WorldWideScience

Sample records for autonomic nervous system agents

  1. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  2. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result of another disease, such as Parkinson's disease, alcoholism and diabetes. Problems can affect either part ...

  3. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  4. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves.

  5. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A.; Baker, Matthew J.; Wahba, Mervat; Hauser, Robert A.

    2003-03-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), affects 70% to 80% of patients, and causes significant morbidity and discomfort. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction symptoms in PD include sexual dysfunction, swallowing and gastrointestinal disorders, bowel and bladder abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and derangements of cardiovascular regulation, particularly, orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PD may be caused by an underlying degenerative process that affects the autonomic ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and hypothalamic nuclei. Anti-parkinsonian medications can cause or worsen symptoms of ANS dysfunction. The care of a PD patient with ANS dysfunction relies on its recognition and directed treatment, including coordinated care between the neurologist and appropriate subspecialist. Pharmacotherapy may be useful to treat orthostasis, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dysfunction.

  6. [Autonomic nervous system in diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, M

    2001-08-01

    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia have a primary role in determining the early functional and later anatomic changes at the level of the autonomic pathways controlling the circulation, and besides in directly influencing cardiac and vascular cellular targets and feed-back baroreceptor system sensitivity to neurohumoral modulation in patients with diabetes mellitus. The basic mechanisms of dysfunction and damage, and the clinical and prognostic value of diabetic cardiovascular dysautonomia are discussed together with the diagnostic apparatus and the possible therapeutic approaches.

  7. [Emotion, amygdala, and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Emotion refers to the dynamic changes of feeling accompanied by the alteration of physical and visceral activities. Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) regulates the visceral activities. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing autonomic nervous activity help understand the emotional changes. To this end, the survey of the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-Fos in the brain and target organs, and the viral transneuronal labeling method using the pseudorabies virus (PRV) have enabled the visualization of the neurocircuitry of emotion. By comparing c-Fos expression and data from PRV or other neuroanatomical labeling techniques, the central sites that regulate emotional stress-induced autonomic activation can be deduced. Such regions have been identified in the limbic system (e. g., the extended amygdaloid complex; lateral septum; and infralimbic, insular, and ventromedial temporal cortical regions), as well as in several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. The amygdala is structurally diverse and comprises several subnuclei, which play a role in emotional process via projections from the cortex and a variety of subcortical structures. All amygdaloid subnuclei receive psychological information from other limbic systems, while the lateral and central subnuclei receive peripheral and sensory information. Output to the hypothalamus and peripheral sympathetic system mainly originates from the medial amygdala. As estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and androgen receptor are expressed in the medial amygdala, sex steroids may modulate the autonomic nervous activities.

  8. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. PMID:24095123

  9. Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Misha DP Luyer; Quirine Habes; Richard van Hak; Wim Buurman

    2011-01-01

    Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut barrier integrity. Activation of the pathway is possible via electrical or via pharmacological interventions, but is also achieved in a physiological manner by ingestion of dietary lipids. Administration of dietary lipids has been shown to be very effective in reducing the inflammatory cascade and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in several experimental studies. This beneficial effect of nutrition on the inflammatory inflammatory response and intestinal barrier integrity opens new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of certain gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, this neural feedback mechanism provides more insight in the relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut. Here, we will discuss the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system on the inflammatory response and gut barrier function and the potential benefit in a clinical setting.

  10. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  11. The Relationship between Vascular Function and the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are both risk factors for atherosclerosis. There is evidence demonstrating that there is a close interrelationship between these two systems. In hypertension, endothelial dysfunction affects the pathologic process through autonomic nervous pathways, and the pathophysiological process of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is closely related with vascular function. However, detailed mechanisms of this interrelationship have not been clearly explained. In this review, we summarize findings concerning the interrelationship between vascular function and the autonomic nervous system from both experimental and clinical studies. The clarification of this interrelationship may provide more comprehensive risk stratification and a new effective therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis.

  12. Is There Anything "Autonomous" in the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia-Filho, Alberto A.

    2006-01-01

    The terms "autonomous" or "vegetative" are currently used to identify one part of the nervous system composed of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions. However, the concepts that are under the literal meaning of these words can lead to misconceptions about the actual nervous organization. Some clear-cut examples indicate…

  13. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir kamal Salih

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, sociality and pro-activity, software agents are promising to make autonomic computing system a reality. This paper mixed multi-agent system with autonomic feature that completely hides its complexity from users/services. Mentioned Java Application Development Framework (JADE as platform example of this environment, could applied to web services as front end to users. With multi agent support it also provides adaptability, intelligence, collaboration, goal oriented interactions, flexibility, mobility and persistence in software systems.

  14. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nadir kamal Salih; G. K. Viju; Mohamed, Abdelmotalib A.

    2011-01-01

    Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, socialit...

  15. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  16. Gyrosonics a Novel Stimulant for Autonomic Nervous System

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, S K; Choudhuri, R; Banerjee, S

    2009-01-01

    Gyrosonics refers to novel audio binaural stimulus that produces rotational perceptions of sound movement in head at a particular predetermined frequency. Therapeutic effect observed with this is considered to be associated with modification of arousal of autonomic nervous system. The heart rate variability (HRV), non-invasive measure of autonomic nervous system, has been measured for group of 30 subjects for pre- and post- gyrosonic installation. The time- and frequency- domain analysis of HRV results show overall decrease in sympathetic response and increase in para- sympathetic response due to listening of gyro sonics.

  17. An Electerophisioligic Study Of Autonomic Nervous System In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorolahi Moghaddam H

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in diabetics can occur apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and sometimes leads to complaints which may be diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Moreover glycemic control of these patients may prevent such a complications."nMaterials and Methods: 30 diabetic patients were compared to the same number of age and sex-matched controls regarding to electrophysiologic findings of autonomic nervous system. Symptoms referable to autonomic disorder including nightly diarrhea, dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, nausea, and mouth dryness were recorded in all diabetic patients. Palmar and plantar SSR and expiration to inspiration ratio (E: I and Valsalva ratio were recorded in all diabetics and control individuals by electromyography device. In addition NCS was performed on two sensory and two motor nerves in diabetic patients."nResults: There was no relation between age of diabetics and abnormal D: I ratio, Valsalva ratio and degree of electrophysiologic autonomic impairment. Also no relation between peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment was found. Plantar SSR was absent in 80% of diabetics with orthostatic hypotension (p~ 0.019. Palmar and plantar SSR were absent in many diabetics in comparison to control group (for palmar SSR p~ 0.00 and for plantar SSR p< 0.015. There was no relation between diabetes duration since diagnosis and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment."nConclusion: According to the above mentioned findings diabetic autonomic neuropathy develops apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and probably with different mechanisms. Remarkable absence of palmar SSR in diabetics with orthostatic hypotension can be due to its sympathetic origin. Absence of any relation between diabetes duration and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment can be due to late diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or no pathophysiologic relation between chronic

  18. Perturbed autonomic nervous system function in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Argyrakopoulou, Georgia; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is characterized by the clustering of various common metabolic abnormalities in an individual and it is associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Its prevalence in the general population is approximately 25%. Central fat accumulation and insulin resistance are considered as the common denominators of the abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Subjects with metabolic syndrome have autonomic nervous system dysfunction characterized by predominance of the sympathetic nervous system in many organs, i.e. heart, kidneys, vasculature, adipose tissue, and muscles. Sympathetic nervous system activation in metabolic syndrome is detected as increased heart rate and blood pressure, diminished heart rate variability, baroreceptor dysfunction, enhanced lipolysis in visceral fat, increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and high urine or plasma catecholamine concentrations as well as turnover rates. The augmented sympathetic activity in individuals with metabolic syndrome worsens prognosis of this high-risk population. The mechanisms linking metabolic syndrome with sympathetic activation are complex and not clearly understood. Whether sympathetic overactivity is involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome or is a consequence of it remains to be elucidated since data from prospective studies are missing. Intervention studies have demonstrated that the autonomic disturbances of the metabolic syndrome may be reversible.

  19. Obesity and the Activity of the Autonomic Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ramis

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the autonomic nervous system functions of obese people. The study group consisted of 30 healthy obese people (20 female, 10 male, age range 18-58, median 37.6±9.7 years of age) and the control group consisted of 30 healthy nonobese people (18 female, 12 male, age range 17- 56, median 34.4±7.5 years). Each function was tested by non-invasive applications (orthostatic test, isometric exercise test, Valsalva ratio test, 30/15 ratio test, heart rate...

  20. [State of the autonomic nervous system after induced abortion in the lst trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuleva, L P; Gatina, G A; Kuz'mina, T I; Solov'eva, A D

    1990-04-01

    The autonomic nervous system has been examined in 271 patients with a history of first-trimester induced abortion. It was ascertained that induced abortion affected the autonomic nervous system, thus impairing adaptive potentials and entailing the onset or aggravation of preexisting autonomic vascular dystonia. PMID:2378404

  1. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHawksley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics and one or more vocal (phonic tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS. Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an

  2. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Dierckx, Bram

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate, respiratory rate, digestion, and perspiration. It is divided into two partially antagonistic systems: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic or vagal nervous system. In general, the vagal syste...

  3. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  4. Motor execution detection based on autonomic nervous system responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggered assistance has been shown to be a successful robotic strategy for provoking motor plasticity, probably because it requires neurologic patients’ active participation to initiate a movement involving their impaired limb. Triggered assistance, however, requires sufficient residual motor control to activate the trigger and, thus, is not applicable to individuals with severe neurologic injuries. In these situations, brain and body–computer interfaces have emerged as promising solutions to control robotic devices. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of a body–machine interface to detect motion execution only monitoring the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response. Four physiological signals were measured (blood pressure, breathing rate, skin conductance response and heart rate) during an isometric pinching task and used to train a classifier based on hidden Markov models. We performed an experiment with six healthy subjects to test the effectiveness of the classifier to detect rest and active pinching periods. The results showed that the movement execution can be accurately classified based only on peripheral autonomic signals, with an accuracy level of 84.5%, sensitivity of 83.8% and specificity of 85.2%. These results are encouraging to perform further research on the use of the ANS response in body–machine interfaces. (paper)

  5. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate, respiratory

  6. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  7. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it. PMID:24573884

  8. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it.

  9. Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.

  10. Modulation of Autonomous Nervous System activity by gyrosonic stimulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, S K; Choudhuri, R; Bandopadhaya, S

    2010-01-01

    A novel audio binaural stimulus that generates rotational perceptions of sound movement in brain at a particular predetermined frequency is referred as gyrosonics. The influence of gyrosonics on autonomic nervous system of healthy subjects has been examined by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV) in time- and frequency- domain. The M-lagged Poincare plot shows that the parameters SD1, SD2 and ratio SD12 (SD1/SD2) increases with lagged number M, and M-dependence is well described by Pade' approximant $\\chi \\frac{1+\\beta M}{1+\\gamma M}$ where values of $\\chi$, $\\beta$ and $ \\gamma$ depend on parameters SD1,SD2 and SD12. The values of these parameters for different M are augmented after gyrosonic stimulation. The slope and magnitude of curvature of SD1 and SD12 vs M plot increase considerably due to stimulation. The DFA analysis exhibits decrease in value of exponent $\\alpha$ due to stimulation. This stimulation results slower Heart rate, higher values of the standard deviation SD and the root-mean squared suc...

  11. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton G. Burt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AIx, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02 independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002 independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54. Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001 but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12. We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies.

  12. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Morton G.; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L.; Stranks, Stephen N.; Mangoni, Arduino A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02) independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002) independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54). Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001) but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12). We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies. PMID:27649235

  13. A Generic Agent Organisation Framework For Autonomic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kota, Ramachandra; Gibbins, Nicholas; Nicholas R Jennings

    2009-01-01

    Autonomic computing is being advocated as a tool for managing large, complex computing systems. Specifically, self-organisation provides a suitable approach for developing such autonomic systems by incorporating self-management and adaptation properties into large-scale distributed systems. To aid in this development, this paper details a generic problem-solving agent organisation framework that can act as a modelling and simulation platform for autonomic systems. Our framework describes a se...

  14. (Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  15. Autonomic nervous system mediated effects of food intake. Interaction between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Orshoven, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis focused on the autonomic nervous system mediated interactions between the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems in response to food intake and on potential consequences of failure of these interactions. The effects of food intake on cardiovascular parameter

  16. Analysis of Autonomic Nervous System Functional Age and Heart Rate Variability in Mine Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicko T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy working conditions and many unpropitious factors influencing workers health participate in development of various health disorders, among other autonomic cardiovascular regulation malfunction. The aim of this study is to draw a comparison of autonomic nervous system functional age and heart rate variability changes between workers with and without mining occupational exposure.

  17. Autonomic nervous system function in type 2 diabetes using conventional clinical autonomic tests, heart rate and blood pressure variability measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sucharita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are currently approximately 40.9 million patients with diabetes mellitus in India and this number is expected to rise to about 69.9 million by the year 2025. This high burden of diabetes is likely to be associated with an increase in associated complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 (15 male and 8 female patients with type 2 diabetes of 10-15 years duration and their age and gender matched controls (n=23 were recruited. All subjects underwent detailed clinical proforma, questionnaire related to autonomic symptoms, anthropometry, peripheral neural examination and tests of autonomic nervous system including both conventional and newer methods (heart rate and blood pressure variability. Results: Conventional tests of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared to the controls (P<0.05. The diabetic patients group had significantly lower high frequency and low-frequency HRV when expressed in absolute units (P<0.05 and total power (P<0.01 compared to the controls. Conclusion: Data from the current study demonstrated that diabetics had both cardiac sympathetic and cardiac parasympathetic nervous system involvement. The presence of symptoms and involvement of both components of the autonomic nervous system suggest that dysfunction has been present for a while in these diabetics. There is a strong need for earlier and regular evaluation of autonomic nervous system in type 2 diabetics to prevent further complications.

  18. [Orthostatic hypotension due to autonomous nervous system dysfunction. Review of different syndromes and their treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, B P; Blanc, J J

    1999-01-01

    Dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system was poorly known to cardiologists until recently. Advances in the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope have initiated intense cardiological research into this subject. This type of syncope does not cover by far all dysfunctions of this system, all or nearly all of which have vasoplegic or bradycardic components. The aim of this article is to review the disorders of the autonomous nervous system which may interest every day practice of the cardiologist. The diagnostic advances and new treatments will require a further update of this review in the months or years to come. PMID:10065281

  19. Clinical assessment of the autonomic nervous system in diabetes mellitus and its correlation with glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday B Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Clinical assessment of the autonomic nervous system in Diabetes mellitus (DM and its correlation with glycemic control. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study of 50 adult diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with DM who were on regular treatment with either insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic agents were studied. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN score was calculated using the clinical test variables. Results: Of the 50 patients 30 had no CAN, 10 had early CAN and 10 had severe CAN. The mean of CAN score increased with duration of diabetes. The mean HbA 1C was 7.73. The mean CAN score was higher in patients who had complication of diabetes as compared to patients without complications. The heart rate variability with respiration was found to be 15.84 ± 7.02/min. The mean valsalva ratio was 1.31 ± 0.23. The mean drop in BP on standing was 7.30 ± 7.24 mmHg. The mean 30:15 ratio was 1.06 ± 0.04. The mean rise in diastolic BP on sustained hand grip was 16.04 ± 4.11 mmHg. Conclusions: The prevalence of autonomic neuropathy in DM as assessed by CAN score was 40%. The CAN score did not correlate with the duration of DM. The HbA 1C had a significant correlation with the severity of autonomic neuropathy. Occurrence of CAN correlated with the presence of peripheral neuropathy but not with the presence of retinopathy or nephropathy. All individual tests in the battery of CAN score were significantly associated with the presence of autonomic neuropathy, except 30:15 ratio.

  20. Cardiovascular and autonomic modulation by the central nervous system after aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Martins-Pinge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The sympathetic tone, particularly for the cardiovascular system, is generated by sympathetic discharges originating in specific areas of the brainstem. Aerobic exercise training promotes several cardiovascular adjustments that are influenced by the central areas involved in the output of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we emphasize the studies that investigate aerobic exercise training protocols to identify the cardiovascular adaptations that may be the result of central nervous system plasticity due to chronic exercise. The focus of our study is on some groups of neurons involved in sympathetic regulation. They include the nucleus tractus solitarii, caudal ventrolateral medulla and the rostral ventrolateral medulla that maintain and regulate the cardiac and vascular autonomic tonus. We also discuss studies that demonstrate the involvement of supramedullary areas in exercise training modulation, with emphasis on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an important area of integration for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The results of these studies suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity may be due, at least in part, to reductions in sympathetic nervous system activity. Conversely, with the recent association of physical inactivity with chronic disease, these data may also suggest that increases in sympathetic nervous system activity contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  1. Impact of Six-Month Caloric Restriction on Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Healthy, Overweight, Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    de Jonge, Lillian; Moreira, Emilia AM; Martin, Corby K.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) increases maximum lifespan but the mechanisms are unclear. Dominance of the sympathetic nervous System (SNS) over the Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) has been shown to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity and aging are associated with increased SNS activity and weight loss and/or exercise seem to have positive effects on this balance. We therefore evaluated the effect of different approaches of CR on autonomic function in 48 overweight indi...

  2. Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

  3. The role of the autonomic nervous system in diabetes and cardiovascular disease : an epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to study the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease using an epidemiological approach. Based on earlier studies it has remained unclear whether impaired ANS function is a risk factor for the deve

  4. Dysregulation of the Autonomic Nervous System Predicts the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Stress is suggested to lead to metabolic dysregulations as clustered in the metabolic syndrome. Although dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system is found to associate with the metabolic syndrome and its dysregulations, no longitudinal study has been performed to date to examine the pr

  5. Autonomous Traffic Control System Using Agent Based Technology

    CERN Document Server

    M, Venkatesh; V, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    The way of analyzing, designing and building of real-time projects has been changed due to the rapid growth of internet, mobile technologies and intelligent applications. Most of these applications are intelligent, tiny and distributed components called as agent. Agent works like it takes the input from numerous real-time sources and gives back the real-time response. In this paper how these agents can be implemented in vehicle traffic management especially in large cities and identifying various challenges when there is a rapid growth of population and vehicles. In this paper our proposal gives a solution for using autonomous or agent based technology. These autonomous or intelligent agents have the capability to observe, act and learn from their past experience. This system uses the knowledge flow of precedent signal or data to identify the incoming flow of forthcoming signal. Our architecture involves the video analysis and exploration using some Intelligence learning algorithm to estimate and identify the...

  6. Multifractal and nonlinear assessment of autonomous nervous system response during transient myocardial ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assess autonomic nervous system response during prolonged percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) using heart rate variability analysis with multifractal indices. These indices are used to evaluate the effects of the PTCA procedures at different arteries and locations. A total of 55 patients from the Staff3 database, with no prior history of myocardial infarction, were included in the study. The indices increased significantly during the transient ischaemia and reperfusion periods, indicating an increase in nonlinear multifractal characteristics and a change in temporal correlations in heartbeat fluctuations. This indicates that significant multifractal and nonlinear complex reactions in the autonomic control of the heart rate occurred during coronary artery occlusions and suggests that the multifractal indices may be a promising nonlinear technique for evaluating autonomic nervous system response in the presence of transient myocardial ischaemia

  7. Multi-agent autonomous system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of controlling a plurality of crafts in an operational area includes providing a command system, a first craft in the operational area coupled to the command system, and a second craft in the operational area coupled to the command system. The method further includes determining a first desired destination and a first trajectory to the first desired destination, sending a first command from the command system to the first craft to move a first distance along the first trajectory, and moving the first craft according to the first command. A second desired destination and a second trajectory to the second desired destination are determined and a second command is sent from the command system to the second craft to move a second distance along the second trajectory.

  8. Erythromelalgia as a manifestation of autonomic nervous system involvement in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Ivan; Lakoš Jukić, Ines; Habek, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare condition characterized by burning pain, erythema and increased temperature of the hands or the feet. Its etiology is not completely understood but it is believed that the underlying cause is a peripheral vascular dysfunction that leads to simultaneous tissue hypoxia and hyperemia. We present a rare co-occurrence of erythromelalgia and multiple sclerosis in a patient with autonomic nervous system dysfunction and propose a causative interconnection. PMID:27456866

  9. Autonomic nervous system response to L-dopa in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruonala, Verneri; Tarvainen, Mika P; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Pekkonen, Eero; Rissanen, Saara M

    2015-01-01

    Levodopa is the main treatment method for reducing the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Whereas it reduces the motor symptoms efficiently, its effect on autonomous nervous system is not clear. The information about effect of levodopa on heart rate variability is not coherent between the studies. In this study, ECG of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease was measured during levodopa challenge with pronounced dose of fast release levodopa to ensure the positive drug effect for deep brain stimulation treatment. Heart rate variability analysis was done at three time points, before administration of levodopa, 30 and 60 minutes after administration. After 30 minutes of administration, the HRV parameters show that parasympathetic nervous system activity is decreased and the sympatho-vagal balance is shifted towards sympathetic control. At 60 minutes after administration the parasympathetic nervous system activates slightly and causes a decrease in heart rate.

  10. Autonomic nervous system and risk factors for vascular disease. Effects of autonomic unbalance in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigliano, Giulio; Ronchetti, Gabriele; Girotti, Floriano

    2008-02-01

    Alterations of the cardiovascular system and of the glucose and lipid metabolism can represent important factors of vascular risk. The autonomic nervous system, through its two efferent branches, the parasympatheticcholinergic and the sympathetic-adrenergic, plays an important role in the control of the cardiovascular activity and of the glucose and lipid metabolism, and its impaired working can interfere with these functions. An increased sympathetic activity and an increased frequency of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and obesity have been reported in untreated schizophrenic patients, and a further worsening of these vascular risk factors has been signalled as a side effect of treatment with neuroleptic drugs. The opposite is observed in Parkinson's disease, where the reduced autonomic activity induced by the illness is associated with a decreased frequency of vascular risk factors, and their occurrence is further reduced by the treatment with dopaminergic drugs.

  11. Early postnatal low-protein nutrition, metabolic programming and the autonomic nervous system in adult life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Júlio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protein restriction during lactation has been used as a rat model of metabolic programming to study the impact of perinatal malnutrition on adult metabolism. In contrast to protein restriction during fetal life, protein restriction during lactation did not appear to cause either obesity or the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperinsulinemia, when individuals reached adulthood. However, protein restriction provokes body underweight and hypoinsulinemia. This review is focused on the regulation of insulin secretion and the influence of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in adult rats that were protein-malnourished during lactation. The data available on the topic suggest that the perinatal phase of lactation, when insulted by protein deficit, imprints the adult metabolism and thereby alters the glycemic control. Although hypoinsulinemia programs adult rats to maintain normoglycemia, pancreatic β-cells are less sensitive to secretion stimuli, such as glucose and cholinergic agents. These pancreatic dysfunctions may be attributed to an imbalance of ANS activity recorded in adult rats that experienced maternal protein restriction.

  12. Early postnatal low-protein nutrition, metabolic programming and the autonomic nervous system in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Gravena, Clarice; de Mathias, Paulo Cezar Freitas

    2012-09-11

    Protein restriction during lactation has been used as a rat model of metabolic programming to study the impact of perinatal malnutrition on adult metabolism. In contrast to protein restriction during fetal life, protein restriction during lactation did not appear to cause either obesity or the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperinsulinemia, when individuals reached adulthood. However, protein restriction provokes body underweight and hypoinsulinemia. This review is focused on the regulation of insulin secretion and the influence of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in adult rats that were protein-malnourished during lactation. The data available on the topic suggest that the perinatal phase of lactation, when insulted by protein deficit, imprints the adult metabolism and thereby alters the glycemic control. Although hypoinsulinemia programs adult rats to maintain normoglycemia, pancreatic β-cells are less sensitive to secretion stimuli, such as glucose and cholinergic agents. These pancreatic dysfunctions may be attributed to an imbalance of ANS activity recorded in adult rats that experienced maternal protein restriction.

  13. Effect Of Haemodialysis On Intra Dialytic Calcium, Phosphorus,Magnesium, Levels In Relation To AutonomicNervous System Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Hosny, Sahar Shawky, Ahmed Ramadan , Hany Refaat

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common in uremia and in patients under hemodialysis. Changes in serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesuim always occur during hemodialysis. The relation between these changes and autonomic nervous system activity during hemodialysis has not been fully studied. This study was carried out on 30 patients with chronic renal failure on regular hemo-dialysis with nearly similar age group. We measured serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesi...

  14. Imaging of the autonomic nervous system: focus on cardiac sympathetic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S

    2003-12-01

    Symptoms or signs of abnormal autonomic nervous system function occur commonly in several neurological disorders. Clinical evaluations have depended on physiological, pharmacological, and neurochemical approaches. Recently, imaging of sympathetic noradrenergic innervation has been introduced and applied especially in the heart. Most studies have used the radiolabeled sympathomimetic amine, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. Decreased uptake or increased "washout" of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine-derived radioactivity is associated with worse prognosis or more severe disease in hypertension, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and diabetes mellitus. This pattern may reflect a high rate of postganglionic sympathetic nerve traffic to the heart. Many recent studies have agreed on the remarkable finding that all patients with Parkinson's disease and orthostatic hypotension have a loss of cardiac sympathetic innervation, whereas all patients with multiple system atrophy, often difficult to distinguish clinically from Parkinson's disease, have intact cardiac sympathetic innervation. Because Parkinson's disease entails a postganglionic sympathetic noradrenergic lesion, the disease appears to be not only a movement disorder, with dopamine loss in the nigrostriatal system of the brain, but also a dysautonomia, with noradrenaline loss in the sympathetic nervous system of the heart. As new ligands are developed, one may predict further discoveries of involvement of components of the autonomic nervous system in neurological diseases.

  15. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Kushki

    Full Text Available Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1 examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2 characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature during a baseline (movie watching and anxiety condition (Stroop task in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17 and children with ASD (n = 12. The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1 signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2 ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  16. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Drumm, Ellen; Pla Mobarak, Michele; Tanel, Nadia; Dupuis, Annie; Chau, Tom; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1) examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2) characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature) during a baseline (movie watching) and anxiety condition (Stroop task) in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17) and children with ASD (n = 12). The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1) signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2) ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  17. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report, September 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  18. [Autonomic nervous system as a source of biomarkers in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouclet, Hélène; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Flamant, Mathurin; Coron, Emmanuel; Neunlist, Michel; Derkinderen, Pascal; Rouaud, Tiphaine

    2012-07-01

    No validated biomarker is yet available for Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical PD symptoms include dopa-responsive motor symptoms and dopa-resistant non motor symptoms. Some of the non motor symptoms begin during the premotor stage, like constipation, hyposmia or REM-sleep disorders. Dementia, gait disorders and dysarthria occur in later stages of the disease. PD pathology extends well beyond the substantia nigra. It affects autonomic and non autonomic nuclei in the brainstem and in the medulla, the olfactory bulb and the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Alpha-synuclein aggregates, called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, are detectable in these structures at early stages. The study of the enteric nervous system (ENS) displays the Lewy pathology in living patients through the digestive biopsies. Minor salivary glands analysis could be a good marker as well, but this needs confirmation. An anatomopathologic PD biomarker would be interesting at different stages of PD: for the positive diagnosis, to follow the progression and to develop neuroprotective treatments.

  19. Causal interactions between the cerebral cortex and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, XiaoLin; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, JianBao

    2014-05-01

    Mental states such as stress and anxiety can cause heart disease. On the other hand, meditation can improve cardiac performance. In this study, the heart rate variability, directed transfer function and corrected conditional entropy were used to investigate the effects of mental tasks on cardiac performance, and the functional coupling between the cerebral cortex and the heart. When subjects tried to decrease their heart rate by volition, the sympathetic nervous system was inhibited and the heart rate decreased. When subjects tried to increase their heart rate by volition, the parasympathetic nervous system was inhibited and the sympathetic nervous system was stimulated, and the heart rate increased. When autonomic nervous system activity was regulated by mental tasks, the information flow from the post-central areas to the pre-central areas of the cerebral cortex increased, and there was greater coupling between the brain and the heart. Use of directed transfer function and corrected conditional entropy techniques enabled analysis of electroencephalographic recordings, and of the information flow causing functional coupling between the brain and the heart.

  20. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Magdalena M.H.E.; Maas, Jolanda; Muller, Rianne; Braun, Anoek; Kaandorp, Wendy; van Lien, René; van Poppel, Mireille N.M.; van Mechelen, Willem; van den Berg, Agnes E.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram signal was used to derive respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP), indicators of respectively parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. The findings provide support for greater recovery after viewing green scenes, as marked by a stronger increase in RSA as a marker of parasympathetic activity. There were no indications for greater recovery after viewing green scenes in PEP as a marker of sympathetic activity, and there were also no indications of greater buffering effects of green space in neither RSA nor PEP. Overall, our findings are consistent with a predominant role of the parasympathetic nervous system in restorative effects of viewing green space. PMID:26694426

  1. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M.H.E. van den Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram signal was used to derive respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and pre-ejection period (PEP, indicators of respectively parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. The findings provide support for greater recovery after viewing green scenes, as marked by a stronger increase in RSA as a marker of parasympathetic activity. There were no indications for greater recovery after viewing green scenes in PEP as a marker of sympathetic activity, and there were also no indications of greater buffering effects of green space in neither RSA nor PEP. Overall, our findings are consistent with a predominant role of the parasympathetic nervous system in restorative effects of viewing green space.

