WorldWideScience

Sample records for autonomous aerial vehicle

  1. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  2. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  3. Autonomous aerial vehicles : guidance, control, signal and image processing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarrah, M.; Adiansyah, S.; Marji, Z. M.; Chowdhury, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of unmanned systems is gaining momentum in civil applications after successful use by the armed forces around the globe. Autonomous aerial vehicles are important for providing assistance in monitoring highways, power grid lines, borders, and surveillance of critical infrastructures. It is envisioned that cargo shipping will be completely handled by UAVs by the 2025. Civil use of unmanned autonomous systems brings serious challenges. The need for cost effectiveness, reliability, operation simplicity, safety, and cooperation with human and with other agents are among these challenges. Aerial vehicles operating in the civilian aerospace is the ultimate goal which requires these systems to achieve the reliability of manned aircraft while maintaining their cost effectiveness. In this presentation the development of an autonomous fixed and rotary wing aerial vehicle will be discussed. The architecture of the system from the mission requirements to low level auto pilot control laws will be discussed. Trajectory tracking and path following guidance and control algorithms commonly used and their implementation using of the shelf low cost components will be presented. Autonomous takeo? landing is a key feature that was implemented onboard the vehicle to complete its degree of autonomy. This is implemented based on accurate air-data system designed and fused with sonar measurements, INS/GPS measurements, and vector field method guidance laws. The outcomes of the proposed research is that the AUS-UAV platform named MAZARI is capable of autonomous takeoff and landing based on a pre scheduled flight path using way point navigation and sensor fusion of the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS). Several technologies need to be mastered when developing a UAV. The navigation task and the need to fuse sensory information to estimate the location of the vehicle is critical to successful autonomous vehicle. Currently extended Kalman filtering is

  4. Intelligent Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and, in particular, intelligent, autonomous aircraft operating in the National Airspace (NAS) have the potential to significantly...

  5. Integrating Pavement Crack Detection and Analysis Using Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS

  6. Hierarchical Motion Planning for Autonomous Aerial and Terrestrial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlagi, Raghvendra V.

    Autonomous mobile robots---both aerial and terrestrial vehicles---have gained immense importance due to the broad spectrum of their potential military and civilian applications. One of the indispensable requirements for the autonomy of a mobile vehicle is the vehicle's capability of planning and executing its motion, that is, finding appropriate control inputs for the vehicle such that the resulting vehicle motion satisfies the requirements of the vehicular task. The motion planning and control problem is inherently complex because it involves two disparate sub-problems: (1) satisfaction of the vehicular task requirements, which requires tools from combinatorics and/or formal methods, and (2) design of the vehicle control laws, which requires tools from dynamical systems and control theory. Accordingly, this problem is usually decomposed and solved over two levels of hierarchy. The higher level, called the geometric path planning level, finds a geometric path that satisfies the vehicular task requirements, e.g., obstacle avoidance. The lower level, called the trajectory planning level, involves sufficient smoothening of this geometric path followed by a suitable time parametrization to obtain a reference trajectory for the vehicle. Although simple and efficient, such hierarchical decomposition suffers a serious drawback: the geometric path planner has no information of the kinematical and dynamical constraints of the vehicle. Consequently, the geometric planner may produce paths that the trajectory planner cannot transform into a feasible reference trajectory. Two main ideas appear in the literature to remedy this problem: (a) randomized sampling-based planning, which eliminates the geometric planner altogether by planning in the vehicle state space, and (b) geometric planning supported by feedback control laws. The former class of methods suffer from a lack of optimality of the resultant trajectory, while the latter class of methods makes a restrictive assumption

  7. Feasibility of Turing-Style Tests for Autonomous Aerial Vehicle "Intelligence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a "Turing Test" for UAVs. Such a "UAV Turing test" would be conducted by means of mission simulations and/or tailored flight demonstrations of vehicles under the guidance of their autonomous system software. These autonomous vehicle mission simulations and flight demonstrations would also have to be benchmarked against missions "flown" with pilots/human-operators in the loop. In turn, scoring criteria for such testing could be based upon both quantitative mission success metrics (unique to each mission) and by turning to analog "handling quality" metrics similar to the well-known Cooper-Harper pilot ratings used for manned aircraft. Autonomous aerial vehicles would be considered to have successfully passed this "UAV Turing Test" if the aggregate mission success metrics and handling qualities for the autonomous aerial vehicle matched or exceeded the equivalent metrics for missions conducted with pilots/human-operators in the loop. Alternatively, an independent, knowledgeable observer could provide the "UAV Turing Test" ratings of whether a vehicle is autonomous or "piloted." This observer ideally would, in the more sophisticated mission simulations, also have the enhanced capability of being able to override the scripted mission scenario and instigate failure modes and change of flight profile/plans. If a majority of mission tasks are rated as "piloted" by the observer, when in reality the vehicle/simulation is fully- or semi- autonomously controlled, then the vehicle/simulation "passes" the "UAV Turing Test." In this regards, this second "UAV Turing Test" approach is more consistent with Turing s original "imitation game" proposal. The overall feasibility, and important considerations and limitations, of such an approach for judging/evaluating autonomous aerial vehicle "intelligence" will be discussed from a

  8. Vision-Aided Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Ma, Jeremy C.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bouffard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Micro aerial vehicles have limited sensor suites and computational power. For reconnaissance tasks and to conserve energy, these systems need the ability to autonomously land at vantage points or enter buildings (ingress). But for autonomous navigation, information is needed to identify and guide the vehicle to the target. Vision algorithms can provide egomotion estimation and target detection using input from cameras that are easy to include in miniature systems.

  9. Drogue pose estimation for unmanned aerial vehicle autonomous aerial refueling system based on infrared vision sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanjun; Duan, Haibin; Deng, Yimin; Li, Cong; Zhao, Guozhi; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Autonomous aerial refueling is a significant technology that can significantly extend the endurance of unmanned aerial vehicles. A reliable method that can accurately estimate the position and attitude of the probe relative to the drogue is the key to such a capability. A drogue pose estimation method based on infrared vision sensor is introduced with the general goal of yielding an accurate and reliable drogue state estimate. First, by employing direct least squares ellipse fitting and convex hull in OpenCV, a feature point matching and interference point elimination method is proposed. In addition, considering the conditions that some infrared LEDs are damaged or occluded, a missing point estimation method based on perspective transformation and affine transformation is designed. Finally, an accurate and robust pose estimation algorithm improved by the runner-root algorithm is proposed. The feasibility of the designed visual measurement system is demonstrated by flight test, and the results indicate that our proposed method enables precise and reliable pose estimation of the probe relative to the drogue, even in some poor conditions.

  10. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Kumar, Vijay; Sreenath, Koushil

    2014-01-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. (papers)

  11. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches.

  12. Feasibility of an Extended-Duration Aerial Platform Using Autonomous Multi-Rotor Vehicle Swapping and Battery Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AN EXTENDED-DURATION AERIAL PLATFORM USING AUTONOMOUS MULTI-ROTOR VEHICLE SWAPPING AND BATTERY MANAGEMENT by Alexander G. Williams December...Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY...DURATION AERIAL PLATFORM USING AUTONOMOUS MULTI-ROTOR VEHICLE SWAPPING AND BATTERY MANAGEMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Alexander G

  13. A Vision-Based Method for Autonomous Landing of a Rotor-Craft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a real-time vision-based method for guided autonomous landing of a rotor-craft unmanned aerial vehicle. In the process of designing the pattern of landing target, we have fully considered how to make this easier for simplified identification and calibration. A linear algorithm was also applied using a three-dimensional structure estimation in real time. In addition, multiple-view vision technology is utilized to calibrate intrinsic parameters of camera online, so calibration prior to flight is unnecessary and the focus of camera can be changed freely in flight, thus upgrading the flexibility and practicality of the method.

  14. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  15. Mathematical model of unmanned aerial vehicle used for endurance autonomous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel, E-mail: teodor.chelaru@upb.ro [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest - Research Center for Aeronautics and Space, Str. Gheorghe Polizu, no. 1, PC 011061, Sector 1, Bucharest (Romania); Chelaru, Adrian, E-mail: achelaru@incas.ro [INCAS -National Institute for Aerospace Research Elie Carafoli, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, 061126, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-12-10

    The paper purpose is to present some aspects regarding the control system of unmanned aerial vehicle - UAV, used to local observations, surveillance and monitoring interest area. The calculus methodology allows a numerical simulation of UAV evolution in bad atmospheric conditions by using nonlinear model, as well as a linear one for obtaining guidance command. The UAV model which will be presented has six DOF (degrees of freedom), and autonomous control system. This theoretical development allows us to build stability matrix, command matrix and control matrix and finally to analyse the stability of autonomous UAV flight. A robust guidance system, based on uncoupled state will be evaluated for different fly conditions and the results will be presented. The flight parameters and guidance will be analysed.

  16. Mathematical model of unmanned aerial vehicle used for endurance autonomous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Chelaru, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The paper purpose is to present some aspects regarding the control system of unmanned aerial vehicle - UAV, used to local observations, surveillance and monitoring interest area. The calculus methodology allows a numerical simulation of UAV evolution in bad atmospheric conditions by using nonlinear model, as well as a linear one for obtaining guidance command. The UAV model which will be presented has six DOF (degrees of freedom), and autonomous control system. This theoretical development allows us to build stability matrix, command matrix and control matrix and finally to analyse the stability of autonomous UAV flight. A robust guidance system, based on uncoupled state will be evaluated for different fly conditions and the results will be presented. The flight parameters and guidance will be analysed

  17. Reinforcement Learning with Autonomous Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Cluttered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Cross, Charles; Montague, Gilbert; Motter, Mark; Neilan, James; Qualls, Garry; Rothhaar, Paul; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    We present ongoing work in the Autonomy Incubator at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) exploring the efficacy of a data set aggregation approach to reinforcement learning for small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) flight in dense and cluttered environments with reactive obstacle avoidance. The goal is to learn an autonomous flight model using training experiences from a human piloting a sUAV around static obstacles. The training approach uses video data from a forward-facing camera that records the human pilot's flight. Various computer vision based features are extracted from the video relating to edge and gradient information. The recorded human-controlled inputs are used to train an autonomous control model that correlates the extracted feature vector to a yaw command. As part of the reinforcement learning approach, the autonomous control model is iteratively updated with feedback from a human agent who corrects undesired model output. This data driven approach to autonomous obstacle avoidance is explored for simulated forest environments furthering autonomous flight under the tree canopy research. This enables flight in previously inaccessible environments which are of interest to NASA researchers in Earth and Atmospheric sciences.

  18. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  19. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation thru the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The application of many different types of AI techniques for flight will be explored during this research effort. The research concentration will be directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI approaches, which will include Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems thus providing new intellectual merit to this research field. The major area of discussion will be limited to the UAV. The systems of interest include small aircraft, insects, and miniature aircraft. Although flight systems will be explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers, Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. The flight system will be broken down into control agents that will represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework of applying a Security Overseer will be added in an attempt to address errors, emergencies, failures, damage, or over dynamic environment. The chosen control problem was the landing phase of UAV operation. The initial results from simulation in FlightGear are presented.

  20. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-Objective Genetic Programming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barlow, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become increasingly popular for many applications, including search and rescue, surveillance, and electronic warfare, but almost all UAVs are controlled remotely by humans...

  1. Sensor-driven area coverage for an autonomous fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Liam; Thibault, Carl; Nagaty, Amr; Seto, Mae; Li, Howard

    2014-09-01

    Area coverage with an onboard sensor is an important task for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with many applications. Autonomous fixed-wing UAVs are more appropriate for larger scale area surveying since they can cover ground more quickly. However, their non-holonomic dynamics and susceptibility to disturbances make sensor coverage a challenging task. Most previous approaches to area coverage planning are offline and assume that the UAV can follow the planned trajectory exactly. In this paper, this restriction is removed as the aircraft maintains a coverage map based on its actual pose trajectory and makes control decisions based on that map. The aircraft is able to plan paths in situ based on sensor data and an accurate model of the on-board camera used for coverage. An information theoretic approach is used that selects desired headings that maximize the expected information gain over the coverage map. In addition, the branch entropy concept previously developed for autonomous underwater vehicles is extended to UAVs and ensures that the vehicle is able to achieve its global coverage mission. The coverage map over the workspace uses the projective camera model and compares the expected area of the target on the ground and the actual area covered on the ground by each pixel in the image. The camera is mounted on a two-axis gimbal and can either be stabilized or optimized for maximal coverage. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation results and real hardware implementation on a fixed-wing UAV show the effectiveness of the approach. By including the already developed automatic takeoff and landing capabilities, we now have a fully automated and robust platform for performing aerial imagery surveys.

  2. An autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle sensing system for structural health monitoring of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Daniel; Sabato, Alessandro; Niezrecki, Christopher; Yu, Tzuyang; Wilson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    As civil infrastructure (i.e. bridges, railways, and tunnels) continues to age; the frequency and need to perform inspection more quickly on a broader scale increases. Traditional inspection and monitoring techniques (e.g., visual inspection, mechanical sounding, rebound hammer, cover meter, electrical potential measurements, ultrasound, and ground penetrating radar) may produce inconsistent results, require lane closure, are labor intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, new structural health monitoring systems must be developed that are automated, highly accurate, minimally invasive, and cost effective. Three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation (DIC) systems have the merits of extracting full-field strain, deformation, and geometry profiles. These profiles can then be stitched together to generate a complete integrity map of the area of interest. Concurrently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as valuable resources for positioning sensing equipment where it is either difficult to measure or poses a risk to human safety. UAVs have the capability to expedite the optical-based measurement process, offer increased accessibility, and reduce interference with local traffic. Within this work, an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle in conjunction with 3D DIC was developed for monitoring bridges. The capabilities of the proposed system are demonstrated in both laboratory measurements and data collected from bridges currently in service. Potential measurement influences from platform instability, rotor vibration and positioning inaccuracy are also studied in a controlled environment. The results of these experiments show that the combination of autonomous flight with 3D DIC and other non-contact measurement systems provides a valuable and effective civil inspection platform.

  3. AWARE: Platform for Autonomous self-deploying and operation of Wireless sensor-actuator networks cooperating with unmanned AeRial vehiclEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollero, Anibal; Bernard, Markus; La Civita, Marco; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Marron, Pedro J.; Lepley, Jason; de Andres, Eduardo

    This paper presents the AWARE platform that seeks to enable the cooperation of autonomous aerial vehicles with ground wireless sensor-actuator networks comprising both static and mobile nodes carried by vehicles or people. Particularly, the paper presents the middleware, the wireless sensor network,

  4. Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

    2003-01-01

    This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

  5. Autonomous Wireless Self-Charging for Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bin Junaid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the ability to operate in confined spaces and to hover over point of interest, but they have limited flight time and endurance. Conventional contact-based charging system for UAVs has been used, but it requires high landing accuracy for proper docking. Instead of the conventional system, autonomous wireless battery charging system for UAVs in outdoor conditions is proposed in this paper. UAVs can be wirelessly charged using the proposed charging system, regardless of yaw angle between UAVs and wireless charging pad, which can further reduce their control complexity for autonomous landing. The increased overall mission time eventually relaxes the limitations on payload and flight time. In this paper, a cost effective automatic recharging solution for UAVs in outdoor environments is proposed using wireless power transfer (WPT. This research proposes a global positioning system (GPS and vision-based closed-loop target detection and a tracking system for precise landing of quadcopters in outdoor environments. The system uses the onboard camera to detect the shape, color and position of the defined target in image frame. Based on the offset of the target from the center of the image frame, control commands are generated to track and maintain the center position. Commercially available AR.Drone. was used to demonstrate the proposed concept which is equppied with bottom camera and GPS. Experiments and analyses showed good performance, and about 75% average WPT efficiency was achieved in this research.

  6. Autonomous soaring and surveillance in wind fields with an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chen

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) play an active role in developing a low-cost, low-altitude autonomous aerial surveillance platform. The success of the applications needs to address the challenge of limited on-board power plant that limits the endurance performance in surveillance mission. This thesis studies the mechanics of soaring flight, observed in nature where birds utilize various wind patterns to stay airborne without flapping their wings, and investigates its application to small UAVs in their surveillance missions. In a proposed integrated framework of soaring and surveillance, a bird-mimicking soaring maneuver extracts energy from surrounding wind environment that improves surveillance performance in terms of flight endurance, while the surveillance task not only covers the target area, but also detects energy sources within the area to allow for potential soaring flight. The interaction of soaring and surveillance further enables novel energy based, coverage optimal path planning. Two soaring and associated surveillance strategies are explored. In a so-called static soaring surveillance, the UAV identifies spatially-distributed thermal updrafts for soaring, while incremental surveillance is achieved through gliding flight to visit concentric expanding regions. A Gaussian-process-regression-based algorithm is developed to achieve computationally-efficient and smooth updraft estimation. In a so-called dynamic soaring surveillance, the UAV performs one cycle of dynamic soaring to harvest energy from the horizontal wind gradient to complete one surveillance task by visiting from one target to the next one. A Dubins-path-based trajectory planning approach is proposed to maximize wind energy extraction and ensure smooth transition between surveillance tasks. Finally, a nonlinear trajectory tracking controller is designed for a full six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear UAV dynamics model and extensive simulations are carried to demonstrate the effectiveness of

  7. Autonomous Conflict Detection and Resolution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : On integration into the Airspace System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the commercial values of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), defined as devices that are capable of sustainable flights in the atmosphere that do not require to have a human (pilot) on-board, become widely recognized thanks to the advancement of technology in materials, sensors,

  8. Autonomous, Safe Take-Off and Landing Operations for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS's) and in particular intelligent, autonomous rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft have the potential to significantly impact modern...

  9. Autonomous Conflict Detection and Resolution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: On integration into the Airspace System

    OpenAIRE

    Jenie, Y.I.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the commercial values of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), defined as devices that are capable of sustainable flights in the atmosphere that do not require to have a human (pilot) on-board, become widely recognized thanks to the advancement of technology in materials, sensors, computation, and telemetry. As UAVs are becoming cheaper and more user-friendly, many companies are motivated to incorporate them in their everyday business, such as for delivery services, journalisms,...

  10. Autonomous, Safe Take-Off and Landing Operations for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have the potential to significantly impact modern society. While the technology for unmanned air vehicles operating day in and day out...

  11. Autonomous Cargo Transport System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, using Visual Servoing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Kuntz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and testing of a system for autonomous tracking, pickup, and delivery of cargo via an unmanned helicopter. The tracking system uses a visual servoing algorithm and is tested using open loop velocity control of a six degree of freedom gantry system with a camera mounted via a pan-tilt unit on the end effecter. The pickup system uses vision to direct the camera pan tilt unit to track the target, and uses a hook attached to a second pan tilt unit to pick up the cargo. The ability of the pickup system to hook a target is tested by mounting it on the Systems Integrated Sensor Test Rig gantry system while recorded helicopter velocities are played back by the test rig.

  12. A REVIEW OF TACTICAL UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE DESIGN STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Sezer; Oktay, Tugrul

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a literaturesearch was conducted on tactical unmanned aerial vehicles. First of all, it wasclassified as an unmanned aerial vehicle. It is mentioned about thecharacteristics of ZANKA-III, which is highly autonomous, passive and activemorphing, aerodynamically perfect, tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (TUAV)ZANKA-III, supported by TUBITAK's 1001 Ardeb program 115M603 by TUBITAK and itis mentioned that they have superior characteristics from other tacticalunmanned aerial veh...

  13. Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Juan Carlos; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-01-01

    Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided an ideal platform for exploring these emergent morphing concepts since at this scale a greater amount of risk can be taken, as well as having more manageable fabrication and cost requirements. This review focuses on presenting the role UAVs have in morphing research by giving an overview of the UAV morphing concepts, designs, and technologies described in the literature. A presentation of quantitative information as well as a discussion of technical issues is given where possible to begin gaining some insight into the overall assessment and performance of these technologies. (topical review)

  14. Highly Skilled Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Acosta Reche; Stratis Kanarachos; Mike V Blundell

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that collision mitigation on low grip surfaces might require autonomous vehicles to execute maneuvers such as drift, trail braking or Scandinavian flick. In order to achieve this it is necessary to perceive the vehicle states and their interaction with the environment, and use this information to determine the chassis limits. A first look at the virtual automotive sensing problem is provided, followed by a description of Rally driving modeling approaches. Finally, a c...

  15. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  16. Towards autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We are moving towards an age of autonomous vehicles. Cycles of innovation initiated in the public and private sectors : have led one into another since the 1990s; and out of these efforts have sprung a variety of Advanced Driver Assistance : Systems ...

  17. Sensing and control for autonomous vehicles applications to land, water and air vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Kristin; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume includes thoroughly collected on sensing and control for autonomous vehicles. Guidance, navigation and motion control systems for autonomous vehicles are increasingly important in land-based, marine and aerial operations. Autonomous underwater vehicles may be used for pipeline inspection, light intervention work, underwater survey and collection of oceanographic/biological data. Autonomous unmanned aerial systems can be used in a large number of applications such as inspection, monitoring, data collection, surveillance, etc. At present, vehicles operate with limited autonomy and a minimum of intelligence. There is a growing interest for cooperative and coordinated multi-vehicle systems, real-time re-planning, robust autonomous navigation systems and robust autonomous control of vehicles. Unmanned vehicles with high levels of autonomy may be used for safe and efficient collection of environmental data, for assimilation of climate and environmental models and to complement global satellite sy...

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  19. From cooperative to autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sande, T.P.J.; Nijmeijer, H.; Fossen, T.I.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    What defines an autonomous vehicle? In this chapter the authors will try to answer this question and formulate the limitations of driver assistance systems as well as for—conditionally—autonomous vehicles . First a short summary of the levels of automation as provided by the society of automotive

  20. Detail design of empennage of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Md. Samad; Panday, Shoyon; Rasel, Md; Salam, Md. Abdus; Faisal, Kh. Md.; Farabi, Tanzimul Hasan

    2017-12-01

    In order to maintain the operational continuity of air defense systems, unmanned autonomous or remotely controlled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) plays a great role as a target for the anti-aircraft weapons. The aerial vehicle must comply with the requirements of high speed, remotely controlled tracking and navigational aids, operational sustainability and sufficient loiter time. It can also be used for aerial reconnaissance, ground surveillance and other intelligence operations. This paper aims to develop a complete tail design of an unmanned aerial vehicle using Systems Engineering approach. The design fulfils the requirements of longitudinal and directional trim, stability and control provided by the horizontal and vertical tail. Tail control surfaces are designed to provide sufficient control of the aircraft in critical conditions. Design parameters obtained from wing design are utilized in the tail design process as required. Through chronological calculations and successive iterations, optimum values of 26 tail design parameters are determined.

  1. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for structural discrimination to be woven into the fabric of autonomous vehicle developments, which remain underexplored and undiscussed. The prospect for structural discrimination arises as a result of the coordinated modes of autonomous vehicle behaviour...... individual identity, and potentially relative worth, to autonomous vehicles engaging in a crash damage calculus. At the risk of introducing these ideas into the development of autonomous vehicles, this paper hopes to spark a debate to foreclose these eventualities....... that is prescribed by its code. This leads to the potential for individuated outcomes to be networked and thereby multiplied consistently to any number of vehicles implementing such a code. The aggregated effects of such algorithmic policy preferences will thus cumulate in the reallocation of benefits and burdens...

  2. Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicles by John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, Pedram Hovareshti CSHCN TR 2003-8 (ISR TR 2003-14) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...AND SUBTITLE Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles ∗ John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, and Pedram

  3. Sampling-based real-time motion planning under state uncertainty for autonomous micro-aerial vehicles in GPS-denied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dachuan; Li, Qing; Cheng, Nong; Song, Jingyan

    2014-11-18

    This paper presents a real-time motion planning approach for autonomous vehicles with complex dynamics and state uncertainty. The approach is motivated by the motion planning problem for autonomous vehicles navigating in GPS-denied dynamic environments, which involves non-linear and/or non-holonomic vehicle dynamics, incomplete state estimates, and constraints imposed by uncertain and cluttered environments. To address the above motion planning problem, we propose an extension of the closed-loop rapid belief trees, the closed-loop random belief trees (CL-RBT), which incorporates predictions of the position estimation uncertainty, using a factored form of the covariance provided by the Kalman filter-based estimator. The proposed motion planner operates by incrementally constructing a tree of dynamically feasible trajectories using the closed-loop prediction, while selecting candidate paths with low uncertainty using efficient covariance update and propagation. The algorithm can operate in real-time, continuously providing the controller with feasible paths for execution, enabling the vehicle to account for dynamic and uncertain environments. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can generate feasible trajectories that reduce the state estimation uncertainty, while handling complex vehicle dynamics and environment constraints.

  4. Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Vachtsevanos, George

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a reference text for the academic and research communities, industry, manufacturers, users, practitioners, Federal Government, Federal and State Agencies, the private sector, as well as all organizations that are and will be using unmanned aircraft in a wide spectrum of applications. The Handbook covers all aspects of UAVs, from design to logistics and ethical issues. It is also targeting the young investigator, the future inventor and entrepreneur by providing an overview and detailed information of the state-of-the-art as well as useful new concepts that may lead to innovative research. The contents of the Handbook include material that addresses the needs and ‘know how’ of all of the above sectors targeting a very diverse audience. The Handbook offers a unique and comprehensive treatise of everything one needs to know about unmanned aircrafts, from conception to operation, from technologies to business activities, users, OEMs, reference sources, conferences, ...

  5. Bespilotne letjelice : Unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Jurić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bespilotne letjelice imaju širok spektar uporabe, i svrha im svakim danom sve više dobiva na značaju. Konstrukcija im se poboljšava, pronalaze se materijali koji su optimalniji za obavljanje funkcija s kojima se trebaju suočiti. Pravna regulativa za bespilotne letjelice do 150 kg težine na polijetanju (MTOW se razlikuje od države do države. : Unmanned aerial vehicles have a wide range of applications, and their purpose is every day more important. Construction has been improving, finding the materials that are optimal for carrying out the functions which need to be cope with. Legal regulations for unmanned aircrafts up to 150 kg take-off weight (MTOW varies from country to country.

  6. Autonomous Vehicles Navigation with Visual Target Tracking: Technical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Jia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the developments of last 10 years in the area of vision based target tracking for autonomous vehicles navigation. First, the motivations and applications of using vision based target tracking for autonomous vehicles navigation are presented in the introduction section. It can be concluded that it is very necessary to develop robust visual target tracking based navigation algorithms for the broad applications of autonomous vehicles. Then this paper reviews the recent techniques in three different categories: vision based target tracking for the applications of land, underwater and aerial vehicles navigation. Next, the increasing trends of using data fusion for visual target tracking based autonomous vehicles navigation are discussed. Through data fusion the tracking performance is improved and becomes more robust. Based on the review, the remaining research challenges are summarized and future research directions are investigated.

  7. On Autonomous Articulated Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Nayl, Thaker

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to address the problems of modeling, path planning and path following for an articulated vehicle in a realistic environment and in the presence of multiple obstacles.In greater detail, the problem of the kinematic modeling of an articulated vehicle is revisited through the proposal of a proper model in which the dimensions and properties of the vehicle can be fully described, rather than considering it as a unit point. Based on this approach, nonlinear and line...

  8. Formal Verification of Autonomous Vehicle Platooning

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali, Maryam; Dennis, Louise A.; McAree, Owen; Fisher, Michael; Veres, Sandor M.

    2016-01-01

    The coordination of multiple autonomous vehicles into convoys or platoons is expected on our highways in the near future. However, before such platoons can be deployed, the new autonomous behaviors of the vehicles in these platoons must be certified. An appropriate representation for vehicle platooning is as a multi-agent system in which each agent captures the "autonomous decisions" carried out by each vehicle. In order to ensure that these autonomous decision-making agents in vehicle platoo...

  9. Model identification of a flapping wing micro aerial vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar Vieira Caetano, J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Different flapping wing micro aerial vehicles (FWMAV) have been developed for academic (Harvard’s RoboBee), military (Israel Aerospace Industries’ Butterfly) and technology demonstration (Aerovironment’s NanoHummingBird) purposes. Among these, theDelFly II is recognized as one of themost successful configurations of FWMAV, with a broad flight envelope, that spans fromhover to fast forward flight, revealing autonomous capabilities in the form of automatic flight and obstacle avoidance. Despite...

  10. Autonomous Laser-Powered Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An autonomous laser-powered vehicle designed to autonomously penetrate through ice caps of substantial (e.g., kilometers) thickness by melting a path ahead of the vehicle as it descends. A high powered laser beam is transmitted to the vehicle via an onboard bare fiber spooler. After the beam enters through the dispersion optics, the beam expands into a cavity. A radiation shield limits backscatter radiation from heating the optics. The expanded beam enters the heat exchanger and is reflected by a dispersion mirror. Forward-facing beveled circular grooves absorb the reflected radiant energy preventing the energy from being reflected back towards the optics. Microchannels along the inner circumference of the beam dump heat exchanger maximize heat transfer. Sufficient amount of fiber is wound on the fiber spooler to permit not only a descent but also to permit a sample return mission by inverting the vehicle and melting its way back to the surface.

  11. Recent advances in research on unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le; Yin, George

    2013-01-01

    A team of launched and coordinated Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), requires advanced technologies in sensing, communication, computing, and control to improve their intelligence and robustness towards autonomous operations. To enhance reliability, robustness, and mission capability of a team of UAVs, a system-oriented and holistic approach is desirable in which all components and subsystems are considered in terms of their roles and impact on the entire system.  This volume aims to summarize the recent progress, identify challenges and opportunities, and develop new methodologies and systems on coordinated UAV control. A group of experts working in this area have contributed to this volume in several related aspects of autonomous control of networked UAVs. Their papers introduce new control methodologies, algorithms, and systems that address several important issues in developing intelligent, autonomous or semi-autonomous, networked systems for the next generation of UAVs. The papers share a common focus on...

  12. FlyAR: augmented reality supported micro aerial vehicle navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollmann, Stefanie; Hoppe, Christof; Langlotz, Tobias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Micro aerial vehicles equipped with high-resolution cameras can be used to create aerial reconstructions of an area of interest. In that context automatic flight path planning and autonomous flying is often applied but so far cannot fully replace the human in the loop, supervising the flight on-site to assure that there are no collisions with obstacles. Unfortunately, this workflow yields several issues, such as the need to mentally transfer the aerial vehicle’s position between 2D map positions and the physical environment, and the complicated depth perception of objects flying in the distance. Augmented Reality can address these issues by bringing the flight planning process on-site and visualizing the spatial relationship between the planned or current positions of the vehicle and the physical environment. In this paper, we present Augmented Reality supported navigation and flight planning of micro aerial vehicles by augmenting the user’s view with relevant information for flight planning and live feedback for flight supervision. Furthermore, we introduce additional depth hints supporting the user in understanding the spatial relationship of virtual waypoints in the physical world and investigate the effect of these visualization techniques on the spatial understanding.

  13. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  14. Cooperative Search with Autonomous Vehicles in a 3D Aquatic Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative Search with Autonomous Vehicles in a 3D Aquatic Testbed Matthew Keeter1, Daniel Moore2,3, Ryan Muller2,3, Eric Nieters1, Jennifer...Many applications for autonomous vehicles involve three-dimensional domains, notably aerial and aquatic environments. Such applications include mon...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cooperative Search With Autonomous Vehicles In A 3D Aquatic Testbed 5a

  15. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  16. Fleet management for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bsaybes, Sahar; Quilliot, Alain; Wagler, Annegret K.

    2016-01-01

    The VIPAFLEET project consists in developing models and algorithms for man- aging a fleet of Individual Public Autonomous Vehicles (VIPA). Hereby, we consider a fleet of cars distributed at specified stations in an industrial area to supply internal transportation, where the cars can be used in different modes of circulation (tram mode, elevator mode, taxi mode). One goal is to develop and implement suitable algorithms for each mode in order to satisfy all the requests under an economic point...

  17. Urban planning for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Pieter J.; Ordoñez Medina, Sergio A.; Maheshwari, Tanvi; Wang, Biyu; Erath, Alexander; Cairns, Stephen; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2018-01-01

    In land-scarce Singapore, population growth and increasingly dense development are running up against limited remaining space for mobility infrastructure expansion. Autonomous Vehicles (AV) promise to relieve some of this pressure, through more efficient use of road space through platooning and intersection coordination, reducing the need for parking space, and reducing overall reliance on privately owned cars, realising Singapore’s vision of a “car-lite” future. In a collaborative resear...

  18. Operator Informational Needs for Multiple Autonomous Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Cross, Charles D.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.

  19. Hybrid Control of Long-Endurance Aerial Robotic Vehicles for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective hybrid control approach for building stable wireless sensor networks between heterogeneous unmanned vehicles using long‐ endurance aerial robotic vehicles. For optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles in communication networks, a gradient climbing based self‐estimating control algorithm is utilized to locate the aerial platforms to maintain maximum communication throughputs between distributed multiple nodes. The autonomous aerial robots, which function as communication relay nodes, extract and harvest thermal energy from the atmospheric environment to improve their flight endurance within specified communication coverage areas. The rapidly‐deployable sensor networks with the high‐endurance aerial vehicles can be used for various application areas including environment monitoring, surveillance, tracking, and decision‐making support. Flight test and simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control technique for robust communication networks.

  20. Connected and autonomous vehicles 2040 vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) commissioned a one-year project, Connected and Autonomous : Vehicles 2040 Vision, with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to assess the implications of connected and : autonomous ve...

  1. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with

  2. The prospects for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brookes, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    In this study Andrew Brookes argues that Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is the military fashion of the moment. Since the end of the 1990s many nations have added UAVs to their military inventories, and in 1999 half a dozen nations used UAVs over Kosovo. In the light of operational experience in Kosovo, Brookes re-evaluates the potential of this vehicle, and examines the roles, capabilities and future challenges of UAV.

  3. Exploring Security Vulnerabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodday, Nils Miro; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    We are currently observing a significant increase in the popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), popularly also known by their generic term drones. This is not only the case for recreational UAVs, that one can acquire for a few hundred dollars, but also for more sophisticated ones, namely

  4. Optimization of the Flight Path of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Myklukha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of optimizing the flight path of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The paper analyzes the composition and designation of main equipment and payload of unmanned aerial vehicle. In particular, attention is drawn to the basic requirements that relate to the unmanned aerial vehicle today.

  5. Human Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2013-0143 HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES Heath A. Ruff Ball...REPORT TYPE Interim 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 09-16-08 – 03-22-13 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES 5a...Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles To support the vision of a system that enables a single operator to control multiple next-generation

  6. Safe Control for Spiral Recovery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs widely used in both military and civilian fields, many events affecting their safe flying have emerged. That UAV’s entering into the spiral is such a typical safety issue. To solve this safety problem, a novel recovery control approach is proposed. First, the factors of spiral are analyzed. Then, based on control scheduling of state variables and nonlinear dynamic inversion control laws, the spiral recovery controller is designed to accomplish guidance and control of spiral recovery. Finally, the simulation results have illustrated that the proposed control method can ensure the UAV autonomous recovery from spiral effectively.

  7. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  8. A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbier, Magali; Gabard, Jean-Francois; Ayreault, Herve

    2007-01-01

    ...; few solutions propose architecture adaptive to several types of platform. Autonomous vehicles that move in partially known and dynamic environments have to deal with asynchronous disruptive events...

  9. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogacki, John R

    2007-01-01

    ... vehicles, cooperative flight of autonomous aerial vehicles using GPS and vision information, cooperative and sharing of information in search missions involving multiple autonomous agents, multi-scale...

  10. Classification of robotic battery service systems for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Tien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing examples of prototypes of ground-based robotic platforms used as a landing site for unmanned aerial vehicles are considered. In some cases, they are equipped with a maintenance mechanism for the power supply module. The main requirements for robotic multi-copter battery maintenance systems depending on operating conditions, required processing speed, operator experience and other parameters are analyzed. The key issues remain questions of the autonomous landing of the unmanned aerial vehicles on the platform and approach to servicing battery. The existing prototypes of service robotic platforms are differed in the complexity of internal mechanisms, speed of service, algorithms of joint work of the platform and unmanned aerial vehicles during the landing and maintenance of the battery. The classification of robotic systems for servicing the power supply of multi-copter batteries criteria is presented using the following: the type of basing, the method of navigation during landing, the shape of the landing pad, the method of restoring the power supply module. The proposed algorithmic model of the operation of battery power maintenance system of the multi-copter on ground-based robotic platform during solving the target agrarian problem is described. Wireless methods of battery recovery are most promising, so further development and prototyping of a wireless charging station for multi-copter batteries will be developed.

  11. The Joint Tactical Aerial Resupply Vehicle Impact on Sustainment Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Artificial Intelligence , Sustainment Operations, Rifle Company, Autonomous Aerial Resupply, Joint Tactical Autonomous Aerial Resupply System 16...Integrations and Development System AI Artificial Intelligence ARCIC Army Capabilities Integration Center ARDEC Armament Research, Development and...Government Printing Office, 2016), 176. 3 HQDA, TRADOC Pam 525-3-1, 11-12. 3 combat team types, such as the Armored Brigade Combat Team and Stryker

  12. Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-03

    I I Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles F49620-01-1-0337 6. AUTHOR(S... Autonomous Vehicles Final Report Kendall E. Nygard Department of Computer Science and Operations Research North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58105-5164

  13. 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    TITLE (Include Security Classification) W 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, inso Kweoni... Autonomous Vehicles Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, Inso Kweon CMU-RI-TR-88-12 The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Acession For Pittsburgh

  14. Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report Hui-Min Huang, Elena Messina, James Albus...Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  15. Hybrid Aerial/Rover Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A proposed instrumented robotic vehicle called an "aerover" would fly, roll along the ground, and/or float on bodies of liquid, as needed. The aerover would combine features of an aerobot (a robotic lighter-than-air balloon) and a wheeled robot of the "rover" class. An aerover would also look very much like a variant of the "beach-ball" rovers. Although the aerover was conceived for use in scientific exploration of Titan (the largest moon of the planet Saturn), the aerover concept could readily be adapted to similar uses on Earth.

