Sample records for autonomous helicopter slung

  1. Adaptive Control System for Autonomous Helicopter Slung Load Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    This paper presents design and verification of an estimation and control system for a helicopter slung load system. The estimator provides position and velocity estimates of the slung load and is designed to augment existing navigation in autonomous helicopters. Sensor input is provided by a vision...... system on the helicopter that measures the position of the slung load. The controller is a combined feedforward and feedback scheme for simultaneous avoidance of swing excitation and active swing damping. Simulations and laboratory flight tests show the effectiveness of the combined control system......, yielding significant load swing reduction compared to the baseline controller....

  2. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems using intentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous h...

  3. Input Shaping for Helicopter Slung Load Swing Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    This chapter presents a feedforward swing reducing control system for augmenting already existing helicopter controllers and enables slung load flight with autonomous helicopters general cargo transport. The feedforward controller is designed to avoid excitation of the lightly damped modes of the...

  4. Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Helicopter Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten

    This thesis treats the subject of autonomous helicopter slung load flight and presents the reader with a methodology describing the development path from modeling and system analysis over sensor fusion and state estimation to controller synthesis. The focus is directed along two different...... and simulating different slung load suspension types. It further includes detection and response to wire slacking and tightening, it models the aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load, and can be used for multilift systems with any combination of multiple helicopters and multiple loads...

  5. Vision Aided State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders


    This paper presents the design and verification of a state estimator for a helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to augment the IMU driven estimator found in many helicopter UAV s and uses vision based updates only. The process model used for the estimator is a simple 4 st...

  6. Simulation validation and flight prediction of UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter/slung load characteristics


    Tyson, Peter H.


    Helicopter/slung load systems are two body systems in which the slung load adds its rigid body dynamics, aerodynamics, and sling stretching dynamics to the helicopter. The slung load can degrade helicopter handling qualities and reduce the flight envelope of the helicopter. Confirmation of system stability parameters and envelope is desired, but flight test evaluation is time consuming and costly. A simulation model validated for handling quality assessments would significantly reduce resourc...

  7. Stabilization of Externally Slung Helicopter Loads (United States)


    maximum slir^ Loao weighting and " vertical bounce ." The last question provides information on multi-point suspension of external 1oads. allowable cargo load, and vertical bounce . 110 Maximum Sling Load Weight The maximum sling load lifted by a CH-47B helicopter under...changes were made in their flying technique except for very smooth flight control inputs when lifting an ACL. Vertical Bounce Fifteen of the forty Army

  8. Flight Test Identification and Simulation of a UH-60A Helicopter and Slung Load (United States)

    Cicolani, Luigi S.; Sahai, Ranjana; Tucker, George E.; McCoy, Allen H.; Tyson, Peter H.; Tischler, Mark B.; Rosen, Aviv


    Helicopter slung-load operations are common in both military and civil contexts. Helicopters and loads are often qualified for these operations by means of flight tests, which can be expensive and time consuming. There is significant potential to reduce such costs both through revisions in flight-test methods and by using validated simulation models. To these ends, flight tests were conducted at Moffett Field to demonstrate the identification of key dynamic parameters during flight tests (aircraft stability margins and handling-qualities parameters, and load pendulum stability), and to accumulate a data base for simulation development and validation. The test aircraft was a UH-60A Black Hawk, and the primary test load was an instrumented 8- by 6- by 6-ft cargo container. Tests were focused on the lateral and longitudinal axes, which are the axes most affected by the load pendulum modes in the frequency range of interest for handling qualities; tests were conducted at airspeeds from hover to 80 knots. Using telemetered data, the dynamic parameters were evaluated in near real time after each test airspeed and before clearing the aircraft to the next test point. These computations were completed in under 1 min. A simulation model was implemented by integrating an advanced model of the UH-60A aerodynamics, dynamic equations for the two-body slung-load system, and load static aerodynamics obtained from wind-tunnel measurements. Comparisons with flight data for the helicopter alone and with a slung load showed good overall agreement for all parameters and test points; however, unmodeled secondary dynamic losses around 2 Hz were found in the helicopter model and they resulted in conservative stability margin estimates.

  9. Helicopter Slung-Load Simulation Toolbox for Use With MATLAB (Registered trademark) (United States)


    Research Center [5] [6]. However, the model was inadequate for large manoeuvres or long simulations, so a higher fidehty model was introduced. This model...or --Trm ""peed (IV,) • neIosl>o -S.... model.- g elo,I>o -Fo",ord - • Imimeoreh Co," Desee ’" Trm reU"", gls~ ..-Sdeslip - .~n --Trm oULde (II) - S...34Mathematical Modelling of Helicopter Slung-Load Systems," Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory

  10. Full State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    of the load relative to the helicopter. A method is devised to reduce the execution time of the process model in the unscented Kalman filter. The two approaches are tested through simulation and compared. The full model based approach shows better results than the kinematic model aproach, but at the cost....... A simple and effective virtual sensor method is developed to maintain the constraints imposed by the wires in the system. The full model based approach uses a complex aerodynamical model to describe the helicopter together with a generic rigid body model. This rigid body model is based on a redundant...

  11. Modeling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders


    This paper presents the result of the modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss......' Principle of Least Constraint using the Udwadia-Kalaba equation and can be used to model all body to body slung load suspension types. The model provides intuitive and easy-to-use means of modelling and simulating different slung load suspension types. It includes detection of, and response to, wire...... slackening and tightening as well as aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopters or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm is introduced and finally the use...

  12. CMU's autonomous helicopter explores new territory. (United States)

    Charles, J.


    In the summer of 1998, several members of Carnegie Mellon University's (CMUs) Autonomous Helicopter Project team joined NASA on a multidisciplinary expedition to the Canadian Arctic's Haughton Crater. NASA was willing to travel to such a remote corner of the globe because of its similarity to an even more remote locale - Mars. Researchers are studying the 23-million-year-old meteorite impact crater in the hope of learning more about Mars's environment. While there, they also tested a number of technologies that will enable future exploration of Mars, including CMU's autonomous helicopter.

  13. Modelling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; La Cour-Harbo, Anders


    This paper presents the result of modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss Principle ...

  14. Square tracking sensor for autonomous helicopter hover stabilization (United States)

    Oertel, Carl-Henrik


    Sensors for synthetic vision are needed to extend the mission profiles of helicopters. A special task for various applications is the autonomous position hold of a helicopter above a ground fixed or moving target. As a proof of concept for a general synthetic vision solution a restricted machine vision system, which is capable of locating and tracking a special target, was developed by the Institute of Flight Mechanics of Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (i.e., German Aerospace Research Establishment). This sensor, which is specialized to detect and track a square, was integrated in the fly-by-wire helicopter ATTHeS (i.e., Advanced Technology Testing Helicopter System). An existing model following controller for the forward flight condition was adapted for the hover and low speed requirements of the flight vehicle. The special target, a black square with a length of one meter, was mounted on top of a car. Flight tests demonstrated the automatic stabilization of the helicopter above the moving car by synthetic vision.

  15. Merged Vision and GPS Control of a Semi-Autonomous, Small Helicopter (United States)

    Rock, Stephen M.


    This final report documents the activities performed during the research period from April 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997. It contains three papers: Carrier Phase GPS and Computer Vision for Control of an Autonomous Helicopter; A Contestant in the 1997 International Aerospace Robotics Laboratory Stanford University; and Combined CDGPS and Vision-Based Control of a Small Autonomous Helicopter.

  16. Quad-Rotor Helicopter Autonomous Navigation Based on Vanishing Point Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Wang


    Full Text Available Quad-rotor helicopter is becoming popular increasingly as they can well implement many flight missions in more challenging environments, with lower risk of damaging itself and its surroundings. They are employed in many applications, from military operations to civilian tasks. Quad-rotor helicopter autonomous navigation based on the vanishing point fast estimation (VPFE algorithm using clustering principle is implemented in this paper. For images collected by the camera of quad-rotor helicopter, the system executes the process of preprocessing of image, deleting noise interference, edge extracting using Canny operator, and extracting straight lines by randomized hough transformation (RHT method. Then system obtains the position of vanishing point and regards it as destination point and finally controls the autonomous navigation of the quad-rotor helicopter by continuous modification according to the calculated navigation error. The experimental results show that the quad-rotor helicopter can implement the destination navigation well in the indoor environment.

  17. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.


    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for understandi

  18. 3D Vision Based Landing Control of a Small Scale Autonomous Helicopter


    Zhenyu Yu; Kenzo Nonami; Jinok Shin; Demian Celestino


    Autonomous landing is a challenging but important task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to achieve high level of autonomy. The fundamental requirement for landing is the knowledge of the height above the ground, and a properly designed controller to govern the process. This paper presents our research results in the study of landing an autonomous helicopter. The abovetheground height sensing is based on a 3D vision system. We have designed a simple planefitting method for e...

  19. Nonlinear Feedforward Control for Wind Disturbance Rejection on Autonomous Helicopter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; A. Danapalasingam, Kumeresan


    for the purpose. The model is inverted for the calculation of rotor collective and cyclic pitch angles given the wind disturbance. The control strategy is then applied on a small helicopter in a controlled wind environment and flight tests demonstrates the effectiveness and advantage of the feedforward controller....

  20. Development of an Autonomous Flight Control System for Small Size Unmanned Helicopter Based on Dynamical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It is devoted to the development of an autonomous flight control system for small size unmanned helicopter based on dynamical model. At first, the mathematical model of a small size helicopter is described. After that simple but effective MTCV control algorithm was proposed. The whole flight control algorithm is composed of two parts:orientation controller based on the model for rotation dynamics and a robust position controller for a double integrator. The MTCV block is also used to achieve translation velocity control. To demonstrate the performance of the presented algorithm, simulation results and results achieved in real flight experiments were presented.

  1. 3D Vision Based Landing Control of a Small Scale Autonomous Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Yu


    Full Text Available Autonomous landing is a challenging but important task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV to achieve high level of autonomy. The fundamental requirement for landing is the knowledge of the height above the ground, and a properly designed controller to govern the process. This paper presents our research results in the study of landing an autonomous helicopter. The abovetheground height sensing is based on a 3D vision system. We have designed a simple planefitting method for estimating the height over the ground. The method enables vibration free measurement with the camera rigidly attached on the helicopter without using complicated gimbal or active vision mechanism. The estimated height is used by the landing control loop. Considering the ground effect during landing, we have proposed a twostage landing procedure. Two controllers are designed for the two landing stages respectively. The sensing approach and control strategy has been verified in field flight test and has demonstrated satisfactory performance.

  2. Terrain and Radiation Mapping in Post-Disaster Environments Using an Autonomous Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Kochersberger


    Full Text Available Recent events have highlighted the need for unmanned remote sensing in dangerous areas, particularly where structures have collapsed or explosions have occurred, to limit hazards to first responders and increase their efficiency in planning response operations. In the case of the Fukushima nuclear reactor explosion, an unmanned helicopter capable of obtaining overhead images, gathering radiation measurements, and mapping both the structural and radiation content of the environment would have given the response team invaluable data early in the disaster, thereby allowing them to understand the extent of the damage and areas where dangers to personnel existed. With this motivation, the Unmanned Systems Lab at Virginia Tech has developed a remote sensing system for radiation detection and aerial imaging using a 90 kg autonomous helicopter and sensing payloads for the radiation detection and imaging operations. The radiation payload, which is the sensor of focus in this paper, consists of a scintillating type detector with associated software and novel search algorithms to rapidly and effectively map and locate sources of high radiation intensity. By incorporating this sensing technology into an unmanned aerial vehicle system, crucial situational awareness can be gathered about a post-disaster environment and response efforts can be expedited. This paper details the radiation mapping and localization capabilities of this system as well as the testing of the various search algorithms using simulated radiation data. The various components of the system have been flight tested over a several-year period and a new production flight platform has been built to enhance reliability and maintainability. The new system is based on the Aeroscout B1-100 helicopter platform, which has a one-hour flight endurance and uses a COFDM radio system that gives the helicopter an effective range of 7 km.

  3. Helicopter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Holten, T.


    The invention relates to a helicopter provided with a rotor with at least one rotor blade (5), wherein drive means are provided for actively moving the or each rotor blade up and down during rotation of the rotor, in particular about a flapping hinge (8) thereof, so that moments, applied by the roto

  4. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics (United States)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.


    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second

  5. Risk-Free Volcano Observations Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter: seismic observations near the active vent of Sakurajima volcano, Japan (United States)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Yasuda, A.; Watanabe, A.; Takeo, M.; Honda, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Kanda, W.; Iguchi, M.; Yanagisawa, T.


    Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are important not only for understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit but also for eruption prediction and volcanic hazards mitigation. It is, however, challenging to install observation sensors near active vents because of the danger of sudden eruptions. We need safe and efficient ways of installing sensors near the summit of active volcanoes. We have been developing an volcano observation system based on an unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) for risk-free volcano observations. Our UAV is an unmanned autonomous helicopter manufactured by Yamaha-Motor Co., Ltd. The UAV is 3.6m long and weighs 84kg with maximum payload of 10kg. The UAV can aviate autonomously along a previously programmed path within a meter accuracy using real-time kinematics differential GPS equipment. The maximum flight time and distance from the operator are 90 minutes and 5km, respectively. We have developed various types of volcano observation techniques adequate for the UAV, such as aeromagnetic survey, taking infrared and visible images from onboard high-resolution cameras, volcanic ash sampling in the vicinity of active vents. Recently, we have developed an earthquake observation module (EOM), which is exclusively designed for the UAV installation in the vicinity of active volcanic vent. In order to meet the various requirements for UAV installation, the EOM is very compact, light-weight (5-6kg), and is solar-powered. It is equipped with GPS for timing, a communication device using cellular-phone network, and triaxial accelerometers. Our first application of the EOM installation using the UAV is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan, Sakurajima volcano. Since 2006, explosive eruptions have been continuing at the reopened Showa crater at the eastern flank near the summit of Sakurajima. Entering the area within 2 km from the active craters is prohibited, and thus there were no observation station in the vicinity

  6. Helicopter controllability


    Carico, Dean


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The concept of helicopter controllability is explained. A background study reviews helicopter development in the U.S. General helicopter configurations, linearized equations of motion, stability, and piloting requirements are discussed. Helicopter flight controls, handling qualities, and associated specification are reviewed. Analytical, simulation and flight test methods for evaluating helicopter automatic flight control systems ar...

  7. 改装体检直升机飞行员前庭自主神经反应观察%Vestibular autonomic reactions in pilots of modified helicopters detected at physical examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐先荣; 徐华; 李梅; 翟丽红; 刘玉华


    目的 观察改装体检直升机飞行员的前庭自主神经反应.方法 对35名参加改装体检直升机的飞行员行平静状态胃电图(EGG)记录,然后于电动转椅上进行科里奥利(Coriolis)加速度试验,待出现明显恶心反应时停止刺激,再次描记EGG,统计Coriolis加速度刺激前后EGG各指标变化,并将前庭自主神经反应分度与既往观察的歼击机飞行员前庭自主神经反应分度进行对照.结果 1)直升机飞行员Coriolis加速度刺激后4min的EGG平均幅值(327.1μV)、平均节律紊乱百分比(28.6%)、正常慢波百分比(38.9%)与平静状态4min的EGG平均幅值(259.7 μV)、平均节律紊乱百分比(24.2%)、正常慢波百分比(47.8%)差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);但前庭刺激前后的EGG平均频率无明显差异.2)刺激后直升机飞行员前庭自主神经反应Ⅱ°者占31.4%(11/35),与既往歼击机飞行员刺激后前庭自主神经反应Ⅱ°者占28.0%(7/25)相比无明显差异.结论 Coriolis加速度刺激下EGG平均幅值、平均节律紊乱百分比、正常慢波百分比可作为前庭自主神经反应的评价指标,改装体检直升机飞行员的前庭自主神经功能状况良好.%Objective To observe the vestibular autonomic reactions in pilots of modified helicopters detected at physical examination. Methods Electrogastrograms(EGG) of 35 pilots of modified helicopters in normal state were recorded. Coriolis acceleration test was performed in the pilots on electric rotatory chair and stopped when nausea occurred. Then changes in their EGG before and after Coriolis acceleration test were recorded and the degrees of their vestibular autonomic reactions were compared with the reported findings in fighter pilots. Results The average amplitude, average rhythm disturbance, and normal slow wave of EGG for 4min were significantly lower in pilots of helicopters before Coriolis acceleration test than in pilots of fighters after Coriolis acceleration

  8. Volcano Observations Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter : seismic and GPS observations near the active summit area of Sakurajima and Kirishima volcano, Japan (United States)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Watanabe, A.; Takeo, M.; Iguchi, M.; Honda, Y.


    Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are very important from various viewpoints such as understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit. It is, however, highly difficult to install observation sensors near active vents because of the risk of sudden eruptions. We have been developing a safe volcano observation system based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). As an UAV, we adopted an unmanned autonomous helicopter manufactured by Yamaha-Motor Co., Ltd. We have also developed earthquake observation modules and GPS receiver modules that are exclusively designed for UAV installation at summit areas of active volcanoes. These modules are light weight, compact size, and solar powered. For data transmission, a commercial cellular-phone network is used. Our first application of the sensor installation by the UAV is Sakurajima, one of the most active volcanos in Japan. In November 2009, 2010, and 2011, we installed up to four seismic sensors within 2km from the active summit crater. In the 2010 and 2011 operations, we succeeded in pulling up and collecting the sensor modules by using the UAV. In the 2011 experiment, we installed two GPS receivers near the summit area of Sakurajima volcano. We also applied the UAV installation to another active volcano, Shinmoedake in Kirishima volcano group. Since the sub-plinian eruption in February 2011, entering the area 3km from the summit of Shinmoe-dake has been prohibited. In May and November 2011, we installed seismic sensors and GPS receivers in the off-limit zone. Although the ground coupling of the seismic modules is not perfect due to the way they are installed, the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic signals recorded by these modules is fairly good. Despite the low antenna height of 50 cm from the ground surface, the location errors in horizontal and vertical GPS components are 1cm and 3cm, respectively. For seismic signals associated with eruptions at Sakurajima from November 2010 to

  9. Design and Flight Test of a Cable Angle Feedback Control System for Improving Helicopter Slung Load Operations at Low Speed (United States)


    11-13 May 2010. [21] Anon., Aeronautical design Standard, Handling Quality Requirements for Military Rotorcraft , ADS- 33E-PRF, U.S. Army Aviation...Dec 1989. [47] Cheng, R.P., Rotorcraft Flight Control Design Using Quantitative Feedback Theory and Dynamic Crossfeeds, Master’s Thesis, California...Cheung, K.K., Berger, T., Berrios, M., “Handling- Qualities Optimization and Trade-offs in Rotorcraft Flight Control Design ,” Proceedings of the RAeS

  10. MMW radar enhanced vision systems: the Helicopter Autonomous Landing System (HALS) and Radar-Enhanced Vision System (REVS) are rotary and fixed wing enhanced flight vision systems that enable safe flight operations in degraded visual environments (United States)

    Cross, Jack; Schneider, John; Cariani, Pete


    Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) has developed rotary and fixed wing millimeter wave radar enhanced vision systems. The Helicopter Autonomous Landing System (HALS) is a rotary-wing enhanced vision system that enables multi-ship landing, takeoff, and enroute flight in Degraded Visual Environments (DVE). HALS has been successfully flight tested in a variety of scenarios, from brown-out DVE landings, to enroute flight over mountainous terrain, to wire/cable detection during low-level flight. The Radar Enhanced Vision Systems (REVS) is a fixed-wing Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) undergoing prototype development testing. Both systems are based on a fast-scanning, threedimensional 94 GHz radar that produces real-time terrain and obstacle imagery. The radar imagery is fused with synthetic imagery of the surrounding terrain to form a long-range, wide field-of-view display. A symbology overlay is added to provide aircraft state information and, for HALS, approach and landing command guidance cuing. The combination of see-through imagery and symbology provides the key information a pilot needs to perform safe flight operations in DVE conditions. This paper discusses the HALS and REVS systems and technology, presents imagery, and summarizes the recent flight test results.

  11. Optimal Tracking Controller Design for a Small Scale Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agus Budiyono; Singgih S. Wibowo


    A model helicopter is more difficult to control than its full scale counterpart. This is due to its greater sensitivity to control inputs and disturbances as well as higher bandwidth of dynamics. This work is focused on designing practical tracking controller for a small scale helicopter following predefined trajectories. A tracking controller based on optimal control theory is synthesized as a part of the development of an autonomous helicopter. Some issues with regards to control constraints are addressed.The weighting between state tracking performance and control power expenditure is analyzed. Overall performance of the control design is evaluated based on its time domain histories of trajectories as well as control inputs.

  12. Helicopter human factors (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.


    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  13. Modeling, State Estimation and Control of Unmanned Helicopters (United States)

    Lau, Tak Kit

    error modeling and the filtering method for the sensor noise compensation. Moreover, we provide a fully automatic algorithm to tune our method. Finally, we evaluate our method on an instrumented gasoline helicopter. Experiments show that the technique enables the robust positioning of flying helicopters when no GNSS measurement is available. The design of an autopilot for an unmanned helicopter is made difficult by its nonlinear, coupled and non-minimum phase dynamics. Here, we consider a reinforcement learning approach to transfer motion skills from human to machine, and hence to achieve autonomous flight control. By making efficient use of a series of state-and-action pairs given by a human pilot, our algorithm bootstraps a parameterized control policy and learns to hover and follow trajectories after one manual flight. One key observation our algorithm is based on is that, although it is often difficult to retrieve the human pilots' hidden desiderata that formulate their state-feedback mechanisms in controlling the helicopters, it is possible to intercept the states of a helicopter and the actions by a human pilot and then to fit both into a model. We demonstrate the performance of our learning controller in experiments. The results described in this dissertation shed new and important light on the technology necessary to advance the current state of the unmanned helicopters. From a comprehensive dynamics modeling that addresses perplexing cross-couplings on the unmanned helicopters, to a robust state estimation against GNSS outage and a learn-from-scarce-sample control for an unmanned helicopter, we provide a starting point for the cultivation of the next-generation unmanned helicopters that can operate with the least possible human intervention.

  14. 78 FR 65180 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc., Helicopters (United States)


    ... condition, vibration, loss of tail rotor pitch control, and loss of directional control of the helicopter...-047-AD; Amendment 39-17606; AD 2013-19-24] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc., Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We...

  15. 78 FR 27867 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters Inc. Helicopters (United States)


    ..., leading to vibration, loss of tail rotor pitch control, and subsequent loss of tail rotor and helicopter... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters Inc. Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...

  16. GARTEUR Helicopter Cooperative Research


    Pahlke, Klausdieter


    This paper starts with an overview about the general structure of the Group for Aeronautical Research and Technology in EURope (GARTEUR). The focus is on the activities related to rotorcraft which are managed in the GARTEUR Helicopter Group of Responsables (HC GoR). The research activities are carried out in so-called Action Groups. Out of the 5 Action Groups which ended within the last four years results generated in the Helicopter Action Groups HC(AG14) “Methods for Refinement of Structural...

  17. Identification, control and visually-guided behavior for a model helicopter (United States)

    Saripalli, Srikanth

    Research on unmanned aerial vehicles is motivated by applications where human intervention is impossible, risky or expensive e.g. hazardous material recovery, traffic monitoring, disaster relief support, military operations etc. Due to its vertical take-off, landing and hover capabilities, a helicopter is an attractive platform for such applications. There are significant challenges to building an autonomous robotic helicopter - these span the areas of system identification, low-level control, state estimation, and planning. Towards the goal of fully-autonomous helicopters this thesis makes the following contributions. A continuous-discrete extended Kalman filter has been developed that combines inertial data with GPS and compass data to provide estimates of the 6DOF state of the helicopter. Using this filter a model for the helicopter has been identified based on frequency response techniques. The model has been validated in flight tests on a small helicopter testbed (1.6 m rotor diameter) at speeds upto 5 m/s. Based on evidence from this model a decoupled low-level controller has been developed which is embedded in a control architecture suitable for visually-guided navigation. As a novel application, we show how such a controller can be used to perform trajectory following on the helicopter where the desired trajectories are typical spacecraft landing trajectories, and the only controls available are thrusters. This in effect, produces a low-cost testbed for testing spacecraft landing and hazard avoidance on a planetary surface. Finally, we develop and extensively experimentally characterize algorithms for vision-based autonomous landing, object tracking, and sensor deployment.

  18. [Autonomic neuropathies]. (United States)

    Siepmann, T; Penzlin, A I; Illigens, B M W


    Autonomic neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases that involve damage of small peripheral autonomic Aδ- and C-fibers. Causes of autonomic nerve fiber damage are disorders such as diabetes mellitus and HIV-infection. Predominant symptoms of autonomic neuropathy are orthostatic hypotension, gastro-intestinal problems, urogenital dysfunction, and cardiac arrhythmia, which can severely impair the quality of life in affected patients. Furthermore, autonomic neuropathies can be induced by autoimmune diseases such as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, hereditary disorders such as the lysosomal storage disorder Fabry disease and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies, as well as certain toxins and drugs.

  19. Helicopter Human Factors (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)


    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  20. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans


    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  1. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design. (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C


    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  2. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng


    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  3. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots (United States)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS


    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  4. Design and application of antisubmarine helicopter based on autonomous intelligent computer generated force model%基于自治智能计算机生成兵力的反潜直升机模型设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宦婧; 周伟祝; 孙媛; 鲁华杰


    随着反潜作战仿真领域对实体智能要求的不断提高,针对原有基于有限状态机的计算机生成兵力(CGF)模型难以表示CGF认知行为的问题,用知识获取与知识工程方法进行知识获取和分析,采用模糊规则推理方法进行行为决策,利用内外黑板相结合的模式实现实体间交互,并将上述方法集成,设计建立了智能仿真模型,最后生成了反潜直升机智能模型,将其应用于直升机反潜作战仿真实例中.通过航空反潜作战仿真表明,与原有CGF实体相比,智能反潜直升机实体对敌潜艇的捕获率大大提高,可以根据环境变化动态地调整策略,成功率及成功效能均有显著提高.%Along with the increasing requirement of intelligence in the antisubmarine simulation domain, it is hard to express the cognition action question of Computer Generated Force ( CGF) by original method based on limited state machine model. The method of knowledge acquisition and knowledge engineering was used for knowledge acquisition and analysis, and the fuzzy rule inference technique was used for decision-making, internal and external blackboard model was used for interoperation. Using the devised techniques, an autonomous intelligent CGF model was designed. A helicopter prototype was constructed and applied in the aviation antisubmarine simulation warfare example, via compared with common CGF, intelligent CGF show its priority in intelligence, which can adjust the strategies based on the dynamic environment, highly raised enemy capture ratio, success ratio and success efficacy.

  5. The evolution of helicopters (United States)

    Chen, R.; Wen, C. Y.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.


    Here, we show that during their half-century history, helicopters have been evolving into geometrically similar architectures with surprisingly sharp correlations between dimensions, performance, and body size. For example, proportionalities emerge between body size, engine size, and the fuel load. Furthermore, the engine efficiency increases with the engine size, and the propeller radius is roughly the same as the length scale of the whole body. These trends are in accord with the constructal law, which accounts for the engine efficiency trend and the proportionality between "motor" size and body size in animals and vehicles. These body-size effects are qualitatively the same as those uncovered earlier for the evolution of aircraft. The present study adds to this theoretical body of research the evolutionary design of all technologies [A. Bejan, The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything (St. Martin's Press, New York, 2016)].

  6. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J


    The diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy is often difficult to establish, since clinical symptoms generally appear late in the course of the disease, and may be non-specific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on th...

  7. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J


    In order to elucidate the physiological significance of autonomic neuropathy in juvenile diabetics, cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic functions have been investigated in three groups of juvenile diabetics: One group had no signs of neuropathy, one group had presumably slight autonomic...... neuropathy (reduced beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation) and one group had clinically severe autonomic neuropathy, defined by presence of orthostatic hypotension. In all three experimental situations we found sympathetic dysfunction causing cardiovascular and/or hormonal...... maladjustments in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Regarding metabolic functions we found normal responses to graded exercise and insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with autonomic neuropathy in spite of blunted catecholamine responses, suggesting increased sensitivity of glycogen stores and adipose...

  8. Design and implementation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system for a helicopter UAV (United States)

    Kastelan, David R.

    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) benefit from vertical takeoff and landing, hover, low-speed, and cruising flight capabilities. This versatility has the expense of nonlinear, unstable, and underactuated system dynamics. These challenges and numerous potential applications make the helicopter UAV an interesting testbed for nonlinear control. A platform for such development has been established in the Applied Nonlinear Controls Lab (ANCL). A miniature helicopter was augmented with a manual/autonomous takeover system and the ANCL Avionics. This payload contains a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, inertial sensors, and communications and computing hardware. Allan variance analysis of inertial sensor data enabled the derivation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system that was implemented on the ANCL Avionics. This extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based algorithm estimates vehicle position, velocity, and attitude necessary for system identification tasks and control system feedback. Performance validation of this algorithm was demonstrated in simulation and in experimental ground and flight tests.

  9. Investigating Flight with a Toy Helicopter (United States)

    Liebl, Michael


    Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…

  10. Civil helicopter flight research. [for CH-53 helicopter (United States)

    Snyder, W. J.; Schoultz, M. B.


    The paper presents a description of the NASA CH-53 Civil Helicopter Research Aircraft and discusses preliminary results of the aircraft flight research performed to evaluate factors and requirements for future helicopter transport operations. The CH-53 equipped with a 16-seat airline-type cabin and instrumented for flight research studies in noise, vibration, handling qualities, passenger acceptance, fuel utilization, terminal area maneuvers, and gust response. Predicted fuel usage for typical short-haul missions is compared with actual fuel use. Pilot ratings for an IFR handling quality task for three levels of stability augmentation are presented, and the effects of internal noise, vibration, and motion on passenger acceptance are discussed. Future planned CH-53 flight research within the Civil Helicopter Technology Program is discussed.

  11. [Back ache in helicopter pilots]. (United States)

    Colak, S; Jovelić, S; Manojlović, J


    Due to low back pain (LBP) and harmful effects of flying, questionnaires were sent to 71 helicopter pilots of the experimental group, 22 mechanics helicopter flyers and to the control group of 28 air-traffic controllers. The prevalence of LBP was the highest in helicopter pilots, then in helicomechanics and air-traffic controllers (53%, 50% and 36%). Effects of exposure to vibration, body posture and working load have not contributed significantly to the occurrence of LBP. LBP has not lead to an important difference in the strength of the back musculature, body mass index and spondylosis, that is, scoliosis. The necessity of further study of LBP and maintaining of specific preventive measures are indicated.

  12. The helicopter - some ergonomic factors. (United States)

    Lovesey, E J


    Helicopter pilots are some of the hardest working human operators, because of the machine's inherant instability and control problems. This article covers some aspects where ergonomists might help to improve the overall system. After considering basic differences between helicopters and fixed wing aircraft, the author examines controls, where there are prospects of using miniature hand levers; cockpit vision and displays with particular reference to night and instrument flying; seating and vibration where the effects of protective clothing and harnesses are considered; and cabin noise from the engine, transmission and intercom systems. Finally, he assesses pilot activity using cine film techniques for different types of flight.

  13. 78 FR 1730 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. Helicopters (United States)


    ...: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. (BHTI) Model... (connector) can deteriorate, causing a short in the connector that may lead to a fire in the starter... short in the connector that may lead to a fire in the starter/generator, smoke in the cockpit...

  14. 78 FR 9793 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters (United States)


    ..., Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Rotorcraft Directorate, Rotorcraft Certification Office, 2601 Meacham Blvd., Fort... helicopters, are susceptible to the same type of cracking because they are of similar design and manufacture... first. This AD does not require you to report a cracked fitting to the Rotorcraft Certification...

  15. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation (United States)

    Shakerin, Said


    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Smart actuation for helicopter rotorblades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternoster, A.R.A.; Loendersloot, R.; Boer, de A.; Akkerman, R.; Berselli, G.; Vertechy, R.; Vassura, G.


    Successful rotorcrafts were only achieved when the differences between hovering flight conditions and a stable forward flight were understood. During hovering, the air speed on all helicopter blades is linearly distributed along each blade and is the same for each. However, during forward flight, th

  17. Helicopter vibration reduction using robust control


    Mannchen, Thomas


    This dissertation presents a control law for helicopters to reduce vibration and to increase damping using individual blade control. H-infinity control synthesis is used to develop a robust controller usable in different operating conditions with different helicopter flight speeds. The control design is applied in simulation to the four-blade BO 105 helicopter rotor, which is equipped with an individual blade control system, where the pitch rod links are replaced by hydraulic actuators, allow...