  2. Multiple-Agent Air/Ground Autonomous Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Tarbell, Mark; Dohm, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous systems of multiple-agent air/ground robotic units for exploration of the surfaces of remote planets are undergoing development. Modified versions of these systems could be used on Earth to perform tasks in environments dangerous or inaccessible to humans: examples of tasks could include scientific exploration of remote regions of Antarctica, removal of land mines, cleanup of hazardous chemicals, and military reconnaissance. A basic system according to this concept (see figure) would include a unit, suspended by a balloon or a blimp, that would be in radio communication with multiple robotic ground vehicles (rovers) equipped with video cameras and possibly other sensors for scientific exploration. The airborne unit would be free-floating, controlled by thrusters, or tethered either to one of the rovers or to a stationary object in or on the ground. Each rover would contain a semi-autonomous control system for maneuvering and would function under the supervision of a control system in the airborne unit. The rover maneuvering control system would utilize imagery from the onboard camera to navigate around obstacles. Avoidance of obstacles would also be aided by readout from an onboard (e.g., ultrasonic) sensor. Together, the rover and airborne control systems would constitute an overarching closed-loop control system to coordinate scientific exploration by the rovers.

  3. Hormones and the autonomic nervous system are involved in suprachiasmatic nucleus modulation of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Marieke; Buijs, Ruud M; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2006-05-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in energy expenditure associated with the light-dark cycle induce variations in the plasma glucose concentration that are more gradual. Organisms take advantage of adapting their internal physiology to the predictable daily changes in energy expenditure, because it enables them to anticipate these changes and to prevent unnecessary disturbance of homeostasis. The hypothalamic biological clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), receives light information from the eyes and transmits this information to the rest of the body to synchronize physiology to the environment. Here we review several studies providing evidence for biological clock control of the daily variation in several aspects of glucose metabolism. Although both hormones and the autonomic nervous system can stimulate glucose uptake or production by organs in the periphery, we have shown that the biological clock control of glucose metabolism mostly occurs through the autonomic nervous system. The critical involvement of the biological clock is also indicated by several studies, indicating that disturbance of the biological clock is often associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  4. [AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND ITS IMBALANCE IN NEURO INTENSIVE CARE UNIT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popugaev, K A; Lubnin, A Yu; Zabelin, M V; Samoylov, A S

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides homeostasis due to the innervation of the secretory glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Higher centers of the ANS (primarily the hypothalamus, some centers of the brain stem and limbic system) form a integrative network, which plays a key role in coordinating the functioning of the endocrine, immune system and other parts of the central nervous system. Intracranial centers of the ANS are responsible for the consciousness, behavioral, emotional, and other components of the higher nervous activity. Thus, the significance of the ANS can't be overestimated. At the same time today in neurointensive care there are no clear criteria for ANS dysfunction, we don't have universally recognized monitoring facilities for ANS and approaches to targeted therapy of its disorders. This paradox is even more important as in the pathogenesis of some critical conditions such as neurogenic pulmonary edema, stunned myocardium, cardiomyopathy Takotsubo lies precisely ANS imbalance. This review devoted to the ANS and some problems associated with its imbalance. PMID:27468506

  5. Effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa on the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Janne; Remien, Piet; Guballa, Christoph; Binder, Andreas; Binder, Sabine; Schattschneider, Jörn; Herzog, Jan; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther; Wasner, Gunnar; Baron, Ralf

    2007-07-01

    Dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Regarding motor disability, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment option in long lasting PD. The aims of this study were to examine whether STN stimulation has an influence on functions of the ANS and to compare these effects to those induced by levodopa. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) during rest and orthostatic conditions, HR variability (HRV) and breathing-induced cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstriction (CVC) were tested in 14 PD patients treated with STN stimulation during "ON" and "OFF" condition of the stimulator. The effects of a single dose of levodopa on ANS were tested in 15 PD patients without DBS. STN stimulation had no influence on cardiovascular ANS functions, whereas CVC was significantly increased. In contrast, levodopa significantly lowered BP and HR at rest and enhanced orthostatic hypotension. Further, HRV, skin perfusion and temperature increased after administration of levodopa. Our results suggest that in contrast to levodopa, STN stimulation has only minor effects on autonomic functions. Since less pharmacotherapy is needed after STN stimulation, reduced levodopa intake results in relative improvement of autonomic function in deep brain stimulated PD patients.

  6. Objective evaluation of stress with the blind by the monitoring of autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, Bertrand; Baltenneck, Nicolas; Gehin, Claudine; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Accessibility for the blind in an urban space must be studied under real conditions in their daily environment. A new approach for evaluating the impact of environmental conditions on blind pedestrians is the objective measure of stress by the monitoring of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Original techniques of data analysis and spatial representation are proposed for the detection of the ANS activity through the assessment of the electrodermal activity. Skin resistance was recorded with an EmoSense system on 10 blind subjects who followed a charted course independently. The course was 1065 meters long and consisted of various environmental conditions in an urban space. The spatial frequency of the non-specific skin resistance responses was used to provide a more relevant representation of geographic hotspots. Results of statistical analysis based on this new parameter are discussed to conclude on phenomena causing mental stress with the blind moving in an urban space.

  7. The role of the autonomic nervous system in hypertension: a bond graph model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bond graph model of the cardiovascular system with embedded autonomic nervous regulation was developed for a better understanding of the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in hypertension. The model is described by a pump model of the heart and a detailed representation of the head and neck, pulmonary, coronary, abdomen and extremity circulation. It responds to sympathetic and parasympathetic activities by modifying systemic peripheral vascular resistance, heart rate, ventricular end-systolic elastance and venous unstressed volumes. The impairment of ANS is represented by an elevation of the baroreflex set point. The simulation results show that, compared with normotensive, in hypertension the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) rose from 112/77 mmHg to 144/94 mmHg and the left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT) increased from 10 mm to 12.74 mm. In the case that ANS regulation was absent, both the SBP and DBP further increased by 8 mmHg and the LVWT increased to 13.22 mm. The results also demonstrate that when ANS regulation is not severely damaged, e.g. the baroreflex set point is 97 mmHg, it still has an effect in preventing the rapid rise of blood pressure in hypertension; however, with the worsening of ANS regulation, its protective role weakens. The results agree with human physiological and pathological features in hemodynamic parameters and carotid baroreflex function curves, and indicate the role of ANS in blood pressure regulation and heart protection. In conclusion, the present model may provide a valid approach to study the pathophysiological conditions of the cardiovascular system and the mechanism of ANS regulation

  8. [The influence of aging on autonomic nervous system activity and gastric myoelectric activity in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, P J; Kolasińska-Kloch, W; Pitala, A; Janik, A; Kopp, B; Sibiga, W

    1999-01-01

    The study was performed on 84 healthy volunteers (33 women, 52 men) of age 20-71 years with no history of the circulatory or gastrointestinal system disease. The gastric myoelectrical activity (EGG) was recorded with the cutaneous electrodes--electrogastrography Synectics (Sweden). The activity of the cardiac autonomic nervous system was measured by HRV (heart rate variability) recorded with EGG and computer assisted programme Proster (Poland). Subject were divided into 5 groups according to the decade of age (20-70). Percentage of basal electrical rhythm (BER) dysrhythmias increased (1.9 +/- 0.5% vs 21.1 +/- 3.2% in fasting and 2.4 +/- 1.2% vs 24.6 +/- 5% postprandially but decrease of the EGG amplitude after the meal was observed (270 +/- 20% vs 90 +/- 7%) in youngest and oldest group respectively. With the ageing the cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (LF and HF) decreased in first and last group respectively. In the forth decade in man and women the sympathetic activity system prevalence expressed by the LF/HF rate increased (1.09 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.14 +/- 0.5) (p < 0.05). The results of our study suggest the deleterious influence of the ageing on the of autonomic system activity as shown by changes in HRV and dysrhythmia of the gastric slow waves in EGG. PMID:10909474

  9. Relations between blood supply of brain of students and condition of autonomic nervous system and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    L. D. Korovina; T. M. Zaporozhets

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to estimate the brain blood supply level by rheoencephalography method in junior students of the Medical academy and to determine the blood supply links with the autonomic regulation state, behavioural and alimentary factors. Rheo-encephalographic study, research of the autonomic nervous system state, heart rate regulation and questioning of 17–29 year-old students have been conducted. Basic hemodynamic indices were normal in all surveyed students. Increase in ...

  10. An Educational Board Game to Assist PharmD Students in Learning Autonomic Nervous System Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Shawn; Tincher, Lindsay; Odeng-Otu, Emmanuel; Herdman, Michelle

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To examine whether playing a board game can assist PharmD students in learning autonomic nervous system (ANS) pharmacology. Design. Of 72 students enrolled in a required second-year pharmacology course, 22 students volunteered to play the board game, which was followed by an in-class examination consisting of 42 ANS questions (ANSQs) and 8 control questions (CTLQs). Participants were given a pretest and a posttest to assess immediate educational improvement. Participants' scores for pretest, posttest, in-class examination, and ANSQs were compared. Also, scores for examination, ANSQs, and CTLQs were compared between board game participants (PART) and nonparticipating classmates (NPART). Assessment. Board game participants scored progressively higher between the pretest, posttest, examination, and ANSQs. Additionally, PART scores were higher than NPART scores for examination and ANSQs. Difference between PART and NPART CTLQ scores was not significant. Conclusion. A board game can assist PharmD students in learning ANS pharmacology.

  11. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  12. Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system function and aerobic capacity in type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet eHägglund

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS function has been reported in type 1 diabetes patients. ANS function, evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, has been linked to aerobic capacity (VO2peak in healthy subjects, but relationship is unknown in type 1 diabetes. We examined cardiovascular ANS function at rest and during function tests, and its relations to VO2peak in type 1 diabetes individuals. Ten type 1 diabetes patients (T1D (34 ± 7 years and 11 healthy control (CON (31 ± 6 years age and leisure-time physical activity-matched men were studied. Autonomic nervous system function was recorded at rest and during active standing and handgrip. Determination of VO2peak was obtained with graded cycle ergometer test. During ANS recordings SBPV, BRS, and resting HRV did not differ between groups, but alpha1 responses to manoeuvres in detrended fluctuation analyses were smaller in T1D (active standing; 32%, handgrip; 20%, medians than in CON (active standing; 71%, handgrip; 54%, p < 0.05. VO2peak was lower in T1D (36 ± 4 ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1 than in CON (45 ± 9 ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1, p < 0.05. Resting HRV measures, RMSSD, HF and SD1 correlated with VO2peak in CON (p < 0.05 and when analysing groups together. These results suggest that T1D had lower VO2peak, weaker HRV response to manoeuvres, but not impaired cardiovascular ANS function at rest compared with CON. Resting parasympathetic cardiac activity correlated with VO2peak in CON but not in T1D. Detrended fluctuation analysis could be a sensitive detector of changes in cardiac ANS function in type 1 diabetes.

  13. Assessment of autonomic nervous system activity by heart rate recovery response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Zhaohui; BAI Jing

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is a tool for diagnosing or predicting cardiovascular diseases,while heart rate recovery response (HRRR) after exercise has been promoted as a process under the regulation of ANS (sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems).Therefore,assessment of ANS activity was performed by HRRR in this study.Firstly,HRRR signal was extracted based on wavelet decomposition and difference curve of coarse component from heart rate signal.Then,HRRR was divided into quickly descending interval (QDI) and slowly descending interval (SDI).Finally,3 groups of indexes (Difference,Exponential and Quadratic Groups) from QDI and SDI were compared between 50 normotensive and 61 hypertensive subjects.The results showed that the indexes of Difference Group were better choices than others in analyzing the features of HRRR.Furthermore,parasympathetic activity is dominant in QDI,while sympathetic and parasympathetic activities affect SDI together.In conclusion,the proposed method was effective to assess ANS activity.

  14. Aromatherapy benefits autonomic nervous system regulation for elementary school faculty in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kang-Ming; Shen, Chuh-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic nervous system parameters were recorded 5 minutes before and after the application of the aroma spray. Results showed that there were significant decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, LF power percentage, and LF/HF while there were increases in heart rate variability and HF power percentage (P aromatherapy spray. Further analysis was investigated by dividing subjects into three background variables (position variables, age variables, gender variables) and anxiety degree groups. All parameters were significantly different for most subgroups, except for the substitute teachers and the light-anxiety group. Parasympathetic nervous system activation was measured after aromatherapy in this study. It encouraged further study for other stress working population by aromatherapy. PMID:21584196

  15. Aromatherapy Benefits Autonomic Nervous System Regulation for Elementary School Faculty in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Ming Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic nervous system parameters were recorded 5 minutes before and after the application of the aroma spray. Results showed that there were significant decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, LF power percentage, and LF/HF while there were increases in heart rate variability and HF power percentage (P<.001∗∗∗ after application of the aromatherapy spray. Further analysis was investigated by dividing subjects into three background variables (position variables, age variables, gender variables and anxiety degree groups. All parameters were significantly different for most subgroups, except for the substitute teachers and the light-anxiety group. Parasympathetic nervous system activation was measured after aromatherapy in this study. It encouraged further study for other stress working population by aromatherapy.

  16. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kinda eKhalaf; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Caroline eRobinson; Cornforth, David J.; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Hayder eAl-Aubaidy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated ...

  17. Effects of Betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    2001-01-01

    Betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. Betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of Areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic constituent. However, betel chewing may produce complex reactions and interactions. In the presence of lime, arecoline and guvacoline in Areca nut are hydrolyzed into arecaidine and guvacine, respectively, which are strong inhibitors of GABA uptake. Piper betle flower or leaf contains aromatic phenolic compounds which have been found to stimulate the release of catecholamines in vitro. Thus, betel chewing may affect parasympathetic, GABAnergic and sympathetic functions. Betel chewing produces an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and body temperature. In addition, EEG shows widespread cortical desynchronization indicating a state of arousal. In autonomic function tests, both the sympathetic skin response and RR interval variation are affected. Betel chewing also increases plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These results suggest that betel chewing mainly affects the central and autonomic nervous systems. Future studies should investigate both the acute and chronic effects of betel chewing. Such studies may further elucidate the psychoactive mechanisms responsible for the undiminished popularity of betel chewing since antiquity. PMID:11385294

  18. Early deprivation and autonomic nervous system functioning in post-institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisa A; Koss, Kalsea J; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The relations between early deprivation and the development of the neuroendocrine and central components of the mammalian stress response have been examined frequently. However, little is known about the impact of early deprivation on the developmental trajectories of autonomic function. Children adopted between 15-36 months from institutional care were examined during their first 16 months post-adoption (N = 60). Comparison groups included same-aged peers reared in their birth families (N = 50) and children adopted internationally from overseas foster care (N = 46). The present study examined trajectories of baseline autonomic nervous system function longitudinally following entry into adopted families. Post-institutionalized children had higher sympathetic tone, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP). Individual differences in PEP soon after adoption served as a mediator between early deprivation and parent-reported behavioral problems 2 years post-adoption. There were no group differences in parasympathetic function, indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. All three groups showed similar trajectories of ANS function across the 16 month period. PMID:26497289

  19. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart. PMID:23366661

  20. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart.

  1. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinda eKhalaf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI and cardiovascular disease (CVD as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated with CVD, has not been established. The current study aims to investigate the association between ABPI, and cardiac rhythm, as an indicator of cardiovascular health and functionality, utilising heart rate variability (HRV.Methods and Results: Two hundred and thirty six patients underwent ABPI assessment. Standard time and frequency domain, and non-linear HRV measures were determined from 5-minute electrocardiogram. ABPI data were divided into normal (n=101, low (n=67 and high (n=66 and compared to HRV measures.(DFAα1 and SampEn were significantly different between the low ABPI, high ABPI and control groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: A possible coupling between arterial stenosis and vascular calcification with decreased and increased HRV respectively was observed. Our results suggest a model for interpreting the relationship between vascular pathophysiology and cardiac rhythm. The cardiovascular system may be viewed as a complex system comprising a number of interacting subsystems. These cardiac and vascular subsystems/networks may be coupled and undergo transitions in response to internal or external perturbations. From a clinical perspective, the significantly increased sample entropy compared to the normal ABPI group and the decreased and increased complex correlation properties measured by DFA for the low and high ABPI groups respectively, may be useful indicators that a more holistic treatment approach in line with this more complex clinical picture is required.

  2. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Sominsky

    Full Text Available Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p. exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli. Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of

  3. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sominsky, Luba; Fuller, Erin A; Bondarenko, Evgeny; Ong, Lin Kooi; Averell, Lee; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Dunkley, Peter R; Dickson, Phillip W; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs) 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli). Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of physiological processes.

  4. Circadian rhythm of rest activity and autonomic nervous system activity at different stages in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Fumitoshi; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nakagawa, Masanori; Imanishi, Jiro

    2011-12-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often suffer from non-motor symptoms, including sleep and autonomic dysfunctions, controlled by circadian regulation. To evaluate the alteration of circadian rhythm in PD patients, we investigated both rest activities and autonomic functions. Twenty-seven patients with idiopathic PD and 30 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Group comparisons of controls (mean age: 68.93 years), early-PD patients classified as Hoehn-Yahr (HY) stage 1&2 (mean age: 70.78 years), and advanced-PD as HY 3&4 (mean age: 68.61 years) were conducted. Measurement of rest activities was performed using Actigraph for 7 continuous days, and included measuring rhythm patterns (activity patterns recorded in or out of bed) and circadian rhythm amplitudes (power of the cycle being closest to 24h). A power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) using 24-hour ambulatory ECG was also performed. The actigraphic measurements indicated that statistically PD patients have lower activity levels when out of bed and higher activity levels when in bed, and that, the circadian rest-activity rhythm in PD decreases with disease severity. The HRV analysis showed that the total frequency component and low frequency/high frequency ratio were low in PD patients, suggesting that autonomic activities and the circadian rhythm of the sympathetic nervous system are attenuated in PD. This study elucidated the disorganization in the rest activities and HRV of PD patients as well as the gradual alterations in the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm disturbances are important to consider the mechanism of non-motor symptoms that occur from early stage of PD.

  5. The impact of emotion-related autonomic nervous system responsiveness on pain sensitivity in female patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, H. van; Lumley, M.A.; Houtveen, J.H.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Geenen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with fibromyalgia have shown hyporeactive autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to physical stressors, augmented pain to ANS changes, and heightened negative emotions, which can increase pain. This study examined ANS reactivity to negative emotions and its association with pai

  6. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction and serum levels of neurotoxic and neurotrophic cytokines in patients with cobalamin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Çeneli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available neurotrophiccytokines epidermal growth factor (EGF and interleukin-6 (IL-6 plays a role in the pathogenesisof cobalamin (Cbl deficiency-induced neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomicnervous system dysfunction and to look for any relationship between autonomic nervous systemdisturbances and serum cytokine levels (TNF-

  7. Error awareness revisited: accumulation of multimodal evidence from central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Danielmeier, Claudia; Ullsperger, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The differences between erroneous actions that are consciously perceived as errors and those that go unnoticed have recently become an issue in the field of performance monitoring. In EEG studies, error awareness has been suggested to influence the error positivity (Pe) of the response-locked event-related brain potential, a positive voltage deflection prominent approximately 300 msec after error commission, whereas the preceding error-related negativity (ERN) seemed to be unaffected by error awareness. Erroneous actions, in general, have been shown to promote several changes in ongoing autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, yet such investigations have only rarely taken into account the question of subjective error awareness. In the first part of this study, heart rate, pupillometry, and EEG were recorded during an antisaccade task to measure autonomic arousal and activity of the CNS separately for perceived and unperceived errors. Contrary to our expectations, we observed differences in both Pe and ERN with respect to subjective error awareness. This was replicated in a second experiment, using a modified version of the same task. In line with our predictions, only perceived errors provoke the previously established post-error heart rate deceleration. Also, pupil size yields a more prominent dilatory effect after an erroneous saccade, which is also significantly larger for perceived than unperceived errors. On the basis of the ERP and ANS results as well as brain-behavior correlations, we suggest a novel interpretation of the implementation and emergence of error awareness in the brain. In our framework, several systems generate input signals (e.g., ERN, sensory input, proprioception) that influence the emergence of error awareness, which is then accumulated and presumably reflected in later potentials, such as the Pe. PMID:21268673

  8. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction and Inflammation Contribute to the Increased Cardiovascular Mortality Risk Associated With Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, Willem J.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Tracy, Russell P.; Barzilay, Joshua I.; Schulz, Richard; Gottdiener, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate prospectively whether autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and inflammation play a role in the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality risk associated with depression. Methods Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 907; mean age, 71.3 ± 4.6 years; 59.1% women) were evaluated for ANS indices derived from heart rate variability (HRV) analysis (frequency and time domain HRV, and nonlinear indices, including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA1) and heart rate turbulence). Inflammation markers included C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, and white blood cell count). Depressive symptoms were assessed, using the 10-item Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the mortality risk associated with depression, ANS, and inflammation markers, adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Results Depression was associated with ANS dysfunction (DFA1, p = .018), and increased inflammation markers (white blood cell count, p = .012, fibrinogen p = .043) adjusting for covariates. CVD-related mortality occurred in 121 participants during a median follow-up of 13.3 years. Depression was associated with an increased CVD mortality risk (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–2.86). Multivariable analyses showed that depression was an independent predictor of CVD mortality (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–2.83) when adjusting for independent HRV and inflammation predictors (DFA1, heart rate turbulence, interleukin-6), attenuating the depression-CVD mortality association by 12.7% (p < .001). Conclusion Autonomic dysfunction and inflammation contribute to the increased cardiovascular mortality risk associated with depression, but a large portion of the predictive value of depression remains unexplained by these neuroimmunological measures. PMID:20639389

  9. DISORDERS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE: FOCUS ON THE ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Akhmedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV in patients with ischemic heart disease, a life-threatening heart rhythm disorders, as well as diabetes mellitus (DM is considered. A significant association between the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and death from cardiovascular causes is identified. The reactions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS can serve as a precipitating factor of arrhythmias in patients with heart disorders. Analysis of HRV at rest is the main and informative method for determination of the ANS disorders. HRV decreases greatly in patients with acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and DM, predicting a high risk of death. The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is cardiac autonomic neuropathy, with the development of "silent" ischemia and painless myocardial infarction. Autonomic regulation of the heart rate should be assessed for early diagnosis and prevention of complications in the form of sudden death.

  10. DISORDERS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE: FOCUS ON THE ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Akhmedova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV in patients with ischemic heart disease, a life-threatening heart rhythm disorders, as well as diabetes mellitus (DM is considered. A significant association between the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and death from cardiovascular causes is identified. The reactions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS can serve as a precipitating factor of arrhythmias in patients with heart disorders. Analysis of HRV at rest is the main and informative method for determination of the ANS disorders. HRV decreases greatly in patients with acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and DM, predicting a high risk of death. The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is cardiac autonomic neuropathy, with the development of "silent" ischemia and painless myocardial infarction. Autonomic regulation of the heart rate should be assessed for early diagnosis and prevention of complications in the form of sudden death.

  11. Trigonometric regressive spectral analysis: an innovative tool for evaluating the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Reimann, Manja; Gasch, Julia; Rüdiger, Heinz

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms, describing the temporal variation of biological processes, are a characteristic feature of complex systems. The analysis of biological rhythms can provide important insights into the pathophysiology of different diseases, especially, in cardiovascular medicine. In the field of the autonomic nervous system, heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) describe important fluctuations of blood pressure and heart rate which are often analyzed by Fourier transformation. However, these parameters are stochastic with overlaying rhythmical structures. R-R intervals as independent variables of time are not equidistant. That is why the trigonometric regressive spectral (TRS) analysis--reviewed in this paper--was introduced, considering both the statistical and rhythmical features of such time series. The data segments required for TRS analysis can be as short as 20 s allowing for dynamic evaluation of heart rate and blood pressure interaction over longer periods. Beyond HRV, TRS also estimates BRS based on linear regression analyses of coherent heart rate and blood pressure oscillations. An additional advantage is that all oscillations are analyzed by the same (maximal) number of R-R intervals thereby providing a high number of individual BRS values. This ensures a high confidence level of BRS determination which, along with short recording periods, may be of profound clinical relevance. The dynamic assessment of heart rate and blood pressure spectra by TRS allows a more precise evaluation of cardiovascular modulation under different settings as has already been demonstrated in different clinical studies. PMID:23812502

  12. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  13. Novel heart rate parameters for the assessment of autonomic nervous system function in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, M; Fifer, W P; Sahni, R; Signorini, M G

    2016-09-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance is a key factor in homeostatic control of cardiac activity, breathing and certain reflex reactions such as coughing, sneezing and swallowing and thus plays a crucial role for survival. ANS impairment has been related to many neonatal pathologies, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Moreover, some conditions have been identified as risk factors for SIDS, such as prone sleep position. There is an urgent need for timely and non-invasive assessment of ANS function in at-risk infants. Systematic measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) offers an optimal approach to access indirectly both sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on ANS functioning. In this paper, data from premature infants collected in a sleep physiology laboratory in the NICU are presented: traditional and novel approaches to HRV analyses are applied and compared in order to evaluate their relative merits in the assessment of ANS activity and the influence of sleep position. Indices from time domain and nonlinear approaches contributed as markers of physiological development in premature infants. Moreover, significant differences were observed as a function of sleep position. PMID:27480495

  14. Effects of diving and oxygen on autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklewski, Pawel J; Kot, Jacek; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Nuckowska, Magdalena K; Tkachenko, Yurii

    2013-09-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a popular leisure activity with the number of divers reaching several millions worldwide. Scuba diving represents a huge challenge for integrative physiology. In mammalian evolution, physiological reflexes developed to deal with lack of oxygen, rather than with an excess, which makes adaptations to scuba diving more difficult to describe and understand than those associated with breath-hold diving. The underwater environment significantly limits the use of equipment to register the organism's functions, so, in most instances, scientific theories are built on experiments that model real diving to some extent, like hyperbaric exposures, dive reflexes or water immersion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current knowledge related to the influence exerted by physiological conditions specific to diving on the autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow. The main factors regulating cerebral blood flow during scuba diving are discussed as follows: 1) increased oxygen partial pressure; 2) immersion-related trigemino-cardiac reflexes and 3) exposure to cold, exercise and stress. Also discussed are the potential mechanisms associated with immersion pulmonary oedema. PMID:24122190

  15. Exercise training improves cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in type 1 diabetic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ki Ok; Moritani, Toshio; Woo, Jinhee; Jang, Ki Soeng; Bae, Ju Yong; Yoo, Jaeho; Kang, Sunghwun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effect exercise training has on cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) and cardiovascular risk profiles in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). [Subjects] Fifteen type 1 DM children (all boys; 13.0±1.0 years of age) were enrolled in the study. [Methods] The subjects received exercise training three times a week in a 12-week program. Each child was asked to walk on a treadmill to achieve an exercise intensity of VO2max 60%. ANS activity was measured by power spectral analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Blood samples were obtained for serum lipid profiles. To evaluate Doppler-shifted Fourier pulsatility index (PI) analysis, a 5-MHz continuous wave Doppler (VASCULAB D10) set was used to measure forward blood flow velocity (FLOW) in the radial artery. [Results] Total and low-frequency (LF) power of heart rate variability increased significantly after exercise intervention. Total cholesterol (TC) levels were significant lower after exercise intervention. Total and high-frequency (HF) power were significantly correlated with higher TC levels, but diastolic blood pressure and HF was significantly correlated with lower TC levels. [Conclusion] Regular exercise intervention should be prescribed for children with type 1 DM.

  16. Characterizing Psychological Dimensions in Non-Pathological Subjects through Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimma eNardelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective assessment of psychological traits of healthy subjects and psychiatric patients has been growing interest in clinical and bioengineering research fields during the last decade. Several experimental evidences strongly suggest that a link between Autonomic Nervous System (ANS dynamics and specific dimensions such as anxiety, social phobia, stress and emotional regulation might exist. Nevertheless, an extensive investigation on a wide range of psycho-cognitive scales and ANS non-invasive markers gathered from standard and nonlinear analysis still needs to be addressed. In this study, we analyzed the discerning and correlation capabilities of a comprehensive set of ANS features and psycho-cognitive scales in 29 non-pathological subjects monitored during resting conditions. In particular, the state of the art of standard and nonlinear analysis was performed on Heart Rate Variability, InterBreath Interval series, and Inter-Beat Respiration series, which were considered as monovariate and multivariate measurements. Experimental results show that each ANS feature is linked to specific psychological traits. Moreover, nonlinear analysis outperforms the psychological assessment with respect to standard analysis. Considering that the current clinical practice relies only on subjective scores from interviews and questionnaires, this study provides objective tools for the assessment of psychological dimensions.