  16. Motion coordination for VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles attitude synchronisation and formation control

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessameud, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles develops new control design techniques for the distributed coordination of a team of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it provides new control design approaches for the attitude synchronization of a formation of rigid body systems. In addition, by integrating new control design techniques with some concepts from nonlinear control theory and multi-agent systems, it presents  a new theoretical framework for the formation control of a class of under-actuated aerial vehicles capable of vertical take-off and landing. Several practical problems related to the systems’ inputs, states measurements, and  restrictions on the interconnection  topology  between the aerial vehicles in the team  are addressed. Worked examples with sufficient details and simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the theoretical results discussed in the book. The material presented is primarily intended for researchers an...

  17. ROV90 - A prototype autonomous inspection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedseth, Oe.J.; Hallset, J.O.

    1991-04-01

    Simple autonomous inspection vehicles are suitable for operations where the cost, danger to humans, or area of operation prohibits the use of conventional underwater technology. Autonomous vehicles are, however, in their infancy and few such vehicles are available. There are still some problems to be overcome before this technology becomes useful in commercial applications. We have built ROV90 to investigate these problems. It is a test bed for experimenting with the different parts of an autonomous underwater vehicle. ROV90 will be able to autonomously follow prominent features in the real world, man made or natural. Examples are pipelines or walls in tunnels. ROV90 is tethered, but we are planning to use experience and results from ROV90 to develop av ''real'' autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) called PISCIS. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Aerial vehicles collision avoidance using monocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.

  19. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system

  20. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej, E-mail: A.Tomczyk@prz.edu.pl [Department of Avionics and Control Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstañców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  1. Autonomous charging to enable long-endurance missions for small aerial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgaonkar, Yash; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen an increased interest towards research involving Autonomous Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The predominant reason for this is their agility and ability to perform tasks too difficult or dangerous for their human counterparts and to navigate into places where ground robots cannot reach. Among MAVs, rotary wing aircraft such as quadrotors have the ability to operate in confined spaces, hover at a given point in space and perch1 or land on a flat surface. This makes the quadrotor a very attractive aerial platform giving rise to a myriad of research opportunities. The potential of these aerial platforms is severely limited by the constraints on the flight time due to limited battery capacity. This in turn arises from limits on the payload of these rotorcraft. By automating the battery recharging process, creating autonomous MAVs that can recharge their on-board batteries without any human intervention and by employing a team of such agents, the overall mission time can be greatly increased. This paper describes the development, testing, and implementation of a system of autonomous charging stations for a team of Micro Aerial Vehicles. This system was used to perform fully autonomous long-term multi-agent aerial surveillance experiments with persistent station keeping. The scalability of the algorithm used in the experiments described in this paper was also tested by simulating a persistence surveillance scenario for 10 MAVs and charging stations. Finally, this system was successfully implemented to perform a 9½ hour multi-agent persistent flight test. Preliminary implementation of this charging system in experiments involving construction of cubic structures with quadrotors showed a three-fold increase in effective mission time.

  2. Delayed Monocular SLAM Approach Applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Rodrigo; Urzua, Sarquis; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have addressed the issue of making Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) more and more autonomous. In this context, the state estimation of the vehicle position is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomy. However, the problem of position estimation could not be solved in some scenarios, even when a GPS signal is available, for instance, an application requiring performing precision manoeuvres in a complex environment. Therefore, some additional sensory information should be integrated into the system in order to improve accuracy and robustness. In this work, a novel vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method with application to unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed. One of the contributions of this work is to design and develop a novel technique for estimating features depth which is based on a stochastic technique of triangulation. In the proposed method the camera is mounted over a servo-controlled gimbal that counteracts the changes in attitude of the quadcopter. Due to the above assumption, the overall problem is simplified and it is focused on the position estimation of the aerial vehicle. Also, the tracking process of visual features is made easier due to the stabilized video. Another contribution of this work is to demonstrate that the integration of very noisy GPS measurements into the system for an initial short period of time is enough to initialize the metric scale. The performance of this proposed method is validated by means of experiments with real data carried out in unstructured outdoor environments. A comparative study shows that, when compared with related methods, the proposed approach performs better in terms of accuracy and computational time.

  3. Delayed Monocular SLAM Approach Applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguia

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have addressed the issue of making Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs more and more autonomous. In this context, the state estimation of the vehicle position is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomy. However, the problem of position estimation could not be solved in some scenarios, even when a GPS signal is available, for instance, an application requiring performing precision manoeuvres in a complex environment. Therefore, some additional sensory information should be integrated into the system in order to improve accuracy and robustness. In this work, a novel vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM method with application to unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed. One of the contributions of this work is to design and develop a novel technique for estimating features depth which is based on a stochastic technique of triangulation. In the proposed method the camera is mounted over a servo-controlled gimbal that counteracts the changes in attitude of the quadcopter. Due to the above assumption, the overall problem is simplified and it is focused on the position estimation of the aerial vehicle. Also, the tracking process of visual features is made easier due to the stabilized video. Another contribution of this work is to demonstrate that the integration of very noisy GPS measurements into the system for an initial short period of time is enough to initialize the metric scale. The performance of this proposed method is validated by means of experiments with real data carried out in unstructured outdoor environments. A comparative study shows that, when compared with related methods, the proposed approach performs better in terms of accuracy and computational time.

  4. Monocular Vision SLAM for Indoor Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel indoor navigation and ranging strategy via monocular camera. By exploiting the architectural orthogonality of the indoor environments, we introduce a new method to estimate range and vehicle states from a monocular camera for vision-based SLAM. The navigation strategy assumes an indoor or indoor-like manmade environment whose layout is previously unknown, GPS-denied, representable via energy based feature points, and straight architectural lines. We experimentally validate the proposed algorithms on a fully self-contained microaerial vehicle (MAV with sophisticated on-board image processing and SLAM capabilities. Building and enabling such a small aerial vehicle to fly in tight corridors is a significant technological challenge, especially in the absence of GPS signals and with limited sensing options. Experimental results show that the system is only limited by the capabilities of the camera and environmental entropy.

  5. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  6. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  7. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  8. Interpersonal communication and issues for autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Interpersonal roadway communication is a vital component of the transportation system. Road users communicate to coordinate movement and increase roadway safety. Future autonomous vehicle research needs to account for the role of interpersonal roadwa...

  9. Layered Safe Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The major problem addressed by this research is how to plan a safe motion for autonomous vehicles in a two dimensional, rectilinear world. With given start and goal configurations, the planner performs motion planning which

  10. Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

    2001-02-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

  11. Models Supporting Trajectory Planning in Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles have the potential to drastically improve the safety, efficiency and cost of transportation. Instead of a driver, an autonomous vehicle is controlled by an algorithm, offering improved consistency and the potential to eliminate human error from driving: by far the most common cause of accidents. Data collected from different types of sensors, along with prior information such as maps, are used to build models of the surrounding traffic scene, encoding relevant aspects of t...

  12. AERIAL TERRAIN MAPPING USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Tahar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root

  13. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc

  14. Port-based Modeling and Control of Underactuated Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generic model and a controller design for a class of underactuated aerial vehicles, namely for unmanned aerial vehicles whose primary support against gravity is thrust. The approach followed is based on energetic consideration and uses the formalisms of port-Hamiltonian

  15. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  16. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  17. Measured Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Randolph; McSwain, Robert; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including home package delivery, have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. This paper discusses results of flyover noise measurements of four small UAVs, including an internal combustion-powered model airplane and three battery-powered multicopters. Basic noise characteristics of these vehicles are discussed, including spectral properties and sound level metrics such as sound pressure level, effective perceived noise level, and sound exposure level. The size and aerodynamic characteristics of the multicopters in particular make their flight path susceptible to atmospheric disturbances such as wind gusts. These gusts, coupled with a flight control system that varies rotor speed to maintain vehicle stability, create an unsteady acoustic signature. The spectral variations resulting from this unsteadiness are explored, in both hover and flyover conditions for the multicopters. The time varying noise, which differs from the relatively steady noise generated by large transport aircraft, may complicate the prediction of human annoyance using conventional sound level metrics.

  18. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vinayak V; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  19. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vinayak V.; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems. PMID:27997566

  20. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak V Dixit

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  1. Pipeline monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, L. I.

    2018-05-01

    Pipeline leakage during transportation of combustible substances leads to explosion and fire thus causing death of people and destruction of production and accommodation facilities. Continuous pipeline monitoring allows identifying leaks in due time and quickly taking measures for their elimination. The paper describes the solution of identification of pipeline leakage using unmanned aerial vehicles. It is recommended to apply the spectral analysis with input RGB signal to identify pipeline damages. The application of multi-zone digital images allows defining potential spill of oil hydrocarbons as well as possible soil pollution. The method of multi-temporal digital images within the visible region makes it possible to define changes in soil morphology for its subsequent analysis. The given solution is cost efficient and reliable thus allowing reducing timing and labor resources in comparison with other methods of pipeline monitoring.

  2. A survey of hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Adnan S.; Younes, Ahmad Bani; Cai, Chenxiao; Cai, Guowei

    2018-04-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview on the recent advances of miniature hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). For now, two conventional types, i.e., fixed-wing UAV and Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) UAV, dominate the miniature UAVs. Each type has its own inherent limitations on flexibility, payload, flight range, cruising speed, takeoff and landing requirements and endurance. Enhanced popularity and interest are recently gained by the newer type, named hybrid UAV, that integrates the beneficial features of both conventional ones. In this survey paper, a systematic categorization method for the hybrid UAV's platform designs is introduced, first presenting the technical features and representative examples. Next, the hybrid UAV's flight dynamics model and flight control strategies are explained addressing several representative modeling and control work. In addition, key observations, existing challenges and conclusive remarks based on the conducted review are discussed accordingly.

  3. Mathematical modelling of unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, S.; Rehman, S.U.

    2013-01-01

    UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) UAVs are emerging as requirement of time and it is expected that in next five to ten years, complete air space will be flooded with UAVs, committed in varied assignments ranging from military, scientific and commercial usage. Non availability of human pilot inside UAV necessitates the requirement of an onboard auto pilot in order to maintain desired flight profile against any unexpected disturbance and/or parameter variations. Design of such an auto pilot requires an accurate mathematical model of UAV. The aim of this paper is to present a consolidated picture of UAV model. This paper first consolidates complete 6 DOF Degree of Freedom) equations of motion into a nonlinear mathematical model and its simulation using model parameters of a real UAV. Model is then linearized into longitudinal and lateral modes. State space models of linearized modes are simulated and analyzed for stability parameters. The developed model can be used to design auto pilot for UAV. (author)

  4. International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Paul; Piegl, Les

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have seen unprecedented levels of growth during the last decade in both military and civilian domains. It is anticipated that civilian applications will be dominant in the future, although there are still barriers to be overcome and technical challenges to be met. Integrating UAS into, for example, civilian space, navigation, autonomy, see-detect-and-avoid systems, smart designs, system integration, vision-based navigation and training, to name but a few areas, will be of prime importance in the near future. This special volume is the outcome of research presented at the International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, held in Orlando, Florida, USA, from June 23-25, 2008, and presents state-of-the-art findings on topics such as: UAS operations and integration into the national airspace system; UAS navigation and control; micro-, mini-, small UAVs; UAS simulation testbeds and frameworks; UAS research platforms and applications; UAS applications. This book aims at serving as ...

  5. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES IN THE NAVY: ITS BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONÇALO CASTANHEIRA ROSA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Military investment in UAV research, systems, and applied technologies is increasing, and potential uses for UAVs in civil and military operations are in development. These developments, along with growing scientific interest in UAVs, are fueling commercial interest in the unmanned market. The growing enthusiasm for UAVs is not unfounded. The vehicles offer a unique range of features, most notably ultra-long endurance and high-risk mission acceptance, which cannot be reasonably performed by manned aircraft. Coupled with advances in automation and sensor technologies, and the potential for costs savings, it is understandable that interest in and demand for UAVs is on the rise. Organizations like the Navy have all the benefits to accompany the technological evolution that every day surprises and surpasses us. An introduction or technological evolution that this kind of organizations has already begun to implement is the autonomous vehicles as a mean to an end. This paper describes and lists the advantages of the introduction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in an organization like the navy and also the missions that such robots can perform and optimize.

  6. Automated Search-Based Robustness Testing for Autonomous Vehicle Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Betts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous systems must successfully operate in complex time-varying spatial environments even when dealing with system faults that may occur during a mission. Consequently, evaluating the robustness, or ability to operate correctly under unexpected conditions, of autonomous vehicle control software is an increasingly important issue in software testing. New methods to automatically generate test cases for robustness testing of autonomous vehicle control software in closed-loop simulation are needed. Search-based testing techniques were used to automatically generate test cases, consisting of initial conditions and fault sequences, intended to challenge the control software more than test cases generated using current methods. Two different search-based testing methods, genetic algorithms and surrogate-based optimization, were used to generate test cases for a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle attempting to fly through an entryway. The effectiveness of the search-based methods in generating challenging test cases was compared to both a truth reference (full combinatorial testing and the method most commonly used today (Monte Carlo testing. The search-based testing techniques demonstrated better performance than Monte Carlo testing for both of the test case generation performance metrics: (1 finding the single most challenging test case and (2 finding the set of fifty test cases with the highest mean degree of challenge.

  7. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  8. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  9. Autonomous Monitoring Aerial Robot System for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji H.; Gu, Beom W; Thai, Van X.; Rim, C. T. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, autonomous monitoring aerial robot system (AMARS), which includes omnidirectional wireless charging platform, aerial robot, landing coils and a battery management board, is proposed to guarantee automatic monitoring of NPPs. The prototype of the system is fabricated, and omnidirectional charging of the system is experimentally validated with 1 C charging state. AR(Aerial Robots)s are essential for NPP accident management because human cannot access to the accident site due to the risks of unexpected explosions, collapses, and high level of radioactive contaminants. Moreover, ARs can support operators to manage normal operation of NPPs built in harsh environment of high temperature and humidity such as UAE Barakah NPP. Because these ARs usually have very low energy capacity, however, the operation time of ARs is less than 30 minutes and should be recharged regularly by human powers, which makes it impossible to monitor NPPs by ARs automatically. In this paper, the concept of AMARS has been proposed and its performance was successfully verified with a fabricated prototype. The charging state of the on board battery in AR was measured as 0.5 C with the induced voltage of 18.6 V, which is well matched to the designed induced voltage when the AR was placed on the edge of the wireless charging platform.

  10. Recommendations for Autonomous Industrial Vehicle Performance Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bostelman , Roger

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A workshop was held at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, called: “Autonomous Industrial Vehicles: From the Laboratory to the Factory Floor”. Nine research papers were presented followed by a discussion session summarized in this paper. The workshop findings are intended to be useful for developing standards within the ASTM F45 Committee for Driverless Automatic Industrial Vehicles. This paper provides feedback from the discussion listing the...

  11. Towards an Autonomous Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial System against Wildlife Poachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Olivares-Mendez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poaching is an illegal activity that remains out of control in many countries. Based on the 2014 report of the United Nations and Interpol, the illegal trade of global wildlife and natural resources amounts to nearly $ 213 billion every year, which is even helping to fund armed conflicts. Poaching activities around the world are further pushing many animal species on the brink of extinction. Unfortunately, the traditional methods to fight against poachers are not enough, hence the new demands for more efficient approaches. In this context, the use of new technologies on sensors and algorithms, as well as aerial platforms is crucial to face the high increase of poaching activities in the last few years. Our work is focused on the use of vision sensors on UAVs for the detection and tracking of animals and poachers, as well as the use of such sensors to control quadrotors during autonomous vehicle following and autonomous landing.

  12. Towards an Autonomous Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial System against Wildlife Poachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel A.; Fu, Changhong; Ludivig, Philippe; Bissyandé, Tegawendé F.; Kannan, Somasundar; Zurad, Maciej; Annaiyan, Arun; Voos, Holger; Campoy, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Poaching is an illegal activity that remains out of control in many countries. Based on the 2014 report of the United Nations and Interpol, the illegal trade of global wildlife and natural resources amounts to nearly $213 billion every year, which is even helping to fund armed conflicts. Poaching activities around the world are further pushing many animal species on the brink of extinction. Unfortunately, the traditional methods to fight against poachers are not enough, hence the new demands for more efficient approaches. In this context, the use of new technologies on sensors and algorithms, as well as aerial platforms is crucial to face the high increase of poaching activities in the last few years. Our work is focused on the use of vision sensors on UAVs for the detection and tracking of animals and poachers, as well as the use of such sensors to control quadrotors during autonomous vehicle following and autonomous landing. PMID:26703597

  13. Targeted Applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Drones) in Telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Kunj; Pourmand, Ali; Sikka, Neal

    2018-02-28

    Advances in technology have revolutionized the medical field and changed the way healthcare is delivered. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are the next wave of technological advancements that have the potential to make a huge splash in clinical medicine. UAVs, originally developed for military use, are making their way into the public and private sector. Because they can be flown autonomously and can reach almost any geographical location, the significance of UAVs are becoming increasingly apparent in the medical field. We conducted a comprehensive review of the English language literature via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases using search terms "unmanned aerial vehicles," "UAVs," and "drone." Preference was given to clinical trials and review articles that addressed the keywords and clinical medicine. Potential applications of UAVs in medicine are broad. Based on articles identified, we grouped UAV application in medicine into three categories: (1) Prehospital Emergency Care; (2) Expediting Laboratory Diagnostic Testing; and (3) Surveillance. Currently, UAVs have been shown to deliver vaccines, automated external defibrillators, and hematological products. In addition, they are also being studied in the identification of mosquito habitats as well as drowning victims at beaches as a public health surveillance modality. These preliminary studies shine light on the possibility that UAVs may help to increase access to healthcare for patients who may be otherwise restricted from proper care due to cost, distance, or infrastructure. As with any emerging technology and due to the highly regulated healthcare environment, the safety and effectiveness of this technology need to be thoroughly discussed. Despite the many questions that need to be answered, the application of drones in medicine appears to be promising and can both increase the quality and accessibility of healthcare.

  14. Autonomous Vehicle Survey of Bicyclists and Pedestrians in Pittsburgh, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — In Pittsburgh, Autonomous Vehicle (AV) companies have been testing autonomous vehicles since September 2016. However, the tech is new, and there have been some...

  15. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  16. Contour Tracking Control for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Reet, Alan R

    2005-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles used in US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation...

  17. Estimation and Prediction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Trajectories, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is serious concern about the introduction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the National Air Space (NAS) because of their potential to increase the risk of...

  18. Optimum Route Planning and Scheduling for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonmezocak, Erkan; Kurt, Senol

    2008-01-01

    .... The route planning of UAVs is the most critical and challenging problem of wartime. This thesis will develop three algorithms to solve a model that produces executable routings in order to dispatch three Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV...

  19. Drogue tracking using 3D flash lidar for autonomous aerial refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-I.; Stettner, Roger

    2011-06-01

    Autonomous aerial refueling (AAR) is an important capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to increase its flying range and endurance without increasing its size. This paper presents a novel tracking method that utilizes both 2D intensity and 3D point-cloud data acquired with a 3D Flash LIDAR sensor to establish relative position and orientation between the receiver vehicle and drogue during an aerial refueling process. Unlike classic, vision-based sensors, a 3D Flash LIDAR sensor can provide 3D point-cloud data in real time without motion blur, in the day or night, and is capable of imaging through fog and clouds. The proposed method segments out the drogue through 2D analysis and estimates the center of the drogue from 3D point-cloud data for flight trajectory determination. A level-set front propagation routine is first employed to identify the target of interest and establish its silhouette information. Sufficient domain knowledge, such as the size of the drogue and the expected operable distance, is integrated into our approach to quickly eliminate unlikely target candidates. A statistical analysis along with a random sample consensus (RANSAC) is performed on the target to reduce noise and estimate the center of the drogue after all 3D points on the drogue are identified. The estimated center and drogue silhouette serve as the seed points to efficiently locate the target in the next frame.

  20. Development of multi copter based autonomous unmanned aerial radiation monitoring system for the remote impact assessment of radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, Jis Romal; Gupta, Ashutosh; Bahadur, Shuchita; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    During any radiation emergency, the level and extent of radioactive contamination need to be monitored for the timely and effective implementation of countermeasures to reduce the radiation exposure to public. In such a scenario, radiation surveillance can be carried out using either ground based mobile monitoring techniques or aerial radiation monitoring. Aerial radiation monitoring is quick and capable of scanning the areas which are not easily accessible by the ground based mobile monitoring. Compact unmanned aerial vehicle based radiation surveillance system is ideal in above mentioned radiation emergency scenarios as it can be rapidly deployed in the affected area and radiation exposure to the monitoring personal can be totally avoided. This paper describes development of multi copter based autonomous unmanned aerial radiation monitoring system for the remote impact assessment of radiation emergencies

  1. SOLON: An autonomous vehicle mission planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The State-Operator Logic Machine (SOLON) Planner provides an architecture for effective real-time planning and replanning for an autonomous vehicle. The highlights of the system, which distinguish it from other AI-based planners that have been designed previously, are its hybrid application of state-driven control architecture and the use of both schematic representations and logic programming for the management of its knowledge base. SOLON is designed to provide multiple levels of planning for a single autonomous vehicle which is supplied with a skeletal, partially-specified mission plan at the outset of the vehicle's operations. This mission plan consists of a set of objectives, each of which will be decomposable by the planner into tasks. These tasks are themselves comparatively complex sets of actions which are executable by a conventional real-time control system which does not perform planning but which is capable of making adjustments or modifications to the provided tasks according to constraints and tolerances provided by the Planner. The current implementation of the SOLON is in the form of a real-time simulation of the Planner module of an Intelligent Vehicle Controller (IVC) on-board an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The simulation is embedded within a larger simulator environment known as ICDS (Intelligent Controller Development System) operating on a Symbolics 3645/75 computer.

  2. Tactical Decision Aids High Bandwidth Links Using Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    1 Tactical Decision Aids (High Bandwidth Links Using Autonomous Vehicles ) A. J. Healey, D. P. Horner, Center for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle...SUBTITLE Tactical Decision Aids (High Bandwidth Links Using Autonomous Vehicles ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  3. New Concepts and Perspectives on Micro-Rotorcraft and Small Autonomous Rotary-Wing Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Aiken, E. W.; Johnson, J. L.; Demblewski, R.; Andrews, J.; Aiken, Irwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A key part of the strategic vision for rotorcraft research as identified by senior technologists within the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Division at NASA Ames Research Center is the development and use of small autonomous rotorcraft. Small autonomous rotorcraft are defined for the purposes of this paper to be a class of vehicles that range in size from rotary-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) to larger, more conventionally sized, rotorcraft uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) - i.e. vehicle gross weights ranging from hundreds of grams to thousands of kilograms. The development of small autonomous rotorcraft represents both a technology challenge and a potential new vehicle class that will have substantial societal impact for: national security, personal transport, planetary science, and public service.

  4. Longitudinal Control for Mengshi Autonomous Vehicle via Gauss Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic robustness and stability control is a requirement for self-driving of autonomous vehicle. Longitudinal control technique of autonomous vehicle is basic theory and one key complex technique which must have the reliability and precision of vehicle controller. The longitudinal control technique is one of the foundations of the safety and stability of autonomous vehicle control. In our paper, we present a longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model for Mengshi autonomous vehicle to ensure the dynamic stability and tracking performance of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. The longitudinal control algorithm mainly uses cloud model generator to control the acceleration of the autonomous vehicle to achieve the goal that controls the speed of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. The proposed longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model is verified by real experiments on Highway driving scene. The experiments results of the acceleration and speed show that the algorithm is validity and stability.

  5. Autonomous vehicles: from paradigms to technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Silviu

    2017-10-01

    Mobility is a basic necessity of contemporary society and it is a key factor in global economic development. The basic requirements for the transport of people and goods are: safety and duration of travel, but also a number of additional criteria are very important: energy saving, pollution, passenger comfort. Due to advances in hardware and software, automation has penetrated massively in transport systems both on infrastructure and on vehicles, but man is still the key element in vehicle driving. However, the classic concept of ‘human-in-the-loop’ in terms of ‘hands on’ in driving the cars is competing aside from the self-driving startups working towards so-called ‘Level 4 autonomy’, which is defined as “a self-driving system that does not requires human intervention in most scenarios”. In this paper, a conceptual synthesis of the autonomous vehicle issue is made in connection with the artificial intelligence paradigm. It presents a classification of the tasks that take place during the driving of the vehicle and its modeling from the perspective of traditional control engineering and artificial intelligence. The issue of autonomous vehicle management is addressed on three levels: navigation, movement in traffic, respectively effective maneuver and vehicle dynamics control. Each level is then described in terms of specific tasks, such as: route selection, planning and reconfiguration, recognition of traffic signs and reaction to signaling and traffic events, as well as control of effective speed, distance and direction. The approach will lead to a better understanding of the way technology is moving when talking about autonomous cars, smart/intelligent cars or intelligent transport systems. Keywords: self-driving vehicle, artificial intelligence, deep learning, intelligent transport systems.

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  7. Unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to prevent drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Celia; Blaquière, Gilles; Loundou, Anderson; Michelet, Pierre; Markarian, Thibaut

    2018-06-01

    Drowning literature have highlighted the submersion time as the most powerful predictor in assessing the prognosis. Reducing the time taken to provide a flotation device and prevent submersion appears of paramount importance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide the location of the swimmer and a flotation device. The objective of this simulation study was to evaluate the efficiency of a UAV in providing a flotation device in different sea conditions, and to compare the times taken by rescue operations with and without a UAV (standard vs UAV intervention). Several comparisons were made using professional lifeguards acting as simulated victims. A specifically-shaped UAV was used to allow us to drop an inflatable life buoy into the water. During the summer of 2017, 28 tests were performed. UAV use was associated with a reduction of time it took to provide a flotation device to the simulated victim compared with standard rescue operations (p < 0.001 for all measurements) and the time was reduced even further in moderate (81 ± 39 vs 179 ± 78 s; p < 0.001) and rough sea conditions (99 ± 34 vs 198 ± 130 s; p < 0.001). The times taken for UAV to locate the simulated victim, identify them and drop the life buoy were not altered by the weather conditions. UAV can deliver a flotation device to a swimmer safely and quickly. The addition of a UAV in rescue operations could improve the quality and speed of first aid while keeping lifeguards away from dangerous sea conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Autonomous Vehicles: A Policy Roadmap for Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    autonomous vehicle , vehicles , self - driving car , automated...the fault of the autonomous vehicle .6 In other words, human error was the fault in all of the collisions and the self - driving car has NEVER caused a...32 David Shamah, “As Google Dreams of Driverless Cars , IDF Deploys Them: Self Driving Vehicles Are not New for the Israeli Army, and a

  9. Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles Casavola, A.; Garone, E. (2007) Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous ...Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles 3.2 - 2 RTO-MP-AVT-145 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Control allocation problem (CAP) - Given a virtual input v(t

  10. Developments and challenges for autonomous unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will have a transformational impact on military forces and will play a key role in many future force structures. As a result, many tasks have already been identified that unmanned systems could undertake more readily than humans. However, for this to occur, such systems will need to be agile, versatile, persistent, reliable, survivable and lethal. This will require many of the vehicles 'cognitive' or higher order functions to be more fully developed, whereas to date only the 'component' or physical functions have been successfully automated and

  11. Optimal event handling by multiple unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, Martijn; Frasca, Paolo; Carloni, Raffaella

    This paper proposes a control architecture for a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles that is responsible for handling the events that take place in a given area. The architecture guarantees that each event is handled by the required number of vehicles in the shortest time, while the rest of the fleet

  12. Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akos, Zsuzsa; Nagy, Mate; Vicsek, Tamas; Leven, Severin

    2010-01-01

    Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of the so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upward with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of the simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally, we propose a new GPS-independent control strategy for exploiting thermal updrafts.

  13. Cyber Security Considerations for Autonomous Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Update Will Enable Autonomous Driving. Retrieved August 6, 2015, from http://spectrum.ieee.org/: http://spectrum.ieee.org/ cars -that-think...Cyber Security Considerations for Autonomous Tactical Wheeled Vehicles 1 UNCLASSIFIED Cyber Security Considerations for... Autonomous Tactical Wheeled Vehicles Sebastian C Iovannitti 4/1/2016 Submitted to Lawrence Technological University College of Management in

  14. Fast mission reliability prediction for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.D.; Poole, J.; Chen, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently a significant interest in the use of autonomous vehicles in many industrial sectors. One such example is the ever increasing use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), particularly in military operations. This enables dangerous missions to be accomplished without risk to a pilot. UAVs also have potential civil applications which would require their certification and the demonstration that they are able to respond safety to any potential circumstances. The aircraft would therefore need to be capable of responding safely to the occurrence of component failures, the emergence of threats such as other aircraft in the neighboring airspace, and changing weather conditions. The likelihood that an aircraft will successfully complete any mission can be predicted using phased mission analysis techniques. The predicted mission unreliability can be updated in response to changing circumstances. In the event that the likelihood of mission failure becomes too high then changes have to be made to the mission plan. If these calculations could be carried out fast enough then the quantification procedure could be used to establish an acceptable response to any new conditions. With a view to using the methodology in the context described above, this paper investigates ways in which phased mission analysis can be improved to reduce the calculation time. The methodology improves the processing capability for a UAV phased mission analysis by taking into account the specific characteristics of the fault tree structures which provide the causes of phase failure for a UAV mission. It also carries out as much of the quantification as possible in advance of the mission plan being formulated

  15. LOW COST SURVEYING USING AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM. The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37–111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps

  16. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology - A Pre-Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Bange, Jens

    Autonomous Aerial Sensors, i.e. meteorological sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems UAS, can characterise the atmospheric flow in and around wind farms. We instrumented three planes, a helicopter and a lighter-than-air LTA system to fly one week together in a well-instrumented wind farm...

  17. Kinodynamic Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwung Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a computationally effective motion planning algorithm for autonomous ground vehicles operating in a semi-structured environment with a mission specified by waypoints, corridor widths and obstacles. The algorithm switches between two kinds of planners, (i static planners and (ii moving obstacle avoidance manoeuvre planners, depending on the mobility of any detected obstacles. While the first is broken down into a path planner and a controller, the second generates a sequence of controls without global path planning. Each subsystem is implemented as follows. The path planner produces an optimal piecewise linear path by applying a variant of cell decomposition and dynamic programming. The piecewise linear path is smoothed by Bézier curves such that the maximum curvatures of the curves are minimized. The controller calculates the highest allowable velocity profile along the path, consistent with the limits on both tangential and radial acceleration and the steering command for the vehicle to track the trajectory using a pure pursuit method. The moving obstacle avoidance manoeuvre produces a sequence of time-optimal local velocities, by minimizing the cost as determined by the safety of the current velocity against obstacles in the velocity obstacle paradigm and the deviation of the current velocity relative to the desired velocity, to satisfy the waypoint constraint. The algorithms are shown to be robust and computationally efficient, and to demonstrate a viable methodology for autonomous vehicle control in the presence of unknown obstacles.

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Photogrammetry Produces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinus Boon

    Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of ... The technique also only requires a few control measurements and the ... The number of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) referenced in the 2013 ... model aircraft airfield east of the R25 road, just south of the M6 intersection, up until ...

  19. A Review of the Characteristics of Modern Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Georgi Valentinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to present the modern unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs and the possibilities for real-time remote monitoring of flight parameters and payload data. In the introduction section of the paper we briefly present the characteristics of the UAVs and which are their major application areas. Later, the main parameters and the various data types for remote control and monitoring of the unmanned aerial vehicles are presented and discussed. The paper continues with the methods and the technologies for transmission of these parameters and then presents a general hardware model for data transmission and a software model of a communication system suitable for UAVs.

  20. Cooperative Control of Distributed Autonomous Vehicles in Adversarial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-14

    COOPERATIVE CONTROL OF DISTRIBUTED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES IN ADVERSARIAL ENVIRONMENTS Grant #F49620–01–1–0361 Final Report Jeff Shamma Department of...CONTRACT NUMBER F49620-01-1-0361 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COOPERATIVE CONTROL OF DISTRIBUTED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES IN...single dominant language or a distribution of languages. A relation to multivehicle systems is understanding how highly autonomous vehicles on extended

  1. Multiple Autonomous Vehicles for Minefield Reconnaissance and Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    NPS-ME-97-008 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California ItC A D- 19980421 131 =C QUALTY Ui Ji.CTEJ) THESIS MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES FOR...MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES FOR MINEFIELD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS RECONNAISSANCE AND MAPPING N0001497WX30039 6. AUTHOR(S) Jack A. Starr 7. PERFORMING... AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES FOR MINEFIELD RECONNAISSANCE AND MAPPING Jack A. Starr Lieutenant, United States Navy B.S., Oregon State University, 1991 Submitted in

  2. A Queueing Model for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Autonomous Vehicles Joseph DiVita, PhD Robert L. Morris Maria Olinda Rodas SSC Pacific Approved...298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 09–2013 Final A Queueing Model for Supervisory Control of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles Joseph...Mission Area: Command and Control, Queueing Model; Supervisory Control; Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles M. O. Rodas U U U U 38 (619)

  3. Evaluating the accuracy of vehicle tracking data obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Guido

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for tracking moving vehicles that integrates Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with video processing techniques. The authors investigated the usefulness of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to capture reliable individual vehicle data by using GPS technology as a benchmark. A video processing algorithm for vehicles trajectory acquisition is introduced. The algorithm is based on OpenCV libraries. In order to assess the accuracy of the proposed video processing algorithm an instrumented vehicle was equipped with a high precision GPS. The video capture experiments were performed in two case studies. From the field, about 24,000 positioning data were acquired for the analysis. The results of these experiments highlight the versatility of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles technology combined with video processing technique in monitoring real traffic data.

  4. Longitudinal Control for Mengshi Autonomous Vehicle via Cloud Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H. B.; Zhang, X. Y.; Li, D. Y.; Liu, Y. C.

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic robustness and stability control is a requirement for self-driving of autonomous vehicle. Longitudinal control method of autonomous is a key technique which has drawn the attention of industry and academe. In this paper, we present a longitudinal control algorithm based on cloud model for Mengshi autonomous vehicle to ensure the dynamic stability and tracking performance of Mengshi autonomous vehicle. An experiments is applied to test the implementation of the longitudinal control algorithm. Empirical results show that if the longitudinal control algorithm based Gauss cloud model are applied to calculate the acceleration, and the vehicles drive at different speeds, a stable longitudinal control effect is achieved.

  5. Teleoperated Visual Inspection and Surveillance with Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viatcheslav Tretyakov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces our robotic system named UGAV (Unmanned Ground-Air Vehicle consisting of two semi-autonomous robot platforms, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV. The paper focuses on three topics of the inspection with the combined UGV and UAV: (A teleoperated control by means of cell or smart phones with a new concept of automatic configuration of the smart phone based on a RKI-XML description of the vehicles control capabilities, (B the camera and vision system with the focus to real time feature extraction e.g. for the tracking of the UAV and (C the architecture and hardware of the UAV

  6. Task and Motion Planning for Selective Weed Conrol using a Team of Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibrahim; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Hansen, Karl Damkjær

    2014-01-01

    with the right amount. In this article, a task and motion planning for a team of autonomous vehicles to reduce chemicals in farming is presented. Field data are collected by small unmanned helicopters equipped with a range of sensors, including multispectral and thermal cameras. Data collected are transmitted...... to a ground station to be analyzed and triggers aerial and ground-based vehicles to start close inspection and/or plant/weed treatment in specified areas. A complete trajectory is generated to enable ground-based vehicle to visit infested areas and start chemical/mechanical weed treatment....

  7. Objective speckle velocimetry for autonomous vehicle odometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, D; Charrett, T O H; Waugh, L; Tatam, R P

    2012-06-01

    Speckle velocimetry is investigated as a means of determining odometry data with potential for application on autonomous robotic vehicles. The technique described here relies on the integration of translation measurements made by normalized cross-correlation of speckle patterns to determine the change in position over time. The use of objective (non-imaged) speckle offers a number of advantages over subjective (imaged) speckle, such as a reduction in the number of optical components, reduced modulation of speckles at the edges of the image, and improved light efficiency. The influence of the source/detector configuration on the speckle translation to vehicle translation scaling factor for objective speckle is investigated using a computer model and verified experimentally. Experimental measurements are presented at velocities up to 80  mm s(-1) which show accuracy better than 0.4%.

  8. Mapping reflectance anisotropy of a potato canopy using aerial images acquired with an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, Peter; Suomalainen, Juha; Bartholomeus, Harm; Kooistra, Lammert; Clevers, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Viewing and illumination geometry has a strong influence on optical measurements of natural surfaces due to their anisotropic reflectance properties. Typically, cameras on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are affected by this because of their relatively large field of view (FOV) and thus large

  9. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-I Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR. This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously.

  10. Strengthening Security during Sporting Events by Unmannde Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows how Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can improve security in major sporting events. Given the increase in violence among sports fans it is important to timely monitor possible conflict locations. A UAV can patrol and remotely monitor the activity at these locations. Such a patrol

  11. Diagnosis of airspeed measurement faults for unmanned aerial vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    Airspeed sensor faults are common causes for incidents with unmanned aerial vehicles with pitot tube clogging or icing being the most common causes. Timely diagnosis of such faults or other artifacts in signals from airspeed sensing systems could potentially prevent crashes. This paper employs...

  12. Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, B M; Albatsh, F; Faris, W F; Chebil, J

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment

  13. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokroš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000. We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993. We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  14. Model identification of a flapping wing micro aerial vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguiar Vieira Caetano, J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Different flapping wing micro aerial vehicles (FWMAV) have been developed for academic (Harvard’s RoboBee), military (Israel Aerospace Industries’ Butterfly) and technology demonstration (Aerovironment’s NanoHummingBird) purposes. Among these, theDelFly II is recognized as one of themost successful

  15. Augmenting camera images for operators of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Oving, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    The manual control of the camera of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be difficult due to several factors such as 1) time delays between steering input and changes of the monitor content, 2) low update rates of the camera images and 3) lack of situation awareness due to the remote position of the

  16. Mechanical Design of a Manipulation System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, A.Q.L.; Fumagalli, M.; Stramigioli, S.; Carloni, R.