  18. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology - A Pre-Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Bange, Jens;

    Autonomous Aerial Sensors, i.e. meteorological sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems UAS, can characterise the atmospheric flow in and around wind farms. We instrumented three planes, a helicopter and a lighter-than-air LTA system to fly one week together in a well-instrumented wind farm...

  19. Lytic spondylolisthesis in helicopter pilots. (United States)

    Froom, P; Froom, J; Van Dyk, D; Caine, Y; Ribak, J; Margaliot, S; Floman, Y


    Trauma to the back from the force of chronic stress is thought to be an etiologic factor in isthmic spondylolisthesis (SLL). The relationship of first degree spondylolisthesis to low back pain (LBP) is controversial. We compare the prevalence of SLL in helicopter pilots who are subject to strong vibrational forces, with other airforce personnel. Helicopter pilots had more than a four times higher prevalence of SLL (4.5%) than did cadets (1.0%) and transport pilots (0.9%). Low back pain was more frequent in pilots with SLL than in those without this lesion but in no case was the pain disabling or the defect progressive. We conclude that SLL may be induced by vibrational forces and although SLL is associated with LBP, the pain was little clinical significance.

  20. Study of Helicopter Roll Control Effectiveness Criteria. (United States)


    variety of helicopter configurations and control system types , and a wide range of flight tasks and maneuvers. The basis of the experimental design...represent a wide range of basic helicopter rotor hub and airframe designs and flight control system types . It was intended to generally limit

  1. Pneumatic boot for helicopter rotor deicing (United States)

    Blaha, B. J.; Evanich, P. L.


    Pneumatic deicer boots for helicopter rotor blades were tested. The tests were conducted in the 6 by 9 ft icing research tunnel on a stationary section of a UH-IH helicopter main rotor blade. The boots were effective in removing ice and in reducing aerodynamic drag due to ice.

  2. 78 FR 23692 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ... in excessive vibration of the helicopter and loss of control of the helicopter. (c) Comments Due Date... Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model AS355E, F, F1, F2, and N helicopters with certain tail rotor...

  3. Helicopter Noise And Noise Abatement Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović


    Full Text Available The helicopter generated noise at and around the airports islower than the noise generated by aeroplanes, since their numberof operations, i. e. the number of takeoffs and landings ismuch lower than the takeoffs and landings of the aeroplanes.Out of some hundred operations a day, helicopters participatewith approximately 15%, but the very impact of noise is by nomeans negligible, since the number of helicopter flights aboveurban areas is constantly increasing.This paper attempts to analyse this phenomenon and thetype of helicopter generated noise, its negative impacts, to explainthe flight procedures and the operative procedures duringtakeoff, landing and overflight of helicopters in operations inthe vicinity and outside airports, as well as the methods of measuringand determining the limit of noise [eve~ and the resultingproblems.

  4. Autonomous Search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric


    Decades of innovations in combinatorial problem solving have produced better and more complex algorithms. These new methods are better since they can solve larger problems and address new application domains. They are also more complex which means that they are hard to reproduce and often harder to fine-tune to the peculiarities of a given problem. This last point has created a paradox where efficient tools are out of reach of practitioners. Autonomous search (AS) represents a new research field defined to precisely address the above challenge. Its major strength and originality consist in the

  5. Small unmanned helicopter's attitude controller by an on-line adaptive fuzzy control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Tong-yue; RAO Jin-jun; GONG Zhen-bang; LUO Jun


    Since small unmanned helicopter flight attitude control process has strong time-varying characteristics and there are random disturbances, the conventional control methods with unchanged parameters are often unworkable. An on-line adaptive fuzzy control system (AFCS) was designed, in a way that does not depend on a process model of the plant or its approximation in the form of a Jacobian matrix. Neither is it necessary to know the desired response at each instant of time. AFCS implement a simultaneous on-line tuning of fuzzy rules and output scale of fuzzy control system. The two cascade controller design with an inner (attitude controller) and outer controller (navigation controller) of the small unmanned helicopter was proposed. At last, an attitude controller based on AFCS was implemented. The flight experiment showed that the proposed fuzzy logic controller provides quicker response, smaller overshoot, higher precision, robustness and adaptive ability. It satisfies the needs of autonomous flight.

  6. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. (United States)

    Freeman, Roy


    Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of an autonomic neuropathy in the developed world. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy causes a constellation of symptoms and signs affecting cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, thermoregulatory, and sudomotor systems. Several discrete syndromes associated with diabetes cause autonomic dysfunction. The most prevalent of these are: generalized diabetic autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy associated with the prediabetic state, treatment-induced painful and autonomic neuropathy, and transient hypoglycemia-associated autonomic neuropathy. These autonomic manifestations of diabetes are responsible for the most troublesome and disabling features of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and result in a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease.

  7. Nonlinear controller design for an unmanned aerial vehicle with a slung-load%无人机吊挂飞行的非线性控制方法设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜斌; 张旭; 杨森


    This article presents a novel nonlinear control strategy for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a slung-load. The dynamic model for a quadrotor UAV system with slung-load is firstly obtained. The load is considered as a mass point, with a rigid link connected to the centre of gravity of the quadrotor UAV. Then, a nonlinear control strategy for the considered system is designed via the energy-based methodology. The proposed control design is able to move the quadrotor UAV to its desired position while suppress the swing of the load. The Lyapunov-based stability analysis and the LaSalle Invariance Theorem are employed to prove the stability of the closed-loop system. The control performance of the proposed control strategy is compared with that of a linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) controller via numerical simulation of stabilization control and regulation control.%针对四旋翼无人机吊挂飞行系统,本文设计了一种新型控制策略。本文首先建立了四旋翼无人机吊挂系统的数学模型。其中负载被看作由刚性绳悬挂在四旋翼无人机重心位置的质点。之后本文通过能量分析的方法设计了针对此系统的非线性控制器。本文提出的控制方法可以在抑制吊挂负载摆动的同时将四旋翼无人机移动到目标位置。本文运用李雅普诺夫稳定性分析和拉塞尔不变性原理对闭环系统的稳定性进行了证明。最后,通过数值仿真,分别将本控制器镇定控制和调节控制的控制效果与线性二次调节器(linear-quadratic regulator, LQR)控制器进行了对比。

  8. Helicopter response to atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Riaz, J.; Prasad, J. V. R.; Schrage, D. P.; Gaonkar, G. H.


    A new time-domain method for simulating cyclostationary turbulence as seen by a translating and rotating blade element has recently been developed for the case of one-dimensional spectral distribution. This paper extends the simulation method to the cases of two- and three-dimensional spectral distributions and presents validation results for the two-dimensional case. The statistics of an isolated rigid blade flapping response to turbulence are computed using a two-dimensional spectral representation of the von Karman turbulence model, and the results are compared with those obtained using the conventional space-fixed turbulence analysis. The new turbulence simulation method is used for predicting the Black Hawk helicopter response to atmospheric turbulence.

  9. US Helicopter Expands Service to Newark Liberty International Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ US Helicopter Corporation ("US Helicopter") (OTC Bulletin Board: USHP) and Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL)announced a partnership to provide eight-minute shuttle service between Manhattan and Newark Liberty International Airport beginning Dec.18, 2006.

  10. 78 FR 54380 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ..., AS355F1, and AS355F2 helicopters with an autopilot installed; Model AS350B3 helicopters with an autopilot or modification 073252 installed; and Model AS355N and AS355NP helicopters with an autopilot or..., AS350D, AS355E, AS355F, AS355F1, AS355F2, AS355N, and AS355NP helicopters with either an autopilot...

  11. 78 FR 40954 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Restricted Category Helicopters (United States)


    ... Helicopter Textron, Inc..; Global Helicopter Technology, Inc.; Hagglund Helicopters, LLC; JJASPP Engineering... fitting. If a fitting has no crack, re-identifying the fitting and its component history card or... with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for...

  12. 78 FR 18230 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ... sides of the helicopter. This AD was prompted by a crack and failure of a cabin vibration damper blade... 2007-SW-053-AD. (a) Applicability This AD applies to Model EC130 B4 helicopters with a cabin vibration..., install a vibration damper casing assembly on both sides of the helicopter by following paragraphs...

  13. Autoimmune autonomic disorders. (United States)

    Mckeon, Andrew; Benarroch, Eduardo E


    Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility. Historically, these disorders were poorly recognized, and thought to be neurodegenerative. Over the last 20 years a number of autoantibody biomarkers have been discovered that have enabled the identification of certain patients as having an autoimmune basis for either autonomic failure or hyperactivity. Peripheral autoimmune autonomic disorders include autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy, and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. AAG manifests with acute or subacute onset of generalized or selective autonomic failure. Antibody targeting the α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α3gAChR) is detected in approximately 50% of cases of AAG. Some other disorders are characterized immunologically by paraneoplastic antibodies with a high positive predictive value for cancer, such as antineuronal nuclear antibody, type 1 (ANNA-1: anti-Hu); others still are seronegative. Recognition of an autoimmune basis for autonomic disorders is important, as their manifestations are disabling, may reflect an underlying neoplasm, and have the potential to improve with a combination of symptomatic and immune therapies.

  14. A New Hybrid Control Architecture to Attenuate Large Horizontal Wind Disturbance for a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to attenuate large horizontal wind disturbance for a small‐scale unmanned autonomous helicopter combining wind tunnel‐based experimental data and a backstepping algorithm. Large horizontal wind disturbance is harmful to autonomous helicopters, especially to small ones because of their low inertia and the high cross‐coupling effects among the multiple inputs. In order to achieve more accurate and faster attenuation of large wind disturbance, a new hybrid control architecture is proposed to take advantage of the direct force/moment compensation based on the wind tunnel experimental data. In this architecture, large horizontal wind disturbance is treated as an additional input to the control system instead of a small perturbation around the equilibrium state. A backstepping algorithm is then designed to guarantee the stable convergence of the helicopter to the desired position. The proposed technique is finally evaluated in simulation on the platform, HIROBO Eagle, compared with a traditional wind velocity compensation method.

  15. Helicopter industry - early beginnings to now; an outlook on the helicopter market and its major players in the rotorcraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranger, L.


    The helicopter is probably the most flexible aircraft that we know today. Although its history dates back to around 1500, the first practical helicopter wasn’t manufactured until the 1940s, roughly three decades after the Wright brothers’ first powered human flight. Today, helicopters fulfil a wide

  16. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  17. [Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias]. (United States)

    Maximova, M Yu; Piradov, M A; Suanova, E T; Sineva, N A


    Review of literature on the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are presented. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are primary headaches with phenotype consisting of trigeminal pain with autonomic sign including lacrimation, rhinorrhea and miosis. Discussed are issues of classification, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of this headache. Special attention is paid to cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hemicrania continua.

  18. Helicopter stability during aggressive maneuvers (United States)

    Mohan, Ranjith

    The dissertation investigates helicopter trim and stability during level bank-angle and diving bank-angle turns. The level turn is moderate in that sufficient power is available to maintain level maneuver, and the diving turn is severe where the power deficit is overcome by the kinetic energy of descent. The investigation basically represents design conditions where the peak loading goes well beyond the steady thrust limit and the rotor experiences appreciable stall. The major objectives are: (1) to assess the sensitivity of the trim and stability predictions to the approximations in modeling stall, (2) to correlate the trim predictions with the UH-60A flight test data, and (3) to demonstrate the feasibility of routinely using the exact fast-Floquet periodic eigenvector method for mode identification in the stability analysis. The UH-60A modeling and analysis are performed using the comprehensive code RCAS (Army's Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System). The trim and damping predictions are based on quasisteady stall, ONERA-Edlin (Equations Differentielles Lineaires) and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall models. From the correlation with the test data, the strengths and weaknesses of the trim predictions are presented.

  19. Simulation of Flow around Isolated Helicopter Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garipov A.O.


    Full Text Available Low fuselage drag has always been a key target of helicopter manufacturers. Therefore, this paper focuses on CFD predictions of the drag of several components of a typical helicopter fuselage. In the first section of the paper, validation of the obtained CFD predictions is carried out using wind tunnel measurements. The measurements were carried out at the Kazan National Research Technical University n.a. A. Tupolev. The second section of the paper is devoted to the analysis of drag contributions of several components of the ANSAT helicopter prototype fuselage using the RANS approach. For this purpose, several configurations of fuselages are considered with different levels of complexity including exhausts and skids. Depending on the complexity of the considered configuration and CFD mesh both the multi-block structured HMB solver and the unstructured commercial tool Fluent are used. Finally, the effect of an actuator disk on the predicted drag is addressed.

  20. Workload and operational fatigue in helicopter pilots. (United States)

    Rotondo, G


    In light of the modern aetiopathogenic views, a brief review was made concerning possible causes of operational fatigue to which flying personnel in general are exposed in the exercise of flying activity. The author then describes and analyzes the meaning and importance of the various stressing factors that constitute the physical and psychic workload to which the helicopter pilot is subjected in performing his professional activities. Also analyzed are the influences exercised, both separately and jointly, on the genesis of flight fatigue in helicopter pilots by stressing and fatiguing effects of vibrations, noise, and psycho-emotional and psycho-sensorial factors related to the variety and danger of utilization of this modern aircraft. Such an analytical investigation enables the author to conclude that one must admit that helicopter piloting involves a psycho-physical workload certainly no less than that required by more powerful and faster aircraft.

  1. Neuro-optimal control of helicopter UAVs (United States)

    Nodland, David; Ghosh, Arpita; Zargarzadeh, H.; Jagannathan, S.


    Helicopter UAVs can be extensively used for military missions as well as in civil operations, ranging from multirole combat support and search and rescue, to border surveillance and forest fire monitoring. Helicopter UAVs are underactuated nonlinear mechanical systems with correspondingly challenging controller designs. This paper presents an optimal controller design for the regulation and vertical tracking of an underactuated helicopter using an adaptive critic neural network framework. The online approximator-based controller learns the infinite-horizon continuous-time Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation and then calculates the corresponding optimal control input that minimizes the HJB equation forward-in-time. In the proposed technique, optimal regulation and vertical tracking is accomplished by a single neural network (NN) with a second NN necessary for the virtual controller. Both of the NNs are tuned online using novel weight update laws. Simulation results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design in hovering applications.

  2. Helicopter trajectory planning using optimal control theory (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.


    A methodology for optimal trajectory planning, useful in the nap-of-the-earth guidance of helicopters, is presented. This approach uses an adjoint-control transformation along with a one-dimensional search scheme for generating the optimal trajectories. In addition to being useful for helicopter nap-of-the-earth guidance, the trajectory planning solution is of interest in several other contexts, such as robotic vehicle guidance and terrain-following guidance for cruise missiles and aircraft. A distinguishing feature of the present research is that the terrain constraint and the threat envelopes are incorporated in the equations of motion. Second-order necessary conditions are examined.

  3. Development of a Cost-efficient Autonomous MAV for an Unstructured Indoor Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Kernbach, Serge


    Performing rescuing and surveillance operations with autonomous ground and aerial vehicles become more and more apparent task. Involving unmanned robot systems allows making these operations more efficient, safe and reliable especially in hazardous areas. This work is devoted to the development of a cost-efficient micro aerial vehicle in a quadrocopter shape for developmental purposes within indoor scenarios. It has been constructed with off-the-shelf components available for mini helicopters. Additional sensors and electronics are incorporated into this aerial vehicle to stabilize its flight behavior and to provide a capability of an autonomous navigation in a partially unstructured indoor environment.

  4. The autonomic laboratory (United States)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.


    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  5. Support of Helicopter 'Free Flight' Operations in the 1996 Olympics (United States)

    Branstetter, James R.; Cooper, Eric G.


    The microcosm of activity surrounding the 1996 Olympic Games provided researchers an opportunity for demonstrating state-of-the art technology in the first large-scale deployment of a prototype digital communication/navigation/surveillance system in a confined environment. At the same time it provided an ideal opportunity for transportation officials to showcase the merits of an integrated transportation system in meeting the operational needs to transport time sensitive goods and provide public safety services under real-world conditions. Five aeronautical CNS functions using a digital datalink system were chosen for operational flight testing onboard 91 aircraft, most of them helicopters, participating in the Atlanta Short-Haul Transportation System. These included: GPS-based Automatic Dependent Surveillance, Cockpit Display of Traffic Information, Controller-Pilot Communications, Graphical Weather Information (uplink), and Automated Electronic Pilot Reporting (downlink). Atlanta provided the first opportunity to demonstrate, in an actual operating environment, key datalink functions which would enhance flight safety and situational awareness for the pilot and supplement conventional air traffic control. The knowledge gained from such a large-scale deployment will help system designers in development of a national infrastructure where aircraft would have the ability to navigate autonomously.

  6. Neuroevolutionary reinforcement learning for generalized helicopter control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppejan, R.; Whiteson, S.


    Helicopter hovering is an important challenge problem in the field of reinforcement learning. This paper considers several neuroevolutionary approaches to discovering robust controllers for a generalized version of the problem used in the 2008 Reinforcement Learning Competition, in which wind in the

  7. 29 CFR 1910.183 - Helicopters. (United States)


    ... the system with the employees in advance of hoisting the load. This applies to both radio and hand... instruct employees, and shall ensure, that whenever approaching or leaving a helicopter which has its... employer shall ensure its use by employees receiving the load. Personal protective equipment shall...

  8. Fuzzy logic mode switching in helicopters (United States)

    Sherman, Porter D.; Warburton, Frank W.


    The application of fuzzy logic to a wide range of control problems has been gaining momentum internationally, fueled by a concentrated Japanese effort. Advanced Research & Development within the Engineering Department at Sikorsky Aircraft undertook a fuzzy logic research effort designed to evaluate how effective fuzzy logic control might be in relation to helicopter operations. The mode switching module in the advanced flight control portion of Sikorsky's motion based simulator was identified as a good candidate problem because it was simple to understand and contained imprecise (fuzzy) decision criteria. The purpose of the switching module is to aid a helicopter pilot in entering and leaving coordinated turns while in flight. The criteria that determine the transitions between modes are imprecise and depend on the varied ranges of three flight conditions (i.e., simulated parameters): Commanded Rate, Duration, and Roll Attitude. The parameters were given fuzzy ranges and used as input variables to a fuzzy rulebase containing the knowledge of mode switching. The fuzzy control program was integrated into a real time interactive helicopter simulation tool. Optimization of the heading hold and turn coordination was accomplished by interactive pilot simulation testing of the handling quality performance of the helicopter dynamic model. The fuzzy logic code satisfied all the requirements of this candidate control problem.

  9. 78 FR 16200 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ..., AS355F1, AS355F2, AS355N, and AS355NP helicopters with either an autopilot or certain modifications..., AS350B2, AS350C, AS350D, AS350D1, AS355E, AS355F, AS355F1, and AS355F2 helicopters with an autopilot installed; (2) Model AS350B3 helicopters with an autopilot or modification 073252 installed; and (3)...

  10. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision The Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  11. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — VisionThe Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  12. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J


    Autonomic neuropathy is a common complication in long-term diabetes, about 30% of the patients showing measurable signs of autonomic dysfunction after 10 years duration of disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to establish because clinical symptoms generally occur late in the course...

  13. Detection And Avoidance Of Obstacles By Helicopters (United States)

    Cheng, Victor H. L.; Sridhar, Banavar


    Report discusses problems relevant to control subsystems enabling helicopters on nap-of-the-Earth flight paths to detect and avoid obstacles automatically. Indicates similarities between this and obstacle-avoidance problem of industrial mobile robots. Two approaches extend two-dimensional obstacle-avoidance concept to three dimensions. First involves direct search of three-dimensional range-map data for indications of openings between obstacles. Second involves compression of data into two-dimensional map for path search.

  14. Helicopter crew/passenger vibration sensitivity - (United States)

    Gabel, R.; Reed, D. A.


    Helicopter crew and passenger vibration sensitivity are presented. Pilot subjective ratings are established for discrete frequencies and the impact of combinations of harmonic frequencies is examined. A passenger long term comfort level and a short term limit are defined for discrete frequencies and compared with pilot ratings. The results show reasonable agreement between pilot and passenger. Subjective comfort levels obtained for mixed frequency environments clearly demonstrate the need for a multi-frequency criterion.

  15. Subjective evaluation of helicopter blade slap noise (United States)

    Galloway, W. J.


    Several methods for adjusting EPNL to account for its underestimate of judged annoyance are applied to eight helicopter flyover noise signatures having various degrees of blade slap. A proposal for an impulsive noise correlation procedure based on a digital analysis of the flyover signal is investigated. When all data are combined, the proposal is little better than simply adding an arbitrary fixed adjustment of 3 decibels to EPNL.

  16. Analysis of muscle fatigue in helicopter pilots. (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Venkatesh; Dutt, Ashwani; Rai, Shobhit


    Helicopter pilots espouse ergonomically unfavourable postures and endure vibration which result in low back pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a helicopter flight on pilots back and shoulder muscles using surface Electromyography (sEMG) analysis. This study also correlates low back pain symptoms from Rehabilitation Bioengineering Group Pain Scale (RBGPS) questionnaire with muscle fatigue rates obtained. RBGPS was administered on 20 Coast Guard helicopter pilots. sEMG was acquired before and after flight from erector spinae and trapezius muscles in 8 of these 20 pilots. Statistical analysis of time and frequency domain parameters indicated significant fatigue in right trapezius muscle due to flying. Muscle fatigue correlated with average duration of flight (r² = 0.913), total service as pilot (r² = 0.825), pain (r² = 0.463) and total flying hours (r² = 0.507). However, muscle fatigue weakly correlated with Body Mass Index (BMI) (r² = 0.000144) and age (r² = 0.033).

  17. Stabilization and trajectory tracking control for underactuated quadrotor helicopter subject to wind-gust disturbance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohd Ariffanan Mohd Basri; Abdul Rashid Husain; Kumeresan A Danapalasingam


    The control of quadrotor helicopter has been a great challenge for control engineers and researchers since quadrotor is an underactuated and a highly unstable nonlinear system. In this paper, the dynamic model of quadrotor has been derived and a so-called robust optimal backstepping control (ROBC) is designed to address its stabilization and trajectory tracking problem in the existence of external disturbances. The robust controller is achieved by incorporating a prior designed optimal backstepping control (OBC) with a switching function. The control law design utilizes the switching function in order to attenuate the effects caused by external disturbances. In order to eliminate the chattering phenomenon, the sign function is replaced by the saturation function. A new heuristic algorithm namely Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) has been employed in designing the OBC. The proposed method is evaluated on a quadrotor simulation environment to demonstrate the effectiveness and merits of the theoretical development. Simulation results show that the proposed ROBC scheme can achieve favorable control performances compared to the OBC for autonomous quadrotor helicopter in the presence of external disturbances.

  18. Detection of Sensor Faults in Small Helicopter UAVs Using Observer/Kalman Filter Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Heredia


    Full Text Available Reliability is a critical issue in navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs since there is no human pilot that can react to any abnormal situation. Due to size and cost limitations, redundant sensor schemes and aeronautical-grade navigation sensors used in large aircrafts cannot be installed in small UAVs. Therefore, other approaches like analytical redundancy should be used to detect faults in navigation sensors and increase reliability. This paper presents a sensor fault detection and diagnosis system for small autonomous helicopters based on analytical redundancy. Fault detection is accomplished by evaluating any significant change in the behaviour of the vehicle with respect to the fault-free behaviour, which is estimated by using an observer. The observer is obtained from input-output experimental data with the Observer/Kalman Filter Identification (OKID method. The OKID method is able to identify the system and an observer with properties similar to a Kalman filter, directly from input-output experimental data. Results are similar to the Kalman filter, but, with the proposed method, there is no need to estimate neither system matrices nor sensor and process noise covariance matrices. The system has been tested with real helicopter flight data, and the results compared with other methods.

  19. A vision system for landing an unmanned helicopter in a complex environment (United States)

    Shi, Haiqing; Wang, Hong


    We present a vision-based landing algorithm for an autonomous helicopter under complex environment (there are several suspected targets). The algorithm is integrated with algorithms for visual acquisition, recognition of the target and computing the navigation information. In our algorithm, we use international standard landing mark as our landing target. The experiment results demonstrate that our algorithm has the feature of robustness, accuracy and real time. It can meet the actual flight requirements well: the average processing time of a 640×480 image is less than 40ms; the position error is below 5cm in each axis of translation; the angle error is below 3.5°. Based on the algorithm, we win the champion of the aerial robot competition in the 2008 China robot competition and the RoboCup China open.

  20. 77 FR 54796 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ... 26, 2010, which specifies installing two siliconed glass wool sleeves over both forward main rotor... the continued airworthiness of these helicopters. ] Costs of Compliance We estimate that this AD will.... Required parts cost $212, for a total cost of $297 for each helicopter. Based upon these costs, we...

  1. Small-Scale Helicopter Automatic Autorotation: Modeling, Guidance, and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taamallah, S.


    Our research objective consists in developing a, model-based, automatic safety recovery system, for a small-scale helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in autorotation, i.e. an engine OFF flight condition, that safely flies and lands the helicopter to a pre-specified ground location. In pursuit o

  2. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services: effects, costs and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N. Ringburg (Akkie)


    textabstractAdvanced prehospital medical care with air transport was introduced in the Netherlands in May 1995. The fi rst helicopter Mobile Medical Team, also called Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) was a joint venture initiative of the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam and the Algemene Ned

  3. The Use of Commercial Remote Sensing Predicting Helicopter Brownout Conditions (United States)


    result in impacting obstacles and other aircraft, or landing with too much momentum and damaging the landing gear or rolling the helicopter over on...Sensing in Predicting Helicopter Brownout Conditions. September 2006 (Top Secret). Tan, Kim H., First Edition, Enviromental Soil Science Marcel

  4. 78 FR 59298 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ... pilot of a Eurocopter Model AS350 helicopter felt slight vibrations in the pedal unit in flight. A few minutes later, the vibration level increased and the pilot carried out a precautionary autorotation... neutral position. If the helicopter is fitted with a T/R load compensator, discharge the accumulator...

  5. 78 FR 44043 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ... unsafe condition is likely to exist or develop on other products of the same type design. Related Service....3 Flight Envelope, Item 2 Temperature Limits, of the helicopter's Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM... Operating Limitations Section of the helicopter's Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) by making pen and...

  6. Power harvesting using piezoelectric materials: applications in helicopter rotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.H.


    The blades of helicopters are heavily loaded and are critical components. Failure of any one blade will lead to loss of the aircraft. Currently, the technical lifespan of helicopter blades is calculated using a worst-case operation scenario. The consequence is that a blade that may be suitable for,

  7. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity. (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan


    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance.

  8. A Simplified Mobile Ad Hoc Network Structure for Helicopter Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldime Mohamed Salih Abdelgader


    Full Text Available There are a number of volunteer and statutory organizations who are capable of conducting an emergency response using helicopters. Rescue operations require a rapidly deployable high bandwidth network to coordinate necessary relief efforts between rescue teams on the ground and helicopters. Due to massive destruction and loss of services, ordinary communication infrastructures may collapse in these situations. Consequently, information exchange becomes one of the major challenges in these circumstances. Helicopters can be also employed for providing many services in rugged environments, military applications, and aerial photography. Ad hoc network can be used to provide alternative communication link between a set of helicopters, particularly in case of significant amount of data required to be shared. This paper addresses the ability of using ad hoc networks to support the communication between a set of helicopters. A simplified network structure model is presented and extensively discussed. Furthermore, a streamlined routing algorithm is proposed. Comprehensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the proposed routing algorithm.

  9. 78 FR 66252 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... prompted by AD No. CF-2007-13R2, dated November 10, 2009, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada. TCCA issued AD No. CF-2007-13R2 to correct an unsafe condition for certain Model 206B (including those converted from Model 206A) and 206L helicopters....

  10. 78 FR 65202 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ...-2005-24, dated July 4, 2005, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada. TCCA issued AD CF-2005-24 to correct an unsafe condition for Model 230 helicopters. TCCA advises of several failures of third stage turbine wheels used in Rolls Royce 250-C30S and...

  11. 78 FR 65206 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ...-2005-25, dated July 5, 2005, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada. TCCA issued AD No. CF-2005-25 to correct an unsafe condition for Model 430 helicopters. TCCA advises that several failures of third stage turbine wheels used in Rolls Royce 250-C30S and...

  12. 78 FR 56148 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ...-2009-32, dated July 24, 2009, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada, to correct an unsafe condition for the specified Bell model ] helicopters. TCCA... operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral agreement with Canada, TCCA has notified us of...

  13. 78 FR 65200 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada. TCCA issued AD No. CF-2004-09R1 to correct an unsafe condition for Model 407 helicopters. TCCA advises that several failures... failures have occurred to the 250- C47B engine used by Bell on the Model 407. According to TCCA,...

  14. 75 FR 5681 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. Model 205B and 212 Helicopters (United States)


    ..., Rotorcraft Directorate, Rotorcraft Certification Office, 2601 Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas 76137... condition is likely to exist or develop on other helicopters of the same type design. Therefore, this AD is... 39.19. Contact the Manager, Rotorcraft Certification Office, ATTN: Michael Kohner, Aviation...

  15. 77 FR 5423 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada, Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... and reflections that could degrade the pilot's view while using night vision goggles thereby creating... while using night vision goggles and to prevent subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: We... could degrade the pilot's view while the pilot is using night vision goggles. This proposed AD...

  16. 75 FR 62639 - Air Ambulance and Commercial Helicopter Operations, Part 91 Helicopter Operations, and Part 135... (United States)


    ...--Nautical mile NTSB--National Transportation Safety Board NVG--Night vision goggles NVIS--Night-vision... ambulances have varying situational- awareness technology (such as night vision goggles, HTAWS, radio... during night conditions as four common factors in helicopter air ambulance accidents. A review...

  17. 76 FR 2607 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. (MDHI) Model MD900 Helicopters (United States)


    ... System (VSCS) switches and turning off the autopilot (AP/SAS) switch; pulling certain AP/SAS circuit... flight to VFR, prohibiting use of the autopilot, and making changes to the RFM. For all helicopters, the...) Turn ON both VSCS switches. (b) If installed, de-energize the autopilot (AP/SAS) as follows:...

  18. Inherited autonomic neuropathies. (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Hilz, Max J


    Inherited autonomic neuropathies are a rare group of disorders associated with sensory dysfunction. As a group they are termed the "hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies" (HSAN). Classification of the various autonomic and sensory disorders is ongoing. In addition to the numerical classification of four distinct forms proposed by Dyck and Ohta (1975), additional entities have been described. The best known and most intensively studied of the HSANs are familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN type III) and congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (HSAN type IV). Diagnosis of the HSANs depends primarily on clinical examinations and specific sensory and autonomic assessments. Pathologic examinations are helpful in confirming the diagnosis and in differentiating between the different disorders. In recent years identification of specific genetic mutations for some disorders has aided diagnosis. Replacement or definitive therapies are not available for any of the disorders so that treatment remains supportive and directed toward specific symptoms.

  19. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren


    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  20. Autonomic cardiac innervation


    Hasan, Wohaib


    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targe...

  1. General equilibrium characteristics of a dual-lift helicopter system (United States)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Kanning, G.


    The equilibrium characteristics of a dual-lift helicopter system are examined. The system consists of the cargo attached by cables to the endpoints of a spreader bar which is suspended by cables below two helicopters. Results are given for the orientation angles of the suspension system and its internal forces, and for the helicopter thrust vector requirements under general circumstances, including nonidentical helicopters, any accelerating or static equilibrium reference flight condition, any system heading relative to the flight direction, and any distribution of the load to the two helicopters. Optimum tether angles which minimize the sum of the required thrust magnitudes are also determined. The analysis does not consider the attitude degrees of freedom of the load and helicopters in detail, but assumes that these bodies are stable, and that their aerodynamic forces in equilibrium flight can be determined independently as functions of the reference trajectory. The ranges of these forces for sample helicopters and loads are examined and their effects on the equilibrium characteristics are given parametrically in the results.