  17. Effect of Autonomic Nervous System on the Transmurai Dispersion of Ventricular Repolarization in Intact Canine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存泰; 徐大文; 李泱; 刘念; 王琳; 陆再英

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The effect of the autonomic nerves on the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization in intact canine was investigated. By using the monophasic action potential (MAP) recording technique, monophasic action potentials (MAPs) of the epicardium (Epi), midmyocardium (Mid)and endocardium (Endo) were recorded simultaneously by specially designed plunge-needle electrodes at the left ventricular free wall in 12 open-chest dogs. MAPD90 and transmural dispersion of repolarization among three myocardial layers as well as the incidence of the EAD before autonomic nervous stimulation and during autonomic nervous stimulation were compared. The results showed that the MAPD90 of Epi, Mid and Endo before autonomic nervous stimulation were 278±11 ms,316± 16 ms and 270± 12 ms respectively, the MAPD90of Mid was significantly longer than that of Epi or Endo (P<0.01). MAPD90 of Epi, Mid and Endo were shortened by 19±4 ms, 45±6 ms,18± 3 ms respectively during sympathetic stimulation. Compared with that of the control, the transmural dispersion of repolarization during sympathetic stimulation was shortened from 44 ± 4 ms to 15±3 ms (P<0. 01), but early afterdepolarizations were elicited in the Mid of 5 dogs (41 0%)during sympathetic stimulation. Parasympathetic stimulation did not significantly affect the MAPD90 in the three layers. It is concluded that there is the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization in intact canine. Sympathetic stimulation can reduce transmural dispersion of repolarization, but it can produce early afterdepolarizations in the Mid. Parasympathetic stimulation does not significantly affect the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization.

  18. Autonomic nervous system dynamics for mood and emotional-state recognition significant advances in data acquisition, signal processing and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This monograph reports on advances in the measurement and study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics as a source of reliable and effective markers for mood state recognition and assessment of emotional responses. Its primary impact will be in affective computing and the application of emotion-recognition systems. Applicative studies of biosignals such as: electrocardiograms; electrodermal responses; respiration activity; gaze points; and pupil-size variation are covered in detail, and experimental results explain how to characterize the elicited affective levels and mood states pragmatically and accurately using the information thus extracted from the ANS. Nonlinear signal processing techniques play a crucial role in understanding the ANS physiology underlying superficially noticeable changes and provide important quantifiers of cardiovascular control dynamics. These have prognostic value in both healthy subjects and patients with mood disorders. Moreover, Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics for Mood and ...

  19. Optimizing the level of the physical health of the students with a glance of the type of autonomic nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygus I.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed the changes in the level of physical health of students of the Faculty of Physical Education under the influence of physical training with a glance of the type of autonomic nervous system. The study involved 87 students of first and second courses. Is used methods for determining the level of physical health of students: Apanasenko G.L., teacher observations, statistics. Hold a special physical training with the prevalence of the type of the autonomic nervous system. The basis of influence was the principle of individualization of physical activity, the systematic and gradual. A significant high level of physical fitness at the end of the study, the main group of students. In this group, overall assessment of the level of physical health is above the average level by improving the life, power and index Robinson.

  20. Dysfunction of autonomic nervous system in childhood obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Baum

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction in overweight and obese children. METHODS: Parasympathetic and sympathetic ANS function was assessed in children and adolescents with no evidence of impaired glucose metabolism by analysis of heart rate variability (low frequency power ln(LF, high frequency power, ln(HF; ln(LF/HF ratio, ratio of longest RR interval during expiration to shortest interval during inspiration (E/I ratio, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD; sympathetic skin response (SSR; and quantitative pupillography (pupil diameter in darkness, light reflex amplitude, latency, constriction velocity, re-dilation velocity. The relationship of each ANS variable to the standard deviation score of body mass index (BMI-SDS was assessed in a linear model considering age, gender and pubertal stage as co-variates and employing an F-statistic to compare the fit of nested models. Group comparisons between normal weight and obese children as well as an analysis of dependence on insulin resistance (as indexed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance, HOMA-IR were performed for parameters shown to correlate with BMI-SDS. Statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Measurements were performed in 149 individuals (mean age 12.0 y; 90 obese 45 boys; 59 normal weight, 34 boys. E/I ratio (p = 0.003, ln(HF (p = 0.03, pupil diameter in darkness (p = 0.01 were negatively correlated with BMI-SDS, whereas ln(LF/HF was positively correlated (p = 0.05. Early re-dilation velocity was in trend negatively correlated to BMI-SDS (p = 0.08. None of the parameters that depended significantly on BMI-SDS was found to be significantly correlated with HOMA-IR. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate extended ANS dysfunction in obese children and adolescents, affecting several organ systems. Both parasympathetic activity and sympathetic activity are reduced. The conspicuous pattern of ANS dysfunction

  1. Functional state of the autonomic nervous system in bronchial asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    HONKELDIEVA HURMATHON KAMCHIEVNA; ALIMDZHANOV IBRAHIM INAMOVICH; ABDULLAEVA МAVJUDA ERGASHEVNA; TOJIBOEV TEMUR TOPVOLDI YGLI; MAMATKHYJAEV MIRHOJIDDIN SADRIDDINKHOJI YGLI

    2016-01-01

    These shifts vegetative status have undoubted positive effect on the microcirculation and the rhythm of the circulatory system, facilitating a more rapid liquidation of clinical manifestations of autonomic dysfunction and create psihoemotsinalnogo patient comfort mode.

  2. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the in vivo memory to glucose of pancreatic beta cell in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guyen, J M; C. Magnan; Laury, M C; Thibault, C.; Leveteau, J; Gilbert, M.; Pénicaud, L.; Ktorza, A

    1994-01-01

    The fact that the potentiating effect of prolonged hyperglycemia on the subsequent insulin secretion is observed in vivo but not in vitro suggests the involvement of extrapancreatic factors in the in vivo memory of pancreatic beta cells to glucose. We have investigated the possible role of the autonomic nervous system. Rats were made hyperglycemic by a 48-h infusion with glucose (HG rats). At the end of glucose infusion as well as 6 h postinfusion, both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve a...

  3. Altered autonomic nervous system activity as a potential etiological factor of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi Tatsuya; Kimura Tetsuya; Ushiroyama Takahisa; Matsumoto Tamaki; Moritani Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) encompasses a wide variety of cyclic and recurrent physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms occurring during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and abating shortly following the beginning of menses. Although PMS is widely recognized, its etiopathogenesis is not yet understood. The present study investigates whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system, which plays a vital role in orchestrating physiological homeostasis with...

  4. Chinese-chi and Kundalini yoga Meditations Effects on the Autonomic Nervous System: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilesh Dey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disease is one of the major causes for death all over the world. Heart rate variability (HRV is a significant parameter that used in assessing Autonomous Nervous System (ANS activity. Generally, the 2D Poincare′ plot and 3D Poincaré plot of the HRV signals reflect the effect of different external stimuli on the ANS. Meditation is one of such external stimulus, which has different techniques with different types of effects on the ANS. Chinese Chi-meditation and Kundalini yoga are two different effective meditation techniques. The current work is interested with the analysis of the HRV signals under the effect of these two based on meditation techniques. The 2D and 3D Poincare′ plots are generally plotted by fitting respectively an ellipse/ellipsoid to the dense region of the constructed Poincare′ plot of HRV signals. However, the 2D and 3D Poincaré plots sometimes fail to describe the proper behaviour of the system. Thus in this study, a three-dimensional frequency-delay plot is proposed to properly distinguish these two famous meditation techniques by analyzing their effects on ANS. This proposed 3D frequency-delay plot is applied on HRV signals of eight persons practicing same Chi-meditation and four other persons practising same Kundalini yoga. To substantiate the result for larger sample of data, statistical Student t-test is applied, which shows a satisfactory result in this context. The experimental results established that the Chi-meditation has large impact on the HRVcompared to the Kundalini yoga.

  5. Dysregulation of the autonomous nervous system in patients with temporomandibular disorder: a pupillometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Monaco

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS was recently investigated in Temporomandibular disorders (TMD. Several authors argue that in subjects with TMD there is a dysregulation of ANS. Recent literature support that Pupillometry is a simple non-invasive tool to study ANS. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TMD and ANS activity using pupillometry recording in Infrared light at rest Mandible Position (RP; Infrared light at Forced Habitual Occlusion (FHO; Yellow-green light at RP; Yellow-green light at FHO. Forty female subjects were enrolled: 20 case patients showed TMD based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, and 20 control patients, aged matched, had no signs or symptoms of TMD. Statistical analysis was performed on average pupil size. Ratio between pupil size in FHO and RP (FHO/RP ratio and yellow-green and infrared (light/darkness ratio lighting were carried out. Within group differences of pupil size and of "ratio" were analyzed using a paired t test, while differences of pupil size between groups were tested using an unpaired t test. Statistical comparisons between groups showed no significant differences of absolute values of pupil dimension in RP and FHO, both in yellow-green and in infrared lighting. In addition, there were no significant differences within groups comparing RP and FHO in yellow-green light. In within group comparison of pupil size, differences between RP and FHO were significant in infrared conditions. Control subjects increased, whereas TMD patients decreased pupil size at FHO in infrared lightening. FHO/RP ratio in darkness and light/darkness ratio in RP were significantly different between groups. Taken together, these data suggest that TMD subjects have an impairment of the sympathetic-adrenergic component of the ANS to be activated under stress. The present study provides preliminary pupillometric data confirming that adrenergic function is dysregulated in patients with

  6. Effect Of Haemodialysis On Intra Dialytic Calcium, Phosphorus,Magnesium, Levels In Relation To AutonomicNervous System Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hosny, Sahar Shawky, Ahmed Ramadan , Hany Refaat

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common in uremia and in patients under hemodialysis. Changes in serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesuim always occur during hemodialysis. The relation between these changes and autonomic nervous system activity during hemodialysis has not been fully studied. This study was carried out on 30 patients with chronic renal failure on regular hemo-dialysis with nearly similar age group. We measured serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesium throughout the session (at predialysis state, middialysis state: after 2 hours of the session and postdialysis: at the end of the hemodialysis Session. We have also assessed autonomic function (sympathetic by cold pressor test and parasympathetic by Valsalva maneuver test. Autonomic function tests were assessed at predialysis state, middialysis state and postdialysis state. Calcuim level uncreased throughout the session (P<0.05, phosphorus leuel and Magnesium levels decreased , (P<0.001 and (P<0.05, throghout session . As reguards parasympathetie dysfunetion, there was a significamt relation (P<0.05 with calcuim changes at predialytic and post dialytic states, a highly significant relation (P<0.001 with phosphorus and (P<0.05 with magnesiun, both at predialysis states. Concerging sympathetie dysfunction, there was a significant relation (P<0.05 with calcium levels at end of session. There was a signifcant relation (P<0.05 with predialytic and postdialytic phosphorus levels .There was also significant relation (P<0.05 with predialytic magnesium level.

  7. When do the symptoms of autonomic nervous system malfunction appear in patients with Parkinson’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Luka Silvio R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Dysautonomia appears in almost all patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD in a certain stage of their condition. The aim of our study was to detect the development and type of autonomic disorders, find out the factors affecting their manifestation by analyzing the potential association with demographic variables related to clinical presentation, as well as the symptoms of the disease in a PD patient cohort. Methods. The patients with PD treated at the Clinic of Neurology in Belgrade during a 2-year period, divided into 3 groups were studied: 25 de novo patients, 25 patients already treated and had no long-term levodopa therapy-related complications and 22 patients treated with levodopa who manifested levodopa-induced motor complications. Simultaneously, 35 healthy control subjects, matched by age and sex, were also analyzed. Results. Autonomic nervous system malfunction was defined by Ewing diagnostic criteria. The tests, indicators of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, were significantly different in the PD patients as compared with the controls, suggesting the failure of both systems. However, it was shown, in the selected groups of patients, that the malfunction of both systems was present in two treated groups of PD patients, while de novo group manifested only sympathetic dysfunction. For this reason, the complete autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed only in the treated PD patients, while de novo patients were defined as those with the isolated sympathetic dysfunction. The patients with the complete autonomic neuropathy differed from the subjects without such neuropathy in higher cumulative and motor unified Parkinson’s disease rating score (UPDRS (p < 0.01, activities of daily living scores (p < 0.05, Schwab-England scale (p < 0.001 and Hoehn-Yahr scale. There was no difference between the patients in other clinical-demographic characteristics (sex, age at the time of diagnosis, actual age, duration of

  8. Interdependence of neurohumoral regulation indicators and state of the autonomic nervous system in patients with psoriasis according to gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Aymen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on the importance of neurohumoral regulation violations in the etiology and pathogenesis of psoriasis necessitate the study of the nervous and endocrine systems depending on the gender of the patient. In order to study neurohumoral regulation in 65 psoriasis patients, 37 women and 28 men, the state of the autonomic nervous system and hormone levels – ACTH, cortisol and TTH were studied. The study found that levels of ACTH and cortisol in all the women with psoriasis – vagotonics, normotonics, sympathotonics were significantly higher than the corresponding figures in men patients with psoriasis. In vagotonics group reliability of prevailing indices on the levels of ACTH, cortisol and TTH was observed. In sympathotonics the data is valid only concerning cortisol, in normotonics group – only ACTH level. In vagotonics men and women with psoriasis and normo- and sympathotonics women indicators of cortisol were higher than physiological parameters. In normotonics female patients with psoriasis cortisol indicators were significantly lower than relative level of cortisol in vagotonics women. In sympathotonics women cortisol level was lower relative to vagotonics and higher than in normotonics, significant data. ACTH and TTH level was higher than physiological parameters only in groups of women vagotonics patients. Thus, compensatory effects of cortisol are leveled with the dominance of parasympathetic tone and female dominant. This indicates that the tension of regulatory mechanisms is associated with parasympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system. Parasympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system is to a greater extent vulnerable than compensatory. It should be noted that in vagotonics women steroid homeostasis is shifted towards corticoid activity that is an unfavorable factor of the female organism functioning.

  9. Integration of a mobile autonomous robot in a surveillance multi-agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Bruno Miguel Morais

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to guarantee the integration of a mobile autonomous robot equipped with many sensors in a multi-agent distributed and georeferenced surveillance system. The integration of a mobile autonomous robot in this system leads to new features that will be available to clients of surveillance system may use. These features may be of two types: using the robot as an agent that will act in the environment or by using the robot as a mobile set of sensors. As an agent in the syst...

  10. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  11. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  12. Lack of circadian variation in the activity of the autonomic nervous system after major abdominal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg-Adamsen, Susan; Lie, Claus;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most sudden postoperative deaths occur during the night and we conjectured that this was associated with circadian variations in the autonomic nervous tone, reflected in heart rate variability. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTINGS: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 44...... interval for the period of measurement (SDNN), the root mean square of the standard deviation of the differences between NN intervals (RMSSD), the percentage of NN intervals differing by more than 50 msec from adjacent NN intervals (pNN50) and the coefficient of component variance (meanNN/SDNN). MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate and heart rate variability. RESULTS: Circadian variation calculated from the SDNN (p = 0.43) the pNN50 (p = 0.11), the RMSSD (p = 0.47), and mean NN:SDNN ratio (p = 0.13) was absent postoperatively. Circadian variation in the heart rate was present but was set on a higher...

  13. [Application of linear and nonlinear characteristics of heart rate variability in assessment of autonomic nervous system activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Yu, Hongliu

    2014-04-01

    Calculation of linear parameters, such as time-domain and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), is a conventional method for assessment of autonomic nervous system activity. Nonlinear phenomena are certainly involved in the genesis of HRV. In a seemingly random signal the Poincaré plot can easily demonstrate whether there is an underlying determinism in the signal. Linear and nonlinear analysis methods were applied in the computer words inputting experiments in this study for physiological measurement. This study therefore demonstrated that Poincaré plot was a simple but powerful graphical tool to describe the dynamics of a system.

  14. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  15. Systematic morphology and evolutionary anatomy of the autonomic cardiac nervous system in the lesser apes, gibbons (hylobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Whatton, James F

    2008-08-01

    We examined the morphology of the autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) on 20 sides of 10 gibbons (Hylobatidae) of three genera, and we have inferred the evolution of the anatomy of the primate ACNS. We report the following. (1) Several trivial intraspecific and interspecific variations are present in gibbons, but the general arrangement of the ACNS in gibbons is consistent. (2) Although the parasympathetic vagal cardiac nervous system is extremely consistent, the sympathetic cardiac nervous system, such as the composition of the sympathetic ganglia and the range of origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves, exhibit topographical differences among primates. (3) The vertebral ganglion, seldom observed in the Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), was consistently present in gibbons as well as in humans. (4) There are fewer thoracic ganglia contributing to the cervicothoracic ganglion in humans than in gibbons and in gibbons than in Old World monkeys. (5) The superior cardiac nerve originating from the superior cervical ganglion, rarely observed in Old World monkeys but commonly observed in humans, was present in 13 of 20 sides (65%), mostly on the left. Accordingly, the ACNS morphology exhibits evolutionary changes within the primate lineage. These evolutionary differences between Old World monkeys, gibbons, and humans are most parsimoniously interpreted as resulting from regular changes in the lineages leading from their common ancestor to the extant species that we dissected. They include the reduction in the number of thoracic ganglia contributing to the cervicothoracic ganglion and the expansion of the range of the cardiac nervous origin.

  16. ACE2-Mediated Reduction of Oxidative Stress in the Central Nervous System Is Associated with Improvement of Autonomic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Huijing Xia; Sonia Suda; Sharell Bindom; Yumei Feng; Gurley, Susan B.; Dale Seth; L Gabriel Navar; Eric Lazartigues

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the central nervous system mediates the increase in sympathetic tone that precedes the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that by transforming Angiotensin-II (AngII) into Ang-(1-7), ACE2 might reduce AngII-mediated oxidative stress in the brain and prevent autonomic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, a relationship between ACE2 and oxidative stress was first confirmed in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro2A cells) treated with AngII and infected with Ad-hA...

  17. POSTMENOPAUSAL METABOLIC SYNDROME: CORRECTION OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISBALANCE WITH COMBINATION OF ACE-INHIBITOR AND STATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Logacheva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study dynamics of the indices of heart rate variability (HRV and heart remodeling in response on combined therapy with fosinopril and simvastatin in postmenopausal metabolic syndrome (MS. Material and methods. 95 women were dynamically examined (before and after 12 months of therapy with fosinopril and simvastatin to assess heart rhythm variability (time and spectral domains and remodeling with Holter ECG monitoring and echocardiography. Results. Fosinopril has resulted in blood pressure decrease, reduction in heart remodeling andmyocardial heterogeneity , which accompanied HRV rise with increase in parasympathetic activity. Simvastatin potentiated fosinopril positive effects on left ventricular hypertrophy , myocardial electric heterogeneity and autonomic modulation due to its prominent hypolipidemic and pleiotropic effect. Conclusion. In patients with postmenopausal MS medicines, which modified different elements of MS (ACE inhibitor and statin, not only have antihypertensive and hypolipidemic action, but also reduce the heart remodeling and improve the autonomic nervous system balance.

  18. The Use of Software Agents for Autonomous Control of a DC Space Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable manned deep-space missions, the spacecraft must be controlled autonomously using on-board algorithms. A control architecture is proposed to enable this autonomous operation for an spacecraft electric power system and then implemented using a highly distributed network of software agents. These agents collaborate and compete with each other in order to implement each of the control functions. A subset of this control architecture is tested against a steadystate power system simulation and found to be able to solve a constrained optimization problem with competing objectives using only local information.

  19. [Effect of the low-frequency impulse magnetic field on the autonomic nervous system in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiukhina, K Iu; Lobkaeva, E P; Deviatkova, N S

    2010-01-01

    The effect of weak (up to 3.5 mT) low-frequency (up to 100 Hz) impulse magnetic field on the state of the vegetative nervous system of animals has been studied by analyzing the variability of the heart rate. The effect of the magnetic field was estimated by a specially designed complex for recording cardiac signals of animals. Several specially selected regimes of impulse magnetic fields were studied. It was shown that the impulse magnetic field possesses a high biological activity at all regimes used, and the indices of the vegetative nervous system after the exposure to the impulse magnetic field approach the values typical for normotonic animals. This makes it possible to use magnetic fields at these regimes in magnetotherapy. PMID:20968088

  20. Functional autonomic nervous system profile in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kushki, Azadeh; Brian, Jessica; Dupuis, Annie; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    Background Autonomic dysregulation has been recently reported as a feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the nature of autonomic atypicalities in ASD remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize the cardiac autonomic profile of children with ASD across four domains affected in ASD (anxiety, attention, response inhibition, and social cognition), and suggested to be affected by autonomic dysregulation. Methods We compared measures of autonomic cardiac regulat...

  1. Altered autonomic nervous system activity as a potential etiological factor of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Tatsuya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS encompasses a wide variety of cyclic and recurrent physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms occurring during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and abating shortly following the beginning of menses. Although PMS is widely recognized, its etiopathogenesis is not yet understood. The present study investigates whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system, which plays a vital role in orchestrating physiological homeostasis within the human body, is altered during the menstrual cycle of women with different degrees of premenstrual symptomatology. Methods Sixty-two women in their 20s to 40s with regular menstrual cycles participated in this study. All subjects were examined during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by means of heart-rate variability (HRV power spectral analysis during supine rest. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects. The subjects were categorized in three groups, Control, PMS, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD groups, depending on the severity of premenstrual symptomatology. Results No intramenstrual cycle difference in any of the parameters of HRV was found in the Control group, which had no or a small increase in premenstrual symptoms. In contrast, Total power and high frequency power, which reflect overall autonomic and parasympathetic nerve activity, respectively, significantly decreased in the late luteal phase from the follicular phase in the PMS group. As for the PMDD group, which had more severe symptoms premenstrually, heart-rate fluctuation as well as all components of the power

  2. Postnatal Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Control in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Nederend

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect. During childhood, survival is generally good but, in adulthood, late complications are not uncommon. Abnormal autonomic control in children with congenital heart disease may contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of these long term sequelae. This narrative review of 34 studies aims to summarize current knowledge on function of the autonomic nervous system in children with a congenital heart defect. Large scale studies that measure both branches of the nervous system for prolonged periods of time in well-defined patient cohorts in various phases of childhood and adolescence are currently lacking. Pending such studies, there is not yet a good grasp on the extent and direction of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic function in pediatric congenital heart disease. Longitudinal studies in homogenous patient groups linking autonomic nervous system function and clinical outcome are warranted.

  3. Radiation from wireless technology affects the blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Magda

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to electrosmog generated by electric, electronic, and wireless technology is accelerating to the point that a portion of the population is experiencing adverse reactions when they are exposed. The symptoms of electrohypersensitivity (EHS), best described as rapid aging syndrome, experienced by adults and children resemble symptoms experienced by radar operators in the 1940s to the 1960s and are well described in the literature. An increasingly common response includes clumping (rouleau formation) of the red blood cells, heart palpitations, pain or pressure in the chest accompanied by anxiety, and an upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system coincident with a downregulation of the parasympathetic nervous system typical of the "fight-or-flight" response. Provocation studies presented in this article demonstrate that the response to electrosmog is physiologic and not psychosomatic. Those who experience prolonged and severe EHS may develop psychologic problems as a consequence of their inability to work, their limited ability to travel in our highly technologic environment, and the social stigma that their symptoms are imagined rather than real.

  4. The circadian system and the balance of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina; Swaab, Dick F

    2013-01-01

    Our biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), sets the pace of our life: it provides a rhythmic function to our sleep-wake cycle. In order to do so properly the SCN synchronizes our physiology to behavioral patterns by directing the autonomic and hormonal output of the hypothalamus to the different organs of the body that require a different setting - activity or inactivity - during particular phases of the day or night. In this chapter we show that this delicate balance requires that the SCN should not only provide an output to these organs but also be informed about the physiological state of the organs in order to adapt its output. This occurs via a hypothalamic neuronal network that provides the necessary input to the SCN. We argue that the feedback that the SCN receives from its hypothalamic target structures is essential to maintain a balance in our physiological functions, which fluctuate during the sleep-wake cycle. We propose that this crucial role of the hypothalamus in the homeostatic response is the reason why, e.g., in aging or depression, changes in the functioning of the biological clock, the SCN, lead to the development of pathology. In addition, if this balance is not adequately organized, for example, if the signals of the biological clock are violated by being active and eating during the night, as in shift work, one will be more susceptible to diseases such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

  5. Discrimination between Healthy and Sick Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System by Detrended Heart Rate Variability Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkenazy, Yu; Levitan, J; Havlin, S; Saermark, K; Moelgaard, H; Bloch-Thomsen, P E

    1998-01-01

    Multiresolution Wavelet Transform and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis have been recently proven as excellent methods in the analysis of Heart Rate Variability, and in distinguishing between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system. We argue that it is possible to obtain a distinction between healthy subjects/patients of at least similar quality by, first, detrending the time-series of RR-intervals by subtracting a running average based on a local window with a length of around 32 data points, and then, calculating the standard deviation of the detrended time-series. The results presented here indicate that the analysis can be based on very short time-series of RR-data (7-8 minutes), which is a considerable improvement relative to 24-hours Holter recordings.

  6. On the Persistance of Dualism in our so-called Unified Neurosciences: The case of the autonomic nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pattyn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the historical overview of descriptions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS is applied as a case study to serve the demonstration of the persistence of dualisms in our current framework of neurosciences. First, the four main views on the ANS are briefly summarised, with an emphasis on the latest one, being the neurovisceral integration perspectives, striving for an integrative view on cognition, emotion regulation and physiological adaptation. Second, an explanation is offered on why we are so reluctant to give up the explanatory framework of dualisms, based on both developmental psychology accounts and postmodernism philosophy. To conclude, an attitude based on positivism and epistemological anarchism is suggested for scientists.

  7. Measurement of the effect of Isha Yoga on cardiac autonomic nervous system using short-term heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Muralikrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beneficial effects of Yoga have been postulated to be due to modulation of the autonomic nervous system. Objective: To assess the effect of Isha Yoga practices on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system through short-term heart rate variability (HRV. Design of the Study: Short-term HRV of long-term regular healthy 14 (12 males and 2 females Isha Yoga practitioners was compared with that of age- and gender-matched 14 (12 males and 2 females non-Yoga practitioners. Methods and Materials: ECG Lead II and respiratory movements were recorded in both groups using Polyrite during supine rest for 5 min and controlled deep breathing for 1 minute. Frequency domain analysis [RR interval is the mean of distance between subsequent R wave peaks in ECG], low frequency (LF power, high frequency (HF power, LF normalized units (nu, HF nu, LF/HF ratio] and time domain analysis [Standard Deviation of normal to normal interval (SDNN, square of mean squared difference of successive normal to normal intervals (RMSSD, normal to normal intervals which are differing by 50 ms (NN50, and percentage of NN50 (pNN50] of HRV variables were analyzed for supine rest. Time domain analysis was recorded for deep breathing. Results: Results showed statistically significant differences between Isha Yoga practitioners and controls in both frequency and time domain analyses of HRV indices, with no difference in resting heart rate between the groups. Conclusions: Practitioners of Isha Yoga showed well-balanced beneficial activity of vagal efferents, an overall increased HRV, and sympathovagal balance, compared to non-Yoga practitioners during supine rest and deep breathing.

  8. Systems, methods and apparatus for modeling, specifying and deploying policies in autonomous and autonomic systems using agent-oriented software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.

  9. Responses of the autonomic nervous system in altitude adapted and high altitude pulmonary oedema subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Sen Gupta, J.; Nayar, H. S.

    1985-06-01

    Studies were carried out to ascertain the role of sympatho-parasympathetic responses in the process of adaptation to altitude. The assessment of status of autonomic balance was carried out in a group of 20 young male subjects by recording their resting heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, extremity temperatures, pupillary diameter, cold pressor response, oxygen consumption, cardioacceleration during orthostasis and urinary excretion of catecholamines; in a thermoneutral laboratory. The same parameters were repeated on day 3 and at weekly intervals for a period of 3 weeks, after exposing them to 3,500 m; and also after return to sea level. At altitude, similar studies were carried out in a group of 10 acclimatized lowlanders, 10 high altitude natives and 6 patients who had recently recovered from high altitude pulmonary oedema. In another phase, similar studies were done in two groups of subjects, one representing 15 subjects who had stayed at altitude (3,500 4,000 m) without any ill effects and the other comprising of 10 subjects who had either suffered from high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) or acute mountain sickness (AMS). The results revealed sympathetic overactivity on acute induction to altitude which showed gradual recovery on prolonged stay, the high altitude natives had preponderance to parasympathetic system. Sympathetic preponderance may not be an essential etiological factor for the causation of maladaptation syndromes.

