997–2009. Moreover, we analyze the impact of China's market-oriented reform on China's regional energy and carbon efficiency. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China's regions did not perform efficiently in energy use and CO2 emissions. Provinces in the east area generally performed better than those in the central and west areas. By contrast, provinces in the west area generally evidenced the lowest efficiency. Second, Market-oriented reforms, especially the promotion of factor market, were found to have positive effect on the efficiency of energy use and CO2 emissions. Third, the share of coal in the total energy consumption and the expansion of the industrial sector were found to be negatively correlated with China's regional energy and CO2 emissions performance. Based on the empirical findings, we provide policy suggestions for enhancing energy and carbon efficiency in China. - Highlights: • A newly developed NDDF are applied to evaluate China's energy and carbon performance. • Most of China's regions did not perform efficiently in energy use and CO2 emissions. • Market-oriented reforms contributed to improving China's energy and carbon efficiency

  18. Regional disparities and carbon “outsourcing”: The political economy of China's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2007, gross domestic product (GDP) growth in China's inland provinces has exceeded that of the affluent coastal provinces. Concurrently, they have also been given more lenient energy intensity reduction targets to provide latitude for continued growth. The regional unevenness of economic development and energy policy has implications for the ability of the country to achieve its energy savings target – an objective that has become the key part of China's climate change mitigation strategy. This study shows that there is an explicit trend in which changes in regional economic structure is moving towards increasing national energy intensity. This is due, in large part, to carbon leakage between provinces. Changes in regional economic structure increased national energy intensity by 0.13% during the 11th five-year plans (FYP) period, and is on track to cause a further increase of 1.35% during the 12th FYP period. In formulating national energy policy, the existing “Target Responsibility System” (TRS) of policy implementation may need to be improved. Regional economic disparities must be taken directly into account in policymaking, as inland provinces should be assigned higher, not lower, energy intensity reduction targets. This will increase the likelihood that national targets, and hence China's broader climate change mitigation goals, will be met. - Highlights: • Regional economic disparities are increasing China's national energy intensity. • Regional carbon “outsourcing” is a leading cause of rising energy intensity. • To meet future targets, the “Target Responsibility System” (TRS) needs to be improved. • Regional economic structure should be directly accounted for in energy policy. • Particularly, inland provinces should be assigned higher energy savings targets

  19. MANAGING INTRA-REGIONAL CONFLICTS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. THE CASE OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Bianca BERNA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aiming to address the Association of Southeast Asian Nations’ (ASEAN’s management of intra-regional conflicts by integrating the study of the core-source of its current position, comparing and contrasting the different two most significant periods of its existence: the early Post-Cold War Era and its current unveilings, and hedging towards explaining why its barely-enough pragmatism is no longer a solvable demeanor for its survival. The paper will focus on the The South China Sea conflict in the pursuance to explain the distinctions that ASEAN’s management of intra-regional confl icts has gained through experience, through realizing its limited containment capacity as far the regional role of great powers is concerned, or through a critical removal of passivism in the confi dence-winning processes of extra-regional partners. The paper’s choice to address The South China Sea as an intra-regional conflict may be surprising for some, or may inflate others more straightforward as far as the choice for instrumental methods is concerned. In order to better explain this paper’s macro-purposes, the South-China Sea confl ict is an intra-regional confl ict, as the Southeast Asian states involved have divergent claims regarding the sovereignty dilemma. Secondly, more interesting issues might be brought to the table with the involvement of a great power in an intra-regional confl ict. Last but not least, as connected to the previous argument, ASEAN’s engaging and sensitizing of China may generate, from an early start, effects on the perceptionbuilding process between the actors involved.

  20. CHINA'S REGIONAL DISPARITY IN 1981-2000:OPENNESS AND DEVELOPMENT OF NON-STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES AND FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bing

    2004-01-01

    While China's economic growth has been impressive since 1978, regional disparity in terms of provincial per capita GDP has been increasing. On the other hand, this rapid but uneven growth was accompanied by China's deepening openness and structural reforms including the development of non-state-owned enterprises (non-SOEs) and fiscal decentralization. Based on quantitative analyses, this paper tries to explore the features of regional disparity in China and the relationships between regional growth and China's openness and economic structure reforms in the period from 1981 to 2000. The paper finds that the catching-up of the coastal region to the initially rich provinces, which are mainly located in inland areas, brought about a convergence of the growth pattern across provinces in the 1980s.The subsequent divergence in the provincial growth rates between the coast and the interior generated an enlarging regional disparity in China in the 1990s. The ever-faster growth in the coastal region was benefited by China's openness and the development of non-state-owned enterprises. The development of non-state-owned enterprises underlies the higher operational efficiency in the coastal region. Additionally, with the insignificant regression results, fiscal decentralization was observed to facilitate faster growth in the coast region. The findings justify the initiative of the "West Region Development Strategy" and offer some policy implications for China.

  1. Release of Regional Autonomy for Ethnic Minorities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Construction of 60 Important Projects Begun under the Strategy for the Development of Western China;The Enrollment of 2,500 Students for Master's and PhD Programs from Ethnic Minority Areas;Each of the 55 Ethnic Minorities Having Its Own Brief Written History;The Per-capita Net Income of Rural Residents in Tibet is Growing Constantly;Every Ethnic Group Having its Own NPC Deputy or Deputies;Strengthening Specific Forms of Implementation of the System of Regional Ethnic Autonomy;

  2. Inversion of gravity and topography data for the crust thickness of China and its adjacent region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian-ping; FU Rong-shan; XU Ping; HUANG Jian-hua; ZHENG Yong

    2006-01-01

    The data of Bouguer gravity and topography are inverted to obtain the crust thickness of China. In order to reduce the effect of regional non-isostasy we corrected the reference Moho depth in the inversion with regional topography relief, and performed multiple iterations to make the result more reliable. The obtained crust thickness of China is plotted on a map in cells of 1°×1°. Then we analyzed the correlation between the Bouguer gravity anomaly and fluctuation of the Moho depth. A good linear correlation is found, with a correlation coefficient of -0.993.Different correlation coefficients, 0.96 and 0.91, are found for the data in land and ocean region, respectively. The correlation result also shows that the boundary between land and ocean is generally along the bathymetric line of -800 m. In order to examine the influence of the Earth's curvature on the calculated result, we tried two inversion models: the inversion for the whole region and the inversion for 4 sub-regions. The difference in the crust thickness deduced from the two models is less than 5 km. Possible explanation for the difference is discussed. After comparing our result with that of other studies, we suggest that with our method the Bouguer gravity and the topography data can be independently inverted to obtain the crust thickness of China and its adjacency.

  3. The Influence of Land Surface Changes on Regional Climate in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xingkui; ZHANG Feng; Jason K.LEVY

    2007-01-01

    Land surface changes effect the regional climate due to the complex coupling of land-atmosphere interactions. From 1995 to 2000, a decrease in the vegetation density and an increase in ground-level thermodynamic activity has been documented by multiple data sources in Northwest China, including meteorological, reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) satellite remote sensing data. As the ground-level thermodynamic activity increases, humid air from the surrounding regions converge toward desert (and semi-desert) regions, causing areas with high vegetation cover to become gradually more arid. Furthermore, land surface changes in Northwest China are responsible for a decrease in total cloud cover, a decline in the fraction of low and middle clouds, an increase in high cloud cover (due to thermodynamic activity) and other regional climatic adaptations. It is proposed that, beginning in 1995, these cloud cover changes contributed to a "greenhouse" effect, leading to the rapid air temperature increases and other regional climate impacts that have been observed over Northwest China.

  4. Satellite observation of regional haze pollution over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Minghui; Chen, Liangfu; Su, Lin; Tao, Jinhua

    2012-06-01

    Haze clouds often form over the North China Plain (NCP) of eastern China, where large amounts of aerosol particles and their precursors are emitted. To obtain general insights into regional pollution, a large-scale, long-term study was conducted using A-Train satellite observations, ground measurements, and meteorological data. Contrary to previous analyses, most of the haze clouds appeared to form abruptly (within 2-3 h). Case studies show that natural sources contribute significantly to the formation of regional haze. Dust plumes can mix with local pollutants, causing smog clouds to form abruptly, while moist airflows can cause widespread haze-fog pollution. The combined observations revealed highly inhomogeneous haze clouds, in terms of both vertical and horizontal distribution, leading to clear discrepancies between site measurements near the surface and satellite observations at the top of the atmosphere. Surprisingly, prevailing dust plumes, which are closely connected with the haze clouds, were observed in winter. Airborne dust and water vapor transported from outside the region are the main drivers of regional haze over the NCP. Accumulation of local pollutants also leads to common occurrences of urban smog; however, the occurrence of most haze clouds shows no obvious correlation with local pollution. Local- and regional-scale haze pollution are common over the NCP, but they have differing formation mechanisms, and contrasting chemical and physical properties. The present findings improve our understanding of heavy pollution over eastern China and its links to climate.

  5. China's "energy revolution": measuring the status quo, modelling regional dynamics and assessing global impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy

    As the world's largest economy in transition, China plays a growing role in global energy markets, clean technology deployment and climate change negotiations. The Chinese president Xi Jinping called in June 2014 for an “energy revolution” of the country’s “energy production and consumption habits...... in light of changing dynamics in global energy markets” [Xinhua, 2014]. This highlights the strategic importance of China’s energy sector in the country’s national economic planning and its associated global impacts. China furthermore has a growing research and development budget and plays an increasing...... role in global scientific collaboration networks. A wide range of Chinese national and provincial statistics builds the foundation of this China energy sector research and allows measuring and modelling its main regional dynamics. As the quality, reliability, and availability of China’s official...

  6. Between system maker and privileges taker: the role of China in the Greater Mekong Sub-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong-Minh Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing China's leadership projects in the Great Mekong Sub-Region (GMS as a case study, this paper aims to investigate whether China qualifies as an international leader. This work argues that its geographic position and economic rise allow China to be a "system maker and privilege taker," which is a dual role forming in economic-political relations in the GMS in the last ten years. China is among major driving forces to set up an economic zone in GMS. Growing Chinese regional power is intimately related to the creation of various hubs connecting regional transportation, communication and energy systems that foster the economic development of this region. However, China also proves dark sides of rising powers which take advantage of their privileges to gain benefits. As a "system maker" with its own position and capability, China has notably benefited from building hydropower systems. More importantly, while China is pursuing its benefits and privileges, its hydropower projects have caused some negative effects for the ecosystem in the region. The inflation of dam constructions in both China and GMS countries is raising concerns about using natural resources of the Mekong River. Our concluding part addresses the pressing need to start a serious discussion on the balance between national interests and regional solidarity within the formulation of Chinese foreign policy in GMS.

  7. China's energy statistics in a global context: A methodology to develop regional energy balances for East, Central and West China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, timely and accurate economic and energy data are critical to carry out analysis of energy system changes. An energy balance, characterizing fuels/commodities used in energy supply, transformation and sectoral end uses is an essential tool to calibrate energy system models used for......’s national statistical system continuous to be debated and criticised in terms of data quality, comparability and reliability, an overview of the milestones, status and main issues of China’s energy statistics is given. In a next step, the energy balance format of the International Energy Agency is used as...... an international benchmark to analyze China’s national energy statistics in detail and identify indicators to establish regional energy balances inside China. Although this methodology includes a range of data uncertainties, it is intended to stimulate the discussion about current and future regional...

  8. Land Use and Regional Climate in Eastern China over the Past 300 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    Historical documents of Qing Dynasty to present from 15-17provinces in the eastern China are used to reconstruction of historical crop cover in eastern China and the crop ratio at years of 1724,1784,1820,1873,1887,1893,1913,1933,1986,and 1995 by comparing with present crop land types and crop ratio. Then they are Interpolated from the political unit ( counties) to the grid in 0.5°×0.5° horizontal resolution in the area of 19°N to 45°N and 103°E to126°E. Based on and compared with modern vegetation distribution, the Chinese Natural Resources Database, historical documents, and local chronicles , the historical vegetation in eastern China are reconstructed. Furthermore, RegCM3 is sued to do sensitive simulation of climatic effect of land cover change in the eastern China by using reconstructed vegetation in this study and those from GLCC (USGS) data for area out off the study area. According to simulation results and temperature anomalies data from Wang et al. (19 98), and Ge et al. (2003), the possible effects of land use change on regional climate are discussed. From this study we found that (1)The crop land cover and ratio changed significantly since 1724, and the fast increasing periods are 1724-1820 and 1933-1980. the average highest ratios are at 1887 and around 1980 in the eastern China.(2) With the crop land extending the vegetation type were changed in the most part of eastern China: some primary forest (coniferous and rainforest) are replaced by plantation (broadleaf forest) in the last 50 years in eastern China.(3) Urbanization caused decrease of crop land in the past 20 years in the developed area, such as lower reaches of Yangtze River. Current urban area is about 10% compared with 0.05% in Qing Dynasty in eastern China.(4)The simulation results show that in the centennial time scale, the trend of precipitation change during the past 300 years is 'more-less-more' in the part of North China. The difference of precipitation between 1995 and 1724

  9. 民族区域自治权的宪政分析%Analysis to the Constitutional Government in Ethnic Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春晖

    2012-01-01

    Western scholars take constitutional government as the legal restriction on government.Comrade Mao Zedong thought it was just the democratic politics.With the enriching knowledge of constitutional government,more and more scholars think that it contains three essential factors,i.e.democracy,legality and human right.This article analyzes the right of autonomy in ethnic minority regions from the above three domains of the constitutional government,explains how to enhance democracy via autonomous administration to the affairs inside the ethnic minority regions in the course of conducting regional autonomy right,how to enjoy the right of formulating regulations and separate regulations,how to guarantee the human right via using and developing ethnic writing system,autonomously developing education,science and technology,culture and other social causes.%西方学者认为宪政是法律对政府的限制,毛泽东同志认为宪政是民主的政治。更多的学者认为宪政包含民主、法治、人权三要素。本文从宪政三要素角度对民族区域自治权进行分析,诠释了自治地方在行使自治权过程中,如何通过自主管理本民族、本地区的内部事务而加强民主;如何享有制定自治条例和单行条例的权力,进而遵循宪法至上的理念;如何通过使用和发展本民族语言文字,自主发展教育、科技、文化等社会事业进而保障人权等问题。

  10. Quantifying baseline emission factors of air pollutants in China's regional power grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenjia; Wang, Can; Jin, Zhugang; Chen, Jining

    2013-04-16

    Drawing lessons from the clean development mechanism (CDM), this paper developed a combined margin methodology to quantify baseline emission factors of air pollutants in China's regional power grids. The simple average of baseline emission factors of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 in China's six power grids in 2010 were respectively 1.91 kg/MWh, 1.83 kg/MWh and 0.32 kg/MWh. Several low-efficient mitigation technologies, such as low nitrogen oxide burner (LNB), were suggested to be replaced or used together with other technologies in order to virtually decrease the grid's emission factor. The synergies between GHG and air pollution mitigation in China's power sector was also notable. It is estimated that in 2010, that every 1% CO2 reduction in China's power generation sector resulted in the respective coreduction of 1.1%, 0.5%, and 0.8% of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5. Wind is the best technology to achieve the largest amount of coabatement in most parts of China. This methodology is recommended to be used in making comprehensive air pollution control strategies and in cobenefits analysis in future CDM approval processes. PMID:23461797

  11. Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over East Asia and Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the East Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in East Asia, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfall—the moisture flux convergence—over Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

  12. Regional evolution of geological structure in south China and U mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper states the development laws of regional geological structure of South China and its controlling effect on uranium deposit evolution, and the characteristics of rich uranium formation in different periods of geology-history are analysed. It also discusses the relationship between the distribution of time and space and tectonic structure and environmental vicissitudes. The rock-magma activities-the strong formation of the Diwa Era is of great significance to the formation of uranium deposits within the region, especially to the formation of a series of multi-genesis polygene uranium deposits which are a potential direction in which to look for minerals within the region

  13. Regional evolution of geological structure in south China and U mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper states the development laws of regional geological structure of South China and its controlling effect on uranium deposit evolution, and the characteristics of rich uranium formation in different periods of geo-history are analysed. It also discusses the relationship between the distribution of time and space and tectonic structure and environmental vicissitudes. The rock-magma activities-the strong formation of the Diwa Era is of great significance to the formation of uranium deposits within the region, especially to the formation of a series of multi-genesis polygene uranium deposits which are a potential direction in which to look for minerals within the region

  14. Different region analysis for genotyping Yersinia pestis isolates from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DFR (different region analysis has been developed for typing Yesinia pestis in our previous study, and in this study, we extended this method by using 23 DFRs to investigate 909 Chinese Y. pestis strains for validating DFR-based genotyping method and better understanding adaptive microevolution of Y. pestis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On the basis of PCR and Bionumerics data analysis, 909 Y. pestis strains were genotyped into 32 genomovars according to their DFR profiles. New terms, Major genomovar and Minor genomovar, were coined for illustrating evolutionary relationship between Y. pestis strains from different plague foci and different hosts. In silico DFR profiling of the completed or draft genomes shed lights on the evolutionary scenario of Y. pestis from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Notably, several sequenced Y. pestis strains share the same DFR profiles with Chinese strains, providing data for revealing the global plague foci expansion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Distribution of Y. pestis genomovars is plague focus-specific. Microevolution of biovar Orientalis was deduced according to DFR profiles. DFR analysis turns to be an efficient and inexpensive method to portrait the genome plasticity of Y. pestis based on horizontal gene transfer (HGT. DFR analysis can also be used as a tool in comparative and evolutionary genomic research for other bacteria with similar genome plasticity.

  15. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  16. Regionalized Techno-Economic Assessment and Policy Analysis for Biomass Molded Fuel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a relatively mature technology, biomass molded fuel (BMF is widely used in distributed and centralized heating in China and has received considerable government attention. Although many BFM incentive policies have been developed, decreased domestic traditional fuel prices in China have caused BMF to lose its economic viability and new policy recommendations are needed to stimulate this industry. The present study built a regionalized net present value (NPV model based on real production process simulation to test the impacts of each policy factor. The calculations showed that BMF production costs vary remarkably between regions, with the cost of agricultural briquette fuel (ABF ranging from 86 US dollar per metric ton (USD/t to 110 (USD/t, while that of woody pellet fuel (WPF varies from 122 USD/t to 154 USD/t. The largest part of BMF’s cost composition is feedstock, which accounts for up 50%–60% of the total; accordingly a feedstock subsidy is the most effective policy factor, but in consideration of policy implementation, it would be better to use a production subsidy. For ABF, the optimal product subsidy varies from 26 USD/t to 57 USD/t among different regions of China, while for WPF, the range is 36 USD/t to 75 USD/t. Based on the data, a regional BMF development strategy is also proposed in this study.

  17. Research on forest ecosystem services in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西壮族自治区森林生态系统服务功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵; 魏江生; 俞社保; 梁建平; 蔡会德; 农胜奇

    2013-01-01

    This paper assessed the economic value of forest ecosystem services of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region on the basis of the forest resource of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2009 ,the data of long term observation of Forest Ecosystem Research Station and the data of social commonality ,adopting Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China (LY/T1721‐2008) . The results showed that the annual average value of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region forest ecosystem services was 838 .893 billion yuan .The annual mean value of forest eco‐system services was 607 .0 hundred yuan per hectare .The sort of 7 service functions value :water supply > carbon fixed and oxygen released > biodiversity conservation > environmental purification > soil conservation > forest nutrition storage> forest tourism .The descending order of different forest type was softwood forests (37 .86% )> pine forests(14 .79% )> eucalyptus forests (12 .07% ) > fir forests (10 .61% ) > shishan shrubbery (7 .71% ) > shrubbery economic forests (3.60% )> oak forests (3 .25% ) > broad leaf forests (2 .98% ) > arbor economic forests (2.69% ) > bamboo forests (2.55% )> tushan shrubbery(1 .88% )> mangrove(0 .02% ) .Provide a scientific basis for the protection of ecological en‐vironment and accounting of green GDP ,as well as quantifying the ecological value of forest resources .%  利用广西2009年二次资源调查数据和森林生态站长期、连续观测数据及社会公共数据,采用森林生态系统服务功能评估规范(LY /T1721‐2008),评估了广西森林生态系统服务功能的总价值.结果表明:广西森林生态系统服务功能总价值为8388.93亿元/每年,每公顷森林提供的价值平均为6.070万元/每年,7项服务功能的价值量排序:涵养水源>固碳制氧>保护生物多样性>净化大气环境>保育土壤>林木营养积累>森林游憩.不同林分类型由大到小的顺序为软阔类(37.86%)>松类(14.79%)>

  18. Characteristics of regional new particle formation in urban and regional background environments in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. B. Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions were carried out in the North China Plain both at an urban background site (Peking University, PKU and a regional Global Atmospheric Watch station (Shangdianzi, SDZ from March to November in 2008. In total, 52 new particle formation events were observed simultaneously at both sites, indicating that this is a regional phenomenon in the North China Plain. On average, the mean condensation sink value before the nucleation event start was 0.025 s−1 in the urban environment, which was 1.6 times higher than that at regional site. However, higher particle formation and growth rates were observed at PKU (10.8 cm−3 s−1 an 5.2 nm h−1 compared with those at SDZ (4.9 cm−3 s−1 and 4.0 nm h−1. These results implied that more precursors are needed to participate in the nucleation process to observe the occurrence of new particle formation event in a more polluted urban environment. Different from the observations in clean environments, the background condition of the observed nucleation events in the North China Plain could be characterized as the co-existing of the higher source and sink. The condensational growth of newly formed particles results in an increase in the particle mass concentration, particle light scattering coefficient, and CCN number concentration, with consequences on climate effects and air quality. In 34 investigated new particle formation cases at both sites, a significant particle nucleation and subsequent growth over a sufficient long time period were observed and investigated in terms of the particle light scattering and the number concentration of "potential" CCN. The results revealed that the new particle formation increases the particle light scattering coefficient and CCN number concentration in the North China Plain by factors in the range of 6.3–7.6 and 5.6–8.7, respectively. Moreover, the potential contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the CCN

  19. The Transfer of Land Contractual Management Rights in Ethnic Village--A Case Study of Ya’ergou Village in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on field survey in Ya’ergou Village,Yuanzhou District,Guyuan City,the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,we analyze the status quo of the transfer of land contractual management rights in this village,and study the basic information,form,characteristics,and problems concerning the transfer of land contractual management rights in this nationality village.Then corresponding countermeasures are put forward for promoting the transfer of land contractual management rights in ethnic village as follows:strengthening the publicity of the policy in order to improve farmers’ ideological understanding;raising the rent in order to promote the transfer of the land contractual management rights;diverting the governmental investment to the talented people within village;consolidating management and resolving disputes in the transfer timely and effectively.

  20. Quantitative Prediction of Concentrated Regions of Large and Superlarge Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shicheng; Zhao Zhenyu; Wang Yutian

    2003-01-01

    Identification and quantitative prediction of large and superlarge mineral deposits of solid mineral resources using the mineral resource prediction theory and method with comprehensive information is carried out nationwide in China at a scale of 1: 5 000 000. Using deposit concentrated regions as the model units and concentrated mineralization anomaly regions as prediction units, the prediction is performed on GIS platform. The technical route and research method of locating large and superlarge mineral deposits and principle of compiling attribute table of independent variables and functional variables are proposed. Upon methodology study, the qualitative locating and quantitative predicting mineral deposits are carried out with quantitative theory Ⅲ and characteristic analysis, respectively, and the advantage and disadvantage of two methods are discussed. This research is significant for mineral resource prediction in ten provinces of western China.

  1. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese......The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture...... waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China...

  2. Regional Supervision Centres for Environmental Protection in China: Functions and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhi Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP, has set up six regional Supervision Centres for Environmental Protection (SCEPs in recent years. The creation of the SCEPs reflects the “green will” of Chinese government, to reverse the ever-worsening environmental situation throughout China by strengthening vertical supervision of the environmental laws and policies enforcement. A primary analysis focusing on the South China Supervision Centre (SCSC has clearly shown, however, that the SCEPs today can only perform well in the concrete or “small” tasks – most of them designated or handed over by the MEP – rather than in the complicated or “big” issues. To make the SCEPs do more and better, the most desirable but radical policy choice is to reshape them into fully authorised regional “sub-bureaus” of the MEP.

  3. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering of Spodoptera exigua Hübner in regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Lin Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inferential models are usually used to evaluate the effect of winter warming on range expansion of insects. Generally, correlative approaches used to predict changes in the distributions of organisms are based on the assumption that climatic boundaries are fixed. Spodoptera exigua Htibner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae overwinters as larvae or pupae in China regions. To understand the climate change impacts on overwintering of this species in regions of China, CLIMEX and Arc-GIS models were used to predict possible changes of distribution based on temperature. The climate change projection clearly indicated that the northern boundary of overwintering for S. exigua will shift northward from current distribution. Thus, the ongoing winter warming is likely to increase the frequency of S. exigua outbreaks.

  4. Research of Employment Quality and Its Regional Differences in China%中国就业质量及地区差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱火云; 丁煜; 王翻羽

    2014-01-01

    The 18th congress report of Communist Party of China clearly points out: “promoting to achieve higher quality of employment.” Based on the concept of employment quality we defined properly, we construct a comprehensive evaluation in-dex system of employment quality for China, and evaluate the employment quality and its regional differences among 30 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) across the county from 2005 to 2011. The result suggests that the general lev-el of employment quality in our country is low; regional differences of employment quality are very large; level of economic development is not the only factor determining the level of employment quality. Thus , each region should attach more attention to improving employment quality under the guidance of 18th congress report while increasing job opportunities.%党的十八大报告明确提出,“要推动实现更高质量的就业”。在合理界定就业质量概念基础上,笔者构建了我国就业质量综合评价指标体系,并对2005-2011年我国30个省(市、自治区)的就业质量及其地区差异进行评估,结果发现:我国就业质量总体偏低;各地区就业质量差异较大;经济发展水平不是决定就业质量高低的唯一因素。因此,各地区应该在十八大报告指导下,在积极增加就业岗位的基础上,更加注重就业质量的提高。

  5. Analysis of the serum reproductive system related autoantibodies of infertility patients in Tianjin region of China

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Yan; Xu, Yanying; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Bumei

    2015-01-01

    Object: Reproductive system related autoantibodies have been proposed to be associated with natural infertility. However, large scale systematic analysis of these of antibodies has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to analyze the positive rate of antisperm antibody (ASAb), anti-endometrium antibody (EMAb), anti-ovary antibody (AOAb), anti-zona pellucida antibody (AZP) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) in infertility patients in Tianjin region of China. Methods: 1305 male and 1711 ...

  6. Evaluation of the Contributions of Four Components of Gross Domestic Product in Various Regions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Four major components influence the growth of the gross domestic product in Chinese provinces: consumption, investment, transnational exports, and inter-provincial exports. By splitting a competitive input-output table into a non-competitive input-output table, this study used an input-output model to measure the contributions of the four components of gross domestic product in various regions in China. We found that international exports drove the growth of the gross domestic product more st...

  7. Postpartum practices of puerperal women and their influencing factors in three regions of Hubei, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Banghua; Liu Liegang; Sun Xiufa; Mao Limei; Liu Nian; Ding Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background 'Sitting month' is a Chinese tradition for women's postpartum custom. The present study aims to explore the postpartum dietary and health practices of puerperal women and identify their influential factors in three selected regions of Hubei, China. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in the selected urban, suburban and rural areas in the province of Hubei from 1 March to 30 May 2003. A total of 2100 women who had given birth to full-term singleton i...

  8. Impact of Mining Activities upon Environment in Panzhihua Region, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Mining activities have left huge uncovered slopes, large areas of gangue ground and extensive railings dams. In this paper, we studied some impacts of mining activities upon environment in Panzhihua region, southwestern China. The environmental impacts include ecological destruction, geological disasters, environmental pollution, land damage, solid waste and occupational health effect in study area. The author suggested that local government should take some measure to reduce environmental impact in Pan...