  2. Autonomous Evolutionary Information Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Traditional information systems are passive, i.e., data orknowledge is created , retrieved, modified, updated, and deleted only in response to operations issued by users or application programs, and the systems only can execute queries or t ransactions explicitly submitted by users or application programs but have no ab ility to do something actively by themselves. Unlike a traditional information system serving just as a storehouse of data or knowledge and working passively a ccording to queries or transactions explicitly issued by users and application p rograms, an autonomous evolutionary information system serves as an autonomous a nd evolutionary partner of its users that discovers new knowledge from its datab ase or knowledge-base autonomously, cooperates with its users in solving proble m s actively by providing the users with advices, and has a certain mechanism to i mprove its own state of “knowing” and ability of “working”. This paper semi nall y defines what is an autonomous evolutionary information system, explain why aut onomous evolutionary information systems are needed, and presents some new issue s, fundamental considerations, and research directions in design and development of autonomous evolutionary information systems.

  3. Autonomic disturbances in narcolepsy. (United States)

    Plazzi, Giuseppe; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Maggi, Leonardo Serra; Donadio, Vincenzo; Vetrugno, Roberto; Liguori, Rocco; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Poli, Francesca; Pizza, Fabio; Pagotto, Uberto; Ferri, Raffaele


    Narcolepsy is a clinical condition characterized mainly by excessive sleepiness and cataplexy. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis complete the narcoleptic tetrad; disrupted night sleep, automatic behaviors and weight gain are also usual complaints. Different studies focus on autonomic changes or dysfunctions among narcoleptic patients, such as pupillary abnormalities, fainting spells, erectile dysfunction, night sweats, gastric problems, low body temperature, systemic hypotension, dry mouth, heart palpitations, headache and extremities dysthermia. Even if many studies lack sufficient standardization or their results have not been replicated, a non-secondary involvement of the autonomic nervous system in narcolepsy is strongly suggested, mainly by metabolic and cardiovascular findings. Furthermore, the recent discovery of a high risk for overweight and for metabolic syndrome in narcoleptic patients represents an important warning for clinicians in order to monitor and follow them up for their autonomic functions. We review here studies on autonomic functions and clinical disturbances in narcoleptic patients, trying to shed light on the possible contribute of alterations of the hypocretin system in autonomic pathophysiology.

  4. Planning German Army Helicopter Maintenance and Mission Assignment (United States)



  5. Study of the helicopter blade running elevation measurement system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Helicopter blade running elevation measurement is an important measure target in helicopter blade dynamic balance experimentation. The elevation influences the helicopter's security and other performance capabilities. In testing, however, it has been difficult to measure the elevation when the rotor reaches high speeds. To get a simple, fast and highly accurate measurement system, photo electricity technology was applied to measuring the blade running elevation. Discussed is the measurement principle of blade running elevation, the design of the measurement system and analysis of the measurement precision.

  6. Compound cycle engine for helicopter application (United States)

    Castor, Jere; Martin, John; Bradley, Curtiss


    The compound cycle engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power-compounded, ultra-high-power-density, lightweight diesel engine. The turbomachinery is similar to a moderate-pressure-ratio, free-power-turbine gas turbine engine and the diesel core is high speed and a low compression ratio. This engine is considered a potential candidate for future military helicopter applications. Cycle thermodynamic specific fuel consumption (SFC) and engine weight analyses performed to establish general engine operating parameters and configurations are presented. An extensive performance and weight analysis based on a typical 2-hour helicopter (+30 minute reserve) mission determined final conceptual engine design. With this mission, CCE performance was compared to that of a contemporary gas turbine engine. The CCE had a 31 percent lower-fuel consumption and resulted in a 16 percent reduction in engine plus fuel and fuel tank weight. Design SFC of the CCE is 0.33 lb/hp-hr and installed wet weight is 0.43 lb/hp. The major technology development areas required for the CCE are identified and briefly discussed.

  7. Helicopter pilot back pain: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Shanahan, D F; Reading, T E


    Because of the high prevalence of back pain experienced by U.S. Army helicopter pilots, a study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of reproducing these symptoms in the laboratory. A mock-up of a UH-1H seat and control configuration was mounted to a multi-axis vibration simulator (MAVS). Eleven subjects were tested on the apparatus for two 120-min periods. During one period, the MAVS was programmed to reproduce vibrations recorded from a UH-1H in cruise flight. The subjects received no vibration during the other test period. All subjects reported back pain which they described as identical to the pain they experience during flight, during one or more of their test periods. There was no statistical difference between the vibration and nonvibration test conditions (p greater than 0.05) in terms of time of onset of pain or intensity of pain as measured by a visual analog scale. It appears the vibration at the frequencies and amplitudes tested plays little or no role in the etiology of the back symptoms reported by these pilots. It is proposed that the primary etiological factor for these symptoms is the poor posture pilots are obliged to assume for extended periods while operating helicopters.

  8. Simple Autonomous Chaotic Circuits (United States)

    Piper, Jessica; Sprott, J.


    Over the last several decades, numerous electronic circuits exhibiting chaos have been proposed. Non-autonomous circuits with as few as two components have been developed. However, the operation of such circuits relies on the non-ideal behavior of the devices used, and therefore the circuit equations can be quite complex. In this paper, we present two simple autonomous chaotic circuits using only opamps and linear passive components. The circuits each use one opamp as a comparator, to provide a signum nonlinearity. The chaotic behavior is robust, and independent of nonlinearities in the passive components. Moreover, the circuit equations are among the algebraically simplest chaotic systems yet constructed.

  9. 78 FR 34282 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... wheels used in Rolls Royce 250-C30S and 250-C-47B engines. According to TC, Rolls Royce has determined... flight manual. Revision A to ASB was issued to exclude Bell Model 206L-3 and 206L-4 helicopters with 250... citation for part 39 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701. Sec. 39.13...

  10. Task and Motion Planning for Selective Weed Conrol using a Team of Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibrahim; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Hansen, Karl Damkjær


    with the right amount. In this article, a task and motion planning for a team of autonomous vehicles to reduce chemicals in farming is presented. Field data are collected by small unmanned helicopters equipped with a range of sensors, including multispectral and thermal cameras. Data collected are transmitted......Conventional agricultural fields are sprayed uniformly to control weeds, insects, and diseases. To reduce cultivation expenses, to produce healthier food and to create more environmentally friendly farms, chemicals should only be applied to the right place at the right time and exactly...

  11. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  12. Reporting Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Major Incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattah, Sabina; Johnsen, Anne Siri; Sollid, Stephen J M;


    OBJECTIVE: Research on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in major incidents is predominately based on case descriptions reported in a heterogeneous fashion. Uniform data reported with a consensus-based template could facilitate the collection, analysis, and exchange of experiences...

  13. Helicopter transmission arrangements with split-torque gear trains (United States)

    White, G.


    As an alternative to component development, the case for improved drive-train configuration is argued. In particular, the use of torque-splitting gear trains is proposed as a practicable means of improving the effectiveness of helicopter main gearboxes.

  14. Dynamics Analysis of Close-coupling Multiple Helicopters System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhigang; Lu Tiansheng


    The particularity and practicality of harmony operations of close-coupling multiple helicopters indicate that the researches on it are urgent and necessary. Using the model that describes two hovering helicopters carrying one heavy load, an inertia coordinate system and body coordinate systems of each sub-system are established. A nonlinear force model is established too. The equilibrium computation results can be regarded as the reference control inputs of the flight control system under hovering or low-speed flight condition. After the establishment of a translation kinematics model and a posture kinematics model, a coupling dynamics model of the multiple helicopter system is set up. The results can also be regarded as the base to analyze stabilization and design a controller for a close-coupling multiple helicopters harmony operation system.

  15. Helicopter noise exposure curves for use in environmental impact assessment (United States)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickley, E. J.; Bland, T. L.


    This report establishes the current (1982) FAA helicopter noise data base for use in environmental impact assessment. The report sets out assumptions, methodologies, and techniques used in arriving at noise-exposure-versus-distance relationships. Noise data are provided for 15 helicopters, including five flight regimes each: takeoff, approach, level flyover, hover in-ground-effect (HIGE) and hover out-of-ground effect (HOGE). When possible, level flyover data are presented for a variety of airspeeds. Sound exposure level (SEL) is provided for all operational modes except hover. In the case of hover operations (both HOGE and HIGE), the maximum A-Weighted Sound Level (LAM) is identified as a function of distance. The report also includes a discussion of helicopter performance characteristics required for full computer modeling of helicopter/heliport noise exposure.

  16. A Computational Tool for Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project proposes to develop a computational tool for helicopter rotor noise prediction based on hybrid Cartesian grid/gridless approach. The uniqueness of...

  17. Aircrew-aircraft integration issues in future US Army helicopters (United States)

    Hartzell, E. J.; Aiken, E. W.; Voorhees, J. W.


    Some human factors research issues, the resolution of which will be vital to the successful operation of future military helicopters are reviewed. Understanding and reducing the helicopter pilot's workload is examined by a diverse program directed at answering some of the more fundamental questions relating to the transfer displays and interactions between pilot and automated systems. The results of three experimental studies which address the issues of display control compatibility, characteristics of integrated controllers, and voice systems are presented.

  18. Preliminary Analysis of Helicopter Options to Support Tunisian Counterterrorism Operations (United States)


    results of the current analysis and in Mouton et al., 2015, is the relative cost -effectiveness between the CH-47D and the Mi-17v5. In the previous...helicopters from Sikorsky to fulfill a number of roles in counterterrorism operations. Rising costs and delays in delivery raised the question of...whether other cost -effective options exist to meet Tunisia’s helicopter requirement. Approach Our team conducted a preliminary assessment of

  19. The scope of back pain in Navy helicopter pilots


    Phillips, Andrea S.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Human Systems Integration Report This thesis investigates issues such as long hours in the cockpit, ineffective seat padding, Night Vision Goggle (NVG) use, and the constant vibrations involved in flying rotary wing aircraft. Pain is subjective and severity is difficult to compare between individuals. Does back pain affect safety of flight? In the military helicopter aviator community, 60-80% of helicopter pilots are estimated ...

  20. Development of Targeting UAVs Using Electric Helicopters and Yamaha RMAX (United States)


    helicopter, not just its change. B. Control Strategy Helicopters are well known to be an underactuated system , which means there are fewer...signal between the radio control receiver and the flight computer because, if all system fails and the power is lost, the mechanical relay will be de...Typically, high-precision targeting or image stabilization is achieved by an add-on gimbal system . Secondary actuators cancel out the vehicle’s translation

  1. Helicopter Flight Control Research - A Demanding Application of Piloted Simulation. (United States)


    Sigma-8 digital computer (used to run the aircraft mathematical model) and an Applied Dynamics AD-4 analogue computer (used principally as a flexible...interface to cockpit instruments, and for motion and visual systems operation) (Fig 4). The first helicopter simulation to use a digital aircraft...34 Control Technology for helicopters. For fixed-wing aircraft, impresive claims were being made for electrically (and later optically) signalled control

  2. Autonomous Hexapod Spider Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Nisha; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar


    of a hexapod robot. It is controlled through Arduino-unoR3 based SSC servo control module. Servos of torque 2.5kg-cm are used in robot to show different working movements including back and forth movement and sitting posture. Another trending technology i.e. Bluetooth is used to control autonomous feature...

  3. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel


    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  4. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben


    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  5. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de


    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  6. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.


    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  7. Identification of helicopter rotor dynamic models (United States)

    Molusis, J. A.; Bar-Shalom, Y.; Warmbrodt, W.


    A recursive, extended Kalman-filter approach is applied to the identifiction of rotor damping levels of representative helicopter dynamic systems. The general formulation of the approach is presented in the context of a typically posed stochastic estimation problem, and the method is analytically applied to determining the damping levels of a coupled rotor-body system. The identified damping covergence characteristics are studied for sensitivity to both constant-coefficient and periodic-coefficient measurement models, process-noise covariance levels, and specified initial estimates of the rotor-system damping. A second application of the method to identifying the plant model for a highly damped, isolated flapping blade with a constant-coefficient state model (hover) and a periodic-coefficient state model (forward flight) is also investigated. The parameter-identification capability is evaluated for the effect of periodicity on the plant model coefficients and the influence of different measurement noise levels.

  8. Biologically Inspired Strategies, Algorithms and Hardware for Visual Guidance of Autonomous Helicopters (United States)


    accurate measurement of optic flow along this axis [3]. This way of mapping the world is similar in some respects to that achieved by the compound...eyestalks and the visual world of semi- terrestrial crabs”, J Comp Physiol A, vol. 159, pp. 801-811, 1986. [5] R. J. D. Moore, S. Thurrrowgood, D. Bland...3-8, 2010. [8] G. Stange, “The ocellar component of flight equilibrium control in dragonflies ,” Journal of Comparative Physiology, vol. 141, pp. 335

  9. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.


    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  10. Autonomous Undersea Observations (United States)


    less expensive sensor systems for a variety of applications, including measurement of physical characteristics of the ocean, threat detection, and...multiple autonomous environmental sensors within an acoustic modem-based infrastructure capable of communicating to and from the sensors and to and...networks, and telesonar with high speed platforms. This effort is concentrating on the development and demonstration of the two modem- based sensors . We

  11. Autonomous robotic sweeper


    Kržišnik, Domen


    There is already a wide range of personal/domestic robots on the market capable of performing various tasks. We haven't however been able to find any commercially available robots designed for effectively performing the task of backyard sweeping. This thesis presents the process and end result of planning, assembly and programming of an autonomous robot, capable of performing the above mentioned task. We first analyze robots with similar functions, including robotic vacuum cleaners and lawn m...

  12. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.


    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  13. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. (United States)

    Eller, M; Goadsby, P J


    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterised by lateralized symptoms: prominent headache and ipsilateral cranial autonomic features, such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation and rhinorrhea. The TACs are: cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)/short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic features (SUNA) and hemicrania continua (HC). Their diagnostic criteria are outlined in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition-beta (ICHD-IIIb). These conditions are distinguished by their attack duration and frequency, as well as response to treatment. HC is continuous and by definition responsive to indomethacin. The main differential when considering this headache is chronic migraine. Other TACs are remarkable for their short duration and must be distinguished from other short-lasting painful conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache. Cluster headache is characterised by exquisitely painful attacks that occur in discrete episodes lasting 15-180 min a few times a day. In comparison, PH occurs more frequently and is of shorter duration, and like HC is responsive to indomethacin. SUNCT/SUNA is the shortest duration and highest frequency TAC; attacks can occur over a hundred times every day.

  14. Helicopter Parenting: The Effect of an Overbearing Caregiving Style on Peer Attachment and Self-Efficacy (United States)

    van Ingen, Daniel J.; Freiheit, Stacy R.; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Moore, Linda L.; Wimer, David J.; Knutt, Adelle D.; Scapinello, Samantha; Roberts, Amber


    Helicopter parenting, an observed phenomenon on college campuses, may adversely affect college students. The authors examined how helicopter parenting is related to self-efficacy and peer relationships among 190 undergraduate students ages 16 to 28 years. Helicopter parenting was associated with low self-efficacy, alienation from peers, and a lack…

  15. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (United States)


    ....271 Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (a) No certificate holder may... assignment, for hospital emergency medical evacuation service helicopter operations unless that assignment... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency...

  16. 78 FR 40055 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters (United States)


    .... We also estimate that it would take about 3 work-hours per helicopter to rework the top cable cutter... helicopter to rework the top cable cutter assembly, $9,085 per helicopter to replace the top cable cutter... WSPS upper installation, P/N 4G9540A00111, either: (i) Rework the top cable cutter assembly, P/N...

  17. 78 FR 52410 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (United States)


    ..., separation of tail rotor parts, severe vibration, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY..., MBB-BK 117 B-1, MBB-BK-117 B-2, and MBB-BK 117 C-1 helicopters to require inspections for corrosion...

  18. 77 FR 52265 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (United States)


    ... rotor parts, severe vibration, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. You may obtain further... vibration, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. (c) Compliance You are responsible for... Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ] ACTION: Notice of...

  19. 78 FR 12651 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters (United States)


    ... a crack. Following increased ground vibrations in a Model A 109E helicopter, another crack was... each start of the helicopter engines, allowing an owner/operator (pilot) to check the T/R blade for a.... Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...

  20. Toward autonomous rotorcraft flight in degraded visual environments: experiments and lessons learned (United States)

    Stambler, Adam; Spiker, Spencer; Bergerman, Marcel; Singh, Sanjiv


    Unmanned cargo delivery to combat outposts will inevitably involve operations in degraded visual environments (DVE). When DVE occurs, the aircraft autonomy system needs to be able to function regardless of the obscurant level. In 2014, Near Earth Autonomy established a baseline perception system for autonomous rotorcraft operating in clear air conditions, when its m3 sensor suite and perception software enabled autonomous, no-hover landings onto unprepared sites populated with obstacles. The m3's long-range lidar scanned the helicopter's path and the perception software detected obstacles and found safe locations for the helicopter to land. This paper presents the results of initial tests with the Near Earth perception system in a variety of DVE conditions and analyzes them from the perspective of mission performance and risk. Tests were conducted with the m3's lidar and a lightweight synthetic aperture radar in rain, smoke, snow, and controlled brownout experiments. These experiments showed the capability to penetrate through mild DVE but the perceptual capabilities became degraded with the densest brownouts. The results highlight the need for not only improved ability to see through DVE, but also for improved algorithms to monitor and report DVE conditions.

  1. Autonomic disorders in multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Lensch, E; Jost, W H


    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on history taking and clinical examination. Individual diagnosis and treatment is a secondary feature. Impairments of the autonomic nervous systems in multiple sclerosis are frequently overlooked.

  2. Autonomic Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lensch


    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on history taking and clinical examination. Individual diagnosis and treatment is a secondary feature. Impairments of the autonomic nervous systems in multiple sclerosis are frequently overlooked.

  3. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J


    In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity...... of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors...

  4. Passive suppression of helicopter ground resonance using nonlinear energy sinks attached on the helicopter blades (United States)

    Bergeot, B.; Bellizzi, S.; Cochelin, B.


    This paper investigates the passive control of a rotor instability named helicopter Ground Resonance (GR). The passive device consists of a set of essential cubic nonlinear absorbers named Nonlinear Energy Sinks (NES) each of them positioned on a blade. A dynamic model reproducing helicopter GR instability is presented and transformed to a time-invariant nonlinear system using a multi-blade coordinate transformation based on Fourier transform mapping the dynamic state variables into a non-rotating reference frame. Combining complexification, slow/fast partition of the dynamics and averaging procedure, a reduced model is obtained which allowed us to use the so-called geometric singular perturbation analysis to characterize the steady state response regimes. As in the case of a NES attached to the fuselage, it is shown that under suitable conditions, GR instability can be completely suppressed, partially suppressed through periodic response or strongly modulated response. Relevant analytical results are compared, for validation purposes, to direct integration of the reference and reduced models.

  5. Study of operational parameters impacting helicopter fuel consumption. [using computer techniques (computer programs) (United States)

    Cross, J. L.; Stevens, D. D.


    A computerized study of operational parameters affecting helicopter fuel consumption was conducted as an integral part of the NASA Civil Helicopter Technology Program. The study utilized the Helicopter Sizing and Performance Computer Program (HESCOMP) developed by the Boeing-Vertol Company and NASA Ames Research Center. An introduction to HESCOMP is incorporated in this report. The results presented were calculated using the NASA CH-53 civil helicopter research aircraft specifications. Plots from which optimum flight conditions for minimum fuel use that can be obtained are presented for this aircraft. The results of the study are considered to be generally indicative of trends for all helicopters.

  6. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine


    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  7. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin BUTOESCU


    Full Text Available A vortex model of a helicopter rotor is presented. Each blade of the rotor has three degrees of freedom: flapping, lagging and feathering. The motions after each degree of freedom are also known for all blades. The blade is modelled as a thin vortex surface. The wakes are free fluid surfaces. A system of five equations are obtained: the first one is the integral equation of the lifting surface (rotor, the next three describe the wakes motion, and the last one relates the vortex strength on the wakes and the variation of vorticity on the rotor. A numerical solution of this system is presented. To avoid the singularities that can occur due to the complexity of vortex system, a desingularized model of the vortex core was adopted. A Mathcad worksheet containing the method has been written.The original contribution of the work. The calculation method of the motion of the wakes free vortex system, the development of the vortex cores in time and a new method to approximate the aerodynamic influence of remoted wake regions.

  9. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission (United States)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  10. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.


    Split torque designs, proposed as alternatives to traditional planetary designs for helicopter main rotor transmissions, can save weight and be more reliable than traditional designs. This report presents the results of an analytical study of the system dynamics and performance of a split torque gearbox that uses a balance beam mechanism for load sharing. The Lagrange method was applied to develop a system of equations of motion. The mathematical model includes time-varying gear mesh stiffness, friction, and manufacturing errors. Cornell's method for calculating the stiffness of spur gear teeth was extended and applied to helical gears. The phenomenon of sidebands spaced at shaft frequencies about gear mesh fundamental frequencies was simulated by modeling total composite gear errors as sinusoid functions. Although the gearbox has symmetric geometry, the loads and motions of the two power paths differ. Friction must be considered to properly evaluate the balance beam mechanism. For the design studied, the balance beam is not an effective device for load sharing unless the coefficient of friction is less than 0.003. The complete system stiffness as represented by the stiffness matrix used in this analysis must be considered to precisely determine the optimal tooth indexing position.

  11. Condition Monitoring for Helicopter Data. Appendix A (United States)

    Wen, Fang; Willett, Peter; Deb, Somnath


    In this paper the classical "Westland" set of empirical accelerometer helicopter data is analyzed with the aim of condition monitoring for diagnostic purposes. The goal is to determine features for failure events from these data, via a proprietary signal processing toolbox, and to weigh these according to a variety of classification algorithms. As regards signal processing, it appears that the autoregressive (AR) coefficients from a simple linear model encapsulate a great deal of information in a relatively few measurements; it has also been found that augmentation of these by harmonic and other parameters can improve classification significantly. As regards classification, several techniques have been explored, among these restricted Coulomb energy (RCE) networks, learning vector quantization (LVQ), Gaussian mixture classifiers and decision trees. A problem with these approaches, and in common with many classification paradigms, is that augmentation of the feature dimension can degrade classification ability. Thus, we also introduce the Bayesian data reduction algorithm (BDRA), which imposes a Dirichlet prior on training data and is thus able to quantify probability of error in an exact manner, such that features may be discarded or coarsened appropriately.

  12. A hybrid model of a subminiature helicopter in horizontal turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Li; Gong Zhenbang; Liu Liang


    A hybrid model of a subminiature helicopter in horizontal turn is presented. This model is based on a mechanism model and its compensated neural network (NN). First, the nonlinear dynamics of a subminiature helicopter is established. Through the linearization of the nonlinear dynamics on a trim point, the linear time-invariant mechanism model in horizontal turn is obtained. Then a diagonal recursive neural network is used to compensate the model error between the mechanism model and the nonlinear model, thus the hybrid model of a subminiature helicopter in horizontal turn is achieved. Simulation results show that the hybrid model has higher accuracy than the mechanism model and the obtained compensated-NN has good generalization capability.

  13. Flap motion of helicopter rotors with novel, dynamic stall model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wei


    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear flapping equation for large inflow angles and flap angles is established by analyzing the aerodynamics of helicopter blade elements. In order to obtain a generalized flap equation, the Snel stall model was first applied to determine the lift coefficient of the helicopter rotor. A simulation experiment for specific airfoils was then conducted to verify the effectiveness of the Snel stall model as it applies to helicopters. Results show that the model requires no extraneous parameters compared to the traditional stall model and is highly accurate and practically applicable. Based on the model, the relationship between the flapping angle and the angle of attack was analyzed, as well as the advance ratio under the dynamic stall state.

  14. Evaluation of ride quality prediction methods for operational military helicopters (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.


    The results of a simulator study conducted to compare and validate various ride quality prediction methods for use in assessing passenger/crew ride comfort within helicopters are presented. Included are results quantifying 35 helicopter pilots' discomfort responses to helicopter interior noise and vibration typical of routine flights, assessment of various ride quality metrics including the NASA ride comfort model, and examination of possible criteria approaches. Results of the study indicated that crew discomfort results from a complex interaction between vibration and interior noise. Overall measures such as weighted or unweighted root-mean-square acceleration level and A-weighted noise level were not good predictors of discomfort. Accurate prediction required a metric incorporating the interactive effects of both noise and vibration. The best metric for predicting crew comfort to the combined noise and vibration environment was the NASA discomfort index.

  15. Autonomous mobile robot teams (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.


    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  16. Flying control of small-type helicopter by detecting its in-air natural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka Premachandra


    Full Text Available Control of a small type helicopter is an interesting research area in unmanned aerial vehicle development. This study aims to detect a more typical helicopter unequipped with markers as a means by which to resolve the various issues of the prior studies. Accordingly, we propose a method of detecting the helicopter location and pose through using an infrastructure camera to recognize its in-air natural features such as ellipse traced by the rotation of the helicopter's propellers. A single-rotor system helicopter was used as the controlled airframe in our experiments. Here, helicopter location is measured by detecting the main rotor ellipse center and pose is measured following relationship between the main rotor ellipse and the tail rotor ellipse. Following these detection results we confirmed the hovering control possibility of the helicopter through experiments.

  17. Identification of Helicopter Rigid Body Dynamics from Flight Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder Singh


    Full Text Available This paper discusses helicopter modelling and identification related aspects. By applying thesystem identification methodology, longitudinal and lateral-directional rigid body helicopter dynamics are identified from flight data. Aerodynamic parameters from single input excitation as wellas multimanoeuver evaluation are estimated utilising output-error approach. The formulatedmathematical models yield adequate fit to measured time histories. Results obtained from the proof-of-match for model validation indicate that the identified derivatives can satisfactorily predictlongitudinal dynamics to a given arbitrary input. It is further demonstrated for the present study thatlateral body dynamics can be adequately predicted by including cross-coupling terms in the estimation model.

  18. Learning for Autonomous Navigation (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric


    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  19. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu


    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  20. Proportionality and Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.


    Given the swift technologic development, it may be expected that the availability of the first truly autonomous weapons systems is fast approaching. Once they are deployed, these weapons will use artificial intelligence to select and attack targets without further human intervention. Autonomous weap

  1. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book (United States)

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.


    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  2. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  3. 77 FR 42971 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Restricted Category Helicopters (United States)


    ... that is removed with a wire brush or steel wool in the threaded portion of the mast. FAA's.... Costs of Compliance We estimate that this AD will affect 80 helicopters of U.S. Registry, and that... Flexibility Act. We prepared an economic evaluation of the estimated costs to comply with this AD and...

  4. 77 FR 14310 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ... No. 29.00.13, dated July 26, 2010 (ASB 29.00.13), which specifies installing two siliconed glass wool... proposed AD does not, as this model is not type certificated in the U.S. Costs of Compliance We estimate that this proposed AD would affect 695 helicopters of U.S. Registry. We estimate that operators...

  5. 78 FR 17591 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters (United States)


    ... elements with 10 micron fuel filter elements at the next scheduled inspection or within 150 flight hours... identification plate, cross out the last two digits (``09'') of the ] existing fuel filter P/N 52-2145-009, and... helicopters to require replacing each forward and aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with a...

  6. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised): Instrument Pilot: Helicopter. (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…

  7. From Self-Flying Helicopters to Classrooms of the Future (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.


    On a summer day four years ago, a Stanford University computer-science professor named Andrew Ng held an unusual air show on a field near the campus. His fleet of small helicopter drones flew under computer control, piloted by artificial-intelligence software that could teach itself to fly after watching a human operator. By the end of the day,…



    Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt; Zribi, Mohamed; Ahmad, Shaheen


    In this article, a dynamical multivariable discontinuous feedback control strategy of the sliding nlode type is proposed for the altitude stabilization of a nonlinear helicopter model in vertical flight. Vlrhile retaining the basic robustness features associated to sliding mode control policies, the proposed approach also results in smoothed out (i.e., non-chattering) input trajectories and controlled state variable responses.

  9. At Issue: Helicopter Parents and Millennial Students, an Annotated Bibliography (United States)

    Pricer, Wayne F.


    Technological advances have made it easy for parents and children--many of them students--to communicate instantaneously. Devices and technologies such as cell phones, laptops, texting, and e-mail all enable various forms of instant communication. "Helicopter parents" are regarded as very overprotective and overly involved in the affairs of their…

  10. Past applications and future potential of variable stability research helicopters (United States)

    Hindson, W. S.


    The historical development of variable-stability research helicopters and some of their previous applications are presented as a guide for assessing their future potential. The features of three general-purpose rotary-wing flight research aircraft that provide complementary capabilities are described briefly, and a number of future applications are proposed.

  11. 77 FR 56581 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters (United States)


    ...) Model S-92A helicopter, which proposed revising the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM), Operating... carrying Class D external loads. This Supplemental NPRM is prompted by a recent design approval, which... PROHIBITED.'' That NPRM was prompted by a mistake in the RFM, which allowed ``Class D'' rotorcraft...

  12. Robust Helicopter Stabilization in the Face of Wind Disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Danapalasingam, Kumeresan; Leth, John-Josef; la Cour-Harbo, Anders


    When a helicopter is required to hover with minimum deviations from a desired position without measurements of an affecting persistent wind disturbance, a robustly stabilizing control action is vital. In this paper, the stabilization of the position and translational velocity of a nonlinear...

  13. 77 FR 58971 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters (United States)


    ... cargo compartment shelf without reinforcement per Modification 365P081895. Within 110 hours time-in... install a ] shelf reinforcement kit per helicopter at an average labor rate of $85 per work hour. Required... distinction; and 4. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial...

  14. Aeromechanical Analysis of a Smart Helicopter Rotor in Forward Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Serafini


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a smart system integrated into a helicopter blade aimed at giving an anhedral shape to the blade tip region to alleviate the blade-vortex interaction phenomenon that may cause reduced helicopter performance in terms of noise and vibrations. The blade tip morphing is obtained through the joint action of a magneto-rheological fluid (MRF device, a shape-memory alloy ribbons- based (SMA device and a set of concentrated masses properly distributed spanwise. The presence of this smart actuator (particularly the concentrated masses inside the blades modifies the aeromechanical behaviour of the rotor and may be detrimental in terms of hub vibratory loads, pitch control effectiveness and aeroelastic stability. Following a previous literature work concerning with the effectiveness of the smart actuated rotor in hovering conditions, the present paper focuses on the aeromechanical effects due to the inclusion of the smart device in a four-bladed helicopter rotor in forward flight where blade morphing is not needed. Aim of this work is to investigate on the compatibility of the smart system with the required aeromechanical performance of the rotor, highlighting the feasibility of its application on helicopters.

  15. Evaluation of Dutch Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in transporting children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.H.; Beekers, C.; Eijk, R.J.R.; Edwards, M.J.; Hoogerwerf, N.


    OBJECTIVE: In the Netherlands, helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) function as an adjunct to paramedic ambulance service delivering hospital-level medical care to a prehospital location. The main goal of Dutch HEMS is to provide on-scene medical expertise and not primarily to serve as trans

  16. Routing helicopters for crew exchanges on off-shore locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, G.; Tijssen, G.A.


    This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a column-gen

  17. 14 CFR 136.13 - Helicopter performance plan and operations. (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.13 Helicopter performance plan and operations. (a) Each operator must complete a performance plan before...

  18. Ground vibration tests of a helicopter structure using OMA techniques (United States)

    Ameri, N.; Grappasonni, C.; Coppotelli, G.; Ewins, D. J.


    This paper is focused on an assessment of the state-of-the-art of operational modal analysis (OMA) methodologies in estimating modal parameters from output responses on helicopter structures. For this purpose, a ground vibration test was performed on a real helicopter airframe. In the following stages, several OMA techniques were applied to the measured data and compared with the results from typical input-output approach. The results presented are part of a more general research activity carried out in the Group of Aeronautical Research and Technology in Europe (GARTEUR) Action Group 19, helicopter technical activity, whose overall objective is the improvement of the structural dynamic finite element models using in-flight test data. The structure considered is a medium-size helicopter, a time-expired Lynx Mk7 (XZ649) airframe. In order to have a comprehensive analysis, the behaviour of both frequency- and time-domain-based OMA techniques are considered for the modal parameter estimates. An accuracy index and the reliability of the OMA methods with respect to the standard EMA procedures, together with the evaluation of the influence of the experimental setup on the estimate of the modal parameters, will be presented in the paper.