  10. Social functioning and autonomic nervous system sensitivity across vocal and musical emotion in Williams syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Arnold, Andrew J; Woo-VonHoogenstyn, Nicholas; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Both Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with unusual auditory phenotypes with respect to processing vocal and musical stimuli, which may be shaped by the atypical social profiles that characterize the syndromes. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to vocal and musical emotional stimuli was examined in 12 children with WS, 17 children with ASD, and 20 typically developing (TD) children, and related to their level of social functioning. The results of this small-scale study showed that after controlling for between-group differences in cognitive ability, all groups showed similar emotion identification performance across conditions. Additionally, in ASD, lower autonomic reactivity to human voice, and in TD, to musical emotion, was related to more normal social functioning. Compared to TD, both clinical groups showed increased arousal to vocalizations. A further result highlighted uniquely increased arousal to music in WS, contrasted with a decrease in arousal in ASD and TD. The ASD and WS groups exhibited arousal patterns suggestive of diminished habituation to the auditory stimuli. The results are discussed in the context of the clinical presentation of WS and ASD. PMID:26248474

  11. Reproducibility of tilt table testing in patients with vasovagal syncope and its relation to variations in autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochiadakis, G E; Kanoupakis, E M; Rombola, A T; Igoumenidis, N E; Chlouverakis, G I; Vardas, P E

    1998-05-01

    To assess the variability of head-up tilt table testing, 35 patients with vasovagal syncope, shown by a positive tilt table test, underwent a second test 1 week later. Also, on the day before each test, spectral and time-domain indexes of heart rate variability were derived from Holter recordings to examine the stability of autonomous nervous system activity in these patients. Fifteen healthy volunteers served as a control group and also underwent two tilt table tests with prior Holter monitoring. Twenty-one (60%) of the 35 patients had a second positive test. None of the patients in the control group experienced syncope during either of the tests. The heart rate variability measures in the control group varied slightly from 1 day to the other, in contrast to the syncopal patients, where only low frequency spectral power and the mean of all 5-minute standard deviations of RR intervals showed comparable behavior. The indexes which reflect parasympathetic activity exhibited significant fluctuations in the syncopal patients. These fluctuations were due entirely to the patients who did not reproduce the outcome of the tilt table test, where high parasympathetic tone was associated with the positive test and normal parasympathetic tone with the negative test. In contrast, the patients with two positive tests had high parasympathetic tone during both test periods, with low individual variability. In conclusion, patients with vasovagal syncope show variations in vagal autonomic tone and appear to be more prone to syncope when their parasympathetic tone is elevated. PMID:9604238

  12. Social functioning and autonomic nervous system sensitivity across vocal and musical emotion in Williams syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Arnold, Andrew J; Woo-VonHoogenstyn, Nicholas; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Both Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with unusual auditory phenotypes with respect to processing vocal and musical stimuli, which may be shaped by the atypical social profiles that characterize the syndromes. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to vocal and musical emotional stimuli was examined in 12 children with WS, 17 children with ASD, and 20 typically developing (TD) children, and related to their level of social functioning. The results of this small-scale study showed that after controlling for between-group differences in cognitive ability, all groups showed similar emotion identification performance across conditions. Additionally, in ASD, lower autonomic reactivity to human voice, and in TD, to musical emotion, was related to more normal social functioning. Compared to TD, both clinical groups showed increased arousal to vocalizations. A further result highlighted uniquely increased arousal to music in WS, contrasted with a decrease in arousal in ASD and TD. The ASD and WS groups exhibited arousal patterns suggestive of diminished habituation to the auditory stimuli. The results are discussed in the context of the clinical presentation of WS and ASD.

  13. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  14. ACE2-mediated reduction of oxidative stress in the central nervous system is associated with improvement of autonomic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Xia

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in the central nervous system mediates the increase in sympathetic tone that precedes the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that by transforming Angiotensin-II (AngII into Ang-(1-7, ACE2 might reduce AngII-mediated oxidative stress in the brain and prevent autonomic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, a relationship between ACE2 and oxidative stress was first confirmed in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro2A cells treated with AngII and infected with Ad-hACE2. ACE2 overexpression resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. In vivo, ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/y mice and non-transgenic (NT littermates were infused with AngII (10 days and infected with Ad-hACE2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Baseline blood pressure (BP, AngII and brain ROS levels were not different between young mice (12 weeks. However, cardiac sympathetic tone, brain NADPH oxidase and SOD activities were significantly increased in ACE2(-/y. Post infusion, plasma and brain AngII levels were also significantly higher in ACE2(-/y, although BP was similarly increased in both genotypes. ROS formation in the PVN and RVLM was significantly higher in ACE2(-/y mice following AngII infusion. Similar phenotypes, i.e. increased oxidative stress, exacerbated dysautonomia and hypertension, were also observed on baseline in mature ACE2(-/y mice (48 weeks. ACE2 gene therapy to the PVN reduced AngII-mediated increase in NADPH oxidase activity and normalized cardiac dysautonomia in ACE2(-/y mice. Altogether, these data indicate that ACE2 gene deletion promotes age-dependent oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction and hypertension, while PVN-targeted ACE2 gene therapy decreases ROS formation via NADPH oxidase inhibition and improves autonomic function. Accordingly, ACE2 could represent a new target for the treatment of hypertension-associated dysautonomia and oxidative stress.

  15. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messina Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  16. Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Diez, Joaquín; Domé, María Natalia; Delvenne, Andrea Alvarez; Braidot, Nestor; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV) of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melody that they would use to relax. The low-to-high-frequency ratio was significantly higher when subjects were exposed to "new age" music when compared with silence (3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3, respectively, P preferences did not correlate with autonomic responses to melodies. The results suggest that "new age" music induced a shift in HRV from higher to lower frequencies, independently on the music preference of the listener. PMID:25209037

  17. Baroreflex Sensitivity And Autonomic Nervous System Function In Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Theibel, Ann Cathrine;

    2015-01-01

    Syncope in the elderly may be caused by an apparent hypersensitivity in the high pressure baroreflex control of heart rate and blood pressure - carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Previous studies have found ambiguous results regarding the baroreceptor sensitivity in patients with carotid sinus...... hypersensitivity ranging from reduced to increased sensitivity compared to controls. We wanted to establish whether measures of baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic function differed between patients diagnosed with carotid sinus hypersensitivity and age matched controls. We included 36 patients (12 women; 74 +/-10...... differences in autonomic baroreceptor control could be found between patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity and their controls. Our findings seem to reflect the ambiguous results obtained by others and have led us to suggest that the signals behind the established parameters of cardiovagal baroreflex...

  18. [Heart rate variability as a method of assessing the autonomic nervous system in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Joceline Cássia Ferezini; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; da Silva, Ester; Azevedo, George Dantas

    2013-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors, such as central obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension. These factors are associated with adrenergic overactivity, which is an important prognostic factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders. Given the common cardiometabolic disturbances occurring in PCOS women, over the last years studies have investigated the cardiac autonomic control of these patients, mainly based on heart rate variability (HRV). Thus, in this review, we will discuss the recent findings of the studies that investigated the HRV of women with PCOS, as well as noninvasive methods of analysis of autonomic control starting from basic indexes related to this methodology.

  19. How Can Music Influence the Autonomic Nervous System Response in Patients with Severe Disorder of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganello, Francesco; Cortese, Maria D; Arcuri, Francesco; Quintieri, Maria; Dolce, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Activations to pleasant and unpleasant musical stimuli were observed within an extensive neuronal network and different brain structures, as well as in the processing of the syntactic and semantic aspects of the music. Previous studies evidenced a correlation between autonomic activity and emotion evoked by music listening in patients with Disorders of Consciousness (DoC). In this study, we analyzed retrospectively the autonomic response to musical stimuli by mean of normalized units of Low Frequency (nuLF) and Sample Entropy (SampEn) of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters, and their possible correlation to the different complexity of four musical samples (i.e., Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Grieg, and Boccherini) in Healthy subjects and Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS) patients. The complexity of musical sample was based on Formal Complexity and General Dynamics parameters defined by Imberty's semiology studies. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups for SampEn during the listening of Mussorgsky's music and for nuLF during the listening of Boccherini and Mussorgsky's music. Moreover, the VS/UWS group showed a reduction of nuLF as well as SampEn comparing music of increasing Formal Complexity and General Dynamics. These results put in evidence how the internal structure of the music can change the autonomic response in patients with DoC. Further investigations are required to better comprehend how musical stimulation can modify the autonomic response in DoC patients, in order to administer the stimuli in a more effective way.

  20. How can music influence the Autonomic Nervous System response in patients with severe Disorder of Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eRiganello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Activations to pleasant and unpleasant musical stimuli were observed within an extensive neuronal network and different brain structures, as well as in the processing of the syntactic and semantic aspects of the music. Previous studies evidenced a correlation between autonomic activity and emotion evoked by music listening in patients with Disorders of Consciousness (DoC. In this study, we analyzed retrospectively the autonomic response to musical stimuli by mean of normalized units of Low Frequency (nuLF and Sample Entropy (SampEn of Heart Rate Variability (HRV parameters, and their possible correlation to the different complexity of four musical samples (i.e. Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Grieg and Boccherini in Healthy subjects and Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS patients.The complexity of musical sample was based on Formal Complexity and General Dynamics parameters defined by Imberty’s semiology studies.The results showed a significant difference between the two groups for SampEn during the listening of Mussorgsky’s music and for nuLF during the listening of Boccherini and Mussorgsky’s music.Moreover, the VS/UWS group showed a reduction of nuLF as well as SampEn comparing music of increasing Formal Complexity and General Dynamics.These results put in evidence how the internal structure of the music can change the autonomic response in patients with DoC. Further investigations are required to better comprehend how musical stimulation can modify the autonomic response in DoC patients, in order to administer the stimuli in a more effective way.

  1. Aromatherapy Benefits Autonomic Nervous System Regulation for Elementary School Faculty in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kang-Ming Chang; Chuh-Wei Shen

    2011-01-01

    Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic ...

  2. How Can Music Influence the Autonomic Nervous System Response in Patients with Severe Disorder of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganello, Francesco; Cortese, Maria D; Arcuri, Francesco; Quintieri, Maria; Dolce, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Activations to pleasant and unpleasant musical stimuli were observed within an extensive neuronal network and different brain structures, as well as in the processing of the syntactic and semantic aspects of the music. Previous studies evidenced a correlation between autonomic activity and emotion evoked by music listening in patients with Disorders of Consciousness (DoC). In this study, we analyzed retrospectively the autonomic response to musical stimuli by mean of normalized units of Low Frequency (nuLF) and Sample Entropy (SampEn) of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters, and their possible correlation to the different complexity of four musical samples (i.e., Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Grieg, and Boccherini) in Healthy subjects and Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS) patients. The complexity of musical sample was based on Formal Complexity and General Dynamics parameters defined by Imberty's semiology studies. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups for SampEn during the listening of Mussorgsky's music and for nuLF during the listening of Boccherini and Mussorgsky's music. Moreover, the VS/UWS group showed a reduction of nuLF as well as SampEn comparing music of increasing Formal Complexity and General Dynamics. These results put in evidence how the internal structure of the music can change the autonomic response in patients with DoC. Further investigations are required to better comprehend how musical stimulation can modify the autonomic response in DoC patients, in order to administer the stimuli in a more effective way. PMID:26696818

  3. Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Pérez-Lloret; Joaquín Diez; María Natalia Domé; Andrea Alvarez Delvenne; Nestor Braidot; Daniel P. Cardinali; Daniel Eduardo Vigo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV) of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melo...

  4. Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pérez-Lloret

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melody that they would use to relax. The low-to-high-frequency ratio was significantly higher when subjects were exposed to "new age" music when compared with silence (3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3, respectively, P < 0.02, while no differences were found with "classical" or "romantic" melodies (2.1 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.3. These results were related to a reduction in the high frequency component with "new age" compared to silence (17.4 ± 1.9 vs. 23.1 ± 1.1, respectively P < 0.004. Significant differences across melodies were also found for nonlinear HRV indexes. Subjects′ preferences did not correlate with autonomic responses to melodies. The results suggest that "new age" music induced a shift in HRV from higher to lower frequencies, independently on the music preference of the listener.

  5. Dysfunction of pre- and post-operative cardiac autonomic nervous system in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junlong; Tu, Weifeng; Dai, Jianqiang; Lv, Qing; Yang, Xiaoqi

    2011-01-01

    The pre- and post-operative cardiac autonomic nervous functions were compared in elderly, non-cardiac surgery patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and without diabetes mellitus (NDM). A group of 30 unpremedicated elderly patients scheduled to undergo elective non-cardiac surgery were studied, including 15 DM patients and 15 NDM patients. Each component of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in the frequency domain was monitored with Holter during the nights of the day before and on 1st and 2nd day after operation. After surgery, total power (TP), high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF) and very low frequency (VLF) significantly decreased as compared to the baseline values before operation in both groups (p<0.05). The LF/HF ratio was significantly changed in DM group but did not change in NDM group. On the 2nd postoperative day, TP, HF, LF and VLF in DM group were further decreased as compared to those on the 1st postoperative day and were significantly lower than those in NDM group (p<0.01 or 0.05), but these indices in NDM group did not show significant decreases. Surgery induced the cardiac autonomic nervous dysfunction in elderly patients not only with DM but also without diabetes. On the 2nd postoperative day, the disturbances of cardiac autonomic nervous activity were more sever in DM patients, compared to the 1st postoperative day, but was not significantly more sever than in the NDM patients.

  6. From Here to Autonomicity: Self-Managing Agents and the Biological Metaphors that Inspire Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    We seek inspiration for self-managing systems from (obviously, pre-existing) biological mechanisms. Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward for integrating and designing reliable systems, while agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems. This paper looks at other biological metaphors such as reflex and healing, heart- beat monitors, pulse monitors and apoptosis for assisting in the realization of autonomicity.

  7. Sex-specific effects of intranasal oxytocin on autonomic nervous system and emotional responses to couple conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M.; Schaer, Marcel; La Marca, Roberto; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Unhappy couple relationships are associated with impaired individual health, an effect thought to be mediated through ongoing couple conflicts. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms regulating psychobiological stress, and particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, during negative couple interaction. In this study, we tested the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin on ANS reactivity during couple conflict in a standardized laboratory paradigm. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally prior to instructed couple conflict. Participants’ behavior was videotaped and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic activity, and emotional arousal were repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly reduced sAA during couple conflict in women, whereas men showed increases in sAA levels (sex × group interaction: B = −49.36, t = −2.68, P = 0.009). In men, these increases were related to augmented emotional arousal (r = 0.286, P = 0.028) and more positive behavior (r = 0.291, P = 0.026), whereas there was no such association in women. Our results imply sex-specific effects of oxytocin on sympathetic activity, to negative couple interaction, with the neuropeptide reducing sAA responses and emotional arousal in women while increasing them in men. PMID:22842905

  8. Assessment of autonomic nervous system by using empirical mode decomposition-based reflection wave analysis during non-stationary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterial blood pressure (ABP) is an important indicator of cardiovascular circulation and presents various intrinsic regulations. It has been found that the intrinsic characteristics of blood vessels can be assessed quantitatively by ABP analysis (called reflection wave analysis (RWA)), but conventional RWA is insufficient for assessment during non-stationary conditions, such as the Valsalva maneuver. Recently, a novel adaptive method called empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was proposed for non-stationary data analysis. This study proposed a RWA algorithm based on EMD (EMD-RWA). A total of 51 subjects participated in this study, including 39 healthy subjects and 12 patients with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The results showed that EMD-RWA provided a reliable estimation of reflection time in baseline and head-up tilt (HUT). Moreover, the estimated reflection time is able to assess the ANS function non-invasively, both in normal, healthy subjects and in the patients with ANS dysfunction. EMD-RWA provides a new approach for reflection time estimation in non-stationary conditions, and also helps with non-invasive ANS assessment. (paper)

  9. Assessment of Fetal Autonomic Nervous System Activity by Fetal Magnetocardiography: Comparison of Normal Pregnancy and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimune Fukushima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To clarify the developmental activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS of the normal fetus and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR cases using fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG. Subjects and Methods. Normal pregnancy (n=35 and IUGR (n=12 cases at 28–39 and 32–37 weeks of gestation, respectively, were included in this study. The R-R interval variability was used to calculate the coefficient of variance (CVRR and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF ratio. Results. The value of CVRR in the normal pregnancy group displayed a slight increasing trend with gestational age. However, no such trend was observed in the IUGR group. In contrast, the LF/HF ratio in both the normal pregnancy group and the IUGR group clearly increased over the gestational period; the normal group showing statistical significance. Conclusion. The development of fetal ANS activity in IUGR cases might differ from that observed in the normal pregnancy group, and this may facilitate early detection of IUGR.

  10. Effect of Forest Walking on Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Middle-Aged Hypertensive Individuals: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorong Song

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing attention on the therapeutic effects of the forest environment. However, evidence-based research that clarifies the physiological effects of the forest environment on hypertensive individuals is lacking. This study provides scientific evidence suggesting that a brief forest walk affects autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals. Twenty participants (58.0 ± 10.6 years were instructed to walk predetermined courses in forest and urban environments (as control. Course length (17-min walk, walking speed, and energy expenditure were equal between the forest and urban environments to clarify the effects of each environment. Heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate were used to quantify physiological responses. The modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States were used to determine psychological responses. The natural logarithm of the high-frequency component of HRV was significantly higher and heart rate was significantly lower when participants walked in the forest than when they walked in the urban environment. The questionnaire results indicated that, compared with the urban environment, walking in the forest increased “comfortable”, “relaxed”, “natural” and “vigorous” feelings and decreased “tension-anxiety,” “depression,” “anxiety-hostility,” “fatigue” and “confusion”. A brief walk in the forest elicited physiological and psychological relaxation effects on middle-aged hypertensive individuals.

  11. Assessment of the autonomic nervous system is an appropriate biological marker for the well-being in erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tolga Dogru; Orhan Murat Kocak; Nurper Erberk-Ozen; Murat Basar

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the autonomic nervous system (ANS) components are suitable biological markers for representing well-being in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: The present study included 74 male patients who had applied for check-ups in the cardiology outpatient clinic at Kirikkale University (Kirikkale, Turkey) and who had been diagnosed as having hyperlipidemia. Of these patients, 26 had an additional diagnosis of ED and made up the patient group. The remaining 48 patients formed the control group. Well-being was assessed with short- form 36 (SF-36). The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was used as a measure of libido and erectile function. Quantitative assessment of the ANS was made based on the analysis of heart rate variability by means of 24-h holter monitorization. Results: Comparisons between the ED and control groups showed significant differences only in energy scale of SF-36. The ED group also had significantly higher values of sympathetic activity. Except for the general health score of SF-36, which was found to be correlated with parasympathetic activity only in ED group, there were similar correlation patterns within the groups. Although well-being and sympathetic activity were corre- lated negatively, parasympathetic activity and well-being were correlated positively. Conclusion: Quantitative as- sessment of the ANS by heart rate variability analysis might be a suitable marker for well-being of patients with ED. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 643-650)

  12. Heart Rate Variability as a Method for Assessment of the Autonomic Nervous System and the Adaptations to Different Physiological and Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taralov Zdravko Z.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system controls the smooth muscles of the internal organs, the cardiovascular system and the secretory function of the glands and plays a major role in the processes of adaptation. Heart rate variability is a non-invasive and easily applicable method for the assessment of its activity. The following review describes the origin, parameters and characteristics of this method and its potential for evaluation of the changes of the autonomic nervous system activity in different physiological and pathological conditions such as exogenous hypoxia, physical exercise and sleep. The application of heart rate variability in daily clinical practice would be beneficial for the diagnostics, the outcome prognosis and the assessment of the effect of treatment in various diseases.

  13. Heart Rate Variability as a Method for Assessment of the Autonomic Nervous System and the Adaptations to Different Physiological and Pathological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taralov, Zdravko Z; Terziyski, Kiril V; Kostianev, Stefan S

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system controls the smooth muscles of the internal organs, the cardiovascular system and the secretory function of the glands and plays a major role in the processes of adaptation. Heart rate variability is a non-invasive and easily applicable method for the assessment of its activity. The following review describes the origin, parameters and characteristics of this method and its potential for evaluation of the changes of the autonomic nervous system activity in different physiological and pathological conditions such as exogenous hypoxia, physical exercise and sleep. The application of heart rate variability in daily clinical practice would be beneficial for the diagnostics, the outcome prognosis and the assessment of the effect of treatment in various diseases. PMID:27180343

  14. Operations on Rigid Formations of Autonomous Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Tolga; Anderson, Brian D. O.; Morse, A. Stephen; Whiteley, Walter; Belhumeur, Peter N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the maintenance of rigid formations of mobile autonomous agents. A key element in all future multi-agent systems will be the role of sensor and communication networks as an integral part of coordination. Network topologies are critically important for autonomous systems involving mobile underwater, ground and air vehicles and for sensor networks. This paper focuses on developing techniques and strategies for the analysis and design of sensor a...

  15. Investigation of the Effects of Continuous Low-Dose Epidural Analgesia on the Autonomic Nervous System Using Hilbert Huang Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ren Chuang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of continuous low-dose epidural bupivacaine (0.05-0.1% infusion on the Doppler velocimetry for labor analgesia have been well documented. The aim of this study was to monitor the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS for women in labor based on Hilbert Huang transform (HHT, which performs signal processing for nonlinear systems, such as human cardiac systems. Thirteen pregnant women were included in the experimental group for labor analgesia. They received continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.075% infusion. The normal-to-normal intervals (NN-interval were downloaded from an ECG holter. Another 20 pregnant women in non-anesthesia labor (average gestation age was 38.6 weeks were included in the comparison group. In this study, HHT was used to decompose components of ECG signals, which reflect three different frequency bands of a person's heart rate spectrum (viz. high frequency (HF, low frequency (LF and very low frequency (VLF. It was found that the change of energy in subjects without anesthesia was more active than that with continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.075% infusion. The energy values of the experimental group (i.e., labor analgesia of HF and LF of ANS activities were significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the values of the comparison group (viz. labor without analgesia, but the trend of energy ratio of LF/HF was opposite. In conclusion, the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of ANS are all suppressed by continuous low-dose epidural bupivacaine 0.075% infusion, but parasympathetic power is suppressed more than sympathetic power.

  16. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  17. Responses of Six-Weeks Aquatic Exercise on the Autonomic Nervous System, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and Lung Functions in Young Adults with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Taweesak Janyacharoen; Narupon Kunbootsri; Preeda Arayawichanon; Seksun Chainansamit; Kittisak Sawanyawisuth

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic respiratory disease. Sympathetic hypofunction is identified in all of the allergic rhinitis patients. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and impaired lung functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of six-week of aquatic exercise on the autonomic nervous system function, PNIF and lung functions in allergic rhinitis patients.Twenty-six allergic rhinitis patients, 12 males and 14 females wer...

  18. Etiologic agents of central nervous system infections among febrile hospitalized patients in the country of Georgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Akhvlediani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a large spectrum of viral, bacterial, fungal, and prion pathogens that cause central nervous system (CNS infections. As such, identification of the etiological agent requires multiple laboratory tests and accurate diagnosis requires clinical and epidemiological information. This hospital-based study aimed to determine the main causes of acute meningitis and encephalitis and enhance laboratory capacity for CNS infection diagnosis. METHODS: Children and adults patients clinically diagnosed with meningitis or encephalitis were enrolled at four reference health centers. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was collected for bacterial culture, and in-house and multiplex RT-PCR testing was conducted for herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2, mumps virus, enterovirus, varicella zoster virus (VZV, Streptococcus pneumoniae, HiB and Neisseria meningitidis. RESULTS: Out of 140 enrolled patients, the mean age was 23.9 years, and 58% were children. Bacterial or viral etiologies were determined in 51% of patients. Five Streptococcus pneumoniae cultures were isolated from CSF. Based on in-house PCR analysis, 25 patients were positive for S. pneumoniae, 6 for N. meningitidis, and 1 for H. influenzae. Viral multiplex PCR identified infections with enterovirus (n = 26, VZV (n = 4, and HSV-1 (n = 2. No patient was positive for mumps or HSV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings indicate that S. pneumoniae and enteroviruses are the main etiologies in this patient cohort. The utility of molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification combined with the knowledge provided by the investigation may improve health outcomes of CNS infection cases in Georgia.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging study of lumbosacral spinal cord nerves before artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway establish ment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of MRI as imaging technique for lumbosacral spinal nerves before artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway establish ment. Methods: Conventional MRI and T2W CISS 3D were performed in 10 patients with neurogenic bladder planned for the operation of artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway. The Three-dimensional data were then constructed into composite images using a standard multiple planar reformation (MPR). Results: Five patients showed tethered spinal cord syndrome, whose spinal cord nerves were circuitous distributed and had abnormity number when penetrated the dura. Of these 5 patients, one patient was accompanied by spinal cord vas malformation. Four patients had vertebral fracture and spinal injury, and the other one patients demonstrated tumor in vertebral canal on MRI examinations. The spinal cord nerves in these 5 patients floated down river and had normal number of spinal cord nerves. Conclusion: Conventional MRI and T2W CISS 3D MRI were essential for the pre-operative planning of artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway, especially in patients with tethered spinal cord syndrome. Spinal cord nerves distribute and anterior and posterior roots array can be clearly showed by MPR. (authors)

  20. The Cajal School in the Peripheral Nervous System: The Transcendent Contributions of Fernando de Castro on the Microscopic Structure of Sensory and Autonomic Motor Ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The fine structure of the autonomic nervous system was largely unknown at the beginning of the second decade of the 20th century. Although relatively anatomists and histologists had studied the subject, even the assays by the great Russian histologist Alexander Dogiel and the Spanish Nobel Prize laureate, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, were incomplete. In a time which witnessed fundamental discoveries by Langley, Loewi and Dale on the physiology of the autonomic nervous system, both reputed researchers entrusted one of their outstanding disciples to the challenge to further investigate autonomic structures: the Russian B.I. Lawrentjew and the Spanish Fernando de Castro developed new technical approaches with spectacular results. In the mid of the 1920’s, both young neuroscientists were worldwide recognized as the top experts in the field. In the present work we describe the main discoveries by Fernando de Castro in those years regarding the structure of sympathetic and sensory ganglia, the organization of the synaptic contacts in these ganglia, and the nature of their innervation, later materialized in their respective chapters, personally invited by the editor, in Wilder Penfield’s famous textbook on Neurology and the Nervous System. Most of these discoveries remain fully alive today. PMID:27147984

  1. Changes of autonomic nervous system function in healthy young men during initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jun; Huang Lan; Tian Kaixin; Yu Shiyong; Yu Yang; Long Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function during the initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Ninety-nine healthy sea-level male residents were studied in Chengdu plain and then Tibet plateau. Heart rate variability (HRV), cold pressor test (CPT), resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured at baseline (560 m altitude) and in 2 to 4 d after arriving at Tibet plateau (3 675 m altitude) to assess the ANS function. Results: Compared with baseline, on day 2 in Tibet the standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), high-frequency (HF) power, total power (TP), root mean square of delta RR (rMSSD), percentage of delta RR>50 ms (PNN50), normalized high-frequency (Hfnu) and fractal dimension (FD) decreased significantly (SDNN, HF,TP P<0.01, rMSSD, PNNs0, Hfnu, FD P<0.05), while the normalized low-frequency (Lfnu) and LF/HF increased significantly (P<0.01). During day 3-4 in Tibet, SDNN, rMSSD, HF, TP and Hfnu tended to rebound while Lfnu and LF/HF decreased towards baseline day by day. In addition, in Tibet the increase in systolic pressure (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP) during CPT decreased significantly (P<0.01, 0.05), but resting HR increased compared with baseline (P<0.01). Conclusion: ANS modulation is generally blunted, and the relatively predominant sympathetic control is enhanced originally, then it reverts to the sea level states gradually during the initial days of acute high-altitude exposure.

  2. Response of Autonomic Nervous System to Body Positions: Fourier and Wavelet Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, A; Federici, A; Stramaglia, S; Simone, F; Zenzola, A; Santostasi, R; Xu, Aiguo

    2003-01-01

    Two mathematical methods, the Fourier and wavelet transforms, were used to study the short term cardiovascular control system. Time series, picked from electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure lasting 6 minutes, were analyzed in supine position (SUP), during the first (HD1), and the second half (HD2) of $90^{\\circ}$ head down tilt and during recovery (REC). The wavelet transform was performed using the Haar function of period $T=2^j$ ($% j=1$,2,$... $,6) to obtain wavelet coefficients. Power spectra components were analyzed within three bands, VLF (0.003-0.04), LF (0.04-0.15) and HF (0.15-0.4) with the frquency unit cycle/interval. Wavelet transform demonstrated a higher discrimination among all analyzed periods than the Fourier transform. For the Fourier analysis, the LF of R-R intervals and VLF of systolic blood pressure show more evident difference for different body positions. For the wavelet analysis, the systolic blood pressures show much more evident difference than the R-R intervals. This study s...