    In this paper, we present the mechanical design and modeling of a manipulation system for unmanned aerial vehicles, which have to physically interact with environments and perform ultrasonic non-destructive testing experiments and other versatile tasks at unreachable locations for humans. The

  17. Surfzone monitoring using rotary wing unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.L.; De Schipper, M.A.; Rynne, P.F.; Graham, F.J.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Macmahan, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of rotary wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surfzone. This paper shows that these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms that can gather nearcontinuous moderate spatial resolution and high temporal resolution imagery from a fixed

  18. Development of an Autonomous Navigation Technology Test Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobler, Chad K

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to continue these research activities at CIMAR, a new Kawasaki Mule All-Terrain Vehicle was chosen to be automated as a test-bed for the purpose of developing and testing autonomous vehicle technologies...

  19. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarò, Francesca M; Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  20. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Favarò

    Full Text Available Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017. The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  1. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O.; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents’ dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama. PMID:28931022

  2. A guidance law for UAV autonomous aerial refueling based on the iterative computation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Delin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rendezvous and formation problem is a significant part for the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV autonomous aerial refueling (AAR technique. It can be divided into two major phases: the long-range guidance phase and the formation phase. In this paper, an iterative computation guidance law (ICGL is proposed to compute a series of state variables to get the solution of a control variable for a UAV conducting rendezvous with a tanker in AAR. The proposed method can make the control variable converge to zero when the tanker and the UAV receiver come to a formation flight eventually. For the long-range guidance phase, the ICGL divides it into two sub-phases: the correction sub-phase and the guidance sub-phase. The two sub-phases share the same iterative process. As for the formation phase, a velocity coordinate system is created by which control accelerations are designed to make the speed of the UAV consistent with that of the tanker. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ICGL is effective and robust against wind disturbance.

  3. A Survey on Open-Source Flight Control Platforms of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Jin, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), so-called drones, have gotten a lot of attention in academic research and commercial applications due to their simple structure, ease of operations and low-cost hardware components. Flight controller, embedded electronics component, represents the core part...... of the drone. It aims at performing the main operations of the drone (e.g., autonomous control and navigation). There are various types of flight controllers and each of them has its own characteristics and features. This paper presents an extensive survey on the publicly available open-source flight...

  4. Autonomous control of a locomotion vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yoshiaki; Senoh, Makoto; Miyata, Kenji

    1984-01-01

    A path planner and an execution system are proposed for autonomous vehicle control. The planner creates a near shortest path avoiding obstacles that are represented by combinations of circles and line segments on a two dimensional map. For realizing real time execution, path search procedures employ a heuristic pruning strategies in selecting a node to expand and in generating successor nodes. Nodes are selected for expansion in order, according to a cost assigned to each node. The cost is mainly evaluated by approximating a path length from the initial node to the goal node. In order to expand a node and to generate successor nodes, a specific search procedure is activated that finds positions avoiding obstacles in the direction of the goal, and creates successor nodes corresponding to the positions. The execution system, utilizing an ultrasonic range finder equipped to the vehicle performs a plan repair against unknown obstacles when echoes from the obstacles are observed. The plan repair is conducted by a map edition and replanning in such a way that new circles representing the echoes are added to the map. Obstacle avoidance tests with a vehicle controlled by microprocessors demonstrate the utility of heuristics just outlined. (author)

  5. Autonomous underwater vehicle for research and rescue operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtzhausen S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous under water vehicles are ideal platforms for search and rescue operations. They can also be used for inspection of underwater terrains. These vehicles need to be autonomous and robust to cope with unpredictable current and high pressures...

  6. Heterogeneous Teams of Autonomous Vehicles: Advanced Sensing & Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From To) 7/1/05-12/31708 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Heterogeneous Teams of Autonomous Vehicles Advanced Sensing...assimilating data from underwater and surface autonomous vehicles in addition to the usual sources of Eulerian and Lagrangian systems into a small scale

  7. Wireless IR Image Transfer System for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    the camera can operate between 0 and 500 C; this uniquely suites it for employment on autonomous vehicles in rugged environments. The camera is...system is suitable for used on autonomous vehicles under varying antenna orientations. • The third is the use of MDS transceivers allows the received

  8. Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles Michael J. Kuhlman1, Student Member, IEEE, Petr Švec2, Member, IEEE, Krishnanand...Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  9. Cold Regions Issues for Off-Road Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    the operation of off-road autonomous vehicles . Low-temperature effects on lubricants, materials, and batteries can impair a robot’s ability to operate...demanding that off-road autonomous vehicles must be designed for and tested in cold regions if they are expected to operate there successfully.

  10. Control of autonomous ground vehicles: a brief technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babak, Shahian-Jahromi; Hussain, Syed A.; Karakas, Burak; Cetin, Sabri

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the developments achieved in autonomous vehicle systems technology. A concise history of autonomous driver assistance systems is presented, followed by a review of current state of the art sensor technology used in autonomous vehicles. Standard sensor fusion method that has been recently explored is discussed. Finally, advances in embedded software methodologies that define the logic between sensory information and actuation decisions are reviewed.

  11. Digital Watermarking of Autonomous Vehicles Imagery and Video Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Watermarking of Autonomous Vehicles Imagery and Video Communications Executive Summary We have developed, implemented and tested a known-host-state methodology...2005 Final 01-06-2004->31-08-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Digital Watermarking of Autonomous Vehicles Imagery 5b. GRANTNUMBER and...college of ENGINEERING Center for Advanced VI LLANOVA Communications U N I V E R S I T Y FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Digital Watermarking of Autonomous

  12. The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Shariff, Azim; Rahwan, Iyad

    2016-06-24

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) should reduce traffic accidents, but they will sometimes have to choose between two evils, such as running over pedestrians or sacrificing themselves and their passenger to save the pedestrians. Defining the algorithms that will help AVs make these moral decisions is a formidable challenge. We found that participants in six Amazon Mechanical Turk studies approved of utilitarian AVs (that is, AVs that sacrifice their passengers for the greater good) and would like others to buy them, but they would themselves prefer to ride in AVs that protect their passengers at all costs. The study participants disapprove of enforcing utilitarian regulations for AVs and would be less willing to buy such an AV. Accordingly, regulating for utilitarian algorithms may paradoxically increase casualties by postponing the adoption of a safer technology. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. A System for Fast Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    AD-A243 523 4, jj A System for Fast Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles Sanjiv Singh, Dai Feng, Paul Keller, Gary Shaffer, Wen Fan Shi, Dong Hun Shin...FUNDING NUMBERS A System for Fast Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles 6. AUTHOR(S) S. Singh, D. Feng, P. Keller, G. Shaffer, W.F. Shi, D.H. Shin, J. West...common in the control of autonomous vehicles to establish the necessary kinematic models but to ignore an explicit representation of the vehicle dynamics

  14. Design and control of a vertical takeoff and landing fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malang, Yasir

    With the goal of extending capabilities of multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for wetland conservation missions, a novel hybrid aircraft design consisting of four tilting rotors and a fixed wing is designed and built. The tilting rotors and nonlinear aerodynamic effects introduce a control challenge for autonomous flight, and the research focus is to develop and validate an autonomous transition flight controller. The overall controller structure consists of separate cascaded Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers whose gains are scheduled according to the rotors' tilt angle. A control mechanism effectiveness factor is used to mix the multi-rotor and fixed-wing control actuators during transition. A nonlinear flight dynamics model is created and transition stability is shown through MATLAB simulations, which proves gain-scheduled control is a good fit for tilt-rotor aircraft. Experiments carried out using the prototype UAV validate simulation results for VTOL and tilted-rotor flight.

  15. Perception, Planning, Control, and Coordination for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Drew Pendleton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles are expected to play a key role in the future of urban transportation systems, as they offer potential for additional safety, increased productivity, greater accessibility, better road efficiency, and positive impact on the environment. Research in autonomous systems has seen dramatic advances in recent years, due to the increases in available computing power and reduced cost in sensing and computing technologies, resulting in maturing technological readiness level of fully autonomous vehicles. The objective of this paper is to provide a general overview of the recent developments in the realm of autonomous vehicle software systems. Fundamental components of autonomous vehicle software are reviewed, and recent developments in each area are discussed.

  16. Ground control station software design for micro aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Oldziej, Daniel; Binczyk, Dawid Przemyslaw; Slowik, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the process of designing the equipment part and the software of a ground control station used for configuring and operating micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). All the works were conducted on a quadrocopter model being a commonly accessible commercial construction. This article contains a characteristics of the research object, the basics of operating the micro aerial vehicles (MAV) and presents components of the ground control station model. It also describes the communication standards for the purpose of building a model of the station. Further part of the work concerns the software of the product - the GIMSO application (Generally Interactive Station for Mobile Objects), which enables the user to manage the actions and communication and control processes from the UAV. The process of creating the software and the field tests of a station model are also presented in the article.

  17. Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

  18. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS OF THE MAIN TECHNICAL OF PARAMETERS OF THE MANEUVERABLE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE JUSTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent experience of creating an unmanned combat aerial vehicle indicates that the main problems do not con- cern the development of an unmanned fighter as an aerial vehicle. The greatest challenge lies in creating the algorithms, data sensors, control hardware, communications hardware, etc. necessary for utilization of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. In this context it is important to highlight the problem of replacing the pilot as a sensor and a flight operator on board of the UAV. This problem can be partially solved by introducing remote control, but there are some flight stages where it can only be executed under a fully independent control and data support due to various reasons, such as tight time, short duration, lack of robust communication, etc. These stages include combat deployment (surface attack or air attack which make the highest demands on the fighter's design, that is why the promising UAV are currently considered to be "as autonomous as possible". It is obvious that the efficiency of an autonomous UAV will be determined mostly by the effec- tiveness of its automated control algorithms, and this dependence will increase together with the level of UAV autonomy. On the other hand, the optimal control algorithms can only be synthesized based on the control object characteristics. It means the development of UAV external design and the synthesis of its control algorithms should occur simultaneously and interdependently. This article presents the content and gives an example of the use of the method of maneuverable UAV external design, the distinctive feature of which lies in the interdependent processes of UAV external design develop- ing and the synthesizing of its automated control algorithms.

  19. A concept of unmanned aerial vehicles in amphibious operations

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Kipp A.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The purpose of this thesis was to perform a conceptual study of using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in amphibious operations. It focused on the command relations, tasking and critical problems in UAV amphibious operations. This thesis investigated the question of whether using UAVs at sea is a feasible complement to current amphibious operational doctrine and, if so, then what expense is incurred to assets on which it is embarked an...

  20. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    González_Espasandín, Oscar; Leo Mena, Teresa de Jesus; Navarro Arevalo, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order t...

  1. Fuzzy-4D/RCS for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Campoy, Pascual; Mondragon, Ivan F.; Martinez, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents an improvement of the cognitive architecture, 4D/RCS, developed by the NIST. This improvement consist of the insertion of Fuzzy Logic cells (FLCs), in different parts and hierarchy levels of the architecture, and the adaptation of this architecture for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This advance provides an improvement in the functionality of the system based on the uses of the Miguel Olivares’ Fuzzy Software for the definition of the FLCs and its...

  2. Trajectory planning and tracking for autonomous vehicles navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chebly , Alia

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, the trajectory planning and the control of autonomous vehicles are addressed. As a first step, a multi-body modeling technique is used to develop a four wheeled vehicle planar model. This technique considers the vehicle as a robot consisting of articulated bodies. The geometric description of the vehicle system is derived using the modified Denavit Hartenberg parameterization and then the dynamic model of the vehicle is computed by applying a recursive method used in robotics,...

  3. Power Sources for Micro-Autonomous Vehicles- Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S. R.; Kisor, A.; Valdez, T. I.; Manohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-autonomous vehicle systems are expected to have expanded role in military missions by providing full spectrum intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support on the battlefield, suppression of enemy defenses, and enabling co-operative (swarm-like) configurations. Of the numerous demanding requirements of autonomy, sensing, navigation, mobility, etc., meeting the requirement of mission duration or endurance is a very challenging one. This requirement is demanding because of the constraints of mass and volume that limit the quantity of energy that can be stored on-board. Energy is required for mobility, payload operation, information processing, and communication. Mobility requirements typically place an extraordinary demand on the specific energy (Wh/kg) and specific power (W/kg) of the power source; the actual distribution of the energy between mobility and other system functions could vary substantially with the mission type. The power requirements for continuous mobility can vary from 100-1000 W/kg depending on the terrain, ground speed and flight speed. Even with the power source accounting for 30% of the mass of the vehicle, the best of rechargeable batteries can provide only up to 1-2 hours of run-time for a continuous power demand at 100W/kg. In the case of micro-aerial vehicles with flight speed requirements in the range of 5-15 m s-1, the mission times rarely exceed 20 minutes [2]. Further, the power required during take-off and hover can be twice or thrice that needed for steady level flight, and thus the number and sequence of such events is also limited by the mass and size of the power source. For operations such as "perch and stare" or "silent watch" the power demand is often only a tenth of that required during continuous flight. Thus, variation in power demand during various phases of the mission importantly affects the power source selection.

  4. Developing Policy for Urban Autonomous Vehicles: Impact on Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important problem for surface transport is road traffic congestion, which is ubiquitous and difficult to mitigate. Accordingly, a question for policymakers is the possible impact on congestion of autonomous vehicles. It seems likely that the main impact of vehicle automation will not be seen until driverless vehicles are sufficiently safe for use amid general traffic on urban streets. Shared use driverless vehicles could reduce the cost of taxis and a wider range of public transport vehicles could be economic. Individually owned autonomous vehicles would have the ability to travel unoccupied and may need to be regulated where this might add to congestion. It is possible that autonomous vehicles could provide mobility services at lower cost and wider scope, such that private car use in urban areas could decline and congestion reduce. City authorities should be alert to these possibilities in developing transport policy.

  5. Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Ippolito, C.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, R.; Yeh, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are cooperatively investigating the utility of unmanned vehicles for near-real-time autonomous surveys of geophysical data collection. Initially focused on unmanned ground vehicle collection of magnetic data, this cooperative effort has brought unmanned surveying, precision guidance, near-real-time communication, on-the-fly data processing, and near-real-time data interpretation into the realm of ground geophysical surveying, all of which offer advantages over current methods of manned collection of ground magnetic data. An unmanned ground vehicle mission has demonstrated that these vehicles can successfully complete missions to collect geophysical data, and add advantages in data collection, processing, and interpretation. We view the current experiment as an initial phase in further unmanned vehicle data-collection missions, including aerial surveying.

  6. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, N; Ahmad, A; Zainon, O

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power

  7. Comparison of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Performance Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Cano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture is a farm management technology that involves sensing and then responding to the observed variability in the field. Remote sensing is one of the tools of precision agriculture. The emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAV have paved the way to accessible remote sensing tools for farmers. This paper describes the development of an image processing approach to compare two popular off-the-shelf sUAVs: 3DR Iris+ and DJI Phantom 2. Both units are equipped with a camera gimbal attached with a GoPro camera. The comparison of the two sUAV involves a hovering test and a rectilinear motion test. In the hovering test, the sUAV was allowed to hover over a known object and images were taken every quarter of a second for two minutes. For the image processing evaluation, the position of the object in the images was measured and this was used to assess the stability of the sUAV while hovering. In the rectilinear test, the sUAV was allowed to follow a straight path and images of a lined track were acquired. The lines on the images were then measured on how accurate the sUAV followed the path. The hovering test results show that the 3DR Iris+ had a maximum position deviation of 0.64 m (0.126 m root mean square RMS displacement while the DJI Phantom 2 had a maximum deviation of 0.79 m (0.150 m RMS displacement. In the rectilinear motion test, the maximum displacement for the 3DR Iris+ and the DJI phantom 2 were 0.85 m (0.134 m RMS displacement and 0.73 m (0.372 m RMS displacement. These results demonstrated that the two sUAVs performed well in both the hovering test and the rectilinear motion test and thus demonstrated that both sUAVs can be used for civilian applications such as agricultural monitoring. The results also showed that the developed image processing approach can be used to evaluate performance of a sUAV and has the potential to be used as another feedback control parameter for autonomous navigation.

  8. Tracking Unmanned Aerial Vehicle CTU FTS - Application of equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hůlek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Article which is about the Tracking Unmanned Aerial Vehicle continues in the description of the project development dealing with the utilization of the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle. Documentation of the project progresses builds on the previous article. In that article the selection of observation and transmission equipment was summarized. In the article, the reader learns about an installation of the equipment on the UAV (helicopter, about an interconnection of the equipment to create complete and functional system, about testing of the UAV, about the solutions of the problems which came into being during testing and about protection of the equipment against unfavourable effects. The location of equipment on the unmanned vehicle was chosen after a considering of several parameters. These parameters are preservation of the functionality or an influence to the balance. To find out how the added equipment affect the centre of gravity of the UAV the tabular method of the centre of gravity calculation was used. The results of the existing work on the project are location and attaching of the equipment to the unmanned vehicle, balance of the unmanned vehicle, solutions of the problems coming into being during the testing and design of the equipment protection against unfavourable effects.

  9. Biological Inspiration for Agile Autonomous Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evers, Johnny H

    2007-01-01

    .... Flying animals exhibit capabilities for aerial acrobatics, insensitivity to wind gusts, avoiding collision with or intercepting fixed and moving objects, landing and take off from small perches...

  10. Experimental Autonomous Road Vehicle with Logical Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shadrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some technical issues regarding the adaptation of a production car to a platform for the development and testing of autonomous driving technologies. A universal approach to performing the reverse engineering of electric power steering (EPS for the purpose of external control is also presented. The primary objective of the related study was to solve the problem associated with the precise prediction of the dynamic trajectory of an autonomous vehicle. This was accomplished by deriving a new equation for determining the lateral tire forces and adjusting some of the vehicle parameters under road test conductions. A Mivar expert system was also integrated into the control system of the experimental autonomous vehicle. The expert system was made more flexible and effective for the present application by the introduction of hybrid artificial intelligence with logical reasoning. The innovation offers a solution to the major problem of liability in the event of an autonomous transport vehicle being involved in a collision.

  11. Project : transit demand and routing after autonomous vehicle availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) create the potential for improvements in traffic operations as well as : new behaviors for travelers such as car sharing among trips through driverless repositioning. Most studies : on AVs have focused on technology or traff...

  12. The Theseus Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: A Canadian Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    P502414.PDF [Page: 1 of 9] P502414.PDF [Page: 2 of 9] P502414.PDF [Page: 3 of 9] The Theseus Autonomous Underwater Vehicle A Canadian Success Story...autonomous underwater vehicle, named Theseus , for laying optical fiber cables in ice- covered waters. In trials and missions conducted in 1996, this...stations. An acoustic telemetry system enables communication with Theseus from surface stations, and an optical telemetry system is used for system

  13. Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Craig Matthew; Papadimitriou, Iakovos; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results of TO4233, "Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles". This project represents a continuing effort of PATH's research on Automated Highway Systems (AHS) and more specifically in the area of heavy vehicles. Research on the lateral control of heavy vehicles for AHS has been going on at PATH since 1993. MOU129, "Steering and Braking Control of Heavy Duty Vehicles" was the first project and it was followed by MOU242, "Lateral Control...

  14. Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for Segmentation of Aerial Photography Data Obtained Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinin, M. V.; Akinina, N. V.; Klochkov, A. Y.; Nikiforov, M. B.; Sokolova, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The report reviewed the algorithm fuzzy c-means, performs image segmentation, give an estimate of the quality of his work on the criterion of Xie-Beni, contain the results of experimental studies of the algorithm in the context of solving the problem of drawing up detailed two-dimensional maps with the use of unmanned aerial vehicles. According to the results of the experiment concluded that the possibility of applying the algorithm in problems of decoding images obtained as a result of aerial photography. The considered algorithm can significantly break the original image into a plurality of segments (clusters) in a relatively short period of time, which is achieved by modification of the original k-means algorithm to work in a fuzzy task.

  15. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Geothermal Exploitation Monitoring: Khankala Field Example

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Cherkasov; Anvar M. Farkhutdinov; Dmitriy P. Rykovanov; Arbi A. Shaipov

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for geothermal waters exploitation monitoring. Development of a geothermal reservoir usually requires a system of wells, pipelines and pumping equipment and control of such a system is quite complicated. In this regard, use of unmanned aerial vehicle is relevant. Two test unmanned aerial vehicle based infrared surveys have been conducted at the Khankala field (Chechen Republic) with the Khankala geothermal plant operating at differe...

  16. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  17. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  18. Flexible micro flow sensor for micro aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Que, Ruiyi; Liu, Peng

    2017-12-01

    This article summarizes our studies on micro flow sensors fabricated on a flexible polyimide circuit board by a low-cost hybrid process of thin-film deposition and circuit printing. The micro flow sensor has merits of flexibility, structural simplicity, easy integrability with circuits, and good sensing performance. The sensor, which adheres to an object surface, can detect the surface flow around the object. In our study, we install the fabricated micro flow sensors on micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) to detect the surface flow variation around the aircraft wing and deduce the aerodynamic parameters of the MAVs in flight. Wind tunnel experiments using the sensors integrated with the MAVs are also conducted.

  19. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  20. Data Collection using Miniature Aerial Vehicles in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2016-01-01

    Energy constraints of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a major challenge and minimising the overall data transmitted across a network using data aggregation, distributed source coding, and compressive sensing have been proposed as mechanisms for energy saving. Similarly, use...... of mobile nodes capable of relocating within the network has been widely explored for energy saving. In this paper, we propose a novel method for using miniature aerial vehicles (MAVs) for data collection instead of actively sensing from a deployed network. The proposed mechanism is referred as Data...

  1. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  2. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar González-Espasandín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC, their fuels (hydrogen and methanol, and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  3. Decentralized Receding Horizon Control and Coordination of Autonomous Vehicle Formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keviczky, T.; Borelli, F.; Fregene, K.; Godbole, D.; Bals, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel methodology for high-level control and coordination of autonomous vehicle teams and its demonstration on high-fidelity models of the organic air vehicle developed at Honeywell Laboratories. The scheme employs decentralized receding horizon controllers

  4. Impact of Personal Attitudes on Propensity to Use Autonomous Vehicles for Intercity Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The autonomous vehicles are about to become a reality. The researchers estimate the benefits from each autonomous vehicle to be between $2000 and $4500 per vehicles. The : societal benefits include higher travel time savings, reduced congestion, fuel...

  5. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for medical product transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiels, Cornelius A; Aho, Johnathon M; Zietlow, Scott P; Jenkins, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology and decreasing costs have led to an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by the military and civilian sectors. The use of UAVs in commerce is restricted by US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations, but the FAA is drafting new regulations that are expected to expand commercial applications. Currently, the transportation of medical goods in times of critical need is limited to wheeled motor vehicles and manned aircraft, options that can be costly and slow. This article explores the demand for, feasibility of, and risks associated with the use of UAVs to deliver medical products, including blood derivatives and pharmaceuticals, to hospitals, mass casualty scenes, and offshore vessels in times of critical demand. Copyright © 2015 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Research on Aeolian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas, Česnulevičius; Artūras, Bautrėnas; Linas, Bevainis; Donatas, Ovodas; Kęstutis, Papšys

    2018-02-01

    Surface dynamics and instabilities are characteristic of aeolian formation. The method of surface comparison is regarded as the most appropriate one for evaluation of the intensity of aeolian processes and the amount of transported sand. The data for surface comparison can be collected by topographic survey measurements and using unmanned aerial vehicles. Time cost for relief microform fixation and measurement executing topographic survey are very high. The method of unmanned aircraft aerial photographs fixation also encounters difficulties because there are no stable clear objects and contours that enable to link aerial photographs, to determine the boundaries of captured territory and to ensure the accuracy of surface measurements. Creation of stationary anchor points is irrational due to intense sand accumulation and deflation in different climate seasons. In September 2015 and in April 2016 the combined methodology was applied for evaluation of intensity of aeolian processes in the Curonian Spit. Temporary signs (marks) were installed on the surface, coordinates of the marks were fixed using GPS and then flight of unmanned aircraft was conducted. The fixed coordinates of marks ensure the accuracy of measuring aerial imagery and the ability to calculate the possible corrections. This method was used to track and measure very small (micro-rank) relief forms (5-10 cm height and 10-20 cm length). Using this method morphometric indicators of micro-terraces caused by sand dunes pressure to gytia layer were measured in a non-contact way. An additional advantage of the method is the ability to accurately link the repeated measurements. The comparison of 3D terrain models showed sand deflation and accumulation areas and quantitative changes in the terrain very clearly.

  7. Analysis of the Use of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles in Conjunction with Manned Aircraft to Counter Active Terrorists in Rough Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    146 wounded when car bombs shattered two synagogues in Istanbul. Authorities identified two men from southeast Turkey as the suicide bombers...Qaeda with twin car bombs, leaving behind an official toll of 52 deaths and 146 injuries [18]. B. CURRENT COUNTERTERRORISM METHODS AND PROBLEMS 1...a UAV is “a powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or

  8. Mathematical Modelling of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Four Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Benić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of an unmanned aerial vehicle with four propulsors (quadcopter is indispensable in quadcopter movement simulation and later modelling of the control algorithm. Mathematical model is, at the same time, the first step in comprehending the mathematical principles and physical laws which are applied to the quadcopter system. The objective is to define the mathematical model which will describe the quadcopter behavior with satisfactory accuracy and which can be, with certain modifications, applicable for the similar configurations of multirotor aerial vehicles. At the beginning of mathematical model derivation, coordinate systems are defined and explained. By using those coordinate systems, relations between parameters defined in the earth coordinate system and in the body coordinate system are defined. Further, the quadcopter kinematic is described which enables setting those relations. Also, quadcopter dynamics is used to introduce forces and torques to the model through usage of Newton-Euler method. Final derived equation is Newton’s second law in the matrix notation. For the sake of model simplification, hybrid coordinate system is defined, and quadcopter dynamic equations derived with the respect to it. Those equations are implemented in the simulation. Results of behavior of quadcopter mathematical model are graphically shown for four cases. For each of the cases the propellers revolutions per minute (RPM are set in a way that results in the occurrence of the controllable variables which causes one of four basic quadcopter movements in space.

  9. Development Of Translational Motion Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thwe Thwe Htoo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the translational motion analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle UAV. Since the center of mass of the receiver is timevarying the equations are written in a reference frame that is geometrically fixed in the aircraft. Due to the fact that aerial vehicle simulation and control deal with the position and orientation of the UAV the equations of motion are derived in terms of the translational and rotational position and velocity with respect to the aircraft location. The formation relative motion control is a challenging problem due to the coupled translational and rotational dynamics. As the translational vector depends on the current attitude and its angular velocity and some of the attitude constraints also couple the position and attitude of the spacecraft it makes the formation control problem high dimensional. This work develops UAV stability conditions including translational vector maneuverability condition and included angle condition between the translational and the rotational motion of UAV system and then presents two methods to calculate the UAV attitude. Both of the two methods need first design the optimal trajectory of the translational vector and then use geometric and nonlinear programming methods to calculate the target trajectory. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated in a UAV by using MATLAB. The performance of the translational motion control is evaluated by the simulated results.

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) data analysis for fertilization dose assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Antonis; Psomiadis, Emmanouil; Chanioti, Maroulio; Tsitouras, Alexandros; Toulios, Leonidas; Dercas, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    The growth rate monitoring of crops throughout their biological cycle is very important as it contributes to the achievement of a uniformly optimum production, a proper harvest planning, and reliable yield estimation. Fertilizer application often dramatically increases crop yields, but it is necessary to find out which is the ideal amount that has to be applied in the field. Remote sensing collects spatially dense information that may contribute to, or provide feedback about, fertilization management decisions. There is a potential goal to accurately predict the amount of fertilizer needed so as to attain an ideal crop yield without excessive use of fertilizers cause financial loss and negative environmental impacts. The comparison of the reflectance values at different wavelengths, utilizing suitable vegetation indices, is commonly used to determine plant vigor and growth. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages; because they can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, they are flexible regarding flying height and timing of missions, and they can obtain very high-resolution imagery. In an experimental crop field in Eleftherio Larissa, Greece, different dose of pre-plant and in-season fertilization was applied in 27 plots. A total of 102 aerial photos in two flights were taken using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle based on the scheduled fertilization. Α correlation of experimental fertilization with the change of vegetation indices values and with the increase of the vegetation cover rate during those days was made. The results of the analysis provide useful information regarding the vigor and crop growth rate performance of various doses of fertilization.

  11. Data Provisioning Systems for Autonomous Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varaiya, Pravin

    1999-01-01

    This project is part of a portfolio comprising four other projects to investigate the possibility of operating a collection of intelligent autonomous agents so that the collection can undertakes complex missions...

  12. Autonomous intelligent vehicles theory, algorithms, and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Here is the latest on intelligent vehicles, covering object and obstacle detection and recognition and vehicle motion control. Includes a navigation approach using global views; introduces algorithms for lateral and longitudinal motion control and more.

  13. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Progress Toward Meeting High Altitude Endurance Aircraft Price Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) High Altitude Endurance (HAE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program to determine whether the average flyaway cost for the Global Hawk and DarkStar HAE alr vehicles will be within DOD's cost goal...

  15. Different Control Algorithms for a Platoon of Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gacovski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of platoon movement of autonomous vehicles (smart cars. These vehicles have Adaptive or Advanced cruise control (ACC system also called Intelligent cruise control (ICC or Adaptive Intelligent cruise control (AICC system. The vehicles are suitable to follow other vehicles on desired distance and to be organized in platoons. To perform a research on the control and stability of an AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles string, we have developed a car-following model. To do this, first a single vehicle is modeled and since all cars in the platoon have the same dynamics, the single vehicle model is copied ten times to form model of platoon (string with ten vehicles. To control this string, we have applied equal PID controllers to all vehicles, except the leading vehicle. These controllers try to keep the headway distance as constant as possible and the velocity error between subsequent vehicles - small. For control of vehicle with nonlinear dynamics combi­nation of feedforward control and feedback control approach is used. Feedforward control is based on the inverse model of nominal dynamics of the vehicle, and feedback PID control is designed based on the linearized model of the vehicle. For simulation and analysis of vehicle and platoon of vehicles – we have developed Matlab/Simulink models. Simulation results, discussions and conclusions are given at the end of the paper.

  16. A meta-analysis of human-system interfaces in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocraffer, Amy; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the current state of research on human-system interfaces for users controlling semi-autonomous swarms composed of groups of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV swarms pose several human factors challenges, such as high cognitive demands, non-intuitive behavior, and serious consequences for errors. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 27 UAV swarm management papers focused on the human-system interface and human factors concerns, providing an overview of the advantages, challenges, and limitations of current UAV management interfaces, as well as information on how these interfaces are currently evaluated. In general allowing user and mission-specific customization to user interfaces and raising the swarm's level of autonomy to reduce operator cognitive workload are beneficial and improve situation awareness (SA). It is clear more research is needed in this rapidly evolving field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Review of Deep Learning Methods and Applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Carrio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep learning is recently showing outstanding results for solving a wide variety of robotic tasks in the areas of perception, planning, localization, and control. Its excellent capabilities for learning representations from the complex data acquired in real environments make it extremely suitable for many kinds of autonomous robotic applications. In parallel, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are currently being extensively applied for several types of civilian tasks in applications going from security, surveillance, and disaster rescue to parcel delivery or warehouse management. In this paper, a thorough review has been performed on recent reported uses and applications of deep learning for UAVs, including the most relevant developments as well as their performances and limitations. In addition, a detailed explanation of the main deep learning techniques is provided. We conclude with a description of the main challenges for the application of deep learning for UAV-based solutions.

  18. New development thoughts on the bio-inspired intelligence based control for unmanned combat aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bio-inspired intelligence is in the spotlight in the field of international artificial intelligence,and unmanned combat aerial vehicle(UCAV),owing to its potential to perform dangerous,repetitive tasks in remote and hazardous,is very promising for the technological leadership of the nation and essential for improving the security of society.On the basis of introduction of bioinspired intelligence and UCAV,a series of new development thoughts on UCAV control are proposed,including artificial brain based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,swarm intelligence based cooperative control for multiple UCAVs,hy-brid swarm intelligence and Bayesian network based situation assessment under complicated combating environments, bio-inspired hardware based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,and meta-heuristic intelligence based heterogeneous cooperative control for multiple UCAVs and unmanned combat ground vehicles(UCGVs).The exact realization of the proposed new development thoughts can enhance the effectiveness of combat,while provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future UCAV systems.

  19. Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    UAV ) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry, Adrienne Raglin, and John Noble Approved for public release; distribution...Research Laboratory Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ( UAV ) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry...Aerial Vehicle ( UAV ) Audio Signatures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Melissa Bezandry

  20. Kinetic scrolling-based position mapping for haptic teleoperation of unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruesch, A.; Mersha, A.Y.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    In this paper, we present a haptic teleoperation control algorithm for unmanned aerial vehicles, applying a kinetic scrolling-based position mapping. The proposed algorithm overcomes the master workspace limitations and enables to teleoperate the aerial vehicle in unbounded workspace in a fast and

  1. Experimental Autonomous Road Vehicle with Logical Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Sergeevich Shadrin; Oleg Olegovich Varlamov; Andrey Mikhailovich Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    This article describes some technical issues regarding the adaptation of a production car to a platform for the development and testing of autonomous driving technologies. A universal approach to performing the reverse engineering of electric power steering (EPS) for the purpose of external control is also presented. The primary objective of the related study was to solve the problem associated with the precise prediction of the dynamic trajectory of an autonomous vehicle. This was accomplish...

  2. Mapping snow depth in complex alpine terrain with close range aerial imagery - estimating the spatial uncertainties of repeat autonomous aerial surveys over an active rock glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Jason; Marcer, Marco; Bodin, Xavier; Brenning, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Snow depth mapping in open areas using close range aerial imagery is just one of the many cases where developments in structure-from-motion and multi-view-stereo (SfM-MVS) 3D reconstruction techniques have been applied for geosciences - and with good reason. Our ability to increase the spatial resolution and frequency of observations may allow us to improve our understanding of how snow depth distribution varies through space and time. However, to ensure accurate snow depth observations from close range sensing we must adequately characterize the uncertainty related to our measurement techniques. In this study, we explore the spatial uncertainties of snow elevation models for estimation of snow depth in a complex alpine terrain from close range aerial imagery. We accomplish this by conducting repeat autonomous aerial surveys over a snow-covered active-rock glacier located in the French Alps. The imagery obtained from each flight of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used to create an individual digital elevation model (DEM) of the snow surface. As result, we obtain multiple DEMs of the snow surface for the same site. These DEMs are obtained from processing the imagery with the photogrammetry software Agisoft Photoscan. The elevation models are also georeferenced within Photoscan using the geotagged imagery from an onboard GNSS in combination with ground targets placed around the rock glacier, which have been surveyed with highly accurate RTK-GNSS equipment. The random error associated with multi-temporal DEMs of the snow surface is estimated from the repeat aerial survey data. The multiple flights are designed to follow the same flight path and altitude above the ground to simulate the optimal conditions of repeat survey of the site, and thus try to estimate the maximum precision associated with our snow-elevation measurement technique. The bias of the DEMs is assessed with RTK-GNSS survey observations of the snow surface elevation of the area on and surrounding

  3. H∞ control for path tracking of autonomous underwater vehicle motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to simplify the design of path tracking controller and solve the problem relating to nonlinear dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicle motion planning, feedback linearization method is first adopted to transform the nonlinear dynamic model into an equivalent pseudo-linear dynamic model in horizontal coordinates. Then considering wave disturbance effect, mixed-sensitivity method of H∞ robust control is applied to design state-feedback controller for this equivalent dynamic model. Finally, control law of pseudo-linear dynamic model is transformed into state (surge velocity and yaw angular rate tracking control law of nonlinear dynamic model through inverse coordinate transformation. Simulation indicates that autonomous underwater vehicle path tracking is successfully implemented with this proposed method, and the influence of parameter variation in autonomous underwater vehicle dynamic model on its tracking performance is reduced by H∞ controller. All the results show that the method proposed in this article is effective and feasible.

  4. Reliability Assessment for Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul Michael

    Existing low-cost unmanned aerospace systems are unreliable, and engineers must blend reliability analysis with fault-tolerant control in novel ways. This dissertation introduces the University of Minnesota unmanned aerial vehicle flight research platform, a comprehensive simulation and flight test facility for reliability and fault-tolerance research. An industry-standard reliability assessment technique, the failure modes and effects analysis, is performed for an unmanned aircraft. Particular attention is afforded to the control surface and servo-actuation subsystem. Maintaining effector health is essential for safe flight; failures may lead to loss of control incidents. Failure likelihood, severity, and risk are qualitatively assessed for several effector failure modes. Design changes are recommended to improve aircraft reliability based on this analysis. Most notably, the control surfaces are split, providing independent actuation and dual-redundancy. The simulation models for control surface aerodynamic effects are updated to reflect the split surfaces using a first-principles geometric analysis. The failure modes and effects analysis is extended by using a high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft simulation. A trim state discovery is performed to identify the achievable steady, wings-level flight envelope of the healthy and damaged vehicle. Tolerance of elevator actuator failures is studied using familiar tools from linear systems analysis. This analysis reveals significant inherent performance limitations for candidate adaptive/reconfigurable control algorithms used for the vehicle. Moreover, it demonstrates how these tools can be applied in a design feedback loop to make safety-critical unmanned systems more reliable. Control surface impairments that do occur must be quickly and accurately detected. This dissertation also considers fault detection and identification for an unmanned aerial vehicle using model-based and model-free approaches and applies those

  5. Reducing environmental damage through the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as the best available technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedulova, E. A.; Akulov, A. O.; Rada, A. O.; Alabina, T. A.; Savina, Ju Ju

    2018-01-01

    The article examines the possibilities of using unmanned aerial vehicles as the best available technologies in the field of agriculture and mining. The object of the study is the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as the best available technology. The main areas of application of this technology are identified: agro technical operations, aerial photography of mining operations. The technology of unmanned aerial vehicles is compared with the technologies of ground agricultural machinery. The research methodology includes an expert evaluation of the unmanned aerial vehicle technology belonging to the class of the best available technologies by the criteria: the level of environmental impact, resource saving, the use of low-waste, non-waste processes, the existence of at least two objects, economic efficiency. Expert evaluations were processed using the apparatus of fuzzy sets, which make it possible to construct membership functions. This allowed us to prove that the technology of unmanned aerial vehicles belongs to a fuzzy set of the best available technologies. The results of the research show that the use of unmanned aerial vehicles provides a saving of resources, especially non-renewable combustible minerals, reduces emissions and discharges of pollutants into the atmosphere, and also reduces soil erosion. Unmanned aerial vehicles should be included in the national directories of the best available technologies for the mining industry and agriculture.