  19. Flight vibrations and bleeding in helicoptered patients with pelvic fracture. (United States)

    Carchietti, Elio; Cecchi, Adriana; Valent, Francesca; Rammer, Raphael


    Depending on their amplitude and frequency, vibrations may facilitate bleeding and worsen the prognosis of patients with pelvic fractures transported by helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS). We measured the range of frequencies and amplitudes of forced vibrations produced by the helicopter used by the HEMS of the Italian Friuli Venezia Giulia region on the pelvis of transported persons. We performed 3 flight tests with 3 different volunteers (mass 70, 80, and 90 kg, respectively) loaded on the helicopter's stretcher and recorded the amplitudes and frequencies of vibrations through a triaxis sensor placed on the HEMS stretcher in the pelvis area. The flight profile planned was identical for each of the 3 iterations. Over the whole flight, the frequencies of vibration were between 26.4 and 53.5 Hz, and the greastest amplitude was 0.035 mm. The vibrations recorded in the helicopter may facilitate bleeding in unstable fractures. In the management of patients with pelvic fractures, HEMS crews should provide prehospital care that includes the use of specific splinting devices in addition to the spinal board, which allows an early immobilization of fractures and the limitation of pelvic motion.

  20. Designing emergency-medical-service helicopter interiors using virtual manikins. (United States)

    Michalski, Rafal; Grobelny, Jerzy


    Researchers employed digital manikins to determine the space necessary in an emergency-medical-service helicopter to effectively and efficiently conduct life-saving medical procedures. To simulate resuscitation with appropriate digital human models, they used Anthropos ErgoMAX modeling software in the 3D Studio Max environment.

  1. Acoustic Helicopter and FW Aircraft Detection and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koersel, A.C. van


    The possibility to detect the passage of aircraft (either propeller or jet) with one or more mechanical wave sensors (acoustic or seismic) is investigated. An existing algorithm-sensor demonstator can detect and classify helicopter targets. In its current form it is developed to reject other targets

  2. 77 FR 16137 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model Helicopters (United States)


    ...-5527) is U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations Office, M-30, West Building Ground Floor... ventilation in the area on the star arm end on ``helicopters operated in hot climatic conditions and/or... a pilot. We omit the phrase ``hot climatic conditions and/or in tropical and damp...

  3. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Robert R; Murray, Claire E; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian L; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W M; Dickey, John


    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21cm absorption spectra from the 21cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the HI line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the up...

  4. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra R. Raol


    Full Text Available Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i perception and reasoning, (ii mobility and navigation,(iii haptics and teleoperation, (iv image fusion/computervision, (v modelling of manipulators, (vi hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii vehicle-robot path and motionplanning/control, (viii human-machine interfaces for interaction between humans and robots, and (ix application of artificial neural networks (ANNs, fuzzy logic/systems (FLS,probabilistic/approximate reasoning (PAR, Bayesian networks(BN and genetic algorithms (GA to the above-mentioned problems. Also, multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF playsvery crucial role at many levels of the data fusion process:(i kinematic fusion (position/bearing tracking, (ii imagefusion (for scene recognition, (iii information fusion (forbuilding world models, and (iv decision fusion (for tracking,control actions. The MIAS as a technology is useful for automation of complex tasks, surveillance in a hazardousand hostile environment, human-assistance in very difficultmanual works, medical robotics, hospital systems, autodiagnosticsystems, and many other related civil and military systems. Also, other important research areas for MIAScomprise sensor/actuator modelling, failure management/reconfiguration, scene understanding, knowledge representation, learning and decision-making. Examples ofdynamic systems considered within the MIAS would be:autonomous systems (unmanned ground vehicles, unmannedaerial vehicles, micro/mini air vehicles, and autonomousunder water vehicles, mobile/fixed robotic systems, dexterousmanipulator robots, mining robots, surveillance systems,and networked/multi-robot systems, to name a few.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.3-4,

  5. Future Autonomous and Automated Systems Testbed Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FAAST is an R/C helicopter platform that is being developed by the Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division (EG) as a low-cost, low-risk, hands-on way for engineers...

  6. Eye injury risk associated with remote control toy helicopter blades. (United States)

    Alphonse, Vanessa D; Kemper, Andrew R; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M


    Eye injuries can be caused by a variety of consumer products and toys. Recently, indoor remote controlled (RC) toy helicopters have become very popular. The purpose of this study is to quantify eye injury risk associated with five commercially available RC toy helicopter blades. An experimental matrix of 25 tests was developed to test five different RC toy helicopter blades at full battery power on six postmortem human eyes. A pressure sensor inserted through the optic nerve measured intraocular pressure. Corneal abrasion was assessed post-impact using fluorescein dye. Intraocular pressure was correlated to injury risk for hyphema, lens damage, retinal damage, and globe rupture using published risk functions. All tests resulted in corneal abrasions; however, no other injuries were observed. The 25 tests produced an increase intraocular pressure between 15.2 kPa and 99.3 kPa (114.3 mmHg and 744.7 mmHg). Calculated blade velocities ranged between 16.0 m/s and 25.4 m/s. Injury risk for hyphema was a maximum of 0.2%. Injury risk for lens damage, retinal damage, and globe rupture was 0.0% for all tests. Blade design parameters such as length and mass did not affect the risk of eye injury. This is the first study to quantify the risk of eye injury from RC toy helicopter blades. While corneal abrasions were observed, more serious eye injuries were neither observed nor predicted to have occurred. Results from this study are critical for establishing safe design thresholds for RC toy helicopter blades so that more serious injuries can be prevented.

  7. Helicopter collision avoidance and brown-out recovery with HELLAS (United States)

    Seidel, Christian; Schwartz, Ingo; Kielhorn, Peter


    EADS Germany is the world market leader in commercial and military Helicopter Laser Radar (HELLAS) Obstacle Warning Systems. The HELLAS-Warning System has been introduced into the market in 2000, is in service at German Federal Police and Royal Thai Air Force. HELLAS was also successfully evaluated by the Foreign Comparative Test Program (FCT) of the U.S. Army and other governmental agencies. Currently the successor system for military applications, HELLAS-Awareness, is in qualification phase. It will have extended sensor performance, enhanced real-time data processing capabilities and advanced human machine interface (HMI) features. Flight tests on NH90 helicopter have been successfully performed. Helicopter series integration is scheduled to begin from 2009. We will give an outline of the new sensor unit concerning detection technology and helicopter integration aspects. The system provides a widespread field of view with additional dynamic line of sight steering and a large detection range in combination with a high frame rate. We will show the HMI representations. This HELLAS system is the basis for a 3 dimensional see-and-remember-system for brown-out recovery. When landing in sandy or dusty areas the downwash of the helicopter rotor causes clouds of visually-restrictive material that can completely obstruct the pilot's outside reference, resulting in a complete loss of situational awareness and spatial orientation of the pilot which can end up in total loss of aircraft control and dangerous accidents. The brown-out recovery system presented here creates an augmented enhanced synthetic vision of the landing area with the surrounding which is based on HELLAS range image data as well as altimeter and inertial reference information.

  8. Autonomous software: Myth or magic?

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Alasdair; Saunders, Eric S


    We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

  9. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan


    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  10. SIRTF autonomous star tracker (United States)

    van Bezooijen, Roelof W. H.


    Two redundant AST-301 autonomous star trackers (AST) serve as the primary attitude sensors for JPL's space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF). These units, which employ a 1553B interface to output their attitude quaternions and uncertainty at a 2 Hz rate, provide a 1 σaccuracy of better than 0.18, 0.18, and 5.1 arcsec about their X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. This is a factor 5.5 better than the accuracy of the flight-proven AST-201 from which the trackers were derived. To obtain this improvement, the field of view (FOV) was reduced to 5 by 5 degrees, the accurate Tycho-1 and ACT catalogs were used for selecting the 71,830 guide stars, star image centroiding was improved to better than 1/50th of a pixel, and optimal attitude estimation was implemented. In addition, the apparent direction to each guide star in the FOV is compensated for proper motion, parallax, velocity aberration, and optical distortion. The AST-301 employs autonomous time-delayed integration (TDI) to achieve image motion compensation (IMC) about its X axis that prevents accuracy degradation, even at rates of 2.1 deg/s, making it actually suitable for use on spinning spacecraft. About the Y axis, a software function called "image motion accommodation" (IMA) processes smeared images to maximize the signal to noise ratio of the resulting synthetic images, which enables robust and accurate tracking at rates tested up to 0.42 deg/s. The AST-301 is capable of acquiring its attitude anywhere in the sky in less than 3 seconds with a 99.98% probability of success, without requiring any a priori attitude knowledge. Following a description of the 7.1 kg AST-301, its operation and IMA, the methodology for translating the night sky test data into performance numbers is presented, while, in addition, the results of tests used to measure alignment stability over temperature are included.

  11. Framework for Autonomous Optimization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration and MIT propose to create a novel autonomous optimization tool and application programming interface (API). The API will demonstrate the ability...

  12. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  13. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen


    , which includes the cardiac centre and controls autonomic functions, and therefore autonomic dysfunction may be experienced early in the disease course. Sleep disturbances are also common non-motor complications of PD, and therefore PD patients undergo polysomnography at the Danish Center for Sleep......Neurodegenerative diseases are highly debilitating and often lead to severe morbidity and even death. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease. According to the Braak staging study, the progressionof PD starts in the medulla oblongata...... Medicine to assess the sleep disturbances. The aim of this PhD dissertation was to: 1) Develop a method to investigate autonomic changes during sleep in neurodegenerative diseases, and apply this method on PD, iRBD and narcolepsy patients to evaluate the autonomic function in these diseases. 2) Validate...

  14. Classification analysis of vibration data from SH-60B Helicopter Transmission Test Facility


    Anderson, Gregory L.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) is an emerging technology in helicopter aviation. The United States Navy is evaluating its viability for use on its helicopter fleet. HUMS uses sensors placed throughout the helicopter to monitor and record vibration signals and numerous other aircraft operating parameters. This thesis evaluates the vibration signals recorded by a HUMS system using a statistical technique called tree structure...

  15. Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain (United States)


    Annual Forum, Montreal, Canada, 2002. 3. Samuel, P. D.; Pines, D. J. A Review of Vibration Based Techniques for Helicopter Transmission Diagnostics...Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain by Kelsen E. LaBerge, Eric C. Ames, and Brian D. Dykas...5066 ARL-TR-6795 January 2014 Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain Kelsen E. LaBerge


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)


    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  17. [Autonomic peripheral neuropathy]. (United States)

    Adams, David; Cauquil, Cecile; Lozeron, Pierre


    The mechanisms of dysautonomic disturbances are varied and mostly acquired. They can result from lesions of sympathetic or parasympathetic vegetative fibers located in the peripheral contingent, or in the somatic contingent by demyelination or axonal loss; or more rarely by cellular bodies in the sympathetic or parasympathetic ganglia. Several chronic peripheral neuropathies can be associated with dysautonomia. Only some causes need to be known because they can be clinically significant. Dysautonomia may be seen during chronic acquired neuropathies but also acute or subacute ones. The most frequent cause in the world is the dysautonomia of the diabetes; it affects all the systems; the cardiovascular dysfunction has an impact on the prognosis for survival when it is severe. Hereditary autonomic neuropathies are rare; they can declare themselves very early during the Riley-Day syndrome or very late during amyloid polyneuropathies due to transthyretin gene mutation. The diagnosis can be confirmed by molecular biology. The dysautonomia is frequent and often severe. These neuropathies justify symptomatic treatment to improve quality of life. For some of them, a specific treatment can be proposed to treat the causal affection to try to stop the progression of the disease.

  18. Is paramecium swimming autonomic? (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua


    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  19. Contributions to the dynamics of helicopters with active rotor controls (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos A.

    This dissertation presents an aeromechanical closed loop stability and response analysis of a hingeless rotor helicopter with a Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) system for vibration reduction. The analysis includes the rigid body dynamics of the helicopter and blade flexibility. The gain matrix is assumed to be fixed and computed off-line. The discrete elements of the HHC control loop are rigorously modeled, including the presence of two different time scales in the loop. By also formulating the coupled rotor-fuselage dynamics in discrete form, the entire coupled helicopter-HHC system could be rigorously modeled as a discrete system. The effect of the periodicity of the equations of motion is rigorously taken into account by converting the system into an equivalent system with constant coefficients and identical stability properties using a time lifting technique. The most important conclusion of the present study is that the discrete elements in the HHC loop must be modeled in any HHC analysis. Not doing so is unconservative. For the helicopter configuration and HHC structure used in this study, an approximate continuous modeling of the HHC system indicates that the closed loop, coupled helicopter-HHC system remains stable for optimal feedback control configurations which the more rigorous discrete analysis shows can result in closed loop instabilities. The HHC gains must be reduced to account for the loss of gain margin brought about by the discrete elements. Other conclusions of the study are: (i) the HHC is effective in quickly reducing vibrations, at least at its design condition, although the time constants associated with the closed loop transient response indicate closed loop bandwidth to be 1 rad/sec on average, thus overlapping with FCS or pilot bandwidths, and raising the issue of potential interactions; (ii) a linearized model of helicopter dynamics is adequate for HHC design, as long as the periodicity of the system is correctly taken into account, i

  20. Hyperspectral and photogrammetric helicopter-based measurements over western Greenland (United States)

    Tedesco, M.; Mote, T. L.; Smith, L. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Lampkin, D. J.


    We discuss the setup and results of an experiment aimed at collecting helicopter-based hyperspectral and photogrammetry measurements over the western Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) for studying the evolution of surface albedo and surface hydrological features. Data were collected during three days at the end of July 2015 concurrently with in-situ hydrological measurements of runoff and discharge of a supraglacial stream (Rio Behar) and along the K-transect up to an elevation of ~ 1500 m a.s.l. Hyperspectral measurements of incoming and outgoing radiation collected at a radiometric resolution of 10 nm were acquired in conjunction with geo-located images by means of a digital camera mounted on the same platform. Gyroscopes and 3-D accelerometers were also used to estimate the relative orientation of the sensors collecting the incoming and outgoing solar radiation. To our knowledge, despite their importance, it is the first time that such measurements have been collected over the Greenland ice sheet from an airborne platform. The sensors were installed inside a pod that was specifically modified for our purpose. The impact of the helicopter on the recorded incoming radiation was characterized by collecting measurements in the absence and presence of the helicopter when the rotors were either off or on. Moreover, the effect of the relative position of the helicopter with respect to the sun's position was also quantified by ad-hoc maneuvers during take off and landing with the helicopter spinning around the main rotor axis. The geo-referenced images collected by our instrument provide an unprecedented ground spatial resolution of ~ 6 cm, hence allowing us to study the spatial distribution of surface hydrological features, such as cryoconite holes, small order streams and cracks developing into larger moulins. Such images were also used to evaluate the application of RGB data to estimate streams and lakes surface area and depths. Our helicopter-based hyperspectral and

  1. A method for determining internal noise criteria based on practical speech communication applied to helicopters (United States)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Doyle, L. B.


    The relationship between the internal noise environment of helicopters and the ability of personnel to understand commands and instructions was studied. A test program was conducted to relate speech intelligibility to a standard measurement called Articulation Index. An acoustical simulator was used to provide noise environments typical of Army helicopters. Speech material (command sentences and phonetically balanced word lists) were presented at several voice levels in each helicopter environment. Recommended helicopter internal noise criteria, based on speech communication, were derived and the effectiveness of hearing protection devices were evaluated.

  2. [Functional dynamics of the pilots of heavy transport helicopters in the course of a flight shift]. (United States)

    Kamenskiĭ, Iu N


    Before and after flights about 300 crewmembers of heavy transport helicopters were examined, using psychophysiological and integral methods that yield professionally important information. During a flight shift the health state of helicopter pilots varies via three stages: habituation, initial decline and distinct lassitude, with the latter developing after 5 h flight load. In order to increase human reliability in the pilot-helicopter system, it is advisable to allow 4 h flight time during a flight shift onboard helicopters of the above type. In this case the pilot exposure to vibration effects will also be limited. The paper describes a maximally permissible spectrum of vibration velocity for a 4 h exposure.

  3. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements (United States)

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.


    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  4. Simulation and Analysis of Crashworthiness of Fuel Tank for Helicopters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Crashworthiness requirement of fuel tanks is one of the important requirements in helicopter designs. The relations among the protection frame, textile layer and rubber layer of the fuel tank are introduced. Two appropriate FE models are established, one is for an uncovered helicopter fuel tank without protection frame, and the other is for fuel tank with protection frame. The dynamic responses of the two types of fuel tanks impinging on the ground with velocities of 17.3 m/s are numerically simulated for the purpose of analyzing energy-absorbing capabilities of the textile layer and protection frame. The feasibility of the current crashworthiness design of the fuel tank is examined though comparing the dynamic response behaviors of the two fuel tanks.

  5. Feasibility study of a superconducting motor for electrical helicopter propulsion (United States)

    Simons, C. A. B. A. E.; Sanabria-Walter, C.; Polinder, H.


    During the past decades, superconducting electrical machines have become more suitable to replace conventional iron based designs, because of their lower weight and higher torque density. These properties make them good candidates for use in More Electric Aircraft (MEA). Especially helicopter propulsion systems could benefit from the increased performance. This paper describes the feasibility study of a superconducting motor to be used for helicopter propulsion as part of a More Electric Aircraft (MEA). For this, the armature, field windings and cryostat are designed, aiming at meeting the difficult specifications. Since superconductors have virtually no electrical resistance when cooled down below a certain critical temperature, they can be used to build high field and low weight coils for electrical machines. Especially the possibility to not use iron can make the superconducting motor lighter with a higher power density compared with conventional Permanent Magnet (PM) motors.

  6. Application of face-gear drives in helicopter transmissions (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.


    The use of face gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split torque transmission design utilizing face gears was described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. Analytical study of transmission error showed face-gear drives were relatively insensitive to gear misalignment, but tooth contact was affected by misalignment. A method of localizing bearing contact to compensate for misalignment was explored. The proper choice of shaft support stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also included and the feasibility of face gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions was demonstrated.

  7. Application of Face-Gear Drives in Helicopter Transmissions (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.


    The use of face gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split torque transmission design utilizing face gears was described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. Analytical study of transmission error showed face-gear drives were relatively insensitive to gear misalignment, but tooth contact was affected by misalignment. A method of localizing bearing contact to compensate for misalignment was explored. The proper choice of shaft support stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also included and the feasibility of face gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions was demonstrated.

  8. Identification and stochastic control of helicopter dynamic modes (United States)

    Molusis, J. A.; Bar-Shalom, Y.


    A general treatment of parameter identification and stochastic control for use on helicopter dynamic systems is presented. Rotor dynamic models, including specific applications to rotor blade flapping and the helicopter ground resonance problem are emphasized. Dynamic systems which are governed by periodic coefficients as well as constant coefficient models are addressed. The dynamic systems are modeled by linear state variable equations which are used in the identification and stochastic control formulation. The pure identification problem as well as the stochastic control problem which includes combined identification and control for dynamic systems is addressed. The stochastic control problem includes the effect of parameter uncertainty on the solution and the concept of learning and how this is affected by the control's duel effect. The identification formulation requires algorithms suitable for on line use and thus recursive identification algorithms are considered. The applications presented use the recursive extended kalman filter for parameter identification which has excellent convergence for systems without process noise.

  9. Sliding mode tracking control for miniature unmanned helicopters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Bin; Guo Jianchuan; Zhang Yao; Zhao Bo


    A sliding mode control design for a miniature unmanned helicopter is presented. The control objective is to let the helicopter track some predefined velocity and yaw trajectories. A new sliding mode control design method is developed based on a linearized dynamic model. In order to facilitate the control design, the helicopter’s dynamic model is divided into two subsystems, such as the longitudinal-lateral and the heading-heave subsystem. The proposed controller employs sliding mode control technique to compensate for the immeasurable flapping angles’ dynamic effects and external disturbances. The global asymptotic stability (GAS) of the closed-loop system is proved by the Lyapunov based stability analysis. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed controller can achieve superior tracking performance compared with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) cascaded controller in the presence of wind gust disturbances.

  10. Vibration analysis of the SA349/2 helicopter (United States)

    Heffernan, Ruth; Precetti, Dominique; Johnson, Wayne


    Helicopter airframe vibration is examined using calculations and measurements for the SA349/2 research helicopter. The hub loads, which transmit excitations to the fuselage, are predicted using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis and correlated with measuring hub loads. The predicted and measured hub loads are then coupled with finite element models representing the SA349/2 fuselage. The resulting vertical acceleration at the pilot seat is examined. Adjustments are made to the airframe structural models to examine the sensitivity of predicted vertical acceleration to the model. Changes of a few percent to the damping and frequency of specific models lead to large reductions in predicted vibration, and to major improvements in the correlations with measured pilot-seat vertical acceleration.

  11. Analysis and correlation of SA349/2 helicopter vibration (United States)

    Heffernan, Ruth; Precetti, Dominique; Johnson, Wayne


    Helicopter airframe vibration is examined using calculation and measurements for the SA349/2 research helicopter. The hub loads, which transmit excitation to the fuselage, are predicted using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis and correlated with measured hub loads. The predicted and measured hub loads are then coupled with finite element models representing the SA349/2 fuselage. The resulting vertical acceleration at the pilot seat is examined. Adjustments are made to the airframe structural models to examine the sensitivity of predicted vertical acceleration to the model. Changes of a few percent to the damping and frequency of specific modes lead to large reductions in predicted vibration and to major improvements in the correlations with measured pilot seat vertical acceleration.

  12. Noise, vibration and changes in wakefulness during helicopter flight. (United States)

    Landström, U; Löfstedt, P


    The investigation was carried out in cooperation with the helicopter school AF 1 in Boden. Measurements were made in two different types of helicopter, Hkp 3 and Hkp 6. Three different parameters were recorded during the flights: noise, vibrations, and wakefulness. Noise and vibration exposures were mainly correlated to the main rotor energy and frequency. Both types of exposure were dominated by lower frequencies, below 10 Hz. Analyses of wakefulness during long-distance flights, about 4 h, and short-distance flights, less than 2 h, were based on EEG and EKG recordings. As expected the level of wakefulness was influenced by the stress upon the pilots. Take-offs and landings, as well as unexpected events during the flight, were correlated to an increased level of wakefulness. In some cases flying was correlated to a gradual increase of weariness. The correlation between weariness, types of flying, and the external environmental factors of noise and vibration, is also discussed.

  13. Response of the skeletal system to helicopter-unique vibration. (United States)

    Gearhart, J R


    An 18-month prospective skeletal system study was conducted on flying and nonflying personnel relative to chronic low-frequency vibration as experienced in helicopter flight. The aviators were initial entry students in rotary-wing training while the non-flying participants were beginning basic military training. Comparisons were made on the basis of anthropometric measurements, radiological studies, and bone mineral density changes as measured by photon absorption. The bone mineral densitometry showed no significant variation in the aviator group. A short-term 10% demineralization of the distal ulna in the non-flying group was noted immediately following the physical training. The final bone mineral density of basic training subjects returned to the initial level 18 months after the physical training. It was concluded that the helicopter aircrew members under study were exposed to levels of vibration below the threshold of vibration required to produce a measurable change in the skeletal system.

  14. A new approach to helicopter rotor blade research instrumentation (United States)

    Knight, V. H., Jr.


    A rotor-blade-mounted telemetry instrumentation system developed and used in flight tests by the NASA/Langley Research Center is described. The system uses high-speed digital techniques to acquire research data from miniature pressure transducers on advanced rotor airfoils which are flight tested using an AH-1G helicopter. The system employs microelectronic PCM multiplexer-digitizer stations located remotely on the blade and in a hub-mounted metal canister. The electronics contained in the canister digitizes up to 16 sensors, formats this data with serial PCM data from the remote stations, and transmits the data from the canister which is above the plane of the rotor. Data is transmitted over an RF link to the ground for real-time monitoring and to the helicopter fuselage for tape recording.

  15. Direct Self-Repairing Control for Quadrotor Helicopter Attitude Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiliao Yang


    Full Text Available A quadrotor helicopter with uncertain actuator faults, such as loss of effectiveness and lock-in-place, is studied in this paper. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller based on direct self-repairing control is designed for such nonlinear system to track the desired output signal, when any actuator of this quadrotor helicopter is loss of effectiveness or stuck at some place. Moreover, using the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the whole system and the convergence of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Finally, the availability of the proposed method is verified by simulation on 3-DOF hover to ensure that the system performance under faulty conditions can be quickly recovered to its normal level. And this proposed method is also proved to be better than that of LQR through simulation.

  16. Fluid mechanics mechanisms in the stall process of helicopters (United States)

    Young, W. H., Jr.


    Recent experimental results from airfoils in the Mach number, Reynolds number, or reduced frequency ranges typical of helicopter rotor blades have identified the most influential flow mechanisms in the dynamic stall process. The importance of secondary shed vortices, downstream wake action, and the flow in the separated region is generally acknowledged but poorly understood. By means of surface pressure cross-correlations and flow field measurements in static stall, several new hypotheses have been generated. It is proposed that vortex shedding may be caused by acoustic disturbances propagating forward in the lower (pressure) surface boundary layer, that wake closure is a misnomer, and that the shed vortex leaves a trail of vorticity that forms a turbulent free shear layer. The known dynamic stall flow mechanisms are reviewed and the potential importance of recently proposed and hypothetical flow phenomena with respect to helicopter blade aeroelastic response are assessed.

  17. Lift capability prediction for helicopter rotor blade-numerical evaluation (United States)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ; Luculescu, Doru


    The main objective of this paper is to describe the key physical features for modelling the unsteady aerodynamic effects found on helicopter rotor blade operating under nominally attached flow conditions away from stall. The unsteady effects were considered as phase differences between the forcing function and the aerodynamic response, being functions of the reduced frequency, the Mach number and the mode forcing. For a helicopter rotor, the reduced frequency at any blade element can't be exactly calculated but a first order approximation for the reduced frequency gives useful information about the degree of unsteadiness. The sources of unsteady effects were decomposed into perturbations to the local angle of attack and velocity field. The numerical calculus and graphics were made in FLUENT and MAPLE soft environments. This mathematical model is applicable for aerodynamic design of wind turbine rotor blades, hybrid energy systems optimization and aeroelastic analysis.

  18. MH-60R Multi-Mission Helicopter (MH-60R) (United States)


    December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 15:25:30 UNCLASSIFIED 4 CAPT Craig Grubb, PMA 299 Multi -Mission Helicopter Program Executive Office - Air, Anti-Submarine...301-757-5276 DSN Phone: 757-5409 DSN Fax: 757-5276 Date Assigned: December 19, 2014 Program Information Program Name MH-60R Multi -Mission...included in the Operating and Support Cost of the current APB objective and threshold for this program . Equation to Translate Annual Cost to Total Cost

  19. Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part One. Preliminary Design (United States)


    by estimation, compound helicopter performance, to think of the air- plots of effective lift and drag areas and pitching mo- craft as a biplane having...stncural design problems but may produce loads that where are critikal locally. A = presented arms ft’ Ca = drag coefficient, dimensionless F• V = wind speed...groups is to be provided in accordance with MIL-STD- 1374, Part I. The useful load condition shall be as I. W. H. Ballhaus, Clear Design Thinking Using

  20. Detection of Forward Flight Limitations of Unmanned Helicopters


    Voigt, Andreas; Dauer, Johann; Krenik, Alex; Dittrich, Jörg Steffen


    In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the flight envelope limitations for steady forward flight with the purpose of performing a flight envelope expansion. First, the rotary wing system is analyzed. In this paper, an intermeshing rotor configuration, a SwissDrones Dragon 50, is used to demonstrate the approach. Next, relevant limitations of the forward flight are reviewed and analyzed with the help of the Helicopter Overall Simulation Tool (HOST). From this analysis, relevant measu...

  1. [Causes of fatigue in civil aviation helicopter crews]. (United States)

    Kamenskiĭ, Iu N


    Vibration and noise play an important part in fatiguing crewmembers of helicopters. The exposure to these factors during the flying shift results in an early and marked fatigue of pilots the level of which depends on the vibration effects to a larger extent than on the noise effects. The fatigue is followed by a decline of the psychophysiological parameters characterizing the visual and motor functions as well as the ratio of the basic processes in the central nervous system.

  2. Do Army Helicopter Training Simulators Need Motion Bases?


    McCauley, Michael E.


    United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences This report reviews the arguments and the evidence regarding the need for simulator motion bases in training helicopter pilots. It discusses flight simulators, perceptual fidelity, history of motion bases, disturbance versus maneuver motion, human motion sensation, and reviews the empirical evidence for the training effectiveness of motion bases. The section on training effectiveness reviews research f...

  3. Classification Trees and the Analysis of Helicopter Vibration Data


    Larson, Harold J.


    Health and Usage Monitoring Systems are receiving a great deal of interest, in an attempt to increase the safety and operational readiness of helicopters, and to minimize maintenance costs. These systems monitor (and can record) various flight parameters, pilot conversations, engine exhaust debris, metallic chip detector levels in the lubrication system, rotor track and balance, as well as vibration levels at selected locations throughout the airframe and the power drive system. Vibration lev...

  4. Design, Test, and Acceptance Criteria for Helicopter Transparent Enclosures (United States)


    polycarbonate materials were superior to glass in resisting impinge- ment abrasion; apparently due to ductility of the coating which minimized spallation ...square. A hole was drilled in the upright section of each "T" block (see Figure 10) to accommodate a metal pin or holding device correlative to the...shock wave. Transparencies that necessarily enclose large portions of the crew-occupied helicopter areas are particularly susceptible to spallation

  5. Integrated Motion Planning and Autonomous Control Technology for Autonomous ISR Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI and MIT propose to design, implement and test a comprehensive Integrated Mission Planning & Autonomous Control Technology (IMPACT) for Autonomous ISR...

  6. Preliminary vibration survey of a suspended full-scale OH-6A helicopter from 0 to 45 HZ


    Harris, John H.


    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Efforts to establish a helicopter research program in structural dynamics at NPS were greatly enhanced when the U. S. Army donated two OH-6A light observation helicopters. One of the helicopters is reserved for ground vibration testing and dynamics research. Vibration measurements are extremely important in predicting and understanding an aircraft's dynamic behavior and durability. A comparison of a helicopters natural frequencies and ...

  7. The 3600 hp split-torque helicopter transmission (United States)

    White, G.


    Final design details of a helicopter transmission that is powered by GE twin T 700 engines each rated at 1800 hp are presented. It is demonstrated that in comparison with conventional helicopter transmission arrangements the split torque design offers: weight reduction of 15%; reduction in drive train losses of 9%; and improved reliability resulting from redundant drive paths between the two engines and the main shaft. The transmission fits within the NASA LeRC 3000 hp Test Stand and accepts the existing positions for engine inputs, main shaft, connecting drive shafts, and the cradle attachment points. One necessary change to the test stand involved gear trains of different ratio in the tail drive gearbox. Progressive uprating of engine input power from 3600 to 4500 hp twin engine rating is allowed for in the design. In this way the test transmission will provide a base for several years of analytical, research, and component development effort targeted at improving the performance and reliability of helicopter transmission.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of a Helicopter Rotor by Dymore Program (United States)

    Doğan, Vedat; Kırca, Mesut

    The dynamic behavior of hingeless and bearingless blades of a light commercial helicopter which has been under design process at ITU (İstanbul Technical University, Rotorcraft Research and Development Centre) is investigated. Since the helicopter rotor consists of several parts connected to each other by joints and hinges; rotors in general can be considered as an assembly of the rigid and elastic parts. Dynamics of rotor system in rotation is complicated due to coupling of elastic forces (bending, torsion and tension), inertial forces, control and aerodynamic forces on the rotor blades. In this study, the dynamic behavior of the rotor for a real helicopter design project is analyzed by using DYMORE. Blades are modeled as elastic beams, hub as a rigid body, torque tubes as rigid bodies, control links as rigid bodies plus springs and several joints. Geometric and material cross-sectional properties of blades (Stiffness-Matrix and Mass-Matrix) are calculated by using VABS programs on a CATIA model. Natural frequencies and natural modes of the rotating (and non-rotating) blades are obtained by using DYMORE. Fan-Plots which show the variation of the natural frequencies for different modes (Lead-Lag, Flapping, Feathering, etc.) vs. rotor RPM are presented.