  3. Noninvasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system. Final progress report, December 24, 1993--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    During the first year of funding, C-11 hydroxyephedrine has been introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue. Studies in normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders indicated the feasibility of this tracer for further evaluation. Simultaneously, animal studies have been used to assess the use of these radiopharmaceuticals in ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threo-hydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, the authors are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve their ability to identify abnormalities. They are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. In addition, they are participating in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in their institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by preliminary PET data. A compilation of all publications funded by this grant is presented in this report.

  4. Dynamic analysis of mental sweating and the peripheral vessels for the activity of the autonomic nervous system by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmi, Masato; Takada, Daisuke; Wada, Yuki; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2012-01-01

    OCT is highly potential for dynamic analysis of physiological functions of mental sweating and peripheral vessels as demonstrated by the authors. Both mental sweating and the peripheral vessels reflect the activity of the sympathetic nerve of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The sympathetic nerve also exhibits the LF/HF ratio of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper, we demonstrate dynamic analysis of mental sweating and the peripheral vessels for the external stimulus by SS-OCT. In the experiment, the Kraepelin test as a continuous stimulus was applied to the volunteer to discuss in detail dynamics of the physiological function of such small organs in response to the HRV.

  5. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF MONTELUKAST ON THE ACTIVITY OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ESTIMATED BY HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN EXPERIMENTAL PARTIAL BLADDER OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Skowron, Beata; Baranowska, Agnieszka; Zurowski, Daniel; Thor, Piotr Jan

    2016-01-01

    Due to their paracrine action, leukotrienes released from the urothelium are involved in control of the bladder function. Anti-leukotriene agents appear to exert an ameliorating effect in bladder overactivity. It is unknown, whether their possible, modulatory impact on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity may also contribute to the potentially beneficial effect of those compounds. Therefore, our aim was to indirectly estimate the ANS function using the heart rate variability (HRV) study in rats with experimental partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO), reflecting human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), treated with leukotriene receptor antagonist - montelukast (MLKT). Twenty rats with surgically induced PBOO lasting for 14 days, divided into two groups: group 1 (10 control subjects) and group 2 (10 MLKT-treated rats; 2 mg/rat/day) were subjected to HRV recordings, preceded by daily urine collection and a subsequent cystectomy with histopathological evaluation of collected bladders. Standard HRV time and spectral parameters were calculated. MLKT-treated animals demonstrated an increase in power of non-normalized LF (low frequency) and HF (high frequency) components with no change of the total HRV power. Moreover, an increase and decrease in normalized nLF and nHF, respectively, were assessed in those animals compared to the control. Additionally, a decrease in daily diuresis measurement was demonstrated in MLKT-treated animals. Montelukast treatment resulted in the functional ANS status re-arrangement, with sympathetic overdrive and parasympathetic withdrawal. Those changes may contribute to alleviation of bladder overactivity symptoms, independently on leukotriene receptors blockade. PMID:27476297

  7. Heart rate variability and the influence of craniosacral therapy on autonomous nervous system regulation in persons with subjective discomforts:a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanda Girsberger; Ulricke Bnziger; Gerhard Lingg; Harald Lothaller; Peter-Christian Endler

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Subjective discomforts in a preclinical range are often due to imbalanced autonomic nervous system activity, which is a focus of craniosacral therapy. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this work was to determine any changes in heart rate variability (HRV) in a study on craniosacral therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: This is a quasi-experimental (controlled) study with cross-over design. In a private practice, measurements were performed on 31 patients with subjective discomforts before and after a control and an intervention period. HRV was determined using a device that requires a measuring time of 140 s and electrode contact only with the ifngertips. Main PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: HRV change under the inlfuence of a deifned one-time intervention (test intervention) with craniosacral therapy versus control (deifned rest period). RESULTS:Standard deviation of all RR-intervals (ms) and total power of RR-interval variability in the frequency range (ms2) were together interpreted as an indicator of test subjects’ autonomic nervous activity and as a measure of their ability to cope with demands on their health. Neither of these parameters increased during the control period (P>0.05), whereas during the test intervention period there was an increase in both (P0.05). No changes were observed in the low frequency/high frequency ratio (sympathetic-vagal balance) in the course of the control or the test intervention period (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Craniosacral treatment had a favourable effect on autonomic nervous activity. This in itself is an interesting result, but further research will be needed to distinguish speciifc effects of craniosacral therapy technique from less speciifc therapist-client interaction effects.

  8. Discrimination of the Healthy and Sick Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System by a New Wavelet Analysis of Heartbeat Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Lewkowicz, M.; Levitan, J.; Moelgaard, H.; Thomsen, P. E. Bloch; Saermark, K.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish with a complete certainty between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system by way of multiresolutional wavelet transform of RR intervals. We repeated the study of Thurner et al on different ensemble of subjects. We show that reconstructed series using a filter which discards wavelet coefficients related with higher scales enables one to classify individuals for which the method otherwise is inconclu...

  9. Autonomic nervous dysfunction in hamsters infected with West Nile virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Clinical studies and case reports clearly document that West Nile virus (WNV can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI complications. Other functions controlled by the autonomic nervous system may also be directly affected by WNV, such as bladder and cardiac functions. To investigate how WNV can cause autonomic dysfunctions, we focused on the cardiac and GI dysfunctions of rodents infected with WNV. Infected hamsters had distension of the stomach and intestines at day 9 after viral challenge. GI motility was detected by a dye retention assay; phenol red dye was retained more in the stomachs of infected hamsters as compared to sham-infected hamsters. The amplitudes of electromygraphs (EMGs of intestinal muscles were significantly reduced. Myenteric neurons that innervate the intestines, in addition to neurons in the brain stem, were identified to be infected with WNV. These data suggest that infected neurons controlling autonomic function were the cause of GI dysfunction in WNV-infected hamsters. Using radiotelemetry to record electrocardiograms and to measure heart rate variability (HRV, a well-accepted readout for autonomic function, we determined that HRV and autonomic function were suppressed in WNV-infected hamsters. Cardiac histopathology was observed at day 9 only in the right atrium, which was coincident with WNV staining. A subset of WNV infected cells was identified among cells with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 (HCN4 as a marker for cells in the sinoatrial (SA and atrioventricular (AV nodes. The unique contribution of this study is the discovery that WNV infection of hamsters can lead to autonomic dysfunction as determined by reduced HRV and reduced EMG amplitudes of the GI tract. These data may model autonomic dysfunction of the human West Nile neurological disease.

  10. Comparing the accuracy of ES-BC, EIS-GS, and ES Oxi on body composition, autonomic nervous system activity, and cardiac output to standardized assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis JE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available John E Lewis1, Stacey L Tannenbaum1, Jinrun Gao3, Angelica B Melillo1, Evan G Long1, Yaima Alonso2, Janet Konefal1, Judi M Woolger2, Susanna Leonard1, Prabjot K Singh1, Lawrence Chen1, Eduard Tiozzo1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3State Farm Insurance, Bloomington, IL, USA Background and purpose: The Electro Sensor Complex (ESC is software that combines three devices using bioelectrical impedance, galvanic skin response, and spectrophotometry: (1 ES-BC (Electro Sensor-Body Composition; LD Technology, Miami, FL to assess body composition, (2 EIS-GS (Electro Interstitial Scan-Galvanic Skin; LD Technology to predict autonomic nervous system activity, and (3 ES Oxi (Electro Sensor Oxi; LD Technology to assess cardiac output. The objective of this study was to compare each to a standardized assessment: ES-BC to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, EIS-GS to heart rate variability, and ES Oxi to BioZ Dx Diagnostic System (BioZ Dx; SonoSite Inc, Bothell, WA. Patients and methods: The study was conducted in two waves. Fifty subjects were assessed for body composition and autonomic nervous system activity. Fifty-one subjects were assessed for cardiac output. Results: We found adequate relative and absolute agreement between ES-BC and DXA for fat mass (r = 0.97, P < 0.001 with ES-BC overestimating fat mass by 0.1 kg and for body fat percentage (r = 0.92, P < 0.001 with overestimation of fat percentage by 0.4%. For autonomic nervous system activity, we found marginal relative agreement between EIS-GS and heart rate variability by using EIS-GS as the predictor in a linear regression equation (adjusted R2 = 0.56, P = 0.03. For cardiac output, adequate relative and absolute agreement was found between ES Oxi and BioZ Dx at baseline (r = 0.60, P < 0.001, after the first exercise stage (r = 0.79, P < 0.001, and after the second exercise stage (r = 0.86, P

  11. Discrimination of the Healthy and Sick Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System by a New Wavelet Analysis of Heartbeat Intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkenazy, Yu; Levitan, J; Moelgaard, H; Bloch-Thomsen, P E; Saermark, K

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish with a complete certainty between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system by way of multiresolutional wavelet transform of RR intervals. We repeated the study of Thurner et al on different ensemble of subjects. We show that reconstructed series using a filter which discards wavelet coefficients related with higher scales enables one to classify individuals for which the method otherwise is inconclusive. We suggest a delimiting diagnostic value of the standard deviation of the filtered, reconstructed RR interval time series in the range of $\\sim 0.035$ (for the above mentioned filter), below which individuals are at risk.

  12. Self-Adapting Reactive Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, M.; Ali, M. K.

    This paper describes a new self-adapting control algorithm for reactive autonomous agents. The architecture of the autonomous agents integrates the reactive behavior with reinforcement learning. We show how these components perform on-line adaptation of the autonomous agents to various complex navigation situations by constructing an internal model of the environment. Also, a discussion on cooperation and coordination of teams of agents is presented.

  13. Neuron-glia crosstalk in the autonomic nervous system and its possible role in the progression of metabolic syndrome: A new hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO eDEL RIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is characterized by the following physiological alterations: increase in abdominal fat, insulin resistance, high concentration of triglycerides, low levels of HDL, high blood pressure and a generalized inflammatory state. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of this syndrome is the presence of neurohumoral activation, which involve autonomic imbalance associated to hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system. Indeed, enhanced sympathetic drive has been linked to the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarct and obstructive sleep apnea. Glial cells, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system, control synaptic transmission and regulate neuronal function by releasing bioactive molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently, a new family of plasma membrane channels called hemichannels has been described to allow the release of gliotransmitters and modulate neuronal firing rate. Moreover, a growing amount of evidence indicates that uncontrolled hemichannel opening could impair glial cell functions, affecting synaptic transmission and neuronal survival. Given that glial cell functions are disturbed in various metabolic diseases, we hypothesize that progression of MS may relies on hemichannel-dependent impairment of glial-to-neuron communication by a mechanism related to dysfunction of inflammatory response and mitochondrial metabolism of glial cells. In this manuscript, we discuss how glial cells may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic drive observed in MS, and shed light about the possible role of hemichannels in this process.

  14. Neuron-Glia Crosstalk in the Autonomic Nervous System and Its Possible Role in the Progression of Metabolic Syndrome: A New Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Rodrigo; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Orellana, Juan A; Retamal, Mauricio A

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by the following physiological alterations: increase in abdominal fat, insulin resistance, high concentration of triglycerides, low levels of HDL, high blood pressure, and a generalized inflammatory state. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of this syndrome is the presence of neurohumoral activation, which involve autonomic imbalance associated to hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system. Indeed, enhanced sympathetic drive has been linked to the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarct, and obstructive sleep apnea. Glial cells, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system, control synaptic transmission, and regulate neuronal function by releasing bioactive molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently, a new family of plasma membrane channels called hemichannels has been described to allow the release of gliotransmitters and modulate neuronal firing rate. Moreover, a growing amount of evidence indicates that uncontrolled hemichannel opening could impair glial cell functions, affecting synaptic transmission and neuronal survival. Given that glial cell functions are disturbed in various metabolic diseases, we hypothesize that progression of MS may relies on hemichannel-dependent impairment of glial-to-neuron communication by a mechanism related to dysfunction of inflammatory response and mitochondrial metabolism of glial cells. In this manuscript, we discuss how glial cells may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic drive observed in MS, and shed light about the possible role of hemichannels in this process.

  15. Moderate Exercise Restores Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function and Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Obese Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mello Gomes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Metabolic syndrome has been identified as one of the most significant threats to human health in the 21st century. Exercise training has been shown to counteract obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate exercise training on pancreatic beta-cell function and autonomic nervous system (ANS activity in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods: Weaning rats were divided into four groups: rats fed a standard chow or HFD (sedentary, Control-SED and HFD-SED; or exercised, Control-EXE and HFD-EXE, respectively. Exercised rats ran (from 21- to 91-days-old for 60 minutes (3 times/week over a 10-week period. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Pancreatic islets were isolated to study glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS. Parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve electrical signals were measured, and liver samples were processed and histologically analyzed. Results: Exercise prevented obesity, insulin resistance, and liver steatosis as well as improved total cholesterol, ALT, and AST levels. Islets from HFD rats showed insulin hypersecretion which was ameliorated by exercise. Exercise decreased vagal nerve activity in the HFD-EXE group and increased the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in both exercised groups. Conclusion: Exercise prevents obesity and liver steatosis and restores pancreatic beta-cell function and ANS activity in HFD-obese rats.

  16. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder versus resilience on nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity as functions of sleep stage and time of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Bell, Kimberly; Mellman, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with sleep disturbances including alterations in sleep stages and recently, elevated nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal (i.e., dominance of the sympathetic nervous system over the parasympathetic nervous system). Data suggest that sleep contributes to the regulation of ANS activity. In our previous ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring study, strong relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity in resilient participants (i.e., individuals who had never had PTSD despite exposure to high-impact trauma) were not seen with PTSD. In this study, we examined the impact of PTSD vs. resilience on ANS activity as a function of sleep stage and time of sleep. Participants (age 18-35) with current PTSD (n=38) and resilience (n=33) completed two overnight polysomnography recordings in a lab setting. The second night electrocardiogram was analyzed for frequency domain HRV parameters and heart rate within rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Results indicated that ANS arousal indexed by HRV was greater during REM compared with NREM sleep and that the REM-NREM difference was greater in the PTSD than in the resilient participants. This effect of PTSD was reduced to non-significance when analyses controlled for REM sleep percentage, which was lower with PTSD. Exploratory analyses revealed that the REM-NREM difference in HRV was correlated with REM sleep percentage in resilient participants, but not with PTSD. In contrast with our data from home settings, the present study did not find increased overall nocturnal ANS arousal with PTSD. Analyses did reveal higher heart rate during initial NREM sleep with more rapid decline over the course of NREM sleep with PTSD compared with resilience. Findings suggest that elevated ANS arousal indexed by heart rate with PTSD is specific to the early part of sleep and possible impairment in regulating ANS activity with PTSD related to

  17. The effects of stimulation of the autonomic nervous system via perioperative nutrition on postoperative ileus and anastomotic leakage following colorectal surgery (SANICS II trial): a study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Emmeline G; Smeets, Boudewijn JJ; Dekkers, Marloes; Buise, Marc D; de Jonge, Wouter J.; Slooter, Gerrit D; Reilingh, Tammo S de Vries; Wegdam, Johannes A; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard AP; Rutten, Harm JT; de Hingh, Ignace HJT; Hiligsmann, Mickael; Buurman, Wim A.; Luyer, Misha DP

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative ileus and anastomotic leakage are important complications following colorectal surgery associated with short-term morbidity and mortality. Previous experimental and preclinical studies have shown that a short intervention with enriched enteral nutrition dampens inflammation via stimulation of the autonomic nervous system and thereby reduces postoperative ileus. Furthermore, early administration of enteral nutrition reduced anastomotic leakage. This study will investig...

  18. Autonomous Optimal Coordination Scheme in Protection System of Power Distribution Network by Using Multi-Agent Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Seung-Jae; KIM Tae-Wan; LEE Gi-Young

    2008-01-01

    A protection system using a multi-agent concept for power distribution networks is pro- posed. Every digital over current relay(OCR) is developed as an agent by adding its own intelli- gence, self-tuning and communication ability. The main advantage of the multi-agent concept is that a group of agents work together to achieve a global goal which is beyond the ability of each individual agent. In order to cope with frequent changes in the network operation condition and faults, an OCR agent, proposed in this paper, is able to detect a fault or a change in the network and find its optimal parameters for protection in an autonomous manner considering information of the whole network obtained by communication between other agents.Through this kind of coordi- nation and information exchanges, not only a local but also a global protective scheme is com- pleted. Simulations in a simple distribution network show the effectiveness of the proposed protec- tion system.

  19. [Preoperative preparation of pregnant with hypertension according to state of the autonomic nervous system and circulatory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ianov, V A; Tolmachev, G N; Volodin, A V; Marichik, N V; Nemirovskiĭ, V B; Pivovarova, G M; Shepetovskaia, N L

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy in patients with hypertension is considered in the spotlight of creation of general adaptation syndrome. According to evidence, when a stable hypertension in pregnant patients with hyper- and eukinetic types of haemodynamics is observed, the response of circulatory system and body fluid compartments has a moderate difference with normal. In pregnant patients with hypertension and a hypokinetic type of haemodynamics and pregnant patients with gestosis developed against the background of eukinetic type of hypertension, a physiological decrease of total peripheral resistance (TPR) is absent, which contributes into interstitial hyperhydration. In pregnant patients with gestosis developed against the background of hypokinetic type of haemodynamics, a pathological rise of TPR occurs, which is followed with a more significant interstitial hyperhydration. A differentiated preoperative preparation of pregnant with hypertension with the calcium antagonists and hydroxyethyl starch solution (130/0,4) favours the conversion of hyper- and hypokinetic types of haemodynamics to eukinetic, forms a physiological type of sympathicotonia and improves the water-salt metabolism. PMID:21400790

  20. Quality of life in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and its predictors : importance of the autonomic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, MP; Hassink, RJ; Tuinenburg, AE; van Sonderen, EFLP; Lefrandt, JD; de Kam, PJ; van Gelder, IC; Smit, AJ; Sanderman, R; Crijns, HJGM

    2001-01-01

    Aims To determine the impact of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation on quality of life and to determine the predictors of quality of life, particularly the role of symptomatology and autonomic function. Methods and Results The study group comprised 73 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (mean ag

  1. The influence of montelukast on the autonomic nervous system activity in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrek Lukasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis involves arachidonic acid-derived inflammatory mediators, among them leukotrienes. Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, is reported to exert an alleviatory effect in the course of cystitis associated with overactive bladder symptoms. The aim of this study was to verify whether the effect of montelukast is also associated with its influence on autonomic activity. The experiment included 20 rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (75 mg/kg, four doses every second day, among them, 10 treated with oral montelukast (10 mg/kg for 8 days and 10 controls. Time and frequency domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV were conducted in all the rats as an indirect measure of their autonomic activity. The montelukast-treated animals showed an increase in root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD, as well as an increase in HRV spectrum total power (TP and power of very low (VLF spectral component. This suggests that due to its anti-inflammatory and its anti-leukotriene effect, montelukast improves overall autonomic activity, with no preferential influence on either the sympathetic or parasympathetic part. Furthermore, the increase in VLF corresponds to attenuation of inflammatory response. In conclusion, this study showed that aside from its antagonistic effect on leukotriene receptors, montelukast can also modulate autonomic activity.

  2. [The present state of knowledge concerning the effect of electromagnetic fields of 50/60 Hz on the circulatory system and the autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Bortkiewicz, A; Zmyślony, M

    1997-01-01

    Diseases of the circulatory system together with neoplastic diseases are recognised as the major health problem in the contemporary world. Their origin and aggravation may be related to the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) since theoretically, disorders in the functioning of the circulatory system are most likely due to electric impulses generated in it by external magnetic fields. The nervous system, including its autonomic part which regulates, among others, the functioning of the circulatory system, because of its electric nature is another system which may be disturbed by EMFs. From the 1960s, biological studies on the effects of power-line frequency EMFs have been carried out in many countries. In view of the applied study model, four main directions of these studies can be identified: in vitro and in vivo animal experiments, experimental studies on humans, clinical and epidemiological studies. Experimental studies on animals and humans have yielded ambiguous and very often contradictory results. Some of them indicate that EMF contributes to slowing down the cardiac rhythm and the stroke volume of the left ventricle, other results suggest their acceleration, and still other show no differences. The results of clinical studies performed in many countries in different groups of workers exposed to power-line frequency EMFs have not produced the evidence for drawing unequivocal conclusions. Again some studies reveal that those exposed show disorders in neurovegetative and blood pressure regulations (hypotension or hypertension) as well as in cardiac rhythm (bradycardia or tachycardia). Other studies do not confirm harmful effect of EMF on the circulatory system. Therefore, it is not feasible to find out, on the basis of these studies, whether and how chronic exposure to power-line frequency EMFs influences the functioning of the circulatory system, the more so as ECG standard recording has been to date the only diagnostic method, and according to the

  3. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  4. The significance of amlodipine on autonomic nervous system adjustment (ANSA method: A new approach in the treatment of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardiovascular autonomic modulation is altered in patients with essential hypertension. Objective To evaluate acute and long-term effects of amlodipine on cardiovascular autonomic function and haemodynamic status in patients with mild essential hypertension. Methods. Ninety patients (43 male, mean age 52.12 ±10.7 years with mild hypertension were tested before, 30 minutes after the first 5 mg oral dose of amlodipine and three weeks after monotherapy with amlodipine. A comprehensive study protocol was done including finger blood pressure variability (BPV and heart rate variability (HRV beat-to-beat analysis with impedance cardiography, ECG with software short-term HRV and nonlinear analysis, 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring with QT and HRV analysis, 24-hour blood pressure (BP monitoring with systolic and diastolic BPV analysis, cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests, cold pressure test, mental stress test. The patients were also divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic groups, depending on predominance in short time spectral analysis of sympathovagal balance according to low frequency and high frequency values. Results. We confirmed a significant systolic and diastolic BP reduction, and a reduction of pulse pressure during day, night and early morning hours. The reduction of supraventricular and ventricular ectopic beats during the night was also achieved with therapy, but without statistical significance. The increment of sympathetic activity in early phase of amlodipine therapy was without statistical significance and persistence of sympathetic predominance after a few weeks of therapy detected based on the results of short-term spectral HRV analysis. All time domain parameters of long-term HRV analysis were decreased and low frequency amongst spectral parameters. Amlodipne reduced baroreflex sensitivity after three weeks of therapy, but increased it immediately after the administration of the first dose. Conclusion. The results

  5. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Definition of an ontology allowing the communication between multi-agents systems. • Social welfare evaluation in different electricity markets. • Demonstration of the use of the proposed ontology between two multi-agents systems. • Strategic biding in electricity markets. • European electricity markets comparison. - Abstract: The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models, respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform provides the means for the exemplification of the usefulness of this ontology. A case study using the proposed multi-agent platform is presented, considering a scenario based on real data that simulates the European Electricity Market environment, and comparing its performance using different market mechanisms. The main goal is to demonstrate the advantages that the integration of various market models and simulation platforms have for the study of the electricity markets’ evolution

  6. Sensitivity of the autonomic nervous system to visual and auditory affect across social and non-social domains in Williams syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maaria Järvinen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals with Williams syndrome (WS typically demonstrate an increased appetitive social drive, their social profile is characterized by dissociations, including socially fearless behavior coupled with anxiousness, and distinct patterns of peaks and valleys of ability. The aim of this study was to compare the processing of social and non-social visually and aurally presented affective stimuli, at the levels of behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS responsivity, in individuals with WS contrasted with a typically developing (TD group, with the view of elucidating the highly sociable and emotionally sensitive predisposition noted in WS. Behavioral findings supported previous studies of enhanced competence in processing social over non-social stimuli by individuals with WS; however, the patterns of ANS functioning underlying the behavioral performance revealed a surprising profile previously undocumented in WS. Specifically, increased heart rate (HR reactivity, and a failure for electrodermal activity (EDA to habituate were found in individuals with WS contrasted with the TD group, predominantly in response to visual social-affective stimuli. Within the auditory domain, greater arousal linked to variation in heart beat period was observed in relation to music stimuli in individuals with WS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the pattern of ANS response in WS is more complex than previously noted, with increased arousal to face and music stimuli potentially underpinning the heightened behavioral emotionality to such stimuli. The lack of habituation may underlie the increased affiliation and attraction to faces characterizing individuals with WS. Future research directions are suggested.

  7. Responses of Six-Weeks Aquatic Exercise on the Autonomic Nervous System, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and Lung Functions in Young Adults with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Janyacharoen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a chronic respiratory disease. Sympathetic hypofunction is identified in all of the allergic rhinitis patients. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF and impaired lung functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of six-week of aquatic exercise on the autonomic nervous system function, PNIF and lung functions in allergic rhinitis patients.Twenty-six allergic rhinitis patients, 12 males and 14 females were recruited in this study. Subjects were diagnosed by a physician based on history, physical examination, and positive reaction to a skin prick test. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The control allergic rhinitis group received education and maintained normal life. The aquatic group performed aquatic exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. Heart rate variability, PNIF and lung functions were measured at the beginning, after three weeks and six weeks.There were statistically significant increased low frequency normal units (LF n.u., PNIF and showed decreased high frequency normal units (HF n.u. at six weeks after aquatic exercise compared with the control group.Six weeks of aquatic exercise could increase sympathetic activity and PNIF in allergicrhinitis patients.

  8. Renal denervation in an animal model of diabetes and hypertension: Impact on the autonomic nervous system and nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Ubiratan F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of renal denervation on cardiovascular reflexes and markers of nephropathy in diabetic-hypertensive rats have not yet been explored. Methods Aim: To evaluate the effects of renal denervation on nephropathy development mechanisms (blood pressure, cardiovascular autonomic changes, renal GLUT2 in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Forty-one male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR ~250 g were injected with STZ or not; 30 days later, surgical renal denervation (RD or sham procedure was performed; 15 days later, glycemia and albuminuria (ELISA were evaluated. Catheters were implanted into the femoral artery to evaluate arterial pressure (AP and heart rate variability (spectral analysis one day later in conscious animals. Animals were killed, kidneys removed, and cortical renal GLUT2 quantified (Western blotting. Results Higher glycemia (p vs. nondiabetics (p vs. SHR. Conclusions Renal denervation in diabetic-hypertensive rats improved previously reduced heart rate variability. The GLUT2 equally overexpressed by diabetes and renal denervation may represent a maximal derangement effect of each condition.

  9. The Possible Role of Transplacentally-Acquired Antibodies to Infectious Agents, With Molecular Mimicry to Nervous System Sialic Acid Epitopes, as Causes of Neuromental Disorders: Prevention and Vaccine Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André J. Nahmias

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proof of causality of most neuromental disorders (NMD's is largely unavailable. Lessons from four-decade investigations of the epidemiology, immunology, pathogenesis, prevention and therapy of perinatal infectious agents, which invade directly the nervous system, have led us to propose a new indirect effect hypothesis: maternal transplacentally-acquired antibodies, to agents with epitope molecular mimicry with the developing nervous system, can cross the fetus/infant's blood–nervous system barriers to cause NMD's, clinically manifest years later.

  10. Larval nervous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords......, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence...

  11. Experimental Study of the Effect of Autonomic Nervous System on the Transmural Dispersion of Ventricular Repolarization under Acute Myocardial Ischemia in Vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存泰; 徐大文; 李泱; 刘念; 钟江华; 王琳; 陆再英

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The effect of the autonomic nerves on the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolariza tion (TDR) under acute myocardial ischemia in intact canine was investigated. Using the monophasic action potential (MAP) recording technique, MAPs of the epicardium (Epi), midmyocardium (Mid) and endocardium (Endo) were recorded simultaneously by specially designed plunge-needle electrodes at the left ventricular free wall under acute myocardial ischemia in 12 open-chest dogs.MAPD90 and TDR among three myocardial layers as well as the incidence of the early afterdepolar ization (EAD) before autonomic nervous stimulation and during autonomic nervous stimulation were compared. It was found that 10 min after acute myocardial I~hemia, TDR was increased from 55±8.ms to 86± 15 ms during sympathetic stimulation (P<0. 01). The TDR (53± 9 ms) during parasympathetic stimulation was not significantly different from that of the control (55±8 ms) (P>0.05). The EAD was elicited in the Mid of 2 dogs (16 %) 10 min after acute myocardial ischemia,but the EAD were elicited in the Mid of 7 dogs (58 %) during sympathetic stimulation (P<0. 01).It was concluded that: (1) Sympathetic stimulation can increase the transmural dispersion of repolari zation and induce early afterdepolarizations in the Mid under acute myocardial ischemia, which pro-vide the opportunity for the ventricular arrhythmia developing; (2) Parasympathetic stimulation has no significant effect on the transmural dispersion of repolarization under myocardial ischemia.