  9. A study on regional disparities of cost-sharing in China

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at exploring regional disparities of cost-sharing in China by addressing following questions: What is the relationship between the amount of governmental funds per student and level of local economic development; What are the relationship between individuals‟ share of costs, public share of costs and local economic development; What is the relationship between tuition fee and residents‟ affordability? A quantitative research strategy with secondary analysis of official statist...

  10. National Innovation Systems and Regional Cooperation in Asia: Challenges and Strategies from a Study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider A.

    2012-01-01

    I provide a quick assessment of the effectiveness and potentialities of National Innovation Systems (NIS) in the Asia-Pacific for deeper economic integration. To this end,I formulate some preliminary policy suggestions aimed at enhancing the region’s overall innovation strategy. My approach focuses particularly on the evolving relationship between China's NIS and the Asia-Pacific region with some references to Japan, Korea, Taiwan, India, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia. I a...

  11. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhua Bai; Guofa Kang; Guoming Gao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geol...

  12. Research on the human resource development of the Three Gorges Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yinzhen; Sun Dalin

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Region (TGR) is an economic region of China, and lies in the western part of Yangtze economic belt. It takes the Three Gorges Project as leading, Chongqing and Yichang City as main body, the Three Gorges Reservoir as ligament. It covers about 700 km of the Yangtze River valley from Chongqing to Yichang, in- cluding Chongqing City, Yichang City and Enshi District of Hubei Province. Since the construction of Three Gorges Project and establishment of Chongqing as municipality directly under the Central Government, the regional econ-omy, culture, education, technology, etc., all developed harmoniously and rapidly, and the diathesis of the regional human resources also got an exaltation. While compared with the eastern region of China, the economy, science and technology in this region still fall behind, and the current situation is of no optimism. Based on the theory of human resources development, this paper analyzes current situation and problems in the human resources development of the TGR, and puts forward the countermeasures, such as planning human resources development program based on"anaphase support "policy, developing education and training business, reasonably organizing labor export, etc.

  13. Some new progress in scientific research on the Lop Nur Lake region, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏训诚; 穆桂金; 雷加强

    2002-01-01

    The Lop Nur Lake, a famous lake in the arid areas of China, is located in the communi-cations center of the ancient Silk Road which facilitated the flow of culture between China andWestern countries and enjoyed the great reputation in the ancient history of China. Since the re-cent 100 years, some Chinese and foreign scholars have explored and investigated here, they,however, could not get to the hinterland of the lake basin due to the hard and dangerous roads.Therefore, there are many divergences and controversies about the Lop Nur Lake region[1'2]. Inorder to clarify these issues, know the usable natural resources and sum up the historical experi-ences and lessons of dry-up of the Lop Nur Lake, a scientific investigation team was organized byXinjiang Branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to carry out the investigation and researchabout the Lop Nur Lake region in the 1980s. Recently, some personnel from CCTV and other in-stitutions went to the lower reaches of the Tarim River and the Lop Nur Lake region to undertakethe research for coordinating the strategic decision of the Great Development of Western Chinaand the synthetic harnessing of the Tarim River, and a series of achievements in scientific researchhave been achieved.

  14. Sustainability assessment for Yanbian forest region, Jilin Province, Northeast China, based on ecological footprint model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaofei; CHEN Fusheng; HU Anfeng; DAI Limin

    2007-01-01

    Ecological footprint(EF)is one of the most important indicators in assessing the status and capacity of sustainable development.In this paper,the EF of Yanbian forest region,Jilin Province,Northeast China,was calculated and analyzed by statistical yearbooks and forest yearbooks from 1996 to 2002.Results showed that the EF per capita decreased,ecological carrying capacity(ECC)per capita almost kept a static status,and ecological surplus per capita increased year after year.The EF per 10 thousand Yuan GDP per capita in Yanbian decreased from 1996 to 2002.This trend was similar to that in western China,and distinctly higher than that in eastern China.The forest EF per capita kept a steady status,while the forest production footprint (FPF)and forest export footprint(FEF)decreased.Comparing the two years before and after the implementation of Natural Forest Protection Program(NFPP)with the five years,the mean value of FPF and FEF reduced by 0.341 (46.32%)and 0.327 hm2 per capita(54.94%),respectively.In conclusion,the regional and forest development in Yanbian was sustainable,and the implementation of NFPP was favorable to improving sustainable development of forest region.However,the sustainability capacity was still lower than those in forest developed countries.Therefore,it is very necessary to improve forest productivity,resource use efficiency and management of forest ecosystems scientifically.

  15. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. PMID:26278373

  16. Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Staehelin Jensen, Troels;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autonomic function has received little attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology has an impact on brain regions which are important for central autonomic control, but it is unclear if AD is associated with disturbance of autonomic function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autonomic...

  17. Global Impacts of Long-Term Land Cover Changes Within China's Densely Populated Rural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2006-12-01

    Long-term changes in land cover are usually investigated in terms of large-scale change processes such as urban expansion, deforestation and land conversion to agriculture. Yet China's densely populated agricultural regions, which cover more than 2 million square kilometers of Monsoon Asia, have been transformed profoundly over the past fifty years by fine-scale changes in land cover caused by unprecedented changes in population, technology and social conditions. Using a regional sampling and upscaling design coupled with high-resolution landscape change measurements at five field sites, we investigated long-term changes in land cover and ecological processes, circa 1945 to 2002, within and across China's densely populated agricultural regions. As expected, the construction of buildings and roads increased impervious surface area over time, but the total net increase was surprising, being similar in magnitude to the total current extent of China's cities. Agricultural land area declined over the same period, while tree cover increased, by about 10%, driven by tree planting and regrowth around new buildings, the introduction of perennial agriculture, improved forestry, and declines in annual crop cultivation. Though changes in impervious surface areas were closely related to changes in population density, long-term changes in agricultural land and tree cover were unrelated to populated density and required explanation by more complex models with strong regional and biophysical components. Moreover, most of these changes occurred primarily at fine spatial scales (< 30 m), under the threshold for conventional global and regional land cover change measurements. Given that these changes in built structures and vegetation cover have the potential to contribute substantially to regional and global changes in biogeochemistry, hydrology, and land-atmosphere interactions, future investigations of these changes and their impacts across Monsoon Asia would benefit from models

  18. Regional differences in China's CO2 abatement cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under a framework of output distance function with multiple outputs, the study discusses the carbon abatement cost at provincial and regional levels in China, using the shadow price analysis. The findings show that the abatement cost, reflecting the marginal opportunity cost of carbon reduction, varies greatly among the provinces. On average, the abatement cost of the eastern region was much higher than that of the mid-western region during the observed period. The findings provide evidence that the carbon prices in the current ETS pilots have been much lower than desired levels, implying inefficiency of the markets. The wide range of the abatement cost estimates supports that the equi-marginal principle does not hold for the regulations on carbon pollution at regional levels. The regional cost differences indicate the huge potential for China to minimize the total abatement cost with policy instruments that may motive the emissions moving from areas of low abatement cost to where the abatement cost is higher. For a few undeveloped provinces that are environmentally fragile and have high abatement cost, supplementary measures will be needed to reduce the negative impact of carbon cutbacks on the poor to the minimum. - Highlights: • The marginal abatement cost of CO2 is defined by the shadow price measure. • A linear programming model based on distance function is established. • Marginal abatement costs at provincial level are empirical investigated. • The abatement cost varies across provinces and regions in China. • The findings provide evidence that the current ETS pilots are inefficient

  19. Factors Affecting Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI Factor Decomposition Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions...

  20. Regional tendencies of research collaboration of social sciences in China:Analysis based on papers of economic journals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyan; SU

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This study intends to evaluate the regional tendencies of research collaboration of social sciences in China,and shows the pattern of China’s inter-regional research collaboration(IRRC).Design/methodology/approach:By using 10 years’ data of 150 economic journals in CNKI database,this paper used the Salton index as the indicator to measure the collaborative intensity of 31 regions in China.Findings:First,regional tendencies of research collaboration in social sciences do exist in China.Second,there is a positive correlation between collaborative tendency and regional scientific productivity.Every region would like to cooperate with high productive regions,and high productive regions tend to have collaborations within the region itself.Third,geographical proximity is an important factor affecting China’s IRRC.Research limitations:There are many other important external conditions which may affect research collaboration,but not all of them have been taken into account in this research.Practical implications:The proposed method can be also applied to detect cooperation preference of different authors,scientific research institutions and countries.And the study will help us understand the importance of distance in scholarly cooperation.Originality/value:Previous researches proved that regional research collaborations exist in natural sciences in China,while this research showed that the same phenomenon also appears in social sciences in China.

  1. Projections of Wind Changes for 21st Century in China by Three Regional Climate Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ying; LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; SHI Ying; XU Yinlong; ZHU Jinhong

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the capability of three regional climate models(RCMs),i.e.,RegCM3(the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model),PRECIS(Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies)and CMM5(the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-the National Center for Atmospheric Research of USA,NCAR Mesoscale Model)to simulate the near-surface-layer winds(10 m above surface)all over China in the late 20th century.Results suggest that like global climate models(GCMs),these RCMs have the certain capability of imitating the distribution of mean wind speed and fail to simulate the greatly weakening wind trends for the past 50 years in the country.However,RCMs especially RegCM3 have the better capability than that of GCMs to simulate the distribution and change feature of mean wind speed.In view of their merits,these RCMs were used to project the variability of near-surface-layer winds over China for the 21st century.The results show that 1)summer mean wind speed for 2020-2029 will be lower compared to those in 1990-1999 in most area of China; 2)annual and winter mean wind speed for 2081-2100 will be lower than those of 1971-1990 in the whole China; and 3)the changes of summer mean wind speed for 2081-2100 are uncertain.As a result,although climate models are absolutely necessary for projecting climate change to come,there are great uncertainties in projections,especially for wind speed,and these issues need to be further explored.

  2. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong-Liang; Tian, Wei-Ping; Li, Jia-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China). The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation. PMID:26528994

  3. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Qi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China. The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  4. Breastfeeding practices on postnatal wards in urban and rural areas of the Deyang region, Sichuan province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Haoyue; Wang, Qi; Hormann, Elizabeth; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Stiller, Caroline; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Scherbaum, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the efforts that have been made to promote breastfeeding in China since the 1990s, there is still a very low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to assess the current situation of infant feeding practices during the postpartum hospital stay in urban and rural areas of the Deyang region. Methods Cross-sectional sampling was used in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics in the Deyang region of southwestern China. Interviews with mothers...

  5. Pattern and cause of acidic deposition in the Chongqing region, Sichuan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chongqing region located in Sichuan Province of China, comprises a large city, many small towns and rural areas. The region relies heavily on high-sulfur coal for energy production. Atmospheric pollution by sulfur oxides and other compounds from coal burning has become a major issue. Acid rain is observed throughout the region; volume weighted average pH is about 4.30. Average total S deposition for the region is estimated to be about 8 g S m-2yr-1. This paper reports concentrations of major ions in rain, fog, dew and clouds, of SO2 in air and of airborne particles as well as dustfall. The emissions and interactions between important chemical species in air and water droplets are discussed. 29 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  6. 基于解释性指标的广西特色农业竞争力分析%Competitiveness of Characteristic Agriculture in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Based on Explanatory Indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕明兰

    2011-01-01

    基于农业科技、农业劳动力文化素质、农业基础设施、资源禀赋、农业规模经营这5个特色农业竞争力的解释性指标对广西特色农业竞争力进行了分析.结果表明,目前广西特色农业竞争力总体较强,主要体现在资源优势、水利化程度以及公路建设水平上,而农业科技水平、农业劳动力文化素质、农业机械化以及农业规模经营等方面的竞争力较弱.今后广西需要保持其优势,应对竞争力较弱的几个方面不断加强,从而提高特色农业的竞争力.%The five explanatory indicators of the competitiveness of characteristic agriculture are the agricultural science and technology, the cultural quality of agricultural labor force, the agricultural infrastructure, the resource endowment, and the agricultural management scale. According to these explanatory indicators, competitiveness of characteristic agriculture in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China is relatively strong, which is mainly reflected in the resource advantage, irrigation degree, and road construction level. However, the agricultural technology level, the cultural quality of agricultural labor force, the agricultural mechanization, and the agricultural management scale have relatively poor competitiveness. Therefore, more attention should be paid in these aspects, in order to improve the competitiveness of characteristic agriculture in Guangxi.

  7. Dynamics of plant litter of typical steppe under enclosure management in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region%典型草原封育过程中植物凋落物的变化动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚雨晨; 王堃; 王宇通; 黄欣颖; 邵新庆

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a degraded area of typical steppe ecotype in Balinyou Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,China to reveal the dynamics of plant litter, using direct collection. The result show that the plant litter shows an increasing trend in different enclosed sucession process,the litter in the first 10 year is the highest. Litter nutrients,in different years, there were significant differences. Carbon content of maximum 1 year fencing,fencing a minimum of 10 years, and nitrogen is based on 4 years of enclosure was the highest content of fencing a minimum 1 year, they were significantly different among. Carbon and nitrogen ratio increases with the enclosure years showed decrease.%以内蒙古巴林右旗退化草原为研究对象,采用直接收集的方法,研究各种围封条件下,退化草原在自然演替过程中土壤凋落物的变化动态。结果表明:典型草原在封育演替过程中,凋落物呈增加的趋势,以封育10年的凋落物量最高;凋落物的养分,不同年限之间均存在显著差异,其中碳素含量以封育1年的最高,封育10年的最低,氮素则是以封育4年的含量最高,封育1年的含量最低;C/N比值随封育年限的增加呈现降低的趋势。

  8. A New Version of Regional Ocean Reanalysis for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Guijun; LI Wei; ZHANG Xuefeng; WANG Xidong; WU Xinrong; FU Hongli; ZHANG Xiaoshuang

    2013-01-01

    A new regional ocean reanalysis over multiple decades (1958-2008) for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been completed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS)under the CORA (China Ocean ReAnalysis) project.Evaluations were performed on three aspects:(1) the improvement of general reanalysis quality; (2) eddy structures; and (3) decadal variability of sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs).Results showed that the quality of the new reanalysis has been enhanced beyond ~40% (39% for temperature,44% for salinity) in terms of the reduction of root mean squared errors (RMSEs) for which the reanalysis values were compared to observed values in the observational space.Compared to the trial version released to public in 2009,the new reanalysis is able to reproduce more detailed eddy structures as seen in satellite and in situ observations.EOF analysis of the reanalysis SSHAs showed that the new reanalysis reconstructs the leading modes of SSHAs much better than the old version.These evaluations suggest that the new CORA regional reanalysis represents a much more useful dataset for the community of the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  9. A Regional Ocean Reanalysis System for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Guijun; LI Wei; ZHANG Xuefeng; LI Dong; HE Zhongjie; WANG Xidong; WU Xinrong; YU Ting; MA Jirui

    2011-01-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS). It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis). The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system (POMgcs). The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations. Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework. Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST), altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA), and temperature/salinity profiles. The reanalysis fields of sea surface height, temperature, salinity, and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature, salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges, temperature profiles, as well as the trajectories of Argo floats. Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations. These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  10. A Regional Ocean Reanalysis System for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service(NMDIS).It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis).The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system(POMgcs).The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations.Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational(3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework.Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature(SST),altimetry sea level anomaly(SLA),and temperature/salinity profiles.The reanalysis fields of sea surface height,temperature,salinity,and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature,salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges,temperature profiles,as well as the trajectories of Argo floats.Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations.These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  11. Comparative Research on the Rural Development Levels of 31 Provinces and Regions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the 2010 China Statistical Yearbook,a total of 12 indicators in the aspects of residents’ production,consumption expenditure,and living conditions are selected in order to construct the indicator system of rural development level.Both factor analysis and cluster analysis methods are adopted to compare the current situations of rural development levels in 31 provinces and regions of China.Result of factor analysis shows that the 12 indicators can be classified into 4 factors,such as the income and expenditure factor,the agricultural scale and science and technology factor,the life quality factor,and the agricultural output factor.Moreover,factors affecting the rural development level of China are analyzed.Then,the 31 provinces and regions are divided into 4 categories according to the development levels in rural areas:the first category is Shanghai,Beijing and Zhejiang,which have the highest development level in rural areas;the second category includes Jiangsu,Shandong and Tianjin,which take the 4th to 6th places;the third category is Guangdong,Jilin,Liaoning,Hebei,Fujian,Heilongjiang,Henan,Inner Mongolia,Anhui,Hubei,Hunan and Jiangxi,which rank the 7th-18th;and the fourth category includes Sichuan,Hainan,Ningxia,Shanxi,Guangxi,Shanxi,Xinjiang,Chongqing,Tibet,Yunnan,Gansu,Qinghai and Guizhou,taking the 19th-31st places.

  12. Energy consumption and CO2 emission impacts of vehicle electrification in three developed regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehicle electrification has been seriously considered as an industry revolution to achieve sustainable transportation in China. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and pure electric vehicles (EV) are being demonstrated in scores of large cities. We select three well-developed regions (Jing-Jin-Ji, Yangtze-River-Delta and Pearl-River-Delta) to explore regional growth patterns for the light-duty passenger vehicle fleet and develop various scenarios for the penetration of HEV, PHEV and EV during 2010–2030. Per-kilometre and fleet well-to-wheels (WTW) petroleum use, fossil energy and CO2 emissions are evaluated among various technology options. Promotion of PHEV and EV could help cut per-kilometre petroleum use to a great extent; however, to achieve a clear reduction benefit in oil demand for a fleet in three regions takes time. The effort to mitigate CO2 emissions is much more difficult than lowering fossil energy use or oil consumption. This is especially true for the Jing-Jin-Ji Region where coal is an overwhelming power source. In those regions with a high share of coal power, HEV is a better option than PHEV or EV to reduce WTW CO2 emissions. In the Pearl-River-Delta region with a much cleaner electricity mix, promotion of EV could achieve a more significant CO2 reduction. - Highlights: ► The developed regions in China will move into the LDPV saturation period by 2030. ► We design four different scenarios for penetration of HEV, PHEV and EV. ► A strong promotion of PHEV and EV could help cut oil use to a great extent. ► The effort to mitigate CO2 emission is much more difficult than lowering oil use. ► HEV is a better option than PHEV/EV to cut WTW CO2 emission in Jing-Jin-Ji region.

  13. Exploration of New Financing Mode of Farmers’ Co-operatives——A Case of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview of the role played by farmers’ co-operatives in developing rural economy and existing problems,the thesis has introduced the factors which influence the development of farmers’ co-operatives including five aspects,namely conditions of scale economy,popularization and application of agricultural production technology,comparative advantage,market expectancy and government support.By analyzing typical cases of three co-operatives in Guangxi(Heng County Dadi Growing Co-operatives,talents-leading share-holding co-operatives;Long’an County Guixiniu Co-operatives,co-operatives led by leading-enterprise;Nanning City Tanluo Town Jinguang Fruits and Potatoes Co-operatives,co-operatives led by leading-enterprise),the way to develop farmers’ co-operatives by dint of the external capital has been discussed.The results demonstrate that conditions of scale economy,popularization and application of agricultural production technology,comparative advantage,excellent market expectancy and government support,are conducive to absorbing external capital.Under China’s existing economic conditions,the government should normalize the use and allocation procedure of program fund.

  14. Impacts of Nomad Sedentarization on Social and Ecological Systems at Multiple Scales in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Mingming; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Lanhai

    2013-01-01

    China’s government is now promoting the Nomad Sedentarization Project (NSP) in large areas of grassland as a solution for ecological restoration and poverty alleviation. To examine the effects of this policy, we conducted in-depth interviews at two of the project’s sites and examined the social and ecological systems at village, county, and catchment scales in Jinghe County of Xinjiang. We found that (1) the NSP in one village greatly improved the household standard of living and changed thei...

  15. Diffusion of solar water heaters in regional China: Economic feasibility and policy effectiveness evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas the technical feasibility of solar water heaters (SWHs) has long been established, the economic feasibility of SWHs in regional China remains to be examined. This paper constructs cost models to calculate costs per unit energy saving of SWHs in 27 Chinese provincial capital cities. The cost effectiveness of SWHs is examined at the national level. At a micro level, we analyze the financial attractiveness of consumers’ investment in SWHs. A panel data model is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a subsidy program in rural China. The results show that SWH costs, ranging from 0.305 to 0.744 CNY/kW h, are much lower than those of other major renewable energies across China. This finding indicates that the diffusion of SWHs is a cost-effective way to reach China’s renewable energy target. For consumers, incentive programs for SWHs are needed to improve the financial attractiveness of the devices in China. Existing subsidy policies for rural China have failed to significantly enhance the deployment of SWHs. The causes of the failure are examined and a new incentive program is suggested for rural areas of the country. - Highlights: • We examine the economic feasibility of solar water heaters in 27 Chinese cities. • We evaluate policy effectiveness of solar water heaters (SWHs) using panel data. • Diffusion of SWHs is cost effective in fulfilling China’s renewable energy target. • Financial attractiveness of SWHs is limited without incentive programs. • The existing subsidy policy is proved to be a failure and a new program is suggested

  16. Comparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis, for the estimation of regional sources and sinks, and for the modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the concentration of atmospheric black carbon (BC), on a statistical approach (robust extraction of baseline signal, REBS), on CH4 as an auxiliary tracer (AUX), and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during the winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fraction evaluations, as the filtered trend may be influenced by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks, and considers diurnal variations and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2011.

  17. Study of the regional CO2 mole fractions filtering approach at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Fang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which is minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for the estimation of trend analysis, regional sources and sinks, and for modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW regional station (Lin'an, LAN in China. The methods are based on the atmospheric black carbon concentration (BC, on a statistical approach (REBS, on CH4 as auxiliary tracer (AUX and on meteorological parameters (MET. All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fractions evaluations, as the filtered trend may be deviated by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks and considers diurnal variations, local topography, and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr−1 (standard error from 2009 to 2013.

  18. Sustainable Building in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In view of sustainable building prioritized as a strategic sector by local government in South China, and the strong Dutch expertise and wide market recognition in this field especially the substantive presence of the Shanghai-based Dutch Sustainable Building Platform, the market in the South could be very potential and interesting to Dutch companies though strong competitors as well. An overview is given of the developments in the Chinese province Guangdong, Shenzhen city, Guangzhou City, Fujian Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Hainan Province. Also information is given about important potential counterparts: China Merchant Group, Guangdong Energy Conservation Association, and potential areas for cooperation.

  19. Precipitation trend-Elevation relationship in arid regions of the China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junqiang; Yang, Qing; Mao, Weiyi; Zhao, Yong; Xu, Xinbing

    2016-08-01

    Based on monthly precipitation data at 128 meteorological stations in the arid regions of the China (ARC), we investigated that the regional characteristics of precipitation trend and the precipitation trend-elevation relationship during the period of 1961-2012. There is growing evidence that the elevation-dependent wetting (EDWE), which is the precipitation wetting trend is amplified with elevation. The precipitation trend increases significantly with elevation except for the altitude from 500 to 1500 m, the highest correlation appears above 1500 m, increases by 13 mm/decade with each 1000 m. With the elevation increasing every 1000 m, precipitation tendency rate increases by 7 mm/decade from 1000 to 2000 m and increases by 10 mm/decade from 2000 to 4000 m. EDWE has an impact on the change of the cryospheric systems, ecosystems and water resources, especially in arid regions of China. We discuss mechanisms that contribute towards EDWE: water vapor changes and warming-driven water circulation speeds up. We suggest future needs to increase evidence of understand the EDWE in other mountainous regions, and its controlling mechanisms through integrated the observational network of surface in-situ climate observations, satellite data and high-resolution climatic modeling.

  20. Dynamics of Multi-Scale Intra-Provincial Regional Inequality in Zhejiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates regional inequality in a multi-scale framework, using Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis, based on the per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP of counties and municipalities within the Zhejiang province in China between the years of 1990 and 2010. A Spatial Markov Chain is used to identify the dynamics of regional wealth disparity in Zhejiang. The results show that the regional inequality of Zhejiang is sensitive to the geographic scale of the analysis. In addition, the inter-county inequality shows an inverted-U shape pattern. At the same time, the inter-municipality inequality displays a more consistently upward trend, and the evolution of the interregional inequality is relatively stable over time. The regional inequality is more significant at finer (larger spatial scales. The decomposition of the Theil Index shows that the contribution of the inequalities between Northeast Zhejiang and Southwest Zhejiang increased. The increasingly larger values of the Global Moran’s I show that there is an intensifying spatial aggregation of economic development. The comparison of the traditional Markov transition matrix and the Spatial Markov transition matrix illustrates how the relative wealth or poverty of neighboring counties make a significance difference in wealth in a given county as measured using domestic GDP per capita in Zhejiang province. This space-time analysis is valuable for policy making towards sustainable economic development in China given the soaring spatial inequality.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Bronze Age horses recovered from Chifeng region, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Dawei; Han Lu; Xie Chengzhi; Li Shengnan; Zhou Hui; Zhu Hong

    2007-01-01

    In this study, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis was carried out on 9 Bronze Age horses recovered from Dashanqian and Jinggouzi archaeological sites in Chifeng region, Inner Mongolia, China to explore the origin of Chinese domestic horses. Both mtDNA 16S rRNA gene and control region (D-loop) fragments of ancient horses were amplified and sequenced. The analysis of the highly conservative 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the burial environment of Chifeng region is suitable for the preservation of ancient DNA (aDNA). Combing 465 mtDNA D-loop sequences representing different breeds from East Asia, Central Asia, Near East and Europe, we constructed a phylogenetic network to investigate the relationship between ancient and modern horses. The phylogenetic network showed that the 9 horses were distributed into different modem horse clusters which were closely related to them representing a certain ge-ographical distribution. Our results showed that the maternal genetic line of the ancient horses in Chifeng region was highly diversified,which contributed to the gene pool of modern domestic horses and suggested a complex origin of domestic horses in China.

  2. Process analysis of regional aerosol pollution during spring in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi; Lan, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Xuemei; Chan, Pakwai; Hong, Yingying; Feng, Yerong; Liu, Yexin; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Guixiong

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation analysis was performed for three air pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during March 2012 using the third-generation air quality modeling system Models-3/CMAQ. The results demonstrated that particulate matter was the primary pollutant for all three pollution episodes and was accompanied by relatively low visibility in the first two episodes. Weather maps indicate that the first two episodes occurred under the influence of warm, wet southerly air flow systems that led to high humidity throughout the region. The liquid phase reaction of gaseous pollutants resulted in the generation of fine secondary particles, which were identified as the primary source of pollution in the first two episodes. The third pollution episode occurred during a warming period following a cold front. Relative humidity was lower during this episode, and coarse particles were the major pollution contributor. Results of process analysis indicated that emissions sources, horizontal transport and vertical transport were the primary factors affecting pollutant concentrations within the near-surface layer during all three episodes, while aerosol processes, cloud processes, horizontal transport and vertical transport had greater influence at approximately 900 m above ground. Cloud processes had a greater impact during the first two pollution episodes because of the higher relative humidity. In addition, by comparing pollution processes from different cities (Guangzhou and Zhongshan), the study revealed that the first two pollution episodes were the result of local emissions within the PRD region and transport between surrounding cities, while the third episode exhibited prominent regional pollution characteristics and was the result of regional pollutant transport.