  9. Computer Modelling of a Tank Battle with Helicopter Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatter Singh


    Full Text Available The paper attempts to model a tank versus tank battle scenario in which the defender is provided an armed helicopter unit support, against surprise advance of the attacker towards an important place. The stochastic and dynamic nature of the battle system has been handled by means of Monte Carlo simulation. In that activities like move, search, fire, hit and kill are simulated and their effects generated in the model. The game has been repeated for parameters relating to (i fire power (ii mobility (iii intervisibility (iv blind shooting (v defender/attacker force ratio and (vi helicopter unit support with the defender. Then, average numerical effects in each case have been analysed.Although the results are based on tentative data, the. trend seems to suggest that a battalion of Centurion tanks or 2 coys with a helicopter unit support stand fairly good chance to defeat the attack by M-47/48 tanks equivalent to 4 coys. Neyertheless, the methodology provides an effective basis to systematically approach realistic situations and quantitatively assess weapon systems effectiveness under tactical alternatives and battle field environments.

  10. The Vibration Impact Determination of the Helicopter Structural Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaksar Zeinab


    Full Text Available This paper presents the determination of the vibration impact of the helicopter structural components and skin repairs in terms of frequency characteristics. To address this issue, a 3D Finite Element Method (FEM model of 349 Gazelle helicopter has been developed in ABAQUS and the frequency analysis is conducted. The results on the natural frequencies of the full structure reasonably match with the literature giving confidence in the baseline model. The main advantage of this FEM model is that, it can be used to predict the natural frequencies of the full structure, precisely. In addition, the material properties and conditions of the components can be updated based on the applied conditions during the repair and maintenance period. Thus, the model gives a comprehensive design tool for analysing the frequencies of the helicopter with differing components. The effective variations in the frequency changes due to repair are predicted numerically. The discussion of these results helps in developing leads to improved selection of replacement materials and their properties.

  11. Principal Components Analysis of Triaxial Vibration Data From Helicopter Transmissions (United States)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Huff, Edward M.


    Research on the nature of the vibration data collected from helicopter transmissions during flight experiments has led to several crucial observations believed to be responsible for the high rates of false alarms and missed detections in aircraft vibration monitoring systems. This work focuses on one such finding, namely, the need to consider additional sources of information about system vibrations. In this light, helicopter transmission vibration data, collected using triaxial accelerometers, were explored in three different directions, analyzed for content, and then combined using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to analyze changes in directionality. In this paper, the PCA transformation is applied to 176 test conditions/data sets collected from an OH58C helicopter to derive the overall experiment-wide covariance matrix and its principal eigenvectors. The experiment-wide eigenvectors. are then projected onto the individual test conditions to evaluate changes and similarities in their directionality based on the various experimental factors. The paper will present the foundations of the proposed approach, addressing the question of whether experiment-wide eigenvectors accurately model the vibration modes in individual test conditions. The results will further determine the value of using directionality and triaxial accelerometers for vibration monitoring and anomaly detection.

  12. Selected Problems Of Transmission Wear Of The Mi-24 Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gębura Andrzej


    Full Text Available The hypothesis of mutual, destructive impact of the worn upper bearing of the WR-24 transmission on the Mi-24 helicopter's gearbox was stated. The Mi-24 is the only helicopter operated in Poland, in which the gearbox is mounted outside the main transmission – in the centre of the transmission shaft, between the main gearbox and the tail rotor. Damage to the gears in the gearbox of power generators is equivalent to termination of the tail rotor's drive. Such a termination immediately causes rotation of the body in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the main rotor. It is associated with the loss of lift and steering. It may lead to a disaster. Such an incident occurred in January 2011 in Afghanistan – both authors participated in its investigation. The authors, taking into account very good, almost legendary combat properties of the Mi-24, and their research of the specifics of wear and tear of the transmission elements, they think that, first, funds for development and implementation of the drive unit monitoring system should be made available specially for this helicopter. For this purpose, the authors propose to use the FAM-C method. It is characterised with significant ergonomics. Thank to this, multiple kinematic pairs can be observed simultaneously, and, therefore, the relationships between them as well.

  13. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto


    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  14. Autonomous aerial sensors for wind power meteorology - A pre-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G. (ed.); Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Bange, J.; la Cour-Harbo, A.; Reuder, J.; Mayer, S.; van der Kroonenberg, A.; Moelgaard, J.


    Autonomous Aerial Sensors, i.e. meteorological sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems UAS, can characterise the atmospheric flow in and around wind farms. We instrumented three planes, a helicopter and a lighter-than-air LTA system to fly one week together in a well-instrumented wind farm, partly with nano-synchronised sensors (time stamped with about 100 ns global accuracy). Between bankruptcy of a partner, denied overflight rights at the main test location, denied Civil Aviation Authorities permits at the alternative location, stolen planes, and crashed UAS we managed to collect data at a wind farm in Lolland and on an atmospheric campaign in France. Planning of an offshore campaign using the developed techniques is underway. (Author)

  15. A helicopter that flaps its wings: the Ornicopter flaps its wings like a bird to get into the air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, B.


    No other type of aircraft is as manoeuvrable as a helicopter. Reverse in full flight, rotate in the air, hover at a standstill, the helicopter can do it all. The police, fire services, medical services, military and civil aviation all use the helicopter for the freedom of flight it offers. However,

  16. 75 FR 48617 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters (United States)


    ... vibration, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. Actions and Compliance (e) Before further... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... directive (AD) for ECD Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopters. This proposed AD results from a...

  17. 75 FR 66657 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters (United States)


    ... separation of dynamic weights, severe vibration, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. Actions... Deutschland GmbH Model MBB- BK 117 C-2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Final... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB BK 117 C-2 helicopters. This amendment results from a mandatory...

  18. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meystel, A.


    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  19. Autonomous underwater riser inspection tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, Claudio; Marnet, Robson [Petrobras SA, (Brazil); Freitas, Miguel; Von der Weid, Jean Pierre [CPTI/PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil); Artigas Lander, Ricardo [EngeMOVI, Curitiba, (Brazil)


    The detection of damage on the riser is a serious concern for pipeline companies. Visual examinations by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) are presently carried out to detect the defects but this process has limitations and is expensive. This paper presents the development of a new tool to ensure autonomous underwater riser inspection (AURI) that uses the riser itself for guidance. The AURI, which is autonomous in terms of control and power supply, is equipped with several cameras that perform a complete visual inspection of the riser with 100 % coverage of the external surface of the riser. The paper presents the detailed characteristics of the first AURI prototype, describes its launching procedure and provides the preliminary test results from pool testing. The results showed that the AURI is a viable system for autonomous riser inspection. Offshore tests on riser pipelines are scheduled to be performed shortly.

  20. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela


    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSN/HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system that predominantly affect the sensory and autonomic neurons. Hallmark features comprise not only prominent sensory signs and symptoms and ulcerative mutilations but also variable autonomic and motor disturbances. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported. Molecular genetics studies have identified disease-causing mutations in 11 genes. Some of the affected proteins have nerve-specific roles but underlying mechanisms have also been shown to involve sphingolipid metabolism, vesicular transport, structural integrity, and transcription regulation. Genetic and functional studies have substantially improved the understanding of the pathogenesis of the HSN/HSAN and will help to find preventive and causative therapies in the future.

  1. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson


    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of

  2. FlyTact : A tactile display improves a helicopter pilot's landing performance in degraded visual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C.; Wennemers, A.S.; Vos, W.K.; Groen, E.L.


    Helicopter landings are more challenging in 'brownout' conditions, in which sand and dust is stirred up by the rotary wing aircraft, obscuring visibility. Safe brownout landings require new sensor and display technologies to provide the pilot with information on helicopter motion. In this respect ta

  3. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 91 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications F Appendix F to Part 91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Appendix F to Part 91—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed system 1...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 135 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications E Appendix E to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... E Appendix E to Part 135—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Accuracy...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 135 - Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications C Appendix C to Part 135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... C Appendix C to Part 135—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications Parameters Range Installed...

  6. Design of a Helicopter Stability and Control Augmentation System Using Optimal Control Theory. (United States)

    technique is described for the design of multivariable feedback controllers based upon results in optimal control theory . For a specified performance...helicopter flight envelope. The results show that optimal control theory can be used to design a helicopter stability and control augmentation system

  7. 77 FR 52270 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters (United States)


    ... helicopter to rework the top cable-cutter assembly, one work- hour to replace the top cable-cutter assembly... estimate the cost of the proposed AD on U.S. operators would be $255 per helicopter to rework the top cable... upper installation, P/N 4G9540A00111, either: (i) Rework the top cable cutter assembly, P/N...

  8. Development, documentation and correlation of a NASTRAN vibration model of the AH-1G helicopter airframe (United States)

    Cronkhite, J. D.


    NASTRAN was evaluated for vibration analysis of the helicopter airframe. The first effort involved development of a NASTRAN model of the AH-1G helicopter airframe and comprehensive documentation of the model. The next effort was to assess the validity of the NASTRAN model by comparisons with static and vibration tests.

  9. [Physiokinetic therapy in the prevention of cervical disk arthrosis in helicopter personnel]. (United States)

    Lanciani, P; La Verde, R; Losani, F; Guicciardi, M


    Helicopter pilots subjected to "chronic microtraumatism" related to the constant vibration present in this type of aircraft are considered. The most suitable physiokinetic treatment in the prevention of cervical spondylodiscarthrosis is discussed. Spondylodiscarthrosis is the most common and debilitating problem affecting helicopter personnel.

  10. World’s smallest helicopter to fly in da Vinci birthplace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The world’s smallest one-man helicopter will soon take flight in the birthplace of Leonardo da Vinci, who is credited with having first thought of a vertical-flight machine, its developer said.The 75-kilogram helicopter will make a demonstration flight in the city of Vinci, near Florence, on May 25, according to

  11. Optimal Aerodynamic Design of Conventional and Coaxial Helicopter Rotors in Hover and Forward Flight (United States)


    or coaxial actuator disks. In American Helicopter Society’s 72nd Annual Forum, West Palm Beach, Florida , May 2016. [51] E. B. Giovanetti and K. C...Charles H. Kaman Scholarship through the Vertical Flight Foundation. In 2014, Eli was the South East region’s winner of the American Helicopter Society’s Robert L. Lichten Award. 171

  12. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley


    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  13. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio


    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  14. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta, E-mail:


    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale—from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems—their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous

  15. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser


    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  16. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics (United States)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta


    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale-from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems-their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous the

  17. Selected topics on the active control of helicopter aeromechanical and vibration problems (United States)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.


    This paper describes in a concise manner three selected topics on the active control of helicopter aeromechanical and vibration problems. The three topics are as follows: (1) the active control of helicopter air-resonance using an LQG/LTR approach; (2) simulation of higher harmonic control (HHC) applied to a four bladed hingeless helicopter rotor in forward flight; and (3) vibration suppression in forward flight on a hingeless helicopter rotor using an actively controlled, partial span, trailing edge flap, which is mounted on the blade. Only a few selected illustrative results are presented. The results obtained clearly indicate that the partial span, actively controlled flap has considerable potential for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors.

  18. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren


    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases...

  19. Autonomous Duffing-Holmes Type Chaotic Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševičius, A.; Bumelienė, S.; Kirvaitis, R.


    We have designed and built a novel Duffing type autonomous 3rd-order chaotic oscillator. In comparison with the common non-autonomous DuffingHolmes type oscillator the autonomous circuit has an internal positive feedback loop instead of an external periodic drive source. In addition...

  20. CAAD: Computer Architecture for Autonomous Driving


    Liu, Shaoshan; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Zhe; Gaudiot, Jean-Luc


    We describe the computing tasks involved in autonomous driving, examine existing autonomous driving computing platform implementations. To enable autonomous driving, the computing stack needs to simultaneously provide high performance, low power consumption, and low thermal dissipation, at low cost. We discuss possible approaches to design computing platforms that will meet these needs.

  1. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morton


    Full Text Available From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  2. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones


    Tim Morton


    From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  3. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated fu...

  4. Autonomous vertical profiler data management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A

    The Autonomous Vertical Profiler (AVP), developed at NIO [1] [2], collects position and water column data over a period of 3 days and transmits through a satellite modem which is collated and stored on a PC. Data includes GPS positions, water column...

  5. Designing Assessment for Autonomous Learning (United States)

    Hay, Marie; Mathers, Lucy


    This paper aims to disseminate and evaluate an autonomous learning framework developed through collaborative research with first- and second-year undergraduate students at De Montfort University. Central to the framework is the involvement of students in the assessment of their peers and themselves using dialogue about the assessment and feedback…

  6. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.


    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  7. Autonomic dysreflexia: a medical emergency (United States)

    Bycroft, J; Shergill, I; Choong, E; Arya, N; Shah, P


    Autonomic dysreflexia is an important clinical diagnosis that requires prompt treatment to avoid devastating complications. The condition may present itself to all members of medical and surgical specialties, who may not be accustomed to treating it. It is the clinician's responsibility to have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition and the simple steps required to treat it. PMID:15811886

  8. Optimal flight of a helicopter in engine failure (United States)

    Jhemi, Ali Abdelmajid

    This thesis studies optimal category-A helicopter flight operations in the event of one engine failure. Both Continued Takeoff (CTO) and Rejected Takeoff (RTO) operations are studied. A two-dimensional point mass model has been used to study CTO and RTO from an elevated heliport. In this model, the main rotor and tail rotor dynamics are modeled to better predict the power required during flight. A first order dynamic of the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) contingency power is considered. Flights after engine failure are formulated as nonlinear optimal control problems. For studying optimal strategies, the performance index is selected in a way that reflects the main parameters to be optimized. Problems are formulated to minimize heliport size, subject to helicopter equations. In addition to the equations of motion, state and control constraints, FAA regulations are enforced. FAA regulations are enforced during CTO, while safety considerations are enforced during RTO. These optimal control problems are solved numerically using a direct approach. States, controls, and helicopter constant parameters are parameterized, and a collocation method is employed. The cost function and path constraints are enforced as algebraic equations at the nodes, while the differential constraints are enforced by integrating the equations of motion in between nodes using Simpson's one third rule. The problem is then fed to a nonlinear programming routine to solve for all parameters. Extensive optimization of CTO and RTO problems are conducted, and results are computed, plotted, and interpreted physically. A balanced weight concept is concluded. The balanced weight concept is similar to the balanced field-length concept in field takeoff.

  9. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal


    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  10. Prospects for Eulerian CFD analysis of helicopter vortex flows (United States)

    Drela, Mark; Murman, Earll M.


    The applicability of current finite-volume CFD algorithms based on the Euler equations to the vortex flow over a helicopter in forward flight is investigated analytically. The general characteristics of the flow are reviewed; existing Euler, Navier-Stokes, perturbation, high-order, and adaptive methods are briefly characterized; and a novel Eulerian/Lagrangian approach with entropy and vorticity corrections is presented in detail. Numerical results for simple convection of a finite-core Lamb vortex moving downstream with its axis perpendicular to the flow are presented in graphs, and the possibility of extending the method to three-dimensional, viscous, and shock flows is discussed.

  11. Condition Monitoring of Helicopter Gearboxes by Embedded Sensing (United States)

    Suryavanashi, Abhijit; Wang, Shengda; Gao, Robert; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.


    Health of helicopter gearboxes is commonly assessed by monitoring the housing vibration, thus it is challenged by poor signal-to-noise ratio of the signal measured away from the source. It is hypothesized that vibration measurements from sensors placed inside the gearbox will be much clearer indicators of faults and will eliminate many of the difficulties faced by present condition monitoring systems. This paper outlines our approach to devising such a monitoring system. Several tasks have been outlined toward this objective and the strategy to address each has been described. Among the tasks are wireless sensor design, antenna design, and selection of sensor locations.

  12. Validation of Comprehensive Helicopter Aeroelastic Analysis with Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas R. Bhat


    Full Text Available The experimental data for a Cbladed soft-inplane hingeless main rotor is used to validate a comprehensive aeroelastic analysis. A finite element model has been developed for the rotorblade which predicts rotating frequencies quite well, across a range of rotation speeds. The helicopter is trimmed and the predicted trim-control angles are found to be In the range ofmeasured values for a variety of flight speeds. Power predictions over a range of forward speeds also compare well. Finally, the aeroelastlc analysis is used to study the Importance ofaerodynamic models on the vibration predict~onU. nsteady aerodynamics and free-wake models have been investigated.

  13. A subjective field study of helicopter blade-slap noise (United States)

    Powell, C. A.


    The effects of impulsiveness on the noisiness of helicopters are examined by varying the main rotor speed while maintaining a constant airspeed. This resulted in other characteristics of the noise being held relatively constant. Other controlled variables included altitude, side line distance, descent operations, and level flyovers. A description is provided of the concept, experimental design and procedures along with results based on partial analyses of acoustic and subjective response data. No significant improvement in the noisiness predictive ability of EPNL was provided by either proposed or an A-weighted crest factor correction for impulsiveness.

  14. Experiences in Benchmarking of Autonomic Systems (United States)

    Etchevers, Xavier; Coupaye, Thierry; Vachet, Guy

    Autonomic computing promises improvements of systems quality of service in terms of availability, reliability, performance, security, etc. However, little research and experimental results have so far demonstrated this assertion, nor provided proof of the return on investment stemming from the efforts that introducing autonomic features requires. Existing works in the area of benchmarking of autonomic systems can be characterized by their qualitative and fragmented approaches. Still a crucial need is to provide generic (i.e. independent from business, technology, architecture and implementation choices) autonomic computing benchmarking tools for evaluating and/or comparing autonomic systems from a technical and, ultimately, an economical point of view. This article introduces a methodology and a process for defining and evaluating factors, criteria and metrics in order to qualitatively and quantitatively assess autonomic features in computing systems. It also discusses associated experimental results on three different autonomic systems.

  15. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Yong Jin


    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

  16. Cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Liu; Dongmei Chen; Yonggang Wang; Xin Zhao; Yang Zheng


    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves and to explore the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia.DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based retrieval was performed for papers examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerves, using "heart, autonomic nerve, sympathetic nerve, vagus nerve, nerve distribution, rhythm and atrial fibrillation" as the key words.SELECTION CRITERIA: A total of 165 studies examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerve were screened, and 46 of them were eventually included.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The distribution and characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves were observed, and immunohistochemical staining was applied to determine the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase (main markers of cardiac autonomic nerve distribution). In addition, the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and cardiac arrhythmia was investigated.RESULTS: Cardiac autonomic nerves were reported to exhibit a disordered distribution in different sites, mainly at the surface of the cardiac atrium and pulmonary vein, forming a ganglia plexus. The distribution of the pulmonary vein autonomic nerve was prominent at the proximal end rather than the distal end, at the upper left rather than the lower right, at the epicardial membrane rather than the endocardial membrane, at the left atrium rather than the right atrium, and at the posterior wall rather than the anterior wall. The main markers used for cardiac autonomic nerves were tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase. Protein gene product 9.5 was used to label the immunoreactive nerve distribution, and the distribution density of autonomic nerves was determined using a computer-aided morphometric analysis system.CONCLUSION: The uneven distribution of the cardiac autonomic nerves is the leading cause of the occurrence of arrhythmia, and the cardiac autonomic nerves play an important role in the

  17. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents. (United States)

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert


    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent.

  18. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy


    in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests....... diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, 2. detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, OH, nondipping, QT interval prolongation), 3. risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 4. modulation of targets of diabetes therapy......Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...

  19. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper...... investigates the missing links and gaps between the research and developments efforts and the real-world application requirements, in order to bring the AIMM technology from laboratories to manufacturing environments. The investigation is based on 12 general application requirements for robotics......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry...

  20. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters (United States)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.


    Results of a study to investigate, by means of a computer simulation, the performance sensitivity of helicopter IMC DSAL operations as a function of navigation system parameters are presented. A mathematical model representing generically a navigation system is formulated. The scenario simulated consists of a straight in helicopter approach to landing along a 6 deg glideslope. The deceleration magnitude chosen is 03g. The navigation model parameters are varied and the statistics of the total system errors (TSE) computed. These statistics are used to determine the critical navigation system parameters that affect the performance of the closed-loop navigation, guidance and control system of a UH-1H helicopter.

  1. Some thoughts on the implementation of pilot night vision devices for helicopters (United States)

    Tucker, G. E.


    Night vision enhancement devices greatly expand the range and quality of services by extending night operational capabilities. Evolving military tactical concepts for helicopters survivability and battlefield effectiveness necessitate nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flying under both day and night conditions. From a pilot workload standpoint, flying a helicopter NOE in day VFR conditions with minimum clearance between rotors and obstacles is quite demanding. Doing the same job at night is several times more difficult. There are two general categories of night vision devices in operation in helicopter aviation: the Night Vision Goggles (NVG) and forward looking infrared (FLIR) system. The capabilities and limitations of those two devices are discussed.

  2. Optimization of helicopter airframe structures for vibration reduction considerations, formulations and applications (United States)

    Murthy, T. Sreekanta


    Several key issues involved in the application of formal optimization technique to helicopter airframe structures for vibration reduction are addressed. Considerations which are important in the optimization of real airframe structures are discussed. Considerations necessary to establish relevant set of design variables, constraints and objectives which are appropriate to conceptual, preliminary, detailed design, ground and flight test phases of airframe design are discussed. A methodology is suggested for optimization of airframes in various phases of design. Optimization formulations that are unique to helicopter airframes are described and expressions for vibration related functions are derived. Using a recently developed computer code, the optimization of a Bell AH-1G helicopter airframe is demonstrated.

  3. Helicopter vibration and risk of reversible myopia among military air crews


    Bastaman Basuki; T. Soemardoko


    We assessed to what extend the risk of reversible myopia of the different degree of helicopter vibrations and other risk factors among military helicopter pilots and flight engineers. The study was a nested case-control design using medical record at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine of the Indonesian Air Force and Medical Directorate of the Indonesian Army (Flying Wing). Cases and controls were military helicopter pilots and flight engineers who had ametropic visual acuity at the time of e...

  4. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control (United States)


    of, and perhaps will not be tolerated in, manmade critical systems. Although this paper does not directly address questions of ethics associated...political, ethical , and moral issues associated with the use of autonomous systems in warfare will be debated long after the technology hurdles to...accessible discussion on the interplay of biochemistry, genetics and embryology in animal evolution; Wagner, 2005 describes biological concepts of

  5. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking (United States)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  6. [Autonomic nervous system in diabetes]. (United States)

    Emdin, M


    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia have a primary role in determining the early functional and later anatomic changes at the level of the autonomic pathways controlling the circulation, and besides in directly influencing cardiac and vascular cellular targets and feed-back baroreceptor system sensitivity to neurohumoral modulation in patients with diabetes mellitus. The basic mechanisms of dysfunction and damage, and the clinical and prognostic value of diabetic cardiovascular dysautonomia are discussed together with the diagnostic apparatus and the possible therapeutic approaches.

  7. An analytically linearized helicopter model with improved modeling accuracy (United States)

    Jensen, Patrick T.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.


    An analytically linearized model for helicopter flight response including rotor blade dynamics and dynamic inflow, that was recently developed, was studied with the objective of increasing the understanding, the ease of use, and the accuracy of the model. The mathematical model is described along with a description of the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter and flight test used to validate the model. To aid in utilization of the model for sensitivity analysis, a new, faster, and more efficient implementation of the model was developed. It is shown that several errors in the mathematical modeling of the system caused a reduction in accuracy. These errors in rotor force resolution, trim force and moment calculation, and rotor inertia terms were corrected along with improvements to the programming style and documentation. Use of a trim input file to drive the model is examined. Trim file errors in blade twist, control input phase angle, coning and lag angles, main and tail rotor pitch, and uniform induced velocity, were corrected. Finally, through direct comparison of the original and corrected model responses to flight test data, the effect of the corrections on overall model output is shown.

  8. Dynamic analysis of multimesh-gear helicopter transmissions (United States)

    Choy, Fred K.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Oswald, Fred B.


    A dynamic analysis of multimesh-gear helicopter transmission systems was performed by correlating analytical simulations with experimental investigations. The two computer programs used in this study, GRDYNMLT and PGT, were developed under NASA/Army sponsorship. Parametric studies of the numerical model with variations on mesh damping ratios, operating speeds, tip-relief tooth modifications, and tooth-spacing errors were performed to investigate the accuracy, application, and limitations of the two computer programs. Although similar levels of dynamic loading were predicted by both programs, the computer code GRDYNMLT was found to be superior and broader in scope. Results from analytical work were also compared with experimental data obtained from the U.S. Army's UH-60A Black Hawk 2240-kW (3000-hp) class, twin-engine helicopter transmission tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Good correlation in gear stresses was obtained between the analytical model simulated by GRDYNMLT and the experimental measurements. More realistic mesh damping can be predicted through experimental data correlation.

  9. Overview: Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems (United States)

    Miura, H.


    There are a number of helicopter design problems that are well suited to applications of numerical design optimization techniques. Adequate implementation of this technology will provide high pay-offs. There are a number of numerical optimization programs available, and there are many excellent response/performance analysis programs developed or being developed. But integration of these programs in a form that is usable in the design phase should be recognized as important. It is also necessary to attract the attention of engineers engaged in the development of analysis capabilities and to make them aware that analysis capabilities are much more powerful if integrated into design oriented codes. Frequently, the shortcoming of analysis capabilities are revealed by coupling them with an optimization code. Most of the published work has addressed problems in preliminary system design, rotor system/blade design or airframe design. Very few published results were found in acoustics, aerodynamics and control system design. Currently major efforts are focused on vibration reduction, and aerodynamics/acoustics applications appear to be growing fast. The development of a computer program system to integrate the multiple disciplines required in helicopter design with numerical optimization technique is needed. Activities in Britain, Germany and Poland are identified, but no published results from France, Italy, the USSR or Japan were found.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Helicopter Cockpit Seat subjected to Crash Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Sulaiman


    Full Text Available Sikorsky S-61 or better known as “Nuri” had served the Malaysian aviation sector for the past four decades. It is mainly used for transportation, combat search and rescue purposes. However, there were Nuri helicopter crashes or accident cases reported during its operation period which involved loss of its occupants. The pilot survivability rate can be improved provided that the vertical impact loading on the helicopter is reduced during the crash accident. Utilization of an energy absorbing pilot seat or cockpit structure maybe one of the approaches to minimize the impact shock exerted to the occupants. However, the shock or maximum acceleration of the cockpit/pilot seat has to be first determined before a thorough design scheme can be undertaken. In this study, a vertical crash event of the Nuri pilot seat from 500 feet altitude was simulated and the maximum acceleration rate was determined using MSC PATRAN/LSDYNA. The pilot survivability was determined by comparing the result with human tolerance criteria data available in other published works. From the result, it was found that the maximum acceleration of the Nuri pilot seat was 584.4g at 19. 63 milliseconds, thus it can be concluded that the survivability aspect of the pilot is fatal when compared to other published works.

  11. Measures for simulator evaluation of a helicopter obstacle avoidance system (United States)

    Demaio, Joe; Sharkey, Thomas J.; Kennedy, David; Hughes, Micheal; Meade, Perry


    The U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) has developed a high-fidelity, full-mission simulation facility for the demonstration and evaluation of advanced helicopter mission equipment. The Crew Station Research and Development Facility (CSRDF) provides the capability to conduct one- or two-crew full-mission simulations in a state-of-the-art helicopter simulator. The CSRDF provides a realistic, full field-of-regard visual environment with simulation of state-of-the-art weapons, sensors, and flight control systems. We are using the CSRDF to evaluate the ability of an obstacle avoidance system (OASYS) to support low altitude flight in cluttered terrain using night vision goggles (NVG). The OASYS uses a laser radar to locate obstacles to safe flight in the aircraft's flight path. A major concern is the detection of wires, which can be difficult to see with NVG, but other obstacles--such as trees, poles or the ground--are also a concern. The OASYS symbology is presented to the pilot on a head-up display mounted on the NVG (NVG-HUD). The NVG-HUD presents head-stabilized symbology to the pilot while allowing him to view the image intensified, out-the-window scene through the HUD. Since interference with viewing through the display is a major concern, OASYS symbology must be designed to present usable obstacle clearance information with a minimum of clutter.

  12. Comparison of induced velocity models for helicopter flight mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.E.; Houston, S.S.


    Modeling of rotor-induced velocity receives continued attention in the literature as the rotorcraft community addresses limitations in the fidelity of simulations of helicopter stability, control, and handling qualities. A comparison is presented of results obtained using a rigid-blade rotor-fuselage model configured with two induced velocity models: a conventional, first-order, finite state, dynamic inflow model and a wake model that solves a vorticity transport equation on a computational mesh enclosing the rotorcraft. Differences between the two models are quantified by comparing predictions of trimmed rotor blade flap, lag and feather angles, airframe pitch and roll attitudes, cross-coupling derivatives, response to control inputs, and airframe vibration. Results are presented in the context of measurements taken on a Puma aircraft in steady flight from hover to high speed. More accurate predictions of the cross-coupling derivatives, response to control, and airframe vibration obtained using the vorticity transport model suggest that incorporation of real flowfield effects is important to extending the bandwidth of applicability of helicopter simulation models. Unexpectedly small differences in some of the trim predictions obtained using the two wake models suggest that an overall improvement in simulation fidelity may not be achieved without equivalent attention to the rotor dynamic model. (Author)

  13. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti


    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  14. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman


    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  15. Semi autonomous mine detection system (United States)

    Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman


    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  16. Griffon Helicopter Neck Strain Project: Part 1: Mission Function Task Analysis and Physical Demands Analysis Report. Part 2: Physical Demands Analysis Library (United States)


    Regular IFR 2-Full Check FE Take-off to Hover Regular Transit Contour 2-Full Check NFP Pilot Post-Take off Checks Transit NOE SAR Check Taxi to Hold...Area Transit with Slung Load Plan ISR Land at Hold Area Race Track or Circular Conduct ISR Profile Obtain IFR Clearance Loiter Figure 8 Plan...Airport) Obtain IFR Clearance 60 Outside Scan Regular 50 CDU/AMS Use 100 Scan Regular Take-off 100 TAKE-OFF (Hover) Pre-Takeoff Checks 30 Inside Scan Dash

  17. Neck and shoulder muscle activity and posture among helicopter pilots and crew-members during military helicopter flight. (United States)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling; Boyle, Eleanor; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela


    Neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members is common. This study quantified the physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles using electromyography (EMG) measures during helicopter flight. Nine standardized sorties were performed, encompassing: cruising from location A to location B (AB) and performing search and rescue (SAR). SAR was performed with Night Vision Goggles (NVG), while AB was performed with (AB+NVG) and without NVG (AB-NVG). EMG was recorded for: trapezius (TRA), upper neck extensors (UNE), and sternocleido-mastoid (SCM). Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) were performed for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from pre- (0.7±1.3) to post-sortie (1.6±1.9) for pilots (p=0.028). If sustained, UNE activity of ∼10% MVE is high, and implies a risk for neck disorders.

  18. Control of an Autonomous Radio-Controlled Helicopter in a Modified Simulation Environment Using Proportional Integral Derivative Algorithms (United States)


    outputs, even when tracking a single position, maintaining hover without GPS can be considered useful under short-term conditions. All PID controllers also...user can deduce that his or her initial hunch was wrong and look elsewhere for a solution. 4. Key Flight Modes 4.1 Trim State Although PID ... controllers will eventually settle into a final value after receiving stable gains, there may still be errors present even with a strong Ki term. As such

  19. Helicopter Flight Test of a Compact, Real-Time 3-D Flash Lidar for Imaging Hazardous Terrain During Planetary Landing (United States)

    Roback, VIncent E.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Brewster, Paul F.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Kempton, Kevin S.; Reisse, Robert A.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.


    A second generation, compact, real-time, air-cooled 3-D imaging Flash Lidar sensor system, developed from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, is lab characterized and helicopter flight tested under the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. The ALHAT project is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The Flash Lidar incorporates a 3-D imaging video camera based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at a video rate of 20 Hz, a high pulse-energy 1.06 µm Neodymium-doped: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a remote laser safety termination system, high performance transmitter and receiver optics with one and five degrees field-of-view (FOV), enhanced onboard thermal control, as well as a compact and self-contained suite of support electronics housed in a single box and built around a PC-104 architecture to enable autonomous operations. The Flash Lidar was developed and then characterized at two NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) outdoor laser test range facilities both statically and dynamically, integrated with other ALHAT GN&C subsystems from partner organizations, and installed onto a Bell UH-1H Iroquois "Huey" helicopter at LaRC. The integrated system was flight tested at the NASA-Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on simulated lunar approach to a custom hazard field consisting of rocks, craters, hazardous slopes, and safe-sites near the Shuttle Landing Facility runway starting at slant ranges of 750 m. In order to evaluate different methods of achieving hazard detection, the lidar, in conjunction with the ALHAT hazard detection and GN&C system, operates in both a narrow 1deg FOV raster

  20. Maximizing commonality between military and general aviation fly-by-light helicopter system designs (United States)

    Enns, Russell; Mossman, David C.