  12. Nanomedicine and the nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Colin R; Hunter, Ross J

    2012-01-01

    The nanosciences encompass a variety of technologies ranging from particles to networks and nanostructures. Nanoparticles can be suitable carriers of therapeutic agents, and nanostructures provide suitable platforms and scaffolds for sub-micro bioengineering. This book focuses on nanomedicine and nanotechnology as applied to the nervous system and the brain. It covers nanoparticle-based immunoassays, nanofiber microbrush arrays, nanoelectrodes, protein nanoassemblies, nanoparticles-assisted imaging, nanomaterials, and ion channels. Additional topics include stem cell imaging, neuronal performa

  13. Influence of yearlong training on the state of cardiovascular, autonomic nervous system and physical performance in female 400 meters runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Mikhalyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – identification and comparison of heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical performance in 400 meters runners from the III category to masters of sports of international class (MSIC in the annual cycle of the training process. Materials and methods. The study included 22 female athletes, 400 meters runners between the ages of 14 and 27 years (mean age – 16.8 ± 0.67 years, running experience – from 2 to 13 years (average – 4.4 ± 0.68 years in the preparatory and competitive periods. Body length and weight of athletes were 167.9 ± 0.91 cm and 52.5 ± 0.98 kg, respectively. For the analysis of the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity mathematical methods of HRV analysis were used. Analysis and evaluation of periodic components of heart rate were carried out by means of the research of spectral parameters of autocorrelation functions. Determination of physical performance was carried out under the practical standard on the cycle ergometer. It was established that in high class sportswomen (n=12 and ones with qualifications of the II–III category (n=10 in the competitive period there were strengthening of parasympathetic effects of ANS, transformation of eukinetic circulation type (CT into hypokinetic CT and absence of sportswomen with hyperkinetic CT. In high class sportswomen there were significant increase of the relative value of physical working capacity (PWC170/kg by 12.33% and tendency to increase of index of functional state (IFS by 9.46%, in sportswomen with qualifications of II–III category PWC170/kg significantly increased by 19.26%, and IFS by 17.87%. Correlation analysis conducted in both periods in the group and separately in high class sportswomen and ones with qualifications of II–III category found the relationship indicating that the increase of PWC170/kg and IFS is associated with the prevalence of hypokinetic CT and parasympathetic ANS influences. In the competitive period

  14. Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

  15. The Nervous System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly

    2006-01-01

    For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts. With this in mind, the authors developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to…

  16. Uncertainty in anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension is modulated by the autonomic nervous system--a fMRI study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Amandine; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Pellissier, Sonia; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; de Micheaux, Hugo Lafaye; Tack, Jan; Dantzer, Cécile; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-02-15

    The human brain responds both before and during the application of aversive stimuli. Anticipation allows the organism to prepare its nociceptive system to respond adequately to the subsequent stimulus. The context in which an uncomfortable stimulus is experienced may also influence neural processing. Uncertainty of occurrence, timing and intensity of an aversive event may lead to increased anticipatory anxiety, fear, physiological arousal and sensory perception. We aimed to identify, in healthy volunteers, the effects of uncertainty in the anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension, and the impact of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and anxiety-related psychological variables on neural mechanisms of anticipation of rectal distension using fMRI. Barostat-controlled uncomfortable rectal distensions were preceded by cued uncertain or certain anticipation in 15 healthy volunteers in a fMRI protocol at 3T. Electrocardiographic data were concurrently registered by MR scanner. The low frequency (LF)-component of the heart rate variability (HRV) time-series was extracted and inserted as a regressor in the fMRI model ('LF-HRV model'). The impact of ANS activity was analyzed by comparing the fMRI signal in the 'standard model' and in the 'LF-HRV model' across the different anticipation and distension conditions. The scores of the psychological questionnaires and the rating of perceived anticipatory anxiety were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis. Our experiments led to the following key findings: 1) the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is the only activation site that relates to uncertainty in healthy volunteers and is directly correlated to individual questionnaire score for pain-related anxiety; 2) uncertain anticipation of rectal distension involved several relevant brain regions, namely activation of sgACC and medial prefrontal cortex and deactivation of amygdala, insula, thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, supplementary

  17. Aromatic effects of a Japanese citrus fruit—yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka)—on psychoemotional states and autonomic nervous system activity during the menstrual cycle: a single-blind randomized controlled crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Tamaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a yellow-golden colored citrus fruit, has traditionally been used to promote psychosomatic health in Japan. While the yuzu produces a distinctive, pleasing aroma of citrus and floral, the efficacy of its fragrance remains unknown. The present study investigated the soothing effects of the fragrance of yuzu essential oil from the perspective of autonomic nervous system activity, which plays a crucial role in the integrity of the mind-body connect...

  18. Aromatic effects of a Japanese citrus fruit-yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka)-on psychoemotional states and autonomic nervous system activity during the menstrual cycle: A single-blind randomized controlled crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Tamaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a yellow-golden colored citrus fruit, has traditionally been used to promote psychosomatic health in Japan. While the yuzu produces a distinctive, pleasing aroma of citrus and floral, the efficacy of its fragrance remains unknown. The present study investigated the soothing effects of the fragrance of yuzu essential oil from the perspective of autonomic nervous system activity, which plays a crucial role in the integrity of the mind-body connec...

  19. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance. PMID:25807003

  20. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Roland Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive

  1. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  2. Circadian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system in insulin resistant subjects with normoglycemia, impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Pietro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus both insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are considered responsible for autonomic dysfunction. The relation between the autonomic activity, impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance is, however, unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the circadian autonomic activity expressed as heart rate variability (HRV measured by 24-hours ECG recording in insulin resistant subjects (IR with characteristics as follow: IR subjects with normal oral glucose tolerance test results, IR subjects with impaired fasting glucose, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Eighty Caucasian insulin resistant subjects (IR and twenty five control subjects were recruited for the study. IR subjects were divided into four groups according to the outcoming results of oral glucose tests (OGTTs: IR subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR, IR subjects with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Autonomic nervous activity was studied by 24-hours ECG recording. Heart rate variability analysis was performed in time and frequency domains: SDNN, RMS-SD, low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF were calculated. Results The total SDNN showed statistically significant reduction in all four groups with insulin resistant subjects (IR when compared to the control group (p Conclusion The results of our study suggest that insulin resistance might cause global autonomic dysfunction which increases along with worsening glucose metabolic impairment. The analysis of sympathetic and parasympathetic components and the sympathovagal balance demonstrated an association between insulin resistance and sympathetic over-activity, especially during night. The results indicated that the sympathetic over-activity is directly correlated to the grade of insulin resistance

  3. Central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that roentgenological examination plays an important role in diagnosis of central nervous system diseases in children. The methods of roentgenological examinations are divided into 3 groups: roentgenography without contrast media (conventional roentgenography), roentgenography with artificial contrasting of liquor space (ventriculopneumoencelography, myelography) and contrasting of brain and spinal blood vessels (angiography). Conventional contrastless roentgenography of skull and vertebral column occupies leadership in diagnosis of brain neoplasms and some vascular diseases

  4. Sensorized Garments and Textrode-Enabled Measurement Instrumentation for Ambulatory Assessment of the Autonomic Nervous System Response in the ATREC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Llerena

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in textile materials, technology and miniaturization of electronics for measurement instrumentation has boosted the development of wearable measurement systems. In several projects sensorized garments and non-invasive instrumentation have been integrated to assess on emotional, cognitive responses as well as physical arousal and status of mental stress through the study of the autonomous nervous system. Assessing the mental state of workers under stressful conditions is critical to identify which workers are in the proper state of mind and which are not ready to undertake a mission, which might consequently risk their own life and the lives of others. The project Assessment in Real Time of the Stress in Combatants (ATREC aims to enable real time assessment of mental stress of the Spanish Armed Forces during military activities using a wearable measurement system containing sensorized garments and textile-enabled non-invasive instrumentation. This work describes the multiparametric sensorized garments and measurement instrumentation implemented in the first phase of the project required to evaluate physiological indicators and recording candidates that can be useful for detection of mental stress. For such purpose different sensorized garments have been constructed: a textrode chest-strap system with six repositionable textrodes, a sensorized glove and an upper-arm strap. The implemented textile-enabled instrumentation contains one skin galvanometer, two temperature sensors for skin and environmental temperature and an impedance pneumographer containing a 1-channel ECG amplifier to record cardiogenic biopotentials. With such combinations of garments and non-invasive measurement devices, a multiparametric wearable measurement system has been implemented able to record the following physiological parameters: heart and respiration rate, skin galvanic response, environmental and peripheral temperature. To ensure the proper functioning of the

  5. Nervous System Problems and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: Fact Sheet 505 Nervous System Problems and Dementia WHAT ARE NERVOUS SYSTEM PROBLEMS? WHAT ARE THE ... of AIDS these were all called “HIV-Associated Dementia.” However, a broader range of problems is showing ...

  6. Evolutionary Algorithms for Planning in an Autonomous Agent

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The planning of constraint-based operations using evolutionary algorithms is an optimization problem that involves finding a chain of operations appearing in a valid left-right or right-left order. This type of planning can be applied to autonomous systems where the need to plan actions for one or several agents is relevant. Current research focuses on developing autonomous management systems for the use on oil drilling facilities, aiming to replace human-based micromanaged decisions with art...

  7. N-Acetylmannosamine improves sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice: relevance to autonomic nervous function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Ito, Koichi; Hayakawa, Koji; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a variety of physiological changes originating peripherally and centrally, including within the autonomic nervous system. Sleep-wake disturbances constitute reliable hallmarks of aging in several animal species and humans. Recent studies have been interested in N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) a potential therapeutic agent for improving quality of life, as well as preventing age-related cognitive decline. In this study, ManNAc (5.0 mg/ml) was administered in the drinking water of middle-aged male C57BL/6J mice (55 weeks old) for 7 days. Mice were housed under a 12:12 h light:dark cycle at 23-24 °C. We evaluated bio-behavioral activity using electrocardiogram, body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by an implanted telemetry transmitter. To estimate sleep-wake profile, surface electroencephalogram and electromyogram leads connected to a telemetry transmitter were also implanted in mice. Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. ManNAc-treated mice spent more time in a wakeful state and less time in slow wave sleep during the dark phase. Parasympathetic nervous activity was increased following ManNAc treatment, then the sympatho-vagal balance was shifted predominance of parasympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, improvement in sleep-wake pattern was associated with increased parasympathetic nervous activity. These results suggest that ManNAc treatment can improve bio-behavioral activity and sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice. This may have implications for improving sleep patterns in elderly humans. PMID:25443216

  8. Your Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Brain & Nervous System Print A A A Text Size What's in ... spinal cord and nerves — known as the nervous system — that let messages flow back and forth between ...

  9. A multi-agent decentralized energy management system based on distributed intelligence for the design and control of autonomous polygeneration microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A decentralized energy management system based on multi agent systems theory. • A decentralized energy management system is technically feasible. • A decentralized approach utilizes the devices better than a centralized one. • A decentralized energy management system is economically competitive. - Abstract: The autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology has been developed in order to cover holistically needs in a remote area such as electrical energy, space heating and cooling, potable water through desalination and hydrogen as fuel for transportation. The existence of an advanced energy management system is essential for the operation of an autonomous polygeneration microgrid. So far, energy management systems based on a centralized management and control have been developed for the autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology based on computational intelligence approaches. A decentralized management and control energy management system can have important benefits, when taking into consideration the autonomous character of these microgrids. This paper presents the design and investigation of a decentralized energy management system for the autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology. The decentralized energy management system gives the possibility to control each unit of the microgrid independently. The most important advantage of using a decentralized architecture is that the managed microgrid has much higher chances of partial operation in cases when malfunctions occur at different parts of it, instead of a complete system breakdown. The designed system was based on a multi-agent system and employed Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for its implementation. It was then compared through a case study with an existing centralized energy management system. The technical performance of the decentralized solution performance is on par with the existing centralized one, presenting improvements in financial and operational terms for the implementation and

  10. A COMPARISON BETWEEN EXPERT SYSTEMS AND AUTONOMIC COMPUTING PLUS MOBILE AGENT APPROACHES FOR FAULT MANAGEMENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ARMANDO GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de trabajos relacionados a la aplicación de sistemas expertos a la gestión de fallas. Se introduce también un enfoque novedoso, basado en el paradigma de la computación autónoma y la tecnología de agentes móviles, y sus principales características son comparadas con respecto a las equivalentes de los sistemas expertos. Los benefi cios del esquema basado en agentes móviles son presentados.

  11. Investigation of Autonomic Nervous System Function and Influencing Factors of Employees in Changchun%长春市企业员工自主神经系统功能状况及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璐; 张秀敏; 刘红箭; 李晶华; 吴方园; 刘妍妤; 刘莹圆; 王云

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过测量长春市企业员工的心率变异性,了解其自主神经系统功能状况,分析相关影响因素,为改善企业员工自主神经系统功能提供参考依据。方法:采用整群抽样的方法,以自填式调查问卷的形式收集企业员工的基本信息,采用SUN-8800健康检测系统对长春市两家企业427名员工进行心率变异性测定。结果:调查人群自主神经系统活性偏低的检出率为75.2%,调节功能异常的检出率为63.0%。多元线性回归分析显示,性别、年龄、企业性质、BMI指数、吸烟、饮酒对该人群的心率变异性频域指标的影响具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:长春市企业员工中普遍存在自主神经系统活性减低和调节功能失衡的现象,男性、大龄、超重与肥胖、吸烟、饮酒是企业员工自主神经系统功能的危险因素,其中,超重与肥胖、吸烟、饮酒是应进行干预的重要危险因素。%Objective: To know the status of autonomic nervous system function, analyze influencing factors, provide scientific basis for making policy of autonomic nervous system function improvement of employees in Changchun by measuring their heart rate variability. Methods:Questionnaire and SUN - 8800 health detecting system were conducted among 427 employees of 2 enterprises to gather essential information and determine heart rate variability through cluster sampling method. Results:There were 75. 2% of the survey population with lower functional ac⁃tiveness of the autonomic nervous system and 63. 0% with unbalanced regulation of autonomic nervous system. The results of multiple linear re⁃gression analysis indicated that there were statistical differences(P<0. 05) in frequency-domain indicators of heart rate variability because of different sex, age, type of enterprise, BMI index, smoking and drinking. Conclusion: The autonomic nervous system function of employees in

  12. Autonomous linear lossless systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Shodhan; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We define a lossless autonomous system as one having a quadratic differential form associated with it called an energy function, which is positive and which is conserved. We define an oscillatory system as one which has all its trajectories bounded on the entire time axis. In this paper, we show that an autonomous system is lossless if and only if it is oscillatory. Next we discuss a few properties of energy functions of autonomous lossless systems and a suitable way of splitting a given ener...

  13. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  14. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to microenv

  15. Learning Sequences of Actions in Collectives of Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Wolpert, David H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the problem of designing a collective of autonomous agents that individually learn sequences of actions such that the resultant sequence of joint actions achieves a predetermined global objective. We are particularly interested in instances of this problem where centralized control is either impossible or impractical. For single agent systems in similar domains, machine learning methods (e.g., reinforcement learners) have been successfully used. However, applying such solutions directly to multi-agent systems often proves problematic, as agents may work at cross-purposes, or have difficulty in evaluating their contribution to achievement of the global objective, or both. Accordingly, the crucial design step in multiagent systems centers on determining the private objectives of each agent so that as the agents strive for those objectives, the system reaches a good global solution. In this work we consider a version of this problem involving multiple autonomous agents in a grid world. We use concepts from collective intelligence to design goals for the agents that are 'aligned' with the global goal, and are 'learnable' in that agents can readily see how their behavior affects their utility. We show that reinforcement learning agents using those goals outperform both 'natural' extensions of single agent algorithms and global reinforcement, learning solutions based on 'team games'.

  16. Relationship between duration of illness and cardiac autonomic nervous activity in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Fujita, Masatoshi; Nin, Kazuko; Noma, Shun’ichi; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The mortality rate associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) is high, and death is mainly attributable to cardiac events. A wide range of autonomic nervous system disturbances may be mechanisms underlying the increased cardiovascular mortality and sudden death of patients with AN. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been proven to be a reliable noninvasive method for quantitative assessment of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of heart rate (HR). The longer the duration of illnes...

  17. Relationship between duration of illness and cardiac autonomic nervous activity in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Fujita, Masatoshi; Nin, Kazuko; Noma, Shun'ichi; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mortality rate associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) is high, and death is mainly attributable to cardiac events. A wide range of autonomic nervous system disturbances may be mechanisms underlying the increased cardiovascular mortality and sudden death of patients with AN. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been proven to be a reliable noninvasive method for quantitative assessment of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of heart rate (HR). The longer the duration of illne...

  18. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators...

  19. Distributed Load-Shedding System for Agent-Based Autonomous Microgrid Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Yujin Lim; Hak-Man Kim; Tetsuo Kinoshita

    2014-01-01

    A microgrid is an eco-friendly power system because renewable sources are used as main power sources. In the islanded operation mode of a microgrid, maintaining the balance between power supply and power demand is a very important problem. In the case of surplus supply, decreased generation output and/or charge of distributed storages can be applied to solve the imbalance between power supply and demand. In the case of supply shortages, increased generation output and/or discharge of distribu...

  20. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  1. The oral cavity as a guide for the application of low level laser energy and its direct effect on the autonomic nervous system providing true energy healing for all health practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolin, Herbert S.

    2008-03-01

    This manuscript is intended to demonstrate the important role that dentistry plays in regulating the balance of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) through the proprioceptive feedback of the posterior teeth to the brain. An old paradigm called Dental Distress Syndrome, relatively unknown in dentistry today, has at its core, the importance of the height of the posterior (back) teeth and its impact on total body health which is greatly aided by low level laser energy. The rationale behind the belief that the alteration of the posterior teeth affects the ANS begins with basic concepts in embryology. The functioning of the ANS will support the fact of Dental Distress Syndrome. Health practitioners of all disciplines can learn to recognize Dental Distress Syndrome and initiate non-invasive treatment and team with a trained dentist to enhance the wellness and health of the patient if they so desire. A synopsis of my oral paper presented to the Academy of Laser Dentistry demonstrating temporary balancing of the Autonomic Nervous System with three minutes of cold laser energy, as well as my rationale as to why results vary with different cold lasers will be discussed. Clinical case studies will be presented.

  2. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus as a possible etiologic agent in primary central nervous system lymphoma in immunocompetent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandon Ashwani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL occurs in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been implicated in immunosuppressed individuals but its role is not established in immunocompetent individuals. Aims: To study the possible role of EBV in PCNSL in immunocompetent individuals.Setting and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with PCNSL were studied immunohistochemically with antibodies to CD45, CD20, CD3 and EBV latent membrane protein-1 (EBV LMP-1. In situ hybridization was done in 19 patients where enough tissue was available using a specific oligonucleotide probe for EBV-Early RNA (EBER. Results: All the patients were immunocompetent and mean age was 41.6 years. Histologically they were diffuse large cell lymphoma: 25 (83.3% were B cell, 1(3.3% was T cell and 4 (13.3% were unclassified. EBV LMP-1 showed variable membrane and cytoplasmic positivity in 24 (80% patients. In situ hybridization for EBER was negative in all the 19 patients studied. Conclusion: In this region of the world probably EBV has no etiologic role in PCNSL in immunocompetent individuals.

  4. The nervous systems of cnidarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Westfall, J A

    1995-01-01

    Cnidarians have simple nervous systems and it was probably within this group or a closely-related ancestor that nervous systems first evolved. The basic plan of the cnidarian nervous system is that of a nerve net which, at some locations, has condensed to form nerve plexuses, or circular...... specialized neurons that we find in higher animals today. The primitive nervous system of cnidarians is strongly peptidergic: from a single sea anemone species Anthopleura elegantissima, we have now isolated 16 different novel neuropeptides. These peptides are biologically active and cause inhibitions...... that the peptides are located in neuronal dense-cored vesicles associated with both synaptic and non-synaptic release sites. All these data indicate that evolutionarily "old" nervous systems use peptides as transmitters. We have also investigated the biosynthesis of the cnidarian neuropeptides. These neuropeptides...

  5. Architecture of autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  6. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  7. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulton Alan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1 the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2 the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3 white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4 central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively, with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis; this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept. In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic

  8. 高血压前期与自主神经功能改变关系分析%The Relationship between prehypertension and the Changes of Autonomic Nervous System Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琳; 聂连涛; 李中健

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨高血压前期( prehypertension,PHT)与自主神经功能改变的关系,为预防高血压发生提供依据。方法根据纳入、排除标准,选取2013年1月—2014年3月来河南大学淮河医院就诊的患者520例。根据《中国高血压指南》(2010)中PHT的诊断标准,将520例患者分为对照组(非PHT组)和研究组( PHT组)。其中,对照组200例,研究组320例,根据收缩压和舒张压升高情况,将研究组分为3个亚组。应用美国DMS公司12.0TOP版动态心电图分析软件,监测心率减速力( deceleration capacity of rate,DC)和心率变异性( heart rate variability,HRV)两个自主神经功能指标,定性、定量分析两组自主神经功能改变情况。结果研究组DC低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论 PHT的发生可能与自主神经功能失调有关。DC和HRV可以定性、定量了解PHT人群自主神经功能改变情况,及时调整自主神经功能有助于预防高血压的发生。%Objective To explore the relationship between prehypertension and the changes of autonomic nervous sys-tem function,and to provide evidence for the prevention of hypertension. Methods By random sampling method,520 patients visiting in Huaihe Hospital of Henan University from January 2013 to March 2014 were selected and divided into control group (non PHT group,n=200)and research group(PHT group,n=320)according to the diagnostic criteria for PHT mentioned in the" Chinese Hypertension Guide",the latter being subdivided into three groups according to the rise of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Two autonomic nervous function indexes,the deceleration capacity of rate( deceleration capacity of rate,DC) and heart rate variability( heart rate variability,HRV)were detected to compare the two groups' autonomic function change qualitatively and quantitatively,by DMS 12. 0 TOP version,a kind of dynamic ECG analysis software

  9. Programming multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the significant advances in the area of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems in the last decade, promising technologies for the development and engineering of multi-agent systems have emerged. The result is a variety of agent-oriented programming languages, development frameworks, executio

  10. Hemodynamic and autonomic nervous system responses to mixed meal ingestion in healthy young and old subjects and dysautonomic patients with postprandial hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitz, L. A.; Ryan, S. M.; Parker, J. A.; Freeman, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although postprandial hypotension is a common cause of falls and syncope in elderly persons and in patients with autonomic insufficiency, the pathophysiology of this disorder remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS. We examined the hemodynamic, splanchnic blood pool, plasma norepinephrine (NE), and heart rate (HR) power spectra responses to a standardized 400-kcal mixed meal in 11 healthy young (age, 26 +/- 5 years) and nine healthy elderly (age, 80 +/- 5 years) subjects and 10 dysautonomic patients with symptomatic postprandial hypotension (age, 65 +/- 16 years). Cardiac and splanchnic blood pools were determined noninvasively by radionuclide scans, and forearm vascular resistance was determined using venous occlusion plethysmography. In healthy young and old subjects, splanchnic blood volume increased, but supine blood pressure remained unchanged after the meal. In both groups, HR increased and systemic vascular resistance remained stable. Forearm vascular resistance and cardiac index increased after the meal in elderly subjects, whereas these responses were highly variable and of smaller magnitude in the young. Young subjects demonstrated postprandial increases in low-frequency HR spectral power, representing cardiac sympatho-excitation, but plasma NE remained unchanged. In elderly subjects, plasma NE increased after the meal but without changes in the HR power spectrum. Patients with dysautonomia had a large postprandial decline in blood pressure associated with no change in forearm vascular resistance, a fall in systemic vascular resistance, and reduction in left ventricular end diastolic volume index. HR increased in these patients but without changes in plasma NE or the HR power spectrum. CONCLUSIONS. 1) In healthy elderly subjects, the maintenance of blood pressure homeostasis after food ingestion is associated with an increase in HR, forearm vascular resistance, cardiac index, and plasma NE. In both young and old, systemic vascular resistance is

  11. Controllability of a swarm of topologically interacting autonomous agents

    CERN Document Server

    Komareji, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has been the focal point of many recent studies in the field of complexity. These landmark advances shed a new light on the dynamics of natural and technological complex systems. Here, we analyze the controllability of a swarm of autonomous self-propelled agents having a topological neighborhood of interactions, applying the analytical tools developed for the study of the controllability of arbitrary complex directed networks. To this aim we thoroughly investigate the structural properties of the swarm signaling network which is the information transfer channel underpinning the dynamics of agents in the physical space. Our results show that with 6 or 7 topological neighbors, every agent not only affects, but is also affected by all other agents within the group. More importantly, still with 6 or 7 topological neighbors, each agent is capable of full control over all other agents. This finding is yet another argument justifying the particular value of the number of topologic...

  12. Differentiation of Internet addiction risk level based on autonomic nervous responses: the Internet-addiction hypothesis of autonomic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dong Wei; Wang, Jenn Wu; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei

    2010-08-01

    How high-risk Internet addiction (IA) abusers respond to different autonomic nervous activities compared with low-risk subjects may be a critical research goal with prevention and treatment implications. The aim of the present study was to address this issue by observing differences between high- and low-risk IA abusers in four physiological assessments when surfing the Internet: blood volume pulse (BVP), skin conductance (SC), peripheral temperature (PTEMP), and respiratory response (RESPR). Forty-two male and ten female participants aged 18-24 years were screened with the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, 2003), and then separated into high- and low-risk IA groups. Using psychophysiology equipment, participants encountered a 3-minute adaptation period followed by a 6-minute testing period for surfing the Internet on baseline and testing phases. The present results indicate that: (a) the CIAS scores were positively and negatively correlated with the RESPR and the PTEMP; (b) the PTEMP and RESPR of high-risk IA abusers were respectively weaker and stronger than those of low-risk IA abusers; the BVP and SC of high-risk IA abusers were respectively augmented and decreased relative to low-risk IA abusers. Thus we suggest that four autonomic responses may be differentially sensitive to abusers' potency in terms of the IA hypothesis of autonomic activity. The stronger BVP and RESPR responses and the weaker PTEMP reactions of the high-risk IA abusers indicate the sympathetic nervous system was heavily activated in these individuals. However, SC activates parasympathetic responses at the same time in the high-risk IA abusers. The paradoxical responses between the sympathetic and parasympathetic actions are addressed in the discussion.

  13. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion......Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion...

  14. Self-organization in a group of mobile autonomous agents

    OpenAIRE

    Long WANG

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a discrete time swarm model of a group of mobile autonomous agents with a simple attraction and repulsion function for swarm aggregation and investigates its stability properties. In particular, it is proved that the individuals (members) of the swarm will aggregate and form a cohesive cluster of a finite size depending only on the parameters of the swarm model in a finite time, and the swarm system is completely stable.

  15. Relationships between sensory stimuli and autonomic nervous regulation during real and virtual exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iijima Atsuhiko

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of virtual environment (VE technology to motor rehabilitation increases the number of possible rehabilitation tasks and/or exercises. However, enhancing a specific sensory stimulus sometimes causes unpleasant sensations or fatigue, which would in turn decrease motivation for continuous rehabilitation. To select appropriate tasks and/or exercises for individuals, evaluation of physical activity during recovery is necessary, particularly the changes in the relationship between autonomic nervous activity (ANA and sensory stimuli. Methods We estimated the ANA from the R-R interval time series of electrocardiogram and incoming sensory stimuli that would activate the ANA. For experiments in real exercise, we measured vehicle data and electromyogram signals during cycling exercise. For experiments in virtual exercise, we measured eye movement in relation to image motion vectors while the subject was viewing a mountain-bike video image from a first-person viewpoint. Results For the real cycling exercise, the results were categorized into four groups by evaluating muscle fatigue in relation to the ANA. They suggested that fatigue should be evaluated on the basis of not only muscle activity but also autonomic nervous regulation after exercise. For the virtual exercise, the ANA-related conditions revealed a remarkable time distribution of trigger points that would change eye movement and evoke unpleasant sensations. Conclusion For expanding the options of motor rehabilitation using VE technology, approaches need to be developed for simultaneously monitoring and separately evaluating the activation of autonomic nervous regulation in relation to neuromuscular and sensory systems with different time scales.

  16. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra R. Raol; Ajith Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS) is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i) perception and reasoning, (ii) mobility and navigation,(iii) haptics and teleoperation, (iv) image fusion/computervision, (v) modelling of manipulators, (vi) hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii) ve...

  17. Intelligent autonomous systems 12. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukhan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of). College of Information and Communication Engineering; Yoon, Kwang-Joon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyungsuck [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangmyung (eds.) [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Recent research in Intelligent and Autonomous Systems. Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, jeju Island, Korea. Written by leading experts in the field. Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of ''Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security and space applications, and intelligent autonomous systems for manufacturing and healthcare. This volume 2 includes contributions devoted to Service Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction and Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems and Life Engineering.