  3. Monitoring and analyzing surface subsidence based on SBAS-InSAR in Beijing region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Guo, J. M.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    Surface subsidence is the main regional environmental geological disaster in plain area in China. The rapid growth of population, the over-exploitation of groundwater and the rapid development of urbanization impacts the occurrence and development of surface subsidence to some extent. The city of Beijing, located in the Beijing Plain, is one of international metropolis in China that experiences the severe surface subsidence. Because of conventional measurement methods with low spatial resolution, differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar(D-InSAR) is susceptible to signal decorrelation and atmospheric delay, persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar(PS-InSAR) is based on a large number of SAR images, but small baseline subset interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SBASInSAR) only needs a small number of images and performs better than PS-InSAR for obtaining nonlinear deformation information, in this paper, SBAS-InSAR was used to obtain the high resolution surface subsidence information in Beijing region, China. A spatial-temporal analysis of the surface subsidence in Beijing region during the years of 2007- 2010 was performed utilizing eighteen C-band ENVISAT ASAR images (from August 1, 2007 to September 29, 2010). The results show that subsidence in Beijing region is severe uneven, subsidence funnels appear in Changping District, Shunyi District, Tongzhou District, Daxing District, etc., and many subsidence funnels are interconnected and have an eastward expansion trend; during the period of 2007 to 2010, the subsidence velocities are in the range of -158.5 mm/year to 12.4 mm/year and the maximum subsidence of subsidence center is over 400 mm; surface subsidence is influenced by groundwater exploitation and urbanization significantly.

  4. Dynamical downscaling of regional climate over eastern China using RSM with multiple physics scheme ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peishu, Zong; Jianping, Tang; Shuyu, Wang; Lingyun, Xie; Jianwei, Yu; Yunqian, Zhu; Xiaorui, Niu; Chao, Li

    2016-06-01

    The parameterization of physical processes is one of the critical elements to properly simulate the regional climate over eastern China. It is essential to conduct detailed analyses on the effect of physical parameterization schemes on regional climate simulation, to provide more reliable regional climate change information. In this paper, we evaluate the 25-year (1983-2007) summer monsoon climate characteristics of precipitation and surface air temperature by using the regional spectral model (RSM) with different physical schemes. The ensemble results using the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) method are also assessed. The result shows that the RSM model has the capacity to reproduce the spatial patterns, the variations, and the temporal tendency of surface air temperature and precipitation over eastern China. And it tends to predict better climatology characteristics over the Yangtze River basin and the South China. The impact of different physical schemes on RSM simulations is also investigated. Generally, the CLD3 cloud water prediction scheme tends to produce larger precipitation because of its overestimation of the low-level moisture. The systematic biases derived from the KF2 cumulus scheme are larger than those from the RAS scheme. The scale-selective bias correction (SSBC) method improves the simulation of the temporal and spatial characteristics of surface air temperature and precipitation and advances the circulation simulation capacity. The REA ensemble results show significant improvement in simulating temperature and precipitation distribution, which have much higher correlation coefficient and lower root mean square error. The REA result of selected experiments is better than that of nonselected experiments, indicating the necessity of choosing better ensemble samples for ensemble.

  5. Crust and upper mantle structure and its tectonic implications in the South China Sea and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Zheng, Chan

    2013-01-01

    We present a 3D S-velocity model for the crust and upper mantle of the South China Sea and the surrounding regions, constrained from the analysis of over 12,000 of fundamental Rayleigh wave dispersion curves between 10 s and 150 s periods. The lateral resolution was found to vary from 2° to 4° with the increasing period over the study region. A robust scheme of Debayle and Sambridge allowed us to conduct the tomographic inversion efficiently for massive datasets. Group velocity maps varying with period show lateral heterogeneities, well related to the geological and tectonic features in the study region. The 3D S-velocity model was constructed from the 1D structure inversion of the tomographic group velocity dispersion curves at each node. The obtained average crustal structure is similar to the PREM model, while the average mantle velocity is typically lower than the global average. The complicated 3D structures reveal three prominent features correlated with geological divisions: sea basin regions, island and arc regions, and continental regions. The derived crustal and lithospheric thicknesses range from ˜15 to >50 km and from ˜60 to >140 km, respectively, with the thinnest in the South China Sea, the thickest in eastern Tibet and the Yangtze Block, and the medium in the South China Fold Belt, Indochina, and island arc regions. Our results further confirm that (1) a Mesozoic subduction zone, which is interpreted as the tectonic weak zone during the Paleogene, exists along the South China margin; (2) the influence of the Indochina extrusion along the Red River Fault is limited for the South China Sea region; (3) there is a slab remnant of the proto-South China Sea beneath Borneo. New findings suggest that the Mesozoic subduction zone should be built into any evolution model for the region, as well as the other two major tectonic boundaries of the Red River Fault and proto-South China Sea subduction zone.

  6. Modeling wet deposition of acid substances over the PRD region in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Fung, Jimmy Chi Hung; Wu, Dongwei

    2015-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China has suffered heavily from acid rain in the last 10 years due to the anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Several measurement-based studies about this issue have been conducted to analyze the chemical composition of precipitation in this area. However, no detailed, high resolution numerical simulation regarding this topic has ever been done in this region. In this study, the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ system was applied to simulate the wet deposition of acid substances (SO42- and NO3-) in the PRD region from 2009 to 2011 with a resolution of 3 km. The simulation output agreed well with the observation data. Our results showed that Guangzhou was the city most affected by acid rain in this region. The ratio of non-sea-salt sulfate to nitrate indicated that the acid rain in this region belonged to the sulfate-nitrate mixed type. The source apportionment result suggests that point source and super regional source are the ones that contribute the pollutants most in the rain water over PRD Region. The sulfate and nitrate input to some reservoirs via wet deposition was also estimated based on the model simulation. Our results suggest that further cross-city cooperation and emission reduction are needed to further curb acid rain in this region.

  7. Autonomous Search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Decades of innovations in combinatorial problem solving have produced better and more complex algorithms. These new methods are better since they can solve larger problems and address new application domains. They are also more complex which means that they are hard to reproduce and often harder to fine-tune to the peculiarities of a given problem. This last point has created a paradox where efficient tools are out of reach of practitioners. Autonomous search (AS) represents a new research field defined to precisely address the above challenge. Its major strength and originality consist in the

  8. On the Regional Coordinated Development Between Tourism Human Resource and Tourism Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jun

    2012-01-01

    Tourism is one of the typical labor intensive industries and tourism human resource (HR) is the main factor for regional discrepancy of tourism industry. The paper takes China as research region and evaluates the level of tourism HR and the level of tour- ism industry of 31 provinces respectively. First, the paper con- structs evaluation index of regional tourism industry and tourism HR. Then, the paper gets the evaluation scores of every province by applying the principal components analysis and statistical pack- age for the social sciences processing. Second, the paper builds the tourism development-tourism HR matrix and divides the matrix into four quadrants. Finally, the paper points out the problems of tourism HR that exist in the 31 provinces and puts forward devel- opment strategy.

  9. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  10. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  11. 基于省域的广西西瓜生产比较优势空间特征分析%Provincial Comparative Advantages of Watermelon Production in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆宇明; 张棵; 柳唐镜; 覃武; 洪日新; 覃斯华; 杨景峰

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]This study aimed to clarify the spatial patterns of comparative advantage of watermelon production in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, to pro-vide theoretical basis for the development of watermelon industry in China. [Method] Based on the agricultural statistics data of Guangxi and al over China, yield com-parative advantage (YCA) index, efficiency comparative advantage (ECA) index, scale comparative advantage (SCA) index, concentration ratio comparative advantage (CRCA) index, comprehensive comparative advantage (CCA) index, ratio of yield per unit area (RYPA) index and sowing area ratio (SAR) index were established and calculated to determine the watermelon production comparative advantages in 31 provinces (cities) in China. Spacial patterns of the comparative advantages were produced by using GIS software. [Result] Nine provinces Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Hunan, Zhejiang and Guangxi were the dominant regions in watermelon production al over the country. The Central and Eastern China showed the integrated comparative advantage in watermelon production, while the Southern, Northeastern, Northern and Northwestern China can be considered as the potential places for watermelon production in future. Southwest China gave more priority to watermelon production, so the comparative advantages kept increasing here. [Con-clusion] Based on this study, watermelon production should be a prior consideration among the agricultural products in Guangxi. Related measures should be developed to optimize the regional distribution of watermelon in Guangxi and China to promote healthy competition in watermelon production.%[目的]阐明西瓜生产比较优势区域的空间特征,为广西及中国西瓜产业战略决策提供重要的参考依据。[方法]利用广西及中国的农业统计资料,以产量比较优势指数、效率比较优势指数、规模比较优势指数、集中度比较优势指数、综合比较优势、单位面积

  12. Variations in Regional Mean Daily Precipitation Extremes and Related Circulation Anomalies over Central China During Boreal Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯丹; 管兆勇

    2014-01-01

    The variations of regional mean daily precipitation extreme (RMDPE) events in central China and associated circulation anomalies during June, July, and August (JJA) of 1961-2010 are investigated by using daily in-situ precipitation observations and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The precipitation data were collected at 239 state-level stations distributed throughout the provinces of Henan, Hubei, and Hunan. During 1961-2010, the 99th percentile threshold for RMDPE is 23.585 mm day-1. The number of RMDPE events varies on both interannual and interdecadal timescales, and increases significantly after the mid 1980s. The RMDPE events happen most frequently between late June and mid July, and are generally associated with anomalous baroclinic tropospheric circulations. The supply of moisture to the southern part of central China comes in a stepping way from the outer-region of an abnormal anticyclone over the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. Fluxes of wave activity generated over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau converge over central China, which favors the genesis and maintenance of wave disturbances over the region. RMDPE events typically occur in tandem with a strong heating gradient formed by net heating in central China and the large-scale net cooling in the surrounding area. The occurrence of RMDPE events over central China is tied to anomalous local cyclonic circulations, topographic forcing over the northeast Tibetan Plateau, and anomalous gradients of diabatic heating between central China and the surrounding areas.

  13. Cold-region environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline and their management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The cold-region eco-environments along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) in northern Northeast China are in disequilibrium due to the combined influences of pronounced climate warming and intensive anthropogenic activities.This is evidenced by the sharp areal reduction and northward shifting of the boreal forests,shrinking of wetlands,enhancing of soil erosion,accelerating degradation of permafrost and deteriorating of cold-region eco-environments.The degradation of permafrost plays an important role as an internal drive in the eco-environmental changes.Many components of the cold-region eco-environments,including frozen ground,forests,wetlands and peatlands,forest fires and "heating island effect" of rapid urbanization,are interdependent,interactive,and integrated in the boreal ecosystems.The construction and long-term operation of the CRCOP system will inevitably disturb the cold-region environments along the pipeline.Therefore,a mandatory and carefully-elaborated environ-mental impact statement is indispensable for the proper mitigation of the ensued adverse impacts.Proper management,effective protection and practical rehabilitation of the damaged cold-region environments are a daunting,costly and long-term commitment.The recommended measures for protection and restoration of permafrost eco-environments along the pipeline route include adequate investigation,assessment and monitoring of permafrost and cold-region environments,compliance of pipeline construction and operation codes for environmental management,proper and timely re-vegetation,returning the cultivated lands to forests and grasslands,and effective mitigation of forest fire hazards.

  14. 大众传媒与少数民族自治地方经济发展研究%A Study of Mass Media and the Economic Development of the Minority Nationality Autonomous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金石; 黎纯阳

    2014-01-01

    The policy on national regional autonomy serves as the guidance for the political, cultural and economic development of the autonomous region. The economic function of mass media contributes, to some extent, to the economic development of the au-tonomous region. Mass media industry has become an important part of the local economy of the autonomous region, with the policy on national regional autonomy. Additionally, mass media displays timely the economic change that takes place in the autonomous re-gion. With its advantage of communication, mass media popularizes new science and technology in the autonomous region. Howev-er, mass media industry is weak in the media ecology in the autonomous region. There still will be a big gap between mass media in-dustry and market economy and media economy.%民族区域自治政策对少数民族自治地方政治、文化、经济生活具有全面的指导性。在民族区域自治政策的视野下,大众传媒的经济功能在民族区域自治地方得到了一定程度的体现,大众传媒业已经成为少数民族自治地方的重要经济组成部分;同时,大众传媒对少数民族自治地方经济生活中发生的变化作出了及时反映,并借助其传播优势,进行了新技术和新科技的普及。但少数民族自治地方的大众传媒业在媒介生态中处于弱势地位,少数民族自治地方的大众传媒业与市场经济、传媒经济,仍然保持着相当距离。

  15. The Relative Impact of Regional Scale Land Cover Change and Increasing CO2 over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei ZHAO; Andrew J. PITMAN

    2005-01-01

    A series of 17-yr equilibrium simulations using the NCAR CCM3 (T42 resolution) were performed to investigate the regional scale impacts of land cover change and increasing CO2 over China. Simulations with natural and current land cover at CO2 levels of 280, 355,430, and 505 ppmv were conducted. Results show statistically significant changes in major climate fields (e.g. temperature and surface wind speed) ona 15-yr average following land cover change. We also found increases in the maximum temperature and in the diurnal temperature range due to land cover change. Increases in CO2 affect both the maximum and minimum temperature so that changes in the diurnal range are small. Both land cover change and CO2 change also impact the frequency distribution of precipitation with increasing CO2 tending to lead to more intense precipitation and land cover change leading to less intense precipitation-indeed, the impact of land cover change typically had the opposite effect versus the impacts of CO2. Our results provide support for the inclusion of future land cover change scenarios in long-term transitory climate modelling experiments of the 21st Century. Our results also support the inclusion of land surface models that can represent future land cover changes resulting from an ecological response to natural climate variability or increasing CO2. Overall, we show that land cover change can have a significant impact on the regional scale climate of China, and that regionally, this impact is of a similar magnitude to increases in CO2 of up to about 430 ppmv. This means that that the impact of land cover change must be accounted for in detection and attribution studies over China.

  16. Major Function Oriented Zone: New Method of Spatial Regulation for Reshaping Regional Development Pattern in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jie; SUN Wei; ZHOU Kan; CHEN Dong

    2012-01-01

    Newest planning methods implemented by Chinese government are promoting a coordinated regional development and shaping an orderly spatial structure by applying the regulation of territorial function.This article analyzes the problems of spatial planning and regional strategy caused by the wrongly-set primary goal of economic development; it states that the three-fold objective of competitiveness,sustainability,and welfare fairness shall be the principal for China to implement the spatial regulation in the new era; it discusses about theoretical thoughts and technology framework of conducting the 'Major Function Oriented Zone' based on their different major functions that each region plays in urbanization and industrialization,ecological constructions,grain productions,and protection of natural and cultural heritages; it introduces the new concept of 'Major Function Oriented Zone' that include the major functions category,the stereo regional equilibrium mode,the two-level zoning specification,and the territorial development intensity; it offers a zoning scheme that defines development-optimized and development-prioritized zones as regions with massive urbanization and industrialization,development-restricted zones as ecological constructing or grain producing regions,development-prohibited zones as natural and cultural heritage protecting regions; and finally it addresses the main obstacle for implementing 'Major Function Oriented Zone',which is the institutional arrangement of the supreme goal of high GDP growth rate that is currently being implemented.

  17. The Epidemic Tendency of Dental Caries Prevalence of School Students from 1991 to 2005 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐杰; 余毅震; 马颖

    2010-01-01

    The epidemic tendency of dental caries of school students over the past 15 years in China was analyzed in order to provide bases for prevention of dental caries.Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7,9,12 years(deciduous caries)and 7,9,12,14,17 years(permanent caries)were collected from the series of Chinese National Surveillance on Students' Constitution and Health(CNSSCH)between 1991 to 2005,a survey that covers 30 provinces of and autonomous regions of China,with Tibet Autonomous Region and Taiwan P...

  18. Regional flood frequency analysis for the Gan-Ming River basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingyi, Zhang; Hall, M. J.

    2004-08-01

    A regionalised relationship to estimate flood magnitudes for ungauged and poorly gauged catchments can be established using regional flood frequency analysis. The geographical approach (Residuals method), Ward's cluster method, the Fuzzy c-means method and a Kohonen neural network were applied to 86 sites in the Gan River Basin of Jiangxi Province and the Ming River Basin of Fujian Province in the southeast of China to delineate homogeneous regions based on site characteristics. Similar groupings of sites into sub-regions were obtained from all but the Residuals method. Since the Kohonen neural network can be employed to identify the number of sub-regions as well as the allocation of sites to sub-regions, this method is to be preferred over Ward's method and the Fuzzy c-means approach. For each sub-region, growth curves must be constructed and the value of an index flood must be related to catchment characteristics. The regional L-moment algorithm may be used to advantage both to identify an appropriate underlying frequency distribution and to construct sub-regional growth curves. However, the membership levels produced by the Fuzzy c-means method may also be used as weights to derive a regional at-site growth curve from those of all the sub-regions. The latter method is likely to be most useful where the sub-regional growth curves are of strongly contrasting shape. An index flood may be related to catchment characteristics using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis, but application to the Gan-Ming data demonstrates that estimates with lower standard errors of estimate can be produced using an artificial neural network (ANN). However, in order to apply such ANNs, sufficient sites must be available so that enough processing elements can be employed without impairing the ability of the network to generalise outside the training data set.

  19. Research on Temporal-spatial Evolution of Regional Disparity of Forestry Total Factor Productivity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methods of the Malmquist index analysis, global spatial autocorrelation analysis and local spatial autocorrelation are used to calculate and analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of the Forestry Total Factor Productivity based on the data from 30 provinces in China from 1997 to 2012 by using the software DEAP2.1, DeoDa, ArcGIS. The results show the following: The Forestry Total Factor Productivity presented obvious fluctuations in temporal patterns but presented stable characteristics in spatial patterns; The Forestry Total Factor Productivity showed the characteristics of discrete distribution from 1997 to 2003 and showed the characteristics of concentrated distribution from 2003 to 2012; The Forestry Total Factor Productivity in China presented obvious binary space structure; The high value agglomeration area gradually had become concentrated in the Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces and low concentration areas were mainly distributed in Gansu, Qinghai, Szechwan and other surrounding provinces. The main reasons for spatial distribution of Forestry Total Factor Productivity in China were the differences of macro-policy on forestry, lacking and changing of investments in forestry science and technology, the difference of forestry resource distribution and unbalanced regional economic development level.

  20. Comparison and validation of global and regional ocean forecasting systems for the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueming; Wang, Hui; Liu, Guimei; Régnier, Charly; Kuang, Xiaodi; Wang, Dakui; Ren, Shihe; Jing, Zhiyou; Drévillon, Marie

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the performance of two operational ocean forecasting systems, the global Mercator Océan (MO) Operational System, developed and maintained by Mercator Océan in France, and the regional South China Sea Operational Forecasting System (SCSOFS), by the National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center (NMEFC) in China, have been examined. Both systems can provide science-based nowcast/forecast products of temperature, salinity, water level, and ocean circulations. Comparison and validation of the ocean circulations, the structures of temperature and salinity, and some mesoscale activities, such as ocean fronts, typhoons, and mesoscale eddies, are conducted based on observed satellite and in situ data obtained in 2012 in the South China Sea. The results showed that MO performs better in simulating the ocean circulations and sea surface temperature (SST), and SCSOFS performs better in simulating the structures of temperature and salinity. For the mesoscale activities, the performance of SCSOFS is better than MO in simulating SST fronts and SST decrease during Typhoon Tembin compared with the previous studies and satellite data; but model results from both of SCSOFS and MO show some differences from satellite observations. In conclusion, some recommendations have been proposed for both forecast systems to improve their forecasting performance in the near future based on our comparison and validation.

  1. Adapting maize production to drought in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.;

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most prominent crop in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR), and drought has been the largest limitation for maize production in this area during recent decades. The question of how to adapt maize production to drought has received great attention from policy...... counties across NFR. Our survey results indicated that using variety diversification, drought resistant varieties and dibbling irrigation are the three major adaptation strategies against drought in spring, and farmers also adopted changes in sowing time, conservation tillage and mulching to cope...

  2. Regional differences in awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China: findings from the ITC China Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yan YANG; LI, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Wu, Xi; Li, Qiang; Wu, Changbao; Foong, Kin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether levels of, and factors related to, awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion differ across six cities in China. Methods Data from wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April to August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a total of 4763 smokers and 1259 non-smokers. Multivariate logi...

  3. Regional variation in Moho depth and Poisson's ratio beneath eastern China and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zigen; Chen, Ling; Li, Zhiwei; Ling, Yuan; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Eastern China comprises a complex amalgamation of geotectonic blocks of different ages and undergone significant modification of lithosphere during the Meso-Cenozoic time. To better characterize its deep structure, we conducted H-κ stacking of receiver functions using teleseismic data collected from 1143 broadband stations and produced a unified and detailed map of Moho depth and average Poisson's ratio (σ) of eastern China. A coexistence of modified and preserved crust with generally in Airy-type isostatic equilibrium was revealed in eastern China, which correlates well with regional geological and tectonic features. Crust is obviously thicker to the west of the North-South Gravity Lineament but exhibits complex variations in σ with an overall felsic to intermediate bulk crustal composition. Moho depth and σ values show striking differences as compared to the surrounding areas in the rifts and tectonic boundary zones, where earthquakes usually occur. Systematic comparison of Moho depth and σ values demonstrated that there are both similarities and differences in the crustal structure among the Northeast China, North China Craton, South China, and the Qinling-Dabie Orogen as well as different areas within these blocks, which may result from their different evolutionary histories and strong tectonic-magma events since the Mesozoic. Using new data from dense temporary arrays, we observed a change of Moho depth by ∼3 km and of σ by ∼0.04 beneath the Tanlu Fault Zone and an alteration of Moho depth by ∼5 km and of σ by ∼0.05 beneath the Xuefeng Mountains. In addition, striking E-W difference in crustal structure occur across the Xuefeng Mountains: to the east, the Moho depth is overall 40 km and σ shows complex and large-range variation with values between 0.22 and 0.32. These, together with waveform inversion of receiver functions and SKS shear-wave splitting measurements, suggest that the Tanlu Fault Zone is at least a crustal-scale fault and the

  4. Pure Autonomic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs GARD Information Navigator FAQs About Rare Diseases Pure autonomic failure Title Other Names: Bradbury Eggleston syndrome; ... Categories: Nervous System Diseases ; RDCRN Summary Summary Listen Pure autonomic failure is characterized by generalized autonomic failure ...

  5. Bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon linked with the regional carbon cycle in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Shuchai; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The regional carbon cycle on continental shelves has created great interest recently due to the enigma of whether these areas are a carbon sink or a source. It is vital for a precise carbon cycle model to take the bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into account, as it impacts the sink and source capacity, especially on dynamic shelves such as the East China Sea. Nine bio-decomposition experiments were carried out to assess differences in the bioavailability of DOC. Samples were collected from different water masses in the East China Sea, such as the Coastal Current, the Taiwan Current, and the Kuroshio Current, as well as from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), the main contributor of terrestrial DOC in the East China Sea. This study aimed to quantify and qualify bioavailable DOC (BDOC) in the East China Sea. Both the degradation constant of BDOC and the carbon output from microorganisms have been quantitatively evaluated. Qualitatively, excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra (EEMs) were used to evaluate the intrinsic reasons for BDOC variation. By using EEMs in conjunction with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), five individual fluorescent components were identified in this study: three humic-like and two protein-like components (P1, P2). The highest P1 and P2 fluorescence intensities were recorded in the coastal water during a phytoplankton algal bloom, while the lowest intensities were recorded in the Changjiang estuary. Quantitatively, BDOC observed during the incubation ranged from 0 to 26.1 μM. The DOC degradation rate constant varied from 0 to 0.027 (d-1), and was lowest in the Changjiang and highest in algal bloom water and warm shelf water (the Taiwan current). The Taiwan Current and mixed shelf water were the major contributors of BDOC flux to the open ocean, and the East China Sea was a net source of BDOC to the ocean. The results verified the importance of BDOC in regional carbon cycle modeling. Combining the data of BDOC and EEMs

  6. The Statistical Significance Test of Regional Climate Change Caused by Land Use and Land Cover Variation in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hanjie; SHI Weilai; CHEN Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    The West Development Policy being implemented in China is causing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes in West China. With the up-to-date satellite database of the Global Land Cover Characteristics Database (GLCCD) that characterizes the lower boundary conditions, the regional climate model RIEMS-TEA is used to simulate possible impacts of the significant LULC variation. The model was run for five continuous three-month periods from 1 June to 1 September of 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997, and the results of the five groups are examined by means of a student t-test to identify the statistical significance of regional climate variation. The main results are: (1) The regional climate is affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed. (2) The integrated impact of the LULC variation on regional climate is not only limited to West China where the LULC varies, but also to some areas in the model domain where the LULC does not vary at all. (3) The East Asian monsoon system and its vertical structure are adjusted by the large scale LULC variation in western China, where the consequences are the enhancement of the westward water vapor transfer from the east oast and the relevant increase of wet-hydrostatic energy in the middle-upper atmospheric layers. (4) The ecological engineering in West China affects significantly the regional climate in Northwest China, North China and the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River; there are obvious effects in South, Northeast, and Southwest China, but minor effects in Tibet.

  7. Construction of a promoter probe vector autonomously maintained in Aspergillus and characterization of promoter regions derived from A. niger and A. oryzae genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, K; Kanda, A; Hamachi, M; Nunokawa, Y

    1996-03-01

    We used a plasmid carrying a sequence for autonomous maintenance in Aspergillus (AMA1) and the E. coli uidA gene as a reporter gene to search the A. oryzae and A. niger genomes for DNA fragments having strong promoter activity. Beta-glucuronidase (GUS)-producing A. oryzae transformants containing the No. 8AN derived from A. niger, or the No. 9AO derived from A. oryzae, were constitutive for the expression of the uidA gene when cultivated in the presence of a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources. When the GUS-producing transformants were grown in liquid culture, the No. 8AN showed an increase of approximately 3-fold in GUS activity compared to the amyB (alpha-amylase encoding gene) promoter. There was also a corresponding increase in the amount of GUS gene-specific mRNA. When these transformants were grown as rice-koji, the No. 8AN showed an increase of approximately 6-fold compared to the amyB promoter, and the amount of GUS protein produced also increased. These strong promoter regions might be applicable to the production of other heterologous proteins in Aspergillus species. PMID:8901095

  8. Cognitive function of 320 people over 65 years from longevous areas in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region:Feasibility of the mini-mental state examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeguang Wu; Bin Wei; Xiaoming Zhang; Guobing Zhang; Chunlin Zhang; Zhibin Li; Chenghan Wei; Jinchao Chen; Donglan Huang; Rong Zhao; Jinrui Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) of Chinese version has been widely used to survey cognitive function of elder people; especially, it shows a good reliability and validity for elder people in city.However, whether it is beneficial to measure cognitive function of elder people in countries in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility, reliability and validity of the cognitive function among the elderly people aged over 65 years from Jiazhuan in Bama County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region by using the MMSE of Chinese version.DESIGN: Prevalence survey.SETTING: Department of Psychology, Nanjing Municipal Social Welfare Hospital; Department of Psychology,Yizhou Municipal Jiulong Railroad Hospital; Long Life's Institute of Bama County.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 320 old persons over 65 years old were sampled on the basis of the unit of village of Jiazhuan in Bama County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from the 12th to 28th, March 2004. All the subjects provided the confirmed consents.METHODS: ① Mental Health Questionnaire of long life's old man was adopted including demographic data and international standardized MMSE in Chinese. The survey of MMSE was divided into two phases: In the first phase, every case was examined by MMSE. The positive result was decided by the education level. Illiterate group, who was educated less than one year, then his MMSE scores must be less than 17; primary school group, who was educated from 1 to 6 years, then his MMSE must be less than 20; middle school group, who was educated more than 7 years, then his MMSE must be less than 24. In the second phase, these cases with positive MMSE score were given the neuro-psycho and mental health examination to confirm the dementia types after diagnosis. The content of the questionnaire was revised properly without changing the meaning of the questionnaire. The interclass correlation coefficient of MMSE was 0.89.

  9. Impacts of seasonal and regional variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Situ, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Wang, X. J.; Jiang, X.; Turnipseed, A.; Wu, Z.; Bai, J.; Wang, X.