    In the face of shrinking defense budgets, survival of the United States rotorcraft industry is becoming increasingly dependent on increased sales in a highly competitive civil helicopter market. As a result, only the most competitive rotorcraft manufacturers are likely to survive. A key ingredient in improving our competitive position is the ability to produce more versatile, high performance, high quality, and low cost of ownership helicopters. Fiber optic technology offers a path of achieving these objectives. Also, adopting common components and architectures for different helicopter models (while maintaining each models' uniqueness) will further decrease design and production costs. Funds saved (or generated) by exploiting this commonality can be applied to R&D used to further improve the product. In this paper, we define a fiber optics based avionics architecture which provides the pilot a fly-by-light / digital flight control system which can be implemented in both civilian and military helicopters. We then discuss the advantages of such an architecture.

  1. Time domain System Identification of Longitudinal Dynamics of Single Rotor Model Helicopter using SIDPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer


    Full Text Available This paper presents a time-domain approach for identification of longitudinal dynamics of single rotor model helicopter. A frequency sweep excitation input signal is applied for hover flying mode widely used for space state linearized model. A fully automated programmed flight test method provides high quality flight data for system identification using the computer controlled flight simulator X-plane©. The flight test data were recorded, analyzed and reduced using the SIDPAC (System Identification Programs for Air Craft toolbox for MATLAB, resulting in an aerodynamic model of single rotor helicopter. Finally, the identified model of single rotor helicopter is validated on Raptor 30-class model helicopter at hover showing the reliability of proposed approach

  2. Direct CFD Predictions of Low Frequency Sounds Generated by Helicopter Main Rotors (United States)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Conner, Dave; Watts, Michael E.


    This proposed paper will highlight the application of a CSD/CFD methodology currently inuse by the US Army Aerfolightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) to assess the feasibility and fidelity of directly predicting low frequency sounds of helicopter rotors.

  3. 58th SOW Low-Dust Helicopter Landing Zone Final Environmental Assessment (United States)


    Gases HLZ Helicopter Landing Zone IICEP Interagency and Intergovernmental Coordination for Environmental Planning IFR Instrument Flight Rule Instrument Flight Rule ( IFR ) flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification (FAA 2008). Controlled airspace is

  4. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators (United States)


    ... graphic scaling or cause difficulties in scale interpretation or resolution. (4) Scaling on graphical... helicopter. The direction of movement of controls and switches must be identical to that in the...

  5. Maximum acceptable inherent buoyancy limit for aircrew/passenger helicopter immersion suit systems. (United States)

    Brooks, C J


    Helicopter crew and passengers flying over cold water wear immersion suits to provide hypothermic protection in case of ditching in cold water. The suits and linings have trapped air in the material to provide the necessary insulation and are thus very buoyant. By paradox, this buoyancy may be too much for a survivor to overcome in escaping from the cabin of a rapidly sinking inverted helicopter. The Canadian General Standard Board requested that research be conducted to investigate what should be the maximum inherent buoyancy in an immersion suit that would not inhibit escape, yet would provide adequate thermal insulation. This experiment reports on 12 subjects who safely escaped with 146N (33 lbf) of added buoyancy from a helicopter underwater escape trainer. It discusses the logic for and recommendation that the inherent buoyancy in a helicopter crew/passenger immersion suit system should not exceed this figure.

  6. Final assessment of vibro-acoustic source strength descriptors of helicopter gearboxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens; Rasmussen, Ulrik Møller


    Two novel measurement techniques have been developed for quantifying the vibro-aqcoustic source strength of lightweight helicopter gearboxes. The accuracy, robustness and implementation of these methods have been examined by a comprehensive investigation, including theoretical studies of simple...... multi-modal beam systems and extensive experiments with more realistic small scale models and with large, detailed 3/4-scale test structures of a medium-size helicopter. In addition, partial verification tests have been conducted with the Eurocopter BK 117 helicopter and its main rotor gearbox....... The results of this work are essential as input for any prediction code of the internal noise in a helicopter cabin, because the prediction requires knowledge of the major sources, that is, the rotors, engines and gearboxes....

  7. Materials and structural aspects of advanced gas-turbine helicopter engines (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Acurio, J.


    The key to improved helicopter gas turbine engine performance lies in the development of advanced materials and advanced structural and design concepts. The modification of the low temperature components of helicopter engines (such as the inlet particle separator), the introduction of composites for use in the engine front frame, the development of advanced materials with increased use-temperature capability for the engine hot section, can result in improved performance and/or decreased engine maintenance cost. A major emphasis in helicopter engine design is the ability to design to meet a required lifetime. This, in turn, requires that the interrelated aspects of higher operating temperatures and pressures, cooling concepts, and environmental protection schemes be integrated into component design. The major material advances, coatings, and design life-prediction techniques pertinent to helicopter engines are reviewed; the current state-of-the-art is identified; and when appropriate, progress, problems, and future directions are assessed.

  8. 78 FR 44042 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters (Type Certificate Currently Held By... (United States)


    ....A. Helicopters (Type Certificate Currently Held By AgustaWestland S.P.A) (AgustaWestland) AGENCY... Certificate Currently Held By Agustawestland S.p.A) (AgustaWestland): Docket No. FAA-2013-0643;...

  9. A Hybrid Flight Control for a Simulated Raptor-30 V2 Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer


    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid flight control system for a single rotor simulated Raptor-30 V2 helicopter. Hybrid intelligent control system, combination of the conventional and intelligent control methodologies, is applied to small model helicopter. The proposed hybrid control used PID as a traditional control and fuzzy as an intelligent control so as to take the maximum advantage of advanced control theory. The helicopter?s model used; comes from X-Plane flight simulator and their hybrid flight control system was simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK in a simulation platform. X-Plane is also used to visualize the performance of this proposed autopilot design. Through a series of numerous experiments, the operation of hybrid control system was investigated. Results verified that the proposed hybrid control has an excellent performance at hovering flight mode.

  10. A laboratory study of the subjective response to helicopter blade-slap noise (United States)

    Shepherd, K. P.


    The test stimuli recorded during a recent field study consisted of 16 sounds, each presented at 4 peak noise levels. Two helicopters and a fixed-wing aircraft were used. The impulsive characteristics of one helicopter were varied by operating at different rotor speeds, whereas the other helicopter, the noise of which was dominated by the tail rotor, displayed little variation in blade-slap noise. Thirty-two subjects made noisiness judgments on a continuous, 11 point, numerical scale. Preliminary results indicate that proposed impulsiveness corrections provide no significant improvement in the noisiness predictive ability of Effective Perceived Noise Levels (EPNL). For equal EPNL, the two categories of helicopter stimuli, one of which was far more impulsive than the other, showed no difference in judged noisiness. Examination of the physical characteristics of the sounds presented in the laboratory highlighted the difficulty of reproducing acoustical signals with high-crest factors.

  11. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto


    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  12. Navigation and Control of an Autonomous Vehicle


    Schworer, Ian Josef


    The navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle is a highly complex task. Making a vehicle intelligent and able to operate â unmannedâ requires extensive theoretical as well as practical knowledge. An autonomous vehicle must be able to make decisions and respond to situations completely on its own. Navigation and control serves as the major limitation of the overall performance, accuracy and robustness of an autonomous vehicle. This thesis will address this problem and propose a uni...

  13. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines. (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto


    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  14. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles


    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen


    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  15. Concepts for the design of a completely active helicopter isolation system using output vector feedback (United States)

    Schulz, G.


    The theory of output vector feedback (a few measured quantities) is used to derive completely active oscillation isolation functions for helicopters. These feedback controller concepts are tested with various versions of the BO 105 helicopter and their performance is demonstrated. A compensation of the vibrational excitations from the rotor and harmonics of the number of blades are considered. There is also a fast and automatic trim function for maneuvers.

  16. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of a helicopter planetary gear train for carrier plate crack fault diagnosis


    Fan Lei; Wang Shaoping; Wang Xingjian; Han Feng; Lyu Huawei


    Planetary gear train plays a significant role in a helicopter operation and its health is of great importance for the flight safety of the helicopter. This paper investigates the effects of a planet carrier plate crack on the dynamic characteristics of a planetary gear train, and thus finds an effective method to diagnose crack fault. A dynamic model is developed to analyze the torsional vibration of a planetary gear train with a cracked planet carrier plate. The model takes into consideratio...

  17. Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems - A survey (United States)

    Miura, H.


    A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

  18. Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems: A survey (United States)

    Miura, H.


    A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

  19. Clustering of Parameter Sensitivities: Examples from a Helicopter Airframe Model Updating Exercise


    Shahverdi, H.; C. Mares; W. Wang; J. E. Mottershead


    The need for high fidelity models in the aerospace industry has become ever more important as increasingly stringent requirements on noise and vibration levels, reliability, maintenance costs etc. come into effect. In this paper, the results of a finite element model updating exercise on a Westland Lynx XZ649 helicopter are presented. For large and complex structures, such as a helicopter airframe, the finite element model represents the main tool for obtaining accurate models which could pre...

  20. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Rotor Source Noise Modeling (United States)

    Schmitz, Frederic H.; Greenwood, Eric


    A new physics-based method called Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) is used to demonstrate the change in rotor harmonic noise of a helicopter operating at different ambient conditions. FRAME is based upon a non-dimensional representation of the governing acoustic and performance equations of a single rotor helicopter. Measured external noise is used together with parameter identification techniques to develop a model of helicopter external noise that is a hybrid between theory and experiment. The FRAME method is used to evaluate the main rotor harmonic noise of a Bell 206B3 helicopter operating at different altitudes. The variation with altitude of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, known to be a strong function of the helicopter s advance ratio, is dependent upon which definition of airspeed is flown by the pilot. If normal flight procedures are followed and indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant, the true airspeed (TAS) of the helicopter increases with altitude. This causes an increase in advance ratio and a decrease in the speed of sound which results in large changes to BVI noise levels. Results also show that thickness noise on this helicopter becomes more intense at high altitudes where advancing tip Mach number increases because the speed of sound is decreasing and advance ratio increasing for the same indicated airspeed. These results suggest that existing measurement-based empirically derived helicopter rotor noise source models may give incorrect noise estimates when they are used at conditions where data were not measured and may need to be corrected for mission land-use planning purposes.

  1. Critical Technology Events in the Development of the Apache Helicopter. Project Hindsight Revisited (United States)


    weapons systems also benefited the Apache. Among these advances were a common module approach to FLIR production and a minimum resolvable temperature ( MRT ...determination as a way to measure FLIR performance. Also, it should be noted that for the Apache, with the work on the MRT as a foundation, the U.S...Industry’s creative work on the T700 series of helicopter engines is an example. 3. The Army experiences with helicopters in Vietnam had a strong

  2. Design of a Miniature Autonomous Surveillance Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chang-e; HUANG Qiang; HUANG Yuan-can


    The small size of miniature robots poses great challenges for the mechanical and deetrieal design and the implementation of autonomous capabilities.In this paper,the mechanical and electrical design for a twowheeled cylindrical miniature autonomous robot ("BMS-1",BIT MicroScout-1) is presented and some autonomous capabilities are implemented by multiple sensors and some arithmetic models.Several experimental results show that BMS-1 is useful for surveillance in confined spaces and suitable for large-scale surveillance due to some autonomous capabilities.

  3. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles. (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet


    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  4. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves


    , and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic......Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...

  5. Stable Hovering Flight for a Small Unmanned Helicopter Using Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer


    Full Text Available Stable hover flight control for small unmanned helicopter under light air turbulent environment is presented. Intelligent fuzzy logic is chosen because it is a nonlinear control technique based on expert knowledge and is capable of handling sensor created noise and contradictory inputs commonly encountered in flight control. The fuzzy nonlinear control utilizes these distinct qualities for attitude, height, and position control. These multiple controls are developed using two-loop control structure by first designing an inner-loop controller for attitude angles and height and then by establishing outer-loop controller for helicopter position. The nonlinear small unmanned helicopter model used comes from X-Plane simulator. A simulation platform consisting of MATLAB/Simulink and X-Plane© flight simulator was introduced to implement the proposed controls. The main objective of this research is to design computationally intelligent control laws for hovering and to test and analyze this autopilot for small unmanned helicopter model on X-Plane under ideal and mild turbulent condition. Proposed fuzzy flight controls are validated using an X-Plane helicopter model before being embedded on actual helicopter. To show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy control method and its ability to cope with the external uncertainties, results are compared with a classical PD controller. Simulated results show that two-loop fuzzy controllers have a good ability to establish stable hovering for a class of unmanned rotorcraft in the presence of light turbulent environment.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Core Strengthening Exercises in U.S. Air Force Helicopter Crewmembers with Low Back Pain (United States)


    JP, Albert WJ, Veillete DW, McKenzie NP, Croll JC. Helicopter cockpit seat side and trapezius muscle metabolism with night vision goggles . Aviat...ergonomic layout of helicopter controls leads pilots to adopt a posture in which the torso is forward flexed and tilted to the left. This body... helicopter aircrew members is hypothesized to result from the combination of ergonomic strain (i.e., poor posture ) and exposure to vibration (19). The

  7. On neck load among helicopter pilots : Effects of head worn equipment, whole body vibration and neck position


    Thuresson, Marcus


    Introduction: Helicopter pilots complain of pain originating from the neck region. The causes are still basically unknown, but the ergonomic situation when flying a helicopter, with unfavorable load caused by static neck and body positions, whole-body vibration and heavy head-worn equipment, has been suggested as a risk factor. Aim: The aim of the work reported in this thesis was to quantify the effects of external loads on helicopter pilots necks, and to evaluate diffe...

  8. Plan, formulate, discuss and correlate a NASTRAN finite element vibrations model of the Boeing Model 360 helicopter airframe (United States)

    Gabel, R.; Lang, P. F.; Smith, L. A.; Reed, D. A.


    Boeing Helicopter, together with other United States helicopter manufacturers, participated in a finite element applications program to emplace in the United States a superior capability to utilize finite element analysis models in support of helicopter airframe design. The activities relating to planning and creating a finite element vibrations model of the Boeing Model 36-0 composite airframe are summarized, along with the subsequent analytical correlation with ground shake test data.

  9. Autonomous Dome for Robotic Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Akash; Ganesh, Shashikiran


    Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu. This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  10. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J


    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  11. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard


    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  12. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  13. Autonomous systems for plant protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm;


    Advances in automation are demanded by the market mainly as a response to high labor costs. Robotic outdoor systems are ready to allow not only economically viable operations but also increased efficiency in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. The aim of this chapter is to give examples...... of autonomous operations related to crop protection probably commercially available in the near future. Scouting and monitoring together with the efficient application of chemicals or mechanical treatments are operations which can be successful automated. Drawbacks are that current systems are lacking robust...

  14. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA) (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.


    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  15. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    CERN Document Server

    Beard, L P


    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  16. Advances in transitional flow modeling applications to helicopter rotors

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Chunhua


    This book provides a comprehensive description of numerical methods and validation processes for predicting transitional flows based on the Langtry–Menter local correlation-based transition model, integrated with both one-equation Spalart–Allmaras (S–A) and two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models. A comparative study is presented to combine the respective merits of the two coupling methods in the context of predicting the boundary-layer transition phenomenon from fundamental benchmark flows to realistic helicopter rotors. The book will of interest to industrial practitioners working in aerodynamic design and the analysis of fixed-wing or rotary wing aircraft, while also offering advanced reading material for graduate students in the research areas of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), turbulence modeling and related fields.

  17. Linear decentralized systems with special structure. [for twin lift helicopters (United States)

    Martin, C. F.


    Certain fundamental structures associated with linear systems having internal symmetries are outlined. It is shown that the theory of finite-dimensional algebras and their representations are closely related to such systems. It is also demonstrated that certain problems in the decentralized control of symmetric systems are equivalent to long-standing problems of linear systems theory. Even though the structure imposed arose in considering the problems of twin-lift helicopters, any large system composed of several identical intercoupled control systems can be modeled by a linear system that satisfies the constraints imposed. Internal symmetry can be exploited to yield new system-theoretic invariants and a better understanding of the way in which the underlying structure affects overall system performance.

  18. Design of an advanced 500-HP helicopter transmission (United States)

    Braddock, C. E.


    A 500-hp Advanced Technology Demonstrator helicopter transmission was designed by an American aerospace company under a NASA contract. The project was mainly concerned with designing a 500-hp version of the OH-58C 317-hp transmission which would have the capabilities for a long, quiet life at a minimum increase in cost, weight, and space, which usually increase along with power increases. This objective was accomplished by implementing advanced technology which has been developed during the last decade and by making improvements dictated by field experience. The improvements are related to bearings made of cleaner gear steels, spiral bevel gears made of cleaner gear steels, high contact ratio spur gear teeth in the planetary which will reduce noise level and increase gear life, and modifications concerning the sun gear.

  19. Distribution of Acoustic Power Spectra for an Isolated Helicopter Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusyumov A.N.


    Full Text Available The broadband aerodynamic noise can be studied, assuming isotropic flow, turbulence and decay. Proudman’s approach allows practical calculations of noise based on CFD solutions of RANS or URANS equations at the stage of post processing and analysis of the solution. Another aspect is the broadband acoustic spectrum and the distribution of acoustic power over a range of frequencies. The acoustic energy spectrum distribution in isotropic turbulence is non monotonic and has a maximum at a certain value of Strouhal number. In the present work the value of acoustic power peak frequency is determined using a prescribed form of acoustic energy spectrum distribution presented in papers by S. Sarkar and M. Y. Hussaini and by G. M. Lilley. CFD modelling of the flow around isolated helicopter fuselage model was considered using the HMB CFD code and the RANS equations.

  20. Pipes's distribution by helicopter in Amazonian forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Gilberto R.; Machado, Otto L.M.; Gomes, Antonio E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The innumerable logistical problems encountered during the implementation of the gas pipeline Urucu - Coari - Manaus, located in the Amazon forest, connecting the Base Operations Geologist Pedro de Moura in Urucu to the refinery Isaac Sabba - Reman, in the city of Manaus, contributed considerably for PETROBRAS to seek non conventional solutions in the construction and assembly of pipelines in our country. Among these solutions, there is the technique of distributing pipes through cargo helicopters. The need for the usage of this technique, innovative in Brazil, comes from the lack and/or insufficiency of land access from Solimoes River to the gas pipeline main route, and the large quantities of flooded areas and/or flood plain, and also the type of soil, that together with the high index of rainfall in the region, makes the soil fully inappropriate to the traffic of heavy equipment. (author)

  1. Integrated cockpit design for the Army helicopter improvement program (United States)

    Drennen, T.; Bowen, B.


    The main Army Helicopter Improvement Program (AHIP) mission is to navigate precisely, locate targets accurately, communicate their position to other battlefield elements, and to designate them for laser guided weapons. The onboard navigation and mast-mounted sight (MMS) avionics enable accurate tracking of current aircraft position and subsequent target location. The AHIP crewstation development was based on extensive mission/task analysis, function allocation, total system design, and test and verification. The avionics requirements to meet the mission was limited by the existing aircraft structural and performance characteristics and resultant space, weight, and power restrictions. These limitations and night operations requirement led to the use of night vision goggles. The combination of these requirements and limitations dictated an integrated control/display approach using multifunction displays and controls.

  2. Recent Ice thickness helicopter borne radar surveys in Patagonia (United States)

    Rivera, Andres; Zamora, Rodrigo; Andres Uribe, Jose; Oberreuter, Jonathan; Gacitua, Guisella; Rignot, Eric


    The Patagonian icefields are the biggest temperate ice bodies in southern hemisphere, which have experienced important areal shrinkage and thinning in recent decades, significantly contributing to sea level rise. The main driving factor behind this retreating condition is recent decade atmospheric warming explaining higher melting rates and equilibrium line altitude upward migration. Ice dynamic is also playing an important role especially in glaciers calving into deep fjords or lakes, type of glaciers that are predominant in the Patagonian icefields. In order to better understand their ice dynamics, several recent works have measured ice velocities using feature tracking and other techniques, however, ice thickness is still barely known. In spite of several on the ground radar measurements successfully detecting several hundred of m of ice thickness at the higher plateaus, this variable remains the great missing part of the equation especially when the thickness is approximately deeper than 600 m or where the glacier surfaces are very crevassed or nearby the Equilibrium line Altitude, where on the ground measurements are logistically constrained. In order to tackle the lack of thickness data, a helicopter borne radar system was used to survey several Patagonian temperate glaciers calving into fjords (Glaciares San Rafael and Jorge Montt) or lakes (Nef, Colonia and Steffen). The radar system is comprised by a hanging bow-tie dipole antenna working at a central frequency of 20 MHz. The antenna is an aluminum structure of 7 x 5 x 1.2 m weighting near 350 kg that is hanging at 20 m below a helicopter, and is connected to the helicopter cabin by an optical fiber cable. At the antenna are installed a 3,200 Volts peak transmitter, a two channel radar receiver, and an integrated GPS registering each trace. The helicopter flying speed was kept at near 40 knots and the antenna was normally hanging at 40 m above the ice. The surveys took place along predefined tracks

  3. Comparison of three controllers applied to helicopter vibration (United States)

    Leyland, Jane A.


    A comparison was made of the applicability and suitability of the deterministic controller, the cautious controller, and the dual controller for the reduction of helicopter vibration by using higher harmonic blade pitch control. A randomly generated linear plant model was assumed and the performance index was defined to be a quadratic output metric of this linear plant. A computer code, designed to check out and evaluate these controllers, was implemented and used to accomplish this comparison. The effects of random measurement noise, the initial estimate of the plant matrix, and the plant matrix propagation rate were determined for each of the controllers. With few exceptions, the deterministic controller yielded the greatest vibration reduction (as characterized by the quadratic output metric) and operated with the greatest reliability. Theoretical limitations of these controllers were defined and appropriate candidate alternative methods, including one method particularly suitable to the cockpit, were identified.

  4. Smart helicopter rotors optimization and piezoelectric vibration control

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguli, Ranjan; Viswamurthy, Sathyamangalam Ramanarayanan


    Exploiting the properties of piezoelectric materials to minimize vibration in rotor-blade actuators, this book demonstrates the potential of smart helicopter rotors to achieve the smoothness of ride associated with jet-engined, fixed-wing aircraft. Vibration control is effected using the concepts of trailing-edge flaps and active-twist. The authors’ optimization-based approach shows the advantage of multiple trailing-edge flaps and algorithms for full-authority control of dual trailing-edge-flap actuators are presented. Hysteresis nonlinearity in piezoelectric stack actuators is highlighted and compensated by use of another algorithm. The idea of response surfaces provides for optimal placement of trailing-edge flaps. The concept of active twist involves the employment of piezoelectrically induced shear actuation in rotating beams. Shear is then demonstrated for a thin-walled aerofoil-section rotor blade under feedback-control vibration minimization. Active twist is shown to be significant in reducing vibra...

  5. Helicopter vibration isolation: Design approach and test results (United States)

    Lee, C.-M.; Goverdovskiy, V. N.; Sotenko, A. V.


    This paper presents a strategy based on the approach of designing and inserting into helicopter vibration isolation systems mountable mechanisms with springs of adjustable sign-changing stiffness for system stiffness control. A procedure to extend the effective area of stiffness control is presented; a set of parameters for sensitivity analysis and practical mechanism design is formulated. The validity and flexibility of the approach are illustrated by application to crewmen seat suspensions and vibration isolators for equipment protection containers. The strategy provides minimization of vibrations, especially in the infra-low frequency range which is the most important for crewmen efficiency and safety of the equipment. This also would prevent performance degradation of some operating systems. The effectiveness is demonstrated through measured data obtained from development and parallel flight tests of new and operating systems.

  6. Investigation of the flight mechanics simulation of a hovering helicopter (United States)

    Chaimovich, M.; Rosen, A.; Rand, O.; Mansur, M. H.; Tischler, M. B.


    The flight mechanics simulation of a hovering helicopter is investigated by comparing the results of two different numerical models with flight test data for a hovering AH-64 Apache. The two models are the U.S. Army BEMAP and the Technion model. These nonlinear models are linearized by applying a numerical linearization procedure. The results of the linear models are compared with identification results in terms of eigenvalues, stability and control derivatives, and frequency responses. Detailed time histories of the responses of the complete nonlinear models, as a result of various pilots' inputs, are compared with flight test results. In addition the sensitivity of the models to various effects are also investigated. The results are discussed and problematic aspects of the simulation are identified.

  7. Model helicopter performance degradation with simulated ice shapes (United States)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Korkan, Kenneth D.


    An experimental program using a commercially available model helicopter has been conducted in the Texas A&M University Subsonic Wind Tunnel to investigate main rotor performance degradation due to generic ice. The simulated ice, including both primary and secondary formations, was scaled by chord from previously documented artificial ice accretions. Base and iced performance data were gathered as functions of fuselage incidence, blade collective pitch, main rotor rotational velocity, and freestream velocity. It was observed that the presence of simulated ice tends to decrease the lift to equivalent drag ratio, as well as thrust coefficient for the range of velocity ratios tested. Also, increases in torque coefficient due to the generic ice formations were observed. Evaluation of the data has indicated that the addition of roughness due to secondary ice formations is crucial for proper evaluation of the degradation in main rotor performance.

  8. Subjective assessment of simulated helicopter blade-slap noise (United States)

    Lawton, B. W.


    The effects of several characteristics of helicopter blade slap upon human annoyance are examined. Blade slap noise was simulated by using continuous and impulsive noises characterized by five parameters: The number of sine waves in a single impulse; the frequency of the sine waves; the impulse repetition frequency; the sound pressure level (SPL) of the continuous noise; and the idealized crest factor of the impulses. Ten second samples of noise were synthesized with each of the five parameters at representative levels. The annoyance of each noise was judged by 40 human subjects. Analysis of the subjective data indicated that each of the five parameters had a statistically significant effect upon the annoyance judgments. The impulse crest factor and SPL of the continuous noise had very strong positive relationships with annoyance. The other parameters had smaller, but still significant, effects upon the annoyance judgments.

  9. Helicopter flights with night-vision goggles: Human factors aspects (United States)

    Brickner, Michael S.


    Night-vision goggles (NVGs) and, in particular, the advanced, helmet-mounted Aviators Night-Vision-Imaging System (ANVIS) allows helicopter pilots to perform low-level flight at night. It consists of light intensifier tubes which amplify low-intensity ambient illumination (star and moon light) and an optical system which together produce a bright image of the scene. However, these NVGs do not turn night into day, and, while they may often provide significant advantages over unaided night flight, they may also result in visual fatigue, high workload, and safety hazards. These problems reflect both system limitations and human-factors issues. A brief description of the technical characteristics of NVGs and of human night-vision capabilities is followed by a description and analysis of specific perceptual problems which occur with the use of NVGs in flight. Some of the issues addressed include: limitations imposed by a restricted field of view; problems related to binocular rivalry; the consequences of inappropriate focusing of the eye; the effects of ambient illumination levels and of various types of terrain on image quality; difficulties in distance and slope estimation; effects of dazzling; and visual fatigue and superimposed symbology. These issues are described and analyzed in terms of their possible consequences on helicopter pilot performance. The additional influence of individual differences among pilots is emphasized. Thermal imaging systems (forward looking infrared (FLIR)) are described briefly and compared to light intensifier systems (NVGs). Many of the phenomena which are described are not readily understood. More research is required to better understand the human-factors problems created by the use of NVGs and other night-vision aids, to enhance system design, and to improve training methods and simulation techniques.

  10. Plant Watering Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Nagaraja


    Full Text Available Now days, due to busy routine life, people forget to water their plants. In this paper, we present a completely autonomous and a cost-effective system for watering indoor potted plants placed on an even surface. The system comprises of a mobile robot and a temperature-humidity sensing module. The system is fully adaptive to any environment and takes into account the watering needs of the plants using the temperature-humidity sensing module. The paper describes the hardware architecture of the fully automated watering system, which uses wireless communication to communicate between the mobile robot and the sensing module. This gardening robot is completely portable and is equipped with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID module, a microcontroller, an on-board water reservoir and an attached water pump. It is capable of sensing the watering needs of the plants, locating them and finally watering them autonomously without any human intervention. Mobilization of the robot to the potted plant is achieved by using a predefined path. For identification, an RFID tag is attached to each potted plant. The paper also discusses the detailed implementation of the system supported with complete circuitry. Finally, the paper concludes with system performance including the analysis of the water carrying capacity and time requirements to water a set of plants.

  11. Multi-agent autonomous system (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)


    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  12. Autonomous Lawnmower using FPGA implementation. (United States)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Lokman, Nabill bin; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd


    Nowadays, there are various types of robot have been invented for multiple purposes. The robots have the special characteristic that surpass the human ability and could operate in extreme environment which human cannot endure. In this paper, an autonomous robot is built to imitate the characteristic of a human cutting grass. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the movements where all data and information would be processed. Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is used to describe the hardware using Quartus II software. This robot has the ability of avoiding obstacle using ultrasonic sensor. This robot used two DC motors for its movement. It could include moving forward, backward, and turning left and right. The movement or the path of the automatic lawn mower is based on a path planning technique. Four Global Positioning System (GPS) plot are set to create a boundary. This to ensure that the lawn mower operates within the area given by user. Every action of the lawn mower is controlled by the FPGA DE' Board Cyclone II with the help of the sensor. Furthermore, Sketch Up software was used to design the structure of the lawn mower. The autonomous lawn mower was able to operate efficiently and smoothly return to coordinated paths after passing the obstacle. It uses 25% of total pins available on the board and 31% of total Digital Signal Processing (DSP) blocks.

  13. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels (United States)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.


    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  14. Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member (United States)


    2015 Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems: Workshop on Goal Reasoning Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member Kellen...20375 USA Abstract Autonomous agents are beginning to play larger roles within team-oriented tasks and missions in various domains. Many reasoning ...present a goal reasoning system for this agent that integrates natural language processing, explanation generation, and plan recognition components

  15. Blunted autonomic response in cluster headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads; Brinth, Louise; Mehlsen, Jesper


    BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is a disabling headache disorder with chronobiological features. The posterior hypothalamus is involved in CH pathophysiology and is a hub for autonomic control. We studied autonomic response to the head-up tilt table test (HUT) including heart rate variability...

  16. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.


    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface...

  17. Intelligent autonomous systems 12. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukhan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of). College of Information and Communication Engineering; Yoon, Kwang-Joon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyungsuck [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangmyung (eds.) [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering


    Recent research in Intelligent and Autonomous Systems. Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, jeju Island, Korea. Written by leading experts in the field. Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of ''Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security and space applications, and intelligent autonomous systems for manufacturing and healthcare. This volume 2 includes contributions devoted to Service Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction and Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems and Life Engineering.

  18. Safe and Autonomous Drones for Urban Flight (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje


    Autonomous vehicles are no longer futuristic technology; in fact, there are already cars with self-driving features on the road. Over the next five years, the connected vehicles will disrupt the entire automotive and UAS ecosystems. The industry will undergo fundamental change as semi-autonomous driving and flying emerges, followed by an eventual shift to full autonomy.

  19. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na


    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  20. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.


    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  1. Energy homeostasis, autonomic activity and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Balkan, B; Nyakas, C; vanDijk, G; Steffens, AB; Bohus, B


    Obesity is often accompanied by alterations in both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The present paper summarizes the results of a number of studies designed to investigate autonomic functioning in normal, genetically, and experimentally obese rats, Particular emphasis is given t

  2. Technologies for highly miniaturized autonomous sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, K.; Gyselinckx, B.; Torfs, T.; Leonov, V.; Yazicioglu, F.; Brebels, S.; Donnay, S.; Vanfleteren, J.; Beyne, E.; Hoof, C. van


    Recent results of the autonomous sensor research program HUMAN++ will be summarized in this paper. The research program aims to achieve highly miniaturized and (nearly) autonomous sensor systems that assist our health and comfort. Although the application examples are dedicated to human monitoring/a

  3. Shh-mediated degradation of Hhip allows cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous Shh signalling. (United States)

    Kwong, Lina; Bijlsma, Maarten F; Roelink, Henk


    The distribution of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a highly regulated and critical process for development. Several negative feedback mechanisms are in place, including the Shh-induced upregulation of Hedgehog-interacting protein (Hhip). Hhip sequesters Shh, leading to a non-cell autonomous inhibition of the pathway. Hhip overexpression has a severe effect on neural tube development, raising the question why normal sites of Hhip expression have a seemingly unimpaired response to Shh. Here we show that although Hhip is able to leave its sites of synthesis to inhibit Shh non-cell autonomously, activation of Smoothened (Smo) drastically increases Hhip internalization and degradation cell autonomously. Although Hhip is unable to cell autonomously inhibit the consequences of Smo activation, it can inhibit the Shh response non-cell autonomously. Our data provide a mechanism by which the Shh ligand can activate the response and negate cell autonomous effects of Hhip, while Hhip can still induce non-cell autonomous inhibition.