  6. Autonomous Navigation Apparatus With Neural Network for a Mobile Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Naveed (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An autonomous navigation system for a mobile vehicle arranged to move within an environment includes a plurality of sensors arranged on the vehicle and at least one neural network including an input layer coupled to the sensors, a hidden layer coupled to the input layer, and an output layer coupled to the hidden layer. The neural network produces output signals representing respective positions of the vehicle, such as the X coordinate, the Y coordinate, and the angular orientation of the vehicle. A plurality of patch locations within the environment are used to train the neural networks to produce the correct outputs in response to the distances sensed.

  7. Vision-Based SLAM System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguía

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping system to be applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. The main contribution of this work is to propose a novel estimator relying on an Extended Kalman Filter. The estimator is designed in order to fuse the measurements obtained from: (i an orientation sensor (AHRS; (ii a position sensor (GPS; and (iii a monocular camera. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: position and orientation and their first derivatives, as well as the location of the landmarks observed by the camera. The position sensor will be used only during the initialization period in order to recover the metric scale of the world. Afterwards, the estimated map of landmarks will be used to perform a fully vision-based navigation when the position sensor is not available. Experimental results obtained with simulations and real data show the benefits of the inclusion of camera measurements into the system. In this sense the estimation of the trajectory of the vehicle is considerably improved, compared with the estimates obtained using only the measurements from the position sensor, which are commonly low-rated and highly noisy.

  8. Vision-Based SLAM System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Urzua, Sarquis; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2016-03-15

    The present paper describes a vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping system to be applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The main contribution of this work is to propose a novel estimator relying on an Extended Kalman Filter. The estimator is designed in order to fuse the measurements obtained from: (i) an orientation sensor (AHRS); (ii) a position sensor (GPS); and (iii) a monocular camera. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: position and orientation and their first derivatives, as well as the location of the landmarks observed by the camera. The position sensor will be used only during the initialization period in order to recover the metric scale of the world. Afterwards, the estimated map of landmarks will be used to perform a fully vision-based navigation when the position sensor is not available. Experimental results obtained with simulations and real data show the benefits of the inclusion of camera measurements into the system. In this sense the estimation of the trajectory of the vehicle is considerably improved, compared with the estimates obtained using only the measurements from the position sensor, which are commonly low-rated and highly noisy.

  9. Comparison of three control methods for an autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Anup; Mathur, Kovid; Hall, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    The desirability and challenge of developing a completely autonomous vehicle and the rising need for more efficient use of energy by automobiles motivate this research- a study for an optimum solution to computer control of energy efficient vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to compare three control methods - mechanical, hydraulic and electric that have been used to convert an experimental all terrain vehicle to drive by wire which would eventually act as a test bed for conducting research on various technologies for autonomous operation. Computer control of basic operations in a vehicle namely steering, braking and speed control have been implemented and will be described in this paper. The output from a 3 axis motion controller is used for this purpose. The motion controller is interfaced with a software program using WSDK (Windows Servo Design Kit) as an intermediate tuning layer for tuning and parameter settings in autonomous operation. The software program is developed in C++. The voltage signal sent to the motion controller can be varied through the control program for desired results in controlling the steering motor, activating the hydraulic brakes and varying the vehicle's speed. The vehicle has been tested for its basic functionality which includes testing of street legal operations and also a 1000 mile test while running in a hybrid mode. The vehicle has also been tested for control when it is interfaced with devices such as a keyboard, joystick and sensors under full autonomous operation. The vehicle is currently being tested in various safety studies and is being used as a test bed for experiments in control courses and research studies. The significance of this research is in providing a greater understanding of conventional driving controls and the possibility of improving automobile safety by removing human error in control of a motor vehicle.

  10. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for efficient beach litter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Cecilia

    2018-05-05

    A global beach litter assessment is challenged by use of low-efficiency methodologies and incomparable protocols that impede data integration and acquisition at a national scale. The implementation of an objective, reproducible and efficient approach is therefore required. Here we show the application of a remote sensing based methodology using a test beach located on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline. Litter was recorded via image acquisition from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, while an automatic processing of the high volume of imagery was developed through machine learning, employed for debris detection and classification in three categories. Application of the method resulted in an almost 40 times faster beach coverage when compared to a standard visual-census approach. While the machine learning tool faced some challenges in correctly detecting objects of interest, first classification results are promising and motivate efforts to further develop the technique and implement it at much larger scales.

  11. Artificial guide stars for adaptive optics using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Brown, Anthony M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Clark, P.; Massey, R.

    2018-06-01

    Astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to increase effective telescope resolution. However, they cannot be used to observe the whole sky since one or more natural guide stars of sufficient brightness must be found within the telescope field of view for the AO system to work. Even when laser guide stars are used, natural guide stars are still required to provide a constant position reference. Here, we introduce a technique to overcome this problem by using rotary unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a platform from which to produce artificial guide stars. We describe the concept that relies on the UAV being able to measure its precise relative position. We investigate the AO performance improvements that can be achieved, which in the cases presented here can improve the Strehl ratio by a factor of at least 2 for a 8 m class telescope. We also discuss improvements to this technique, which is relevant to both astronomical and solar AO systems.

  12. Detection of unmanned aerial vehicles using a visible camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuowen; Goldman, Geoffrey H; Borel-Donohue, Christoph C

    2017-01-20

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) flown by adversaries are an emerging asymmetric threat to homeland security and the military. To help address this threat, we developed and tested a computationally efficient UAV detection algorithm consisting of horizon finding, motion feature extraction, blob analysis, and coherence analysis. We compare the performance of this algorithm against two variants, one using the difference image intensity as the motion features and another using higher-order moments. The proposed algorithm and its variants are tested using field test data of a group 3 UAV acquired with a panoramic video camera in the visible spectrum. The performance of the algorithms was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. The results show that the proposed approach had the best performance compared to the two algorithmic variants.

  13. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control.

  14. FUZZY-GENETIC CONTROL OF QUADROTOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Nemes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel fuzzy identification method for dynamic modelling of quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles. The method is based on a special parameterization of the antecedent part of fuzzy systems that results in fuzzy-partitions for antecedents. This antecedent parameter representation method of fuzzy rules ensures upholding of predefined linguistic value ordering and ensures that fuzzy-partitions remain intact throughout an unconstrained hybrid evolutionary and gradient descent based optimization process. In the equations of motion the first order derivative component is calculated based on Christoffel symbols, the derivatives of fuzzy systems are used for modelling the Coriolis effects, gyroscopic and centrifugal terms. The non-linear parameters are subjected to an initial global evolutionary optimization scheme and fine tuning with gradient descent based local search. Simulation results of the proposed new quadrotor dynamic model identification method are promising.

  15. Estimating plant distance in maize using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshui; Basso, Bruno; Price, Richard F; Putman, Gregory; Shuai, Guanyuan

    2018-01-01

    Distance between rows and plants are essential parameters that affect the final grain yield in row crops. This paper presents the results of research intended to develop a novel method to quantify the distance between maize plants at field scale using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Using this method, we can recognize maize plants as objects and calculate the distance between plants. We initially developed our method by training an algorithm in an indoor facility with plastic corn plants. Then, the method was scaled up and tested in a farmer's field with maize plant spacing that exhibited natural variation. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to precisely quantify the distance between maize plants. We found that accuracy of the measurement of the distance between maize plants depended on the height above ground level at which UAV imagery was taken. This study provides an innovative approach to quantify plant-to-plant variability and, thereby final crop yield estimates.

  16. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-04-28

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU; an application executable by the computing device comprising: logic that estimates an angle of attack; a slip angle; and a speed of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based at least in part on data received from the UAV. A method can comprise estimating, via a computing device, flight data of a UAV based at least in part on data received from an IMU; comparing the estimated flight data with measured flight data; and triggering an error indication in response to a determination that the measured flight data exceeds a predefined deviation of the estimated flight data. The estimated speed can comprise an estimated airspeed, vertical speed and/or ground velocity.

  17. Small catchments DEM creation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Digital elevation models (DEM) are an important source of information on the terrain, allowing researchers to evaluate various exogenous processes. The higher the accuracy of DEM the better the level of the work possible. An important source of data for the construction of DEMs are point clouds obtained with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). In this paper, we present the results of constructing a DEM on small catchments using UAVs. Estimation of the UAV DEM showed comparable accuracy with the TLS if real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were used. In this case, the main source of errors in the construction of DEMs are the errors in the referencing of survey results.

  18. A new robust control for minirotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, M Rida; Cherki, Brahim

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new robust control based on finite-time Lyapunov stability controller and proved with backstepping method for the position and the attitude of a small rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle subjected to bounded uncertainties and disturbances. The dynamical motion equations are obtained by the Newton-Euler formalism. The proposed controller combines the advantage of the backstepping approach with finite-time convergence techniques to generate a control laws to guarantee the faster convergence of the state variables to their desired values in short time and compensate for the bounded disturbances. A formal proof of the closed-loop stability and finite-time convergence of tracking errors is derived using the Lyapunov function technique. Simulation results are presented to corroborate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed control method. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for efficient beach litter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Cecilia; Parkes, Stephen; Zhang, Qiannan; Zhang, Xiangliang; McCabe, Matthew; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    A global beach litter assessment is challenged by use of low-efficiency methodologies and incomparable protocols that impede data integration and acquisition at a national scale. The implementation of an objective, reproducible and efficient approach is therefore required. Here we show the application of a remote sensing based methodology using a test beach located on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline. Litter was recorded via image acquisition from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, while an automatic processing of the high volume of imagery was developed through machine learning, employed for debris detection and classification in three categories. Application of the method resulted in an almost 40 times faster beach coverage when compared to a standard visual-census approach. While the machine learning tool faced some challenges in correctly detecting objects of interest, first classification results are promising and motivate efforts to further develop the technique and implement it at much larger scales.

  20. Concept development of control system for perspective unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koryanov Vsevolod V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented actual aspects of the development of the control system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs in the example of perspective. Because the current and future UAV oriented to implementation of a wide range of tasks, taking into account the use of several types of payload, in this paper discusses the general principles of construction of onboard control complex, in turn, a hardware implementation of the automatic control system has been implemented in the microcontroller Arduino platform and the Raspberry Pi. In addition, in the paper presents the most common and promising way to ensure the smooth and reliable communication of the command post with the UAV as well as to the ways of parry considered and abnormal situations.

  1. Dynamics control of autonomous vehicle at driving limits and experiment on an autonomous formula racing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Hu, Jibin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a novel dynamics controller for autonomous vehicle to simultaneously control it to the driving limits and follow the desired path is proposed. The dynamics controller consists of longitudinal and lateral controllers. In longitudinal controller, the G-G diagram is utilized to describe the driving and handling limits of the vehicle. The accurate G-G diagram is obtained based on phase plane approach and a nonlinear vehicle dynamic model with accurate tyre model. In lateral controller, the tyre cornering stiffness is estimated to improve the robustness of the controller. The stability analysis of the closed-looped error dynamics shows that the controller remains stable against parameters uncertainties in extreme condition such as tyre saturation. Finally, an electric autonomous Formula race car developed by the authors is used to validate the proposed controller. The autonomous driving experiment on an oval race track shows the efficiency and robustness of the proposed controller.

  2. Trajectory generation for an on-road autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, John; Barbera, Anthony

    2006-05-01

    We describe an algorithm that generates a smooth trajectory (position, velocity, and acceleration at uniformly sampled instants of time) for a car-like vehicle autonomously navigating within the constraints of lanes in a road. The technique models both vehicle paths and lane segments as straight line segments and circular arcs for mathematical simplicity and elegance, which we contrast with cubic spline approaches. We develop the path in an idealized space, warp the path into real space and compute path length, generate a one-dimensional trajectory along the path length that achieves target speeds and positions, and finally, warp, translate, and rotate the one-dimensional trajectory points onto the path in real space. The algorithm moves a vehicle in lane safely and efficiently within speed and acceleration maximums. The algorithm functions in the context of other autonomous driving functions within a carefully designed vehicle control hierarchy.

  3. Development of an Autonomous Vehicle for Weed and Crop Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle

    The extension of information technology and computers on farming tools results in new possibilities for crop/weed handling. In this paper a system using an autonomous field robot (vehicle) able to make images in the field is described. In the recent farming has come to rely on intensive use...... degree of autonomy. The vehicle is part of an autonomous information system for crop and weed registration in fields which is developed at Aalborg University and The Danish Institute of Agricultural Science. The system consists of the vehicle and a stationary base station as well as a wireless...... be a solution but at present the image analysis technology does not have the capability for online analysis. An alternative way is to construct a weed map prior to the spraying. In order to avoid damage to the soil a light weight vehicle carrying a camera is an obvious choice. To minimize damage to the crop...

  4. Infrastructure-Based Sensors Augmenting Efficient Autonomous Vehicle Operations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Myungsoo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Autonomous vehicle technology development relies on an on-board network of fused sensor inputs for safe and efficient operation. The fused sensors offer multiple perspectives of similar information aiding in system decision robustness. The high cost of full systems on individual vehicles is seen as a potential barrier to broad adoption and achieving system energy efficiency gains. Since traffic in autonomous vehicle technology development relies on an on-board network of fused sensor inputs for safe and efficient operation. The fused sensors offer multiple perspectives of similar information aiding in system decision robustness. The high cost of full systems on individual vehicles is seen as a potential barrier to broad adoption and achieving system energy efficiency gains.

  5. A Priori User Acceptance and the Perceived Driving Pleasure in Semi-autonomous and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    The aim of this minor pilot study is, from a sociological user perspective, to explore a priori user acceptance and the perceived driving pleasure in semi- autonomous and autonomous vehicles. The methods used were 13 in-depth interviews while having participants watch video examples within four...... different scenarios. After each scenario, two different numerical rating scales were used. There was a tendency toward positive attitudes regarding semi- autonomous driving systems, especially the use of a parking assistant and while driving in city traffic congestion. However, there were also major...

  6. Biological Inspiration for Agile Autonomous Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    half of one wing, bees with legs packed with pollen , butterflies or moths with torn and frayed wings likewise are capable of apparently normal flight...technologies. To appreciate this, consider a not unreasonable extension of a wide area autonomous search (WAAS) munition operational scenario. Here...detect and destroy missile launchers that are operating in the back alleys of an urban areas or search Evers, J.H. (2007) Biological Inspiration for Agile

  7. Supporting autonomous vehicles by creating HD maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Barsi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maps are constantly developing, also, the newly defined High Definition (HD maps increase the map content remarkably. They are based on three-dimensional survey, like laser scanning, and then stored in a fully new structured way to be able to support modern-day vehicles. Beyond the traditional lane based map content, they contain information about the roads’ neighbourhood. The goal of these maps is twofold. Primarily, they store the connections where the vehicles can travel with the description of the road-environment. Secondly, they efficiently support the exact vehicle positioning. The paper demonstrates the first results of a pilot study in the creation of HD map of an urban and a rural environment. The applied data collection technology was the terrestrial laser scanning, where the obtained point cloud was evaluated. The data storage has been solved by an in-house developed information storage model with the ability to help in vehicle control processes.

  8. A design approach for small vision-based autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Barrett B.; Fife, Wade S.; Archibald, James K.; Lee, Dah-Jye; Wilde, Doran K.

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the design of a small autonomous vehicle based on the Helios computing platform, a custom FPGA-based board capable of supporting on-board vision. Target applications for the Helios computing platform are those that require lightweight equipment and low power consumption. To demonstrate the capabilities of FPGAs in real-time control of autonomous vehicles, a 16 inch long R/C monster truck was outfitted with a Helios board. The platform provided by such a small vehicle is ideal for testing and development. The proof of concept application for this autonomous vehicle was a timed race through an environment with obstacles. Given the size restrictions of the vehicle and its operating environment, the only feasible on-board sensor is a small CMOS camera. The single video feed is therefore the only source of information from the surrounding environment. The image is then segmented and processed by custom logic in the FPGA that also controls direction and speed of the vehicle based on visual input.

  9. DTIC Review: Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles. Volume 9, Number 2 (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...: Intelligent autonomous vehicles are an increasingly important tool in the military arsenal. Autonomous systems act without human guidance and can operate in a far greater range of environments and conditions than manned vehicles...

  10. Navy Requirements for Controlling Multiple Off-Board Robots Using the Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle Workbench

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monroe, Dennis W

    2007-01-01

    ... after a mission. This thesis examines a variety of strategic authoritative plans for autonomous vehicles to determine functional mission requirements that autonomous vehicles are expected to be performing in the near future...

  11. GPS/DR Error Estimation for Autonomous Vehicle Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Song, Jong-Hwa; Im, Jun-Hyuck; Im, Sung-Hyuck; Heo, Moon-Beom; Jee, Gyu-In

    2015-08-21

    Autonomous vehicles require highly reliable navigation capabilities. For example, a lane-following method cannot be applied in an intersection without lanes, and since typical lane detection is performed using a straight-line model, errors can occur when the lateral distance is estimated in curved sections due to a model mismatch. Therefore, this paper proposes a localization method that uses GPS/DR error estimation based on a lane detection method with curved lane models, stop line detection, and curve matching in order to improve the performance during waypoint following procedures. The advantage of using the proposed method is that position information can be provided for autonomous driving through intersections, in sections with sharp curves, and in curved sections following a straight section. The proposed method was applied in autonomous vehicles at an experimental site to evaluate its performance, and the results indicate that the positioning achieved accuracy at the sub-meter level.

  12. Sensor Fault Detection and Diagnosis for autonomous vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years testing autonomous vehicles on public roads has become a reality. However, before having autonomous vehicles completely accepted on the roads, they have to demonstrate safe operation and reliable interaction with other traffic participants. Furthermore, in real situations and long term operation, there is always the possibility that diverse components may fail. This paper deals with possible sensor faults by defining a federated sensor data fusion architecture. The proposed architecture is designed to detect obstacles in an autonomous vehicle’s environment while detecting a faulty sensor using SVM models for fault detection and diagnosis. Experimental results using sensor information from the KITTI dataset confirm the feasibility of the proposed architecture to detect soft and hard faults from a particular sensor.

  13. GPS/DR Error Estimation for Autonomous Vehicle Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hyun Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles require highly reliable navigation capabilities. For example, a lane-following method cannot be applied in an intersection without lanes, and since typical lane detection is performed using a straight-line model, errors can occur when the lateral distance is estimated in curved sections due to a model mismatch. Therefore, this paper proposes a localization method that uses GPS/DR error estimation based on a lane detection method with curved lane models, stop line detection, and curve matching in order to improve the performance during waypoint following procedures. The advantage of using the proposed method is that position information can be provided for autonomous driving through intersections, in sections with sharp curves, and in curved sections following a straight section. The proposed method was applied in autonomous vehicles at an experimental site to evaluate its performance, and the results indicate that the positioning achieved accuracy at the sub-meter level.

  14. A science-based executive for autonomous planetary vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S.

    2001-01-01

    If requests for scientific observations, rather than specific plans, are uplinked to an autonomous execution system on the vehicle, it would be able to adjust its execution based upon actual performance. Such a science-based executive control system had been developed and demonstrated for the Rocky7 research rover.

  15. Killing by Autonomous Vehicles and the Legal Doctrine of Necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoni De Sio, F.

    2017-01-01

    How should autonomous vehicles (aka self-driving cars) be programmed to behave in the event of an unavoidable accident in which the only choice open is one between causing different damages or losses to different objects or persons? This paper addresses this ethical question starting from the

  16. A highly versatile autonomous underwater vehicle with biomechanical propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, D.G.; Bergers, M.M.C.; Henrion, S.; Hulzenga, J.I.J.; Jutte, R.W.; Pas, W.M.G.; Van Schravendijk, M.; Vercruyssen, T.G.A.; Wilken, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle with a biomechanical propulsion system is a possible answer to the demand for small, silent sensor platforms in many fields. The design of Galatea, a bio-mimetic AUV, involves four aspects: hydrodynamic shape, the propulsion, the motion control systems and payload.

  17. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  18. Development of an Autonomous Vehicle for Weed and Crop Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle

    the free height of the vehicle being developed in this work has been set to 0.5 m. The size and weight of the vehicle implies a power consumption of max 1.5 kW making electrical motors suitable for propulsion and steering. To make the operation affordable the vehicle should be unmanned requiring a high......The extension of information technology and computers on farming tools results in new possibilities for crop/weed handling. In this paper a system using an autonomous field robot (vehicle) able to make images in the field is described. In the recent farming has come to rely on intensive use...... communication system between the two. The base station is the main interface to the farmer. Based on farmer information a route plan for data collection is created in the base station and send to the vehicle. The vehicle collects field data using two cameras one determinates the total weed pressure and one...

  19. Navigation of the autonomous vehicle reverse movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, M.; Petukhov, S.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a mathematical formulation of the vehicle reverse motion along a multi-link polygonal trajectory consisting of rectilinear segments interconnected by nodal points. Relevance of the problem is caused by the need to solve a number of tasks: to save the vehicle in the event of а communication break by returning along the trajectory already passed, to avoid a turn on the ground in constrained obstacles or dangerous conditions, or a partial return stroke for the subsequent bypass of the obstacle and continuation of the forward movement. The method of navigation with direct movement assumes that the reverse path is elaborated by using landmarks. To measure landmarks on board, a block of cameras is placed on a vehicle controlled by the operator through the radio channel. Errors in estimating deviation from the nominal trajectory of motion are determined using the multidimensional correlation analysis apparatus based on the dynamics of a lateral deviation error and a vehicle speed error. The result of the experiment showed a relatively high accuracy in determining the state vector that provides the vehicle reverse motion relative to the reference trajectory with a practically acceptable error while returning to the start point.

  20. Traffic Control Models Based on Cellular Automata for At-Grade Intersections in Autonomous Vehicle Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wu; Yang Liu; Yue Xu; Quanlun Wei; Yi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous vehicle is able to facilitate road safety and traffic efficiency and has become a promising trend of future development. With a focus on highways, existing literatures studied the feasibility of autonomous vehicle in continuous traffic flows and the controllability of cooperative driving. However, rare efforts have been made to investigate the traffic control strategies in autonomous vehicle environment on urban roads, especially in urban intersections. In autonomous vehicle enviro...

  1. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  2. Autonomous aerial sensors for wind power meteorology - A pre-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G. (ed.); Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Bange, J.; la Cour-Harbo, A.; Reuder, J.; Mayer, S.; van der Kroonenberg, A.; Moelgaard, J.

    2012-01-15

    Autonomous Aerial Sensors, i.e. meteorological sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems UAS, can characterise the atmospheric flow in and around wind farms. We instrumented three planes, a helicopter and a lighter-than-air LTA system to fly one week together in a well-instrumented wind farm, partly with nano-synchronised sensors (time stamped with about 100 ns global accuracy). Between bankruptcy of a partner, denied overflight rights at the main test location, denied Civil Aviation Authorities permits at the alternative location, stolen planes, and crashed UAS we managed to collect data at a wind farm in Lolland and on an atmospheric campaign in France. Planning of an offshore campaign using the developed techniques is underway. (Author)

  3. System of technical vision for autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarchuk, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the implementation of image recognition algorithm using the LabVIEW software. The created virtual instrument is designed to detect the objects on the frames from the camera mounted on the UAV. The trained classifier is invariant to changes in rotation, as well as to small changes in the camera's viewing angle. Finding objects in the image using particle analysis, allows you to classify regions of different sizes. This method allows the system of technical vision to more accurately determine the location of the objects of interest and their movement relative to the camera.

  4. How to ensure reliable connectivity for aerial vehicles over cellular networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Wigard, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    reliable operation of aerial vehicles in various deployment scenarios. In this paper, we investigate the performance of aerial radio connectivity in a typical rural area network deployment using extensive channel measurements and system simulations. First, we highlight that downlink and uplink radio...

  5. Conceptual Approach to Utilisation of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Diverse Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ćosić Lesičar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers current situation and development of software for group of mobile agents applicable on group of unmanned aerial vehicles. Generally, unmanned aerial vehicles are used for transfer of information, mass and energy and their group work enhances their success rate in comparison with the success rate of the use of a single unmanned aerial vehicle. Despite the constant daily use, their potential is realized only in a small portion. It is argued that software development is the natural further step in achieving considerably larger portion of realizations of their potential of groups of unmanned aerial vehicles. Starting requirements that such software must fulfill are rudimentariness of the code, openness regarding number of group members and closeness regarding information exchange. Prospective directions of development of that software are analyzed.

  6. Swarming Reconnaissance Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in a Parallel Discrete Event Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corner, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    .... Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are one answer to this military requirement. Technology in the UAV arena is moving toward smaller and more capable systems and is becoming available at a fraction of the cost...

  7. Analysis of the Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) in Small Unit Urban Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cason, Roman

    2004-01-01

    ...) to replace the aging Pioneer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system. This thesis examines the critical elements this platform must possess to effectively support small units operating in urban environments...

  8. A lightweight hyperspectral mapping system and photogrammetric processing chain for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suomalainen, J.M.; Anders, N.S.; Iqbal, S.; Roerink, G.J.; Franke, G.J.; Wenting, P.F.M.; Hünniger, D.; Bartholomeus, H.; Becker, R.; Kooistra, L.

    2014-01-01

    During the last years commercial hyperspectral imaging sensors have been miniaturized and their performance has been demonstrated on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). However currently the commercial hyperspectral systems still require minimum payload capacity of approximately 3 kg, forcing usage of

  9. The Rise of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and its Effect on Manned Tactical Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meger, James P

    2006-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are not new concepts. Their history dates back to the Civil War with hot air balloons and has evolved into a crucial combat tool for commanders in the modern battlespace...

  10. Direct Penguin Counting Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, C. U.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Hong, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents an application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images to monitor penguin colony in Baton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. The area around Narębski Point located on the southeast coast of Barton Peninsula was designated as Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 171 (ASPA 171), and Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins inhabit in this area. The UAV images were acquired in a part of ASPA 171 from four flights in a single day, Jan 18, 2014. About 360 images were mosaicked as an image of about 3 cm spatial resolution and then a subset including representative penguin rookeries was selected. The subset image was segmented based on gradient map of pixel values, and spectral and spatial attributes were assigned to each segment. The object based image analysis (OBIA) was conducted with consideration of spectral attributes including mean and minimum values of each segment and various shape attributes such as area, length, compactness and roundness to detect individual penguin. The segments indicating individual penguin were effectively detected on rookeries with high contrasts in the spectral and shape attributes. The importance of periodic and precise monitoring of penguins has been recognized because variations of their populations reflect environmental changes and disturbance from human activities. Utilization of very high resolution imaging method shown in this study can be applied to other penguin habitats in Antarctica, and the results will be able to support establishing effective environmental management plans.

  11. Unmanned aerial vehicles in construction and worker safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Branche, Christine M

    2018-01-01

    Applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for military, recreational, public, and commercial uses have expanded significantly in recent years. In the construction industry, UAVs are used primarily for monitoring of construction workflow and job site logistics, inspecting construction sites to assess structural integrity, and for maintenance assessments. As is the case with other emerging technologies, occupational safety assessments of UAVs lag behind technological advancements. UAVs may create new workplace hazards that need to be evaluated and managed to ensure their safe operation around human workers. At the same time, UAVs can perform dangerous tasks, thereby improving workplace safety. This paper describes the four major uses of UAVs, including their use in construction, the potential risks of their use to workers, approaches for risk mitigation, and the important role that safety and health professionals can play in ensuring safe approaches to the their use in the workplace. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to Modeling Tornado Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Doe, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to assess storm damage is a useful research tool. Benefits include their ability to access remote or impassable areas post-storm, identify unknown damages and assist with more detailed site investigations and rescue efforts. Technological advancement of UAVs mean that they can capture high resolution images often at an affordable price. These images can be used to create 3D environments to better interpret and delineate damages from large areas that would have been difficult in ground surveys. This research presents the results of a rapid response site investigation of the 29 April 2017 Canton, Texas, USA, tornado using low cost UAVs. This was a multiple, high impact tornado event measuring EF4 at maximum. Rural farmland was chosen as a challenging location to test both equipment and methodology. Such locations provide multiple impacts at a variety of scales including structural and vegetation damage and even animal fatalities. The 3D impact models allow for a more comprehensive study prior to clean-up. The results show previously unseen damages and better quantify damage impacts at the local level. 3D digital track swaths were created allowing for a more accurate track width determination. These results demonstrate how effective the use of low cost UAVs can be for rapid response storm damage assessments, the high quality of data they can achieve, and how they can help us better visualize tornado site investigations.

  13. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

  14. ROLE OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES IN PRECISION FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genadiy Yun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: By 2050, world population will exceed 9 billion people. According to some projections to feed the world's population, the agricultural sector must increase production by 70%. The number of resources suitable for use in agriculture - land, water, energy - will decline. Here the farmers have to rely primarily on support of new technologies that not only increase production with limited resources, but also improve its effectiveness. Increased yields in crop production - a strategic task for Ukraine. Discussion: The object of research is the comparative analysis of the market of production and export of wheat in leading countries of the world is carried out. As well as advanced direction of crop capacity increasing in agriculture with help of Unmanned Aviation System is considered. Results: Practice shows that rural aircraft exceeds the performance processing ground equipment several times. It allows you to quickly carry out crops and their processing by pesticides, toxic chemicals, to make fertilizer, to monitor. The use of modern unmanned aerial vehicles will extend the benefits of small aircraft.

  15. Unmanned aerial vehicle trajectory planning with direct methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Brian

    A real-time method for trajectory optimization to maximize surveillance time of a fixed or moving ground target by one or more unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is presented. The method accounts for performance limits of the aircraft, intrinsic properties of the camera, and external disturbances such as wind. Direct collocation with nonlinear programming is used to implement the method in simulation and onboard the Penn State/Applied Research Lab's testbed UAV. Flight test results compare well with simulation. Both stationary targets and moving targets, such as a low flying UAV, were successfully tracked in flight test. In addition, a new method using a neural network approximation is presented that removes the need for collocation and numerical derivative calculation. Neural networks are used to approximate the objective and dynamics functions in the optimization problem which allows for reduced computation requirements. The approximation reduces the size of the resulting nonlinear programming problem compared to direct collocation or pseudospectral methods. This method is shown to be faster than direct collocation and psuedospectral methods using numerical or automatic derivative techniques. The neural network approximation is also shown to be faster than analytical derivatives but by a lesser factor. Comparative results are presented showing similar accuracy for all methods. The method is modular and enables application to problems of the same class without network retraining.

  16. The unmanned aerial vehicles in international trade and their regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Cerna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to review the current situation in production and distribution of unmanned aerial vehicles further ndash UAVs in developed countries as well as the legal regulation issues. Methods abstractlogic summarizing and observation comparative analysis. Results The analysis of international trade in UAVs revealed the leading countries dominating the market Israel the USA and Canada. The leading importers are India UK and France. China and Russian Federation are important producers but are just marginally involved in international trade having rather protectionist trade policies. The characters of national regulatory frameworks vary significantly from country to country while the Czech Republic belongs to the rather liberal group of EU members. Scientific novelty So far the journal publications in regard of UAVs have addressed uniquely technical issues and economic issues have been unattended. This paper clarifies the terminology mess analyses trade policy issues trade and production statistics and regulatory concerns linked to this steeply growing segment that is subject to doubleuse items regulations. Practical value Given a lack of relevant publications focused on international trade in UAVs in particular the paper provides a complex overview of current state of play in terms of this promising yet very controversial subject.

  17. A Shape Memory Alloy Application for Compact Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ameduri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys materials, SMA, offer several advantages that designers can rely on such as the possibility of transmitting large forces and deformations, compactness, and the intrinsic capability to absorb loads. Their use as monolithic actuators, moreover, can lead to potential simplifications of the system, through a reduction of number of parts and the removal of many free play gaps among mechanics. For these reasons, technological aerospace research is focusing on this kind of technology more and more, even though fatigue life, performance degradation, and other issues are still open. In the work at hand, landing gear for unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV, is presented, integrated with shape memory alloys springs as actuation devices. A conceptual prototype has been realized to verify the system ability in satisfying specs, in terms of deployment and retraction capability. Starting from the proposed device working principle and the main design parameters identification, the design phase is faced, setting those parameters to meet weight, deployment angle, energy consumption, and available room requirements. Then, system modeling and performance prediction is performed and finally a correlation between numerical and experimental results is presented.

  18. An Improved SIFT Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J M; Yan, D M; Wang, G; Zhang, L

    2014-01-01

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform has the benefits of low cost and convenience compared with satellites. Recently, UAVs have shown a wide range of applications such as land use change, mineral resources management and local topographic mapping. Because of the instability of the UAV air gesture, an image matching method is necessary to match different images of an object or scene. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are invariant to image scaling, rotation and translation. However, the main drawback of a SIFT algorithm is its significant memory consumption and low computational speed, particularly in the case of high-resolution imagery. In this study, in order to overcome these drawbacks, we have analysed the construction of the scale-space in the SIFT algorithm and selected new parameters to construct the SIFT scale-space to improve the memory consumption and computational speed for the processing of UAV imagery. Here, we propose a restriction on the number of octaves and levels for Gaussian image pyramids. Our experiment shows that the proposed algorithm effectively reduces memory consumption and significantly improves the operational efficiency of the feature point extraction and matching under the premise of maintaining the precision of the extracted feature points

  19. Crack identification for rigid pavements using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaddin Ersoz, Ahmet; Pekcan, Onur; Teke, Turker

    2017-09-01

    Pavement condition assessment is an essential piece of modern pavement management systems as rehabilitation strategies are planned based upon its outcomes. For proper evaluation of existing pavements, they must be continuously and effectively monitored using practical means. Conventionally, truck-based pavement monitoring systems have been in-use in assessing the remaining life of in-service pavements. Although such systems produce accurate results, their use can be expensive and data processing can be time consuming, which make them infeasible considering the demand for quick pavement evaluation. To overcome such problems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used as an alternative as they are relatively cheaper and easier-to-use. In this study, we propose a UAV based pavement crack identification system for monitoring rigid pavements’ existing conditions. The system consists of recently introduced image processing algorithms used together with conventional machine learning techniques, both of which are used to perform detection of cracks on rigid pavements’ surface and their classification. Through image processing, the distinct features of labelled crack bodies are first obtained from the UAV based images and then used for training of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model. The performance of the developed SVM model was assessed with a field study performed along a rigid pavement exposed to low traffic and serious temperature changes. Available cracks were classified using the UAV based system and obtained results indicate it ensures a good alternative solution for pavement monitoring applications.

  20. Rancang Bangun Prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV dengan Tiga Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawan Rasyid Hadi Saputra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle atau yang biasa dikenal dengan istilah UAV  merupakan sebuah sistem penerbangan/ pesawat tanpa pilot yang berada di dalam pesawat tersebut. UAV dapat dikendalikan dengan menggunakan remote dari jarak jauh, diprogram dengan perintah tertentu, atau bahkan dengan sistem pengendalian otomatis yang lebih kompleks. Aplikasi dari teknologi UAV pun beragam mulai dari tugas militer hingga pengamatan udara. Dalam penelitian ini, sebuah UAV akan dikembangkan dengan tiga buah rotor dan satu buah motor servo di bagian belakang UAV. Perancangan model menggunakan software CATIA dengan batasan dimensi (panjang × lebar maksimum 75 × 75 cm dan massa < 2 kg. Analisis struktur rangka dilakukan untuk menguji kekuatan rangka ketika terbang dan membawa beban, dengan menggunakan metode elemen hingga dan kriteria kegagalan Von-Misses. Dalam proses pengerjaan, rancangan dari CATIA dan analisis yang telah dilakukan dalam perancangan tersebut akan digunakan. Hasil yang didapat berupa UAV yang memiliki struktur rangka dengan defleksi maksimum 3,67 mm pada rangka tengah yang berbahan acrylic. Dalam pengujian di lapangan, UAV dapat melakukan gerak roll, pitch, dan yaw yang dikendalikan melalui remote control. Waktu operasi maksimum yang dapat dilakukan adalah selama 7 menit 43 detik.

  1. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  2. Use of Unmanned Aerial Assault Vehicles (UAAV) as an Asymmetric Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Eker, Alper Alpaslan; Sallar, Eray; Turan, Yasin

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, unmanned systems (especially unmanned aerial vehicles) will play a dominant role in the operational fields. Thanks to the technological developments witnessed in many fields, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles for military purposes is becoming easier. Looking at the operations carried out over the last 25 years, it can be seen that most were conducted in residential areas, where and techniques, tactics and equipment with asymmetric effects will make significant differenc...

  3. Terminal Homing for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Simulated Vehicle Mission u 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Time (dsecs) 104 -0.05 0 0.05 R ol l ( ra d) Phi 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Time (dsecs) 104 -0.5 0 0.5 P itc h (r...10000 12000 14000 16000 Time (dsecs) -0.05 0 0.05 R ol l ( ra d) Phi 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Time (dsecs) -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 P itc h...converting the MATLAB based filtering system into the REMUS architecture . Additionally, further investigation into weighting functions that account

  4. An efficient phased mission reliability analysis for autonomous vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R., E-mail: R.Remenyte-Prescott@nottingham.ac.u [Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Andrews, J.D. [Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Chung, P.W.H. [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Autonomous systems are becoming more commonly used, especially in hazardous situations. Such systems are expected to make their own decisions about future actions when some capabilities degrade due to failures of their subsystems. Such decisions are made without human input, therefore they need to be well-informed in a short time when the situation is analysed and future consequences of the failure are estimated. The future planning of the mission should take account of the likelihood of mission failure. The reliability analysis for autonomous systems can be performed using the methodologies developed for phased mission analysis, where the causes of failure for each phase in the mission can be expressed by fault trees. Unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) are of a particular interest in the aeronautical industry, where it is a long term ambition to operate them routinely in civil airspace. Safety is the main requirement for the UAV operation and the calculation of failure probability of each phase and the overall mission is the topic of this paper. When components or subsystems fail or environmental conditions throughout the mission change, these changes can affect the future mission. The new proposed methodology takes into account the available diagnostics data and is used to predict future capabilities of the UAV in real time. Since this methodology is based on the efficient BDD method, the quickly provided advice can be used in making decisions. When failures occur appropriate actions are required in order to preserve safety of the autonomous vehicle. The overall decision making strategy for autonomous vehicles is explained in this paper. Some limitations of the methodology are discussed and further improvements are presented based on experimental results.