    2013-12-05

    In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission model (MEGAN v2.1). The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this region indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this region except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to estimate the impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD region. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by *3 ppb on average, and the max hourly impacts of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou- Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the impact varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.

  10. Impacts of seasonal and regional variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Situ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD region in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC emission model (MEGAN v2.1. The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this region indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this region except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem is used to estimate the impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD region. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by ~3 ppb on average, and the max hourly impacts of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the impact varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.

  11. A comprehensive analysis of China's regional energy saving and emission reduction efficiency: From production and treatment perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and environmental issues have recently aroused increasing interest in China and many approaches are used to evaluate energy and environmental performance. In this paper, a two-stage network DEA framework is applied to evaluate the efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction in China during the period of the eleventh five-year plan, from 2006 to 2010. In this study, economic activities are divided into production and treatment processes. This is different from previous research which generally focused on either environmental efficiency or energy efficiency, omitting the integration of energy and environmental measures. Today, energy saving and emission reduction are both parts of the basic state policy of China and are equally important. The empirical results in this study show that: (i) eastern China has the best energy saving and emission reduction efficiency, performing is better than western and central China. (ii) The efficiency of the production process in central China is better than that in western China while the western area performs better than the central area in term of treatment efficiency. (iii) Integrated efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction of China was relatively stable in the five years and the pollution treatment efficiency maintained a rising trend. -- Highlights: •We measured China's regional energy saving and emission reduction efficiency using two-stage DEA approach. •The production and treatment processes are incorporated in evaluation. •Eastern China performs best in terms of energy saving and emission reduction efficiency. •Integrated efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction of China kept a stable trend during 2006–2010

  12. Climate warming and its impact on natural regional boundaries in China in the 1980s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙万英; 邵雪梅; 黄玫

    2002-01-01

    The global climate warming accelerated in the 1980s has become a focus in the world. Based on the month by month and year by year temperature data from 160 representative stations throughout the country during 1951-1999, this paper analyses annual and four seasons' temperature variations of China since the 1980s. It was found out that the non-equalibrium response with relative great regional and seasonal differences is represented in the country's climate warming. In regional changes a trend of "warm in the north and cold in the south" occurs whereas in seasonal changes, the characters of "warm in winter and cool in summer" present. Significant verification of the temperature variations conducted in terms of mathematical statistics reveals that a confidence level of over 95% has been basically reached in areas north of the Yangtze River. Meanwhile, according to data of diurnal mean temperature steadily passing through accumulated temperature ≥10℃ from 335 stations since 1951 or since the founding of the stations in the early 1950s to 1999, comparative analysis of the data of the last 19 years with that of the first 30 years was conducted and the accumulated temperature ≥10℃ and the variation range of the persistent number of days ≥10℃ were obtained. It was concluded that a general northward shift of central subtropics, north subtropics, warm temperate zone, mesothermal zone and frigid temperate zone of eastern China was observed. The northward shift of north subtropics and warm temperate zone was obvious but changes of south subtropics and marginal tropics were insignificant. In western China, in addition to southwestern Yunnan, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and western Inner Mongolia where the temperature zones of each either shifted northward or trended to move upward, not much changes were found in other areas or they shifted southward slightly and declined.

  13. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIN; Hu, Haijing

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics, the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed, and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality, rather than take “household register†measures to solve the problem simply.

  14. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; LI; Haijing; HU

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics,the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed,and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality,rather than take"household register"measures to solve the problem simply.

  15. Ecological restoration and its effects on a regional climate: the source region of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhouyuan; Liu, Xuehua; Niu, Tianlin; Kejia, De; Zhou, Qingping; Ma, Tianxiao; Gao, Yunyang

    2015-05-19

    The source region of the Yellow River, China, experienced degradation during the 1980s and 1990s, but effective ecological restoration projects have restored the alpine grassland ecosystem. The local government has taken action to restore the grassland area since 1996. Remote sensing monitoring results show an initial restoration of this alpine grassland ecosystem with the structural transformation of land cover from 2000 to 2009 as low- and high-coverage grassland recovered. From 2000 to 2009, the low-coverage grassland area expanded by over 25% and the bare soil area decreased by approximately 15%. To examine the relationship between ecological structure and function, surface temperature (Ts) and evapotranspiration (ET) levels were estimated to study the dynamics of the hydro-heat pattern. The results show a turning point in approximately the year 2000 from a declining ET to a rising ET, eventually reaching the 1990 level of approximately 1.5 cm/day. We conclude that grassland coverage expansion has improved the regional hydrologic cycle as a consequence of ecological restoration. Thus, we suggest that long-term restoration and monitoring efforts would help maintain the climatic adjustment functions of this alpine grassland ecosystem. PMID:25894303

  16. Carbon Storage in an Extensive Karst-distributed Region of Southwestern China based on Multiple Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C.; Wu, Y.; Yang, H.; Ni, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon storage is crucial to better understand the processes of global and regional carbon cycles and to more precisely project ecological and economic scenarios for the future. Southwestern China has broadly and continuously distribution of karst landscapes with harsh and fragile habitats which might lead to rocky desertification, an ecological disaster which has significantly hindered vegetation succession and economic development in karst regions of southwestern China. In this study we evaluated the carbon storage in eight political divisions of southwestern China based on four methods: forest inventory, carbon density based on field investigations, CASA model driven by remote sensing data, and BIOME4/LPJ global vegetation models driven by climate data. The results show that: (1) The total vegetation carbon storage (including agricultural ecosystem) is 6763.97 Tg C based on the carbon density, and the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage (above 20cm depth) is 12475.72 Tg C. Sichuan Province (including Chongqing) possess the highest carbon storage in both vegetation and soil (1736.47 Tg C and 4056.56 Tg C, respectively) among the eight political divisions because of the higher carbon density and larger distribution area. The vegetation carbon storage in Hunan Province is the smallest (565.30 Tg C), and the smallest SOC storage (1127.40 Tg C) is in Guangdong Province; (2) Based on forest inventory data, the total aboveground carbon storage in the woody vegetation is 2103.29 Tg C. The carbon storage in Yunnan Province (819.01 Tg C) is significantly higher than other areas while tropical rainforests and seasonal forests in Yunnan contribute the maximum of the woody vegetation carbon storage (account for 62.40% of the total). (3) The net primary production (NPP) simulated by the CASA model is 68.57 Tg C/yr, while the forest NPP in the non-karst region (account for 72.50% of the total) is higher than that in the karst region. (4) BIOME4 and LPJ

  17. China and India: the struggle for regional maritime supremacy in the Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Zientek, James B.

    2000-01-01

    The expanding economic and political power of China and India have led each country to extend its naval operations into the other's region of influence in order to safeguard economic/national interests. This expansion has led to suspicion and increased tension between the two countries. The thesis postulates that the continued operational expansion of China and India's naval forces into each other's claimed maritime domain is likely to trigger alliance formations and a naval arms buildup betw...

  18. Multi-Layered Capital Subsidy Policy for the PV Industry in China Considering Regional Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country with huge energy consumption, China has been paying more and more attention to green growth in recent years. Several subsidy policies have been conducted to boost the photovoltaic (PV industry so far. However, as a matter of fact, there are 31 provinces and municipalities (PM in mainland China, and the economic condition, environmental resources and energy structure of each PM are all significantly different, which leads to a discrepancy of PV efficiency among regions. This paper proposes that the subsidies for the PV industry should be considered mainly from three aspects: the PM’s economic condition, energy efficiency and environmental responsibility. We built 19 evaluation indicators involving economic, environmental and energy factors, allocated weight to each indicator using the entropy weight method and sorted the 31 evaluation objects by TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution method. Additionally, through an empirical study, we obtained the subsidy proportion for each PM. The result could make much of a contribution to the green growth of different regions and to the whole country.

  19. Differentiation of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) from different regions in China using gas and liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2015-02-01

    In this study, complex substances such as Mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) samples from different growing regions in China were analyzed for phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and for the volatile aroma compounds by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Chemometrics methods, e.g. principal component analysis, back-propagation artificial neural networks, and partial least squares discriminant analysis, were applied to resolve complex chromatographic profiles of Mint samples. A total of 49 aroma components and 23 phenolic compounds were identified in 79 Mint samples. Principal component analysis score plots from gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection data sets showed a clear distinction among Mint from three different regions in China. Classification results showed that satisfactory performance of prediction ability for back-propagation artificial neural networks and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The major compounds that contributed to the discrimination were chlorogenic acid, unknown 3, kaempherol 7-O-rutinoside, salvianolic acid L, hesperidin, diosmetin, unknown 6 and pebrellin in Mint according to regression coefficients of the partial least squares discriminant analysis model. This study indicated that the proposed strategy could provide a simple and rapid technique to distinguish clearly complex profiles from samples such as Mint. PMID:25431171

  20. Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Jianjun; Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xiong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province), northern (Shanxi Province) and eastern China (Shanghai municipality). From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China. PMID:27140507

  1. [Plague in China. Threat of transmission to regions of Siberia and Far East].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramovich, A S; Kosilko, S A; Innokent'eva, T I; Voronova, G A; Bazanova, L P; Nikitin, A Ia; Okunev, L P

    2008-01-01

    In China plague has been officially registered from 1754 (638 epidemics with total number of cases 2.5 millions and case-fatality rate 87.5%). Endemic areas started to form on the south of the country and then the disease gradually spread on seaside provinces, where to the end of the 19th century, due to reach of island territories and large international seaports, was characterized by pandemic spread. Epidemic manifestations of plague in China were observed during more than 200 years in 23 out of 36 administrative areas affecting continental and North-Eastern regions of the country, which are immediately adjacent to border of Russia. Pneumonic plague in Manchuria clearly demonstrated the role of transport communications in transmission of this deadly infection and possibility of its spread on border regions of Siberia and Far East. Lengthy country's border, intensive migration flows, large-scale international integration, developing of near-border trade, simplification of policy for transboundary traveling are the reasons for differentiated number of sanitary protective measures on administrative borders of Siberia and Far East. PMID:18368762

  2. [Natural regeneration characteristics of Sorbus pohuashanensis in forest region of eastern Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Wei; Shen, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xiu-Liang; Zhang, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Sorbus pohuashanensis is an important non-timber tree species in Northeast China. Aimed to study the natural regeneration characteristics of this tree species and related affecting factors, representative S. pohuashanensis forests in the forest region of eastern Northeast China were investigated by line sampling method. In this forest region, S. pohuashanensis was regenerated by seed propagation, stump sprouting, and root sprouting. In intact or poor habitat natural forests, the proportions of the S. pohuashanensis seedlings established by each of the three regeneration methods occupied roughly a third, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) among them; while in secondary forests, the frequency of stump sprouts (16.5%) was lower than that in natural forests. Even so, the combination of stump sprouting and root sprouting could likely maintain a stable local population. Root sprouting could make the seedlings spread more than 50 cm away from the stump. The transfer rate from diameter class II (1.0-2.9 cm) to diameter class III (3.0-4.9 cm) was 25.6% in secondary forests, 45.3% in poor habitat natural forests, and 15.9% in intact natural forests, suggesting that the lower transfer rate was the key limiting factor for S. pohuashanensis natural regeneration. PMID:20387416

  3. Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF[0] (current control legislations and implementation status, PC[0] (improvement of energy efficiencies and current environmental legislation, PC[1] (improvement of energy efficiencies and better implementation of environmental legislation, and PC[2] (improvement of energy efficiencies and strict environmental legislation. Under the REF[0] scenario, the emission of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 will increase by 17%, 50%, 49% and 18% in 2020, while PM10 emissions will be reduced by 10% over East China, compared to that in 2005. In PC[2], sustainable energy polices will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 4.1 Tg, 2.6 Tg and 1.8 Tg, respectively; better implementation of current control policies will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emission by 2.9 Tg, 1.8 Tg, and 1.4 Tg, respectively; strict emission standards will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 3.2 Tg, 3.9 Tg, and 1.7 Tg, respectively. Under the PC[2] scenario, SO2 and PM10 emissions will decrease by 18% and 38%, while NOx and VOC emissions will increase by 3% and 8%, compared to that in 2005. Future air quality in China was simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Under REF[0] emissions, compared to 2005, the surface concentrations of SO2, NO2, hourly

  4. Mineral Mapping and Ore Prospecting with HyMap Data over Eastern Tien Shan, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Huo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Using HyMap data, mineral identification and mineral mapping were conducted on the basis of the spectral absorption index (SAI and other spectral absorption features in a study area in Tudun, eastern Tien Shan. Alteration minerals, such as calcite, alumina-rich (Al-rich muscovite, epidote, and antigorite, were explored, and their relative abundance was depicted. A cross-validation was performed, and it showed a high degree of consistency between the imagery results and the results of previous literature. To further validate the mineral mapping from HyMap data, a field survey was carried out and rock samples were collected for quantitative analysis using a Por Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA and the software affiliated with it. Minerals were discriminated, and their relative abundance was calculated from the spectra. Although we found that the absorption band-depth and SAI agreed well with each other and with the relative abundance of mineral alterations, the spectral absorption band-depth provided a better representation. Finally, ore prospecting of the study area was presented, and we found the distribution and close spatial relationships among the minerals extracted using the HyMap data. In the northern and northwestern part of the Gold-mine area, there was a mineralized muscovite alteration showing a sheet or block distribution. In the Copper-mine area, Al-poor muscovite with a sheet distribution was distributed in the north and northeast region, and Al-rich muscovite showed a block distribution enclosed by the distribution area of Al-poor muscovite. These all showed good ore prospects for the study area.

  5. Regional and Global Climate Response to Anthropogenic SO2 Emissions from China in Three Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasoar, M.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Shindell, Drew T.; Bellouin, Nicholas; Collins, William J.; Faluvegi, Greg; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    We use the HadGEM3-GA4, CESM1, and GISS ModelE2 climate models to investigate the global and regional aerosol burden, radiative flux, and surface temperature responses to removing anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from China. We find that the models differ by up to a factor of 6 in the simulated change in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and shortwave radiative flux over China that results from reduced sulfate aerosol, leading to a large range of magnitudes in the regional and global temperature responses. Two of the three models simulate a near-ubiquitous hemispheric warming due to the regional SO2 removal, with similarities in the local and remote pattern of response, but overall with a substantially different magnitude. The third model simulates almost no significant temperature response. We attribute the discrepancies in the response to a combination of substantial differences in the chemical conversion of SO2 to sulfate, translation of sulfate mass into AOD, cloud radiative interactions, and differences in the radiative forcing efficiency of sulfate aerosol in the models. The model with the strongest response (HadGEM3-GA4) compares best with observations of AOD regionally, however the other two models compare similarly (albeit poorly) and still disagree substantially in their simulated climate response, indicating that total AOD observations are far from sufficient to determine which model response is more plausible. Our results highlight that there remains a large uncertainty in the representation of both aerosol chemistry as well as direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects in current climate models, and reinforces that caution must be applied when interpreting the results of modelling studies of aerosol influences on climate. Model studies that implicate aerosols in climate responses should ideally explore a range of radiative forcing strengths representative of this uncertainty, in addition to thoroughly evaluating the models used against

  6. Regional and global temperature response to anthropogenic SO2 emissions from China in three climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasoar, Matthew; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Lamarque, Jean-François; Shindell, Drew T.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Collins, William J.; Faluvegi, Greg; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-08-01

    We use the HadGEM3-GA4, CESM1, and GISS ModelE2 climate models to investigate the global and regional aerosol burden, radiative flux, and surface temperature responses to removing anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from China. We find that the models differ by up to a factor of 6 in the simulated change in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and shortwave radiative flux over China that results from reduced sulfate aerosol, leading to a large range of magnitudes in the regional and global temperature responses. Two of the three models simulate a near-ubiquitous hemispheric warming due to the regional SO2 removal, with similarities in the local and remote pattern of response, but overall with a substantially different magnitude. The third model simulates almost no significant temperature response. We attribute the discrepancies in the response to a combination of substantial differences in the chemical conversion of SO2 to sulfate, translation of sulfate mass into AOD, cloud radiative interactions, and differences in the radiative forcing efficiency of sulfate aerosol in the models. The model with the strongest response (HadGEM3-GA4) compares best with observations of AOD regionally, however the other two models compare similarly (albeit poorly) and still disagree substantially in their simulated climate response, indicating that total AOD observations are far from sufficient to determine which model response is more plausible. Our results highlight that there remains a large uncertainty in the representation of both aerosol chemistry as well as direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects in current climate models, and reinforces that caution must be applied when interpreting the results of modelling studies of aerosol influences on climate. Model studies that implicate aerosols in climate responses should ideally explore a range of radiative forcing strengths representative of this uncertainty, in addition to thoroughly evaluating the models used against

  7. Wet deposition of acidifying substances in different regions of China and the rest of East Asia: Modeling with updated NAQPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional way to study Sources–Receptor Relationships (SRRs) of wet deposition is based on sensitivity simulation, which has weakness in dealing with the non-linear secondary formation pollutants (e.g. ozone and nitrate). An on-line source tracking method has been developed in the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with cloud-process module for the first time. The new model can not only quantify the total volume of the sulfate, nitrate and ammonium wet deposition with more accuracy, but also trace these acidic species to their emitted precursors. Compared with previous studies, our result clearly shows: (1) East China and Central China, which are the two primary export regions, have 15–30% and 10% effect on wet deposition in other areas, respectively; (2) Besides the above two regions, the total acid deposition in Southwestern and Northeastern China have reached or exceeded the critical loads under their own environmental conditions. - Highlights: • We updated NAQPMS model so that it can trace the secondary formation species at real time. • We modeled the acidic deposition and the SRRs based on the updated NAQPMS. • Eastern and Central China are the highest export regions in wet deposition of acidic substances. • The total acidic deposition in Southwestern and Northeastern China exceeded the critical loads. - The wet deposition of acidify substances and their SRRs over China have been studied using the updated NAQPMS

  8. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  9. Regional yields simulation for winter wheat in North China based on assimilating remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shili

    2006-08-01

    Accurate crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting are significant to food security and sustainable development of agriculture. However, regional crop growth simulation faces the difficulties in determining the spatial distribution of some model parameters and initial conditions. In this study, regional biomasses at turn-green stage of winter wheat were re-estimated by linking WOFOST model and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) synthesized from remote sensing data. Moreover, we proposed a way of combining evapotranspiration derived from satellite remote sensing data to crop grow simulation model. Thus, the regional initial available soil water and irrigation at earring stage were re-initialized and re-estimated by using remote sensing data. Those methods were well applied to simulate the growth and development for winter wheat at local site. After regionalizing of weather data, crop model parameters and initial conditions, those methods were used to estimate winter wheat yields in North China during the growing season from 2001 to 2002 at the scale of 0.25 degrees. The results showed that both soil water and final winter wheat yields estimation were improved and the relative root mean square error (RRMSE) decreased from 0.63 without remote sensing data to 0.20 with remote sensing data for 32 sites. The relative errors of the aggregated yields for three provinces were -4.9%, 4.3% and 8.6%, respectively. These results illustrated that remote sensing data can be used to improve winter wheat yields simulation at regional scale.

  10. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yaser Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  11. Cardiovascular Mortality Associated with Low and High Temperatures: Determinants of Inter-Region Vulnerability in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunfeng Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the effects of temperature on cardiovascular mortality in 26 regions in the south and west of China from 2008 to 2011, and to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors contributing to such inter-region variation in the temperature effect. A separate Poisson generalized additive model (GAM was fitted to estimate percent changes in cardiovascular mortality at low and high temperatures on a daily basis for each region. The model used the smooth functions to model the nonlinear effects of temperature and humidity and to control for the seasonal factor using the calendar time variable. Given variation in the magnitude of the temperature effect on cardiovascular mortality, we employed a Bayesian network (BN to identify potential region-specific socioeconomic and demographic factors that may explain the variation. In most regions, an increasing trend in high or low temperature was associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality, with variation in the magnitude of the temperature effects across regions. Three factors, including per capita years of education (as an indicator of economic status, percentage of the population over 65 years of age and percentage of women had direct impact on cold-related cardiovascular mortality. Number of hospital beds (as an indicator of the availability of medical resources, percentage of population engaged in industrial occupations, and percentage of women showed direct impact on heat-related cardiovascular mortality. Due to the socioeconomic and demographic inequalities between regions, the development of customized prevention and adaptation programs to address the low/high temperatures in vulnerable regions should be prioritized.

  12. Geographical patterns and temporal variations of regional dry and wet heatwave events in China during 1960-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Qian, Weihong

    2011-03-01

    Daily maximum/minimum temperatures and relative humidity records from 510 stations in China for the period 1960-2008 were used to investigate geographical patterns and temporal variations of heatwave (HW) events. Dry and wet HW events were compared by different definitions. Regionally, both dry and wet HW events are commonly located in southeastern China in the monsoon area, with neither type occurring in the northeast part of Northeast China and Southwest China, while the north-northwest region of the country experiences dry HW events and a few wet HW events. In the southeast of the country, site dry HW events occurred from April to September and mostly in June, while site wet HW events occurred from April to October and mostly in September. In total, 163 regional wet HW events were identified. The ten longest regional wet HW events lasted for more than 20 days, while the mean duration for 163 events was about 11 days. For the top ten events, six occurred after the 1990s, compared with four before this time. Global surface warming was clear since 1979, but the frequency and severity of regional wet HW events were relatively low in the 1980s, increasing remarkably since the 1990s. Possible reasons for this might be the strong interdecadal and interannual variations in regional atmospheric circulations, as well as water transport related directly to temperature contrasts in different regions, rather than global-mean temperature changes.

  13. Geographical Patterns and Temporal Variations of Regional Dry and Wet Heatwave Events in China during 1960-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ting; QIAN Weihong

    2011-01-01

    Daily maximum/minimum temperatures and relative humidity records from 510 stations in China for the period 1960-2008 were used to investigate geographical patterns and temporal variations of heatwave (HW) events. Dry and wet HW events were compared by different definitions. Regionally, both dry and wetHW events are commonly located in southeastern China in the monsoon area, with neither type occurring in the northeast part of Northeast China and Southwest China, while the north-northwest region of the country experiences dry HW events and a few wet HW events. In the southeast of the country, site dryHW events occurred from April to September and mostly in June, while site wet HW events occurred from April to October and mostly in September. In total, 163 regional wet HW events were identified. The ten longest regional wet HW events lasted for more than 20 days, while the mean duration for 163 events was about 11 days. For the top ten events, six occurred after the 1990s, compared with four before this time.Global surface warming was clear since 1979, but the frequency and severity of regional wet HW events were relatively low in the 1980s, increasing remarkably since the 1990s. Possible reasons for this might be the strong interdecadal and interannual variations in regional atmospheric circulations, as well as water transport related directly to temperature contrasts in different regions, rather than global-mean temperature changes.

  14. Measurement of aerosol chemical, physical and radiative properties in the Yangtze delta region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Bergin, M. H.; Yu, X.; Liu, G.; Zhao, J.; Carrico, C. M.; Baumann, K.

    In order to understand the possible influence of aerosols on the environment in the agricultural Yangtze delta region of China, a one-month field sampling campaign was carried out during November 1999 in Linan, China. Measurements included the aerosol light scattering coefficient at 530 nm, σsp, measured at both dry relative humidity (RHpolluted urban areas, with mean and standard deviation (S.D.) values for σsp, σap and PM 2.5 of 353 Mm -1 (202 Mm -1), 23 Mm -1 (14 Mm -1) and 90 μg m -3 (47 μg m -3), respectively. A clear diurnal pattern was observed in σsp and σap with minimum values occurring in the middle of the day, most likely associated with the maximum midday mixing height. The ratio of the change in light scattering coefficient at ambient RH to that at controlled RH (RHwater typically contributed ˜40% to the light scattering budget in this region. The mass scattering efficiency of the dry aerosol, E scat_2.5, and mass absorption efficiency of EC, E abs_2.5, have mean and S.D. values of 4.0 m 2 g -1 (0.4 m 2 g -1) and 8.6 m 2 g -1 (7.0 m 2 g -1), respectively. PM 2.5 concentrations in Linan and two other locations in the Yangtze delta, Sheshan and Changshu (which have monthly mean values ranging from ˜80 to 110 μg m -3), are all significantly higher than the proposed 24-h average US PM 2.5 NAAQS of 65 μg m -3. Organic compounds are the dominant chemical species accounting for ˜50% of the PM 2.5 mass at all three sites. The results indicate that aerosol loadings in the agricultural Yangtze delta region of China are relatively high, and suggest that aerosols have a significant impact on visibility, climate, crop production, and human health in this region.

  15. An Empirical Study on China’s Regional Carbon Emissions of Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pang; Jingyuan Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Based on China’s carbon emissions of agriculture, the authors appraise the area differentiation of carbon emissions of agriculture; examine the influential factors of agricultural carbon emissions in China. The results show that the performance of China’s agricultural carbon emissions is on the rise. The agricultural carbon emissions in the west of China increase rapidly. The area differentiation of agricultural carbon emissions in China decreases. In general, the major driver of carbon e...

  16. Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF[0] (current control legislations and implementation status, PC[0] (improvement of energy efficiencies and current environmental legislation, PC[1] (improvement of energy efficiencies and better implementation of environmental legislation, and PC[2] (improvement of energy efficiencies and strict environmental legislation. Under the REF[0] scenario, the emission of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 will increase by 17%, 50%, 49% and 18% in 2020, while PM will be reduced by 10% over East China, compared to that in 2005. In PC[2], sustainable energy polices will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 4.1 Tg, 2.6 Tg and 1.8 Tg, respectively; better implementation of current control policies will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emission by 2.9 Tg, 1.8 Tg, and 1.4 Tg, respectively; strict emission standards will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 3.2 Tg, 3.9 Tg, and 1.7 Tg, respectively. Under the PC[2] scenario, SO2 and PM10 emissions will decrease by 18% and 38%, while NOx and VOC emissions will increase by 3% and 8%, compared to that in 2005. Future air quality in China was simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ with 2005 emissions and 2020 emission scenarios. Under REF[0] emissions, the concentrations of SO2, NO2, hourly

  17. Regional Tax Reform Goes National

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China plans to increase resource tax to curb waste,but the plans raise fears of inflation After a year of experimental reform on the resource tax ratio in China’s western Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,the State Council announced on September 21 to add the method of levying the resource tax ratio by value to the existing practice of levying the ratio by volume only.

  18. Characteristics of Recent Horizontal Crustal Movement and Tectonic Deformation in the Northwest China Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wenyi; Wang Shuangxu; Wang Wenping; Zhang Xiaoliang; Cui Duxin; Xue Fuping

    2006-01-01

    Making use of observation data of GPS in the Northwest China region and infrared distancemeasurements crossing the Qilian-Longshoushan fault zone up to 2004, aided by the least square collocation and inversion of negative dislocation model for the boundaries of elastic blocks and the singular force-source, the dynamic evolution features of deformation and strain fields before and after the Ms = 8. 1 earthquake on the west of Kunlun Mountains Pass,especially the recent tectonic deformation and stress field status three years after this earthquake are studied. The possible regions or segments of active blocks and their boundaries reflecting accumulation background of high strain energy of producing earthquakes over middle magnitude, are obtained, as well as the potential epicenter. The results show that after short-term relaxation and adjustment in the northern margin of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) block after the Ms = 8. 1 earthquake, the main control action of background field of northeastward pushing of Indian plate is now recovering. Moreover, the following regions are found to have the background of high strain energy accumulation. They are the middle segment of the northern Tianshan fault zone and its meeting region with the western segment, the middle and western segments of southern Tianshan fault zone and the meeting region with Western Kunlun fault zone, the middle segment of Altun fault, the middle-eastern segment of Qilianshan fault zone and its meeting region with Haiyuan fault, the meeting region of northern margin fault of west Qinling Range and the southeastward expanding line of Zhuanglanghe fault; The Linze and Haiyuan areas also see accumulation of strain energy to some degree.