  18. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  19. Patterns of Sensitivity to Emotion in Children with Williams Syndrome and Autism: Relations Between Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity and Social Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Grichanik, Mark; Arnold, Andrew J; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-08-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with atypical social-emotional functioning. Affective visual stimuli were used to assess autonomic reactivity and emotion identification, and the social responsiveness scale was used to determine the level social functioning in children with WS and ASD contrasted with typical development (TD), to examine syndrome-specific and syndrome-general features. Children with ASD exhibited the highest arousal in response to faces, with a lack of difference in autonomic sensitivity across different emotional expressions, unlike in WS and TD. The WS group demonstrated unique deficits in identifying neutral stimuli. While autonomic responsivity to neutral faces was associated with social functioning in all children, converging profiles characterized children with WS contrasted with TD and ASD. PMID:25800866

  20. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple....... The central element of the architecture is the ‘global database’ that serves several purposes, such as storing system parameters, making signals available for data logging and inter-process communication. Standard software components are used to a large extent, OS-9 as real-time operating system, a custom...

  1. Creating Real-Time Embodied Autonomous Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ A challenging research area for computer graphics and virtual environments (VE) is training interpersonal interactions. In such a system, at least one person is the VE participant, while several more virtual human agents (represented by human-like, embodied models) are engaged in activities in the same virtual space. The participants, whether live or virtual, should interact as if all were real. This means that the virtual agents must have several characteristics afforded to real people, including the following:

  2. Patterns of Sensitivity to Emotion in Children with Williams Syndrome and Autism: Relations between Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Grichanik, Mark; Arnold, Andrew J.; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with atypical social-emotional functioning. Affective visual stimuli were used to assess autonomic reactivity and emotion identification, and the social responsiveness scale was used to determine the level social functioning in children with WS and ASD contrasted with typical…

  3. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  4. Outcomes of children with central nervous system germinoma treated with multi-agent chemotherapy followed by reduced radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sylvia; Kilday, John-Paul; Laperriere, Normand; Janzen, Laura; Drake, James; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute

    2016-03-01

    CNS germinomas have an excellent prognosis with radiation therapy alone. However, in children, volume and dose of CNS radiation are associated with neurocognitive and neuroendocrine sequelae. Our objective was to determine long-term outcomes of our cohort who received chemotherapy and reduced radiation. This retrospective cohort study analyzed treatment and outcome of intracranial germinoma patients consecutively treated at Sick Kids, Toronto, Canada, from January 2000 to December 2013. 24 children (13 male, 11 female; median age 13.36 years) were identified. Median follow up was 61 months (range 1-144 months). Tumor location was suprasellar (n = 9), bifocal (8), pineal (6), and basal ganglia (1). Three children showed dissemination on imaging. 2/24 had only elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin, 3/24 only elevated lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hCG, and 2/24 had both elevated serum and lumbar CSF hCG. 23/24 children completed treatment and received multi-agent chemotherapy followed by either ventricular radiation (2340-2400 cGy) (n = 9), ventricular radiation + boost (1600 cGy) (n = 8), whole brain (2340 cGy) (n = 3), focal (4000 cGy) (n = 2) or craniospinal radiation (2340 cGy) (n = 1). Five-year progression free and overall survival was 96 and 100 % respectively. 8/24 patients with ventricular radiation ± boost (2340/4000 cGy) displayed stable full scale intelligence quotient over a mean interval of 3 years following radiation, but showed declined processing speed. In this limited experience, excellent 5-year overall survival rates were achieved with chemotherapy followed by reduced whole ventricular radiation even if ventricular radiation was delivered without boost.

  5. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, A.; Mohamed, M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Wan Ahmad, W. A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP) and residual methanolic (met-AESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg) were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 ...

  6. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  7. Sexual features of the old rats’ autonomic nervous system response to the development of necrotic process in heart on the background of melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Khara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. An effect of melatonin on the autonomic regulation of the heart in terms of damage was studied in adult and old male and female rats. Methods and results. Necrotic process in the myocardium was caused by the injection of epinephrine (1 mg / kg, single dose, intramuscular 1 h after injection of melatonin (5 mg / kg intravenous. In 1 and 24 hours after administration of epinephrine heart rate was determined and features of autonomic regulation of the heart on indicators Mo (mode, AMo (mode amplitude, ΔH (variation range of cardio intervals, and SI (stress index of regulatory mechanisms were evaluated. It was found that the effects of melatonin aimed at increasing the role of cholinergic ANS link in the formation of heart rate and reducing the adrenergic participation in the body of older individuals significantly decreased. To a greater extent this applies to older males. In the dynamics of adrenalin necrosis the character of vegetative regulation of heart rate of old rats reflects greater, than in adults, role of adrenergic link in animals of both sexes and reduce of the impact of cholinergic one – only in older males, which resulted in a significant tension of regulatory mechanisms. Conclusion. The obtained results show that with increasing age in rats effectiveness of melatonin as a drug which can affect the autonomic regulation of the heart by activating cardio-protective effects decreases, especially in male rats.

  8. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A; Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Wan Ahmad, W A N

    2013-01-01

    Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP) and residual methanolic (met-AESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg) were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 min. AESP and met-AESP induced significant dose-dependent hypotension, but only 100 mg/kg AESP caused mild bradycardia (n = 5). AESP-induced hypotension was more potent than that of met-AESP in WKY. AESP has a faster onset time than that of met-AESP in both WKY and SHR. However, met-AESP-induced hypotension was more sustained than that of AESP in SHR. Blockages of autonomic ganglion and α -adrenergic receptors using hexamethonium and phentolamine (n = 5 for each group) partially attenuated AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of α -adrenergic receptors. Blockages of autonomic ganglion, β -adrenergic, cholinergic receptors, and nitric oxide production using hexamethonium, propranolol, atropine, and N- ω -nitro-l arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (n = 5 for each group) partially attenuated met-AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of β -adrenergic and cholinergic receptors via nitric oxide production. PMID:24454508

  9. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP and residual methanolic (met-AESP extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 min. AESP and met-AESP induced significant dose-dependent hypotension, but only 100 mg/kg AESP caused mild bradycardia (n=5. AESP-induced hypotension was more potent than that of met-AESP in WKY. AESP has a faster onset time than that of met-AESP in both WKY and SHR. However, met-AESP-induced hypotension was more sustained than that of AESP in SHR. Blockages of autonomic ganglion and α-adrenergic receptors using hexamethonium and phentolamine (n=5 for each group partially attenuated AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of α-adrenergic receptors. Blockages of autonomic ganglion, β-adrenergic, cholinergic receptors, and nitric oxide production using hexamethonium, propranolol, atropine, and N-ω-nitro-l arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (n=5 for each group partially attenuated met-AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of β-adrenergic and cholinergic receptors via nitric oxide production.

  10. Central Nervous System Complications of Oncologic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffner, Ellen G

    2016-08-01

    Traditional and newer agents used to treat cancer can cause significant toxicity to the central nervous system. MRI of the brain and spine is the imaging modality of choice for patients with cancer who develop neurologic symptoms. It is important to be aware of the agents that can cause neurotoxicity and their associated imaging findings so that patients are properly diagnosed and treated. In some instances conventional MRI may not be able to differentiate posttreatment effects from disease progression. In these instances advanced imaging techniques may be helpful, although further research is still needed. PMID:27444003

  11. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra R. Raol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i perception and reasoning, (ii mobility and navigation,(iii haptics and teleoperation, (iv image fusion/computervision, (v modelling of manipulators, (vi hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii vehicle-robot path and motionplanning/control, (viii human-machine interfaces for interaction between humans and robots, and (ix application of artificial neural networks (ANNs, fuzzy logic/systems (FLS,probabilistic/approximate reasoning (PAR, Bayesian networks(BN and genetic algorithms (GA to the above-mentioned problems. Also, multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF playsvery crucial role at many levels of the data fusion process:(i kinematic fusion (position/bearing tracking, (ii imagefusion (for scene recognition, (iii information fusion (forbuilding world models, and (iv decision fusion (for tracking,control actions. The MIAS as a technology is useful for automation of complex tasks, surveillance in a hazardousand hostile environment, human-assistance in very difficultmanual works, medical robotics, hospital systems, autodiagnosticsystems, and many other related civil and military systems. Also, other important research areas for MIAScomprise sensor/actuator modelling, failure management/reconfiguration, scene understanding, knowledge representation, learning and decision-making. Examples ofdynamic systems considered within the MIAS would be:autonomous systems (unmanned ground vehicles, unmannedaerial vehicles, micro/mini air vehicles, and autonomousunder water vehicles, mobile/fixed robotic systems, dexterousmanipulator robots, mining robots, surveillance systems,and networked/multi-robot systems, to name a few.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.3-4,

  12. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  13. Autonomic nervous system response patterns in freshmen with different resilience in a military university%某军校不同心理弹性水平的大一新生自主神经反应特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳佳; 彭李; 李敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究不同心理弹性水平军校大学生自主神经反应特点.方法 采用成人心理弹性量表(resilience scale for adults,RSA)对重庆某军校大一新生进行心理测评,筛选出心理弹性高分组和低分组被试共144名,再从中选取愿意参加本实验的心理弹性高分组和低分组被试各27名,其进行自主神经反应(心率、皮电、皮温、指端血容振幅)特点的实验研究.结果 ①静息状态下,心理弹性高分组和低分组被试的自主神经反应没有统计学差异(P>0.05).②悲伤情绪诱导下,心理弹性高分组在皮电上低于心理弹性低分组(t=-2.077,P=0.043).③悲伤情绪诱导后,心理弹性高分组和心理弹性低分组的各个指标的恢复时间上均无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 心理弹性水平不同的大学生的自主神经活动模式可能存在一定程度的差异.%Objective To investigate the autonomic nervous system response pattern in military college students with different levels of resilience. Methods Resilience Scale for Adults (R.SA) was applied to test 144 college students, and based on the RSA score 54 freshmen who accepted to join the test were selected and were divided into a high resilience group and a low resilience group. Each 27 freshmen of the two groups were tested for autonomic nervous system response pattern. Results ① At resting state, students of the high resilience group and low resilience group did not show significant differences in heart rate ( HR) , skin conductance (SC), skin temperature (ST) and blood volume pulse (BVP) (P>0. 05). ② Compared with those indices obtained at resting state, students of the high resilience group scored lower in HR, SC and ST under sad mood induction, but higher in BVP; students of the low resilience group scored higher in HR and SC under sad mood induction, but lower in ST and BVP. Sad mood induction showed that SC of the high resilience group was significantly lower than that of the

  14. Chemical Specification of Autonomic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Banâtre, Jean-Pierre; Fradet, Pascal; Radenac, Yann

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic computing provides a vision of information systems allowing self-management of many predefined properties. Such systems take care of their own behavior and of their interactions with other components without any external intervention. One of the major challenges concerns the expression of properties and constraints of autonomic systems. We believe that the {\\em chemical programming paradigm} (represented here by the Gamma formalism) is well-suited to the specification of autonomic s...

  15. PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Anvari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePrimary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an extremely rare condition in childhood. We report the first case of PCNSL in a child in Iran.Clinical presentationA nine-year-old boy was referred to Mofid Hospital with the history of headache of four months and seizure of 2 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hyper-intense lesion in left fronto-parietal area with secondary satellite lesions. Biopsy of the brain mass was performed. Pathologic findings showed brain lymphoma and immunohistochemistry confirmed this diagnosis. The treatment started with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy.Keywords:Lymphoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, Children

  16. Effect of Cervical Manipulation on Autonomic Nervous Function in Healthy Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔可密; 李为民; 刘霞; Brian Budgell; 李娜; 吴根诚; 肖元春

    2006-01-01

    Objective: According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the effect of cervical stimulation on autonomic nervous system activity in humans was investigated.Methods: Healthy young male volunteers were selected as subjects of the trial. The upper cervical spine (C2-5) was stimulated bilaterally with spinal manipulation, and changes in heart rate and heart rate variability were calculated as measures of effects on autonomic nervous system tone. Results: Thirty healthy young male volunteers were tested. It was found that heart rate decreased (R-R interval prolonged) significantly. SDNN and total power spectrum increased significantly, indicating an increase in sympathetic tone. Conclusion: Cervical manipulation can regulate the autonomic nervous system tone in healthy young men, and it suggests a possibility of treating cardiovascular diseases such as arrhythmia with cervical manipulation.%目的:脊柱推拿是传统医学的治疗方法之一.根据中医学脏腑经络相关理论,观察颈部脊柱推拿对自主神经系统功能的调节作用.方法:选择成年健康男性志愿者,通过对受试者进行颈部进行推拿操作,包括触压双侧颈椎横突(C2-5)、左右旋转和扳法,以心率和心率变异性的改变为指标,观察推拿前后自主神经系统紧张性的改变.结果:对30名正常成年男性志愿者的观察结果表明,推拿后心率显著降低(RR间期延长);时域分析中SDNN显著性增加,频域分析中总功率谱显著性增加.以上结果皆提示迷走性张力增高.结论:颈部脊柱推拿可调节自主神经系统张力,提示了针灸推拿方法治疗临床心血管疾病如心律失常的可能性.

  17. Instructable autonomous agents. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Scott Bradley

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible

  18. Pure Autonomic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs GARD Information Navigator FAQs About Rare Diseases Pure autonomic failure Title Other Names: Bradbury Eggleston syndrome; ... Categories: Nervous System Diseases ; RDCRN Summary Summary Listen Pure autonomic failure is characterized by generalized autonomic failure ...

  19. Treatment effect of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋光峰; 孙炜; 李娜; 孙彦; 张念凯

    2004-01-01

    @@ Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The prevalence of OSAS in middle-aged population is about 2%-4%.1 Many OSAS patients can be accompanied by serious cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension.2 The aim of this study was to find the changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep, and the impact of surgical treatment on heart rate variability (HRV) in OSAS patients.

  20. Aging changes in the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... article/004023.htm Aging changes in the nervous system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The brain and nervous system are your body's central control center. They control ...

  1. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159344.html HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System But symptoms tend to subside once antiretroviral drugs ... mild, it is clear that HIV affects the nervous system within days of infection," she said in a ...

  2. Autonomous Agents Coordination: Action Languages meet CLP(FD) and Linda

    CERN Document Server

    Dovier, Agostino; Pontelli, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a knowledge representation formalism, in the form of a high-level Action Description Language for multi-agent systems, where autonomous agents reason and act in a shared environment. Agents are autonomously pursuing individual goals, but are capable of interacting through a shared knowledge repository. In their interactions through shared portions of the world, the agents deal with problems of synchronization and concurrency; the action language allows the description of strategies to ensure a consistent global execution of the agents' autonomously derived plans. A distributed planning problem is formalized by providing the declarative specifications of the portion of the problem pertaining a single agent. Each of these specifications is executable by a stand-alone CLP-based planner. The coordination among agents exploits a Linda infrastructure. The proposal is validated in a prototype implementation developed in SICStus Prolog. To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP).

  3. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  4. The Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A.; Sood, Manu R.

    2008-01-01

    The enteric nervous system is an integrative brain with collection of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system (CNS). The enteric nervous system modulates motility, secretions, microcirculation, immune and inflammatory responses of the gastrointestinal tract. Dysphagia,…

  5. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot b

  6. Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Richardt, Gert; Potratz, Jürgen;

    2003-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Circadian Profile of Heart Rate Variability. INTRODUCTION: Although heart rate variability (HRV) has been established as a tool to study cardiac autonomic activity, almost no data are available on the circadian patterns of HRV in healthy subjects aged 20 to 70 years. METHODS AND RESULTS......: We investigated 166 healthy volunteers (81 women and 85 men; age 42 +/- 15 years, range 20-70) without evidence of cardiac disease. Time-domain HRV parameters were determined from 24-hour Holter monitoring and calculated as hourly mean values and mean 24-hour values. All volunteers were fully mobile...

  7. PET and SPET tracers for mapping the cardiac nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human cardiac nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic branch with (-)-norepinephrine and acetylcholine as the respective endogenous neurotransmitters. Dysfunction of the cardiac nervous system is implicated in various types of cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In vivo assessment of the distribution and function of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neurones with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) can be achieved by means of a number of carbon-11-, fluorine-18-, bromine-76- and iodine-123-labelled tracer molecules. Available tracers for mapping sympathetic neurones can be divided into radiolabelled catecholamines, such as 6-[18F]fluorodopamine, (-)-6-[18F]fluoronorepinephrine and (-)-[11C]epinephrine, and radiolabelled catecholamine analogues, such as [123I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine, [18F]fluorometaraminol, [11C]phenylephrine and meta-[76Br]bromobenzylguanidine. Resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase simplifies the myocardial kinetics of the second group. Both groups of compounds are excellent agents for an overall assessment of sympathetic innervation. Biomathematical modelling of tracer kinetics is complicated by the complexity of the steps governing neuronal uptake, retention and release of these agents as well as by their high neuronal affinity, which leads to partial flow dependence of uptake. Mapping of cardiac parasympathetic neurones is limited by a low density and focal distribution pattern of these neurones in myocardium. Available tracers are derivatives of vesamicol, a molecule that binds to a receptor associated with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Compounds like (-)-[18F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol display a high degree of non-specific binding in myocardium which restricts their utility for cardiac neuronal imaging. (orig.)

  8. PET and SPET tracers for mapping the cardiac nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    The human cardiac nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic branch with (-)-norepinephrine and acetylcholine as the respective endogenous neurotransmitters. Dysfunction of the cardiac nervous system is implicated in various types of cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In vivo assessment of the distribution and function of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neurones with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) can be achieved by means of a number of carbon-11-, fluorine-18-, bromine-76- and iodine-123-labelled tracer molecules. Available tracers for mapping sympathetic neurones can be divided into radiolabelled catecholamines, such as 6-[{sup 18}F]fluorodopamine, (-)-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronorepinephrine and (-)-[{sup 11}C]epinephrine, and radiolabelled catecholamine analogues, such as [{sup 123}I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxyephedrine, [{sup 18}F]fluorometaraminol, [{sup 11}C]phenylephrine and meta-[{sup 76}Br]bromobenzylguanidine. Resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase simplifies the myocardial kinetics of the second group. Both groups of compounds are excellent agents for an overall assessment of sympathetic innervation. Biomathematical modelling of tracer kinetics is complicated by the complexity of the steps governing neuronal uptake, retention and release of these agents as well as by their high neuronal affinity, which leads to partial flow dependence of uptake. Mapping of cardiac parasympathetic neurones is limited by a low density and focal distribution pattern of these neurones in myocardium. Available tracers are derivatives of vesamicol, a molecule that binds to a receptor associated with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Compounds like (-)-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol display a high degree of non-specific binding in myocardium which restricts their utility

  9. Glucocorticoids and nervous system plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathryn M Madalena; Jessica K Lerch

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor (GC/GR) interactions alter numerous aspects of neuronal function. These consequences (e.g., anti-inlfammatoryvs. pro-inlfammatory) can vary depending on the duration of GC exposure or central nervous system (CNS) injury model. In this review we discuss how GC/GR interactions impact neuronal recovery after a central or peripheral nerve injury and discuss how GC exposure duration can produce divergent CNS neuronal growth responses. Finally we consider how new ifndings on gender speciifc immune cell responses after a nerve injury could intersect with GC/GR interactions to impact pain processing.

  10. Glucocorticoids and nervous system plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Madalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor (GC/GR interactions alter numerous aspects of neuronal function. These consequences (e.g., anti-inflammatory vs. pro-inflammatory can vary depending on the duration of GC exposure or central nervous system (CNS injury model. In this review we discuss how GC/GR interactions impact neuronal recovery after a central or peripheral nerve injury and discuss how GC exposure duration can produce divergent CNS neuronal growth responses. Finally we consider how new findings on gender specific immune cell responses after a nerve injury could intersect with GC/GR interactions to impact pain processing.

  11. Controlling formation of autonomous agents with distance disagreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina, H.; Cao, M.; Jayawardhana, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the robustness issue for controlling, using only local information, the shapes of undirected rigid formations of autonomous agents when the agents disagree with their neighboring peers on the prescribed or measured distances between them. We propose to make use of simple local estimators

  12. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  13. Tuberculoma of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLance, Arthur R; Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C; Clark, Aaron J; Kaur, Gurvinder; Sun, Matthew Z; Bollen, Andrew W; Phillips, Joanna J; Parsa, Andrew T

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis is among the oldest and most devastating infectious diseases worldwide. Nearly one third of the world's population has active or latent disease, resulting in 1.5 million deaths annually. Central nervous system involvement, while rare, is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Manifestations include tuberculoma and tuberculous meningitis, with the majority of cases occurring in children and immunocompromised patients. Despite advancements in imaging and laboratory diagnostics, tuberculomas of the central nervous system remain a diagnostic challenge due to their insidious nature and nonspecific findings. On imaging studies tuberculous meningitis is characterized by diffuse basal enhancement, but tuberculomas may be indistinguishable from neoplasms. Early diagnosis is imperative, since clinical outcomes are largely dependent on timely treatment. Stereotactic biopsy with histopathological analysis can provide a definitive diagnosis, but is only recommended when non-invasive methods are inconclusive. Standard medical treatment includes rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin or ethambutol. In cases of drug resistance, revision of the treatment regimen with second-line agents is recommended over the addition of a single drug to the first-line regimen. Advances in genomics have identified virulent strains of tuberculosis and are improving our understanding of host susceptibility. Neurosurgical referral is advised for patients with elevated intracranial pressure, seizures, or brain or spinal cord compression. This review synthesizes pertinent findings in the literature surrounding central nervous system tuberculoma in an effort to highlight recent advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  14. Learning Agents for Autonomous Space Asset Management (LAASAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scally, L.; Bonato, M.; Crowder, J.

    2011-09-01

    Current and future space systems will continue to grow in complexity and capabilities, creating a formidable challenge to monitor, maintain, and utilize these systems and manage their growing network of space and related ground-based assets. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM), and in particular, Condition-Based System Health Management (CBHM), is the ability to manage and maintain a system using dynamic real-time data to prioritize, optimize, maintain, and allocate resources. CBHM entails the maintenance of systems and equipment based on an assessment of current and projected conditions (situational and health related conditions). A complete, modern CBHM system comprises a number of functional capabilities: sensing and data acquisition; signal processing; conditioning and health assessment; diagnostics and prognostics; and decision reasoning. In addition, an intelligent Human System Interface (HSI) is required to provide the user/analyst with relevant context-sensitive information, the system condition, and its effect on overall situational awareness of space (and related) assets. Colorado Engineering, Inc. (CEI) and Raytheon are investigating and designing an Intelligent Information Agent Architecture that will provide a complete range of CBHM and HSI functionality from data collection through recommendations for specific actions. The research leverages CEI’s expertise with provisioning management network architectures and Raytheon’s extensive experience with learning agents to define a system to autonomously manage a complex network of current and future space-based assets to optimize their utilization.

  15. Autonomic nervous activities assessed by heart rate variability in pre- and post-adolescent Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuba, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Hironori; Sakiyama, Tomomi; Yamaoka Endo, Masako; Yamada, Masako; Ueoka, Hatsumi; Miura, Akira; Koga, Shunsaku

    2009-11-01

    There are many studies with respect to the age-related change of the characteristics of beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV), reflected by cardiac autonomic control, especially focusing on adulthood (i.e., aging related to the incidence of metabolic syndrome) in Japanese individuals. However, it is not still clear how basic control matures during childhood. This study was, therefore, designed to explore the HRV characteristics of pre- and post-adolescent Japanese, in a cross-sectional manner. Resting HRV data was recorded in a relaxing supine position from 136 healthy individuals between 8 and 20 years (48 boys between 8 and 14 years; 88 girls between 8 and 20 years) who were instructed to breathe periodically (0.25 Hz). Frequency-domain analysis (i.e., the spectral analysis based on an autoregressive model) of short-term, stationary R-R intervals was performed to evaluate the low- (LF; below 0.15 Hz) and high- (HF; 0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency powers. The HF to total power represents the vagal control of heart rate (PNS indicator), and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) is considered to relate to the sympathetic modulations (SNS indicator). Both PNS and SNS indices had substantially no effect from age and/or gender in the range between 8 and 20 years. In conclusion, the control of the cardiac autonomic nervous system in Japanese seems already to be compatible with that in adulthood before approximately 10 years. In other word, the cardiac autonomic modulation would presumably be maturated before the age of approximately 7-8 years, though further research is awaited.

  16. The Human Sympathetic Nervous System Response to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Andrew C.; Diedrich, Andre; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, Rose Marie; Lane, Lynda D.; Shiavi, Richard; Robertson, David

    2003-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important part of the autonomic (or automatic) nervous system. When an individual stands up, the sympathetic nervous system speeds the heart and constricts blood vessels to prevent a drop in blood pressure. A significant number of astronauts experience a drop in blood pressure when standing for prolonged periods after they return from spaceflight. Difficulty maintaining blood pressure with standing is also a daily problem for many patients. Indirect evidence available before the Neurolab mission suggested the problem in astronauts while in space might be due partially to reduced sympathetic nervous system activity. The purpose of this experiment was to identify whether sympathetic activity was reduced during spaceflight. Sympathetic nervous system activity can be determined in part by measuring heart rate, nerve activity going to blood vessels, and the release of the hormone norepinephrine into the blood. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter discharged from active sympathetic nerve terminals, so its rate of release can serve as a marker of sympathetic nervous system action. In addition to standard cardiovascular measurements (heart rate, blood pressure), we determined sympathetic nerve activity as well as norepinephrine release and clearance on four crewmembers on the Neurolab mission. Contrary to our expectation, the results demonstrated that the astronauts had mildly elevated resting sympathetic nervous system activity in space. Sympathetic nervous system responses to stresses that simulated the cardiovascular effects of standing (lower body negative pressure) were brisk both during and after spaceflight. We concluded that, in the astronauts tested, the activity and response of the sympathetic nervous system to cardiovascular stresses appeared intact and mildly elevated both during and after spaceflight. These changes returned to normal within a few days.

  17. Relationship between the mismatch of 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography and autonomic nervous system activity in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the mismatch of thallium-201 (Tl) and iodine-123-beta-methyl-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and autonomic nervous system activity in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. The subjects were 40 patients (34 males, 6 females) who underwent examinations by 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial SPECT imaging and 24-hour Holter monitoring within a 3-day period 3 weeks after the onset of their first MI. R-R intervals were analyzed every hour over a period of 24 hours by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). High frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) were defined as markers of cardiac vagal activity in the former and the LF/HF ratio as sympathetic activity. Greater or more extensive decreases in the BMIPP image than that in the Tl image were defined as a positive mismatch. Patients were divided into positive and negative mismatch groups of 20 patients each. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in age, sex, site of infarction, max CK (creatine kinase), max CK-MB, or left ventricular ejection fraction. The incidences of clinical signs suggesting residual myocardial ischemia were significantly greater in the positive than in the negative mismatch group (P123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial SPECT 3 weeks after a first acute myocardial infarction with uncomplicated moderate or severe heart failure and decreased heart rate variability are related to residual myocardial ischemia. A combined assessment of heart rate variability in 24 hour Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring and perfusion-metabolism mismatch in 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial SPECT is useful for determining residual myocardial ischemia in the follow-up of those with acute myocardial infarction. (author)

  18. Effects of Inhaled Rosemary Oil on Subjective Feelings and Activities of the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Sayorwan, Winai; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Piriyapunyporn, Teerut; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich; Siripornpanich, Vorasith

    2012-01-01

    Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aroma-therapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects’ feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (...

  19. What Are the Parts of the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system: The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerve fibers that ...