  5. An efficient phased mission reliability analysis for autonomous vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R.; Andrews, J.D.; Chung, P.W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous systems are becoming more commonly used, especially in hazardous situations. Such systems are expected to make their own decisions about future actions when some capabilities degrade due to failures of their subsystems. Such decisions are made without human input, therefore they need to be well-informed in a short time when the situation is analysed and future consequences of the failure are estimated. The future planning of the mission should take account of the likelihood of mission failure. The reliability analysis for autonomous systems can be performed using the methodologies developed for phased mission analysis, where the causes of failure for each phase in the mission can be expressed by fault trees. Unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) are of a particular interest in the aeronautical industry, where it is a long term ambition to operate them routinely in civil airspace. Safety is the main requirement for the UAV operation and the calculation of failure probability of each phase and the overall mission is the topic of this paper. When components or subsystems fail or environmental conditions throughout the mission change, these changes can affect the future mission. The new proposed methodology takes into account the available diagnostics data and is used to predict future capabilities of the UAV in real time. Since this methodology is based on the efficient BDD method, the quickly provided advice can be used in making decisions. When failures occur appropriate actions are required in order to preserve safety of the autonomous vehicle. The overall decision making strategy for autonomous vehicles is explained in this paper. Some limitations of the methodology are discussed and further improvements are presented based on experimental results.

  6. Data-Foraging-Oriented Reconnaissance Based on Bio-Inspired Indirect Communication for Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Castañeda Cisneros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, aerial vehicles have allowed exploring scenarios with harsh conditions. These can conduct reconnaissance tasks in areas that change periodically and have a high spatial and temporal resolution. The objective of a reconnaissance task is to survey an area and retrieve strategic information. The aerial vehicles, however, have inherent constraints in terms of energy and transmission range due to their mobility. Despite these constraints, the Data Foraging problem requires the aerial vehicles to exchange information about profitable data sources. In Data Foraging, establishing a single path is not viable because of dynamic conditions of the environment. Thus, reconnaissance must be focused on periodically searching profitable environmental data sources, as some animals perform foraging. In this work, a data-foraging-oriented reconnaissance algorithm based on bio-inspired indirect communication for aerial vehicles is presented. The approach establishes several paths that overlap to identify valuable data sources. Inspired by the stigmergy principle, the aerial vehicles indirectly communicate through artificial pheromones. The aerial vehicles traverse the environment using a heuristic algorithm that uses the artificial pheromones as feedback. The solution is formally defined and mathematically evaluated. In addition, we show the viability of the algorithm by simulations which have been tested through various statistical hypothesis.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of autonomous vehicles with limits on acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2014-07-01

    The stability of autonomous vehicle platoons with limits on acceleration and deceleration is determined. If the leading-vehicle acceleration remains within the limits, all vehicles in the platoon remain within the limits when the relative-velocity feedback coefficient is equal to the headway time constant [k=1/h]. Furthermore, if the sensitivity α>1/h, no collisions occur. String stability for small perturbations is assumed and the initial condition is taken as the equilibrium state. Other values of k and α that give stability with no collisions are found from simulations. For vehicles with non-negligible mechanical response, simulations indicate that the acceleration-feedback-control gain might have to be dynamically adjusted to obtain optimal performance as the response time changes with engine speed. Stability is demonstrated for some perturbations that cause initial acceleration or deceleration greater than the limits, yet do not cause collisions.

  8. INS integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bazakos, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The use of inertial navigation system (INS) measurements to enhance the quality and robustness of motion analysis techniques used for obstacle detection is discussed with particular reference to autonomous vehicle navigation. The approach to obstacle detection used here employs motion analysis of imagery generated by a passive sensor. Motion analysis of imagery obtained during vehicle travel is used to generate range measurements to points within the field of view of the sensor, which can then be used to provide obstacle detection. Results obtained with an INS integrated motion analysis approach are reviewed.

  9. Cooperative Control for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Using Descriptor Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Niccolini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel methodology for the control management of a swarm of autonomous vehicles. The vehicles, or agents, may have different skills, and be employed for different missions. The methodology is based on the definition of descriptor functions that model the capabilities of the single agent and each task or mission. The swarm motion is controlled by minimizing a suitable norm of the error between agents’ descriptor functions and other descriptor functions which models the entire mission. The validity of the proposed technique is tested via numerical simulation, using different task assignment scenarios.

  10. Autonomous vehicles' disengagements: Trends, triggers, and regulatory limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarò, Francesca; Eurich, Sky; Nader, Nazanin

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technology is quickly becoming a reality on US roads. Testing on public roads is currently undergoing, with many AV makers located and testing in Silicon Valley, California. The California Department of Motor Vehicles (CA DMV) currently mandates that any vehicle tested on California public roads be retrofitted to account for a back-up human driver, and that data related to disengagements of the AV technology be publicly available. Disengagements data is analyzed in this work, given the safety-critical role of AV disengagements, which require the control of the vehicle to be handed back to the human driver in a safe and timely manner. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the fragmented data obtained from AV manufacturers testing on California public roads from 2014 to 2017. Trends of disengagement reporting, associated frequencies, average mileage driven before failure, and an analysis of triggers and contributory factors are here presented. The analysis of the disengagements data also highlights several shortcomings of the current regulations. The results presented thus constitute an important starting point for improvements on the current drafts of the testing and deployment regulations for autonomous vehicles on public roads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correction of Navigational Information Supplied to Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praczyk Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to autonomously transfer from one point of the environment to the other, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV need a navigational system. While navigating underwater the vehicles usually use a dead reckoning method which calculates vehicle movement on the basis of the information about velocity (sometimes also acceleration and course (heading provided by on-board devicesl ike Doppler Velocity Logs and Fibre Optical Gyroscopes. Due to inaccuracies of the devices and the influence of environmental forces, the position generated by the dead reckoning navigational system (DRNS is not free from errors, moreover the errors grow exponentially in time. The problem becomes even more serious when we deal with small AUVs which do not have any speedometer on board and whose course measurement device is inaccurate. To improve indications of the DRNS the vehicle can emerge onto the surface from time to time, record its GPS position, and measure position error which can be further used to estimate environmental influence and inaccuracies caused by mechanisms of the vehicle. This paper reports simulation tests which were performed to determine the most effective method for correction of DRNS designed for a real Biomimetic AUV.

  12. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Maxwell, C.; Steele, C.

    2008-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs less than 55lbs (25kg)) along with some payload instruments will be reviewed. Common types of remote sensing coverage available from a small, limited-payload UAV are video and hyperspatial, digital photography. From evaluation of these simple types of remote sensing data, we conclude that UAVs can play an important role in measuring and monitoring vegetation health and structure of the vegetation/soil complex in rangelands. If we fly our MLB Bat-3 at an altitude of 700ft (213m), we can obtain a digital photographic resolution of 6cm. The digital images acquired cover an area of approximately 29,350sq m. Video imaging is usually only useful for monitoring the flight path of the UAV in real time. In our experiments with the 6cm resolution data, we have been able to measure vegetation patch size, crown width, gap sizes between vegetation, percent vegetation and bare soil cover, and type of vegetation. The UAV system is also being tested to acquire height of the vegetation canopy using shadow measurements and a digital elevation model obtained with stereo images. Evaluation of combining the UAV digital photography with LIDAR data of the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico is ongoing. The use of UAVs is increasing and is becoming a very promising tool for vegetation assessment and change, but there are several operational components to flying UAVs that users need to consider. These include cost, a whole set of, as yet, undefined regulations regarding flying in the National Air Space(NAS), procedures to gain approval for flying in the NAS

  13. Digital Counts of Maize Plants by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Gnädinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Precision phenotyping, especially the use of image analysis, allows researchers to gain information on plant properties and plant health. Aerial image detection with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs provides new opportunities in precision farming and precision phenotyping. Precision farming has created a critical need for spatial data on plant density. The plant number reflects not only the final field emergence but also allows a more precise assessment of the final yield parameters. The aim of this work is to advance UAV use and image analysis as a possible high-throughput phenotyping technique. In this study, four different maize cultivars were planted in plots with different seeding systems (in rows and equidistantly spaced and different nitrogen fertilization levels (applied at 50, 150 and 250 kg N/ha. The experimental field, encompassing 96 plots, was overflown at a 50-m height with an octocopter equipped with a 10-megapixel camera taking a picture every 5 s. Images were recorded between BBCH 13–15 (it is a scale to identify the phenological development stage of a plant which is here the 3- to 5-leaves development stage when the color of young leaves differs from older leaves. Close correlations up to R2 = 0.89 were found between in situ and image-based counted plants adapting a decorrelation stretch contrast enhancement procedure, which enhanced color differences in the images. On average, the error between visually and digitally counted plants was ≤5%. Ground cover, as determined by analyzing green pixels, ranged between 76% and 83% at these stages. However, the correlation between ground cover and digitally counted plants was very low. The presence of weeds and blurry effects on the images represent possible errors in counting plants. In conclusion, the final field emergence of maize can rapidly be assessed and allows more precise assessment of the final yield parameters. The use of UAVs and image processing has the potential to

  14. Adaptive self-management of teams of autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sloman, M; Asmare, E; Gopalan, A; Lupu, E; Dulay, N

    2008-01-01

    Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly deployed for missions that are deemed dangerous or impractical to perform by humans in many military and disaster scenarios. Collaborating UAVs in a team form a Self- Managed Cell (SMC) with at least one commander. UAVs in an SMC may need to operate independently or in sub- groups, out of contact with the commander and the rest of the team in order to perform specific tasks, but must still be able to eventually synchronise state information...

  15. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  16. Robotic reactions: delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  17. Experience of the ARGO autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Massimo; Broggi, Alberto; Conte, Gianni; Fascioli, Alessandra

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents and discusses the first results obtained by the GOLD (Generic Obstacle and Lane Detection) system as an automatic driver of ARGO. ARGO is a Lancia Thema passenger car equipped with a vision-based system that allows to extract road and environmental information from the acquired scene. By means of stereo vision, obstacles on the road are detected and localized, while the processing of a single monocular image allows to extract the road geometry in front of the vehicle. The generality of the underlying approach allows to detect generic obstacles (without constraints on shape, color, or symmetry) and to detect lane markings even in dark and in strong shadow conditions. The hardware system consists of a PC Pentium 200 Mhz with MMX technology and a frame-grabber board able to acquire 3 b/w images simultaneously; the result of the processing (position of obstacles and geometry of the road) is used to drive an actuator on the steering wheel, while debug information are presented to the user on an on-board monitor and a led-based control panel.

  18. Goal-oriented path planning for ground and aerial vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Signifredi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays autonomous robots are used in everyday life more than ever. The idea that motivate the develop of new autonomous application is to lessen the fatigue of repetitive works and to make safer the work that are difficult if done by humans alone. Another goal of autonomous robots is to improve precision and repetitiveness in the actuation of actions. Car makers are now showing to consider autonomous driving a ground braking functionality and one of the most important additions to their ass...

  19. Vision-Based Autonomous Landing of a Quadrotor on the Perturbed Deck of an Unmanned Surface Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polvara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous landing on the deck of an unmanned surface vehicle (USV is still a major challenge for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. In this paper, a fiducial marker is located on the platform so as to facilitate the task since it is possible to retrieve its six-degrees of freedom relative-pose in an easy way. To compensate interruption in the marker’s observations, an extended Kalman filter (EKF estimates the current USV’s position with reference to the last known position. Validation experiments have been performed in a simulated environment under various marine conditions. The results confirmed that the EKF provides estimates accurate enough to direct the UAV in proximity of the autonomous vessel such that the marker becomes visible again. Using only the odometry and the inertial measurements for the estimation, this method is found to be applicable even under adverse weather conditions in the absence of the global positioning system.

  20. Mapping Reflectance Anisotropy of a Potato Canopy Using Aerial Images Acquired with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. J. Roosjen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Viewing and illumination geometry has a strong influence on optical measurements of natural surfaces due to their anisotropic reflectance properties. Typically, cameras on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are affected by this because of their relatively large field of view (FOV and thus large range of viewing angles. In this study, we investigated the magnitude of reflectance anisotropy effects in the 500–900 nm range, captured by a frame camera mounted on a UAV during a standard mapping flight. After orthorectification and georeferencing of the images collected by the camera, we calculated the viewing geometry of all observations of each georeferenced ground pixel, forming a dataset with multi-angular observations. We performed UAV flights on two days during the summer of 2016 over an experimental potato field where different zones in the field received different nitrogen fertilization treatments. These fertilization levels caused variation in potato plant growth and thereby differences in structural properties such as leaf area index (LAI and canopy cover. We fitted the Rahman–Pinty–Verstraete (RPV model through the multi-angular observations of each ground pixel to quantify, interpret, and visualize the anisotropy patterns in our study area. The Θ parameter of the RPV model, which controls the proportion of forward and backward scattering, showed strong correlation with canopy cover, where in general an increase in canopy cover resulted in a reduction of backward scattering intensity, indicating that reflectance anisotropy contains information on canopy structure. In this paper, we demonstrated that anisotropy data can be extracted from measurements using a frame camera, collected during a typical UAV mapping flight. Future research will focus on how to use the anisotropy signal as a source of information for estimation of physical vegetation properties.

  1. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  2. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  3. Responsibility for crashes of autonomous vehicles: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevelke, Alexander; Nida-Rümelin, Julian

    2015-06-01

    A number of companies including Google and BMW are currently working on the development of autonomous cars. But if fully autonomous cars are going to drive on our roads, it must be decided who is to be held responsible in case of accidents. This involves not only legal questions, but also moral ones. The first question discussed is whether we should try to design the tort liability for car manufacturers in a way that will help along the development and improvement of autonomous vehicles. In particular, Patrick Lin's concern that any security gain derived from the introduction of autonomous cars would constitute a trade-off in human lives will be addressed. The second question is whether it would be morally permissible to impose liability on the user based on a duty to pay attention to the road and traffic and to intervene when necessary to avoid accidents. Doubts about the moral legitimacy of such a scheme are based on the notion that it is a form of defamation if a person is held to blame for causing the death of another by his inattention if he never had a real chance to intervene. Therefore, the legitimacy of such an approach would depend on the user having an actual chance to do so. The last option discussed in this paper is a system in which a person using an autonomous vehicle has no duty (and possibly no way) of interfering, but is still held (financially, not criminally) responsible for possible accidents. Two ways of doing so are discussed, but only one is judged morally feasible.

  4. Structural design and fabrication techniques of composite unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Daniel Stephen

    Popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles has grown substantially in recent years both in the private sector, as well as for government functions. This growth can be attributed largely to the increased performance of the technology that controls these vehicles, as well as decreasing cost and size of this technology. What is sometimes forgotten though, is that the research and advancement of the airframes themselves are equally as important as what is done with them. With current computer-aided design programs, the limits of design optimization can be pushed further than ever before, resulting in lighter and faster airframes that can achieve longer endurances, higher altitudes, and more complex missions. However, realization of a paper design is still limited by the physical restrictions of the real world and the structural constraints associated with it. The purpose of this paper is to not only step through current design and manufacturing processes of composite UAVs at Oklahoma State University, but to also focus on composite spars, utilizing and relating both calculated and empirical data. Most of the experience gained for this thesis was from the Cessna Longitude project. The Longitude is a 1/8 scale, flying demonstrator Oklahoma State University constructed for Cessna. For the project, Cessna required dynamic flight data for their design process in order to make their 2017 release date. Oklahoma State University was privileged enough to assist Cessna with the mission of supporting the validation of design of their largest business jet to date. This paper will detail the steps of the fabrication process used in construction of the Longitude, as well as several other projects, beginning with structural design, machining, molding, skin layup, and ending with final assembly. Also, attention will be paid specifically towards spar design and testing in effort to ease the design phase. This document is intended to act not only as a further development of current

  5. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  6. Uncertainty management for aerial vehicles: Coordination, deconfliction, and disturbance rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyakeow, Prachya

    The presented dissertation aims to develop control algorithms that deal with three types of uncertainties managements. First, we examine the situation when unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) fly through uncertain environments that contain both stationary and moving obstacles. Moreover, a guarantee of collision avoidance is necessary when UAVs operate in close proximity of each other. Second, we look at the communication uncertainty among the network of cooperative UAVs and the efforts to establish and maintain the connectivity throughout their entire missions. Third, we explore the scenario when the aircraft flies through wind gust. The introduction of an appropriate control scheme to actively alleviate the gust loads can result into weight reduction and consequently lower the fuel cost. In the first part of this dissertation, we develop a deconfliction algorithm that guarantees collision avoidance between a pair of constant speed unicycle-type UAVs as well as convergence to the desired destination for each UAV in presence of static obstacles. We use a combination of navigation and swirling functions to direct the unicycle vehicles along the planned trajectories while avoiding inter-vehicle collisions. The main feature of our contribution is proposing means of designing a deconfliction algorithm for unicycle vehicles that more closely capture the dynamics of constant speed UAVs as opposed to double integrator models. Specifically, we consider the issue of UAV turn-rate constraints and proceed to explore the selection of key algorithmic parameters in order to minimize undesirable trajectories and overshoots induced by the avoidance algorithm. The avoidance and convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm is then performed for two cooperative UAVs and simulation results are provided to support the viability of the proposed framework for more general mission scenarios. For the uncertainty of the UAV network, we provides two approaches to establish connectivity among a

  7. Path Planning Algorithms for Autonomous Border Patrol Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, George Tin Lam

    This thesis presents an online path planning algorithm developed for unmanned vehicles in charge of autonomous border patrol. In this Pursuit-Evasion game, the unmanned vehicle is required to capture multiple trespassers on its own before any of them reach a target safe house where they are safe from capture. The problem formulation is based on Isaacs' Target Guarding problem, but extended to the case of multiple evaders. The proposed path planning method is based on Rapidly-exploring random trees (RRT) and is capable of producing trajectories within several seconds to capture 2 or 3 evaders. Simulations are carried out to demonstrate that the resulting trajectories approach the optimal solution produced by a nonlinear programming-based numerical optimal control solver. Experiments are also conducted on unmanned ground vehicles to show the feasibility of implementing the proposed online path planning algorithm on physical applications.

  8. Complex Formation Control of Large-Scale Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation framework of large-scale intelligent autonomous vehicles is developed, which can realize complex formations while reducing data exchange. Using the proposed hierarchy formation method and the automatic dividing algorithm, vehicles are automatically divided into leaders and followers by exchanging information via wireless network at initial time. Then, leaders form formation geometric shape by global formation information and followers track their own virtual leaders to form line formation by local information. The formation control laws of leaders and followers are designed based on consensus algorithms. Moreover, collision-avoiding problems are considered and solved using artificial potential functions. Finally, a simulation example that consists of 25 vehicles shows the effectiveness of theory.

  9. Optimal Path Planning and Control of Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Area Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiankun

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft without a human pilot on board. Its flight is controlled either autonomously by computers onboard the vehicle, or remotely by a pilot on the ground, or by another vehicle. In recent years, UAVs have been used more commonly than prior years. The example includes areo-camera where a high speed camera was attached to a UAV which can be used as an airborne camera to obtain aerial video. It also could be used for detecting events on ground for tasks such as surveillance and monitoring which is a common task during wars. Similarly UAVs can be used for relaying communication signal during scenarios when regular communication infrastructure is destroyed. The objective of this thesis is motivated from such civilian operations such as search and rescue or wildfire detection and monitoring. One scenario is that of search and rescue where UAV's objective is to geo-locate a person in a given area. The task is carried out with the help of a camera whose live feed is provided to search and rescue personnel. For this objective, the UAV needs to carry out scanning of the entire area in the shortest time. The aim of this thesis to develop algorithms to enable a UAV to scan an area in optimal time, a problem referred to as "Coverage Control" in literature. The thesis focuses on a special kind of UAVs called "quadrotor" that is propelled with the help of four rotors. The overall objective of this thesis is achieved via solving two problems. The first problem is to develop a dynamic control model of quadrtor. In this thesis, a proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID) based feedback control system is developed and implemented on MATLAB's Simulink. The PID controller helps track any given trajectory. The second problem is to design a trajectory that will fulfill the mission. The planed trajectory should make sure the quadrotor will scan the whole area without missing any part to make sure that the quadrotor will find the lost

  10. Bilateral teleoperation of underactuated unmanned aerial vehicles: The virtual slave concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    In this paper, we present haptic teleoperation of underactuated unmanned aerial vehicles by providing a multidimensional generalization of the virtual slave concept. The proposed control architecture is composed of high-level and low-level controllers. The high-level controller commands the vehicle

  11. Compact vertical take-off and landing aerial vehicle for monitoring tasks in dense urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii FIRSOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using of aerial vehicles with onboard sensory and broadcasting apparatus for monitoring a variety of objects and processes in inaccessible places of the city. A hardware and software package for the task solving is proposed in the article. Presented vehicle is a vertical take-off and landing airplane of tail-sitter type.

  12. A PRECISE POSITION AND ATTITUDE DETERMINATION SYSTEM FOR LIGHTWEIGHT UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eling

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy σ σ < 0.5 deg. In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

  13. Optimal Wind Corrected Flight Path Planning for Autonomous Micro Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zollars, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    ...) fixed sensor on a target in the presence of a constant wind. Autonomous flight is quickly becoming the future of air power and over the past several years, the size and weight of autonomous vehicles has decreased dramatically...

  14. Reconfigurable On-Board Vision Processing for Small Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Archibald

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of supporting real-time vision processing on-board small autonomous vehicles. Local vision gives increased autonomous capability, but it requires substantial computing power that is difficult to provide given the severe constraints of small size and battery-powered operation. We describe a custom FPGA-based circuit board designed to support research in the development of algorithms for image-directed navigation and control. We show that the FPGA approach supports real-time vision algorithms by describing the implementation of an algorithm to construct a three-dimensional (3D map of the environment surrounding a small mobile robot. We show that FPGAs are well suited for systems that must be flexible and deliver high levels of performance, especially in embedded settings where space and power are significant concerns.

  15. Reconfigurable On-Board Vision Processing for Small Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fife WadeS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of supporting real-time vision processing on-board small autonomous vehicles. Local vision gives increased autonomous capability, but it requires substantial computing power that is difficult to provide given the severe constraints of small size and battery-powered operation. We describe a custom FPGA-based circuit board designed to support research in the development of algorithms for image-directed navigation and control. We show that the FPGA approach supports real-time vision algorithms by describing the implementation of an algorithm to construct a three-dimensional (3D map of the environment surrounding a small mobile robot. We show that FPGAs are well suited for systems that must be flexible and deliver high levels of performance, especially in embedded settings where space and power are significant concerns.

  16. Modeling connected and autonomous vehicles in heterogeneous traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lanhang; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a heterogeneous traffic-flow model to study the possible impact of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) on the traffic flow. Based on a recently proposed two-state safe-speed model (TSM), a two-lane cellular automaton (CA) model was developed, wherein both the CAVs and conventional vehicles were incorporated in the heterogeneous traffic flow. In particular, operation rules for CAVs are established considering the new characteristics of this emerging technology, including autonomous driving through the adaptive cruise control and inter-vehicle connection via short-range communication. Simulations were conducted under various CAV-penetration rates in the heterogeneous flow. The impact of CAVs on the road capacity was numerically investigated. The simulation results indicate that the road capacity increases with an increase in the CAV-penetration rate within the heterogeneous flow. Up to a CAV-penetration rate of 30%, the road capacity increases gradually; the effect of the difference in the CAV capability on the growth rate is insignificant. When the CAV-penetration rate exceeds 30%, the growth rate is largely decided by the capability of the CAV. The greater the capability, the higher the road-capacity growth rate. The relationship between the CAV-penetration rate and the road capacity is numerically analyzed, providing some insights into the possible impact of the CAVs on traffic systems.

  17. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for monitoring glacial moulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The exploration of cavities on glaciers has always represented a fascinating activity that attracts scientists and researchers since many decades. Several explorations performed by speleologists and scientists since 1985 on the Gorner Gletscher (Mount Rosa group, SW Switzerland) have allowed to survey more than 40 endoglacial caves and some marginal tunnels of this glacier, which is the most interesting in the Alps for its supraglacial and englacial pseudo-karst forms. In recent years, the study of these caves has led to the distinction of two morphological and genetic types: marginal tunnels, that generally forms at the contact between ice and lateral moraine, and swallow holes (moulins) which are vertical shafts where a supraglacial stream sinks into the ice. During the first International glacier-caving camp organized in October 2014 as part of the project "Inside the glaciers" which had the main objective to explore the cavities of this glacier and to study the cryo-karstic processes that lead to the formation of deep shafts, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with camera and GPS system was used for the first time to perform photogrammetric surveys on three different areas. This technique allowed to derive detailed 3D models with very high resolution and accuracy of the entrance of the main moulins and other interesting parts of this glacier. Thanks to the acquisition of geo-referenced images and post-processing the acquired data (i.e. motion corrections), with the realized 3D point clouds and mesh models it was possible to obtain geo-referenced ortophoto and digital surface models which have been used to calculate contour lines and calculate the difference of position of the same moulins detected during the last years expeditions. Moreover, the data acquired have allowed to perform other different type of surface analysis and obtain an excellent photographic database that will surely be useful for further comparisons in future, proving the importance of

  18. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Geothermal Exploitation Monitoring: Khankala Field Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Cherkasov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for geothermal waters exploitation monitoring. Development of a geothermal reservoir usually requires a system of wells, pipelines and pumping equipment and control of such a system is quite complicated. In this regard, use of unmanned aerial vehicle is relevant. Two test unmanned aerial vehicle based infrared surveys have been conducted at the Khankala field (Chechen Republic with the Khankala geothermal plant operating at different regimes: during the first survey – with, and the second – without reinjection of used geothermal fluid. Unmanned aerial vehicle Geoscan 201 equipped with digital (Sony DSX-RX1 and thermal imaging (Thermoframe-MX-TTX cameras was used. Besides different images of the geothermal plant obtained by the surveys, 13 thermal anomalies have been identified. Analysis of the shape and temperature facilitated determination of their different sources: fire, heating systems, etc., which was confirmed by a ground reconnaissance. Results of the study demonstrate a high potential of unmanned aerial vehicle based thermal imagery use for environmental and technological monitoring of geothermal fields under operation.

  19. Detection and Tracking Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Refuelling Tasks Based on Monocular Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking strategies based on monocular vision are proposed for autonomous aerial refuelling tasks. The drogue attached to the fuel tanker aircraft has two important features. The grey values of the drogue's inner part are different from the external umbrella ribs, as shown in the image. The shape of the drogue's inner dark part is nearly circular. According to crucial prior knowledge, the rough and fine positioning algorithms are designed to detect the drogue. Particle filter based on the drogue's shape is proposed to track the drogue. A strategy to switch between detection and tracking is proposed to improve the robustness of the algorithms. The inner dark part of the drogue is segmented precisely in the detecting and tracking process and the segmented circular part can be used to measure its spatial position. The experimental results show that the proposed method has good performance in real-time and satisfied robustness and positioning accuracy.

  20. Reactive Planning of Autonomous Vehicles for Traffic Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles operate in real time traffic scenarios and aim to reach their destination from their source in the most efficient manner possible. Research in mobile robotics provides a variety of sophisticated means with which to plan the path of these vehicles. Conversely professional human drivers usually drive using instinctive means, which enables them to reach their goal almost optimally whilst still obeying all traffic laws. In this paper we propose the use of fuzzy logic for novel motion planning. The planner is generated using an evolutionary algorithm which resembles the learning stage of professional drivers. Whether to overtake or not, is a decision which affects one’s driving and the decision is made using some deliberation. We further extend the approach to perform decision making regarding overtaking for all vehicles. Further we coordinate the motion of the vehicles at a traffic crossing to avoid any potential jam or collision. Experimental results prove that by using this approach we have been able to make the vehicles move in an optimal manner in a variety of scenarios.

  1. Vehicle detection from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery using attribute belief propagation (ABP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Ying; Zhang, Li; Huang, Yuchun

    2016-10-01

    With the popularity of very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery, the shape, color, and context attribute of vehicles are better characterized. Due to the various road surroundings and imaging conditions, vehicle attributes could be adversely affected so that vehicle is mistakenly detected or missed. This paper is motivated to robustly extract the rich attribute feature for detecting the vehicles of VHR imagery under different scenarios. Based on the hierarchical component tree of vehicle context, attribute belief propagation (ABP) is proposed to detect salient vehicles from the statistical perspective. With the Max-tree data structure, the multi-level component tree around the road network is efficiently created. The spatial relationship between vehicle and its belonging context is established with the belief definition of vehicle attribute. To effectively correct single-level belief error, the inter-level belief linkages enforce consistency of belief assignment between corresponding components at different levels. ABP starts from an initial set of vehicle belief calculated by vehicle attribute, and then iterates through each component by applying inter-level belief passing until convergence. The optimal value of vehicle belief of each component is obtained via minimizing its belief function iteratively. The proposed algorithm is tested on a diverse set of VHR imagery acquired in the city and inter-city areas of the West and South China. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can detect vehicle efficiently and suppress the erroneous effectively. The proposed ABP framework is promising to robustly classify the vehicles from VHR Aerial imagery.

  2. On-Line Path Generation and Tracking for High-Speed Wheeled Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-17

    On-Line Path Generation and Tracking for High-Speed Wheeled Autonomous Vehicles Report Title ABSTRACT In this work we proposed two semi-analytic...298-102 Enclosure 1 On-Line Path Generation and Tracking for High-Speed Wheeled Autonomous Vehicles by...Specifically, the following problems will be addressed during this project: 2.1 Challenges The problem of trajectory planning for high-speed autonomous vehicles is

  3. A Feedforward Control Approach to the Local Navigation Problem for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-02

    AD-A282 787 " A Feedforward Control Approach to the Local Navigation Problem for Autonomous Vehicles Alonzo Kelly CMU-RI-TR-94-17 The Robotics...follow, or a direction to prefer, it cannot generate its own strategic goals. Therefore, it solves the local planning problem for autonomous vehicles . The... autonomous vehicles . It is intelligent because it uses range images that are generated from either a laser rangefinder or a stereo triangulation

  4. Developing Autonomous Vehicles That Learn to Navigate by Mimicking Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-28

    navigate in an unstructured environment to a specific target or location. 15. SUBJECT TERMS autonomous vehicles , fuzzy logic, learning behavior...ANSI-Std Z39-18 Developing Autonomous Vehicles That Learn to Navigate by Mimicking Human Behavior FINAL REPORT 9/28/2006 Dean B. Edwards Department...the future, as greater numbers of autonomous vehicles are employed, it is hoped that lower LONG-TERM GOALS Use LAGR (Learning Applied to Ground Robots

  5. A biorobotic pectoral fin for autonomous undersea vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangorra, James L; Davidson, S Naomi; Madden, Peter G; Lauder, George V; Hunter, Ian W

    2006-01-01

    A biorobotic fin for autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs) was developed based on studies of the anatomy, kinematics, and hydrodynamics of the bluegill sunfish pectoral fin. The biorobotic fin was able to produce many of the complex fin motions used by the sunfish during steady swimming and was used to investigate mechanisms of thrust production and control. This biorobotic fin is an excellent experimental tool and is an important first step towards developing propulsive devices that give AUVs maneuvering characteristics that match and exceed those of highly maneuverable fish.

  6. Covering path generation for autonomous turf-care vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Jouffroy, Jerome; Top, Søren

    2017-01-01

    A covering path generation algorithm is developed to generate a lengthwise pattern based on a polygon describing the outer boundary and obstacles (polygon holes) of a geographical area. The algorithm is applied to an autonomous lawn-care robot for application to large grass turfs, for example golf......-courses, which require structured and precise cutting patterns. The geographical polygon is recorded by manually driving the vehicle around the contour, resulting in a polygon given as geographical (latitude, longitude) coordinates of the vertices, which together with machine parameters are used to generate...

  7. Implementation of an unmanned aerial vehicle for new generation Peterbilt trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan K, Venkatesh

    As science and technology continue to advance, innovative developments in transportation can enhance product safety and security for the benefit and welfare of society. The federal government requires every commercial truck to be inspected before each trip. This pre-trip inspection ensures the safe mechanical condition of each vehicle before it is used. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) could be used to provide an automated inspection, thus reducing driver workload, inspection costs and time while increasing inspection accuracy. This thesis develops a primary component of the algorithm that is required to implement UAV pre-trip inspections for commercial trucks using an android-based application. Specifically, this thesis provides foundational work of providing stable height control in an outdoor environment using a laser sensor and an android flight control application that includes take-off, landing, throttle control, and real-time video transmission. The height algorithm developed is the core of this thesis project. Phantom 2 Vision+ uses a pressure sensor to calculate the altitude of the drone for height stabilization. However, these altitude readings do not provide the precision required for this project. Rather, the goal of autonomously controlling height with great precision necessitated the use of a laser rangefinder sensor in the development of the height control algorithm. Another major contribution from this thesis research is to extend the limited capabilities of the DJI software development kit in order to provide more sophisticated control goals without modifying the drone dynamics. The results of this project are also directly applicable to a number of additional uses of drones in the transportation industry.

  8. Challenges in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry for Archaeological Mapping at High Elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. A.; Wernke, S.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), especially multi-rotor vehicles, are becoming ubiquitous and their appeal for generating photogrammetry-based maps has grown. The options are many and costs have plummeted in last five years; however, many challenges persist with their deployment. We mapped the archaeological site Maw­chu Llacta, a settlement in the southern highlands of Peru (Figure 1). Mawchu Llacta is a planned colonial town built over a major Inka-era center in the high-elevation grasslands at ~4,000m asl. The "general resettlement of Indians" was a massive forced resettlement program, for which very little local-level documentation exists. Mawachu Llacta's excellently preserved architecture includes >500 buildings and hundreds of walls spread across ~13h posed significant mapping challenges. Many environmental factors impact UAV deployment. The air pressure at 4,100 m asl is dramatically lower than at sea level. The dry season diurnal temperature differentials can vary from 7°C to 22°C daily. High and hot conditions frequently occur from late morning to early afternoon. Reaching Mawchu Llacta requires hiking 4km with 400m of vertical gain over steep and rocky terrain. There is also no on-site power or secure storage. Thus, the UAV must be packable. FAA regulations govern US UAV deployments, but regulations were less stringent in Peru. However, ITAR exemptions and Peruvian customs requirements were required. The Peruvian government has established an importation and approval process that entails leaving the UAV at customs, while obtaining the necessary government approvals, both of which can be problematic. We have deployed the Aurora Flight Sciences Skate fixed wing ßUAV, an in-house fixed wing UAV based on the Skywalker X-5 flying wing, and a tethered 9 m3 capacity latex meteorological weather balloon. Development of an autonomous blimp/balloon has been ruled-out. A 3DR Solo is being assessed for excavation mapping.

  9. Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-YΠOΔOMH/NEKΠ/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated

  10. Current State of Technology of Fuel Cell Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mendez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs are vehicles that are primarily used to accomplish oceanographic research data collection and auxiliary offshore tasks. At the present time, they are usually powered by lithium-ion secondary batteries, which have insufficient specific energies. In order for this technology to achieve a mature state, increased endurance is required. Fuel cell power systems have been identified as an effective means to achieve this endurance but no implementation in a commercial device has yet been realized. This paper summarizes the current state of development of the technology in this field of research. First, the most adequate type of fuel cell for this application is discussed. The prototypes and design concepts of AUVs powered by fuel cells which have been developed in the last few years are described. Possible commercial and experimental fuel cell stack options are analyzed, examining solutions adopted in the analogous aerial vehicle applications, as well as the underwater ones, to see if integration in an AUV is feasible. Current solutions in oxygen and hydrogen storage systems are overviewed and energy density is objectively compared between battery power systems and fuel cell power systems for AUVs. A couple of system configuration solutions are described including the necessary lithium-ion battery hybrid system. Finally, some closing remarks on the future of this technology are given.

  11. Vision based speed breaker detection for autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. S., Arvind; Mishra, Ritesh; Vishal, Kumar; Gundimeda, Venugopal

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we are presenting a robust and real-time, vision-based approach to detect speed breaker in urban environments for autonomous vehicle. Our method is designed to detect the speed breaker using visual inputs obtained from a camera mounted on top of a vehicle. The method performs inverse perspective mapping to generate top view of the road and segment out region of interest based on difference of Gaussian and median filter images. Furthermore, the algorithm performs RANSAC line fitting to identify the possible speed breaker candidate region. This initial guessed region via RANSAC, is validated using support vector machine. Our algorithm can detect different categories of speed breakers on cement, asphalt and interlock roads at various conditions and have achieved a recall of 0.98.

  12. Autonomous navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles based on information filters and active sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhang, Hongjin; Li, Chao; Zhang, Shujing; Liang, Yan; Yan, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China). Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF) can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM). All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespective of the size of the map; hence the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensing device for the underwater vehicle, and a compensation method based on feedback of the AUV pose is presented to overcome distortion of the acoustic images due to the vehicle motion. In order to verify the feasibility of the navigation methods proposed for the C-Ranger, a sea trial was conducted in Tuandao Bay. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed navigation approach based on SEIF-SLAM improves the accuracy of the navigation compared with conventional method; moreover the algorithm has a low computational cost when compared with EKF-SLAM.

  13. Autonomous Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Based on Information Filters and Active Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Yan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China. Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM. All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespective of the size of the map; hence the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensing device for the underwater vehicle, and a compensation method based on feedback of the AUV pose is presented to overcome distortion of the acoustic images due to the vehicle motion. In order to verify the feasibility of the navigation methods proposed for the C-Ranger, a sea trial was conducted in Tuandao Bay. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed navigation approach based on SEIF-SLAM improves the accuracy of the navigation compared with conventional method; moreover the algorithm has a low computational cost when compared with EKF-SLAM.