  19. Regional disparity of urban passenger transport associated GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With China’s urbanization and motorization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from urban passenger transport increased rapidly over recent years. As we estimated, China’s urban passenger transport associated motorized travel, energy consumption and lifecycle GHG emissions reached 2815 billion passenger kilometers (pkm), 77 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) and 335 million ton CO2 equivalent in 2010, over half of which were located in eastern provinces. Over national level, GHG emissions by private passenger vehicles, business passenger vehicles, taxis, motorcycles, E-bikes, transit buses and urban rails accounted for 57.7%, 13.0%, 7.7%, 8.6%, 1.8%, 10.5% and 0.7% of the total. Significant regional disparity was observed. The province-level per capita GHG emissions ranged from 285 kg/capita in Guizhou to 1273 kg/capita in Beijing, with national average of 486 kg/capita. Depending on province context and local policy orientation, the motorization pathways of China’s several highest motorized provinces are quite diverse. We concluded that motorization rate and transport structure were the substantial factors determining urban passenger transport associated GHG emissions. Considering the great potential of urban passenger transport growth in China, policies guiding the optimization of transport structure should be in place with priority in eastern provinces. - Highlights: • Province-leveled motorized travel, energy consumption and GHG emissions in China were studied. • Significant regional disparities on urban passenger transport were observed. • Region-specific sustainable transport energy policies were discussed

  20. Level and source of 129I of environmental samples in Xi'an region, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-129 is widely used as a tracer in various environmental practices such as monitoring of nuclear environmental safety, seawater exchange and transport, geochemical cycle of stable iodine and dating of geological events. The spatial distribution of 129I concentration varies significantly on global scale because of anthropogenic input from nuclear activities coupled with scarcity of data on environmental 129I variability in many parts of the world including Asia. Here we report new data on 129I and 127I concentrations in soil, vegetation, river water and precipitation collected from Xi'an area, China. The results indicate values for environmental 129I/127I ratios in the investigated area range from 1.1 x 10-10 to 43.5 x 10-10 with a mean of 20.6 x 10-10, which is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than the ratios observed in Europe, but comparable with those observed in the locations far from direct effect of point release sources and at similar latitude. The main source of 129I in the investigated area is attributed to the global fallout of both atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and long distance dispersion of fuel reprocessing releases. - Research highlights: → We present the first investigation of anthropogenic radioactive 129I in the terrestrial environment in middle China. → River water, surface soil and vegetation samples from Xi'an region were analyzed for 129I and stable 127I. → The distribution, source term, and transfer from soil to plants of 129I in middle China are presented. → AMS shows its unique capacity in 129I analysis and environmental safety research using 129I and other radionuclides. → The results supplied a basic data for evaluating nuclear risk in the future.

  1. Using species distribution modeling to delineate the botanical richness patterns and phytogeographical regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Gang; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2016-03-01

    The millions of plant specimens that have been collected and stored in Chinese herbaria over the past ~110 years have recently been digitized and geo-referenced. Here we use this unique collection data set for species distribution modeling exercise aiming at mapping & explaining the botanical richness; delineating China’s phytogeographical regions and investigating the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We modeled distributions of 6,828 woody plants using MaxEnt and remove the collection bias using null model. The continental China was divided into different phytogeographical regions based on the dissimilarity patterns. An ordination and Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics were used to analysis the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the annual precipitation and temperature stability were responsible for observed species diversity. The mechanisms causing dissimilarity pattern seems differ among biogeographical regions. The identified environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns for southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast are annual precipitation, topographic & temperature stability, water deficit and temperature instability, respectively. For effective conservation of China’s plant diversity, identifying the historical refuge and protection of high diversity areas in each of the identified floristic regions and their subdivisions will be essential.

  2. New debris flow mitigation measures in southern Gansu, China: a case study of the Zhouqu Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Muqi; Meng, Xingmin; Li, Yajun

    2014-05-01

    A devastating debris flow occurred in Zhouqu of Gansu Province, China, on 8th August 2010, resulting in a catastrophic disaster, with 1463 people being perished. The debris flow valleys, as other numerous debris valleys in the mountainous region, had preventive engineering constructions, such as check dames, properly designed based on common engineering practices for safe guiding the town located right on the debris flow fan. However, failures of such preventive measures often cause even heavier disasters than those that have no human interactions, as the mitigations give a false safety impression. Given such a weird situation and in order to explore a much more effective disaster prevention strategy against debris flows in the mountainous region, this paper makes a comparative study based on two cases in the area of which one had preventive structures and one hasn't. The result shows that inappropriate mitigation measures that have commonly been applying in the disaster reduction practices in the region are of questionable. It is concluded that going with the nature and following with the natural rules are the best strategy for disaster reduction in the region. Key words: debris flow disasters, disaster reduction strategy, preventive measures

  3. Accuracy of TRMM precipitation data in the southwest monsoon region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guofeng, Zhu; Dahe, Qin; Yuanfeng, Liu; Fenli, Chen; Pengfei, Hu; Dongdong, Chen; Kai, Wang

    2016-04-01

    Accurate, high-resolution precipitation data is important for hydrological applications and water resource management, particularly within mountainous areas about which data is presently scarce. The goal of the this study was to assess the accuracy of TRMM 3B43 precipitation data from the southwest monsoon region of China between 1998 and 2011 based on the correlation coefficients, regression, and geostatistical methods. We found a strong correlation between TRMM 3B43 data and observational data obtained from meteorological stations, but the TRMM 3B43 precipitation data was consistently lower than that obtained from the weather stations. The TRMM 3B43 data was significantly different from the data obtained by weather stations located in the northwest and northeast regions of the Hengduan Mountains. The spatial distribution of precipitation obtained from TRMM 3B43 was also different from meteorological data, but the deviation was predominantly distributed along the northern longitude and southern latitude. In addition, the TRMM data more accurately reflected the regional precipitation patterns. Our results indicate that the TRMM 3B43 data should be used for hydrological applications and water resource management at meteorological stations that have a sparse and uneven distribution of observation stations in the southwest monsoon region.

  4. 西藏自治区森林碳密度及分布规律研究%Forest Carbon Density and Distribution of Tibet Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂来庭; 张蓓; 吴南飞; 戴前石; 黄哲

    2014-01-01

    Biomass-stock volume models were built in this paper,by using continuous forest inventory measured data of plots and sample trees,combined with relative height curves.The model solved problem of convergence with various types of forest resources survey data,which can be used on biomass estimation of continuous forest inventory and forest resources survey in Tibet Autonomous Region.According to the calculation of continuous forest inventory plot biomass density,combined with area and carbon content of species,we estimated forest carbon density,and explore the zonal distribution of forest carbon pool in Tibet.%利用森林资源连续清查实测样地及样木数据,结合相对树高曲线,构建生物量-蓄积量模型,解决了模型与各类森林资源调查数据的衔接问题,可应用于西藏自治区森林资源连续清查的目测与遥感样地生物量估算及森林资源规划设计调查小班生物量估算等。根据计算的森林资源连续清查各样地生物量密度,结合树种面积数据及含碳率,估算全区森林碳密度,并初步探讨了森林碳库地带性分布规律。

  5. Changes in carbon dioxide emissions and LMDI-based impact factor decomposition:the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region as a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHANG; Jun LEI; Xuan ZHOU; XiaoLei ZHANG; Wen DONG; Yu YANG

    2014-01-01

    Studies on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at provincial level can provide a scientific basis for the op-timal use of energy and the formulation of CO2 reduction policies. We studied the variation of CO2 emissions of primary energy consumption and its influencing factors based on data in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region from 1952 to 2008, which were calculated according to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inven-tories. Xinjiang’s CO2 emission process from 1952 to 2008 could be divided into five stages according to the growth rates of total amount of CO2 emissions and CO2 emission intensity. The impact factors were quantitatively analyzed using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method in each stage. Various factors, including government policies and technological progress related to the role of CO2 emissions, were comprehensively analyzed, and the internal relationships among various factors were clarified. The results show that the contribution rates of various impact factors are different in each stage. Overall, economic growth and energy consumption intensity were the main driving factors for CO2 emissions. Since the implementation of the birth control policy, the driving force of population growth on the increase in CO2 emissions has slowly weakened. The energy consumption intensity was further af-fected by the industrial structure and energy consumption intensity of primary, secondary and tertiary industries, with the energy consumption intensity of the secondary industries and the proportion of secondary industries being the most important factors affecting the energy consumption intensity. Governmental policies and technological progress were also important factors that affected CO2 emissions.

  6. Construction of the All-region Linkage System for Emergency Management of Agricultural Product Quality and Safety in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; YU; Yanbin; QI; Yubao; YAN

    2013-01-01

    Quality and safety of agricultural products are significant for national socioeconomic development,sustainable development,and vital interests of people.To safeguard quality and safety of agricultural products in west China is to safeguard economic safety and ecological safety of the country,public health and social stability,of which an important task is to properly handle emergencies concerning quality and safety of agricultural products.Considering actual conditions of west China,suggestions are given to construct the all-region linkage system for emergency management of agricultural product quality and safety in the local area,enhance the all-region linkage,and improve the linkage efficiency.

  7. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  8. Land degradation mapping based on hyperion data in desertification region of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Penggen; Wu, Jian; Ouyang, Ping; He, Ting

    2008-10-01

    Desertification is an alarming sign of land degradation in Henshan county of northwest china. Due to the considerable costs of detailed ground surveys of this phenomenon, remote sensing is an appropriate alternative for analyzing and evaluating the risks of the expansion of land degradation. Degradation features can be detected directly or indirectly by using image data. In this paper, based on the Hyperion images of Hengshan desertification region of northwest china, a new algorithm aimed at land degradation mapping, called Land Degradation Index (LDI), was put forward. This new algorithm is based on the classified process. We applied the linear spectral unmixing algorithm with the training samples derived from the formerly classified process so as to find out new endmembers in the RMS error imagine. After that, using neutral net mapping with new training samples, the classified result was gained. In addition, after applying mask processing, the soils were grouped to 3 types (Kappa =0.90): highly degraded soils, moderately degraded soils and slightly degraded soils. By analyzing 3 mapping methods: mixture-classification, the spectral angle mapper and mixturetuned matched filtering, the results suggest that the mixture-classification has the higher accuracy (Kappa=0.7075) than the spectral angle mapper (Kappa=0.5418) and the mixture-tuned matched filter (Kappa=0.6039). As a result, the mixture-classification is selected to carry out Land Degradation Index analysis.

  9. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonuo Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents’ concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance.

  10. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents’ concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  11. Recognition of key regions for restoration of phytoplankton communities in the Huai River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changsen; Liu, Changming; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Yongyong; Yu, Qiang; Eamus, Derek

    2012-02-01

    SummaryHealthy phytoplankton communities are the basis of healthy water ecosystems, and form the foundation of many freshwater food webs. Globally many freshwater ecosystems are degraded because of intensive human activities, so water ecosystem restoration is a burning issue worldwide. Selection of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration is crucial for an effective aquatic eco-restoration. This paper presents a practical method for identification of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration, using random forests (RFs) method to cluster sites based on dominance, biodiversity, water chemistry and ecological niche. We sampled phytoplankton for species richness and relative abundance and water quality in the Huai River basin (HRB), China to determine the phytoplankton communities' composition and structure and characterize of their ecological niches. A wider mean niche breadth of a species usually leads to a greater overlap with the niche of other species. Using these data and water quality indices, we identified the key regions for phytoplankton-related river restoration activities. Results indicate that our method for recognition of key regions is effective and practical and its application to the HRB identified the Northern Plain area as the key region for restoration. This area is severely polluted and contributes significantly to the HRB phytoplankton communities. Phytoplankton in this region is highly adaptable to environmental change and therefore will be relatively unharmed by environmental instability induced by restoration measures. During restoration, indices of water temperature, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand can be altered with little negative influence on phytoplankton communities, but measures that increase ammonia-nitrogen concentration would be highly detrimental. These results will provide valuable information for policy makers and stakeholders in water ecosystem restoration and sustainable basin management in the HRB.

  12. Autonomous Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Based on Information Filters and Active Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Tianhong Yan; Yan Liang; Shujing Zhang; Chao Li; Bo He; Hongjin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China). Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF) can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM). All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespec...

  13. Climate effects on crop yields in the Northeast Farming Region of China during 1961–2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.;

    2016-01-01

    Crop production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR) is affected considerably by variation in climatic conditions. Data on crop yield and weather conditions from a number of agro-meteorological stations in NFR were used in a mixed linear model to evaluate the impacts of climatic variables...... at each station, comprising pre-flowering (from sowing to just prior to flowering), flowering (20 days around flowering) and post-flowering (10 days after flowering to maturity). The climatic variables were mean minimum temperature, thermal time (which is used to indicate changes in the length of growth...... and soybean yield and HDD in the pre-flowering phase reduced rice yield. Such effects suggest that projected future climate change may have marked effects on crop yield through effects of several climatic variables, calling for adaptation measures such as breeding and changes in crop, soil and agricultural...

  14. Rangeland Grasshoppers in Relation to Soils in the Qinghai Lake Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Shao-Xiang; WANG Jie-Chen; JIANG Jian-Jun; ZHA Yong

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between rangeland grasshopper density and soil type as well as topsoil moisture content was analyzed with in situ soil data collected in the Qinghai Lake region of China. Grasshoppers were confined mainly to the areas with light chestnut soil or chestnut soil, and very few were found in areas with subalpine meadow soil. Grasshoppers were almost absent from other types of soil, such as aeolian soil. In addition, analysis of 14 soil samples collected in the study area revealed that a soil moisture content between 18 and 32 g kg-1 coincided spatially with a higher density of grasshoppers, with the grasshopper density averaging 15 head m-2. In areas with a soil moisture content above 42 g kg-1 or below 10g kg-1, grasshopper density dropped to less than 5 head m-2. These indicated that for the study area, soils with very high or very low moisture contents were not conducive to the survival of grasshoppers.

  15. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P industrial development, and population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  16. Epidemiological Survey on Canine Parvovirus Disease in Taizhou Region,Jiangsu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan; Weifeng; Liu; Jing; Zhao; Xuegang; Lu; Jiang; Zheng; Xiaoliang; Zhu; Hongfei

    2014-01-01

    The canine parvovirus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by canine parvovirus(CPV). It is clinically characterized by severe vomiting,hemorrhagic enteritis,significant reduction in white blood cells and myocarditis. The disease with high incidence,highly infectious and high mortality has become one of the serious infectious diseases threatening dog raising industry in China. In this research,260 cases of canine parvovirus case from an Aite Pet Clinic in Taizhou City during January 2010 and March 2011 were analyzed. This study discloses the epidemiology of CPV in Taizhou region of Jiangsu Province,i. e.,the incidence of CPV and canine motility are closely correlated with age,breed,immune inoculation and season. This study provides useful guide for the clinical treatment of CPV in the future.

  17. An optimal model and its application for the management of municipal solid waste from regional small cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yongfeng; Li, Tianwei; Yan, Gang; Wang, Yeyao; Ma, Xiaofan

    2004-02-01

    Based on the basic characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) from regional small cities in China, some optimal management principles have been put forward: regional optimization, long-term optimization, and integrated treatment/disposal optimization. According to these principles, an optimal MSW management model for regional small cities is developed and provides a useful method to manage MSW from regional small cities. A case study application of the optimal model is described and shows that the optimal management scenarios in the controlling region can be gained, adequately validating and accounting for the advantages of the optimal model. PMID:14977320

  18. A Numerical Simulation Study of Impacts of Historical Land-Use Changes on the Regional Climate in China Since 1700

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiaoping; DING Yihui; DONG Wenjie

    2007-01-01

    By using the improved regional climate model (BCC_RegCM1.0), a series of modeling experiments are undertaken to investigate the impacts of historical land-use changes (LUCs) on the regional climate in China.Simulations are conducted for 2 years using estimated land-use for 1700, 1800, 1900, 1950, and 1990. The conversion of land cover in these periods was extensive over China, where large areas were altered from forests to either grass or crops, or from grasslands to crops. Results show that, since 1700, historical LUCs have significant effects on regional climate change, with rainfall increasing in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin, Northwest China, and Northeast China, but decreasing by different degrees in other regions. The air temperature shows significant warming over large areas in recent hundred years,especially from 1950 to 1990, which is consistent with the warming caused by increasing greenhouse gases.On the other hand, historical LUCs have obvious effects on mean circulation, with the East Asian winter and summer monsoonal flows becoming more intensive, which is mainly attributed to the amplified temperature difference between ocean and land due to vegetation change. Thus, it would be given more attention to the impacts of LUCs on regional climate change.

  19. The effect of deforestation on the regional temperature in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Zhang, Shuwen; Tang, Junmei; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yan, Fengqin; Yang, Chaobin; Yang, Jiuchun

    2015-05-01

    Land cover change, as one of the most important driving forces to climate change, has become the research focus of the global environmental change research and global land project. More researchers studied on the global influence of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change and proved that land use change occurred at different temperature zones may produce different climate effects. For example, deforestation in tropical areas would lead to higher temperatures as the decreasing of evapotranspiration caused by the reduction of roughness and the decreasing of drag coefficient and leaf area index while, in boreal areas, similar deforestation would cause lower temperature as the increasing of albedo particularly during winter with the snow cover. However, the impact of deforestation in the temperate regions on the climate still existed uncertainty and the impacts of deforestation at different humidity conditions on climate has not explored yet. From this perspective, this article used Weather Research and Forecasting model to simulate the impact of deforestation on the temperature of Northeastern China. In this study, we designed two scenarios in July and December, respectively: One was simulated without human intervention, and the second one was simulated with the current forest covers. The results showed that the temperature in both summer and winter showed a decreasing trend when the conversion of forest to farmland occurred in northeastern China. In order to further explore the humidity impacts on the temperature, we performed sample analysis on humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid regions. According to the results, the maximum variation of temperature was found in humid areas, especially in December when the temperature decreased around 4-5 °C, while the change in semi-arid and sub-humid areas is relatively small.

  20. Characteristics of trace gaseous pollutants at a regional background station in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Meng

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present measurement results of trace gaseous pollutants obtained at the Shangdianzi (SDZ Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW regional station in Northern China, from September 2003 to December 2006. The gases include ozone (O3, nitrogen oxide(s (NOx=NO+NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and carbon monoxide (CO. During the study period, the mean annual O3 concentrations were 30.1±21.0, 32.8±19.1 and 30.9±19.8 ppbv in 2004, 2005 and 2006. The corresponding NOx values were 14.5±14.0, 11.0±11.3 and 12.7±11.8 ppbv, respectively. The mean annual SO2 concentrations were 5.9±10.0, 6.1±9.9 and 7.6±10.2 ppbv in 2004, 2005 and 2006, while the mean CO levels were 586±415 and 742±558 ppbv in 2005 and 2006. The data obtained at SDZ station are compared with the results measured at other background sites in China as well as abroad. The concentrations of O3, NOx, SO2, and CO at the SDZ background station are found to have clear seasonal and diurnal variations. The impacts of local and remote pollution sources on the regional air quality are assessed using trace gases concentration roses and 3-day back trajectories of air masses arriving at the SDZ station.

  1. Carbon dioxide and methane supersaturation in lakes of semi-humid/semi-arid region, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhidan; Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Jin, Xiuliang

    2016-08-01

    Understanding concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in lakes is an important part of a comprehensive global carbon budget. We estimated data on the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 (pCH4) from sampling with 95 lakes in semi-humid/semi-arid region of Northeastern China during ice-free period. Both pCO2 and pCH4 varied greatly among the study sites. p(CO2) values in these lakes ranged from 21.9 to 30,152.3 μatm (n = 403), and 91% of lakes in this survey were supersaturated with CO2. p(CH4) values ranged from 12.6 to 139,630.7 μatm with all sites in this study of CH4 sources to the atmosphere during the ice-free period. The collected urban lakes samples exhibited higher pCO2 and pCH4 than wild lakes samples. Either the mean value of p(CO2) or p(CH4) in saline waters is higher than in fresh waters. Correlation analysis implied that the partial pressure of the GHGs (CO2 and CH4) showed statistically correlations with water environment indicators like pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a (Chla). However, the most of the relationships showed a high degree of scatter, only pH might be used as the predictor of the gas partial pressure based on the result of this study (rpCO2 = -0.437, p carbon emission rate is 560.2 g C m-2 from 95 lakes in Northeastern China. We could not extrapolate carbon emission from these lakes to the boreal region or a wider scale because of the change of environmental conditions.

  2. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM2.5 levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m−3 in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m−3 in PM2.5, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM2.5, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM2.5 were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM2.5 derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF). - Highlights: • PM2.5 and TSP samples collected at Yellow River Delta were analyzed for OC and EC. • OC, EC, TSP and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in daytime than in nighttime. • Radiocarbon (14C) tracer, backward trajectories, and fire counts were used for the analysis. • Agricultural waste open burning was a main contributor to summer PM2.5, OC and EC

  3. Organic carbon storage in four ecosystem types in the karst region of southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Liu

    Full Text Available Karst ecosystems are important landscape types that cover about 12% of the world's land area. The role of karst ecosystems in the global carbon cycle remains unclear, due to the lack of an appropriate method for determining the thickness of the solum, a representative sampling of the soil and data of organic carbon stocks at the ecosystem level. The karst region in southwestern China is the largest in the world. In this study, we estimated biomass, soil quantity and ecosystem organic carbon stocks in four vegetation types typical of karst ecosystems in this region, shrub grasslands (SG, thorn shrubbery (TS, forest - shrub transition (FS and secondary forest (F. The results showed that the biomass of SG, TS, FS, and F is 0.52, 0.85, 5.9 and 19.2 kg m(-2, respectively and the corresponding organic cabon storage is 0.26, 0.40, 2.83 and 9.09 kg m(-2, respectively. Nevertheless, soil quantity and corresponding organic carbon storage are very small in karst habitats. The quantity of fine earth overlaying the physical weathering zone of the carbonate rock of SG, TS, FS and F is 38.10, 99.24, 29.57 and 61.89 kg m(-2, respectively, while the corresponding organic carbon storage is only 3.34, 4.10, 2.37, 5.25 kg m(-2, respectively. As a whole, ecosystem organic carbon storage of SG, TS, FS, and F is 3.81, 4.72, 5.68 and 15.1 kg m(-2, respectively. These are very low levels compared to other ecosystems in non-karst areas. With the restoration of degraded vegetation, karst ecosystems in southwestern China may play active roles in mitigating the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

  4. Aerosol direct radiative forcing in desert and semi-desert regions of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jinyuan; Gong, Chongshui; Wang, Shigong; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-05-01

    The optical properties of dust aerosols were measured using narrow-band data from a portable sun photometer at four desert and semi-desert stations in northwestern China from 2004 to 2007. Ground-based and satellite observations indicated absorbing dust aerosol loading over the region surrounded by eight large-scale deserts. Radiation forcing was identified by using the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model. The ranges of annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angström exponents, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) were from 0.25 to 0.35, from - 0.73 to 1.18, and from 0.77 to 0.86, respectively. The ranges of annual mean aerosol direct radiative forcing values at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), mid-atmosphere, and on the surface were from 3.9 to 12.0, from 50.0 to 53.1, and from - 39.1 to - 48.1 W/m2, respectively. The aerosols' optical properties and radiative characteristics showed strong seasonal variations in both the desert and semi-desert regions. Strong winds and relatively low humidity will lead dust aerosols in the atmosphere to an increase, which played greatly affected these optical properties during spring and winter in northwestern China. Based on long-term observations and retrieved data, aerosol direct radiative forcing was confirmed to heat the atmosphere (50-53 W/m2) and cool the surface (- 39 to - 48 W/m2) above the analyzed desert. Radiative forcing in the atmosphere in spring and winter was 18 to 21 W/m2 higher than other two seasons. Based on the dust sources around the sites, the greater the AOD, the more negative the forcing. The annual averaged heating rates for aerosols close to the ground (1 km) were approximately 0.80-0.85 K/day.

  5. An Analysis of Labor Resources "One River and Two Tributaries" Region in Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Chuan-zhong; LI Xiang-mei; LIU Jian; ZHONG Xiang-hao

    2005-01-01

    Focusing on the region of Yarlung Zangbo River and the middle reaches of its two tributaries of Nianchu River and Lhasa River in Tibet (Hereafter referred to as the "One River and Two Tributaries" region), and based on the data from China 3rd, 4th and 5th population censuses, the article has analyzed change patterns of this region's labor force. Major findings from the study are summarized as follows: ① Compared with the data from the 3rd census, labor force population in 2000 has increased significantly. ② Children dependency coefficient has dropped, while old people dependency coefficient has changed very slightly with an increase of 0.047% only. ③ Compared 2000 with 1982, illiteracy and semi-illiteracy rate of the population above 15 years old have decreased significantly by 30.69 percentage points, but still higher than the national average. ④ Women's illiteracy rate has dropped faster than men's, but up to 2000 it was generally quite high. The upgrading of the entire population's overall quality has a long way to go.

  6. Evaluation of regional tourism competitiveness:a case study of southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of regional tourism competitiveness has been a hot issue of tourism geography and regional economics in recent years.This study introduces system theory and Projkssor Porter's National Diamond Model into constructing the evaluation index system of regional tourism competitiveness,which includes four decisive factors,namely production factor,market,industry and support competitiveness.And by comprehensive use of subjective and objective methods like Principal Component Analysis(PCA)and Analysis Hierarchy Process(AHP)the appraised values were calculated.At the same time.the method was applied to dynamic demonstration analysis of the tourism competitiveness of the provinces in Southwest China from 2001 to 2005.The result shows that their tourism comprehensive competitiveness has distinct differences. The comprehensive competitiveness of Sichuan and Yunnan are better,Chongqing and Guangxi are in the middle,and Guizhou and Tibet are weak.According to the competitiveness ranks in 2001-2005,comprehensive,production factor,industry and support competitiveness changed a little and market competitiveness changed a lot.This competitive pattern has been made mosay because natural resource conditions and economic development levels of the provinces are very different and are difficult to be changed in a short period.