  4. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salih, Nadir K; Viju, PG K; Mohamed, Abdelmotalib A


    Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, sociality and pro-activity, software agents are promising to make autonomic computing system a reality. This paper mixed multi-agent system with autonomic feature that completely hides its complexity from users/services. Mentioned Java Application Development Framework as platform example of this environment, could applied to web services as front end to users. With multi agent support it also provides adaptability, intelligence, collaboration, goal oriented interactions, flexibility, mobility and persistence in software systems

  5. Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control (United States)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony


    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

  6. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Niño Mantilla


    Full Text Available the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is a serious problem in diabetic patients. The cardiovacular autonomic neuropathy is the most important autonomic dysfuntion for it´s implication in the increasesof the mortality rate in diabetis patients. tis ethiopatogenesis is the result of a multifactorial process caused by chronic hyperglycemia, ending up in damage of the autonomic fibers thet innervate the heart and blood vessels, leading to dysfuntional hearth rate control and abnormal vascular dynamics. the associated clinical manifestations include orthotatic hypotension, excecise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular liability and silent myocardial ischemia. Being important its recognition, quantitative test to evaluate the cardiovascular funtion, to value its evolution and the effects of the treatment ahould be done, being the most used, the hearth rate response to standing test, and teh valsalva maneuver. the handling of this entity is done improving control of glucose blood levels its the most effective way to prevent the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

  7. Helicopter vibration and risk of reversible myopia among military air crews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastaman Basuki


    Full Text Available We assessed to what extend the risk of reversible myopia of the different degree of helicopter vibrations and other risk factors among military helicopter pilots and flight engineers. The study was a nested case-control design using medical record at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine of the Indonesian Air Force and Medical Directorate of the Indonesian Army (Flying Wing. Cases and controls were military helicopter pilots and flight engineers who had ametropic visual acuity at the time of entry into military service from 1972 until 1992. Reversible myopia means visual acuity corrected of - 0.50 dioptri or less. The final model indicates there was a relationship between vibration level, duration of work and risk of reversible myopia. Helicopter crews exposed to high vibration level had 4.5 times to develop reversible myopia [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 4.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.48 - 13.55] relative to those who exposed to weak vibration level. There was noted a healthy worker's survivor effect. Those who remain work for a longer peiod had less a chance to be myopia. Those who worked for 10 years or more had a lowered risk of 85% to be myopia compared with those who worked for 14 years (adjusted OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.03 - 0.87. Helicopter crews exposed to high helicopter vibration had 4.5 times to develop reversible myopia, and a higher risk occurred during the first four years of employment. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 93-6Keywords: helicopter vibration, reversible myopia, air crews

  8. A helicopter flight does not induce significant changes in systemic biomarker profiles. (United States)

    Kåsin, Jan Ivar; Kjekshus, John; Aukrust, Pål; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Wagstaff, Anthony


    Whole-body vibration and noise are inherent characteristics of helicopter operations. The helicopter pilot is affected by vibration from both low-frequency noise and mechanical vibration sources. The way this energy is transmitted to different tissues and organs depends on intensity, frequency and resonance phenomena within the body. Whole-body vibration is known to affect the muscular and skeletal system in the lower part of the spine, but less is known about the response at the cellular level to this stimulation. In some studies, chronic pathological changes have been described in different types of tissue in people exposed to low-frequency noise and vibration. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible cellular reactions to acute exposure to low-frequency noise and vibration in a helicopter. Thirteen healthy males aged 38 (18-69) years were subjected to a 3.5 h helicopter flight in a Westland Sea King Rescue helicopter. Blood tests taken before and after the flight were analysed for more than 40 parameters, including acute phase reactants, markers of leucocyte and platelet activation, complement and hemostasis markers, as well as a broad panel of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and cell adhesion molecules. The subjects served as their own controls. With the exception of an increase in vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) during the flight, no statistically significant changes in the biomarkers were found after controlling for diurnal variation in the control blood tests, which were observed independently of the helicopter flight. In conclusion, one helicopter flight does not induce measurable changes in systemic biomarkers.

  9. The noise environment of a school classroom due to the operation of utility helicopters. [acoustic measurements of helicopter noise during flight over building (United States)

    Hilton, D. A.; Pegg, R. J.


    Noise measurements under controlled conditions have been made inside and outside of a school building during flyover operations of four different helicopters. The helicopters were operated at a condition considered typical for a police patrol mission. Flyovers were made at an altitude of 500 ft and an airspeed of 45 miles per hour. During these operations acoustic measurements were made inside and outside of the school building with the windows closed and then open. The outside noise measurements during helicopter flyovers indicate that the outside db(A) levels were approximately the same for all test helicopters. For the windows closed case, significant reductions for the inside measured db(A) values were noted for all overflights. These reductions were approximately 20 db(A); similar reductions were noted in other subjective measuring units. The measured internal db(A) levels with the windows open exceeded published classroom noise criteria values; however, for the windows-closed case they are in general agreement with the criteria values.

  10. Digital autonomous terminal access communications (United States)

    Novacki, S.


    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  11. Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner; Jessner, Axel


    An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. In this paper we describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

  12. Mechanical autonomous stochastic heat engines (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, Andre; Moleron, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara; . Team

    Stochastic heat engines extract work from the Brownian motion of a set of particles out of equilibrium. So far, experimental demonstrations of stochastic heat engines have required extreme operating conditions or nonautonomous external control systems. In this talk, we will present a simple, purely classical, autonomous stochastic heat engine that uses the well-known tension induced nonlinearity in a string. Our engine operates between two heat baths out of equilibrium, and transfers energy from the hot bath to a work reservoir. This energy transfer occurs even if the work reservoir is at a higher temperature than the hot reservoir. The talk will cover a theoretical investigation and experimental results on a macroscopic setup subject to external noise excitations. This system presents an opportunity for the study of non equilibrium thermodynamics and is an interesting candidate for innovative energy conversion devices.

  13. Sleep in trigeminal autonomic cephalagias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barløse, Mads; Lund, Nunu; Jensen, Rigmor Højland


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep and cluster headache (CH) are believed to be interconnected but the precise relation to the other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) is uncertain and complex. A better understanding of these relations may eventually lead to a clarification of the underlying mechanisms...... and eventually to more effective therapeutic regimens. This review aims to evaluate the existing literature on the subject of TACs and sleep. An association between episodic CH and distinct macrostructural sleep phases, especially the relation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, has been described in some older...... studies but could not be confirmed in other, more recent studies. Investigations into the microstructure of sleep in these patients are lacking. Only a few case reports exist on the relation between sleep and other TACs. SUMMARY: Recent studies do not find an association between CH and REM sleep. One...

  14. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (United States)

    Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.


    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  15. Autonomous navigation system and method (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID


    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  16. Autonomous navigation system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID


    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  17. Responsibility and autonomous nursing practice. (United States)

    Holden, R J


    In this paper, the consequences were there greater autonomy in nursing practice, are considered. Autonomous practice implies accountability which entails both personal and professional responsibility: a personal responsibility to endorse ethical conduct consistent with professional practice; and a professional responsibility to exercise discretionary powers to the ultimate benefit of the patient. In this context, discretionary responsibility implies: recognizing a patient's wants may not be consistent with a patient's needs; abstaining from collusion with noncompliant patients; supporting the patient's right to refuse treatment only after full psychological exploration; understanding the psychological ramifications of informed consent from a practitioner and recipient point of view; maintaining appropriate personal and professional boundaries; and fostering collegiate relationships with the medical fraternity grounded on egalitarian principles. The author provides a philosophical and psychological analysis of responsibility in an effort to achieve a deeper understanding of the relationship this has with the concepts of 'freedom' and 'accountability'.

  18. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome


    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  19. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  20. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D


    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  1. Radar based autonomous sensor module (United States)

    Styles, Tim


    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  2. Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair (United States)

    Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary


    In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

  3. Feasibility Study for an Autonomous UAV -Magnetometer System -- Final Report on SERDP SEED 1509:2206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Mark McKay; Matt Anderson; Ross Johnson; Bob Selfridge; Jay Bennett


    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area scanning is a multi-level one, in which medium altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry followed by surface investigations using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be effective for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements means that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus, other systems are needed allowing for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it would be safer for the operators, cheaper in initial and O&M costs, and more effective in terms of site characterization. However, while UAV data acquisition from fixed wing platforms for large (> 200 feet) stand off distances is relatively straight forward, a host of challenges exist for low stand-off distance (~ 6 feet) UAV geophysical data acquisition. The objective of SERDP SEED 1509:2006 was to identify the primary challenges

  4. Dynamics Control Approaches to Improve Vibratory Environment of the Helicopter Aircrew (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh Kanchana

    Although helicopter has become a versatile mode of aerial transportation, high vibration levels leads to poor ride quality for its passengers and aircrew. Undesired vibration transmitted through the helicopter seats have been known to cause fatigue and discomfort to the aircrew in the short-term as well as neck strain and back pain injuries due to long-term exposure. This research study investigated the use of novel active as well as passive methodologies integrated in helicopter seats to mitigate the aircrew exposure to high vibration levels. Due to significantly less certification effort required to modify the helicopter seat structure, application of novel technologies to the seat is more practical compared to flight critical components such as the main rotor to reduce aircrew vibration. In particular, this research effort developed a novel adaptive seat mount approach based on active vibration control technology. This novel design that incorporated two stacked piezoelectric actuators as active struts increases the bending stiffness to avoid the low frequency resonance while generating forces to counteract higher harmonic vibration peaks. A real-time controller implemented using a feed-forward algorithm based on adaptive notches counteracted the forced vibration peaks while a robust feedback control algorithm suppressed the resonance modes. The effectiveness of the adaptive seat mount system was demonstrated through extensive closed-loop control tests on a full-scale helicopter seat using representative helicopter floor vibration profiles. Test results concluded that the proposed adaptive seat mount approach based on active control technology is a viable solution for the helicopter seat vibration control application. In addition, a unique flight test using a Bell-412 helicopter demonstrated that the aircrew is exposed to high levels of vibration during flight and that the whole body vibration spectrum varied substantially depending on operating conditions as

  5. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.


    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  6. Nine Years of Cooperation: The US-German Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Helicopter Aeromechanics 2003-2012 (United States)


    major source of structural loads of the rotor blades and the pitch links, as well a major source of vibrations and fatigue. Objectives: The...Extreme operation conditions on rotor blades limit the helicopter in many respects, like maximum speed, efficiency, noise emissions, and loading ...individuals contributed to the modern helicopter handling quality requirements with theoretical analysis, piloted simulations, and flight tests. The

  7. Presidential Helicopter Acquisition: Program Established Knowledge-Based Business Case and Entered System Development with Plans for Managing Challenges (United States)


    Presidential Helicopter Acquisition: Program Established Knowledge -Based Business Case and Entered System Development with Plans for Managing Challenges...Presidential Helicopter Acquisition: Program Established Knowledge -Based Business Case and Entered System Development with Plans for Managing...progress by establishing a knowledge - based business case for entry into system development that included an approved cost, schedule and performance

  8. Black Hawk Down?: Establishing Helicopter Parenting as a Distinct Construct from Other Forms of Parental Control during Emerging Adulthood (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nelson, Larry J.


    The purpose of the current study was to establish a measure of helicopter parenting that was distinct from other forms of parental control, and to examine parental and behavioral correlates of helicopter parenting. Participants included 438 undergraduate students from four universities in the United States (M[subscript age] = 19.65, SD = 2.00,…

  9. Multi-Scale Modeling of an Integrated 3D Braided Composite with Applications to Helicopter Arm (United States)

    Zhang, Diantang; Chen, Li; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Yifan; Qian, Kun


    A study is conducted with the aim of developing multi-scale analytical method for designing the composite helicopter arm with three-dimensional (3D) five-directional braided structure. Based on the analysis of 3D braided microstructure, the multi-scale finite element modeling is developed. Finite element analysis on the load capacity of 3D five-directional braided composites helicopter arm is carried out using the software ABAQUS/Standard. The influences of the braiding angle and loading condition on the stress and strain distribution of the helicopter arm are simulated. The results show that the proposed multi-scale method is capable of accurately predicting the mechanical properties of 3D braided composites, validated by the comparison the stress-strain curves of meso-scale RVCs. Furthermore, it is found that the braiding angle is an important factor affecting the mechanical properties of 3D five-directional braided composite helicopter arm. Based on the optimized structure parameters, the nearly net-shaped composite helicopter arm is fabricated using a novel resin transfer mould (RTM) process.

  10. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Harmonic Noise Radiation: Theory and Experiment (United States)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.


    The effects of ambient atmospheric conditions, air temperature and density, on rotor harmonic noise radiation are characterized using theoretical models and experimental measurements of helicopter noise collected at three different test sites at elevations ranging from sea level to 7000 ft above sea level. Significant changes in the thickness, loading, and blade-vortex interaction noise levels and radiation directions are observed across the different test sites for an AS350 helicopter flying at the same indicated airspeed and gross weight. However, the radiated noise is shown to scale with ambient pressure when the flight condition of the helicopter is defined in nondimensional terms. Although the effective tip Mach number is identified as the primary governing parameter for thickness noise, the nondimensional weight coefficient also impacts lower harmonic loading noise levels, which contribute strongly to low frequency harmonic noise radiation both in and out of the plane of the horizon. Strategies for maintaining the same nondimensional rotor operating condition under different ambient conditions are developed using an analytical model of single main rotor helicopter trim and confirmed using a CAMRAD II model of the AS350 helicopter. The ability of the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique to generalize noise measurements made under one set of ambient conditions to make accurate noise predictions under other ambient conditions is also validated.

  11. Dynamic surface measurements on a model helicopter rotor during blade slap at high angles of attack (United States)

    Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Harris, W. L.


    The modern helicopter offers a unique operational capability to both the public and private sectors. However, the use of the helicopter may become severely limited due to the radiated noise generated by the rotor system. A description is presented of some of the experimental results obtained with a model helicopter rotor in an anechoic wind tunnel with regard to blade stall as a source mechanism of blade slap. Attention is given to dynamic rotor blade surface phenomena and the resulting far field impulsive noise from the model helicopter rotor at high angles of attack and low tip speed. The results of the investigation strongly implicates the boundary layer as playing an important role in blade slap due to blade/vortex interaction (BVI) in a highly loaded rotor. Intermittent stall cannot be ruled out as a possible source mechanism for blade slap. This implies that blade surface characteristics, airfoil shape and local Reynolds number may now be used as tools to reduce the resultant far-field sound pressure levels in helicopters.

  12. Integral Twist Actuation of Helicopter Rotor Blades for Vibration Reduction (United States)

    Shin, SangJoon; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.


    Active integral twist control for vibration reduction of helicopter rotors during forward flight is investigated. The twist deformation is obtained using embedded anisotropic piezocomposite actuators. An analytical framework is developed to examine integrally-twisted blades and their aeroelastic response during different flight conditions: frequency domain analysis for hover, and time domain analysis for forward flight. Both stem from the same three-dimensional electroelastic beam formulation with geometrical-exactness, and axe coupled with a finite-state dynamic inflow aerodynamics model. A prototype Active Twist Rotor blade was designed with this framework using Active Fiber Composites as the actuator. The ATR prototype blade was successfully tested under non-rotating conditions. Hover testing was conducted to evaluate structural integrity and dynamic response. In both conditions, a very good correlation was obtained against the analysis. Finally, a four-bladed ATR system is built and tested to demonstrate its concept in forward flight. This experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Tansonic Dynamics Tunnel and represents the first-of-a-kind Mach-scaled fully-active-twist rotor system to undergo forward flight test. In parallel, the impact upon the fixed- and rotating-system loads is estimated by the analysis. While discrepancies are found in the amplitude of the loads under actuation, the predicted trend of load variation with respect to its control phase correlates well. It was also shown, both experimentally and numerically, that the ATR blade design has the potential for hub vibratory load reduction of up to 90% using individual blade control actuation. Using the numerical framework, system identification is performed to estimate the harmonic transfer functions. The linear time-periodic system can be represented by a linear time-invariant system under the three modes of blade actuation: collective, longitudinal cyclic, and lateral cyclic. A vibration

  13. Helicopter gearbox isolation using periodically layered fluidic isolators (United States)

    Szefi, Joseph Thomas


    In rotorcraft transmissions, vibration generation by meshing gear pairs is a significant source of vibration and cabin noise. This high-frequency gearbox noise is primarily transmitted to the fuselage through rigid connections, which do not appreciably attenuate vibratory energy. The high-frequency vibrations typically include discrete gear-meshing frequencies in the range of 500--2000 Hz, and are often considered irritating and can reduce pilot effectiveness and passenger comfort. Periodically-layered isolators were identified as potential passive attenuators of these high frequency vibrations. Layered isolators exhibit transmissibility "stop bands," or frequency ranges in which there is very low transmissibility. An axisymmetric model was developed to accurately predict the location of these stop bands for isolators in compression. A Ritz approximation method was used to model the axisymmetric elastic behavior of layered cylindrical isolators. This model of layered isolators was validated with experiments. The physical design constraints of the proposed helicopter gearbox isolators were then estimated. Namely, constraints associated with isolator mass, axial stiffness, geometry, and elastomeric fatigue were determined. The passive performance limits of layered isolators were then determined using a design optimization methodology employing a simulated annealing algorithm. The results suggest that layered isolators cannot always meet frequency targets given a certain set of design constraints. Many passive and active design enhancements were considered to address this problem, and the use of embedded inertial amplifiers was found to exhibit a combination of advantageous effects. The first benefit was a lowering of the beginning stop band frequency, and thus a widening of the original stop band. The second was a tuned absorber effect, where the elastomer layer stiffness and the amplified tuned mass combined to act as a vibration absorber within the stop band. The

  14. Multiculturalismo, interculturalismo y autonomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cruz Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Este artículo examina dos enfoques teóri- cos sobre la autonomía: el multiculturalis- mo liberal y el interculturalismo latinoa- mericano. El argumento principal es que el enfoque intercultural es idóneo para fun- damentar la autonomía que el multicultu- ralismo porque tiene un mayor alcance metodológico y sus horizontes normativos son más amplios. En primer lugar, se exa- minan las críticas del interculturalismo al multiculturalismo liberal de Kymlicka. Se- guidamente, se estudian sus concepciones de la autonomía.

  15. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando


    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  16. Enhanced mission performance from autonomous instrument guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Betto, Maurizio;


    examples of such autonomous space instrumentation. With its full autonomy, this star tracker is capable of providing, in real-time, the absolute orientation with respect to the celestial reference frame with an accuracy of a few arc seconds. This high accuracy along with the robust operations, low weight...... acquisition and pointing (PROBA). Here three applications of the mu ASC as an autonomous onboard precision guide for precision vector instrumentation are presented. These are autonomous onboard antenna guidance, telescope guidance and tracking and high accuracy and wide range laser rangers....

  17. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.


    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  18. Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Staehelin Jensen, Troels


    BACKGROUND: Autonomic function has received little attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology has an impact on brain regions which are important for central autonomic control, but it is unclear if AD is associated with disturbance of autonomic function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autonomic...

  19. Quantifying Airborne Induced Polarization effects in helicopter time domain electromagnetics (United States)

    Macnae, James


    This paper derives the Airborne Induced Polarization (AIP) response of an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system to a horizontal, thin sheet conductor. A vertical component double-dipole approximates helicopter systems with towed concentric horizontal transmitter and receiver loops in frequency- or time-domain. In time domain, the AIP effect typically shows up as late-time negative data with amplitude 4 to 5 orders of magnitude smaller than the early-time peak of the positive AEM responses. Because of limited bandwidth from the short sample time after the decay of inductive responses, accurate extraction of intrinsic AIP parameters other than a minimum chargeability is almost impossible. Modelling further suggests that AIP effects in double-dipole AEM systems can only be reliably detected from polarizable material in the top few tens of metres. A titanium mineral exploration case history from the Lac Brûlé area, Quebec, Canada illustrates strong spatial coherence of AIP minimum chargeability estimates and their independence from other effects such as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility.

  20. Validation of Helicopter Gear Condition Indicators Using Seeded Fault Tests (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula; Brandon, E. Bruce


    A "seeded fault test" in support of a rotorcraft condition based maintenance program (CBM), is an experiment in which a component is tested with a known fault while health monitoring data is collected. These tests are performed at operating conditions comparable to operating conditions the component would be exposed to while installed on the aircraft. Performance of seeded fault tests is one method used to provide evidence that a Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) can replace current maintenance practices required for aircraft airworthiness. Actual in-service experience of the HUMS detecting a component fault is another validation method. This paper will discuss a hybrid validation approach that combines in service-data with seeded fault tests. For this approach, existing in-service HUMS flight data from a naturally occurring component fault will be used to define a component seeded fault test. An example, using spiral bevel gears as the targeted component, will be presented. Since the U.S. Army has begun to develop standards for using seeded fault tests for HUMS validation, the hybrid approach will be mapped to the steps defined within their Aeronautical Design Standard Handbook for CBM. This paper will step through their defined processes, and identify additional steps that may be required when using component test rig fault tests to demonstrate helicopter CI performance. The discussion within this paper will provide the reader with a better appreciation for the challenges faced when defining a seeded fault test for HUMS validation.

  1. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Approaches Practice Helicopter (United States)


    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph Neil Armstrong approaches the helicopter he flew to practice landing the Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

  2. Efficient sensitivity analysis and optimization of a helicopter rotor (United States)

    Lim, Joon W.; Chopra, Inderjit


    Aeroelastic optimization of a system essentially consists of the determination of the optimum values of design variables which minimize the objective function and satisfy certain aeroelastic and geometric constraints. The process of aeroelastic optimization analysis is illustrated. To carry out aeroelastic optimization effectively, one needs a reliable analysis procedure to determine steady response and stability of a rotor system in forward flight. The rotor dynamic analysis used in the present study developed inhouse at the University of Maryland is based on finite elements in space and time. The analysis consists of two major phases: vehicle trim and rotor steady response (coupled trim analysis), and aeroelastic stability of the blade. For a reduction of helicopter vibration, the optimization process requires the sensitivity derivatives of the objective function and aeroelastic stability constraints. For this, the derivatives of steady response, hub loads and blade stability roots are calculated using a direct analytical approach. An automated optimization procedure is developed by coupling the rotor dynamic analysis, design sensitivity analysis and constrained optimization code CONMIN.

  3. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations. (United States)

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R


    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations.

  4. Design and Evaluation of a Low-Noise Helicopter Blade (United States)

    Kondo, Natsuki; Tsujiuchi, Tomoka; Murashige, Atsushi; Nishimura, Hiroki; Aoki, Makoto; Tsuchihashi, Akihiko; Yamakawa, Eiichi; Aoyama, Takashi; Saito, Shigeru

    A low-noise helicopter blade, AT1, was designed with the concept of reducing noise without the drop of rotor performance. In the concept, High-Speed Impulsive (HSI) noise is reduced by applying a thin airfoil in the tip region and a dog-tooth like extension in the leading-edge of the tip region. Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is reduced by applying the extension and a strong taper near the tip end. The stall angle of the blade is increased by the effect of the vortex generated from the leading-edge extension. As a result, the drop of rotor performance caused by the thin airfoil and the reduction of rotor rotational speed is recovered. The low-noise characteristics and the performance of AT1 were evaluated by a model rotor test conducted at Deutsch Niederländischer Windkanal (DNW). It is shown that AT1 reduces HSI noise and BVI noise and has good performance in forward flight conditions. However, the improvement of performance in high-lift conditions still remains as a future problem.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHURong-gang; JIANGChangsheng; FENGBin


    A discussion is devoted to the design of an adaptive flight control system of the armed helicopter using wavelet neural network method. Firstly, the control loop of the attitude angle is designed with a dynamic inversion scheme in a quick loop and a slow loop. respectively. Then, in order to compensate the error caused by dynamic inversion, the adaptive flight control system of the armed helicopter using wavelet neural network method is put forward, so the BP wavelet neural network and the Lyapunov stable wavelet neural network are used to design the helicopter flight control system. Finally, the typical maneuver flight is simulated to demonstrate its validity and effectiveness. Result proves that the wavelet neural network has an engineering practical value and the effect of WNN is good.

  6. Application of the ABC helicopter to the emergency medical service role (United States)

    Levine, L. S.


    Attention is called to the use of helicopters in transporting the sick and injured to medical facilities. It is noted that the helicopter's speed of response and delivery increases patient survival rates and may reduce the cost of medical care and its burden on society. Among the vehicle characteristics desired for this use are a cruising speed of 200 knots, a single engine hover capability at 10,000 ft, and an absence of a tail rotor. Three designs for helicopters incorporating such new technologies as digital/optical control systems, all composite air-frames, and third-generation airfoils are presented. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the effect of design speed, mission radius, and single engine hover capability on vehicle weight, fuel consumption, operating costs, and productivity.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Helicopter Rotor Hovering in Close Proximity to the Ground with a Wall (United States)

    Itoga, Noriaki; Iboshi, Naohiro; Horimoto, Mitsumasa; Saito, Shigeru; Tanabe, Yasutada

    In rescue operations and emergency medical services, helicopters are frequently required to operate near the ground with obstacles such as buildings and sidewalls of highway. In this paper, numerical analysis of helicopter rotor hovering in close proximity to the ground with an obstacle is done by solving unsteady 3D compressible Euler equations with an overlapped grid system. The obstacle is simulated by a wall vertically set up on the ground. The parameters for numerical analysis are the rotor height and distance from the rotor-hub-center to the wall. The effects of combinations of these parameters on the flowfields around the rotor, inflow distributions on the rotor disc and behaviors of blade flapping motion are discussed. It is also clarified the cause that the helicopter rotor hovering in close proximity to the ground with a wall does not have the enough ground effect depending on the combinations of these parameters.

  8. Sliding Mode Implementation of an Attitude Command Flight Control System for a Helicopter in Hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. McGeoch


    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the design of a flight control system, using a decoupled non-linear sliding mode control structure, designed using a linearised, 9th order representation of the dynamics of a PUMA helicopter in hover. The controllers are then tested upon a higher order, non-linear helicopter model, called RASCAL. This design approach is used for attitude command flight control implementation and the control performance is assessed in the terms of handling qualities through the Aeronautical Design Standards for Rotorcraft (ADS-33. In this context a linearised approximation of the helicopter system is used to design an SMC control scheme. These controllers have been found to yield a system that satisfies the Level 1 handling qualities set out by ADS-33. 

  9. The cost of applying current helicopter external noise reduction methods while maintaining realistic vehicle performance (United States)

    Bowes, M. A.


    Analytical methods were developed and/or adopted for calculating helicopter component noise, and these methods were incorporated into a unified total vehicle noise calculation model. Analytical methods were also developed for calculating the effects of noise reduction methodology on helicopter design, performance, and cost. These methods were used to calculate changes in noise, design, performance, and cost due to the incorporation of engine and main rotor noise reduction methods. All noise reduction techniques were evaluated in the context of an established mission performance criterion which included consideration of hovering ceiling, forward flight range/speed/payload, and rotor stall margin. The results indicate that small, but meaningful, reductions in helicopter noise can be obtained by treating the turbine engine exhaust duct. Furthermore, these reductions do not result in excessive life cycle cost penalties. Currently available main rotor noise reduction methodology, however, is shown to be inadequate and excessively costly.

  10. Evaluation of ride quality prediction methods for helicopter interior noise and vibration environments (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Hollenbaugh, D. D.


    The results of a simulator study conducted to compare and validate various ride quality prediction methods for use in assessing passenger/crew ride comfort within helicopters are presented. Included are results quantifying 35 helicopter pilots discomfort responses to helicopter interior noise and vibration typical of routine flights, assessment of various ride quality metrics including the NASA ride comfort model, and examination of possible criteria approaches. Results of the study indicated that crew discomfort results from a complex interaction between vibration and interior noise. Overall measures such as weighted or unweighted root-mean-square acceleration level and A-weighted noise level were not good predictors of discomfort. Accurate prediction required a metric incorporating the interactive effects of both noise and vibration. The best metric for predicting crew comfort to the combined noise and vibration environment was the NASA discomfort index.

  11. Backstepping Controller with Intelligent Parameters Selection for Stabilization of Quadrotor Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ariffanan Mohd Basri


    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic model of quadrotor helicopter has been mathematically formulated. Then, an intelligent backstepping controller (IBC is designed for the quadrotor altitude and attitude stabilization in the existence of external disturbances and measurement noise. The designed controller consists of a backstepping controller which can automatically select its parameters on-line by a fuzzy supervisory mechanism. The stability criterion for the stabilization of the quadrotor is proven by the Lyapunov theorem. Several numerical simulations using the dynamic model of a four degree of freedom (DOF quadrotor helicopter show the effectiveness of the approach. Besides, the simulation results indicate that the proposed design techniques can stabilize the quadrotor helicopter with better performance than established linear design techniques.

  12. Neural network-based optimal adaptive output feedback control of a helicopter UAV. (United States)

    Nodland, David; Zargarzadeh, Hassan; Jagannathan, Sarangapani


    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are widely used for both military and civilian operations. Because the helicopter UAVs are underactuated nonlinear mechanical systems, high-performance controller design for them presents a challenge. This paper introduces an optimal controller design via an output feedback for trajectory tracking of a helicopter UAV, using a neural network (NN). The output-feedback control system utilizes the backstepping methodology, employing kinematic and dynamic controllers and an NN observer. The online approximator-based dynamic controller learns the infinite-horizon Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation in continuous time and calculates the corresponding optimal control input by minimizing a cost function, forward-in-time, without using the value and policy iterations. Optimal tracking is accomplished by using a single NN utilized for the cost function approximation. The overall closed-loop system stability is demonstrated using Lyapunov analysis. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design for trajectory tracking.

  13. Autonomous Control of a Quadrotor UAV Using Fuzzy Logic (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vijaykumar

    UAVs are being increasingly used today than ever before in both military and civil applications. They are heavily preferred in "dull, dirty or dangerous" mission scenarios. Increasingly, UAVs of all kinds are being used in policing, fire-fighting, inspection of structures, pipelines etc. Recently, the FAA gave its permission for UAVs to be used on film sets for motion capture and high definition video recording. The rapid development in MEMS and actuator technology has made possible a plethora of UAVs that are suited for commercial applications in an increasingly cost effective manner. An emerging popular rotary wing UAV platform is the Quadrotor A Quadrotor is a helicopter with four rotors, that make it more stable; but more complex to model and control. Characteristics that provide a clear advantage over other fixed wing UAVs are VTOL and hovering capabilities as well as a greater maneuverability. It is also simple in construction and design compared to a scaled single rotorcraft. Flying such UAVs using a traditional radio Transmitter-Receiver setup can be a daunting task especially in high stress situations. In order to make such platforms widely applicable, a certain level of autonomy is imperative to the future of such UAVs. This thesis paper presents a methodology for the autonomous control of a Quadrotor UAV using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic control has been chosen over conventional control methods as it can deal effectively with highly nonlinear systems, allows for imprecise data and is extremely modular. Modularity and adaptability are the key cornerstones of FLC. The objective of this thesis is to present the steps of designing, building and simulating an intelligent flight control module for a Quadrotor UAV. In the course of this research effort, a Quadrotor UAV is indigenously developed utilizing the resources of an online open source project called Aeroquad. System design is comprehensively dealt with. A math model for the Quadrotor is developed and a

  14. Autonomic contributions to empathy: evidence from patients with primary autonomic failure. (United States)

    Chauhan, Bina; Mathias, Christopher J; Critchley, Hugo D


    Empathy for the emotions of others may require simulatory engagement of corresponding autonomic arousal states. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of autonomic control impairs the ability to empathize emotionally with others. Fifteen patients with primary autonomic failure showed attenuated scores on the Mehrabian Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES), compared to both younger and older controls. This effect was not accounted for by age, gender, mood state or functional disability. These early observations provide preliminary evidence for a direct contribution of autonomic responsivity to the 'higher-order' social cognitive process of empathy, and may inform the dynamics of supportive care.