  14. Closely Supervised Reactive Control of an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassco, Roy

    2000-01-01

    ...) or by using the Global Positioning System (GPS). This thesis proposes an alternative control method that incorporates some of the beneficial aspect of both fully manual and fully autonomous operation...

  15. Titan Aerial Daughtercraft (TAD) for Surface Studies from a Lander or Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, L.; Tokumaru, P.; Sherrit, S.; Beauchamp, P.

    2014-06-01

    Recent rapid progress on autonomous navigation of micro air vehicles for terrestrial applications opens new possibilities for a small aerial vehicle that could deploy from a Titan lander or balloon to acquire samples for analysis on the mothership.

  16. Application of parallelized software architecture to an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Rahul; Wright, Adam; Shin, Young Ho; Momin, Orko; Petkovsek, Steven; Wortman, Paul; Gautam, Prasanna; Norton, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents improvements made to Q, an autonomous ground vehicle designed to participate in the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). For the 2010 IGVC, Q was upgraded with a new parallelized software architecture and a new vision processor. Improvements were made to the power system reducing the number of batteries required for operation from six to one. In previous years, a single state machine was used to execute the bulk of processing activities including sensor interfacing, data processing, path planning, navigation algorithms and motor control. This inefficient approach led to poor software performance and made it difficult to maintain or modify. For IGVC 2010, the team implemented a modular parallel architecture using the National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. The new architecture divides all the necessary tasks - motor control, navigation, sensor data collection, etc. into well-organized components that execute in parallel, providing considerable flexibility and facilitating efficient use of processing power. Computer vision is used to detect white lines on the ground and determine their location relative to the robot. With the new vision processor and some optimization of the image processing algorithm used last year, two frames can be acquired and processed in 70ms. With all these improvements, Q placed 2nd in the autonomous challenge.

  17. MULTIAGENT PLANNING OF INTERSECTION PASSAGE BY AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a traffic management system for autonomous vehicles that are agents at the intersection. In contrast to the known solutions based on the usage of semiautonomous control systems in assembly with the control unit, this algorithm is based on the principles of decentralized multiagent control. The best travel plan for intersection passage is produced by means of optimization methods jointly by all agents belonging to a dynamic collaboration of autonomous vehicles. The order of road intersection optimal for a given criterion is determined by the agents in the process of information exchange about themselves and environment. Our experiments show that this protocol can reduce significantly the traffic density as compared to the traditional systems of traffic management. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm increases with increasing density of road traffic. In addition, the absence of the critical object, that is the control unit, in the control system, reduces significantly the effectiveness of possible failures and hacker attacks on the intersection control system.

  18. Introduction of Autonomous Vehicles: Roundabouts Design and Safety Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Deluka Tibljaš

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving experiences provided by the introduction of new vehicle technologies are directly impacting the criteria for road network design. New criteria should be taken into consideration by designers, researchers and car owners in order to assure traffic safety in changed conditions that will appear with, for example, introduction of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs in everyday traffic. In this paper, roundabout safety level is analysed on the originally developed microsimulation model in circumstances where different numbers of AVs vehicles are mixed with Conventional Vehicles (CVs. Field data about speed and traffic volumes from existing roundabouts in Croatia were used for development of the model. The simulations done with the Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM give some relevant highlights on how the introduction of AVs could change both operational and safety parameters at roundabouts. To further explore the effects on safety of roundabouts with the introduction of different shares of AVs, hypothetical safety treatments could be tested to explore whether their effects may change, leading to the estimation of a new set of Crash Modification Factors.

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): a new tool in counterterrorism operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörtbudak, Mehmet F.

    2015-05-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken simultaneously; however, counterterrorism strategies of many countries mostly depend on military measures. In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the United States (U.S.) has started and led the campaign of Global War on Terrorism. They have invaded Afghanistan and Iraq and have encountered insurgencies run by terrorist organizations, such as al-Qaeda and its affiliates. The U.S. made the utilization of Air and Space Power very intensively during these operations. In order to implement operations; Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets were used to collect the necessary information. Before the successful insertion of a small number of U.S. Special Operation Force (SOF) teams into Afghanistan, the U.S. Air Force attacked al-Qaeda and Taliban's targets such as infrastructure, airfields, ground forces, command-control facilities etc. As soon as the U.S. troops got on the ground and started to marshal to Kabul, the Air Force supported them by attacking jointly determined targets. The Air Force continued to carry out the missions and played a significant role to achieve the objective of operation during all the time. This is not the only example of utilization of Air and Space Power in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. All around the world, many countries have also made the utilization of Air Power in different missions ranging from ISR to attacking. Thinking that terrorism has a psychological dimension and losing a pilot during operations may result in decreasing the population support to operations, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) started to be used by practitioners and took priority over other assets. Although UAVs have been on the theatre for a long time used for ISR mission in conventional conflicts, with the advent

  20. Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan; Lee, Dah-Jye; Schoenberger, Robert; Wei, Zhaoyi; Archibald, James

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have advantages over people in a number of different applications, ranging from sentry duty, scouting hazardous areas, convoying goods and supplies over long distances, and exploring caves and tunnels. Despite recent advances in electronics, vision, artificial intelligence, and control technologies, fully autonomous UGVs are still far from being a reality. Currently, most UGVs are fielded using tele-operation with a human in the control loop. Using tele-operations, a user controls the UGV from the relative safety and comfort of a control station and sends commands to the UGV remotely. It is difficult for the user to issue higher level commands such as patrol this corridor or move to this position while avoiding obstacles. As computer vision algorithms are implemented in hardware, the UGV can easily become partially autonomous. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) become larger and more powerful, vision algorithms can run at frame rate. With the rapid development of CMOS imagers for consumer electronics, frame rate can reach as high as 200 frames per second with a small size of the region of interest. This increase in the speed of vision algorithm processing allows the UGVs to become more autonomous, as they are able to recognize and avoid obstacles in their path, track targets, or move to a recognized area. The user is able to focus on giving broad supervisory commands and goals to the UGVs, allowing the user to control multiple UGVs at once while still maintaining the convenience of working from a central base station. In this paper, we will describe a novel control system for the control of semi-autonomous UGVs. This control system combines a user interface similar to a simple tele-operation station along with a control package, including the FPGA and multiple cameras. The control package interfaces with the UGV and provides the necessary control to guide the UGV.

  1. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, Ch; Ambellouis, S.

    2005-06-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driving solution, car drivers use information about speed and position of preceding and following vehicles. This information is essentially perceived using the driver's eyes, binocular stereoscopic vision performed through the windscreens and rear-view mirrors. Furthermore, within a line of vehicles, the frontal road perception of the first vehicle is very particular and highly significant. Currently, all these available data remain strictly on-board the vehicle that has captured the perception information and performed these measurements. To get the maximum effectiveness of all these approaches, we propose that this information be shared in real time with the following vehicles, within the convoy. On the basis of these considerations, this paper technically explores a cost-effective solution to extend the basic ACC sensor function in order to simultaneously provide a vehicle-to-vehicle radio link. This millimetre wave radio link transmits relevant broadband perception data (video, localization...) to following vehicles, along the line of vehicles. The propagation path between the vehicles uses essentially grazing angles of incidence of signals over the road surface including millimetre wave paths beneath the cars.

  2. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  3. Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.; Palanque, Philippe Andre Rolan; Martinie, De Almeida; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault-tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  4. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the road and safely going to and returning from the “wrong” side. The experimental results presented show vehicles cooperating to accomplish overtaking manoeuvres.

  5. A Simple Aerial Photogrammetric Mapping System Overview and Image Acquisition Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenang Anurogo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerial photogrammetry is one of the Alternative technologies for more detailed data, real time, fast and cheaper. Nowadays, many photogrammetric mapping methods have used UAV / unmanned drones or drones to retrieve and record data from an object in the earth. The application of drones in the field of geospatial science today is in great demand because of its relatively easy operation and relatively affordable cost compared to satellite systems especially high - resolution satellite imagery.  This research aims to determine the stage or overview of data retrieval process with DJI Phantom 4 (multi - rotor quad - copter drone with processing using third party software. This research also produces 2 - dimensional high resolution image data on the research area. Utilization of third party software (Agisoft PhotoScan making it easier to acquire and process aerial photogrammetric data. The results of aerial photogrammetric recording with a flying altitude of 70 meters obtained high resolution images with a spatial resolution of 2 inches / pixels.

  6. A mission executor for an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Jeng; Wilkinson, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School has been conducting research into the design and testing of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). One facet of this research is to incrementally design a software architecture and implement it in an advanced testbed, the AUV II. As part of the high level architecture, a Mission Executor is being constructed using CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) version 5.0. The Mission Executor is an expert system designed to oversee progress from the AUV launch point to a goal area and back to the origin. It is expected that the executor will make informed decisions about the mission, taking into account the navigational path, the vehicle subsystem health, and the sea environment, as well as the specific mission profile which is downloaded from an offboard mission planner. Heuristics for maneuvering, avoidance of uncharted obstacles, waypoint navigation, and reaction to emergencies (essentially the expert knowledge of a submarine captain) are required. Many of the vehicle subsystems are modeled as objects using the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL) embedded in CLIPS 5.0. Also, truth maintenance is applied to the knowledge base to keep configurations updated.

  7. High Bandwidth Communications Links Between Heterogeneous Autonomous Vehicles Using Sensor Network Modeling and Extremum Control Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In future network-centric warfare environments, teams of autonomous vehicles will be deployed in a coorperative manner to conduct wide-area...of data back to the command station, autonomous vehicles configured with high bandwidth communication system are positioned between the command

  8. Negotiating the Traffic: Can Cognitive Science Help Make Autonomous Vehicles a Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick; Misyak, Jennifer; Watson, Derrick; Griffiths, Nathan; Mouzakitis, Alex

    2018-02-01

    To drive safely among human drivers, cyclists and pedestrians, autonomous vehicles will need to mimic, or ideally improve upon, humanlike driving. Yet, driving presents us with difficult problems of joint action: 'negotiating' with other users over shared road space. We argue that autonomous driving provides a test case for computational theories of social interaction, with fundamental implications for the development of autonomous vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of Natural Gas Fugitive Leak Detection Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Talbot, R. W.; Frish, M. B.; Golston, L.; Aubut, N. F.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S is now the world's largest natural gas producer, of which methane (CH4) is the main component. About 2% of the CH4 is lost through fugitive leaks. This research is under the DOE Methane Observation Networks with Innovative Technology to Obtain Reductions (MONITOR) program of ARPA-E. Our sentry measurement system is composed of four state-of-the-art technologies centered around the RMLDTM (Remote Methane Leak Detector). An open path RMLDTM measures column-integrated CH4 concentration that incorporates fluctuations in the vertical CH4 distribution. Based on Backscatter Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy and Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, the sentry system can autonomously, consistently and cost-effectively monitor and quantify CH4 leakage from sites associated with natural gas production. This system provides an advanced capability in detecting leaks at hard-to-access sites (e.g., wellheads) compared to traditional manual methods. Automated leak detecting and reporting algorithms combined with wireless data link implement real-time leak information reporting. Early data were gathered to set up and test the prototype system, and to optimize the leak localization and calculation strategies. The flight pattern is based on a raster scan which can generate interpolated CH4 concentration maps. The localization and quantification algorithms can be derived from the plume images combined with wind vectors. Currently, the accuracy of localization algorithm can reach 2 m and the calculation algorithm has a factor of 2 accuracy. This study places particular emphasis on flux quantification. The data collected at Colorado and Houston test fields were processed, and the correlation between flux and other parameters analyzed. Higher wind speeds and lower wind variation are preferred to optimize flux estimation. Eventually, this system will supply an enhanced detection capability to significantly reduce fugitive CH4 emissions in the natural gas industry.

  10. Unmanned aerial vehicles: The next big thing? The benefits and detriments of military and commercial UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, L.

    2014-01-01

    With law enforcement agencies around the world investing in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones) and small commercial drone ventures popping up like weeds, the debate on the morality of drone usage has intensified in the recent months. What are the advantages of UAVs? Are they worth the disadvantages?

  11. Unmanned aerial vehicles : The next big thing? The benefits and detriments of military and commercial UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, L.

    2014-01-01

    With law enforcement agencies around the world investing in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones) and small commercial drone ventures popping up like weeds, the debate on the morality of drone usage has intensified in the recent months. What are the advantages of UAVs? Are they worth

  12. Conflict detection and resolution system architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles in civil airspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.; van Kampen, E.J.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel architecture for a general Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) system, in the context of their integration into the civilian airspace, is proposed in this paper. The architecture consists of layers of safety approaches ,each representing a combination of

  13. Taxonomy of Conflict Detection and Resolution Approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in an Integrated Airspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.; van Kampen, E.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a taxonomy of Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) operation in an integrated airspace. Possible approaches for UAVs are surveyed and broken down based on their types of surveillance, coordination, maneuver, and autonomy. The

  14. A novel approach to haptic tele-operation of aerial robot vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Mahony, Robert; Corke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel, simple and effective approach for tele-operation of aerial robotic vehicles with haptic feedback. Such feedback provides the remote pilot with an intuitive feel of the robot's state and perceived local environment that will ensure simple and safe operation in cluttered 3D

  15. Robust Vehicle Detection in Aerial Images Based on Cascaded Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiandan; Lei, Tao; Yao, Guangle

    2017-11-24

    Vehicle detection in aerial images is an important and challenging task. Traditionally, many target detection models based on sliding-window fashion were developed and achieved acceptable performance, but these models are time-consuming in the detection phase. Recently, with the great success of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in computer vision, many state-of-the-art detectors have been designed based on deep CNNs. However, these CNN-based detectors are inefficient when applied in aerial image data due to the fact that the existing CNN-based models struggle with small-size object detection and precise localization. To improve the detection accuracy without decreasing speed, we propose a CNN-based detection model combining two independent convolutional neural networks, where the first network is applied to generate a set of vehicle-like regions from multi-feature maps of different hierarchies and scales. Because the multi-feature maps combine the advantage of the deep and shallow convolutional layer, the first network performs well on locating the small targets in aerial image data. Then, the generated candidate regions are fed into the second network for feature extraction and decision making. Comprehensive experiments are conducted on the Vehicle Detection in Aerial Imagery (VEDAI) dataset and Munich vehicle dataset. The proposed cascaded detection model yields high performance, not only in detection accuracy but also in detection speed.

  16. STRUCTURE FROM MOTION (SfM) PROCESSING FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV)

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil G.

    2016-04-07

    A method of imaging an area using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) collects a plurality of images from a sensor mounted to the UAV. The plurality of images are processed to detect regions that require additional imaging and an updated flight plan and sensor gimbal position plan is created to capture portions of the area identified as requiring additional imaging.

  17. STRUCTURE FROM MOTION (SfM) PROCESSING FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV)

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil G.; Shalaby, Mohamed; Passone, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A method of imaging an area using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) collects a plurality of images from a sensor mounted to the UAV. The plurality of images are processed to detect regions that require additional imaging and an updated flight plan and sensor gimbal position plan is created to capture portions of the area identified as requiring additional imaging.

  18. Scheduling System for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Indoor Environments Using the CSP Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Youngsoo; Khosiawan, Yohanes; Moon, Ilkyeong

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased demand in use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance and material handling tasks in indoor environments. However, only a limited number of studies have been reported on UAV scheduling in an indoor 3D environment. This paper present...

  19. Multi-temporal high resolution monitoring of debris-covered glaciers using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.; de Jong, S.M.; Shea, Joseph M.; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Meijer, Sander W.; Shresta, A.B.

    Debris-covered glaciers in the Himalayas are relatively unstudied due to the difficulties in fieldwork caused by the inaccessible terrain and the presence of debris layers, which complicate in situ measurements. To overcome these difficulties an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been deployed

  20. Survey on the novel hybrid aquatic-aerial amphibious aircraft: Aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Liang, Jianhong; Yao, Guocai; Liu, Miao

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV), a kind of vehicle that can operate both in the air and the water, has been regarded as a new breakthrough to broaden the application scenario of UAV. Wide application prospects in military and civil field are more than bright, therefore many institutions have focused on the development of such a vehicle. However, due to the significant difference of the physical properties between the air and the water, it is rather difficult to design a fully-featured AquaUAV. Until now, majority of partially-featured AquaUAVs have been developed and used to verify the feasibility of an aquatic-aerial vehicle. In the present work, we classify the current partially-featured AquaUAV into three categories from the scope of the whole UAV field, i.e., the seaplane UAV, the submarine-launched UAV, and the submersible UAV. Then the recent advancements and common characteristics of the three kinds of AquaUAVs are reviewed in detail respectively. Then the applications of bionics in the design of AquaUAV, the transition mode between the air and the water, the morphing wing structure for air-water adaptation, and the power source and the propulsion type are summarized and discussed. The tradeoff analyses for different transition methods between the air and the water are presented. Furthermore, it indicates that applying the bionics into the design and development of the AquaUAV will be essential and significant. Finally, the significant technical challenges for the AquaUAV to change from a conception to a practical prototype are indicated.

  1. Guidance of Autonomous Amphibious Vehicles for Flood Rescue Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarachary Ragi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a path-planning algorithm to guide autonomous amphibious vehicles (AAVs for flood rescue support missions. Specifically, we develop an algorithm to control multiple AAVs to reach/rescue multiple victims (also called targets in a flood scenario in 2D, where the flood water flows across the scene and the targets move (drifted by the flood water along the flood stream. A target is said to be rescued if an AAV lies within a circular region of a certain radius around the target. The goal is to control the AAVs such that each target gets rescued while optimizing a certain performance objective. The algorithm design is based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP. In practice, POMDP problems are hard to solve exactly, so we use an approximation method called nominal belief-state optimization (NBO. We compare the performance of the NBO approach with a greedy approach.

  2. Reactor Power for Large Displacement Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, Patrick Ray; Reid, Robert Stowers; Poston, David Irvin; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    This is a PentaChart on reactor power for large displacement autonomous underwater vehicles. Currently AUVs use batteries or combinations of batteries and fuel cells for power. Battery/fuel cell technology is limited by duration. Batteries and cell fuels are a good match for some missions, but other missions could benefit greatly by a longer duration. The goal is the following: to design nuclear systems to power an AUV and meet design constraints including non-proliferation issues, power level, size constraints, and power conversion limitations. The action plan is to continue development of a range of systems for terrestrial systems and focus on a system for Titan Moon as alternative to Pu-238 for NASA.

  3. NONLINEAR ESTIMATION METHODS FOR AUTONOMOUS TRACKED VEHICLE WITH SLIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo; HAN Jianda

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve precise, robust autonomous guidance and control of a tracked vehicle, a kinematic model with longitudinal and lateral slip is established. Four different nonlinear filters are used to estimate both state vector and time-varying parameter vector of the created model jointly. The first filter is the well-known extended Kalman filter. The second filter is an unscented version of the Kalman filter. The third one is a particle filter using the unscented Kalman filter to generate the importance proposal distribution. The last one is a novel and guaranteed filter that uses a linear set-membership estimator and can give an ellipsoid set in which the true state lies. The four different approaches have different complexities, behavior and advantages that are surveyed and compared.

  4. Autonomous guided vehicles methods and models for optimal path planning

    CERN Document Server

    Fazlollahtabar, Hamed

    2015-01-01

      This book provides readers with extensive information on path planning optimization for both single and multiple Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AGVs), and discusses practical issues involved in advanced industrial applications of AGVs. After discussing previously published research in the field and highlighting the current gaps, it introduces new models developed by the authors with the goal of reducing costs and increasing productivity and effectiveness in the manufacturing industry. The new models address the increasing complexity of manufacturing networks, due for example to the adoption of flexible manufacturing systems that involve automated material handling systems, robots, numerically controlled machine tools, and automated inspection stations, while also considering the uncertainty and stochastic nature of automated equipment such as AGVs. The book discusses and provides solutions to important issues concerning the use of AGVs in the manufacturing industry, including material flow optimization with A...

  5. Covering path generation for autonomous turf-care vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Jouffroy, Jerome; Top, Søren

    2017-01-01

    A covering path generation algorithm is developed to generate a lengthwise pattern based on a polygon describing the outer boundary and obstacles (polygon holes) of a geographical area. The algorithm is applied to an autonomous lawn-care robot for application to large grass turfs, for example golf......-courses, which require structured and precise cutting patterns. The geographical polygon is recorded by manually driving the vehicle around the contour, resulting in a polygon given as geographical (latitude, longitude) coordinates of the vertices, which together with machine parameters are used to generate...... a suitable toolpath. The algorithm has been tested on a recorded polygon from a local park turf which is non-convex and has holes, illustrating the algorithm functionality and limitations wrt. optimality. In particular, the algorithm can generate a tool-path for any polygon orientation....

  6. Assessment of Photogrammetric Mapping Accuracy Based on Variation Flying Altitude Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udin, W S; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    Photogrammetry is the earliest technique used to collect data for topographic mapping. The recent development in aerial photogrammetry is the used of large format digital aerial camera for producing topographic map. The aerial photograph can be in the form of metric or non-metric imagery. The cost of mapping using aerial photogrammetry is very expensive. In certain application, there is a need to map small area with limited budget. Due to the development of technology, small format aerial photogrammetry technology has been introduced and offers many advantages. Currently, digital map can be extracted from digital aerial imagery of small format camera mounted on light weight platform such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This study utilizes UAV system for large scale stream mapping. The first objective of this study is to investigate the use of light weight rotary-wing UAV for stream mapping based on different flying height. Aerial photograph were acquired at 60% forward lap and 30% sidelap specifications. Ground control points and check points were established using Total Station technique. The digital camera attached to the UAV was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the digital images processing. The second objective is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric output. In this study, the photogrammetric output such as stereomodel in three dimensional (3D), contour lines, digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from a small stream of 200m long and 10m width. The research output is evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the finding, sub-meter accuracy is achieved and the RMSE value decreases as the flying height increases. The difference is relatively small. Finally, this study shows that UAV is very useful platform for obtaining aerial photograph and subsequently used for photogrammetric mapping and other applications

  7. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  8. Intelligence algorithms for autonomous navigation in a ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovsek, Steve; Shakya, Rahul; Shin, Young Ho; Gautam, Prasanna; Norton, Adam; Ahlgren, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will discuss the approach to autonomous navigation used by "Q," an unmanned ground vehicle designed by the Trinity College Robot Study Team to participate in the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). For the 2011 competition, Q's intelligence was upgraded in several different areas, resulting in a more robust decision-making process and a more reliable system. In 2010-2011, the software of Q was modified to operate in a modular parallel manner, with all subtasks (including motor control, data acquisition from sensors, image processing, and intelligence) running simultaneously in separate software processes using the National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. This eliminated processor bottlenecks and increased flexibility in the software architecture. Though overall throughput was increased, the long runtime of the image processing process (150 ms) reduced the precision of Q's realtime decisions. Q had slow reaction times to obstacles detected only by its cameras, such as white lines, and was limited to slow speeds on the course. To address this issue, the image processing software was simplified and also pipelined to increase the image processing throughput and minimize the robot's reaction times. The vision software was also modified to detect differences in the texture of the ground, so that specific surfaces (such as ramps and sand pits) could be identified. While previous iterations of Q failed to detect white lines that were not on a grassy surface, this new software allowed Q to dynamically alter its image processing state so that appropriate thresholds could be applied to detect white lines in changing conditions. In order to maintain an acceptable target heading, a path history algorithm was used to deal with local obstacle fields and GPS waypoints were added to provide a global target heading. These modifications resulted in Q placing 5th in the autonomous challenge and 4th in the navigation challenge at IGVC.

  9. Genetic Fuzzy Trees for Intelligent Control of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    Fuzzy Logic Control is a powerful tool that has found great success in a variety of applications. This technique relies less on complex mathematics and more "expert knowledge" of a system to bring about high-performance, resilient, and efficient control through linguistic classification of inputs and outputs and if-then rules. Genetic Fuzzy Systems (GFSs) remove the need of this expert knowledge and instead rely on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and have similarly found great success. However, the combination of these methods suffer severely from scalability; the number of rules required to control the system increases exponentially with the number of states the inputs and outputs can take. Therefor GFSs have thus far not been applicable to complex, artificial intelligence type problems. The novel Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) method breaks down complex problems hierarchically, makes sub-decisions when possible, and thus greatly reduces the burden on the GA. This development significantly changes the field of possible applications for GFSs. Within this study, this is demonstrated through applying this technique to a difficult air combat problem. Looking forward to an autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) in the 2030 time-frame, it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, make sense of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA (Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm) was created to develop intelligent controllers for these advanced unmanned craft as the first GFT. A simulation space referred to as HADES (Hoplological Autonomous Defend and Engage Simulation) was created in which LETHA can train the UCAVs. Equipped with advanced sensors, a limited supply of Self-Defense Missiles (SDMs), and a recharging

  10. Vehicle Detection in Aerial Images Based on Region Convolutional Neural Networks and Hard Negative Example Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tianyu; Zhou, Shilin; Deng, Zhipeng; Zou, Huanxin; Lei, Lin

    2017-02-10

    Detecting vehicles in aerial imagery plays an important role in a wide range of applications. The current vehicle detection methods are mostly based on sliding-window search and handcrafted or shallow-learning-based features, having limited description capability and heavy computational costs. Recently, due to the powerful feature representations, region convolutional neural networks (CNN) based detection methods have achieved state-of-the-art performance in computer vision, especially Faster R-CNN. However, directly using it for vehicle detection in aerial images has many limitations: (1) region proposal network (RPN) in Faster R-CNN has poor performance for accurately locating small-sized vehicles, due to the relatively coarse feature maps; and (2) the classifier after RPN cannot distinguish vehicles and complex backgrounds well. In this study, an improved detection method based on Faster R-CNN is proposed in order to accomplish the two challenges mentioned above. Firstly, to improve the recall, we employ a hyper region proposal network (HRPN) to extract vehicle-like targets with a combination of hierarchical feature maps. Then, we replace the classifier after RPN by a cascade of boosted classifiers to verify the candidate regions, aiming at reducing false detection by negative example mining. We evaluate our method on the Munich vehicle dataset and the collected vehicle dataset, with improvements in accuracy and robustness compared to existing methods.

  11. A Fully-Distributed Heuristic Algorithm for Control of Autonomous Vehicle Movements at Isolated Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah A. Hassan; Hesham A. Rakha

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing autonomous vehicle movements through roadway intersections is a challenging problem. It has been demonstrated in the literature that traditional traffic control, such as traffic signal and stop sign control are not optimal especially for heavy traffic demand levels. Alternatively, centralized autonomous vehicle control strategies are costly and not scalable given that the ability of a central controller to track and schedule the movement of hundreds of vehicles in real-time is ques...

  12. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road User Safety Scenarios Involving Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Michieli, Umberto; Badia, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between pedestrians, bikers, and human-driven vehicles have been a major concern in traffic safety over the years. The upcoming age of autonomous vehicles will further raise major problems on whether self-driving cars can accurately avoid accidents; on the other hand, usability issues arise on whether human-driven cars and pedestrian can dominate the road at the expense of the autonomous vehicles which will be programmed to avoid accidents. This paper proposes some game theoretic...

  13. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs, drones) in plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzan, Mitchell B; Weinstein, Ben G; Grasty, Monica R; Kohrn, Brendan F; Hendrickson, Elizabeth C; Arredondo, Tina M; Thompson, Pamela G

    2016-09-01

    Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro-unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM). Vegetation classification was conducted manually and using an automated routine. Coverage of an individual species was estimated from aerial images. We created a vegetation map for the entire region from the orthomosaic and DSM, and mapped the density of one species. Comparison of our manual and automated habitat classification confirmed that our mapping methods were accurate. A species with high contrast to the background matrix allowed adequate estimate of its coverage. The example surveys demonstrate that small aerial drones are capable of gathering large amounts of information on the distribution of vegetation and individual species with minimal impact to sensitive habitats. Low-elevation aerial surveys have potential for a wide range of applications in plant ecology.

  14. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs, drones) in plant ecology1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Weinstein, Ben G.; Grasty, Monica R.; Kohrn, Brendan F.; Hendrickson, Elizabeth C.; Arredondo, Tina M.; Thompson, Pamela G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro–unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. Methods: Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM). Vegetation classification was conducted manually and using an automated routine. Coverage of an individual species was estimated from aerial images. Results: We created a vegetation map for the entire region from the orthomosaic and DSM, and mapped the density of one species. Comparison of our manual and automated habitat classification confirmed that our mapping methods were accurate. A species with high contrast to the background matrix allowed adequate estimate of its coverage. Discussion: The example surveys demonstrate that small aerial drones are capable of gathering large amounts of information on the distribution of vegetation and individual species with minimal impact to sensitive habitats. Low-elevation aerial surveys have potential for a wide range of applications in plant ecology. PMID:27672518

  15. Autonomous vehicles are cost-effective when used as taxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Isaac G; Kim, Ellen; Muennig, Peter A

    2018-06-04

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will radically re-shape the health and well-being of people in the United States in good ways and bad. We set out to estimate a reasonable time-to-adoption using cost-effectivenessmodels to estimate the point at which AVs become reasonably safe and affordable for widespread adoption. We used Waymo data (previously, Google Self-Driving Car Project) and a microsimulation model to explore projected costs and safety issues today and five years from today to get a sense of the speed of consumer adoption were AVs brought to the market. The adoption of AVs for private use was associated with an ICER of 1,396,110/QALY gained today, a figure that would decline to 173,890/QALY gained 5-years in the future. However, AV taxis are both less expensive and potentially already safer than human-piloted taxis. While AVs are not unlikely to be used a family vehicles any time soon, it would make economic sense to adopt them as taxis today. Legislation enhancing the benefits while mitigating the potential harmful health impacts of AV taxis is needed with some urgency.

  16. Risk analysis for autonomous underwater vehicle operations in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Mario Paulo; Griffiths, Gwyn; Challenor, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are used increasingly to explore hazardous marine environments. Risk assessment for such complex systems is based on subjective judgment and expert knowledge as much as on hard statistics. Here, we describe the use of a risk management process tailored to AUV operations, the implementation of which requires the elicitation of expert judgment. We conducted a formal judgment elicitation process where eight world experts in AUV design and operation were asked to assign a probability of AUV loss given the emergence of each fault or incident from the vehicle's life history of 63 faults and incidents. After discussing methods of aggregation and analysis, we show how the aggregated risk estimates obtained from the expert judgments were used to create a risk model. To estimate AUV survival with mission distance, we adopted a statistical survival function based on the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier estimator. We present theoretical formulations for the estimator, its variance, and confidence limits. We also present a numerical example where the approach is applied to estimate the probability that the Autosub3 AUV would survive a set of missions under Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica in January-March 2009. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. A new technique for robot vision in autonomous underwater vehicles using the color shift in underwater imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    FOR ROBOT VISION IN AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES USING THE COLOR SHIFT IN UNDERWATER IMAGING by Jake A. Jones June 2017 Thesis Advisor...techniques to determine the distances from each pixel to the camera. 14. SUBJECT TERMS unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs), autonomous ... AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES USING THE COLOR SHIFT IN UNDERWATER IMAGING Jake A. Jones Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S

  18. Development of an Experimental Platform for Testing Autonomous UAV Guidance and Control Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rufa, Justin R

    2007-01-01

    With the United States? push towards using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for more military missions, wide area search theory is being researched to determine the viability of multiple vehicle autonomous searches over the battle area...

  19. An Application of Computer Vision Systems to Solve the Problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksenov Alexey Y.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an approach for application of computer vision systems to solve the problem of unmanned aerial vehicle control. The processing of images obtained through onboard camera is required for absolute positioning of aerial platform (automatic landing and take-off, hovering etc. used image processing on-board camera. The proposed method combines the advantages of existing systems and gives the ability to perform hovering over a given point, the exact take-off and landing. The limitations of implemented methods are determined and the algorithm is proposed to combine them in order to improve the efficiency.

  20. Applicability of New Approaches of Sensor Orientation to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    This study highlights the benefits of precise aerial position and attitude control in the context of mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). Accurate mapping with MAVs is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forests or agricultural fields. There, accurate aerial control plays a major role in successful terrain reconstruction and artifact-free ortophoto generation. The presented experiments focus on new approaches of aerial control. We confirm practically that the relative aerial position and attitude control can improve accuracy in difficult mapping scenarios. Indeed, the relative orientation method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified, e.g. the angular misalignment, so called boresight, between the camera and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) does not have to be determined and, second, the effect of possible systematic errors in satellite positioning (e.g. due to multipath and/or incorrect recovery of differential carrier-phase ambiguities) is mitigated. First, we present a typical mapping project over an agricultural field and second, we perform a corridor road mapping. We evaluate the proposed methods in scenarios with and without automated image observations. We investigate a recently proposed concept where adjustment is performed using image observations limited to ground control and check points, so called fast aerial triangulation (Fast AT). In this context we show that accurate aerial control (absolute or relative) together with a few image observations can deliver accurate results comparable to classical aerial triangulation with thousands of image measurements. This procedure in turns reduces the demands on processing time and the requirements on the existence of surface texture. Finally, we compare the above mentioned procedures with direct sensor

  1. Earthbound Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVS) As Planetary Science Testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the technology of unmanned vehicles have greatly expanded the range of contemplated terrestrial operational environments for their use, including aerial, surface, and submarine. The advances have been most pronounced in the areas of autonomy, miniaturization, durability, standardization, and ease of operation, most notably (especially in the popular press) for airborne vehicles. Of course, for a wide range of planetary venues, autonomy at high cost of both money and risk, has always been a requirement. Most recently, missions to Mars have also featured an unprecedented degree of mobility. Combining the traditional planetary surface deployment operational and science imperatives with emerging, very accessible, and relatively economical small UAV platforms on Earth can provide flexible, rugged, self-directed, test-bed platforms for landed instruments and strategies that will ultimately be directed elsewhere, and, in the process, provide valuable earth science data. While the most direct transfer of technology from terrestrial to planetary venues is perhaps for bodies with atmospheres (and oceans), with appropriate technology and strategy accommodations, single and networked UAVs can be designed to operate on even airless bodies, under a variety of gravities. In this presentation, we present and use results and lessons learned from our recent earth-bound UAV volcano deployments, as well as our future plans for such, to conceptualize a range of planetary and small-body missions. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of students and colleagues at our home institutions, and the government of Costa Rica, without which our UAV deployments would not have been possible. This work was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

  2. Action cameras and low-cost aerial vehicles in archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.

    2015-05-01

    This research is focused on the analysis of the potential of a close range aerial photogrammetry system, which is accessible both in economic terms and in terms of simplicity of use. In particular the Go Pro Hero3 Black Edition and the Parrot Ar. Drone 2.0 were studied. There are essentially two limitations to the system and they were found for both the instruments used. Indeed, the frames captured by the Go Pro are subject to great distortion and consequently pose numerous calibration problems. On the other hand, the limitation of the system lies in the difficulty of maintaining a flight configuration suitable for photogrammetric purposes in unfavourable environmental conditions. The aim of this research is to analyse how far the limitations highlighted can influence the precision of the survey and consequent quality of the results obtained. To this end, the integrated GoPro and Parrot system was used during a survey campaign on the Altilia archaeological site, in Molise. The data obtained was compared with that gathered by more traditional methods, such as the laser scanner. The system was employed in the field of archaeology because here the question of cost often has a considerable importance and the metric aspect is frequently subordinate to the qualitative and interpretative aspects. Herein one of the products of these systems; the orthophoto will be analysed, which is particularly useful in archaeology, especially in situations such as this dig in which there aren't many structures in elevation present. The system proposed has proven to be an accessible solution for producing an aerial documentation, which adds the excellent quality of the result to metric data for which the precision is known.

  3. Development of Bird-like Micro Aerial Vehicle with Flapping and Feathering Wing Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglasang, Jonathan; Goto, Norihiro; Isogai, Koji

    To investigate the feasibility of a highly efficient flapping system capable of avian maneuvers, such as rapid takeoff, hover and gliding, a full scale bird-like (ornithopter) flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle (MAV) shaped and patterned after a typical pigeon (Columba livia) has been designed and constructed. Both numerical and experimental methods have been used in the development of this vehicle. This flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle utilizes both the flapping and feathering motions of an avian wing by employing a novel flapping-feathering mechanism, which has been synthesized and constructed so as to best describe the properly coordinated flapping and feathering wing motions at phase angle difference of 90° in a horizontal steady level flight condition. This design allows high flapping and feathering amplitudes and is configurable for asymmetric wing motions which are desirable in high-speed flapping flight and maneuvering. The preliminary results indicate its viability as a practical and an efficient flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle.

  4. Global optimal path planning of an autonomous vehicle for overtaking a moving obstacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mashadi

    Full Text Available In this paper, the global optimal path planning of an autonomous vehicle for overtaking a moving obstacle is proposed. In this study, the autonomous vehicle overtakes a moving vehicle by performing a double lane-change maneuver after detecting it in a proper distance ahead. The optimal path of vehicle for performing the lane-change maneuver is generated by a path planning program in which the sum of lateral deviation of the vehicle from a reference path and the rate of steering angle become minimum while the lateral acceleration of vehicle does not exceed a safe limit value. A nonlinear optimal control theory with the lateral vehicle dynamics equations and inequality constraint of lateral acceleration are used to generate the path. The indirect approach for solving the optimal control problem is used by applying the calculus of variation and the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle to obtain first-order necessary conditions for optimality. The optimal path is generated as a global optimal solution and can be used as the benchmark of the path generated by the local motion planning of autonomous vehicles. A full nonlinear vehicle model in CarSim software is used for path following simulation by importing path data from the MATLAB code. The simulation results show that the generated path for the autonomous vehicle satisfies all vehicle dynamics constraints and hence is a suitable overtaking path for the following vehicle.