  7. Potential impacts on regional climate due to land degradation in the Guizhou Karst Plateau of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible regional climatic effects of land condition change in the Guizhou Karst Plateau (GKP), which has experienced serious Karst Rocky Desertification (KRD) in the past decades, were investigated in this study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model. It was shown that when compared with validation datasets, the WRF showed a high ability to downscale NCEP-DOE Reanalysis-2, which provided the initial and lateral boundary conditions for WRF, especially for the precipitation simulation. After land degradation over the GKP, the net radiation and evaporation were reduced mainly within the desertification area, consistent with the reduction in rainfall and the increase in surface temperature there. The southwest monsoon flow from the Bay of Bengal was weakened over the adjacent area to the northeast, influencing the East Asian summer monsoon. Meanwhile, the weaker low-layer anti-cyclone and the stronger horizontal convergence enhanced vertical motion in the southeastern coastal areas. Furthermore, owing to the decreased surface heating in the degradation experiment, the lifting over the GKP and neighboring regions to the east was limited, which resulted in a reduced rainfall within the GKP and strengthened the ascending motion downstream over 114°–122° E. Such circulation differences favored an increase in moisture flux and clouds, thereby causing more precipitation in coastal areas of southeast China. (letter)

  8. Effects of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress: A case study of grain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Engel, Bernie A; Wu, Pute

    2016-04-15

    Scarcity of water resources is one of the major challenges in the world, particularly for the main water consumer, agriculture. Virtual water flow (VWF) promotes water redistribution geographically and provides a new solution for resolving regional water shortage and improving water use efficiency in the world. Virtual water transfer among regions will have a significant influence on the water systems in both grain export and import regions. In order to assess the impacts of VWF related grain transfer on regional water resources conditions, the study takes mainland China as study area for a comprehensive evaluation of virtual water flow on regional water resources stress. Results show that Northeast China and Huang-Huai-Hai region are the major grain production regions as well as the major virtual water export regions. National water savings related to grain VWF was about 58Gm(3), with 48Gm(3) blue water and 10Gm(3) green water. VWF changes the original water distribution and has a significant effect on water resources in both virtual water import and export regions. Grain VWF significantly increased water stress in grain export regions and alleviated water stress in grain import regions. Water stress index (WSI) of Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia has been increased by 138% and 129% due to grain export. Stress from water shortages is generally severe in export regions, and issues with the sustainability of grain production and VWF pattern are worthy of further exploration. PMID:26851759

  9. Regional effects of vegetation restoration on water yield across the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Feng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The general relationships between vegetation and water yield under different climatic regimes are well established at a small watershed scale in the past century. However, applying the basic theories to evaluate the regional effects of land cover change on water resources has been rarely done due to the complex interactions of vegetation and climatic variability and hydrologic processes at the large scale. The objective of this study was to explore ways to examine the spatial and temporal effects of a large ecological restoration project on water yield across the Loess Plateau region in Northern China. We estimated annual water yield as the difference between precipitation input and modeled actual evapotranspiration (ET output. We constructed a monthly ET model using published eddy flux ET measurements, ET estimates derived from local watershed streamflow data. We validated the ET models at a watershed and regional levels. The model was then applied to examine regional water yield under land cover change and climatic variability during the implementation of the Grain-for-Green (GFG project during 1999–2007. We found that water yield in 38% of the Loess Plateau area as a whole might have decreased (1–48 mm yr−1 as a result of land cover change alone. However, combined with climatic variability, 37% of the study area might have seen a decrease in water yield with a range of 1–54 mm yr−1, and 35% of the study area might have seen an increase with a range of 1–10 mm yr−1. Across the study region, climate variability masked or strengthened the water yield response to vegetation restoration. The absolute annual water yield change due to vegetation restoration varied with precipitation regimes with the highest in wet years, but the relative water yield changes were most pronounced in dry years. When compared to findings at the plot or catchment-scale, this study suggested that regional hydrologic effects

  10. The Analysis of China' s Regional System Through the Regional Planning%从区域规划看中国的区域制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁四保

    2013-01-01

    国家出台大批国家级区域发展战略和各地制定相应的区域规划,给中国的人文-经济地理学带来了极好的发展机遇,其中,思考中国的区域制度是一个重要的理论命题.阐述了现行区域规划在内容体系上的“短板”,指出了“短板”的存在有中国区域制度的原因.通过“区域”的“政府”性质分析了区域规划中存在“短板”的必然性,进而讨论了中国“产权区域”制度下“区域”的“私人物品”特征、区域的竞争性和排他性,由此产生的区域与中央政府的博弈关系和区域外部性等问题.人文-经济地理学必须在区域制度方面深化对中国的区域规划、区域发展和区域关系等问题的认识.%A large number of state-level regional development strategies issued by the central government and corresponding regional planning formulated by the local governments, for China' s humanity-economic geography, has brought great opportunities for development. Why economic region in China is different from any other countries, why to develop in a high speed become a common problem among China' s economic regions, why China's economic regions still did it in their own way although has been strongly condemned, if this economic regional system had something to do for China' s rapid development of economy, all the questions mentioned above are worth thinking for humanity-economic geographers. Dozens of regional strategies issued by the central government and corresponding regional planning have been established in recent years, all these strategies and planning are used by government as a means of macroeconomic regulation and control, and also used by the scholars in the field of region and urban planning as a means of service for practice. This paper think that government establishing regional strategies and planning which don't follow the rules of market economy are always failure in many case, meanwhile, it' s side effects

  11. Media globalization in Greater China : strategies of transnational media players and the regional television space

    OpenAIRE

    C.W. Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the Greater China television industry in the context of the debate on globalization. It presents an overview of the transnational corporate practices and the resulting transformation of the Greater China's television industry. The objective of this dissertation is threefold. It analyzes the development of the television industry in Greater China, examines the corporate practices of cross-horder management, and discusses the formation of the Greater China televisi...

  12. The Cost Competitiveness of Manufacturing in China and India - An Industry and Regional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bart van Ark; Abdul Azeez; Erumban Vivian Chen; Chen Utsav Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on comparisons of productivity, (unit) labor cost and industry level competitiveness for the manufacturing sector of China and India. We first provide a comparison between India and China using a broad international perspective. We find that China has increased its labor productivity to a level above that of India, but due to a somewhat higher compensation level, China is still somewhat at a disadvantage in terms of unit labor cost in manufacturing relative to India. In the...

  13. the Cost Competitiveness of the Manufacturing Sector in China and India: An Industry and Regional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bart van Ark; Abdul Azeez Erumban; Vivian Chen; Utsav Kumar

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on comparisons of productivity, (unit) labor cost and industry-level competitiveness for the manufacturing sector of China and India. We first provide a comparison between India and China using a broad international perspective. We find that China has increased its labor productivity to a level above that of India, but due to a somewhat higher compensation level, China is still somewhat at a disadvantage in terms of unit labor cost in manufacturing relative to India. In the...

  14. Eucalyptus in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An account based on a visit by the author which reviews the history of eucalypt introduction, outlines current silvicultural practices with special reference to Guangdong province and Guangxi autonomous region and discusses prospects for the future use of eucalypts in China. There are over 300,000 hectare of plantations in southern China, the main species planted since 1950 being Eucalyptus citriodora, E. exserta, and E. globulus. They provide a wide range of products including sawn timber, posts, poles, fuelwood and essential oils, and are a potential source of pulp and fibreboard. A recent policy decision to increase forest cover from 12.7 to 20% of the land area by 2000 will require an increase in afforestation rate to 2 million hectares/year: it is anticipated that eucalypts will play a significant role.

  15. Analysis of a winter regional haze event and its formation mechanism in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A regional haze episode occurred in the Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province (BTH area in the North China Plain (NCP from 16 to 19 January 2010. The chemical and optical properties of aerosols and the meteorological condition were investigated in this study with intensive measurement of aerosol and trace gases from 14 to 23 January 2010 at five sites. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and surface air stagnation under a high pressure system followed by a low pressure system. The concentrations of PM2.5 and trace gases increased significantly on a regional scale during this episode. The increased aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp, absorption coefficient (σap, and aerosol optical depth (AOD showed the importance of aerosol extinction during this haze episode. The increase of secondary inorganic pollutants (SO42−, NO3, NH4+ was observed simultaneously at four sites, especially in the plain area of BTH, which could be identified as a common characteristic of pollution haze in east China. The organic matter (OM was different from secondary inorganic pollutants, which increased more significantly at Chengde (CD site than the other three sites in plain area. The sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 were mainly formed through the heterogeneous reaction process in the urban area. The secondary organic aerosols in PM2.5 only existed during haze days at CD but in both haze and normal days at the other three sites. The chemical characteristics of aerosols in PM2.5 indicated that the secondary formation of aerosol was one important mechanism in the formation of haze episode. The strong temperature inversion and descending air motions in the planetary boundary layer (PBL allowed pollutants to accumulate in a shallow layer. The weak surface wind speed produced high pollutants concentration within

  16. Regional effects of vegetation restoration on water yield across the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Feng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The general relationships between vegetation and water yield under different climatic regimes are well established at a small watershed scale in the past century. However, applications of these basic theories to evaluate the regional effects of land cover change on water resources remain challenging due to the complex interactions of vegetation and climatic variability and hydrologic processes at the large scale. The objective of this study was to explore ways to examine the spatial and temporal effects of a large ecological restoration project on water yield across the Loess Plateau region in northern China. We estimated annual water yield as the difference between precipitation input and modelled actual evapotranspiration (ET output. We constructed a monthly ET model using published ET data derived from eddy flux measurements and watershed streamflow data. We validated the ET models at a watershed and regional levels. The model was then applied to examine regional water yield under land cover change and climatic variability during the implementation of the Grain-for-Green (GFG project during 1999–2007. We found that water yield in 38% of the Loess Plateau area might have decreased (1–48 mm per year as a result of land cover change alone. However, combined with climatic variability, 37% of the study area might have seen a decrease in water yield with a range of 1–54 mm per year, and 35% of the study area might have seen an increase with a range of 1–10 mm per year. Across the study region, climate variability masked or strengthened the water yield response to vegetation restoration. The absolute annual water yield change due to vegetation restoration varied with precipitation regimes with the highest in wet years, but the relative water yield changes were most pronounced in dry years. We concluded that the effects of land cover change associated with ecological restoration varied greatly over time and space and were strongly influenced

  17. Effects of climatic factors, drought risk and irrigation requirement on maize yield in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Jabloun, Mohamed; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind;

    2016-01-01

    Drought risk is considered to be among the main limiting factors for maize (Zea mays L.) production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR). Maize yield data from 44 stations over the period 1961–2010 were combined with data from weather stations to evaluate the effects of climatic factors...

  18. Investigation of the probability of concurrent drought events between the water source and destination regions of China's water diversion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomang; Luo, Yuzhou; Yang, Tiantian; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Minghua; Liu, Changming

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the concurrent drought probability between the water source and destination regions of the central route of China's South to North Water Diversion Project. We find that both regions have been drying from 1960 to 2013. The estimated return period of concurrent drought events in both regions is 11 years. However, since 1997, these regions have experienced 5 years of simultaneous drought. The projection results of global climate models show that the probability of concurrent drought events is highly likely to increase during 2020 to 2050. The increasing concurrent drought events will challenge the success of the water diversion project, which is a strategic attempt to resolve the water crisis of North China Plain. The data suggest great urgency in preparing adaptive measures to ensure the long-term sustainable operation of the water diversion project.

  19. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China.

  20. Household carbon dioxide emissions from peasants and herdsmen in northwestern arid-alpine regions, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed household CO2 emissions (related to the consumption of necessary and luxury goods and services) of peasants and herdsmen households in arid-alpine regions in Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia provinces, China. We also explored whether agriculture types, family income and family size have played any role in household CO2 emissions. In order to address these issues, we: (i) developed assessment indicators for household emissions; (ii) conducted semi-structured questionnaire household surveys; and (iii) employed input-output analysis (IOA). The results showed that, the average household CO2 emission per capita is 1.43 tons (t) CO2; the proportion of subsistence emissions (related to the consumption of necessary goods and services) accounts for 93.24%, whereas luxury emissions (generated due to consumption of specific goods and services that are consumed only when household income improves) only account for 6.76%t. Moreover, household CO2 emissions increase with family income and family size, but per capita emissions are inversely related to family size. The highest average household emissions were found in the alpine agricultural and pastoral region (6.18 t CO2), followed by the irrigated agricultural region (6.07 t CO2) and the rain-fed agricultural region (5.34 t CO2). In consideration of insignificant amount of household emissions from these poor and vulnerable groups of the society, this study suggests to follow the principle of fairness while making energy conservation, emission reduction and adaptation policies. - Highlights: ► Per capita emissions decrease as the household size increases. ► The subsistence emissions accounts for 93.24% of the total emissions. ► If heating related emissions are excluded, household emissions are negligible. ► The reduction of emissions below current levels is almost impossible. ► Poor and vulnerable groups should be given special consideration

  1. Statistical downscaling and dynamical downscaling of regional climate in China: Present climate evaluations and future climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianping; Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu; Gao, Hongxia; Wang, Xueyuan; Wu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Statistical downscaling and dynamical downscaling are two approaches to generate high-resolution regional climate models based on the large-scale information from either reanalysis data or global climate models. In this study, these two downscaling methods are used to simulate the surface climate of China and compared. The Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) is cross validated and used to downscale the regional climate of China. Then, the downscaled historical climate of 1981-2000 and future climate of 2041-2060 are compared with that from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by the European Center-Hamburg atmosphere model and the Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (ECHAM5/MPI-OM) and the L'Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 5, coupled with the Nucleus for European Modelling of the ocean, low resolution (IPSL-CM5A-LR). The SDSM can reproduce the surface temperature characteristics of the present climate in China, whereas the WRF tends to underestimate the surface temperature over most of China. Both the SDSM and WRF require further work to improve their ability to downscale precipitation. Both statistical and dynamical downscaling methods produce future surface temperatures for 2041-2060 that are markedly different from the historical climatology. However, the changes in projected precipitation differ between the two downscaling methods. Indeed, large uncertainties remain in terms of the direction and magnitude of future precipitation changes over China.

  2. Reconsideration of the Coexistence of Buddhist Temple Education and State Education in Xishuangbanna, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…

  3. Optimization Scheduling of Timber Production Logistics with Consideration of CO2 Emission in Heilongjiang Forest Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber production logistics systems differ greatly in forest regions. This study investigated multistage timber production and storage system. Based on case studies from the Heilongjiang Forest Region, northeast part of China, an optimal operation scheduling model, with considerations of forest environment, economic benefit, working safety and the disturbance to carbon emission, was established by using a multiobjective optimization method. The results of the case studies, optimizing operation schedules, show that the models are quite applicable and helpful to practical operations.

  4. A Comprehensive Study of Agricultural Drought Resistance and Background Drought Levels in Five Main Grain-Producing Regions of China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Kang; Hongqi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Drought control and resistance affect national food security. With this in mind, we studied five main grain-producing regions of China: Sanjiang Plain, Songnen Plain, Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the middle Yangtze River and Jianghuai region and Sichuan Basin. Using GIS technology, we evaluated the comprehensive agricultural drought situation based on major crops, the basic drought resistance by integrating multiple indicators and the comprehensive drought resistance against background agricultural ...

  5. Engaging Regions in Globalization: The Rise of the Economic Relationship between the San Francisco Bay Area and China

    OpenAIRE

    Volberding, Peter

    2011-01-01

    International economic policy is primarily perceived to be a product of national governments. However, while traditionally nation-centric policy formations still take precedence in international economic matters, the past decade has witnessed the remarkable growth of regional actors in policy creation. The first part of this paper analyzes the ascent of regional actors in the San Francisco Bay Area and its growing economic partnership with China. Organizations such as the Bay Area Council...

  6. Assessing Relationships between Peasant Household Livelihood Assets and Regional Agricultural Pollution in China Using Grey Correlation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heyuan You

    2015-01-01

    The peasant household livelihood assets affect the choice of livelihood strategies which may has the potential to contaminate or degrade the environment. Using grey correlation analysis, this study aims to analyze the correlation between peasant household livelihood assets and regional agricultural pollution in China. Based on the grey correlation analysis procedure, using the related indicators materialized the peasant household livelihood assets and regional agricultural pollution, the resu...

  7. Metafrontier Environmental Efficiency for China’s Regions: A Slack-Based Efficiency Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Guoping Mei; Jingyi Gan; Ning Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A metafrontier slack-based efficiency measure is presented to measure environmental efficiency for various regions in China. The objective of the new approach is to investigate the change of environmental efficiency while incorporating group heterogeneities and all variable slack and environmental pollutants into environmental efficiency analysis. Global production technology is used to improve the discriminating power of environmental efficiency measurement. An empirical analysis of regional...

  8. China Committed to Environmental Protection with Increase of Clean Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Construction of the West-East gas transmission pipeline is a significant decision that the Chinese government made at the turn of the century, aiming at bringing the long-term benefits to the Chinese people. The project, starting from Tarim basin in West China's Xinjiang Autonomous Region and ending in Shanghai on China's eastern coastline, will stimulate the western economic development,accelerate adjustment of the eastern energy consumption structure and improve the environmental protection in the areas along the giant pipeline.

  9. Different Effects of Regional Species Pool on Plant Diversity between Forest and Grassland Biomes in Arid Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liping; Liu, Yining; Wang, Xiangping; Fang, Jingyun; Wang, Qingchun; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Mohammat, Anwar; Terwei, André

    2015-01-01

    Species pool hypothesis is broadly known and frequently tested in various regions and vegetation types. However it has not been tested in the arid Xinjiang region of China due to lack of data. Here with systematic data from references and field survey, we comprehensively examined species pool hypothesis in this region. Took species richness in 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells as regional species richness (RSR) which were obtained from the distribution maps of vascular plant species, and took species di...

  10. On Geodynamic Evolution of Simao Region (Southwestern Yunnan, China) during Late Paleozoic and Triassic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Over the last years, the Simao region, southwestern Yunnan, China, turned out to be a very promising target to elucidate plate-tectonic processes around the Permian-Triassic boundary within the Tethyan domain of Asia. New data from this area reveal that Upper Paleozoic compressional deformations occurred along the Lancangjiang and in areas to the east. Along Lancangjiang, an angular unconformity is exposed, which separates quartz-phyllites-formed during a Carboniferous tectono-metamorphic event-from Triassic red beds to roofing rhyolites. The acidic volcanics were often said to be remnants of a volcanic arc that was active during the Triassic subduction and closure of an oceanic realm along the Lancangjiang zone. According to our new data, however, these volcanics indicate most probably an Upper Triassic stage of rifting. In the Yunxian anticline (NW of Simao), an angular unconformity of intra-Permian age is exposed where Carboniferous to lower Middle Permian strata, which were deposited in a rather deep basin, are unconformably overlain by a shallow marine sequence of upper Middle to Upper Permian sediments. The angular unconformity is of the same age as the syn-orogenous sediments filst described and dated from the Phetchabun region in Thailand and hence a convincing argument for a Late Variscan orogeny forming an extensive zone of mountain-building that can be traced through the central parts of mainland Southeast-Asia.``

  11. Regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Li, Zihong; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Løvlie, Reidar; Liu, Liqiang; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study on regional stress field around the Taigu fault zone in Shanxi Province, China, was performed in this study. To get a better understanding of the present-day stress status in this area, 31 focal mechanisms of M L ≥3 earthquakes since 1965 were compiled, and the best stress tensor was then inverted based on the database. Additionally, magnetic fabrics along the Taigu fault zone were investigated to get an indication of the regional stress field in the past. Our results show that the present-day stress field around the Taigu fault zone is characterized by astable NW-SE extension with a strike-slip component, consistent with the geological surveys and recent GPS data. Results from magnetic fabrics indicate that the orientations of principal stress axes from magnetic fabrics of sedimentary rocks in Neogene coincide to the orientations of principal stress axes from focal mechanisms. The south segment of the Taigu fault displays more complicated magnetic fabrics and more activity of moderate earthquakes. It is connected with the Mianshan west fault and intersects with NW-SE striking Fenyang fault and the north fault of the Lingshi uplift at the south edge of Taiyuan basin. This may be the area needing more attention in terms of seismic risk along the Taigu fault.

  12. Reconstruction of the mid-Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect analysis was used to further observe the terrain changes along two given directions.The reconstructed palaeotopographic map shows a relatively flat and shallow epicontinental sea with three local depressions and a submarine high on the Upper Yangtze region during the Hirnantian. The water depth is mostly less than 60 m and the Yangtze Sea gradually deepens towards the north.

  13. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-chung Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ and Xinken (XK, were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40% in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%. Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles; those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF EVOLUTION OF POTENTIAL EVAPORATION IN TIANJIN REGION OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Yan-shu; TU Qi-pu

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of seasonal and annual changes of potential evaporation, the variations of thermal and dynamical evaporation in different seasons and the relationships between potential evaporation and meteorological elements were analyzed according to the observed data of 9 stations from 1961 to 2001 in the Tianjin region of China. Analyses indicate that thermal evaporation is the main part of the potential evaporation and offers about 90% fraction of to it in summer, while in winter the dynamical evaporation is greater than the thermal one, especially in Jan., offering 100% contribution, that the influence of temperature on the change of potential evaporation was much larger than that of wind, vapor pressure and sunshine duration, and potential evaporation increased by 30.33mm with temperature raise 1℃, and that potential evaporation had a surprising increasing tendency, in particular during the recent decade, with the velocity of 4.22mm/a. The potential evaporation in the Tianjin region will be higher than the past, especially on the global warming background, so that it has the great effects not only on the climatic forcing changes, but also on development of city and economy.

  15. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ and Xinken (XK, were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40% in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%. Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of the VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes, except that the fraction of aromatics was about 10% higher. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles; those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  16. Numerical study of desirable solar-collector orientations for the coastal region of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall performance of any solar energy project depends very much on the availability of solar radiation and the orientations of solar collectors. Presented in this paper is a numerical analysis of the solar irradiation received at the coastal region of South China. This region, with latitudes from 20.5 deg. N to 24 deg. N, belongs to the subtropical monsoon climatic zone. The computations were based on the typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data of Macau, compiled as a result of the ASHRAE International Weather for Energy Calculations Project. The hourly data were applied to the ESP-r building simulation program with the adoption of the Perez solar model. The analyses estimated the solar irradiation received on inclined surfaces at different orientations and slopes, and for different periods of the year. It was found that a solar collector facing the south-west direction could be most desirable for a wide range of tilt angles, and for maximizing the annual yield. The trends of variations towards other directions, tilt angles, and shorter periods of the year are also explored

  17. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively. PMID:26947748

  18. Distribution of the Crustal Magnetic Field in Sichuan-Yunnan Region, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new and higher degree geomagnetic model NGDC-720-V3, we have investigated the spatial distribution, the altitude decay characteristics of the crustal magnetic anomaly, the contributions from different wavelength bands to the anomaly, and the relationship among the anomaly, the geological structure, and the geophysical field in Sichuan-Yunnan region of China. It is noted that the most outstanding feature in this area is the strong positive magnetic anomaly in Sichuan Basin, a geologically stable block. Contrasting with this feature, a strong negative anomaly can be seen nearby in Longmen Mountain block, an active block. This contradiction implies a possible relationship between the magnetic field and the geological activity. Completely different feature in magnetic field distribution is seen in the central Yunnan block, another active region, where positive and negative anomalies distribute alternatively, showing a complex magnetic anomaly map. Some fault belts, such as the Longmen Mountain fault, Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, and the Red River fault, are the transitional zones of strong and weak or negative and positive anomalies. The corresponding relationship between the magnetic anomaly and the geophysical fields was confirmed.

  19. Analysis of a severe prolonged regional haze episode in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengya; Cao, Chunxiang; Li, Guoshuai; Singh, Ramesh P.

    2015-02-01

    A severe prolonged regional haze episode occurred over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2 to 14 December 2013. In this paper, we have discussed the probable cause of haze episode and aerosol characteristics. Analysis of visibility and meteorological parameters suggest that the meteorological conditions play a very important role in the accumulation of aerosol particles that cause haze. The height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is considered as one of the key factors together with other factors in the haze formation. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) clearly shows accumulation process of air pollutants from vehicular, industrial and anthropogenic sources are major contributors for the haze formation. The aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth - AOD, Ångström exponent - α and Ultra Violet Aerosol Index - UVAI) are analyzed to study the temporal and spatial variations of aerosol loadings. The results show concentrations of fine mode particles during the haze episode, the dust could have been also entered in the region from the northwestern China. Analysis of vertical aerosol profiles indicate that dust aerosols concentrated in the lower part of the haze layers.

  20. The impact of China's vehicle emissions on regional air quality in 2000 and 2020: a scenario analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saikawa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles in China has been increasing rapidly. We evaluate the impact of current and possible future vehicle emissions from China on Asian air quality. We modify the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS for China's road transport sector in 2000 using updated Chinese data for the number of vehicles, annual mileage, and emission factors. We develop two scenarios for 2020: a scenario where emission factors remain the same as they were in 2000 (No-Policy, NoPol, and a scenario where Euro 3 vehicle emission standards are applied to all vehicles (except motorcycles and rural vehicles. The Euro 3 scenario is an approximation of what may be the case in 2020 as, starting in 2008, all new vehicles in China (except motorcycles were required to meet the Euro 3 emission standards. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem, we examine the regional air quality response to China's vehicle emissions in 2000 and in 2020 for the NoPol and Euro 3 scenarios. We evaluate the 2000 model results with observations in Japan, China, Korea, and Russia. Under NoPol in 2020, emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs, black carbon (BC, and organic carbon (OC from China's vehicles more than double compared to the 2000 baseline. If all vehicles meet the Euro 3 regulations in 2020, however, these emissions are reduced by more than 50% relative to NoPol. The implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards leads to a large, simultaneous reduction of the surface ozone (O3 mixing ratios and particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations. In the Euro 3 scenario, surface O3 is reduced by more than 10 ppbv and surface PM2.5 is reduced by more than 10 μg m−3 relative to NoPol in Northeast China in all seasons. In spring, surface O3 mixing ratios and PM2.5 concentrations in

  1. Clinical analysis of 117 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region%新疆布鲁菌病117例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 孙晓风; 向阳; 张跃新

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨新疆维吾尔自治区(新疆)布鲁菌病的流行情况、临床特征、实验室检查及治疗结果。方法回顾性分析我院2012年7月—2014年4月收治的117例布鲁菌病的临床特征及治疗效果。结果本地区布鲁菌病以4—9月高发,发病人群以畜牧相关人员为主。主要临床表现除发热、多汗、乏力、关节痛等一般症状外,肝脾大和淋巴结肿大也占一定比例,部分患者ALT、AST和GGT升高。治疗以多西环素联合利福平为主,好转率为97.44%。结论布鲁菌病为新疆地区发病率较高的传染病,当地有关部门应普及该病防护知识,临床医师应关注该病的临床特点及其并发症和合并症,并给予规范的抗菌治疗。%Objective To investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and treatment outcome of bru-cellosis in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang). Methods Clinical characteristics and therapeutic efficacy were analyzed in 117 patients with brucellosis admitted to our hospital from Jul. 2012 to Apr. 2014. Results The incidence of brucellosis was higher from April to September in Xinjiang and brucellosis mainly occurred in livestock-related personnel. The main clinical manifestations were fever, sweating, fatigue and joint pain, and hepatosplenomegaly and lymph node enlargement were found in some patients. ALT, AST and GGT increased in some patients. The combination of doxycycline and rifampin achieved a high improvement rate (97.44%). Conclusions Brucellosis is a more frequent infectious disease in Xinjiang, so local authorities should strengthen public education on brucellosis prevention and management, and clinicians should pay much attention to the clinical characteristics of brucellosis and its complications and comorbidities, and give standard antimicrobial therapy.

  2. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouping Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM. This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  3. Organic carbon stratification and size distribution of three typical paddy soils from Taihu Lake region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Genxing; WU Laosheng; LI Lianqing; ZHANG Xuhui; GONG Wei; WOOD Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Developing realistic soil carbon (C) sequestration strategies for China's sustainable agriculture relies on accurate estimates of the amount, retention and turnover rates of C stored in paddy soils. Available C estimates to date are predominantly for the tilled and flood-irrigated surface topsoil (ca. 30 cm). Such estimates cannot be used to extrapolate to soil depths of 100 cm since soil organic carbon (SOC) generally shows a sharp decrease with depth. In this research, composite soil samples were collected at several depths to 100 cm from three representative paddy soils in the Taihu Lake region, China. Soil organic carbon distribution in the profiles and in aggregate-size fractions was determined. Results showed that while SOC decreased exponentially with depth to 100 cm, a substantial proportion of the total SOC (30%-40%) is stored below the 30 cm depth. In the carbon-enriched paddy topsoils, SOC was found to accumulate preferentially in the 2-0.25 and 0.25-0.02 mm aggregate size fractions. d13C analysis of the coarse micro-aggregate fraction showed that the high degree of C stratification in the paddy topsoil was in agreement with the occurrence of lighter d1313C in the upper 30 cm depth. These results suggest that SOC stratification within profiles varies with different pedogenetical types of paddy soils with regards to clay and iron oxyhydrates distributions. Sand-sized fractions of aggregates in paddy soil systems may play a very important role in carbon sequestration and turnover, dissimilar to other studied agricultural systems.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF AE-CB/COPD: A SURVEY OF RESPIRATORY PHYSICIANS IN SOME REGIONS OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacteria spectrum isolated from AE-CB/ COPD and the manner of management of AE-CB/ COPD in respiratory or internal medicine department in some regions of China. Methods Respiratory physicians received questionnaire at randomization just after they managed a patient presenting to outpatient department with AE-CB/ COPD, on general conditions and symptoms of patients, type of examinations, diagnosis, type of antibiotics used and mode of administration. Results of sputum bacteria culture were followed up.Results Among the 1583 AE-CB/COPD , 63. 04% were male and 35. 19% were female. 54.6% of them were older than 60 years. 81.87% of the patients produced sputum. Sputum bacteria culture, chest X-ray and chest CT were carried out to 21.3%, 66. 3% and 11. 1% patients, respectively. 355 strains were isolated from patients whose sputum bacteria culture was positive. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were the three most isolates. 84. 7% of the 1583 AE-CB/COPD received 1692 times of antibiotic prescribing. The most frequently prescribed antibiotic were B-lactams (51.36% of all antibiotic prescribing), macrolides (14.01%) and quinolones (31.03%). Much more macrolides were prescribed in the area where more patients pay the medicines at his own expense than those in the area where more patients share public health service.Conclusion In China, respiratory physicians can reasonably select antibiotics to manage acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis/ chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in pulmonary outpatient department. Sputum culture is done in part of the patients, but susceptibility tests are missing. One issue revealed by the survey is that the list of prescribing medications laid down by government have great influence on antibiotic use.