  15. Autonomic html interface generator for web applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef; 10.5121/ijwest.2012.3104


    Recent advances in computing systems have led to a new digital era in which every area of life is nearly interrelated with information technology. However, with the trend towards large-scale IT systems, a new challenge has emerged. The complexity of IT systems is becoming an obstacle that hampers the manageability, operability, and maintainability of modern computing infrastructures. Autonomic computing popped up to provide an answer to these ever-growing pitfalls. Fundamentally, autonomic systems are self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, and self-protecting; hence, they can automate all complex IT processes without human intervention. This paper proposes an autonomic HTML web-interface generator based on XML Schema and Style Sheet specifications for self-configuring graphical user interfaces of web applications. The goal of this autonomic generator is to automate the process of customizing GUI web-interfaces according to the ever-changing business rules, policies, and operating environment with th...

  16. Rover: Autonomous concepts for Mars exploration (United States)

    Baiget, A.; Castets, B.; Chochon, H.; Hayard, M.; Lamarre, H.; Lamothe, A.


    The development of a mobile, autonomous vehicle that will be launched towards an unknown planet is considered. The rover significant constraints are: Ariane 5 compatibility, Earth/Mars transfer capability, 1000 km autonomous moving in Mars environment, on board localization, and maximum science capability. Two different types of subsystem were considered: classical subsystems (mechanical and mechanisms, thermal, telecommunications, power, onboard data processing) and robotics subsystem, (perception/navigation, autonomous displacement generation, autonomous localization). The needs of each subsystem were studied in terms of energy and data handling capability, in order to choose an on board architecture which best use the available capability, by means of specialized parts. A compromise must always be done between every subsystem in order to obtain the real need with respect to the goal, for example: between perception/navigation and the motion capability. A compromise must also be found between mechanical assembly and calibration need, which is a real problem.

  17. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Li


    Full Text Available Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  18. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Pediatric Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Investigators at the University of California, San Francisco, examined the frequency of cranial autonomic symptoms in all pediatric and adolescent patients with migraine seen in 4 different clinical settings during July 2010 to June 2012.

  19. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously (United States)

    Vincent, Isabelle


    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  20. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system. (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan


    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves.

  1. AGATE: Autonomous Go and Touch Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation (AGATE, for Autonomous Go And Touch Exploration) will enable single-sol "go and touch" instrument placement from distances of up to five meters for...

  2. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease. (United States)

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A.; Baker, Matthew J.; Wahba, Mervat; Hauser, Robert A.


    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), affects 70% to 80% of patients, and causes significant morbidity and discomfort. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction symptoms in PD include sexual dysfunction, swallowing and gastrointestinal disorders, bowel and bladder abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and derangements of cardiovascular regulation, particularly, orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PD may be caused by an underlying degenerative process that affects the autonomic ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and hypothalamic nuclei. Anti-parkinsonian medications can cause or worsen symptoms of ANS dysfunction. The care of a PD patient with ANS dysfunction relies on its recognition and directed treatment, including coordinated care between the neurologist and appropriate subspecialist. Pharmacotherapy may be useful to treat orthostasis, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dysfunction.

  3. Visual navigation for an autonomous mobile vehicle


    Peterson, Kevin Robert


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Image understanding for a mobile robotic vehicle is an important and complex task for ensuring safe navigation and extended autonomous operations. The goal of this work is to implement a working vision-based navigation control mechanism within a known environment onboard the autonomous mobile vehicle Yamabico-II. Although installing a working hardware system was not accomplished, the image processing, model description, pattern match...

  4. Autonomic Circulatory Control during Pregnancy in Humans



    Pregnancy is associated with dramatic alterations in maternal hemodynamics, which begin early (i.e., following conception, 4 to 5 weeks of gestation) and are accompanied by changing levels of various pressor hormones and vasoactive metabolites. It has been proposed that these changes occur through autonomic control mechanisms, but the actual role of the autonomic nervous system in pregnancy is poorly understood. New research has shed more light on the links between pregnancy and cardiovascula...

  5. Intelligent control system of autonomous objects (United States)

    Engel, E. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Engel, N. E.; Brezitskaya, V. V.; Prohorovich, G. A.


    This paper presents an intelligent control system of autonomous objects as framework. The intelligent control framework includes two different layers: a reflexive layer and a reactive layer. The proposed multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet combines low-level reaction with high-level reasoning in an intelligent control framework. The formed as the multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet the intelligent control system on the base of autonomous object’s state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations.

  6. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J


    experimental situations insufficient contraction of resistance vessels has been demonstrated. The vasoconstrictor defects demonstrated are of a magnitude sufficient to account for the prevailing hypotension. Furthermore, during exercise cardiac output is low in patients with autonomic neuropathy, a finding...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  7. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens


    This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good...... of the Funjet, a pusher airplane of 580g total weight, now equipped with a Pitot tube, Tübingen University in conjunction with the Technical University of Braunschweig flies the Carolo, a 2m wide two prop model with a 5-hole pitot tube on the nose, and Aalborg University will use a helicopter for their part...

  8. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  9. Development of autonomous triggering instrumentation (United States)

    Watkins, Steve E.; Swift, Theresa M.; Fonda, James W.


    Triggering instrumentation for autonomous monitoring of load-induced strain is described for economical, fast bridge inspection. The development addresses one aspect for the management of transportation infrastructure - bridge monitoring and inspection. The objectives are to provide quantitative performance information from a load test, to minimize the setup time at the bridge, and to minimize the closure time to traffic. Multiple or networked measurements can be made for a prescribed loading sequence. The proposed smart system consists of in-situ strain sensors, an embedded data acquisition module, and a measurement triggering system. A companion control unit is mounted on the truck serving as the load. As the truck moves to the proper position, the desired measurement is automatically relayed back to the control unit. In this work, the testing protocol is developed and the performance parameters for the triggering and data acquisition are measured. The test system uses a dedicated wireless sensor mote and an infrared positioning system. The electronic procedure offers improvements in available information and economics.

  10. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.


    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  11. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher


    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  12. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara


    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.

  13. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi


    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  14. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.


    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  15. [Autonomic dysfunction syndrome and diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in children with diabetes mellitus type I. The correction method]. (United States)

    Manukian, V Iu; Bolotova, N V; Aver'ianov, A P; Filina, N Iu; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M


    We assessed the state of the autonomic nervous system in 90 children with diabetes mellitus type I. The autonomic dysfunction syndrome was found in 58,9% and diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in 28,9% of patients. We revealed the high risk of the development of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in children with diabetes mellitus type I in the presence of the autonomic dysfunction syndrome. It has been shown that the early treatment of functional disturbances of the autonomic nervous system using transcranial magnetic stimulation is necessary to prevent the manifestation of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy.

  16. A helicopter emergency medical service may allow faster access to highly specialised care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzali, Monika; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Steinmetz, Jacob


    Centralization of the hospital system entails longer transport for some patients. A physician-staffed helicopter may provide effective triage, advanced management and fast transport to highly specialized treatment for time-critical patients. The aim of this study was to describe activity and poss......Centralization of the hospital system entails longer transport for some patients. A physician-staffed helicopter may provide effective triage, advanced management and fast transport to highly specialized treatment for time-critical patients. The aim of this study was to describe activity...

  17. Fuzzy Control of Yaw and Roll Angles of a Simulated Helicopter Model Includes Articulated Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani


    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic controller (FLC is a heuristic method by If-Then Rules which resembles human intelligence and it is a good method for designing Non-linear control systems. In this paper, an arbitrary helicopter model includes articulated manipulators has been simulated with Matlab SimMechanics toolbox. Due to the difficulties of modeling this complex system, a fuzzy controller with simple fuzzy rules has been designed for its yaw and roll angles in order to stabilize the helicopter while it is in the presence of disturbances or its manipulators are moving for a task. Results reveal that a simple FLC can appropriately control this system.

  18. Minor Component Analysis-based Landing Forecast System for Ship-borne Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo,; SHI Ai-guo; WAN Lin; YANG Bao-zhang


    The general structure of ship-borne helicopter landing forecast system is presented, and a novel ship motion prediction model based on minor component analysis (MCA) is built up to improve the forecast effectiveness. To validate the feasibility of this landing forecast system, time series for the roll, pitch and heave are generated by simulation and then forecasted based on MCA. Simulation results show that ship-borne helicopters can land safely in higher sea condition while carrying on rescue or replenishment tasks at sea in terms of the landing forecast system.

  19. Transverse vibration of the blade for unmanned micro helicopter using rayleigh-ritz method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jungang Lü; Jiadao Wang; Darong Chen


    A rotor manipulation mechanism for micro unmanned helicopter utilizing the inertia and the elasticity of the rotor is introduced. The lagging motion equation of the rotor blades is established, and then the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the blade for the helicopter are studied by using beam characteristic orthogonal polynomials by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The variation of natural frequencies with the speed of rotation and the mode shapes at different rotational speeds are plotted. The using of orthogonal polynomials for the bending shapes enables the computation of higher natural frequencies of any order to be accomplished without facing any difficulties.

  20. Static strain and vibration characteristics of a metal semimonocoque helicopter tail cone of moderate size (United States)

    Bielawa, Richard L.; Hefner, Rachel E.; Castagna, Andre


    The results are presented of an analytic and experimental research program involving a Sikorsky S-55 helicopter tail cone directed ultimately to the improved structural analysis of airframe substructures typical of moderate sized helicopters of metal semimonocoque construction. Experimental static strain and dynamic shake-testing measurements are presented. Correlation studies of each of these tests with a PC-based finite element analysis (COSMOS/M) are described. The tests included static loadings at the end of the tail cone supported in the cantilever configuration as well as vibrational shake-testing in both the cantilever and free-free configurations.

  1. Research requirements to reduce empty weight of helicopters by use of advanced materials (United States)

    Hoffstedt, D. J.


    Utilization of the new, lightweight, high-strength, aerospace structural-composite (filament/matrix) materials, when specifically designed into a new aircraft, promises reductions in structural empty weight of 12 percent at recurring costs competive with metals. A program of basic and applied research and demonstration is identified with the objective of advancing the state of the art to the point where civil helicopters are confidently designed, produced, certified, and marketed by 1985. A structural empty-weight reduction of 12 percent was shown to significantly reduce energy consumption in modern high-performance helicopters.

  2. Attitude angle anti-windup control of small size unmanned helicopter (United States)

    Shao, Taizhou; Long, Haihui; Zhao, Jiankang; Xia, Xuan; Yang, Guang


    This paper researches the small-size unmanned helicopter attitude control problem with actuator saturation limit. Traditional approach for this problem is often based on an accurate dynamic model which is complicated and difficult to achieve in engineering. In this paper, we propose an anti-windup PID approach which does not rely on sophicated helicopter dynamic model. The anti-windup PID controller is established by adding a phase-lead compensator to the conventional PID controller. The performance and merits of this proposed controller are exemplified by the simulations between the conventional PID controller and the anti-windup PID controller.

  3. Failure analysis of a bearing in a helicopter turbine engine due to electrical discharge damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Budinski


    Full Text Available This article documents the metallurgical evaluation of a rolling element bearing that failed due to electrical discharge damage. This rolling element bearing was used in a helicopter turbine engine that failed in-flight, resulting in a hard landing of the helicopter. Optical and electron microscopy as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate the bearing. Pitting and material transfer on the external bearing races bearing and mating surfaces revealed that the electrical discharge damage occurred while the engine's components were not rotating.

  4. Impact of a physician-staffed helicopter on a regional trauma system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, R; Steinmetz, J; Jans, H


    This study aims to compare the trauma system before and after implementing a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (PS-HEMS). Our hypothesis was that PS-HEMS would reduce time from injury to definitive care for severely injured patients.......This study aims to compare the trauma system before and after implementing a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (PS-HEMS). Our hypothesis was that PS-HEMS would reduce time from injury to definitive care for severely injured patients....

  5. A comparison of model helicopter rotor Primary and Secondary blade/vortex interaction blade slap (United States)

    Hubbard, J. E., Jr.; Leighton, K. P.


    A study of the relative importance of blade/vortex interactions which occur on the retreating side of a model helicopter rotor disk is described. Some of the salient characteristics of this phenomenon are presented and discussed. It is shown that the resulting Secondary blade slap may be of equal or greater intensity than the advancing side (Primary) blade slap. Instrumented model helicopter rotor data is presented which reveals the nature of the retreating blade/vortex interaction. The importance of Secondary blade slap as it applies to predictive techniques or approaches is discussed. When Secondary blade slap occurs it acts to enlarge the window of operating conditions for which blade slap exists.

  6. Evaluation of Standard Gear Metrics in Helicopter Flight Operation (United States)

    Mosher, M.; Pryor, A. H.; Huff, E. M.


    sense that the rpm, torque and forces on the gear have been held steady. For gears used in a dynamic environment such as that occurring in aircraft, the rpm, torque and forces on the gear are constantly changing. The authors have measured significant variation in rpm and torque in the transmissions of helicopters in controlled steady flight conditions flown by highly proficient test pilots. Statistical analyses of the data taken in flight show significant nonstationarity in the vibration measurements. These deviations from stationarity may increase false alarms in gear monitoring during aircraft flight. In the proposed paper, the authors will study vibration measurements made in flight on an AH- 1 Cobra and an OH-58C Kiowa helicopters. The primary focus will be the development of a methodology to assess the impact of nonstationarity on false alarms. Issues to be addressed include how time synchronous averages are constructed from raw data as well as how lack of stationarity effects the behavior of single value metrics. Emphasis will be placed on the occurrence of false alarms with the use of standard metrics. In order to maintain an acceptable level of false alarms in the flight environment, this study will also address the determination of appropriate threshold levels, which may need to be higher than for test rigs.

  7. Autonomous and autonomic systems with applications to NASA intelligent spacecraft operations and exploration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rouff, Christopher; Karlin, Jay; Rash, James; Hinchey, Michael; Sterritt, Roy


    This book provides an in-depth discussion of autonomous and autonomic systems, their interdependencies, differences and similarities. Current and pending issues in these evermore increasingly important subjects are highlighted and discussed. Concepts, ideas and experiences are explored in relation to real-life NASA systems in spacecraft control and in the exploration domain.

  8. A Priori User Acceptance and the Perceived Driving Pleasure in Semi-autonomous and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    The aim of this minor pilot study is, from a sociological user perspective, to explore a priori user acceptance and the perceived driving pleasure in semi- autonomous and autonomous vehicles. The methods used were 13 in-depth interviews while having participants watch video examples within four...

  9. Proposed Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity Studies Using Helicopter Systems Analysis (United States)

    Ladkany, Samaan G.


    Advanced systems for the analysis of rotary wing aeroelastic structures (helicopters) are being developed at NASA Ames by the Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch, ARA. The research has recently been extended to the study of wind turbines, used for electric power generation Wind turbines play an important role in Europe, Japan & many other countries because they are non polluting & use a renewable source of energy. European countries such as Holland, Norway & France have been the world leaders in the design & manufacture of wind turbines due to their historical experience of several centuries, in building complex wind mill structures, which were used in water pumping, grain grinding & for lumbering. Fossil fuel cost in Japan & in Europe is two to three times higher than in the USA due to very high import taxes. High fuel cost combined with substantial governmental subsidies, allow wind generated power to be competitive with the more traditional sources of power generation. In the USA, the use of wind energy has been limited mainly because power production from wind is twice as expensive as from other traditional sources. Studies conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) indicate that the main cost in the production of wind turbines is due to the materials & the labor intensive processes used in the construction of turbine structures. Thus, for the US to assume world leadership in wind power generation, new lightweight & consequently very flexible wind turbines, that could be economically mass produced, would have to be developed [4,5]. This effort, if successful, would result in great benefit to the US & the developing nations that suffer from overpopulation & a very high cost of energy.

  10. Adaptation of the Neural Network Recognition System of the Helicopter on Its Acoustic Radiation to the Flight Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Hohlov


    Full Text Available The article concerns the adaptation of a neural tract that recognizes a helicopter from the aerodynamic and ground objects by its acoustic radiation to the helicopter flight speed. It uses non-centered informative signs-indications of estimating signal spectra, which correspond to the local extremes (maximums and minimums of the power spectrum of input signal and have the greatest information when differentiating the helicopter signals from those of tracked vehicles. The article gives justification to the principle of the neural network (NN adaptation and adaptation block structure, which solves problems of blade passage frequency estimation when capturing the object and track it when tracking a target, as well as forming a signal to control the resonant filter parameters of the selection block of informative signs. To create the discriminatory characteristics of the discriminator are used autoregressive statistical characteristics of the quadrature components of signal, obtained through the discrete Hilbert Converter (DGC that perforMathematical modeling of the tracking meter using the helicopter signals obtained in real conditions is performed. The article gives estimates of the tracking parameter when using a tracking meter with DGC by sequential records of realized acoustic noise of the helicopter. It also shows a block-diagram of the adaptive NN. The scientific novelty of the work is that providing the invariance of used informative sign, the counts of local extremes of power spectral density (PSD to changes in the helicopter flight speed is reached due to adding the NN structure and adaptation block, which is implemented as a meter to track the apparent passage frequency of the helicopter rotor blades using its relationship with a function of the autoregressive acoustic signal of the helicopter.Specialized literature proposes solutions based on the use of training classifiers with different parametric methods of spectral representations

  11. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Cheol Lee


    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter.

  12. Framework of Combined Adaptive and Non-adaptive Attitude Control System for a Helicopter Experimental System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Inoue; Ming-Cong Deng


    This paper presents a framework of a combined adaptive and non-adaptive attitude control system for a helicopter experimental system. The design method is based on a combination of adaptive nonlinear control and non-adaptive nonlinear control. With regard to detailed attitude control system design, two schemes are shown for different application cases.

  13. Identification of a coupled flapping/inflow model for the PUMA helicopter from flight test data (United States)

    Du Val, Ronald; Bruhis, Ofer; Green, John


    A model validation procedure is applied to a coupled flapping/inflow model of a PUMA helicopter blade. The structure of the baseline model is first established. Model structure and flight test data are checked for consistency. Parameters of the model are then identified from the flight test data.

  14. 78 FR 60186 - Airworthiness Directives; AgustaWestland S.p.A. (Agusta) Helicopters (United States)


    ... (AD) for Agusta Model AB139 and AW139 helicopters. This AD requires deactivating the Full Icing Protection System (FIPS) and installing a placard next to the FIPS controller stating that flight into known... views. We also invite comments relating to the economic, environmental, energy, or federalism...

  15. Prehospital intraosseus access with the bone injection gun by a helicopter-transported emergency medical team.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, B.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Draaisma, J.M.T.


    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the use of the bone injection gun to obtain vascular access in the prehospital setting by an Helicopter-Transported Emergency Medical Team. METHODS: Prospective descriptive study to assess the frequency and success rate of the use of the bone injection gun in prehospital care

  16. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, B.M.; Schalkwijk, A.; Pelzer, B.J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Draaisma, J.M.T.


    BACKGROUND: To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures r

  17. 77 FR 20321 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (United States)


    ... anyone being lifted in the rescue hoist. Related Service Information ECD has issued Emergency Alert... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  18. Analysis of U.S. Military Helicopter Operations in Support of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (United States)


    49 VI. ALLOCATION OF HELICOPTERS TO ROUTES .............................................51 A. MODEL 2: HEURISTIC APPROACH... Heuristic Distribution.......................................................................................53 Table 16. Priority the villagers needed (JLLIS, 2008d). Aircrew debriefs on safe and acceptable landing zones were critical to the tsunami relief success

  19. Hummingbird wing efficacy depends on aspect ratio and compares with helicopter rotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, J.W.; Quicazan Rubio, E.M.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Altshuler, D.L.; Lentink, D.


    Hummingbirds are the only birds that can sustain hovering. This unique flight behaviour comes, however, at high energetic cost. Based on helicopter and aeroplane design theory, we expect that hummingbird wing aspect ratio (AR), which ranges from about 3.0 to 4.5, determines aerodynamic efficacy. Pre

  20. A study of the effects of Rotating Frame Turbulence (RFT) on helicopter flight mechanics (United States)

    Schrage, D. P.; Prasad, J. V. B.; Gaonkar, G. H.


    The turbulence actually experienced by a helicopter blade-element significantly differs from the space-fixed free atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence in the rotor disk requires a rotationally sampled description in a rotating frame of reference. It is referred to as the rotating frame turbulence or RFT which exhibits a striking phenomenon. The RFT spectral density versus frequency shows high peak values at 1P,2P, or 3P, frequencies. The energy increase at these peaks is balanced by an energy decrease primarily at the lower-than-1P frequency range. Particularly for low altitude flight regimes of pure helicopters, such as the nap-of-the-earth maneuvers, the conventional space-fixed description of turbulence is not a good approximation, since the turbulence scale length can have values comparable to the rotor radius. Accordingly the flight mechanics characteristics with RFT description are compared with those based on the conventional space-fixed turbulence description. The results demonstrate that the RFT qualitatively and quantitatively affects the prediction of helicopter flight mechanics characteristics in turbulence. Such comparisons should play an important role in the new development of handling qualities specifications for helicopters.

  1. 77 FR 44116 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (United States)


    ... degraded the annunciator system's redundant power supply, so that pilots could not be warned of a second...-BK117 C-1 helicopter. The actions of this AD are intended to prevent uncommanded cutting of the hoist... uncommanded cutting of the hoist cable and subsequent injury to persons being lifted by the hoist....

  2. 77 FR 37777 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (United States)


    ... and Malfunction Procedures'' and ``Performance Data'' sections of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM... Schwab, Aviation Safety Engineer, FAA, Rotorcraft Directorate, Safety Management Group, 2601 Meacham Blvd... other helicopters of the same type design. Related Service Information We reviewed ECD ASB MBB BK117...

  3. 78 FR 23696 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Helicopters (United States)


    ... 663, Fort Worth, Texas 76137. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Grigg, Manager, FAA, Rotorcraft... develop on other helicopters of the same type design. Related Service Information ECD has issued Alert... performance section of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual. Costs of Compliance We estimate that this proposed...

  4. 78 FR 15599 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft-Manufactured Model S-64F Helicopters (United States)


    ..., FAA, Rotorcraft Directorate, Rotorcraft Certification Office, Fort Worth, Texas 76137, telephone (817... helicopters of the same type design and that air safety and the public interest require adopting the AD... Compliance (AMOCs) (1) The Manager, Rotorcraft Certification Office, FAA, may approve AMOCs for this AD....

  5. Helicopter and aircraft detection and classification using adaptive beamforming and tracking techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koersel, A.C. van; Beerens, S.P.


    Measurements of different types of aircraft are performed and used to obtain information on target characteristics and develop an algorithm to perform classification between jet aircraft, propeller aircraft and helicopters. To obtain a larger detection range, reduce background noise and to reduce cl

  6. Advances in processing, modeling and application of high resolution helicopter TEM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Casper

    The history of electromagnetic surveying using airborne methods dates back more than 60 years, but the advent of time domain instruments towed by a helicopter is relatively new. Time domain instruments designed for fixed wing aircraft has previously proved a valuable tool in exploration of conduc...

  7. Survival benefit of physician-staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) assistance for severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. den Hartog (Dennis); J. Romeo (Jamie); A.N. Ringburg (Akkie); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)


    markdownabstractBackground: Physician-staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) provide specialist medical care to the accident scene and aim to improve survival of severely injured patients. Previous studies were often underpowered and showed heterogeneous results, leaving the subject at

  8. Wireless sensor network for helicopter rotor blade vibration monitoring: Requirements definition and technological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Das, Kallol; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Havinga, Paul; Basu, Biswajit


    The main rotor accounts for the largest vibration source for a helicopter fuselage and its components. However, accurate blade monitoring has been limited due to the practical restrictions on instrumenting rotating blades. The use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for real time vibration monitoring

  9. Lumbar back muscle activity of helicopter pilots and whole-body vibration. (United States)

    de Oliveira, C G; Simpson, D M; Nadal, J


    Several studies have attributed the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in helicopter pilots mainly to poor posture in-flight and whole-body vibration, with the latter hypothesis particularly related to a cyclic response of the erector spine (ES) muscle to vibration. This work aims to determine if helicopter vibration and the pilot's normal posture during flight have significant effects on the electromyogram (EMG) of the ES muscle. The bilateral surface EMG of the ES muscle at the L3 level was collected in 10 young pilots before and during a short flight in UH-50 helicopters. The vibration was monitored by a triaxial accelerometer fixed to the pilots' seat. Prior to the flight, the EMG was recorded for relaxed seated and standing postures with 0 degrees (P0) and 35 degrees (P35) of trunk flexion. The effect of the posture during the flight was tested by comparing left and right EMG (normalized with respect to P35). The in-flight muscle stress was evaluated by histograms of EMG activity, and compared to P0 values. Only one pilot in ten showed significant (pvibration and the EMG over cycles of vibration, and no consistent causal effect was found. The pilots' posture did not show significant asymmetric muscular activity, and low EMG levels were observed during most of the duration of the flight. The results do not provide evidence that LBP in helicopter pilots is caused by ES muscle stress in the conditions studied.

  10. Smart actuation mechanisms for helicopter blades: design case for a mach-scaled model blade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternoster, A.R.A.


    This work is part of the European project “Clean Sky”, which aims at improving the efficiency and the global transport quality of aircraft. The research, in this project, is currently focussing on active flap systems for helicopters to adapt the blade aerodynamic properties to local aerodynamic cond

  11. Job Performance Tests for U/AH-1 Helicopter Mechanics. Volume 1: Hands- On Performance Test (United States)


    Hands-on performance tests and job knowledge tests were developed for MOS 6114 (U/AH-1 helicopter mechanic) as part of the Marine Corps Job ... Performance Measurement Project. The purpose of this information memorandum is to disseminate these performance measures to Marine Corps personnel managers

  12. 78 FR 69987 - Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated Helicopters (Type Certificate... (United States)


    ... handle the indicator glass bulb since the heat of the hand may change the internal reference pressure and... indicator color check will take about 0.1 work-hour at an average labor rate of $85 per work- hour. Based on these figures, each visual BIM pressure indicator color check will cost about $9 per helicopter or...

  13. Wind tunnel testing of a full scale helicopter blade section with an upstream active Gurney flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, R.; Freire Gomez, J.; Booker, J.D.


    Wind tunnel tests were performed on an aerofoil section comparable to that of a full scale helicopter blade section with an upstream active Gurney flap in the framework of the European project CleanSky ITD Green RotorCraft. A modified NACA0012 profile was used, with 23 Kulite pressure transducers em

  14. 78 FR 31394 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (United States)


    ... ECD Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopters. EASA advises that the autopilot (AP) of a Model MBB-BK 117 C-2... Bulletin MBB-BK117 C-2-22A-013, dated October 12, 2012 (ASB), which states that the autopilot and caution...) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 22, Autopilot Dispatch Restriction. Issued in...

  15. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun


    Full Text Available A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China's autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approach, the test content is designed to be stage by stage, moving from simplicity to complexity and from individual modules to the entire vehicle. The hierarchical test environment is established according to the levels of test content. The test method based on multilevel platforms and sensors is put forward to ensure the accuracy of test results. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used for the comprehensive evaluation which can quantitatively evaluate the individual module and the overall technical performance of autonomous ground vehicles. The proposed test and evaluation system has been successfully applied to real autonomous ground vehicle competitions.

  16. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times. (United States)

    Dixit, Vinayak V; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J


    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  17. Autonomous Learning and Improving Communicative Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝红; 孙晓黎


    Nowadays, English as a world language becomes more and more important. Consequently, English learning becomes more and more popular. As we know, an important object for English learners is to improve their communicative competence. So autonomous learning is a good way to improve communicative competence. In this paper, two terms, autonomous learning and communicative competence, and their relationship will be introduced from the perspective of English learning. Autonomous learning is self-managed learning, which is contrary to passive learning and mechanical learning, according to intrinsic property of language learning. Communicative competence is a concept introduced by Dell Hymes and is discussed and refined by many oth⁃er linguists. According to Hymes, communicative competence is the ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of language in order to form grammatically correct sentences but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom. Communi⁃cative competence includes 4 aspects: Possibility, feasibility, appropriateness and performance. Improving communicative compe⁃tence is the result of autonomous learning, autonomous learning is the motivation of improving communicative competence. English, of course, is a bridge connecting China to the world, and fostering students’communicative competence through auton⁃omous learning is the vital element of improving English learning in China.

  18. Cutaneous autonomic denervation in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Navarro-Otano, Judith; Casanova-Mollà, Jordi; Morales, Merche; Valls-Solé, Josep; Tolosa, Eduard


    Numerous studies have detailed involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous system (PANS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed autonomic innervation of dermal annexes through quantitative fluorescence measurement from skin obtained via punch biopsies at distal leg region in PD and control subjects. We defined a ratio between the area corresponding to protein gen product (PGP) immunoreactivity and the area corresponding to blood vessel or sweat gland as a quantitative measure of autonomic innervation. Presence of alpha-synuclein (AS) deposits in dermis and hypodermis was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Skin biopsies form six PD patients and six healthy controls were studied. Autonomic innervation scores were lower in PD than in controls in both blood vessels and sweat glands. No AS or phosphorylated AS (pAS) immunoreactivity was detected in dermis or hypodermis in any of the studied subjects. The results of this investigation suggest that autonomic innervation of dermal annexes in living patients with PD is reduced compared to controls. AS or pAS deposits were not found in dermis or hypodermis suggesting that distal leg skin study is not useful for in vivo detection of AS in PD.

  19. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Reichmann, Heinz


    Symptoms of cardiovascular dysautonomia are a common occurrence in Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition to this dysautonomia as part of PD itself, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can be triggered as a side-effect of drug treatment interacting with the ANS or - if prominent and early - an indication of a different disease such as multiple system atrophy (MSA). Various diagnostic tests are available to demonstrate autonomic failure. While autonomic function tests can differentiate parasympathetic from sympathetic dysfunction, cardiac imaging can define the pathophysiologically involved site of a lesion. Standard tests such as 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements can identify significant autonomic failure which needs treatment. The most frequent and disturbing symptom of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is orthostatic hypotension. Symptoms include generalized weakness, light-headiness, mental "clouding" up to syncope. Factors like heat, food, alcohol, exercise, activities which increase intrathoraric pressure (e.g. defecation, coughing) and certain drugs (e.g. vasodilators) can worsen a probably asymptomatic orthostatic hypotension. Non-medical and medical therapies can help the patient to cope with a disabling symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. Supine hypertension is often associated with orthostatic hypotension. The prognostic role of cardiovagal and baroreflex dysfunction is still not yet known.

  20. A New Framework For Helicopter Vibration Suppression; Time-Periodic System Identification and Controller Design (United States)

    Ulker, Fatma Demet

    In forward flight, helicopter rotor blades function within a highly complex aerodynamic environment that includes both near-blade and far-blade aerodynamic phenomena. These aerodynamic phenomena cause fluctuating aerodynamic loads on the rotor blades. These loads when coupled with the dynamic characteristics and elastic motion of the blade create excessive amount of vibration. These vibrations degrade helicopter performance, passenger comfort and contributes to high cost maintenance problems. In an effort to suppress helicopter vibration, recent studies have developed active control strategies using active pitch links, flaps, twist actuation and higher harmonic control of the swash plate. In active helicopter vibration control, designing a controller in a computationally efficient way requires accurate reduced-order models of complex helicopter aeroelasticity. In previous studies, controllers were designed using aeroelastic models that were obtained by coupling independently reduced aerodynamic and structural dynamic models. Unfortunately, these controllers could not satisfy stability and performance criteria when implemented in high-fidelity computer simulations or real-time experiments. In this thesis, we present a novel approach that provides accurate time-periodic reduced-order models and time-periodic H2 and H infinity controllers that satisfy the stability and performance criteria. Computational efficiency and the necessity of using the approach were validated by implementing an actively controlled flap strategy. In this proposed approach, the reduced-order models were directly identified from high-fidelity coupled aeroelastic analysis by using the time-periodic subspace identification method. Time-periodic H2 and Hinfinity controllers that update the control actuation at every time step were designed. The control synthesis problem was solved using Linear Matrix Inequality and periodic Riccati Equation based formulations, for which an in-house periodic