  5. Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite

  6. Search and Pursuit with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    landmark tracking, Andersen and Taylor [7] show that with a planar ground assumption, a homography-based visual odometry algorithm can be combined with...7] Evan D. Andersen and Clark N. Taylor. Improving MAV pose estimation using visual information. In IEEE International Conference on Intelligent...patrol and surveillance missions using multiple unmanned air vehicles. In IEEE Confer- ence on Decision and Control, 2004. [53] Arthur S. Goldstein

  7. Hybrid Video Stabilization for Mobile Vehicle Detection on SURF in Aerial Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chunxian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of moving vehicles in aerial video sequences is of great importance with many promising applications in surveillance, intelligence transportation, or public service applications such as emergency evacuation and policy security. However, vehicle detection is a challenging task due to global camera motion, low resolution of vehicles, and low contrast between vehicles and background. In this paper, we present a hybrid method to efficiently detect moving vehicle in aerial videos. Firstly, local feature extraction and matching were performed to estimate the global motion. It was demonstrated that the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF key points were more suitable for the stabilization task. Then, a list of dynamic pixels was obtained and grouped for different moving vehicles by comparing the different optical flow normal. To enhance the precision of detection, some preprocessing methods were applied to the surveillance system, such as road extraction and other features. A quantitative evaluation on real video sequences indicated that the proposed method improved the detection performance significantly.

  8. Bilateral human-robot control for semi-autonomous UAV navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Han Willem; Fumagalli, Matteo; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a semi-autonomous bilateral control architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles. During autonomous navigation, a human operator is allowed to assist the autonomous controller of the vehicle by actively changing its navigation parameters to assist it in critical situations, such as

  9. Bird's-Eye View of Sampling Sites: Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Make Chemistry Fieldwork Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Fun Man; Watts, Simon Francis

    2017-01-01

    Drones, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), usually helicopters or airplanes, are commonly used for warfare, aerial surveillance, and recreation. In recent years, drones have become more accessible to the public as a platform for photography. In this report, we explore the use of drones as a new technological filming tool to enhance student learning…

  10. Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Decision-Making and Sensor Management

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles provides a comprehensive study of decision-making strategies for domain search and object classification using multiple autonomous vehicles (MAV) under both deterministic and probabilistic frameworks. It serves as a first discussion of the problem of effective resource allocation using MAV with sensing limitations, i.e., for search and classification missions over large-scale domains, or when there are far more objects to be found and classified than there are autonomous vehicles available. Under such scenarios, search and classification compete for limited sensing resources. This is because search requires vehicle mobility while classification restricts the vehicles to the vicinity of any objects found. The authors develop decision-making strategies to choose between these competing tasks and vehicle-motion-control laws to achieve the proposed management scheme. Deterministic Lyapunov-based, probabilistic Bayesian-based, and risk-based decision-mak...

  11. Optimisation of Lagrangian Flash Flood Microsensors Dropped by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulaal, Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Physical Sciences and Engineering Division Mechanical Engineering Department Master of Science Optimisation of Lagrangian Flash Flood Microsensors Dropped by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle by Mohammed Abdulaal Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, ash ood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Classical sensing solutions such as xed wireless sensor networks or satellite imagery are either too expensive or too inaccurate. Nevertheless, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles equipped with mobile microsensors could be capable of sensing ash oods in real time for a low overall cost, saving lives and greatly improving the e ciency of the emergency response. Using ood simulation data, we show that this system could be used to detect ash oods. We also present an ongoing implementation of this system using 3D printed sensors and sensor delivery systems on a UAV testbed as well as some preliminary results.

  12. State estimation and control for low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Yenal Vural, Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses state estimation and control procedures for a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The authors consider the use of robust adaptive Kalman filter algorithms and demonstrate their advantages over the optimal Kalman filter in the context of the difficult and varied environments in which UAVs may be employed. Fault detection and isolation (FDI) and data fusion for UAV air-data systems are also investigated, and control algorithms, including the classical, optimal, and fuzzy controllers, are given for the UAV. The performance of different control methods is investigated and the results compared. State Estimation and Control of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles covers all the important issues for designing a guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system of a low-cost UAV. It proposes significant new approaches that can be exploited by GNC system designers in the future and also reviews the current literature. The state estimation, control and FDI methods are illustrated by examples and MATLAB...

  13. Near Space Hypersonic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Dynamic Surface Backstepping Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong YU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared with traditional aircraft, the near space hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle control system design must deal with the extra prominent dynamics characters, which are differ from the traditional aircrafts control system design. A new robust adaptive control design method is proposed for one hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle (HSUAV uncertain MIMO nonaffine block control system by using multilayer neural networks, feedback linearization technology, and dynamic surface backstepping. Multilayer neural networks are used to compensate the influence from the uncertain, which designs the robust terms to solve the problem from approach error. Adaptive backstepping is adopted designed to ensure control law, the dynamic surface control strategy to eliminate “the explosion of terms” by introducing a series of first order filters to obtain the differentiation of the virtual control inputs. Finally, nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF numerical simulation results for a HSUAV model are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Decentralized cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles conflict resolution by neural network-based tree search method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a tree search algorithm is proposed to find the near optimal conflict avoidance solutions for unmanned aerial vehicles. In the dynamic environment, the unmodeled elements, such as wind, would make UAVs deviate from nominal traces. It brings about difficulties for conflict detection and resolution. The back propagation neural networks are utilized to approximate the unmodeled dynamics of the environment. To satisfy the online planning requirement, the search length of the tree search algorithm would be limited. Therefore, the algorithm may not be able to reach the goal states in search process. The midterm reward function for assessing each node is devised, with consideration given to two factors, namely, the safe separation requirement and the mission of each unmanned aerial vehicle. The simulation examples and the comparisons with previous approaches are provided to illustrate the smooth and convincing behaviours of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Developing operator capacity estimates for supervisory control of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M L; Guerlain, Stephanie

    2007-02-01

    This study examined operators' capacity to successfully reallocate highly autonomous in-flight missiles to time-sensitive targets while performing secondary tasks of varying complexity. Regardless of the level of autonomy for unmanned systems, humans will be necessarily involved in the mission planning, higher level operation, and contingency interventions, otherwise known as human supervisory control. As a result, more research is needed that addresses the impact of dynamic decision support systems that support rapid planning and replanning in time-pressured scenarios, particularly on operator workload. A dual screen simulation that allows a single operator the ability to monitor and control 8, 12, or 16 missiles through high level replanning was tested on 42 U.S. Navy personnel. The most significant finding was that when attempting to control 16 missiles, participants' performance on three separate objective performance metrics and their situation awareness were significantly degraded. These results mirror studies of air traffic control that demonstrate a similar decline in performance for controllers managing 17 aircraft as compared with those managing only 10 to 11 aircraft. Moreover, the results suggest that a 70% utilization (percentage busy time) score is a valid threshold for predicting significant performance decay and could be a generalizable metric that can aid in manning predictions. This research is relevant to human supervisory control of networked military and commercial unmanned vehicles in the air, on the ground, and on and under the water.

  16. Ocean outfall plume characterization using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Otero, Mark; Hazard, Lisa; Middleton, William

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring mission to map and characterize the Point Loma Ocean Outfall (PLOO) wastewater plume using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was performed on 3 March 2011. The mobility of an AUV provides a significant advantage in surveying discharge plumes over traditional cast-based methods, and when combined with optical and oceanographic sensors, provides a capability for both detecting plumes and assessing their mixing in the near and far-fields. Unique to this study is the measurement of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the discharge plume and its application for quantitative estimates of the plume's dilution. AUV mission planning methodologies for discharge plume sampling, plume characterization using onboard optical sensors, and comparison of observational data to model results are presented. The results suggest that even under variable oceanic conditions, properly planned missions for AUVs equipped with an optical CDOM sensor in addition to traditional oceanographic sensors, can accurately characterize and track ocean outfall plumes at higher resolutions than cast-based techniques.

  17. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated.

  18. Terrain aided navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles with coarse maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    Terrain aided navigation (TAN) is a form of geophysical localization technique for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) operating in GPS-denied environments. TAN performance on sensor-rich AUVs has been evaluated in sea trials. However, many challenges remain before TAN can be successfully implemented on sensor-limited AUVs, especially with coarse maps. To improve TAN performance over coarse maps, a Gaussian process (GP) is proposed for the modeling of bathymetric terrain and integrated into the particle filter (GP-PF). GP is applied to provide not only the bathymetric value prediction through learning a set of bathymetric data from coarse maps but also the variance of the prediction. As a measurement update, calculated on bathymetric deviation is performed through the PF to obtain absolute and bounded positioning accuracy. Through the analysis of TAN performance on experimental data for two different terrains with map resolutions of 10–50 m, both the ability of the proposed model to represent the actual bathymetric terrain with accuracy and the effect of the GP-PF for TAN on sensor-limited systems in suited terrain are demonstrated. The experiment results further verify that there is an inverse relationship between the coarseness of the map and the overall TAN accuracy in rough terrains, but there is hardly any relationship between them in relatively flat terrains. (paper)

  19. Coordinated Mapping of Sea Ice Deformation Features with Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Williams, G. D.; Singh, H.; Weissling, B.; Anderson, J.; Maki, T.; Ackley, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Decreases in summer sea ice extent in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas has lead to a transition from a largely perennial ice cover, to a seasonal ice cover. This drives shifts in sea ice production, dynamics, ice types, and thickness distribution. To examine how the processes driving ice advance might also impact the morphology of the ice cover, a coordinated ice mapping effort was undertaken during a field campaign in the Beaufort Sea in October, 2015. Here, we present observations of sea ice draft topography from six missions of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle run under different ice types and deformation features observed during autumn freeze-up. Ice surface features were also mapped during coordinated drone photogrammetric missions over each site. We present preliminary results of a comparison between sea ice surface topography and ice underside morphology for a range of sample ice types, including hummocked multiyear ice, rubble fields, young ice ridges and rafts, and consolidated pancake ice. These data are compared to prior observations of ice morphological features from deformed Antarctic sea ice. Such data will be useful for improving parameterizations of sea ice redistribution during deformation, and for better constraining estimates of airborne or satellite sea ice thickness.

  20. Real-time door detection for indoor autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhihao; Zhu, Ming

    2017-07-01

    Indoor Autonomous Vehicle(IAV) is used in many indoor scenes. Such as hotels and hospitals. Door detection is a key issue to guide the IAV into rooms. In this paper, we consider door detection in the use of indoor navigation of IAV. Since real-time properties are important for real-world IAV, the detection algorithm must be fast enough. Most monocular-camera based door detection model need a perfect detection of the four line segments of the door or the four corners. But in many situations, line segments could be extended or cut off. And there could be many false detected corners. And few of them can distinguish doors from door-like objects with door-like shape effectively. We proposed a 2-D vision model of the door that is made up of line segments. The number of parts detected is used to determine the possibility of a door. Our algorithm is tested on a database of doors.1 The robustness and real-time are verified. The precision is 89.4%. Average time consumed for processing a 640x320 figure is 44.73ms.

  1. When Computers Fly, It Has to Be Right: Using SPARK for Flight Control of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sward, Ricky E; Gerken, Mark; Casey, Dan

    2006-01-01

    .... For safety critical software programs such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flight control software, the risk of software failure demands high assurance that the software will perform its intended function...

  2. Exploration of the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles along with Other Assets to Enhance Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Border Initiative SUAV Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar TTPs Tactics, Techniques, And Procedures TRVS Trailer Remote...2008). 4 3. Overview of Illegal Activities According to the CBP, 178,770 pounds of cocaine, 2,178 pounds of heroin, 2,471,931 pounds of marijuana ...Raytheon Company Web Site) Another component of Predator B is the high- resolution Lynx Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In their study, Tsunoda, et

  3. Spike Neuromorphic VLSI-Based Bat Echolocation for Micro-Aerial Vehicle Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-31

    IFinal 03/01/04 - 02/28/07 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Neuromorphic VLSI-based Bat Echolocation for Micro-aerial 5b.GRANTNUMBER Vehicle...uncovered interesting new issues in our choice for representing the intensity of signals. We have just finished testing the first chip version of an echo...timing-based algorithm (’openspace’) for sonar-guided navigation amidst multiple obstacles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Neuromorphic VLSI, bat echolocation

  4. NEAR REAL-TIME GEOREFERENCE OF UMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE IMAGES FOR POST-EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, S.; Wang, X.; Dou, A.; Yuan, X.; Ding, L.; Ding, X.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid collection of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing images plays an important role in the fast submitting disaster information and the monitored serious damaged objects after the earthquake. However, for hundreds of UAV images collected in one flight sortie, the traditional data processing methods are image stitching and three-dimensional reconstruction, which take one to several hours, and affect the speed of disaster response. If the manual searching method is employed, we ...

  5. The impact of vehicle appearance and vehicle behavior on pedestrian interaction with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, D.; Martens, M.H.; Eggen, J.H.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study that aims to investigate the role of an approaching vehicle's behavior and outer appearance in determining pedestrians' decisions while crossing a street. Concerning appearance, some vehicles are designed to look more assertive than

  6. The Impact of Vehicle Appearance and Vehicle Behavior on Pedestrian Interaction with Autonomous Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, Debargha; Martens, Marieke; Eggen, Berry; Terken, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study that aims to investigate the role of an approaching vehicle's behavior and outer appearance in determining pedestrians' decisions while crossing a street. Concerning appearance, some vehicles are designed to look more assertive than

  7. Methods of monitoring the technical condition of the braking system of an autonomous vehicle during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revin, A.; Dygalo, V.; Boyko, G.; Lyaschenko, M.; Dygalo, L.

    2018-02-01

    Possibilities of diagnosing of a technical condition of braking system of the autonomous vehicles with automated modules while in service are considered. The concept of sharing of onboard means and stands for diagnosing is presented.

  8. AFSC/ABL: Autonomous underwater vehicle for tracking acoustically-tagged fish 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are increasingly being used to collect physical, chemical, and biological information in the marine environment. Recent efforts...

  9. A Framework for Evaluating Advanced Search Concepts for Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Mine Countermeasures (MCM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gooding, Trent

    2001-01-01

    .... In recent years, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) have emerged as a viable technology for conducting underwater search, survey, and clearance operations in support of the mine countermeasures (MCM) mission...

  10. Deployment of Shaped Charges by a Semi-Autonomous Ground Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herkamp, John F

    2007-01-01

    .... BigFoot incorporates improved communication range over previous Autonomous Ground Vehicles and an updated user interface that includes controls for the arm and camera by interfacing multiple microprocessor...

  11. Adaptive Oceanographic Sampling in a Coastal Environmental Using Autonomous Gliding Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fratantoni, David

    2004-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop an efficient, relocatable, infrastructure-free ocean observing system composed of high-endurance, low-cost autonomous vehicles with near-global range and modular sensor payload...

  12. An autonomous underwater vehicle "Maya", for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A; Navelkar, G.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Maurya, P.K.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahalunkar, A

    This article demonstrates the use of Maya, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams. Maya is a mono hull structure with detachable nose and tail cones. The nose cone is mission specific...

  13. Ensuring safety in autonomous vehicle legislation in Louisiana : [research project capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The states of Michigan, California, Nevada, and Florida, along with the District of Columbia, have : recently passed legislation to allow the use of autonomous motor vehicles on public roads in : their states under restricted conditions. Other states...

  14. Proving autonomous vehicle and advanced driver assistance systems safety : final research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The main objective of this project was to provide technology for answering : crucial safety and correctness questions about verification of autonomous : vehicle and advanced driver assistance systems based on logic. : In synergistic activities, we ha...

  15. Learning Control of Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Kayacan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A learning control strategy is preferred for the control and guidance of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle to deal with lack of modeling and flight uncertainties. For learning the plant model as well as changing working conditions online, a fuzzy neural network (FNN is used in parallel with a conventional P (proportional controller. Among the learning algorithms in the literature, a derivative-free one, sliding mode control (SMC theory-based learning algorithm, is preferred as it has been proved to be computationally efficient in real-time applications. Its proven robustness and finite time converging nature make the learning algorithm appropriate for controlling an unmanned aerial vehicle as the computational power is always limited in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. The parameter update rules and stability conditions of the learning are derived, and the proof of the stability of the learning algorithm is shown by using a candidate Lyapunov function. Intensive simulations are performed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed controller which includes the tracking of a three-dimensional trajectory by the UAV subject to time-varying wind conditions. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control algorithm, especially in real-time control systems because of its computational efficiency.

  16. Editorial for special issue on Perception and Navigation for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Laugier , Christian; Philippe , Martinet; Urbano , Nunes

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This Special Issue of the IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine has been prepared in the scope of the activities of the Technical Committee on "Autonomous Ground Vehicle and Intelligent Transportation System" (AGV-ITS) (http://www.ieee-ras.org/autonomous-groundvehicles- and-intelligent-transportation-systems) of the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society (IEEE RAS).

  17. On the problem of making autonomous vehicles conform to traffic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, H.

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are one of the most spectacular recent developments of Artificial Intelligence. Among the problems that still need to be solved before they can fully autonomously participate in traffic is the one of making their behaviour conform to the traffic laws. This paper discusses this

  18. On Making Autonomous Vehicles Respect Traffic Law : a Case Study for Dutch Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, H.

    Among the problems that still need to be solved before autonomous vehicles can fully autonomously participate in traffic is the one of making them respect the traffic laws. This paper discusses this problem by way of a case study of Dutch traffic law. First it is discussed to what extent Dutch

  19. Designing for enhancing situational awareness of semi-autonomous driving vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Steeghs, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Gorle, A.; Dey, D.; Van De Star, S.; Sudhakaran, A.; Terken, J.M.B.; Hu, J.

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous driving technology is evolving quickly, and self-driving cars are fast becoming a reality. In the level 2 autonomous driving stage, the system will take full control of the vehicle. The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to immediately intervene at any time if the automated

  20. Control of an Autonomous Vehicle for Registration of Weed and Crop in Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an autonomous electrical vehicle to be used for weed mapping in precision agriculture with special focus on the conceptual framework of the control system. The lowest layer of the control system is the propulsion and steering control, the second layer...... coordinates the movements of the wheel units, the third layer is path execution and perception and the upper layer performs planning and reasoning. The control system is implemented on an autonomous vehicle. The vehicle has been tested for path following and position accuracy. Based on the results a new...... vehicle is under construction....

  1. Piezoelectric composite morphing control surfaces for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Osgar J., III; Karni, Etan D.; Olien, Chris C.; Gustafson, Eric A.; Kochersberger, Kevin B.; Gelhausen, Paul A.; Brown, Bridget L.

    2011-04-01

    The authors have explored the use of morphing control surfaces to replace traditional servo-actuated control surfaces in UAV applications. The morphing actuation is accomplished using Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric actuators in a bimorph configuration to deflect the aft section of a control surface cross section. The resulting camber change produces forces and moments for vehicle control. The flexible piezoelectric actuators are damage tolerant and provide excellent bandwidth. The large amplitude morphing deflections attained in bench-top experiments demonstrate the potential for excellent control authority. Aerodynamic performance calculations using experimentally measured morphed geometries indicate changes in sectional lift coefficients that are superior to a servo-actuated hinged flap airfoil. This morphing flight control actuation technology could eliminate the need for servos and mechanical linkages in small UAVs and thereby increase reliability and reduce drag.

  2. Perceptions of autonomous vehicles: Relationships with road users, risk, gender and age

    OpenAIRE

    Hulse, Lynn M.; Xie, Hui; Galea, Edwin R.

    2018-01-01

    Fully automated self-driving cars, with expected benefits including improved road safety, are closer to becoming a reality. Thus, attention has turned to gauging public perceptions of these autonomous vehicles. To date, surveys have focused on the public as potential passengers of autonomous cars, overlooking other road users who would interact with them. Comparisons with perceptions of other existing vehicles are also lacking. This study surveyed almost 1000 participants on their perceptions...

  3. Probabilistic Tracking and Trajectory Planning for Autonomous Ground Vehicles in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-05

    Vehicles in Urban Environments The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an...Pine Tree Road Ithaca, NY 14850 -2820 ABSTRACT Probabilistic Tracking and Trajectory Planning for Autonomous Ground Vehicles in Urban Environments...Probabilistic Anticipation for Autonomous Robots in Urban Environments, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, (04 2014): 0. doi: 10.1109/TRO.2013.2291620 Isaac

  4. AVIATR—Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick

    2012-01-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan...... Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven...... of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission...

  5. Feature and Pose Constrained Visual Aided Inertial Navigation for Computationally Constrained Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian; Hudson, Nicolas; Tweddle, Brent; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry

    2011-01-01

    A Feature and Pose Constrained Extended Kalman Filter (FPC-EKF) is developed for highly dynamic computationally constrained micro aerial vehicles. Vehicle localization is achieved using only a low performance inertial measurement unit and a single camera. The FPC-EKF framework augments the vehicle's state with both previous vehicle poses and critical environmental features, including vertical edges. This filter framework efficiently incorporates measurements from hundreds of opportunistic visual features to constrain the motion estimate, while allowing navigating and sustained tracking with respect to a few persistent features. In addition, vertical features in the environment are opportunistically used to provide global attitude references. Accurate pose estimation is demonstrated on a sequence including fast traversing, where visual features enter and exit the field-of-view quickly, as well as hover and ingress maneuvers where drift free navigation is achieved with respect to the environment.

  6. Robust vehicle detection in aerial images based on salient region selection and superpixel classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Samir; Duval, Pierre-Luc; Sheng, Yunlong; Lavigne, Daniel A.

    2011-05-01

    For detecting vehicles in large scale aerial images we first used a non-parametric method proposed recently by Rosin to define the regions of interest, where the vehicles appear with dense edges. The saliency map is a sum of distance transforms (DT) of a set of edges maps, which are obtained by a threshold decomposition of the gradient image with a set of thresholds. A binary mask for highlighting the regions of interest is then obtained by a moment-preserving thresholding of the normalized saliency map. Secondly, the regions of interest were over-segmented by the SLIC superpixels proposed recently by Achanta et al. to cluster pixels into the color constancy sub-regions. In the aerial images of 11.2 cm/pixel resolution, the vehicles in general do not exceed 20 x 40 pixels. We introduced a size constraint to guarantee no superpixels exceed the size of a vehicle. The superpixels were then classified to vehicle or non-vehicle by the Support Vector Machine (SVM), in which the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features and the Linear Binary Pattern (LBP) texture features were used. Both features were extracted at two scales with two size patches. The small patches capture local structures and the larger patches include the neighborhood information. Preliminary results show a significant gain in the detection. The vehicles were detected with a dense concentration of the vehicle-class superpixels. Even dark color cars were successfully detected. A validation process will follow to reduce the presence of isolated false alarms in the background.

  7. A Framework for Analysing Driver Interactions with Semi-Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siraj Shaikh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Semi-autonomous vehicles are increasingly serving critical functions in various settings from mining to logistics to defence. A key characteristic of such systems is the presence of the human (drivers in the control loop. To ensure safety, both the driver needs to be aware of the autonomous aspects of the vehicle and the automated features of the vehicle built to enable safer control. In this paper we propose a framework to combine empirical models describing human behaviour with the environment and system models. We then analyse, via model checking, interaction between the models for desired safety properties. The aim is to analyse the design for safe vehicle-driver interaction. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach using a case study involving semi-autonomous vehicles where the driver fatigue are factors critical to a safe journey.

  8. Tracking Object Existence From an Autonomous Patrol Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Scharenbroich, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    An autonomous vehicle patrols a large region, during which an algorithm receives measurements of detected potential objects within its sensor range. The goal of the algorithm is to track all objects in the region over time. This problem differs from traditional multi-target tracking scenarios because the region of interest is much larger than the sensor range and relies on the movement of the sensor through this region for coverage. The goal is to know whether anything has changed between visits to the same location. In particular, two kinds of alert conditions must be detected: (1) a previously detected object has disappeared and (2) a new object has appeared in a location already checked. For the time an object is within sensor range, the object can be assumed to remain stationary, changing position only between visits. The problem is difficult because the upstream object detection processing is likely to make many errors, resulting in heavy clutter (false positives) and missed detections (false negatives), and because only noisy, bearings-only measurements are available. This work has three main goals: (1) Associate incoming measurements with known objects or mark them as new objects or false positives, as appropriate. For this, a multiple hypothesis tracker was adapted to this scenario. (2) Localize the objects using multiple bearings-only measurements to provide estimates of global position (e.g., latitude and longitude). A nonlinear Kalman filter extension provides these 2D position estimates using the 1D measurements. (3) Calculate the probability that a suspected object truly exists (in the estimated position), and determine whether alert conditions have been triggered (for new objects or disappeared objects). The concept of a probability of existence was created, and a new Bayesian method for updating this probability at each time step was developed. A probabilistic multiple hypothesis approach is chosen because of its superiority in handling the

  9. Impacts of Autonomous Vehicles on Consumers Time-Use Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarshi Das

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We use the American Time Use Survey (ATUS to characterize how different consumers in the US might use Autonomous Vehicles (AVs. Our approach is to identify sub-groups of the population likely to benefit from AVs and compare their activity patterns with an otherwise similar group. The first subgroup is working individuals who drive to work with long total travel times. Auto-travelers in the top 20% of travel time number 19 million and travel 1.6 h more on a workday than those in the bottom 80%. For car-commuting professionals, the additional travel time of the long-traveling group comes from 30 min less work, 29 min less sleep, and 30 min less television watching per day. The second subgroup is working individuals with a long travel time and who take public transport. Long public transit riders show very similar differences in activity times as the driving subgroup. Work, sleep, and video functionalities of AVs are presumably in high demand by both groups. The third sub-group identified is elderly retired people. AVs enable mobility-restricted groups to travel more like those without restrictions. We compare two age groups, 60–75 years and >75 years old, the latter, on average, experiencing more mobility restrictions than their younger counterparts. The retired population older than 75 years numbers 16 million and travels 14 min less per day than retirees aged 60–75 years. The main activity change corresponding to this reduced travel is 7 min per day less shopping and 8 min per day less socializing. If older retired people use AVs to match the lifestyle of the 60–75 years old group, this would induce additional personal travel and retail sector demand. The economic, environmental and social implications of AV are very difficult to predict but expected to be transformative. The contribution of this work is that it utilizes time-use surveys to suggest how AV adoption could induce lifestyle changes inside and outside the vehicle.

  10. WETLAND ASSESSMENT USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Boon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV photogrammetry is a valuable tool to enhance our understanding of wetlands. Accurate planning derived from this technological advancement allows for more effective management and conservation of wetland areas. This paper presents results of a study that aimed at investigating the use of UAV photogrammetry as a tool to enhance the assessment of wetland ecosystems. The UAV images were collected during a single flight within 2½ hours over a 100 ha area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. An AKS Y-6 MKII multi-rotor UAV and a digital camera on a motion compensated gimbal mount were utilised for the survey. Twenty ground control points (GCPs were surveyed using a Trimble GPS to achieve geometrical precision and georeferencing accuracy. Structure-from-Motion (SfM computer vision techniques were used to derive ultra-high resolution point clouds, orthophotos and 3D models from the multi-view photos. The geometric accuracy of the data based on the 20 GCP’s were 0.018 m for the overall, 0.0025 m for the vertical root mean squared error (RMSE and an over all root mean square reprojection error of 0.18 pixel. The UAV products were then edited and subsequently analysed, interpreted and key attributes extracted using a selection of tools/ software applications to enhance the wetland assessment. The results exceeded our expectations and provided a valuable and accurate enhancement to the wetland delineation, classification and health assessment which even with detailed field studies would have been difficult to achieve.

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Photogrammetry: Analysis of Orthophoto Images over the Territory of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suziedelyte Visockiene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently observed that aircrafts tend to be replaced by light, simple structure unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV or mini unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV with the purpose of updating the field of aerial photogrammetry. The built-in digital photo camera takes images of the Earth’s surface. To satisfy the photogrammetric requirements of the photographic images, it is necessary to carry out the terrestrial project planning of the flight path before the flight, to select the appropriate flying height, the time for acquiring images, the speed of the UAV, and other parameters. The paper presents the results of project calculations concerning the UAV flights and the analysis of the terrestrial images acquired during the field-testing flights. The experience carried out so far in the Lithuanian landscape is shown. The taken images have been processed by PhotoMod photogrammetric system. The paper presents the results of calculation of the project values of the UAV flights taking the images by digital camera Canon S100 and the analysis of the possibilities of the UAV orthophoto images’ mode.

  12. AN AUTONOMOUS GPS-DENIED UNMANNED VEHICLE PLATFORM BASED ON BINOCULAR VISION FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Qin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based navigation has become an attractive solution for autonomous navigation for planetary exploration. This paper presents our work of designing and building an autonomous vision-based GPS-denied unmanned vehicle and developing an ARFM (Adaptive Robust Feature Matching based VO (Visual Odometry software for its autonomous navigation. The hardware system is mainly composed of binocular stereo camera, a pan-and tilt, a master machine, a tracked chassis. And the ARFM-based VO software system contains four modules: camera calibration, ARFM-based 3D reconstruction, position and attitude calculation, BA (Bundle Adjustment modules. Two VO experiments were carried out using both outdoor images from open dataset and indoor images captured by our vehicle, the results demonstrate that our vision-based unmanned vehicle is able to achieve autonomous localization and has the potential for future planetary exploration.

  13. An Autonomous Gps-Denied Unmanned Vehicle Platform Based on Binocular Vision for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M.; Wan, X.; Shao, Y. Y.; Li, S. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Vision-based navigation has become an attractive solution for autonomous navigation for planetary exploration. This paper presents our work of designing and building an autonomous vision-based GPS-denied unmanned vehicle and developing an ARFM (Adaptive Robust Feature Matching) based VO (Visual Odometry) software for its autonomous navigation. The hardware system is mainly composed of binocular stereo camera, a pan-and tilt, a master machine, a tracked chassis. And the ARFM-based VO software system contains four modules: camera calibration, ARFM-based 3D reconstruction, position and attitude calculation, BA (Bundle Adjustment) modules. Two VO experiments were carried out using both outdoor images from open dataset and indoor images captured by our vehicle, the results demonstrate that our vision-based unmanned vehicle is able to achieve autonomous localization and has the potential for future planetary exploration.

  14. Design of Embedded System and Data Communication for an Agricultural Autonomous Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens F. Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an implemented design of an autonomous vehicle used in precision agriculture for weed and crop map construction with special focus on the onboard controlsystem, the embedded system and the datacommunication system. The vehicle is four wheel driven and four wheel steered (eight...

  15. Fuzzy path tracking and position estimation of autonomous vehicles using differential GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Castaño, Ángel; Heredia Benot, José Guillermo; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an autonomous vehicle position estimation system based on GPS, that uses a fuzzy sensor fusion technique. A fuzzy path tracking algorithm is also proposed. Both systems have been implemented in the ROMEO-4R vehicle developed at the University of Seville.

  16. The impact of vehicle appearance and vehicle behavior on pedestrian interaction with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, D.; Martens, M.; Eggen, J.H.; Terken, J.M.B.

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study that aims to investigate the role of an approaching vehicle’s behavior and outer appearance in determining pedestrians’ decisions while crossing a street. Concerning appearance, some vehicles are designed to look more assertive than

  17. A MARKED POINT PROCESS MODEL FOR VEHICLE DETECTION IN AERIAL LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Börcs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an automated method for vehicle detection in LiDAR point clouds of crowded urban areas collected from an aerial platform. We assume that the input cloud is unordered, but it contains additional intensity and return number information which are jointly exploited by the proposed solution. Firstly, the 3-D point set is segmented into ground, vehicle, building roof, vegetation and clutter classes. Then the points with the corresponding class labels and intensity values are projected to the ground plane, where the optimal vehicle configuration is described by a Marked Point Process (MPP model of 2-D rectangles. Finally, the Multiple Birth and Death algorithm is utilized to find the configuration with the highest confidence.

  18. Design and Development of the Engine Unit for a Twin-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Avanzini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced computer-aided technologies played a crucial role in the design of an unconventional Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV, developed at the Turin Technical University and the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. The engine unit of the vehicle is made of a complex system of three two stroke piston engines coupled with two counter-rotating three-bladed rotors, controlled by rotary PWM servos. The focus of the present paper lies on the enabling technologies exploited in the framework of activities aimed at designing a suitable and reliable engine system, capable of performing the complex tasks required for operating the proposed rotorcraft. The synergic use of advanced computational tools for estimating the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, solid modeling for mechanical components design, and rapid prototyping techniques for control system logic synthesis and implementation will be presented. 

  19. A new car-following model for autonomous vehicles flow with mean expected velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Xing, Zhu; Li-Dong, Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Due to the development of the modern scientific technology, autonomous vehicles may realize to connect with each other and share the information collected from each vehicle. An improved forward considering car-following model was proposed with mean expected velocity field to describe the autonomous vehicles flow behavior. The new model has three key parameters: adjustable sensitivity, strength factor and mean expected velocity field size. Two lemmas and one theorem were proven as criteria for judging the stability of homogeneousautonomous vehicles flow. Theoretical results show that the greater parameters means larger stability regions. A series of numerical simulations were carried out to check the stability and fundamental diagram of autonomous flow. From the numerical simulation results, the profiles, hysteresis loop and density waves of the autonomous vehicles flow were exhibited. The results show that with increased sensitivity, strength factor or field size the traffic jam was suppressed effectively which are well in accordance with the theoretical results. Moreover, the fundamental diagrams corresponding to three parameters respectively were obtained. It demonstrates that these parameters play almost the same role on traffic flux: i.e. before the critical density the bigger parameter is, the greater flux is and after the critical density, the opposite tendency is. In general, the three parameters have a great influence on the stability and jam state of the autonomous vehicles flow.

  20. System and Method for Automated Rendezvous, Docking and Capture of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Clark, Evan (Inventor); Richmond, Kristof (Inventor); Paulus, Jeremy (Inventor); Kapit, Jason (Inventor); Scully, Mark (Inventor); Kimball, Peter (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A system for automated rendezvous, docking, and capture of autonomous underwater vehicles at the conclusion of a mission comprising of comprised of a docking rod having lighted, pulsating (in both frequency and light intensity) series of LED light strips thereon, with the LEDs at a known spacing, and the autonomous underwater vehicle specially designed to detect and capture the docking rod and then be lifted structurally by a spherical end strop about which the vehicle can be pivoted and hoisted up (e.g., onto a ship). The method of recovery allows for very routine and reliable automated recovery of an unmanned underwater asset.

  1. Aeromagnetic and aerial photographic survey in the South Shetland Islands,Antarctica, conducted by a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Funaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two small unmanned aerial vehicles, Ant-Plane 6 and Ant-Plane 3, were assembled using parts and technologies developed for model airplanes. The aerial vehicles were scheduled to conduct aero magnetic and photographic surveys of the Brans?eld Basin, from a takeoff runway at Marsh Air?eld on the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, during January 2011. However, the scheduled surveys were not conducted on account of poor weather. Research was later conducted on a glacier, using a takeoff runway at St. Kliment Ohridski Base, Livingston Island, during December 2011. A ?ight from St. Kliment Ohridski Base to Deception Island yielded satisfactory results; the total distance of 302.4 km was traversed in 3 h 7 min (3:07. On this ?ight, aeromagnetic and aerial photographic data were obtained from an altitude of 780 m for a 9×18 km area on the northern half of Deception Island. Aerial photographs of Deception Island and South Bay showed the distributions of glaciers and their crevasses. The Ant-Plane ?ew over the Antarctic horizon and surveyed above Deception Island. That was the successful venture of this kind, demonstrating that airborne surveys by Ant-Planes are useful for Antarctic research investigations. Airborne surveys provide a safe and economical approach to data acquisition as compared with manned aerial operations.

  2. Environmental monitoring using autonomous vehicles: a survey of recent searching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Behzad; Crasta, Naveena; Crespi, Alessandro; Pascoal, António M; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous vehicles are becoming an essential tool in a wide range of environmental applications that include ambient data acquisition, remote sensing, and mapping of the spatial extent of pollutant spills. Among these applications, pollution source localization has drawn increasing interest due to its scientific and commercial interest and the emergence of a new breed of robotic vehicles capable of operating in harsh environments without human supervision. The aim is to find the location of a region that is the source of a given substance of interest (e.g. a chemical pollutant at sea or a gas leakage in air) using a group of cooperative autonomous vehicles. Motivated by fast paced advances in this challenging area, this paper surveys recent advances in searching techniques that are at the core of environmental monitoring strategies using autonomous vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Water Hazards for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Larry; Belluta, Paolo; McHenry, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Four methods of detection of bodies of water are under development as means to enable autonomous robotic ground vehicles to avoid water hazards when traversing off-road terrain. The methods involve processing of digitized outputs of optoelectronic sensors aboard the vehicles. It is planned to implement these methods in hardware and software that would operate in conjunction with the hardware and software for navigation and for avoidance of solid terrain obstacles and hazards. The first method, intended for use during the day, is based on the observation that, under most off-road conditions, reflections of sky from water are easily discriminated from the adjacent terrain by their color and brightness, regardless of the weather and of the state of surface waves on the water. Accordingly, this method involves collection of color imagery by a video camera and processing of the image data by an algorithm that classifies each pixel as soil, water, or vegetation according to its color and brightness values (see figure). Among the issues that arise is the fact that in the presence of reflections of objects on the opposite shore, it is difficult to distinguish water by color and brightness alone. Another issue is that once a body of water has been identified by means of color and brightness, its boundary must be mapped for use in navigation. Techniques for addressing these issues are under investigation. The second method, which is not limited by time of day, is based on the observation that ladar returns from bodies of water are usually too weak to be detected. In this method, ladar scans of the terrain are analyzed for returns and the absence thereof. In appropriate regions, the presence of water can be inferred from the absence of returns. Under some conditions in which reflections from the bottom are detectable, ladar returns could, in principle, be used to determine depth. The third method involves the recognition of bodies of water as dark areas in short

  4. Autonomous Vehicle Systems Laboratory Research Capability Expansion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-03

    those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision , unless so designated by other...autonomous control, collaboration, and decision -making in unstructured, dynamic, and uncertain nonlinear environments for autonomous ground and air...demonstrate these techniques’ effectiveness using the equipment purchased by HBCU/MI funding in the areas of collaborative control, obstacle sense/avoid

  5. Commute Equilibrium for Mixed Networks with Autonomous Vehicles and Traditional Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangbeibei Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent development of autonomous vehicle (AV provides new travel opportunities for citizens, and traditional vehicles (TVs will still be used for a long time. Therefore, it is highly possible that both AVs and TVs will be used as travel modes in a city. In a transportation system with both AVs and TVs, the traffic pattern is worthy of studying. This paper investigates user equilibrium traffic pattern based on the traditional bottleneck model considering AVs and TVs. For both TVs and AVs, travel costs include queuing delay and schedule delay. However, they also have different components of travel costs; more specifically, for AVs, passengers have to pay a riding fare, and, for TVs, travelers encounter a walking time cost after parking their cars. For different combinations of travel demands and riding fare of AVs, analytical solutions of three different user equilibrium traffic patterns are obtained. Finally, numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the analytical models. Sensitivity analyses are examined to show the impacts of AV’s time-dependent fee and trip-based fixed fee on the traffic pattern and travel costs.