  5. Autonomic control of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, David H.; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. PMID:25589275

  6. Observations of Earthquake-Generated T-Waves in the South China Sea: Possible Applications for Regional Seismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shouh Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of T-waves originating from earthquakes in the South China Sea region, near the Indochina Peninsula and Luzon islands which were recorded by a broadband seismic station at Nansha Island. Most of these T-waves appear to have been the source originating from earthquakes with epicentral distances greater than 600 km from this station. The T-waves in this region were identified via their apparent stable measured velocities of about 1.45 km s-1, and represent the first reported T-waves and the first T-waves observed from an island station in the South China Sea. However, during the period of analysis (November 2004 to December 2005 additional earthquakes also occurred beyond the South China Sea region, but in these instances, any associated T-waves were not picked up by the station at Nansha Island. An analysis of T-wave travel times reveals the possible locations of the P-wave to T-wave transitions at the ocean to crust interface were presumably situated near the earthquake source side. Our results indicate that the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR channel is well developed in the South China Sea region. Ultimately, developing a solid understanding of the effective transmission of T-waves through the ocean may provide new opportunities for detecting and locating small earthquakes which would be useful for both seismic monitoring and in helping to predict and reduce the damaging effects of earthquakes and tsunamis in the South China Sea region.

  7. Opportunity for inter-regional integration of electricity markets: the case of Shandong and Shanghai in East China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the opportunity for the inter-regional integration of the electricity market in East China is analysed on the basis of strategies for the future expansion of the electricity generation system. We assume that during its first stage, the operational breakthrough of the electricity sector reform in China will be to achieve an economic dispatch of the generating plants. On the basis of this assumed goal a multi-region model is proposed to appraise the potential benefits of an integrated inter-regional electricity market. This model includes: propositions on design and operation of the market, electricity demand forecasting, least-cost generating system expansion. As case study, three strategies of electricity supply are assessed in two provinces: Shandong and Shanghai in East China. While Shandong is a potential electricity exporter due to availability of primary energy resources, Shanghai is an electricity importer. The strategies include: autarkical expansion of each regional system, import/export only for minimizing operation costs, integration of the system expansion for minimizing total costs including operation and investment costs. One of the findings is that building up an inter-regional integrated electricity market is profitable for both the Shanghai and Shandong regions compared with the two other strategies, if the future regulation makes it possible to insure an economic dispatch of the generating power plants

  8. Study on the Natural Resources Rights of the Ethnic Autonomous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; WANG Yunwu

    2014-01-01

    Regarding China ’ s ethnic minor-ities’ economic development , a basic path to de-velop characteristic industries , depends , at the least, on their rich natural resources .However, the natural resources rights of the ethnic autono-mous regions prescribed in the Constitution and the law are not actually guaranteed .The ethnic auton-omous regions have not actually enjoyed the specif-ic right to independent development and utilization of their natural resources .The state also does not provide a reasonable compensation during the process of exploitation of the resources;and the e-conomic growth and the upgrading of the industrial structure essentially have not changed . Once the traditional natural resources are used up , the con-sequences are unthinkable .

  9. Multiple Comparison Analysis of Two New Genomic Sequences of ILTV Strains from China with Other Strains from Different Geographic Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Wang, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    To date, twenty complete genome sequences of ILTV strains have been published in GenBank, including one strain from China, and nineteen strains from Australian and the United States. To investigate the genomic information on ILTVs from different geographic regions, two additional individual complete genome sequences of WG and K317 strains from China were determined. The genomes of WG and K317 strains were 153,505 and 153,639 bp in length, respectively. Alignments performed on the amino acid s...

  10. Fallout radionuclide based techniques for assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures in different eroded regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using fallout radionuclide techniques (FRN), we investigated the extent of soil erosion and to quantify the beneficial effects of soil conservation measures at four sites (Xichang city in the Yangtze upriver, Yan'an in the Loess Plateau, Fengning in the wind erosion region of northern China, and Baiquan in black soil region of north-eastern China) extending from South West (SW) to North East (NE) China. At the Xichang site of SW-China, the combined use of FRN 137Cs and 210Pbex measurements demonstrated that the effectiveness of vegetation species in reducing soil erosion decreased in the following order: shrubs > trees with litter layer > grasses > trees without litter layer. At the Yan'an site of Loess Plateau, sediment production estimated by 137Cs declined by 49% due to terracing and by 80% due to vegetated (with grass forest) compared to the cultivated hillslopes. Vegetated hillslope with grasses and forest increased soil organic matter (SOM) by 255%, soil available N (AN) by 198%, and soil available P (AP) by 18% while terracing increased SOM by 121%, soil AN by 103%, and soil AP by 162% compared with the entire cultivated hillslope. Both terracing and vegetating hillslopes were found to enhance soil porosity as shown by a decrease in soil bulk density (1.6% and 6.4%, respectively). At the Fengning site, data from 7Be measurements indicated that four years of no tillage with high crop residues (50 ∼ 56 cm depth) reduced soil erosion by 44% and no tillage with low residues (25 cm depth) reduced soil erosion rates by 33% when compared with conventional tillage practices. At the Baiquan site in NE-China, soil loss as measured by 137Cs tracer, decreased by 14% due to terracing and by 34% due to contoured tillage. Our results suggested that shrub cover and composite structure of forest and grass are the effective practices to control hillslope erosion in SW-China, while terracing forest-grass structure can greatly reduce soil erosion and improve soil quality on

  11. Causes of seasonal sea level anomalies in the coastal region of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LIU Kexiu; QI Dongmei; GAO Zhigang; FAN Wenjing; ZHANG Zengjian; WANG Guosong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the analysis of sea level, air temperature, sea surface temperature (SST), air pressure and wind data during 1980-2013, the causes of seasonal sea level anomalies in the coastal region of the East China Sea (ECS) are investigated. The research results show: (1) sea level along the coastal region of the ECS takes on strong seasonal variation. The annual range is 30-45 cm, larger in the north than in the south. From north to south, the phase of sea level changes from 140° to 231°, with a difference of nearly 3 months. (2) Monthly mean sea level (MSL) anomalies often occur from August to next February along the coast region of the ECS. The number of sea level anomalies is at most from January to February and from August to October, showing a growing trend in recent years. (3) Anomalous wind field is an important factor to affect the sea level variation in the coastal region of the ECS. Monthly MSL anomaly is closely related to wind field anomaly and air pressure field anomaly. Wind-driven current is essentially consistent with sea surface height. In August 2012, the sea surface heights at the coastal stations driven by wind field have contributed 50%-80% of MSL anomalies. (4) The annual variations for sea level, SST and air temperature along the coastal region of the ECS are mainly caused by solar radiation with a period of 12 months. But the correlation coefficients of sea level anomalies with SST anomalies and air temperature anomalies are all less than 0.1. (5) Seasonal sea level variations contain the long-term trends and all kinds of periodic changes. Sea level oscillations vary in different seasons in the coastal region of the ECS. In winter and spring, the oscillation of 4-7 a related to El Ni?o is stronger and its amplitude exceeds 2 cm. In summer and autumn, the oscillations of 2-3 a and quasi 9 a are most significant, and their amplitudes also exceed 2 cm. The height of sea level is lifted up when the different oscillations superposed. On the

  12. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  13. Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed 9/2/2015. Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy Summary. Dysautonomia International . http://www.dysautonomiainternational.org/page.php?ID= ... page Basic Information In Depth Information Basic Information Dysautonomia International offers an information page on Autoimmune autonomic ...

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in soils under different land usage in the Taihu Lake region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; JIANG Xin; BIAN Yong-rong; YAO Fen-xia; GAO Hong-jian; YU Gui-fen; Jean Charles MUNCH; Reiner SCHROLL

    2007-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the Taihu Lake region, China in 2004 to reveal the organochlorine pesticide concentrations in soils after the ban of these substances in the year 1983. Thirteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in soils from paddy field, tree land and fallow land. Total organochlorine pesticide residues were higher in agricultural soils than in uncultivated fallow land soils. Among all the pesticides, ΣDDX (DDD, DDE and DDT) had the highest concentration for all the soil samples, ranging from 3.10 ng/g to 166.55 ng/g with a mean value of 57.04 ng/g and followed by ΣHCH, ranging from 0.73 ng/g to 60.97 ng/g with a mean value of 24.06 ng/g. Dieldrin, endrin, HCB and α-endosulfan were also found in soils with less than 15 ng/g. Ratios of p,p'-(DDD+DDE)/DDT in soils under three land usages were: paddy field > tree land > fallow land, indicating that land usage inlfuenced the degradation of DDT in soils. Ratios of p,p'-(DDD+DDE)/DDT >1, showing aged residues of DDTs in soils of the Taihu Lake region. The results were discussed with data from a former study that showed very low actual concentrations of HCH and DDT in soils in the Taihu Lake region, but according to the chemical half-lives and their concentrations in soils in 1980s, the concentration of DDT in soils seemed to be underestimated. In any case our data show that the ban on the use of HCH and DDT resulted in a tremendous reduction of these pesticide residues in soils, but there are still high amounts of pesticide residues in soils, which need more remediation processes.

  15. Spatial coupling analysis of regional economic development and environmental pollution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Li; JIN Fengjun; SONG Zhouying; LIU Yi

    2013-01-01

    Given the great number of studies focusing on the temporal interaction between economic and environmental subsystems,it is useful to perform a quantitative spatial assessment of these subsystems.In this paper,comprehensive assessment indicators for regional economic development and environmental pollution subsystems are constructed.Then,the degree of coupling and coordination of the regional economy-environment system is calculated for 350 prefectural units in China.It is found that the economic development and environmental pollution in most prefectural units is still at a low level of coupling and coordination.According to the coupling and coordination values,the Chinese territory can be divided into four types of area:economy-environment harmonious area,economy-environment gearing area,economy-environment rivaling area and low coupling degree of economy-environment area.Based on a structural analysis of the industrial sector in the four types of areas,there is a spatial relationship between the regional industrial sector structure and the coupling-coordination level.In the economy-environment harmonious area,the sectors of manufacturing of high-technology and high value-added products,such as communications,computer and electronic equipment,transport equipment and electrical machinery,account for a large proportion of the value of local industrial output.The industrial value of the economy-environment gearing area is concentrated on the manufacturing of machinery and equipment,and contains a few polluting sectors such as ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy,chemical manufacturing and electricity generation.The economy--environment rivaling area is the type of area where polluting sectors concentrate,such as iron and steel,petrifaction,coal mining,building materials and electricity generation.In the low coupling degree of economy-environment area,its industry is concentrated on the production and processing of primary products.

  16. Wave climate simulation for southern region of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Mustapha, Muzneena Ahmad; Husain, Mohd Lokman; Akhir, Mohd Fadzil

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates long-term variability and wave characteristic trends in the southern region of the South China Sea (SCS). We implemented the state-of-the art WAVEWATCH III spectral wave model to simulate a 31-year wave hindcast. The simulation results were used to assess the inter-annual variability and long-term changes in the SCS wave climate for the period 1979 to 2009. The model was forced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis winds and validated against altimeter data and limited available measurements from an Acoustic Wave and Current recorder located offshore of Terengganu, Malaysia. The mean annual significant wave height and peak wave period indicate the occurrence of higher wave heights and wave periods in the central SCS and lower in the Sunda shelf region. Consistent with wind patterns, the wave direction also shows southeasterly (northwesterly) waves during the summer (winter) monsoon. This detailed hindcast demonstrates strong inter-annual variability of wave heights, especially during the winter months in the SCS. Significant wave height correlated negatively with Niño3.4 index during winter, spring and autumn seasons but became positive in the summer monsoon. Such correlations correspond well with surface wind anomalies over the SCS during El Nino events. During El Niño Modoki, the summer time positive correlation extends northeastwards to cover the entire domain. Although significant positive trends were found at 95 % confidence levels during May, July and September, there is significant negative trend in December covering the Sunda shelf region. However, the trend appears to be largely influenced by large El Niño signals.

  17. 广西壮族自治区碳足迹动态分析%Dynamics of carbon footprint in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶; 马彩虹; 程世娇

    2015-01-01

    利用IPCC方法测算了广西壮族自治区的能源活动和水泥生产过程中的碳足迹和植被固碳量,并进行了碳足迹等级评估.结果表明,1996—2012年,广西碳足迹逐年增加,从-3298.32万 t上升到24859.66万 t ,提高了853.71%.其中,能源碳足迹提高了432.91%,水泥碳足迹提高了372.60%,植被固碳提高了44.77%.能源消费的碳足迹占总足迹的88.95%~91.53%,水泥仅占8.47%~11.05%.人均、单位面积碳足迹和碳排放指数增幅较高,分别达749.88%,830.60%,769.42%,碳足迹等级从碳汇变为中等,跨越4个亚级.可见,1996年以来,广西的碳足迹增速很快,其能源和水泥的碳足迹增幅远大于植被固碳的增速;碳足迹增高主要是由化石能源燃烧引起的;植被固碳能力相对较强,可中和该区1/3以上的碳足迹,但其增幅有限,所以应重视植被的保育;碳足迹等级增幅较大,应引起有关部门的重视.如不考虑植被固碳,以2012年为例,按碳排放指数由大到小的顺序,广西在全国31个省市自治区中排第14位,属于中等.%In order to know the carbon balance of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region , IPCC method is used to estimate the carbon footprint and the amount of vegetation carbon sequestration from cement production process and energy activities , and the carbon footprint level assessment is carried out . The results show that between 1996 and 2012 , the carbon footprint grew year by year from -3 298.32 × 104 t to 24 859.66 × 104 t in Guangxi ,which increased by 853.71% . The energy carbon footprint increased by 432.91% ,cement carbon footprint increased by 372.60% , and the vegetation carbon sequestration increased by 44.77% .Carbon footprint from energy consumption account for 88.95% to 91.53% of total emissions , and cement account for only 8.47% to 11.05% . Carbon footprints per capita , per unit area and

  18. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China-Take Xinlong County of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example%实施PPET战略,发展西部民族地区生态旅游

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏桂兰

    2005-01-01

    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken areas. However,they were isola ted for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as an example.

  19. Carbon dioxide and methane supersaturation in lakes of semi-humid/semi-arid region, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhidan; Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Jin, Xiuliang

    2016-08-01

    Understanding concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in lakes is an important part of a comprehensive global carbon budget. We estimated data on the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 (pCH4) from sampling with 95 lakes in semi-humid/semi-arid region of Northeastern China during ice-free period. Both pCO2 and pCH4 varied greatly among the study sites. p(CO2) values in these lakes ranged from 21.9 to 30,152.3 μatm (n = 403), and 91% of lakes in this survey were supersaturated with CO2. p(CH4) values ranged from 12.6 to 139,630.7 μatm with all sites in this study of CH4 sources to the atmosphere during the ice-free period. The collected urban lakes samples exhibited higher pCO2 and pCH4 than wild lakes samples. Either the mean value of p(CO2) or p(CH4) in saline waters is higher than in fresh waters. Correlation analysis implied that the partial pressure of the GHGs (CO2 and CH4) showed statistically correlations with water environment indicators like pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a (Chla). However, the most of the relationships showed a high degree of scatter, only pH might be used as the predictor of the gas partial pressure based on the result of this study (rpCO2 = -0.437, p lakes in our study (rpCO2 = 0.365, rpCH4 = 0.323, p lake area size. The calculated annual areal carbon emission rate is 560.2 g C m-2 from 95 lakes in Northeastern China. We could not extrapolate carbon emission from these lakes to the boreal region or a wider scale because of the change of environmental conditions.

  20. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Yingjun, E-mail: yjchen@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tian, Chongguo, E-mail: cgtian@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Fang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Wang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Fan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM{sub 2.5} levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m{sup −3} in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m{sup −3} in PM{sub 2.5}, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM{sub 2.5}, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM{sub 2.5} derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF). - Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} and TSP samples collected at Yellow River Delta were analyzed for OC and EC. • OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were higher in daytime than in nighttime. • Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) tracer, backward trajectories, and fire counts were used for the analysis. • Agricultural waste open burning was a main contributor to summer PM{sub 2.5}, OC and EC.

  1. Resource and Environmental Quality Changes and Adjustment Principles for Sustainable evelopment in Rapidly Developing Coastal Region of Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Problems in water-land resources and environmental quality increase with the fast economic development in the coastal region of southeastern China. This region has the highest density in population, industry and towns in China, and the large export-oriented economy makes itself a strategic importance while China enters into international markets. The problems facing to this region include arable land reduction, land degradation aggravation, high percentage of built-up land with high rate of expansion, expanded non-point pollution, deteriorated water quality, decreasing biodiversity, destroyed ecosystems, severe air pollution, frequently occurred acid rain, and multi-pollutants. The important research fields in the near future should include a) influence of high-intensity exploitation of resources on changes of environment quality and its feedback; b) interface processes, key mechanisms and adjustment principles for degradation of water-, land-, and air-resources and environmental quality; c) evolvement processes and nurturing theory of biodiversity and ecological resources; and d) spatio-temporal variation and human-induced effects on regional resources and environment quality. Strategies for sustainable development in the region are as follows: a) controlling to ensure basic cultivated land area; b) enforcing remediation of polluted water environment, and controlling non-point pollution; c) strengthening ecological construction and ecological security; and d) controlling multipollution and preventing trace toxic pollutants.

  2. Exploring pathways of regional technological development in China through patent analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Henning

    2015-01-01

    [Introduction] Over the course of the past two decades, China has evolved from a nation focused on production to a technologically dynamic one with the ambition to catch up with the world's leading economies by 2050 (Schwaag Serger and Breidne 2007; State Council (of the People's Republic of China) 2006). Since 2011, it has become the nation with largest annual patent output in the world (Reuters 2011). At the same time, however, China also remains a huge country in which substantive disparit...

  3. Autonomous Learning and Improving Communicative Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝红; 孙晓黎

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, English as a world language becomes more and more important. Consequently, English learning becomes more and more popular. As we know, an important object for English learners is to improve their communicative competence. So autonomous learning is a good way to improve communicative competence. In this paper, two terms, autonomous learning and communicative competence, and their relationship will be introduced from the perspective of English learning. Autonomous learning is self-managed learning, which is contrary to passive learning and mechanical learning, according to intrinsic property of language learning. Communicative competence is a concept introduced by Dell Hymes and is discussed and refined by many oth⁃er linguists. According to Hymes, communicative competence is the ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of language in order to form grammatically correct sentences but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom. Communi⁃cative competence includes 4 aspects: Possibility, feasibility, appropriateness and performance. Improving communicative compe⁃tence is the result of autonomous learning, autonomous learning is the motivation of improving communicative competence. English, of course, is a bridge connecting China to the world, and fostering students’communicative competence through auton⁃omous learning is the vital element of improving English learning in China.

  4. Initiation and Development Processes of Tunnel Systems in the Hilly Loess Region of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.X.ZHU

    2006-01-01

    Tunnel systems in the hilly loess region of northern China are among the largest and most complicated in the world. Tunnel formation and development processes were investigated in the Yangdaogou catchment over the period of 1989 through 2002. Newly formed tunnels on the roads in the Wangjiagou watershed were also examined in detail during a single storm in 2002. Soil samples were taken from various locations of the tunnel systems in the Yangdaogou catchment for chemical and physical analyses.The controlling factors of tunnel formation are surface drainage conditions and soil materials. Rapid downward mechanical erosion by storm flows seems to be responsible for the original formation of inlets. All tunnels are found in loess and none was found in red Tertiary earth. Underground tunnel paths often develop right above an impeding layer, mainly resulting from mechanical erosion rather than chemical dissolution.New inlets develop in old tunnel systems in two major ways. One is roof collapses of an existing tunnel path and the other is the mechanical scouring action of storm flows. A tunnel system can expand upslope or downslope but the associated processes differ. Upslope expansion often starts with the formation of one or more inlets resulting from surface washes, followed by the development of an underground tunnel path. Downslope development of a tunnel system is characterized by uneven enlargement of tunnel paths. This study suggests that the key to control of tunnel development is reducing surface water entering a tunnel.

  5. Water use measurement by non-irrigatedTamarix ramosissimain arid regions of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Li; HongLang Xiao; YiBen Cheng; Fang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. is a typical hardy desert plant growing in arid regions of Northwest China. Sap flow in stems ofT. ramosissima plants were measured continuously to determine the diurnal and seasonal variations of sap flow and to understand the water requirements of this species and the response of sap flow to meteorological factors. This article compared the sap flow rate measured by the heat balance method with the transpiration rate measured by rapid weighing, and validated that heat balance sap flow gauges were reliable for monitoring transpiration. The influence of meteorological factors on stem sap flow during the growing season was: solar radiation > vapor pressure deficit > air temperature > rela-tive humidity > wind speed. Bidirectional sap flows occurred at night, and negative sap flow generally corresponded to high atmospheric humidity. The average error in predicted sap flow rate ranged from−0.78% to 14.00% from June to September and for transpiration the average error was 8.19%. Therefore, based on the functional equations between sap flow and meteorological factors as well as sapwood area, transpiration of an individual plant, and even the stand-level transpiration, can be estimated accurately through extrapolation.

  6. Fertility Restoration of Red Soils in Low—Hilly Region of Middle Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNBO; ZHANGTAOLIN; 等

    1999-01-01

    There are about 1.27 million ha of upland red soils derived from Quaternary red clay facing the degradation in the low-hilly region of the middle subtropical China.From the aspects of chemistry,physics and microbiology,the processes of soil fertility restoration in the surface layer(0-20cm) under three types of land use patterns(i.e.citurs orchard,tea garden and upland)in two provinces were studied in this work.Results showed that the reclamation of eroded waste aldn improved most of soil properties.Soil organic matter,total N and P,available P and K,and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased,but soil total K and exchangeable Al decreased Soil pH decreased by 0.5 unit in the pure tea plantation for 20 years.Soil reclamation increased the percentage of soil micreased by 0.5 unit in the pure tea plantation for 20 years.Soil reclamation increased the percentage of soil microaggregates(<0.25mm),especially those with a diameter of 0.02-0.002mm.Soil total porosity increased in the cultivated lands with the increase of soil aeration and capillary porosity,The number of soil microorganisms increased with reclamation caused mainly by the huge increase of the total amout of bacteria,With the cultivation,the eativity of soil urease and acid phosphatase increased.but that of invertase dropped.

  7. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  8. Beta-Glucosidase Activity in Paddy Soils of the Taihu Lake Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Chang; LU Qin

    2006-01-01

    The profile distribution ofβ-gulcosidase activity in twelve typical paddy soil profiles with high productivity in the Taihu Lake region of China were investigated. Activities ofβ-gulcosidase in the plow layers were in the range of 52.68-137.02μg PNP g-1 soil h-1 with a mean of 89.22μg PNP g-1 soil h-1. However, most plow layers ranged from 70 to 110μg PNP g-1 soil h-1. The profile distribution of β-gulcosidase activity in the 12 soil profiles decreased rapidly with soil depth, with activity at the 60 cm depth only about 10% of that in the surface layers (0-15 cm or 0-20 cm). In these soil profiles, β-gulcosidase activity was significantly positively correlated with soil organic carbon and arylsulphatase activity.Meanwhile, a significantly negative correlation was shown betweenβ-gulcosidase activity and soil pH.

  9. Organic geochemical characterization and depositional paleoenvironments of the Devonian strata in Guizhong region,Guangxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Devonian strata in the Guizhong region,Guangxi,China consist mainly of marine deposition carbonates(limestones and dolomites) as well as restricted clastic rocks. The strata thickness is measured as 2041m and classified into 14 formations. An integrated field geological,petrographic,sedimentological,palaeobiological,and geochemical study of these strata reveals that the depositional paleoenvironments were carbonate tidal flat,restricted platform,open platform,shelf,platform margin slop,and algal herm. The total organic carbon(TOC) of sedimentary organic matter ranges between 0.07% and 1.96% with average of 0.21%. The organic matter types are Type ? and Type II1. The vitrinite reflectance(R0) of kerogen ranges between 0.99% and 2.03%,indicating the maturated and highly maturated stages. The analytical results of the representative samples collected from shelf and subtidal facies show that the differences of organic matter type and biological diagnostic compounds are related to the types of source rocks deposited in different paleoenvironments.

  10. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Song

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples, Laminaceae (10, Brassicaceae (12, Rosaceae (12, Moraceae (13, Rhamnaceae (15, Asteraceae (17, and Fabaceae (19. In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples, Robinia pseudoacacia (3, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2, Sophora japonica (1, Ailanthus altissima (1, Asteraceae type (1, and Fabaceae type (1. The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains, 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000, and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000. The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  11. STUDY ON URBAN LAND SAVING IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPED COASTAL REGION OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the initial period of industrialization a great deal of land is needed for Chinese industry development as well as land resource per person of China is much lower than the average value in the world, thus it is necessary to save land in Chinese urban construction. This paper mainly discussed the features of urban land use in economic developed coastal cities: one is that the index of urban land per person in middle-small cities was higher than in large cities; another is that urban land has not been used highly and strongly; the third is that the industrial land occupied an irrationally large percentage of whole urban land; the final is that rural enterprises took up a quantity of land. Thereafter, this paper put forward five land-saving measures: first, to adopt the idea of saving land; next, to adjust the land-use structure when redeveloping the old city and alternate some land use when adjusting the industry structure of the city; the third, to develop the system of payment for using land and the management of urban planning; finally to enhance the effective regional plan and the urban landuse plan.

  12. Regional Cultural Enterprises and Cultural Markets in Early Republican China: The Motion Picture as Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition of the motion picture from foreign amusement to local enterprise was primarily the result of transnational commercial activity linking investors, entrepreneurs, and entertainment professionals. Amid the ongoing urbanization of China’s early Republican period, the enterprises emerging from this activity became increasingly profitable and, as a result, film production and exhibition became regularized phenomena, rooted in identifiable genres and standardized approaches to engaging audiences within the immersive space of the theater. By the early 1920s, those closest to the nascent industry were eager to legitimize its power by portraying the medium as a tool for political and social reform. However, commercial strategies and aesthetics remained relatively undisturbed despite this progressive rhetoric. In geographic terms, motion picture–related enterprises and culture remained strongly regional: affected and constrained by the non-Chinese national industries operating in politically divided China, by competing forms of local popular culture, and by existing geographies of exchange and infrastructure. The early Republican “experimental” period in Chinese cinema was, from an enterprise-centered perspective, one of numerous coexisting subnational cultural centers and zones.

  13. Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jian; Qiu, Haiyuan; Lin, Huangbin; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Zhi; Zhao, Rurong

    2016-09-01

    Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in the regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County, southeast China, has been analyzed by means of monitoring F(-) ion change characteristics in this area. Meanwhile, pollution sources and influencing factors of the shallow groundwater have been uncovered by studying the correlation between F(-) and other related ions such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), as well as (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) ratio (R) and pH effect. The results show that F(-) ions in shallow groundwater at the study area come mainly from the dissolution of fluorinated minerals in a form of fluorite (CaF2), the so-called water-rock interaction, and there is a higher possibility for the occurrence of fluorine water where the ratio of (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) exceeds a value of 2.1. Moreover, the release and migration of F(-) ions have been favored by the alkaline environment in this study area. PMID:27239970

  14. Effect of climatic change on snowmelt runoffs in mountainous regions of inland rivers in Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; LI Shuo

    2006-01-01

    Climatic change has significant impacts on snow cover in mid-latitude mountainous regions, in the meantime, spatial and temporal changes of snow cover and snowmelt runoffs are considered as sensitive indicators for climatic change. In this study, the upper Heihe Watershed in the Qilian Mountains was selected as a typical area affected by snow cover and snowmelt runoffs in northwestern China. The changes in air temperatures, precipitation, snowfall and spring snowmelt runoffs were analyzed for the period from 1956 to 2001. The results indicate that climatic warming was apparent, particularly in January and February, but precipitation just fluctuated without a clear trend. The possible changes of snowmelt runoffs in the upper Heihe watershed in response to a warming of 4℃ were simulated using Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) based on the degree-day factor algorithm. The results of the simulation indicate that a forward shifting of snow melting season, an increase in water flows in earlier melting season, and a decline in flows in later melting season would occur under a 4℃ warming scenario.

  15. The farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and its influencing factors in Poyang Lake Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiqiu; Chen, Mengjiao; Lu, Yanfei; Wang, Liguo; Huang, Yujiao

    2016-01-01

    Individual farmers represent the main management entities of agricultural production under the family-contract responsibility system in China, and thus play crucial roles in the prevention and control of agricultural nonpoint source (ANPS) pollution. The analysis of the farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution as well as the factors affecting their perceptions can provide valuable information for relevant policy-making to preserve high quality water in Poyang Lake and regional quality of arable land. Through a survey titled 'Farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and farming behaviors in the Poyang Lake Region', the data related to the perceptions of farmers on ANPS pollution were collected. The factors that affect their awareness of ANPS pollution were identified with the method of boosted regression trees (BRT). The results indicated that the farmers had awareness of the risk of ANPS pollution to some extent, but they lacked adequate scientific knowledge. Generally, they had no consciousness about how to prevent and control ANPS pollution and did not understand techniques needed for proper scientifically sound application of fertilizers and pesticides. The main factors that influenced their perceptions of ANPS pollution are (from high to low): the ratio of total income which comes from farming, per capita farmland, age, education level, and household income. Some measures targeted to improve the prevention and control of ANPS pollution were proposed: developing modern agricultural techniques and promoting large-scale farming, increasing public campaigns related to ANPS pollution prevention and control with the goal of raising the level of awareness of farmers, and reforming the methods used to promote science and technology in agriculture and encourage the proper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. PMID:27054730

  16. Evaluating the vegetation growing season changes in the arid region of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Yanjun; Sun, Fubao; Chen, Yaning

    2014-11-01

    Temperature has long been accepted as the major controlling factor in determining vegetation phenology in the middle and higher latitudes. The influence of water availability is often overlooked even in arid and semi-arid environments. We compared vegetation phenology metrics derived from both in situ temperature and satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observations from 1982 to 2006 by an example of the arid region of northwestern China. From the satellite-based results, it was found the start of the growing season (SOS) advanced by 0.37 days year-1 and the end of the growing season (EOS) delayed by 0.61 days year-1 in Southern Xinjiang over 25 years. In the Tianshan Mountains, the SOS advanced by 0.35 days year-1 and the EOS delayed by 0.31 days year-1. There were almost no changes in Northern Xinjiang. Compared with satellite-based results, those estimates based on temperature contain less details of spatial variability of vegetation phenology. Interestingly, they show different and at times reversed spatial patterns from the satellite results arising from water limitation. Phenology metrics derived from temperature and NDVI conclude that water limitation of onset of the growing season is more severe than the cessation. Phenology spatial patterns of four oases in Southern Xingjiang show that, on average, there is a delay of the SOS of 1.6 days/10 km of distance from the mountain outlet stations. Our results underline the importance of water availability in determining the vegetation phenology in arid regions and can lead to important consequences in interpreting the possible change of vegetation phenology with climate.

  17. Characteristics of soil moisture in relation to microtopography in the Loess region of Northern Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yaojun; Zhu, Qingke; Zhao, Weijun

    2014-07-01

    Soil moisture is the primary factor limiting plant growth and vegetation rehabilitation in the loess region of northern Shaanxi, China. This 5-year (2008-2012) study investigated methods of selecting appropriate microsites for vegetation restoration based on efficient use of soil moisture; 5-year data were compared with 56 years of precipitation data using standardized precipitation index. In addition, the effects of microtopography on the spatiotemporal variations of soil moisture were analyzed at the Wuqi Ecological Station of Beijing Forestry University. Results showed that average annual precipitation during last 5 years fell by 12.4% during the growing season compared with 1957-2012 data and soil moisture content at depth of 0-160 cm under went dramatic changes and became relatively low in July and August. Soil moisture content varied in different microtopographical units as follows: gullies > gently-sloped terraces > collapsed soils > undisturbed slopes (control) > furrows > escarpments. The vertical distribution of soil moisture content in different microtopographical units showed dramatic changes at depth of 0-40 cm. Soil moisture content of gently-sloped terraces, gullies, collapsed areas, furrows, and undisturbed slopes was highest at depth of 80-160 cm with a level of instability at depth of 40-80 cm. For gently-sloped terraces and gullies, soil moisture content followed the order of 40-80 cm > 0-40 cm; for collapsed areas, furrows, and undisturbed slopes, soil moisture content follows the order of 0-40 cm > 40-80 cm. For escarpments, soil moisture content varied with depth in a different pattern: 0-40 cm > 80-160 cm > 40-80 cm. This study is of theoretical significance and will help guide the sustainable development of ecological restoration and vegetation rehabilitation in the Loess region. PMID:25004762

  18. Efects of Crop Growth on Hydrological Processes in River Basins and on Regional Climate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN; Pei-Hua; CHEN; Feng; XIE; Zheng-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The regional climate model RegCM3 incorporating the crop model CERES,called the RegCM3CERES model,was used to study the efects of crop growth and development on regional climate and hydrological processes over seven river basins in China.A 20-year numerical simulation showed that incorporating the crop growth and development processes improved the simulation of precipitation over the Haihe River Basin,Songhuajiang River Basin and Pearl River Basin.When compared with the RegCM3 control run,RegCM3CERES reduced the negative biases of monthly mean temperature over most of the seven basins in summer,especially the Haihe River Basin and Huaihe River Basin.The simulated maximum monthly evapotranspiration for summer(JJA)was around 100 mm in the basins of the Yangtze,Haihe,Huaihe and Pearl Rivers.The seasonal and annual variations of water balance components(runof,evapotranspiration and total precipitation)over all seven basins indicate that changes of evapotranspiration agree well with total precipitation.Compared to the RegCM3,RegCM3CERES simulations indicate reduced local water recycling rate over most of the seven basins due to lower evapotranspiration and greater water flux into these basins and an increased precipitation in the Heihe River Basin and Yellow River Basin,but reduced precipitation in the other five basins.Furthermore,a lower summer leaf area index(1.20 m2m 2),greater root soil moisture(0.01 m3m 3),lower latent heat flux(1.34 W m 2),and greater sensible heat flux(2.04 W m 2)are simulated for the Yangtze River Basin.

  19. Genetic evolution and utilization of wheat germplasm resources in Huanghuai winter wheat region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the genetic variation of wheat germplasm resources and improve their use in wheat breeding, 215 wheat cultivars and advanced lines from the Huanghuai Wheat Region of China were used to identify 14 agronomic traits and 7 quality traits, as well as the evolution and utilization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). From land race cultivars to current cultivars there had been significant increases in grain numbers spike/sip -1/, grain weight spike/sup -1/, 1000-kernel weight, grain weight plant/sup -1/, spikelet number spike/sup -1/, sterile spikelet numbers spike/sup -1/, flag leaf width, and flag leaf area. There had been significant decreases in spike number plant/sup -1/, plant height, the first inter node length, flag leaf length, kernel protein content and wet gluten content. Based on Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results, a novel HMW-GS combination 20/8 was identified in 1B chromosome of Chinese landrace cultivar Heputou. Subunits 22, 20/8, 2.2+12, and GluB3a were only found in cultivars before the 1960s, and subunits 6+8, 13+16, 3+12, and 4+12 were only found in the cultivars after the 1980s. The average diversity index of 21 traits and allele variance of HMW-GS showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing tendency. HMW-GS and LMW-GS combination-type cultivars showed an increasing-decreasing tendency. Before the 1980s, most parental strains were from foreign cultivars and landrace cultivars, while after the 1980s, most parental strains were from released cultivars and germplasm created by distant hybridization. This study provided useful information for improvement of wheat breeding in Huanghuai winter wheat region. (author)

  20. Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution of the HengshaneWutaieFuping region, North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunjing Wei; Jiahui Qian; Xiwen Zhou

    2014-01-01

    An arguable point regarding the Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic crustal evolution of the North China Craton (NCC) is whether the tectonic setting in the central belt during the mid-Paleoproterozoic (2.35e2.0 Ga) was dominated by an extensional regime or an oceanic subductionearc regime. A review of the mid-Paleoproterozoic magmatism and sedimentation for the HengshaneWutaieFuping region suggests that a back-arc extension regime was dominant in this region. This conclusion is consistent with the observation that the 2.35e2.0 Ga magmatism shows a typical bimodal distribution where the mafic rocks mostly have arc affinities and the acidic rocks mainly comprise highly-fractioned calc-alkaline to alkaline (or A-type) granites, and that this magmatism was coeval with development of extensional basins characteristic of transgressive sequences with volcanic interlayers such as in the Hutuo Group. Although the final amalgamation of the NCC was believed to occur at w1.85 Ga, recent zircon UePb age dating for mica schist in the Wutai Group suggests a collisional event may have occurred at w1.95 Ga. The metamorphic ages of w1.85 Ga, obtained mostly from the high-grade rocks using the zircon UePb approach, most probably indicate uplifting and cooling of these high-grade terranes. This is because (i) phase modeling suggests that newly-grown zircon grains in high-grade rocks with a melt phase cannot date the age of peak pressure and temperature stages, but the age of melt crystallization in cooling stages;(i ) the metamorphic PeT paths with isobaric cooling under 6e7 kb for the Hengshan and Fuping granulites suggest their prolonged stay in the middleelower crust;and (i i) the obtained metamorphic age data show a continuous distribution from 1.95 to 1.80 Ga. Thus, an alternative tectonic scenario for the HengshaneWutaieFuping region involves:(i) formation of a proto-NCC at w2.5 Ga;(i ) back-arc extension during 2.35e2.0 Ga resulting in bimodal magmatism and sedimentation in

  1. Multiple Comparison Analysis of Two New Genomic Sequences of ILTV Strains from China with Other Strains from Different Geographic Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Kong, Congcong; Wang, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    To date, twenty complete genome sequences of ILTV strains have been published in GenBank, including one strain from China, and nineteen strains from Australian and the United States. To investigate the genomic information on ILTVs from different geographic regions, two additional individual complete genome sequences of WG and K317 strains from China were determined. The genomes of WG and K317 strains were 153,505 and 153,639 bp in length, respectively. Alignments performed on the amino acid sequences of the twelve glycoproteins showed that 13 out of 116 mutational sites were present only among the Chinese strain WG and the Australian strains SA2 and A20. The phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that the WG strain established close relationships with the Australian strain SA2. The recombination events were detected and confirmed in different subregions of the WG strain with the sequences of SA2 and K317 strains as parental. In this study, two new complete genome sequences of Chinese ILTV strains were used in comparative analysis with other complete genome sequences of ILTV strains from China, the United States, and Australia. The analysis of genome comparison, phylogenetic trees, and recombination events showed close relationships among the Chinese strain WG and the Australian strains SA2. The information of the two new complete genome sequences from China will help to facilitate the analysis of phylogenetic relationships and the molecular differences among ILTV strains from different geographic regions. PMID:26186451

  2. Regional variations in mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China:Results from 1990-1992 national mortality survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Xin Chen; Peizhong Peter Wang; Si-Wei Zhang; Lian-Di Li; Feng-Zhu Lu; Xi-Shan Hao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the regional variations in mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China.METHODS: Aggregated mortality data of pancreatic cancer were extracted from the 1990-1992 national death of all causes and its mortality survey in China. Age specific and standardized mortality rates were calculated at both national and provincial levels with selected characteristics including sex and residence status.RESULTS: Mortality of pancreatic cancer ranked the ninth and accounted for 1.38 percent of the total malignancy deaths. The crude and age standardized mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China in the period of 1990-1992 were 1.48/100 000 and 1.30/100 000, respectively. Substantial regional variations in mortality rates across China were observed with adjusted mortality rates ranging from 0.43/100 000 to 3.70/100 000 with an extremal value of 8.7.Urban residents had significant higher pancreatic mortality than rural residents.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show different mortality rates of this disease and highlight the importance of further investigation on factors, which might contribute to the observed epidemiological patterns.

  3. First report on the occurrence of Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor silvarum in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhan-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are among both the longest known and most recently recognized infectious diseases. Although new spotted fever group rickettsiae have been isolated in many parts of the world including China, Little is known about the epidemiology of Rickettsia pathogens in ticks from Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. Methods In an attempt to assess the potential risk of rickettsial infection after exposure to ticks in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, a total of 200 Dermacentor silvarum ticks collected in Xinyuan district were screened by polymerase chain reaction based on the outer membrane protein A gene. Results 22 of the 200 specimens (11% were found to be positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of OmpA sequences identified two rickettsial species, Rickettsia raoultii (4.5% and Rickettsia slovaca (6.5%. Conclusions This study has reported the occurrence of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia slovaca in Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China and suggests that Dermacentor silvarum could be involved in the transmission of rickettsial agents in China. Further studies on the characterization and culture of rickettsial species found in Dermacentor silvarum should be performed to further clarify this. Additionally, the screening of human specimens for rickettsial disease in this region will define the incidence of infection.

  4. Comparative Assessment of Groundwater Quality in the Tangshan Region of the People�s Republic of China and Similar Areas in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Lin Chao; Zhou Xinquan

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater quality with respect to nitrate, major inorganic constituents, stable isotopes, and tritium was assessed in the agricultural Tangshan region in the Hai He River Basin of the People’s Republic of China and compared with three regions in the U.S.: the Delmarva Peninsula of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; the San Joaquin Valley of California; and the Sacramento Valley of California. The China and U.S. regions are similar in size and land use, but have different climatic conditions ...

  5. Individual Land Tenure and the Challenges of Sustainable Land Use and Management in a Semi-arid Region of China Individual Land Tenure and the Challenges of Sustainable Land Use and Management in a Semi-arid Region of China

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjun Zhao

    2010-01-01

    China’s farmland tenure, characterised by a household responsibility system (HRS) and collective landownership, has contributed to the continuation of poverty and natural resource deterioration in semiarid regions. Incongruent with local ecological, social and political conditions, the HRS has been linked to rising social and political tensions. Drawing on ethnographic research in Guyuan County, North China, this paper provides peasants’ experiences of and views on the land issue and examines...

  6. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwei SHI; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practition...

  7. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  8. R/S AND WAVELET ANALYSIS ON EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC DISPARITY IN CHINA DURING PAST 50 YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-hua; LU Yan; SU Fang-lin; AI Nan-shan

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows the dynamic process of regional disparity of economic development in China in the past 50 years from a new insight by using the rescaled range statistic (R/S) analysis and wavelet analysis of the Theil index sequence with different time scales.The main conclusions are:1) The regional disparity of economic develop ment in China,including the inter-provincial disparity,inter-regional disparity and intra-regional disparity,has exist ed for many years.Theil index by the comparative price has revealed the true trend for comparative disparity of re gional economic development from 1952 to 2000.2) Decomposition of Theil index indicates that the dynamic trend of comparative inter-provincial disparity in the coastal region is in line with dynamic trend of inter-provincial dispar ity in the whole China.3) The R/S analysis results tell us that during 1966-1978,the Hurst exponent H=0.504≈0.5,which indicates that in that period the evolution of comparative inter-provincial disparity of economic development showed a random characteristic,and in the other periods,i.e.1952-1965,1979-1990 and 1991-2000,the Hurst ex ponent H>0.5,which indicates that in those periods the evolution of the comparative inter-provincial disparity of e conomic development in China had a long-enduring characteristic.4) By using wavelet analysis at different time scale,we arrived at a conclusion that the evolutionary process of the disparity of economic development of China is not a simple inverted U shape but a compound of several U shapes.The result tells us that the evolutionary plot of inter-provincial disparity in China follows the inverted U on the whole at the higher scale,24 (16 years).That is to say,the disparity tends to rise in the first stage of economic development,and fall slowly over the peak in the second stage of economic development.However,if we shorten the time scale to 23 (8 years),then a link of several U shapes will appear.

  9. Source sector and region contributions to concentration and direct radiative forcing of black carbon in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Liao, Hong; Mao, Yuhao; Ridley, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantify the contributions from five domestic emission sectors (residential, industry, transportation, energy, and biomass burning) and emissions outside of China (non-China) to concentration and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in China for year 2010 using a nested-grid version of the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) coupled with a radiative transfer model. The Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP) anthropogenic emissions of BC for year 2010 are used in this study. Simulated surface-layer BC concentrations in China have strong seasonal variations, which exceed 9 μg m-3 in winter and are about 1-5 μg m-3 in summer in the North China Plain and the Sichuan Basin. Residential sector is simulated to have the largest contribution to surface BC concentrations, by 5-7 μg m-3 in winter and by 1-3 μg m-3 in summer, reflecting the large emissions from winter heating and the enhanced wet deposition during summer monsoon. The contribution from industry sector is the second largest and shows relatively small seasonal variations; the emissions from industry sector contribute 1-3 μg m-3 to BC concentrations in the North China Plain and the Sichuan Basin. The contribution from transportation sector is the third largest, followed by that from biomass burning and energy sectors. The non-China emissions mainly influence the surface-layer concentrations of BC in western China; about 70% of surface-layer BC concentration in the Tibet Plateau is attributed to transboundary transport. Averaged over all of China, the all-sky DRF of BC at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is simulated to be 1.22 W m-2. Sensitivity simulations show that the TOA BC direct radiative forcings from the five domestic emission sectors of residential, industry, energy, transportation, biomass burning, and non-China emissions are 0.44, 0.27, 0.01, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.30 W m-2, respectively. The domestic and non-China emissions contribute 75% and 25% to BC DRF in China

  10. HEALTH RISKS FROM CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER: FINDINGS FROM THE CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS DATA IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior studies have reported a large number of arsenicism cases in the Mongolia Autonomous Region of China due to drinking arsenic-contaminated water with concentrations up to 1.8 mg/L. However, the endemic health risks from chronic exposure to arsenic in this population have not...

  11. Chinese Maritime Assertiveness towards the East and South China Sea Disputes – A question of Regional Security Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Aurora Eck; Gill, Tina Sundree Lauge

    2013-01-01

    This report seeks to update the analysis conducted by Barry Buzan and Ole Wæver of the East Asian Regional Security Complex (RSC) in 2003. It argues for the relevance of doing so based in an observation of increased Chinese assertiveness in relation to its disputed territorial and maritime claims in the East and South China Sea disputes, especially evident within the timeframe dating from 2012 to the spring of 2013. Combining this observation with the expectations of Buzan ...

  12. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X. B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage) and residue application methods on soil water profile with time and water use, as well as corn yields. Conservation tillage practices for corn in Shouyang resulted in significantly higher soil wat...

  13. Mass movement susceptibility mapping using satellite optical imagery compared with InSAR monitoring: Zigui County, Three Gorges region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Kincal, C.; Singleton, A.; Li, Z.; Drummond, J.; Hoey, T.; Muller, J; Qu, W; Zeng, Q.; Zhang, J.; Du, P

    2010-01-01

    Mass movements on steep slopes are a major hazard to communities and infrastructure in the Three Gorges region, China. Developing susceptibility maps of mass movements is therefore very important in both current and future land use planning. This study employed satellite optical imagery and an ASTER GDEM (15 m) to derive various parameters (namely geology; slope gradient; proximity to drainage networks and proximity to lineaments) in order to create a GIS-based map of ...

  14. Regional distribution and layout evolution of technological innovation in the new energy electric vehicles industry of China

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Jun Tang; Xi Zheng; Ke Wang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the initial stage situation of new energy electric vehicles (electric vehicles) industry in China, this paper uses patents retrieval and literatures polymerization methods to analyze the technological innovation status quo and the regional distribution features in the electric vehicles industry at home and abroad. Then, the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method is applied to quantifiably evaluate technological innovation efficiency of the 17 major producing areas of electric vehicle...

  15. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-Yan; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jing-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The log-polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014_CXJJ-DH_12), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JB141303 and 201413B), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), and the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant. No CXY1350(4)).

  16. China [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its large population and its strong economic growth in recent years, China's demand for energy is rising rapidly. Since 2003, China ranks second after the USA in the consumption of primary energy and also in the consumption of oil. China is the third largest energy producer in the world, after the USA and the Russian Federation. In 2007, China's total energy consumption was 1970 Mtoe, up from 872 Mtoe in 1990. In the period 2000-2007, the average growth rate of energy consumption was 8.9% per year. Coal makes up the bulk of China's primary energy consumption (66% in 2007) and will remain the dominant energy source in the next decades. Other energies consumed are oil (18%) and hydropower (12%). Natural gas production currently accounts for only 3%, with most reserves located far away from the demand sites. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world, which has made the country one of the world's largest emitter of GHGs. The present energy policy calls for greater energy conservation measures and a move away from coal toward cleaner energy sources including oil, natural gas, renewable energy, nuclear power and hydroelectric resources. A new energy law calls for 10% of its energy to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. China has abundant cellulosic biomass resources, with an estimated 220-380 Mtoe available for bioenergy production (e.g. ethanol, synthetic liquid fuels) each year.

  17. Regional Impact on Pollution Event in the Upper Troposphere during CARIBIC Flights between South China and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. R.; Schuck, T. J.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Hermann, M.; Weigelt, A.; Slemr, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2010-05-01

    The research project CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container, phase II) is designed to conduct regular, long-term and detailed observations of the free troposphere and UT/LS regions where passenger aircraft happen to cruise. A fully-automated measurement container (1.5 tons) was equipped onboard an Airbus 340-600 operated by Lufthansa Airlines during regular passenger flights to conduct real time trace gas and aerosol measurements and to collect aerosol and air samples on a near monthly basis. During May 2005 - March 2008, CARIBIC observations have been performed along the flight tracks of Frankfurt-Guangzhou-Manila. Data have been collected in the upper troposphere during a total of 81 flights over the region between South China and the Philippines. Carbon monoxide was used an indicator to identify the pollution events and to access the regional impacts of fossil fuel burning and biomass/biofuel burning on upper tropospheric air. Five regions, i.e. Northeast Asia, South China, Indochina Peninsula, India and Indonesia/Philippines, are identified as the major source regions to be related to the observed pollution events. The characteristics of the events from these regions are investigated. The contributions of different source categories are also estimated.

  18. Spatial Distributed Seismicity Model of Seismic Hazard Mapping in the North-China Region: A Comparison with the GSHAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.; Meng, L.

    2010-12-01

    The North China is one of the most seismically active regions in the mainland China. The moderate to large earthquakes have occurred here throughout history, resulting in huge losses of human life and properties. With the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach, we investigate the influence of different seismic environments, incorporating both near surface soil properties and distributed historical and modern seismicity. A simplified seismic source model, derived with the consideration of regional active fault distributions, is presented for the North China region. The spatial distributed seismicity model of PSHA is used to calculate the level of ground motion likely to be exceeded in a given time period. Following Frankel (1995) approach of circular Gaussian smoothing procedure, in the PSHA’s calculation, we proposed the fault-rupture-oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing with the assumptions that earthquakes occur on faults or fault zones of past earthquakes to delineate the potential seismic zones (Lapajine et al., 2003). This is combined with regional active fault strike directions and the seismicity distribution patterns. Next Generation Attenuation model ((NGA), Boore et al., 2007) is used in generating hazard map for PGA with 2%, 5%, and 10 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years, and the resultant hazard map is compared with the result given by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). There is general agreement for PGA distribution patterns between the results of this study and the GSHAP map that used the same seismic source zones. However, peak ground accelerations predicted in this study are typically 10-20% less than those of the GSHAP, and the seismic source models, such as fault distributions and regional seismicity used in the GSHAP seem to be oversimplified. We believe this study represents an improvement on prior seismic hazard evaluations for the region. In addition to the updated input data, we believe that, by

  19. Multi-Polarization ASAR Backscattering from Herbaceous Wetlands in Poyang Lake Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyong Sang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. There is an urgent need to quantify the biophysical parameters (e.g., plant height, aboveground biomass and map total remaining areas of wetlands in order to evaluate the ecological status of wetlands. In this study, Environmental Satellite/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT/ASAR dual-polarization C-band data acquired in 2005 is tested to investigate radar backscattering mechanisms with the variation of hydrological conditions during the growing cycle of two types of herbaceous wetland species, which colonize lake borders with different elevation in Poyang Lake region, China. Phragmites communis (L. Trin. is semi-aquatic emergent vegetation with vertical stem and blade-like leaves, and the emergent Carex spp. has rhizome and long leaves. In this study, the potential of ASAR data in HH-, HV-, and VV-polarization in mapping different wetland types is examined, by observing their dynamic variations throughout the whole flooding cycle. The sensitivity of ASAR backscattering coefficients to vegetation parameters of plant height, fresh and dry biomass, and vegetation water content is also analyzed for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. and Carex spp. The research for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. shows that HH polarization is more sensitive to plant height and dry biomass than HV polarization. ASAR backscattering coefficients are relatively less sensitive to fresh biomass, especially in HV polarization. However, both are highly dependent on canopy water content. In contrast, the dependence of HH- and HV- backscattering from Carex community on vegetation parameters is poor, and the radar backscattering mechanism is controlled by ground water level.

  20. Variation Characteristics of Regional Synchronous Wind in Hami, Xinjiang of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄林宏; 宋丽莉; 李刚; 辛渝

    2015-01-01

    From several towers in Hami, Xinjiang of Northwest China, built by the national wind power resources professional observation network, we selected three towers with synchronous 10-min average wind speed data for one year (May 2011–April 2012) under strict quality control. The towers are located where large-scale wind power development is projected. We analyzed the frequency and variation of extreme wind speed at low wind condition (LWC), rated wind condition (RWC), and cut-out wind condition (CWC), which may signifi cantly impact the electric power grid confi guration in large-scale wind power development. The correlation between duration and frequency of LWC/RWC/CWC is obtained. Major fi ndings are: 1) The frequency of CWC is the lowest among all conditions, its synchronous rate at all three towers tends to be zero, and the frequency of LWC is always greater than that of RWC. 2) Among the three towers, the synchronous rate of RWC steadily increases with height, and LWC diff ers little between diff erent levels. The synchronous rate of LWC concentrates in winter, while that of RWC mainly occurs in spring and summer. Diurnal variation of LWC/RWC during the entire year is signifi cantly diff erent. 3) During the study year, the longest durations of synchronous LWC and RWC among the three towers are up to 640 and 700 min, respectively. The duration and frequency of LWC/RWC can be quantitatively well described by a logarithmic function. Consequently, the synchronous rates of LWC and RWC over any duration in the region can be easily calculated by using the fi tting function equation from observed data. These results are of value to the planning of large-scale wind power transmission and grid dispatching in this area.