  6. FORMATION ALGORITHM OF DYNAMIC TURN FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES ON APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Chekhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Great interest in using unmanned aerial vehicles has recently been shown, both from economic entities, and from national security, defense and law enforcement agencies. However, for using UAV for the civil purposes there is now a number of problems which are connected with the use of airspace and without solving them it is impossible to use the UAV fully. It should be noted that the level of flight safety, both for regular aircraft, and for the UAV, has the primary value. It is necessary to use modern methods of data processing and to have an opportunity to quickly and effectively control the current flight safety level. For this purpose the fullest information on the current movement of aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles, and also on the structure of the used airspace has to be used. The problem of procedures and maneuvers development that resolve potential traffic conflict including the UAV, is extremely important for air traffic safety especially in the vicinity of the destination or landing aerodrome. The possibility of creation of an algorithm of dynamic turn formation and the choice of a trajectory on approach of unmanned aerial vehicles is considered in this article. The technology of automatic dependent surveillance broadcast was used when collecting statistical data. Implementation of the landing algorithm is executed based on the criteria of ensuring efficiency and flight safety. The developed software provides the use only of open data on the aircraft movement in terminal airspace. The suggested algorithm can be adapted for air traffic management of the UAV in any selected airspace.

  7. Characteristic Analysis of Mixed Traffic Flow of Regular and Autonomous Vehicles Using Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzexi Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of autonomous vehicles is expected to revolutionize the operation of road transport systems. The penetration rate of autonomous vehicles will be low at the early stage of their deployment. It is a challenge to explore the effects of autonomous vehicles and their penetration on heterogeneous traffic flow dynamics. This paper aims to investigate this issue. An improved cellular automaton was employed as the modeling platform for our study. In particular, two sets of rules for lane changing were designed to address mild and aggressive lane changing behavior. With extensive simulation studies, we obtained some promising results. First, the introduction of autonomous vehicles to road traffic could considerably improve traffic flow, particularly the road capacity and free-flow speed. And the level of improvement increases with the penetration rate. Second, the lane-changing frequency between neighboring lanes evolves with traffic density along a fundamental-diagram-like curve. Third, the impacts of autonomous vehicles on the collective traffic flow characteristics are mainly related to their smart maneuvers in lane changing and car following, and it seems that the car-following impact is more pronounced.

  8. Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV Flapping Motion Control Using an Immune Network with Different Immune Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Weng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Neural-Immunology/Memory Network to address the problem of motion control for flapping-wing Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs. This network is inspired by the human memory system as well as the immune system, and it is effective in attenuating the system errors and other lumped system uncertainties. In contrast to most existing Neural Networks, the convergence of this proposed Neural-Immunology/Memory Network can be theoretically proven. Both analyses and simulations that are based on different immune factors show that the proposed control method is effective in dealing with external disturbances, system nonlinearities, uncertainties and parameter variations.

  9. Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by the Islamic State: Nature of the Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mrva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs on the battlefield does not exclude terrorist actors. Recently, there is an evident increase in the number of incidents when the so-called Islamic State has used UAVs. This article tries to describe this relatively new phenomenon and present an overview of main types of the potential Islamic State’s UAV employment in Europe. Despite the fact, that the UAV use by terrorist actors will probably not have the strategic impact by itself, it constitutes a new challenge for state security agencies.

  10. Contingency Estimation of States for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using a Spherical Simplex Unscented Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Tobias; Hansen, Søren; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at survival from contingency situations for unmanned aerial vehicles, a square root spherical simplex unscented Kalman filter is applied for state and parameter estimation and a rough model is used for state prediction when essential measurements are lost. Processing real flight data, rece...... efficient square root implementation of the filter algorithm. A case of loss of GPS signal demonstrates the use of the state estimates to obtain return of the UAV to close to it’s home base where safe recovery is possible....

  11. Experimental and rendering-based investigation of laser radar cross sections of small unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Bacher, Emmanuel; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Laser imaging systems are prominent candidates for detection and tracking of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in current and future security scenarios. Laser reflection characteristics for laser imaging (e.g., laser gated viewing) of small UAVs are investigated to determine their laser radar cross section (LRCS) by analyzing the intensity distribution of laser reflection in high resolution images. For the first time, LRCSs are determined in a combined experimental and computational approaches by high resolution laser gated viewing and three-dimensional rendering. An optimized simple surface model is calculated taking into account diffuse and specular reflectance properties based on the Oren-Nayar and the Cook-Torrance reflectance models, respectively.

  12. On Board Data Acquisition System with Intelligent Transducers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochala, Zdzisław

    2012-02-01

    This report presents conclusions from research project no. ON50900363 conducted at the Mechatronics Department, Military University of Technology in the years 2007-2010. As the main object of the study involved the preparation of a concept and the implementation of an avionics data acquisition system intended for research during flight of unmanned aerial vehicles of the mini class, this article presents a design of an avionics system and describes equipment solutions of a distributed measurement system intended for data acquisition consisting of intelligent transducers. The data collected during a flight controlled by an operator confirmed proper operation of the individual components of the data acquisition system.

  13. Spectral broadening of acoustic tones generated by unmanned aerial vehicles in a turbulent atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Wilson, D. K.; Finn, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic spectrum emitted by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and other aircraft can be distorted by propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Since most UAVs are propeller-based, they generate a series of acoustic tones and harmonics. In this paper, spectral broadening of these tones due......, spectral broadening is calculated and analyzed for typical meteorological regimes of the atmospheric boundary layer and different flight trajectories of UAVs. Experimental results are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Spectral broadening might also provide a means for remotely sensing...

  14. The Proliferation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Terrorist Use, Capability, and Strategic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Ryan Jokl [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    There has been unparalleled proliferation and technological advancement of consumer unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) across the globe in the past several years. As witnessed over the course of insurgency tactics, it is difficult to restrict terrorists from using widely available technology they perceive as advantageous to their overall strategy. Through a review of the characteristics, consumer market landscape, tactics, and countertactics, as well as operational use of consumer-grade UAVs, this open-source report seeks to provide an introductory understanding of the terrorist-UAV landscape, as well as insights into present and future capabilities. The caveat is evaluating a developing technology haphazardly used by terrorists in asymmetric conflicts.

  15. Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  16. Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  17. Control techniques of tilt rotor unmanned aerial vehicle systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The tilt rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (TRUAV exhibits special application value due to its unique rotor structure. However, varying dynamics and aerodynamic interference caused by tiltable rotors are great technical challenges and key issues for TRUAV’s high-powered flight controls, which have attracted the attention of many researchers. This paper outlines the concept of TRUAV and some typical TRUAV platforms while focusing on control techniques. TRUAV structural features, dynamics modeling, and flight control methods are discussed, and major challenges and corresponding developmental tendencies associated with TRUAV flight control are summarized.

  18. Mapping of a river using close range photogrammetry technique and unmanned aerial vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Room, M H M; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    Photogrammetry is a technique that can be used to record the information of any feature without direct contact. Nowadays, a combination of photogrammetry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems is widely used for various applications, especially for large scale mapping. UAV systems offer several advantages in terms of cost and image resolution compared to terrestrial photogrammetry and remote sensing system. Therefore, a combination of photogrammetry and UAV created a new term which is UAV photogrammetry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of a UAV system to map a river at very close distance. A digital camera is attached to the Hexacopter UAV and it is flown at 2 m above the ground surface to produce aerial photos. Then, the aerial photos are processed to create two photogrammetric products as output. These are mosaicked orthophoto and digital image. Both products are assessed (RSME). The RSME of X and Y coordinates are ±0.009 m and ±0.033 m respectively. As a conclusion, photogrammetry and the UAV system offer a reliable accuracy for mapping a river model and advantages in term of cost-efficient, high ground resolution and rapid data acquisition

  19. Topographic data acquisition in tsunami-prone coastal area using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfai, M. A.; Sunarto; Khakim, N.; Cahyadi, A.; Rosaji, F. S. C.; Fatchurohman, H.; Wibowo, Y. A.

    2018-04-01

    The southern coastal area of Java Island is one of the nine seismic gaps prone to tsunamis. The entire coastline in one of the regencies, Gunungkidul, is exposed to the subduction zone in the Indian Ocean. Also, the growing tourism industries in the regency increase its vulnerability, which places most of its areas at high risk of tsunamis. The same case applies to Kukup, i.e., one of the most well-known beaches in Gunungkidul. Structurally shaped cliffs that surround it experience intensive wave erosion process, but it has very minimum access for evacuation routes. Since tsunami modeling is a very advanced analysis, it requires an accurate topographic data. Therefore, the research aimed to generate the topographic data of Kukup Beach as the baseline in tsunami risk reduction analysis and disaster management. It used aerial photograph data, which was acquired using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The results showed that the aerial photographs captured by drone had accurate elevation and spatial resolution. Therefore, they are applicable for tsunami modeling and disaster management.

  20. Redundant manipulator techniques for partially decentralized path planning and control of a platoon of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Daniel J; Bishop, Bradley E; Sylvester, Caleb A

    2005-08-01

    An approach to real-time trajectory generation for platoons of autonomous vehicles is developed from well-known control techniques for redundant robotic manipulators. The partially decentralized structure of this approach permits each vehicle to independently compute its trajectory in real-time using only locally generated information and low-bandwidth feedback generated by a system exogenous to the platoon. Our work is motivated by applications for which communications bandwidth is severely limited, such for platoons of autonomous underwater vehicles. The communication requirements for our trajectory generation approach are independent of the number of vehicles in the platoon, enabling platoons composed of a large number of vehicles to be coordinated despite limited communication bandwidth.

  1. Motion planning for autonomous vehicle based on radial basis function neural network in unstructured environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Zhao, Pan; Liang, Huawei; Mei, Tao

    2014-09-18

    The autonomous vehicle is an automated system equipped with features like environment perception, decision-making, motion planning, and control and execution technology. Navigating in an unstructured and complex environment is a huge challenge for autonomous vehicles, due to the irregular shape of road, the requirement of real-time planning, and the nonholonomic constraints of vehicle. This paper presents a motion planning method, based on the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network, to guide the autonomous vehicle in unstructured environments. The proposed algorithm extracts the drivable region from the perception grid map based on the global path, which is available in the road network. The sample points are randomly selected in the drivable region, and a gradient descent method is used to train the RBF network. The parameters of the motion-planning algorithm are verified through the simulation and experiment. It is observed that the proposed approach produces a flexible, smooth, and safe path that can fit any road shape. The method is implemented on autonomous vehicle and verified against many outdoor scenes; furthermore, a comparison of proposed method with the existing well-known Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) method is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is highly effective in planning the vehicle path and offers better motion quality.

  2. The hybrid bio-inspired aerial vehicle: Concept and SIMSCAPE flight simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Zhang; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a Silver Gull-inspired hybrid aerial vehicle, the Super Sydney Silver Gull (SSSG), which is able to vary its structure, under different manoeuvre requirements, to implement three flight modes: the flapping wing flight, the fixed wing flight, and the quadcopter flight (the rotary wing flight of Unmanned Air Vehicle). Specifically, through proper mechanism design and flight mode transition, the SSSG can imitate the Silver Gull's flight gesture during flapping flight, save power consuming by switching to the fixed wing flight mode during long-range cruising, and hover at targeted area when transferring to quadcopter flight mode. Based on the aerodynamic models, the Simscape, a product of MathWorks, is used to simulate and analyse the performance of the SSSG's flight modes. The entity simulation results indicate that the created SSSG's 3D model is feasible and ready to be manufactured for further flight tests.

  3. Preliminary analysis of the forest health state based on multispectral images acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czapski Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this publication is to present the current progress of the work associated with the use of a lightweight unmanned platforms for various environmental studies. Current development in information technology, electronics and sensors miniaturisation allows mounting multispectral cameras and scanners on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV that could only be used on board aircraft and satellites. Remote Sensing Division in the Institute of Aviation carries out innovative researches using multisensory platform and lightweight unmanned vehicle to evaluate the health state of forests in Wielkopolska province. In this paper, applicability of multispectral images analysis acquired several times during the growing season from low altitude (up to 800m is presented. We present remote sensing indicators computed by our software and common methods for assessing state of trees health. The correctness of applied methods is verified using analysis of satellite scenes acquired by Landsat 8 OLI instrument (Operational Land Imager.

  4. A Framework for Diagnosis of Critical Faults in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Blanke, Mogens; Adrian, Jens

    2014-01-01

    , and based on a large number of data logged during flights, diagnostic methods are employed to diagnose faults and the performance of these fault detectors are evaluated against light data. The paper demonstrates a significant potential for reducing the risk of unplanned loss of remotely piloted vehicles......Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) need a large degree of tolerance towards faults. If not diagnosed and handled in time, many types of faults can have catastrophic consequences if they occur during flight. Prognosis of faults is also valuable and so is the ability to distinguish the severity...... of the different faults in terms of both consequences and the frequency with which they appear. In this paper flight data from a fleet of UAVs is analysed with respect to certain faults and their frequency of appearance. Data is taken from a group of UAV's of the same type but with small differences in weight...

  5. Demonstration of a Concurrently Programmed Tactical Level Control Software for Autonomous Vehicles and the Interface to the Execution Level Code

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, William

    2000-01-01

    .... One of the greatest challenges to the successful development of truly autonomous vehicles is the ability to link logically based high-level mission planning with low-level vehicle control software...

  6. Expert system isssues in automated, autonomous space vehicle rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Mary Ann; Bochsler, Daniel C.

    1987-01-01

    The problems involved in automated autonomous rendezvous are briefly reviewed, and the Rendezvous Expert (RENEX) expert system is discussed with reference to its goals, approach used, and knowledge structure and contents. RENEX has been developed to support streamlining operations for the Space Shuttle and Space Station program and to aid definition of mission requirements for the autonomous portions of rendezvous for the Mars Surface Sample Return and Comet Nucleus Sample return unmanned missions. The experience with REMEX to date and recommendations for further development are presented.

  7. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodgson

    Full Text Available Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98% were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs. Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys.

  8. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys.

  9. Increasing Road Infrastructure Capacity Through the Use of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    considerably in recent years. In many urban areas, individuals have foregone purchasing vehicles and have instead joined car - sharing programs like...lots throughout the metropolitan area.107 Car sharing has expanded to include bike-sharing programs like Capital Bikeshare in Washington, DC.108...vehicles could also enhance ride-sharing and car - sharing services, in which a user could request a vehicle via a mobile device to drive directly to the

  10. Development of a prototype radiation surveillance equipment for a mid-sized unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolander, P.; Kurvinen, K.; Poellaenen, R.; Kettunen, M.; Lyytinen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype radiation surveillance equipment has been developed to be used in a mid-sized Ranger unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) acquired by the Finnish Defence Forces. A multi-detector assembly was designed for the acquisition of dose rate and radionuclide concentration in the release plume. Detector assembly includes a GM-tube based dose rate meter, an inorganic scintillator detector and a semiconductor detector operating at room temperature. A sampling unit was designed for the collection of an aerosol sample of the plume for a detailed analysis in a ground based laboratory. The measurement data from all three detectors and several environmental parameters are collected by the onboard data acquisition computer. Real-time data dissemination is implemented with a TETRA based radio network. Test flights have been carried out with target drones and a small manned airplane. The Northrop KD2R-5 target drones have been used to simulate the high-G launch and vibration environment of the Ranger aerial vehicle. Target drones have been used because their air vehicle classification allows small test packages to be installed without tedious air safety protocols. Stability and survivability of the detectors, GPS navigation and radio frequency communication have been studied with the target drone test flights. Ground station software was developed to visualise the measurement data and to track the position of the air vehicle on a digital map. Test flights with the small manned airplane have been used to study the operational aspects of the detectors with greater detail. The housing for the instruments has been designed and constructed based on the experiences gained with the test flights and the laboratory measurements. The housing satisfies the aviation authority standards. Special attention has been paid to the high modularity, quick installation and ease of use. (orig.)

  11. Development of a prototype radiation surveillance equipment for a mid-sized unmanned aerial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolander, P.; Kurvinen, K.; Poellaenen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Kettunen, M. [Forces Research Institute of Technology, Lakiala (Finland); Lyytinen, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Lightweight Structures, Otaniemi (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    A prototype radiation surveillance equipment has been developed to be used in a mid-sized Ranger unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) acquired by the Finnish Defence Forces. A multi-detector assembly was designed for the acquisition of dose rate and radionuclide concentration in the release plume. Detector assembly includes a GM-tube based dose rate meter, an inorganic scintillator detector and a semiconductor detector operating at room temperature. A sampling unit was designed for the collection of an aerosol sample of the plume for a detailed analysis in a ground based laboratory. The measurement data from all three detectors and several environmental parameters are collected by the onboard data acquisition computer. Real-time data dissemination is implemented with a TETRA based radio network. Test flights have been carried out with target drones and a small manned airplane. The Northrop KD2R-5 target drones have been used to simulate the high-G launch and vibration environment of the Ranger aerial vehicle. Target drones have been used because their air vehicle classification allows small test packages to be installed without tedious air safety protocols. Stability and survivability of the detectors, GPS navigation and radio frequency communication have been studied with the target drone test flights. Ground station software was developed to visualise the measurement data and to track the position of the air vehicle on a digital map. Test flights with the small manned airplane have been used to study the operational aspects of the detectors with greater detail. The housing for the instruments has been designed and constructed based on the experiences gained with the test flights and the laboratory measurements. The housing satisfies the aviation authority standards. Special attention has been paid to the high modularity, quick installation and ease of use. (orig.)

  12. Autopilot Using Differential Thrust for ARIES Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarton, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, communication antennas must point to specific satellites in this system and thus underwater vehicles must steer a specific course on the surface during the communication process...

  13. A Robust Vehicle Localization Approach Based on GNSS/IMU/DMI/LiDAR Sensor Fusion for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaoli; Wang, Heng; Liu, Bingbing

    2017-09-18

    Precise and robust localization in a large-scale outdoor environment is essential for an autonomous vehicle. In order to improve the performance of the fusion of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)/IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)/DMI (Distance-Measuring Instruments), a multi-constraint fault detection approach is proposed to smooth the vehicle locations in spite of GNSS jumps. Furthermore, the lateral localization error is compensated by the point cloud-based lateral localization method proposed in this paper. Experiment results have verified the algorithms proposed in this paper, which shows that the algorithms proposed in this paper are capable of providing precise and robust vehicle localization.

  14. A Robust Vehicle Localization Approach Based on GNSS/IMU/DMI/LiDAR Sensor Fusion for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Meng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise and robust localization in a large-scale outdoor environment is essential for an autonomous vehicle. In order to improve the performance of the fusion of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System/IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit/DMI (Distance-Measuring Instruments, a multi-constraint fault detection approach is proposed to smooth the vehicle locations in spite of GNSS jumps. Furthermore, the lateral localization error is compensated by the point cloud-based lateral localization method proposed in this paper. Experiment results have verified the algorithms proposed in this paper, which shows that the algorithms proposed in this paper are capable of providing precise and robust vehicle localization.

  15. Siamese-GAN: Learning Invariant Representations for Aerial Vehicle Image Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Bashmal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new algorithm for cross-domain classification in aerial vehicle images based on generative adversarial networks (GANs. The proposed method, called Siamese-GAN, learns invariant feature representations for both labeled and unlabeled images coming from two different domains. To this end, we train in an adversarial manner a Siamese encoder–decoder architecture coupled with a discriminator network. The encoder–decoder network has the task of matching the distributions of both domains in a shared space regularized by the reconstruction ability, while the discriminator seeks to distinguish between them. After this phase, we feed the resulting encoded labeled and unlabeled features to another network composed of two fully-connected layers for training and classification, respectively. Experiments on several cross-domain datasets composed of extremely high resolution (EHR images acquired by manned/unmanned aerial vehicles (MAV/UAV over the cities of Vaihingen, Toronto, Potsdam, and Trento are reported and discussed.

  16. The effective use of unmanned aerial vehicles for local law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasque, Leighton

    This qualitative study was done to interview local law enforcement in Murfreesboro, Tennessee to determine if unmanned aerial vehicles could increase the safety of policy officers. Many police officers face dangerous scenarios on a daily basis; however, officers must also perform non-criminal related responsibilities that could put them in hazardous situations. UAVs have multiple capabilities that can decrease the number of hazards in an emergency situation whether it is environmental, traffic related, criminal activity, or investigations. Officers were interviewed to find whether or not unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) could be useful manpower on the police force. The study was also used to find whether or not officers foresee UAVs being used in law enforcement. The study revealed that UAVs could be used to add useful manpower to law enforcement based on the capabilities a UAV may have. Police officers cannot confirm whether or not they would be able to use a UAV until further research is conducted to examine the relation of costs to usage.

  17. PERANCANGAN SISTEM TRANSFER DAYA NIRKABEL UNTUK UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV MICRO JENIS QUADCOPTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Wahyu Pratomo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dalam Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ( UAV jenis Quadcopter, sumber catu daya berupa baterai yang hanya mampu bekerja 10-15 menit di udara merupakan permasalahan tersendiri bagi performa Quadcopter. Sedangkan perfomansi dari Quadcopter pada ketinggian yang susah dijangkau, diharapkan peran operator yang selama ini harus mengkoneksikan secara manual kabel charging ke baterai bisa digantikan oleh sistem secara otomatis ketika baterai akan habis. Untuk itu dalam paper ini membahas suatu perancangan sistem transfer daya nirkabel untuk Quadcopter mengisi ulang baterai tanpa bantuan operator dan tidak harus dilakukan pendaratan di atas tanah. Proses isi ulang ( charging baterai bisa dilakukan di atas gedung maupun di landasan yang telah terpasang transfer daya nirkabel. Tujuannya adalah meningkatkan performansi kerja Quadcopter di udara sesuai dengan kegunaanya. Dari perancangan sistem transfer daya nirkabel untuk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ( UAV jenis Quadcopter mengisi ulang ( charging baterai, diperoleh hasil efisiensi transfer daya terbaik sebesar 62,24% dengan jarak efektif 10 cm. Frekuensi sistem transfer daya nirkabel diperoleh dari rangkaian Colpitss Oscillator sebesar 333,1 KHz dengan menerapkan prinsip induksi elektromagnetik.

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Automobile License Plate Recognition System for Institutional Parking Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Dasilva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones have many applications and they are a current trend across many industries. They can be used for delivery, sports, surveillance, professional photography, cinematography, military combat, natural disaster assistance, security, and the list grows every day. Programming opens an avenue to automate many processes of daily life and with the drone as aerial programmable eyes, security and surveillance can become more efficient and cost effective. At Barry University, parking is becoming an issue as the number of people visiting the school greatly outnumbers the convenient parking locations. This has caused a multitude of hazards in parking lots due to people illegally parking, as well as unregistered vehicles parking in reserved areas. In this paper, we explain how automated drone surveillance is utilized to detect unauthorized parking at Barry University. The automated process is incorporated into Java application and completed in three steps: collecting visual data, processing data automatically, and sending automated responses and queues to the operator of the system.

  19. A Fully-Distributed Heuristic Algorithm for Control of Autonomous Vehicle Movements at Isolated Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah A. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing autonomous vehicle movements through roadway intersections is a challenging problem. It has been demonstrated in the literature that traditional traffic control, such as traffic signal and stop sign control are not optimal especially for heavy traffic demand levels. Alternatively, centralized autonomous vehicle control strategies are costly and not scalable given that the ability of a central controller to track and schedule the movement of hundreds of vehicles in real-time is questionable. Consequently, in this paper a fully distributed algorithm is proposed where vehicles in the vicinity of an intersection continuously cooperate with each other to develop a schedule that allows them to safely proceed through the intersection while incurring minimum delay. Unlike other distributed approaches described in the literature, the wireless communication constraints are considered in the design of the control algorithm. Specifically, the proposed algorithm requires vehicles heading to an intersection to communicate only with neighboring vehicles, while the lead vehicles on each approach lane share information to develop a complete intersection utilization schedule. The scheduling rotates between vehicles to identify higher traffic volumes and favor vehicles coming from heavier lanes to minimize the overall intersection delay. The simulated experiments show significant reductions in the average delay using the proposed approach compared to other methods reported in the literature and reduction in the maximum delay experienced by a vehicle especially in cases of heavy traffic demand levels.

  20. Vehicle Detection for RCTA/ANS (Autonomous Navigation System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Shane; Bajracharya, Max; Matthies, Larry H.; Howard, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    Using a stereo camera pair, imagery is acquired and processed through the JPLV stereo processing pipeline. From this stereo data, large 3D blobs are found. These blobs are then described and classified by their shape to determine which are vehicles and which are not. Prior vehicle detection algorithms are either targeted to specific domains, such as following lead cars, or are intensity- based methods that involve learning typical vehicle appearances from a large corpus of training data. In order to detect vehicles, the JPL Vehicle Detection (JVD) algorithm goes through the following steps: 1. Take as input a left disparity image and left rectified image from JPLV stereo. 2. Project the disparity data onto a two-dimensional Cartesian map. 3. Perform some post-processing of the map built in the previous step in order to clean it up. 4. Take the processed map and find peaks. For each peak, grow it out into a map blob. These map blobs represent large, roughly vehicle-sized objects in the scene. 5. Take these map blobs and reject those that do not meet certain criteria. Build descriptors for the ones that remain. Pass these descriptors onto a classifier, which determines if the blob is a vehicle or not. The probability of detection is the probability that if a vehicle is present in the image, is visible, and un-occluded, then it will be detected by the JVD algorithm. In order to estimate this probability, eight sequences were ground-truthed from the RCTA (Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances) program, totaling over 4,000 frames with 15 unique vehicles. Since these vehicles were observed at varying ranges, one is able to find the probability of detection as a function of range. At the time of this reporting, the JVD algorithm was tuned to perform best at cars seen from the front, rear, or either side, and perform poorly on vehicles seen from oblique angles.

  1. Human detection for underground autonomous mine vehicles using thermal imaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground mine automation has the potential to increase safety, productivity and allow the mining of lower-grade resources. In a mining environment with both autonomous robots and humans, it is essential that the robots are able to detect...

  2. Insect-Based Vision for Autonomous Vehicles: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the project were to use a high-speed digital video camera to pursue two questions: (1) To explore the influence of temporal imaging constraints on the performance of vision systems for autonomous mobile robots; (2) To study the fine structure of insect flight trajectories in order to better understand the characteristics of flight control, orientation and navigation.

  3. Diagnosis for Control and Decision Support for Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Hansen, Søren; Rufus Blas, Morten

    2016-01-01

    in practise. Yet they are also affordable due to the use of fault-tolerant philosophies and tools that make engineering efforts minimal for their implementation. The chapter includes examples for an autonomous aircraft and a baling system for agriculture to illustrate the generic design procedures and real...

  4. Inter-Vehicle Communication System Utilizing Autonomous Distributed Transmit Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yukio; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

    In ad-hoc network such as inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system, safety applications that vehicles broadcast the information such as car velocity, position and so on periodically are considered. In these applications, if there are many vehicles broadcast data in a communication area, congestion incurs a problem decreasing communication reliability. We propose autonomous distributed transmit power control method to keep high communication reliability. In this method, each vehicle controls its transmit power using feed back control. Furthermore, we design a communication protocol to realize the proposed method, and we evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method using computer simulation.

  5. Autonomous prediction of performance-based standards for heavy vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berman, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In most countries throughout the world, heavy vehicle use on public roads are governed by prescriptive rules, typically by imposing stringent mass and dimension limits in an attempt to control vehicle safety. A recent alternative framework is a...

  6. A Path Tracking Algorithm Using Future Prediction Control with Spike Detection for an Autonomous Vehicle Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aizzat Zakaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory tracking is an important aspect of autonomous vehicles. The idea behind trajectory tracking is the ability of the vehicle to follow a predefined path with zero steady state error. The difficulty arises due to the nonlinearity of vehicle dynamics. Therefore, this paper proposes a stable tracking control for an autonomous vehicle. An approach that consists of steering wheel control and lateral control is introduced. This control algorithm is used for a non-holonomic navigation problem, namely tracking a reference trajectory in a closed loop form. A proposed future prediction point control algorithm is used to calculate the vehicle's lateral error in order to improve the performance of the trajectory tracking. A feedback sensor signal from the steering wheel angle and yaw rate sensor is used as feedback information for the controller. The controller consists of a relationship between the future point lateral error, the linear velocity, the heading error and the reference yaw rate. This paper also introduces a spike detection algorithm to track the spike error that occurs during GPS reading. The proposed idea is to take the advantage of the derivative of the steering rate. This paper aims to tackle the lateral error problem by applying the steering control law to the vehicle, and proposes a new path tracking control method by considering the future coordinate of the vehicle and the future estimated lateral error. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by a simulation and a GPS experiment with noisy data. The approach used in this paper is not limited to autonomous vehicles alone since the concept of autonomous vehicle tracking can be used in mobile robot platforms, as the kinematic model of these two platforms is similar.

  7. Integrating small satellite communication in an autonomous vehicle network: A case for oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, André G. C.; Ferreira, António Sérgio; Costa, Maria; Nodar-López, Diego; Aguado Agelet, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    Small satellites and autonomous vehicles have greatly evolved in the last few decades. Hundreds of small satellites have been launched with increasing functionalities, in the last few years. Likewise, numerous autonomous vehicles have been built, with decreasing costs and form-factor payloads. Here we focus on combining these two multifaceted assets in an incremental way, with an ultimate goal of alleviating the logistical expenses in remote oceanographic operations. The first goal is to create a highly reliable and constantly available communication link for a network of autonomous vehicles, taking advantage of the small satellite lower cost, with respect to conventional spacecraft, and its higher flexibility. We have developed a test platform as a proving ground for this network, by integrating a satellite software defined radio on an unmanned air vehicle, creating a system of systems, and several tests have been run successfully, over land. As soon as the satellite is fully operational, we will start to move towards a cooperative network of autonomous vehicles and small satellites, with application in maritime operations, both in-situ and remote sensing.

  8. Optimization of the choice of unmanned aerial vehicles used to monitor the implementation of selected construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupka, Dariusz; Duchaczek, Artur; Waniewska, Agnieszka; Kowacka, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Due to their properties unmanned aerial vehicles have huge number of possibilities for application in construction engineering. The nature and extent of construction works performedmakes the decision to purchase the right equipment significant for the possibility for its further use while monitoring the implementation of these works. Technical factors, such as the accuracy and quality of the applied measurement instruments are especially important when monitoring the realization of construction projects. The paper presents the optimization of the choice of unmanned aerial vehicles using the Bellinger method. The decision-making analysis takes into account criteria that are particularly crucial by virtue of the range of monitoring of ongoing construction works.

  9. Path planning for persistent surveillance applications using fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, James F.

    This thesis addresses coordinated path planning for fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) engaged in persistent surveillance missions. While uniquely suited to this mission, fixed wing vehicles have maneuver constraints that can limit their performance in this role. Current technology vehicles are capable of long duration flight with a minimal acoustic footprint while carrying an array of cameras and sensors. Both military tactical and civilian safety applications can benefit from this technology. We make three main contributions: C1 A sequential path planner that generates a C 2 flight plan to persistently acquire a covering set of data over a user designated area of interest. The planner features the following innovations: • A path length abstraction that embeds kino-dynamic motion constraints to estimate feasible path length. • A Traveling Salesman-type planner to generate a covering set route based on the path length abstraction. • A smooth path generator that provides C 2 routes that satisfy user specified curvature constraints. C2 A set of algorithms to coordinate multiple UAVs, including mission commencement from arbitrary locations to the start of a coordinated mission and de-confliction of paths to avoid collisions with other vehicles and fixed obstacles. C3 A numerically robust toolbox of spline-based algorithms tailored for vehicle routing validated through flight test experiments on multiple platforms. A variety of tests and platforms are discussed. The algorithms presented are based on a technical approach with approximately equal emphasis on analysis, computation, dynamic simulation, and flight test experimentation. Our planner (C1) directly takes into account vehicle maneuverability and agility constraints that could otherwise render simple solutions infeasible. This is especially important when surveillance objectives elevate the importance of optimized paths. Researchers have developed a diverse range of solutions for persistent

  10. High-Fidelity Computational Aerodynamics of Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura Diaz, Patricia; Yoon, Seokkwan

    2018-01-01

    High-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been carried out for several multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Three vehicles have been studied: the classic quadcopter DJI Phantom 3, an unconventional quadcopter specialized for forward flight, the SUI Endurance, and an innovative concept for Urban Air Mobility (UAM), the Elytron 4S UAV. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on overset grids using high-order accurate schemes, dual-time stepping, and a hybrid turbulence model. The DJI Phantom 3 is simulated with different rotors and with both a simplified airframe and the real airframe including landing gear and a camera. The effects of weather are studied for the DJI Phantom 3 quadcopter in hover. The SUI En- durance original design is compared in forward flight to a new configuration conceived by the authors, the hybrid configuration, which gives a large improvement in forward thrust. The Elytron 4S UAV is simulated in helicopter mode and in airplane mode. Understanding the complex flows in multi-rotor vehicles will help design quieter, safer, and more efficient future drones and UAM vehicles.

  11. Investigating the Mobility of Light Autonomous Tracked Vehicles using a High Performance Computing Simulation Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad; Melanz, Daniel; Lamb, David; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Letherwood, Michael; Jain, Abhinandan; Quadrelli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the physics-based simulation of light tracked vehicles operating on rough deformable terrain. The focus is on small autonomous vehicles, which weigh less than 100 lb and move on deformable and rough terrain that is feature rich and no longer representable using a continuum approach. A scenario of interest is, for instance, the simulation of a reconnaissance mission for a high mobility lightweight robot where objects such as a boulder or a ditch that could otherwise be considered small for a truck or tank, become major obstacles that can impede the mobility of the light autonomous vehicle and negatively impact the success of its mission. Analyzing and gauging the mobility and performance of these light vehicles is accomplished through a modeling and simulation capability called Chrono::Engine. Chrono::Engine relies on parallel execution on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) cards.

  12. Studying the Safety Impact of Autonomous Vehicles Using Simulation-Based Surrogate Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Morando, Mark Mario; Tian, Qingyun; Truong, Long T.; Vu, Hai L.

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology has advanced rapidly in recent years with some automated features already available in vehicles on the market. AVs are expected to reduce traffic crashes as the majority of crashes are related to driver errors, fatigue, alcohol, or drugs. However, very little research has been conducted to estimate the safety impact of AVs. This paper aims to investigate the safety impacts of AVs using a simulation-based surrogate safety measure approach. To this end, safety...

  13. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  14. Intelligence Level Performance Standards Research for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger B; Hong, Tsai H; Messina, Elena

    2015-01-01

    United States and European safety standards have evolved to protect workers near Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV's). However, performance standards for AGV's and mobile robots have only recently begun development. Lessons can be learned from research and standards efforts for mobile robots applied to emergency response and military applications. Research challenges, tests and evaluations, and programs to develop higher intelligence levels for vehicles can also used to guide industrial AGV developments towards more adaptable and intelligent systems. These other efforts also provide useful standards development criteria for AGV performance test methods. Current standards areas being considered for AGVs are for docking, navigation, obstacle avoidance, and the ground truth systems that measure performance. This paper provides a look to the future with standards developments in both the performance of vehicles and the dynamic perception systems that measure intelligent vehicle performance.

  15. Optimal Sensor-Based Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicle Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    FLS system designed for use on the NPS REMUS 100 AUV, for example, was designed with multiple blazed arrays mounted at a permanent tilt angle of VDE ... VDE . 116 Figure 5.6 Fraction of single-vehicle VDE simulations with feasible trajectories. 116 Figure 5.7 Average single-vehicle search performance...103 Table 5.1 Simulation parameters for Nt analysis (free parameters in bold). . 110 Table 5.2 Simulation parameters for VDE analysis (free parameters

  16. Location Estimation for an Autonomously Guided Vehicle using an Augmented Kalman Filter to Autocalibrate the Odometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Dall; Bak, Martin; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    A Kalman filter using encoder readings as inputs and vision measurements as observations is designed as a location estimator for an autonomously guided vehicle (AGV). To reduce the effect of modelling errors an augmented filter that estimates the true system parameters is designed. The traditional...

  17. Autonomous underwater vehicle motion tracking using a Kalman Filter for sensor fusion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtzhausen, S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AUVs are ideal platforms for search and rescue operations. They can also be used for inspection of underwater terrains. These vehicles need to be autonomous and robust to cope with unpredictable current and high pressures. In this paper...

  18. Autonomous underwater vehicle motion tracking using a Kalman filter for sensor fusion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtzhausen, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available it will be shown how a Kalman Filter is used to estimate the position of an autonomous vehicle in a three dimensional space. The Kalman filter is used to estimate movement and position using measurements from multiple sensors...

  19. Vision-GPS Fusion for Guidance of an Autonomous Vehicle in Row Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time localization system for an autonomous vehicle passing through 0.25 m wide crop rows at 6 km/h. Localization is achieved by fusion of mea-surements from a row guidance sensor and a GPS receiver. Conventional agricultural practice applies inputs such as herbicide...

  20. Demonstration of Self-Training Autonomous Neural Networks in Space Vehicle Docking Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M. Clinton; Thaler, Stephen L.; Stevenson-Chavis, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Neural Networks have been under examination for decades in many areas of research, with varying degrees of success and acceptance. Key goals of computer learning, rapid problem solution, and automatic adaptation have been elusive at best. This paper summarizes efforts at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center harnessing such technology to autonomous space vehicle docking for the purpose of evaluating applicability to future missions.