  20. “Denervation” of autonomous nervous system in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension by low-dose radiation: a case report with an unexpected outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,2 Filiz Oezkan,3 Christian Mahnkopf,4 Gerhard Grabenbauer,5 Alfons Kreczy,6 Rolf Bartunek,7 Kaid Darwiche,3 Lutz Freitag,3 Qiang Li,8 Haidong Huang,8 Thomas Vogl,9 Patrick LePilvert,10 Theodora Tsiouda,11 Kosmas Tsakiridis,12 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,2 Johannes Brachmann11II Medical Clinic, Coburg Clinic, University of Würzburg, Coburg, Germany; 2Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 4II Medizinische Klinik, Klinik für Kardiologie, Angiologie, Pneumologie, Klinikum Coburg, 5Department of Radiotherapy, 6Department of Pathology, Cytology and Molecular Diagnostics, 7Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Coburg Clinic, University of Wüerzburg, Coburg, Germany; 8Department of Respiratory Diseases, Changhai Hospital/First Affiliated Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 9Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; 10Interventional Drug Delivery Systems and Strategies (ID2S2, Medical Cryogenics, Lakeland Court Jupiter, FL, USA; 11Internal Medicine Unit, Theagenio Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, 12Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Saint Luke Private Hospital, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: Vasointestinal peptide metabolism plays a key physiological role in multimodular levels of vasodilatory, smooth muscle cell proliferative, parenchymal, and inflammatory lung reactions. In animal studies, vasointestinal peptide relaxes isolated pulmonary arterial segments from several mammalian species in vitro and neutralizes the pulmonary vasoconstrictor effect of endothelin. In some animal models, it reduces pulmonary vascular resistance in vivo and

  1. 星状神经节阻滞治疗围绝经期自主神经系统功能不稳定症状的疗效%Curative Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Function Disorders of Autonomic Nervous System in Perimenopause Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 马杰; 张海泉; 张宝琴; 赵树华; 房丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨星状神经节阻滞治疗围绝经期自主神经系统功能不稳定症状的疗效.方法 对30例主要表现自主神经系统功能不稳定症状如失眠、眩晕、心悸,皮肤感觉异常等的围绝经期患者.采用前入路星状神经节阻滞(Stellate Canglion Block,SGB)每日1次,左右交替进行,每10次为1个疗程,均治疗2个疗程.观察血中E2,FSH的水平及自主神经系统功能不稳定症状改善情况.结果 运用星状神经阻滞法治疗后,围绝经期患者自主神经系统功能不稳定症状明显改善,血中E2水平显著升高,FSH下降(P<0.05).结论 星状神经节阻滞可以治疗围绝经期自主神经系统功能不稳定,其症状明显缓解或消失.%[ Objective] To observe the curative effect of stellate ganglion block on function disorders of autonomic nervous system in perimenopause women. [ Methods ] 30 perimenopause women with function disorders of autonomic nervous system were collected, which the symptoms included insomnia, vertigo, palpitation and paresthesia. The patients were given anterior approach stellate ganglion block (SGB) once a day, alternating left and right, 10 times was one course, and all patients were treated for two courses. The levels of E2 and FSH in blood, and improvement of disorders symptoms of autonomic nervous system were observed. [ Results] After SGB treatment, symptoms of function disorders of autonomic nervous system in perimenopause women improved significantly, level of blood E2 increased significantly, whereas FSH level decreased (P < 0.05). [ Conclusion ] SGB has good effect on the function disorders of autonomic nervous system in perimenopause women, the symptoms are significantly alleviated or disappeared.

  2. Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Czaja, Krzysztof; Fornaro, Michele; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Most researchers believe that neurogenesis in mature mammals is restricted only to the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the central nervous system. In the peripheral nervous system, neurogenesis is thought to be active only during prenatal development, with the exception of the olfactory neuroepithelium. However, sensory ganglia in the adult peripheral nervous system have been reported to contain precursor cells that can proliferate...

  3. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  4. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  5. An Autonomous Adaptive Scheduling Agent for Period Searching

    CERN Document Server

    Saunders, Eric S; Allan, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an autonomous adaptive software agent that addresses the practical problem of observing undersampled, periodic, time-varying phenomena using a network of HTN-compliant robotic telescopes. The algorithm governing the behaviour of the agent uses an optimal geometric sampling technique to cover the period range of interest, but additionally implements proactive behaviour that maximises the optimality of the dataset in the face of an uncertain and changing operating environment.

  6. An autonomous adaptive scheduling agent for period searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, E. S.; Naylor, T.; Allan, A.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an autonomous adaptive software agent that addresses the practical problem of observing undersampled, periodic, time-varying phenomena using a network of HTN-compliant robotic telescopes. The algorithm governing the behaviour of the agent uses an optimal geometric sampling technique to cover the period range of interest, but additionally implements proactive behaviour that maximises the optimality of the dataset in the face of an uncertain and changing operating environment.

  7. Brain and nervous system (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complicated and interconnected functions of the body and mind. Motor, sensory cognitive and autonomic function are all coordinated and driven by the brain and nerves. As people age, nerve cells deteriorated ...

  8. The Enteric Nervous System in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Sharkey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Since about the 1950s nerves in the wall of the intestine have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Human and animal studies examining the role of nerves in intestinal inflammation are the focus of this review. Consideration is given to two possible ways that nerves are involved in IBD. First, nerves may play a role in the development or maintenance of inflammation through local release of transmitters. Second, once initiated (by whatever means, the processes of inflammation may disrupt the normal pattern of innervation and the interactions of nerves and their target tissues. Many of the functional disturbances observed in IBD are likely due to an alteration in the enteric nervous system either structurally through disruptions of nerve-target relationships or by modifications of neurotransmitters or their receptors. Finally, it appears that the enteric nervous system may be a potential therapeutic target in IBD and that neuroactive drugs acting locally can represent useful agents in the management of this disease.

  9. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  10. The Effect of Clothing on the Responses of Autonomic Nervous System Activity while Walking and Running

    OpenAIRE

    小柴, 朋子; 斎藤, 嘉代

    2011-01-01

    To determine what kind of walking wear is suitable for one's health, we examined the changes in autonomic nervous system activity by analyzing heart rate variability and the changes of salivary a -amylase activity during exercise.First, ten female subjects were kept sedentary for 30 minutes in the experimental room at 25°C before the experiments. The subjects were asked to walk at 3km/h and run at 5krn/h on the treadmill for 5 minutes each after lying, sitting, and standing.Additionally, hear...

  11. Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krzysztof Czaja; Michele Fornaro; Stefano Geuna

    2012-01-01

    Most researchers believe that neurogenesis in mature mammals is restricted only to the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the central nervous system. In the peripheral nervous system, neurogenesis is thought to be active only during prenatal development, with the exception of the olfactory neuroepithelium. However, sensory ganglia in the adult peripheral nervous system have been reported to contain precursor cells that can proliferate in vitro and be induced to differentiate into neurons. The occurrence of insult-induced neurogenesis, which has been reported by several investigators in the brain, is limited to a few recent reports for the peripheral nervous system. These reports suggest that damage to the adult nervous system induces mechanisms similar to those that control the generation of new neurons during prenatal development. Understanding conditions under which neurogenesis can be induced in physiologically non-neurogenic regions in adults is one of the major challenges for developing therapeutic strategies to repair neurological damage. However, the induced neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system is still largely unexplored. This review presents the history of research on adult neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system, which dates back more than 100 years and reveals the evidence on the under estimated potential for generation of new neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system.

  12. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost applications. In addition, utilizing component and system modeling and reasoning capabilities, autonomous systems will play an increasing role in ground operations for space missions, where they will both reduce the human workload as well as provide greater levels of monitoring and system safety. This paper will focus specifically on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations. Topics to be presented will include a brief description of key autonomous control concepts, the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New on-board software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. A new multi-agent architecture that addresses some of the challenges of autonomous systems will be presented. Autonomous operation of ground systems will also be considered, including software for autonomous in-situ propellant production and management, and closed- loop ecological life support systems (CELSS). Finally, plans and directions for the future will be discussed.

  13. Types of neurons in the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J B

    2000-07-01

    This paper, written for the symposium in honour of more than 40 years' contribution to autonomic research by Professor Geoffrey Burnstock, highlights the progress made in understanding the organisation of the enteric nervous system over this time. Forty years ago, the prevailing view was that the neurons within the gut wall were post-ganglionic neurons of parasympathetic pathways. This view was replaced as evidence accrued that the neurons are part of the enteric nervous system and are involved in reflex and integrative activities that can occur even in the absence of neuronal influence from extrinsic sources. Work in Burnstock's laboratory led to the discovery of intrinsic inhibitory neurons with then novel pharmacology of transmission, and precipitated investigation of neuron types in the enteric nervous system. All the types of neurons in the enteric nervous system of the small intestine of the guinea-pig have now been identified in terms of their morphologies, projections, primary neurotransmitters and physiological identification. In this region there are 14 functionally defined neuron types, each with a characteristic combination of morphological, neurochemical and biophysical properties. The nerve circuits underlying effects on motility, blood flow and secretion that are mediated through the enteric nervous system are constructed from these neurons. The circuits for simple motility reflexes are now known, and progress has been made in analysing those involved in local control of blood flow and transmucosal fluid movement in the small intestine.

  14. Upper extremity subclinical autonomic and peripheral neuropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud M Fathalla; Mohja A El-Badawy

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune, multiorgan disease that affects connective tissues of many organs or systems, including the nervous system, where it affects the autonomic, the peripheral, and the central nervous system. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association of subclinical autonomic and peripheral neuropathy with SLE and to correlate neurophysiological parameters with clinical and laboratory data. Patients and methods ...

  15. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  16. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  17. Evolutionary autonomous agents and the nature of apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Frank

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary autonomous agents are robots or robot simulations whose controller is a dynamical neural network and whose evolution occurs autonomously under the guidance of a fitness function without the detailed or explicit direction of an external programmer. They are embodied agents with a simple neural network controller and as such they provide the optimal forum by which sensorimotor interactions in a specified environment can be studied without the computational assumptions inherent in standard neuroscience. Methods Evolutionary autonomous agents were evolved that were able to perform identical movements under two different contexts, one which represented an automatic movement and one which had a symbolic context. In an attempt to model the automatic-voluntary dissociation frequently seen in ideomotor apraxia, lesions were introduced into the neural network controllers resulting in a behavioral dissociation with loss of the ability to perform the movement which had a symbolic context and preservation of the simpler, automatic movement. Results Analysis of the changes in the hierarchical organization of the networks in the apractic EAAs demonstrated consistent changes in the network dynamics across all agents with loss of longer duration time scales in the network dynamics. Conclusion The concepts of determinate motor programs and perceptual representations that are implicit in the present day understanding of ideomotor apraxia are assumptions inherent in the computational understanding of brain function. The strength of the present study using EAAs to model one aspect of ideomotor apraxia is the absence of these assumptions and a grounding of all sensorimotor interactions in an embodied, autonomous agent. The consistency of the hierarchical changes in the network dynamics across all apractic agents demonstrates that this technique is tenable and will be a valuable adjunct to a computational formalism in the understanding

  18. Growing Up of Autonomous Agents: an Emergent Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgavi, Giovanna; Marconi, Lucia

    2008-10-01

    A fundamental research challenge is the design of robust artifacts that are capable of operating under changing environments and noisy input, and yet exhibit the desired behavior and response time. These systems should be able to adapt and learn how to react to unforeseen scenarios as well as to display properties comparable to biological entities. The turn to nature has brought us many unforeseen great concepts. Biological systems are able to handle many of these challenges with an elegance and efficiency still far beyond current human artifacts. A living artifact grows up when its capabilities, abilities/knowledge, shift to a further level of complexity, i.e. the complexity rank of its internal capabilities performs a step forward. In the attempt to define an architecture for autonomous growing up agents [1]. We conducted an experiment on the abstraction process in children as natural parts of a cognitive system. We found that linguistic growing up involve a number of different trial processes. We identified a fixed number of distinct paths that were crossed by children. Once a given interpretation paths was discovered useless, they tried to follow another path, until the new meaning was emerging. This study generates suggestion about the evolutionary conditions conducive to the emergence of growing up in robots and provides guidelines for designing artificial evolutionary systems displaying spontaneous adaptation abilities. The importance of multi-sensor perception, motivation and emotional drives are underlined and, above all, the growing up insights shows similarities to emergent self-organized behaviors.

  19. Intelligent, autonomous systems in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, H.; Heer, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

  20. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  1. Psychoneuroimmunology--cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Kern, Simone

    2007-05-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively new field of study that investigates interactions between behaviour and the immune system, mediated by the endocrine and nervous systems. The immune and central nervous system (CNS) maintain extensive communication. On the one hand, the brain modulates the immune system by hardwiring sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves (autonomic nervous system) to lymphoid organs. On the other hand, neuroendocrine hormones such as corticotrophin-releasing hormone or substance P regulate cytokine balance. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and immune system-mediated disease.

  2. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  3. 电子对抗作战仿真分层半自治Agent系统框架设计%Design of Electronic Warfare Simulation System Framework Based on Semi-autonomous Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成晓鹏; 齐锋; 王枭

    2016-01-01

    In order to redisplay the process of real combat in the electronic warfare simulation system, it designs a layered semi⁃autonomous Agent system framework. Beginning with the point of devising the electronic warfare simulation entity, a new manner of creating entity Agent based on the BDI framework was built and the advantage of semi⁃autonomous Agent was probed. Not only the way how to design Agent became clear, but also the layered semi⁃autonomous Agent structure based on the sort of entities was established. It displays how to use the semi⁃Agent technique in electronic warfare simulation and is re⁃ally significant.%为了在电子对抗作战仿真系统中真实地复现现实作战过程,设计了基于分层半自治Agent的系统框架。从设计电子对抗作战仿真实体Agent的现实意义出发,提出了基于BDI框架的仿真实体Agent设计方法,着重探讨了半自治Agent技术应用于作战仿真领域的巨大优势,明确了个体Agent的设计方法。根据电子对抗作战仿真系统的实体分类结果提出了一种基于分层半自治Agent的系统结构,并分析了不同层次的Agent的功能,为半自治Agent技术应用于电子对抗作战仿真领域提供了思路,具有一定的借鉴意义。

  4. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  5. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions. (author)

  6. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Azer Samy A; AlEshaiwi Sarah M; AlGrain Hala A; AlKhelaif Rana A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “...

  7. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  8. A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

  9. Swarm Dynamics of a Group of Mobile Autonomous Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; CHU Tian-Guang; WANG Long; WANG Zhan-Feng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We propose a simple swarm model to study collective behaviour ofa group of mobile autonomous agents interact ing through a long range attraction and short range repulsion function. It is shown that the individuals (agents) will aggregate and eventually form a cohesive cluster of finite size around the swarm centre in a finite time, and the size depends only on the parameters of the swarm model. Furthermore, it is also shown that all the individuals will converge to equilibrium positions of the swarm model, and thus the configuration of the swarm converges to a constant constellation. Numerical simulations are also worked out to illustrate the analytical results.

  10. Indoor Autonomous Airship Control and Navigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorenko Roman; Krukhmalev Victor

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an automatic control system for autonomous airship. The system is designed to organize autonomous flight of the mini-airship performing flight mission defined from ground control station. Structure, hardware and software implementation of indoor autonomous airship and its navigation and control system as well as experiment results are described.

  11. Indoor Autonomous Airship Control and Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic control system for autonomous airship. The system is designed to organize autonomous flight of the mini-airship performing flight mission defined from ground control station. Structure, hardware and software implementation of indoor autonomous airship and its navigation and control system as well as experiment results are described.

  12. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  13. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  14. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; COJOCARU, Manole; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement ...

  15. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Nervous System Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your nervous system healthy Page Content On this page: What is ... healthy? Eating, Diet, and Nutrition What is my nervous system and what does it do? Your nervous system ...

  16. Sonic hedgehog signaling during nervous system development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yang; Peng Xie

    2008-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in embryonic development and organ formation.Sonic hedgehog signaling participates in nervous system development,regulates proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells,controls growth and targeting of axons,and contributes to specialization of oligodendrocytes.For further studies of the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and for the development of new drugs in the treatment of nervous system diseases,it is beneficial to understand these mechanisms.

  17. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  18. Mechanosensitivity in the enteric nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS autonomously controls gut muscle activity. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN initiate reflex activity by responding to mechanical deformation of the gastrointestinal wall. MEN throughout the gut primarily respond to compression or stretch rather than to shear force. Some MEN are multimodal as they respond to compression and stretch. Depending on the region up to 60% of the entire ENS population responds to mechanical stress. MEN fire action potentials after mechanical stimulation of processes or soma although they are more sensitive to process deformation. There are at least two populations of MEN based on their sensitivity to different modalities of mechanical stress and on their firing pattern. 1 Rapidly, slowly and ultra-slowly adapting neurons which encode compressive forces. 2 Ultra-slowly adapting stretch-sensitive neurons encoding tensile forces. Rapid adaptation of firing is typically observed after compressive force while slow adaptation or ongoing spike discharge occurs often during tensile stress (stretch. All MEN have some common properties: they receive synaptic input, are low fidelity mechanoreceptors and are multifunctional in that some serve interneuronal others even motor functions. Consequently, MEN possess processes with mechanosensitive as well as efferent functions. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that MEN sense and control muscle activity at the same time as servo-feedback loop. The mechanosensitive channel(s or receptor(s expressed by the different MEN populations are unknown. Future concepts have to incorporate compressive and tensile-sensitive MEN into neural circuits that controls muscle activity. They may interact to control various forms of a particular motor pattern or regulate different motor patterns independently from each other.

  19. Knowledge acquisition for autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge-based capabilities for autonomous aerospace systems, such as the NASA Space Station, must encompass conflict-resolution functions comparable to those of human operators, with all elements of the system working toward system goals in a concurrent, asynchronous-but-coordinated fashion. Knowledge extracted from a design database will support robotic systems by furnishing geometric, structural, and causal descriptions required for repair, disassembly, and assembly. The factual knowledge for these databases will be obtained from a master database through a technical management information system, and it will in many cases have to be augmented by domain-specific heuristic knowledge acquired from domain experts.

  20. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855

  1. Measuring quality of sleep and autonomic nervous function in healthy Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato M

    2014-01-01

    correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency (r=−0.460, P<0.01. These results support the finding that sleep-wake rhythms can be monitored efficiently with actigraphy, providing accurate data that can support the diagnosis of sleeping disorders. Furthermore, actigraphy data were associated with heart rate variability and PSQI findings, but only in subjects who were poor sleepers. Actigraphy is an accurate, efficient, rapid, and inexpensive test for determining objective and subjective sleeping problems, and can also be used in clinical tests for sleep assessment.Keywords: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, actigraph, heart rate variability, autonomic nervous system activity, women, screening method

  2. Autonomous Systems: Autonomous Cryogenic Loading Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objectives are to develop and integrate Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) tools and component technologies into a seamless health management...

  3. Novel markers identify nervous system components of the holothurian nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D.; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2014-01-01

    Echinoderms occupy a key position in the evolution of deuterostomes. As such, the study of their nervous system can shed important information on the evolution of the vertebrate nervous system. However, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has lagged behind when compared to that of other invertebrates due to the lack of tools available. In this study, we tested three commercially available antibodies as markers of neural components in holothurians. Immunohistological experiments with an...

  4. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology.

  5. Cohesive Motion Control Algorithm for Formation of Multiple Autonomous Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Atta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a motion control strategy for a rigid and constraint consistent formation that can be modeled by a directed graph whose each vertex represents individual agent kinematics and each of directed edges represents distance constraints maintained by an agent, called follower, to its neighbouring agent. A rigid and constraint consistent graph is called persistent graph. A persistent graph is minimally persistent if it is persistent, and no edge can be removed without losing its persistence. An acyclic (free of cycles in its sensing pattern minimally persistent graph of Leader-Follower structure has been considered here which can be constructed from an initial Leader-Follower seed (initial graph with two vertices, one is Leader and another one is First Follower and one edge in between them is directed towards Leader by Henneberg sequence (a procedure of growing a graph containing only vertex additions. A set of nonlinear optimization-based decentralized control laws for mobile autonomous point agents in two dimensional plane have been proposed. An infinitesimal deviation in formation shape created continuous motion of Leader is compensated by corresponding continuous motion of other agents fulfilling the shortest path criteria.

  6. Laser puncture therapy of nervous system disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anishchenko, G.; Kochetkov, V.

    1984-08-29

    The authors discuss experience with treatment of nervous system disorders by means of laser-puncture therapy. Commenting on the background of the selection of this type of treatment, they explain that once researchers determined the biological action of laser light on specific nerve receptors of the skin, development of laser apparatus capable of concentrating the beam in the millimeter band was undertaken. The devices that are being used for laser-puncture are said to operate in the red helium-neon band of light. The authors identify beam parameters that have been selected for different groups of acupuncture points of the skin, and the courses of treatment (in seconds of radiation) and their time intervals. They go on to discuss the results of treatment of over 800 patients categorized in a group with disorders of the peripheral nervous system and a second group with disorders of the central nervous system.

  7. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described.

  8. Therapeutic Application of Electric Fields in the Injured Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, Niels; Song, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nervous system injuries, both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system are a major cause for pain, loss-of-function, and impairment of daily life. As nervous system injuries commonly heal slowly or incompletely, new therapeutic approaches may be required.

  9. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka;

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  10. The administration of the Rorschach inkblot method and changes in autonomic nervous system activity [Aplikace Rorschachovy metody a změny v aktivitě autonomního nervového systému

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Šiška

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The administration of some psychological methods can be a temporary source of stress and evoke in some patients a pathophysiological reaction with a negative health outcome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out whether the administration of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM can change the autonomic nervous system (ANS activity in terms of shifting the sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic activity. METHODS: The RIM test was applied to 39 healthy females (22.8 ± 2.4 years. ANS activity was measured by the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV before, during, and after the RIM test. The same algorithm as in the previous procedure was employed in 30 healthy females (21.41 ± 1.7 years, however the Stroop color word test (SCWD, a very powerful stressor with a marked impact on ANS activity, instead of the RIM, was administered. Five relative parameters of SA HRV were used: percentages of VLF (very low frequency, LF (low frequency and HF (high frequency components (from the spectral power total and VLF/HF and LF/HF ratios. Changes in VLF/HF and LF/HF during the RIM and SCWT tests were used to compare the tests. RESULTS: During the RIM administration, a significant decrease in spectral power in HF (%, a significant increase in VLF (% and LF (%, and a significant increase in LF/HF and VLF/HF ratios have been shown. No significant differences in VLF/HF (markers of stressful situations among the RIM and the SCWT were found. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of the RIM can act as a powerful stressor and causes a significant decrease in parasympathetic activity and the shift of sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic activity. Administration of RIM and SCWT tests can produce stress of comparable intensity, with a similar impact on ANS activity. [VÝCHODISKA: Použití některých psychologických metod může přechodně působit jako zdroj stresu a u některých pacientů vyvolat patofyziologické reakce s negativn

  11. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  12. Gross anatomy and development of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, Martin; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) composed of the brain, the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of the different nerves arising from the CNS. The PNS is divided into the cranial nerves III to XII supplying the head and the spinal nerves that supply the upper and lower limbs. The general anatomy of the PNS is organized according to the arrangement of the fibers along the rostro-caudal axis. The control of the development of the PNS has been unravelled during the last 30 years. Motor nerves arise from the ventral neural tube. This ventralization is induced by morphogenetic molecules such as sonic hedgehog. In contrast, the sensory elements of the PNS arise from a specific population of cells originating from the roof of the neural tube, namely the neural crest. These cells give rise to the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic ganglia and the paraganglia including the adrenergic neurons of the adrenals. Furthermore, the supportive glial Schwann cells of the PNS originate from the neural crest cells. Growth factors as well as myelinating proteins are involved in the development of the PNS.

  13. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  14. Testbed for an autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    In previous works we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can easily be mapped to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01), and we illustrated that model by applying it to the thermal management system of a space station (SDAG-87-01). In this note, we will further develop that application and design the detail of the implementation of such a model. First we present the environment of our application by describing the thermal management problem and an abstraction, which was called TESTBED, that includes a specific function for each module in the architecture, and the nature of the interfaces between each pair of blocks.

  15. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azer Samy A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47% of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2 and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%, cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%, upper limbs (6 videos, 10%, lower limbs (3 videos, 5%, balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%. The other 68 (53% videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0. The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers. The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD. Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource

  16. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  17. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Hay-Schmidt, A

    2000-01-01

    The pattern of development of the serotonergic nervous system is described from the larvae of ctenophores, platyhelminths, nemerteans, entoprocts, ectoprocts (bryozoans), molluscs, polychaetes, brachiopods, phoronids, echinoderms, enteropneusts and lampreys. The larval brain (apical ganglion) of spiralian protostomes (except nermerteans) generally has three serotonergic neurons and the lateral pair always innervates the ciliary band of the prototroch. In contrast, brachiopods, phoronids, echi...

  18. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen;

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  19. LGI proteins in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Kegel (Linde); E. Aunin (Eerik); D.N. Meijer (Dies); J.R. Bermingham Jr (John)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these process

  20. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. van der Linden; R.R. Jansen; D. Bresters; C.E. Visser; S.E. Geerlings; E.J. Kuijper; W.J.G. Melchers; P.E. Verweij

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  1. Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Jansen, R.R.; Bresters, D.; Visser, C.E.; Geerlings, S.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  2. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  3. Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.

  4. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tordeux, Antoine; Lassarre, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed...

  5. Regulation of sympathetic nervous system function after cardiovascular deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasser, E. M.; Moffitt, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans subjected to prolonged periods of bed rest or microgravity undergo deconditioning of the cardiovascular system, characterized by resting tachycardia, reduced exercise capability, and a predisposition for orthostatic intolerance. These changes in cardiovascular function are likely due to a combination of factors, including changes in control of body fluid balance or cardiac alterations resulting in inadequate maintenance of stroke volume, altered arterial or venous vascular function, reduced activation of cardiovascular hormones, and diminished autonomic reflex function. There is evidence indicating a role for each of these mechanisms. Diminished reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system and subsequent vasoconstriction appear to play an important role. Studies utilizing the hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rat, an animal model of deconditioning, evaluated the potential role of altered arterial baroreflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. These studies indicate that HU results in blunted baroreflex-mediated activation of both renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in response to a hypotensive stimulus. HU rats are less able to maintain arterial pressure during hemorrhage, suggesting that diminished ability to increase sympathetic activity has functional consequences for the animal. Reflex control of vasopressin secretion appears to be enhanced following HU. Blunted baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation appears to involve altered central nervous system function. Baroreceptor afferent activity in response to changes in arterial pressure is unaltered in HU rats. However, increases in efferent sympathetic nerve activity for a given decrease in afferent input are blunted after HU. This altered central nervous system processing of baroreceptor inputs appears to involve an effect at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Specifically, it appears that tonic GABAA-mediated inhibition of the RVLM is enhanced after HU. Augmented inhibition apparently

  6. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  7. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  8. A necessary and sufficient condition for transforming autonomous systems into linear autonomous Birkhoffian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of transforming autonomous systems into Birkhoffian systems is studied. A reasonable form of linear autonomous Birkhoff equations is given. By combining them with the undetermined tensor method, a necessary and sufficient condition for an autonomous system to have a representation in terms of linear autonomous Birkhoff equations is obtained. The methods of constructing Birkhoffian dynamical functions are given. Two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Autonomous navigation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  10. Autonomous navigation system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  11. Time-Extended Payoffs for Collectives of Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.

    2002-01-01

    A collective is a set of self-interested agents which try to maximize their own utilities, along with a a well-defined, time-extended world utility function which rates the performance of the entire system. In this paper, we use theory of collectives to design time-extended payoff utilities for agents that are both aligned with the world utility, and are "learnable", i.e., the agents can readily see how their behavior affects their utility. We show that in systems where each agent aims to optimize such payoff functions, coordination arises as a byproduct of the agents selfishly pursuing their own goals. A game theoretic analysis shows that such payoff functions have the net effect of aligning the Nash equilibrium, Pareto optimal solution and world utility optimum, thus eliminating undesirable behavior such as agents working at cross-purposes. We then apply collective-based payoff functions to the token collection in a gridworld problem where agents need to optimize the aggregate value of tokens collected across an episode of finite duration (i.e., an abstracted version of rovers on Mars collecting scientifically interesting rock samples, subject to power limitations). We show that, regardless of the initial token distribution, reinforcement learning agents using collective-based payoff functions significantly outperform both natural extensions of single agent algorithms and global reinforcement learning solutions based on "team games".

  12. Comparing the Accuracy of ES-BC, EIS-GS, and ES Oxi on Body Composition, Autonomic Nervous System Activity, and Cardiac Outputto Standardized Assessments%ES-BC,EIS-GS与ES Oxi测量方法准确率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋军

    2014-01-01

    人体生物刺激反馈仪通常包括三种测量原理,即ES-BC(生物电阻抗)、EIS-GS(皮电反应)和ES Oxi(光度法),本文通过文献检索研究,分析三种测量方式的准确性,探讨其在临床应用中的价值。%The Electro Sensor Complex (ESC) is software that combines three devices using bioelectrical impedance, galvanic skin response, and spectrophotometry: (1) ES-BC (Electro Sensor-Body Composition; to assess body composition, (2) EIS-GS to predict autonomic nervous system activity, and (3) ES Oxi to assess cardiac output. analysis of clinical application of human biological stimulation feedback Instrument.

  13. Cooperative planning in multi-agent systems

    OpenAIRE

    Torreño Lerma, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Automated planning is a centralized process in which a single planning entity, or agent, synthesizes a course of action, or plan, that satisfies a desired set of goals from an initial situation. A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a distributed system where a group of autonomous agents pursue their own goals in a reactive, proactive and social way. Multi-Agent Planning (MAP) is a novel research field that emerges as the integration of automated planning in MAS. Agents are endowed with plan...

  14. HCV-Related Nervous System Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Monaco; Sergio Ferrari; Alberto Gajofatto; Gianluigi Zanusso; Sara Mariotto

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with a wide spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations, affecting different organ systems. Neurological complications occur in a large number of patients and range from peripheral neuropathy to cognitive impairment. Pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for nervous system dysfunction are mainly related to the upregulation of the host immune response with production of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and cryoglobulins. Alternative mecha...

  15. Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

  16. Improving Human/Autonomous System Teaming Through Linguistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    An area of increasing interest for the next generation of aircraft is autonomy and the integration of increasingly autonomous systems into the national airspace. Such integration requires humans to work closely with autonomous systems, forming human and autonomous agent teams. The intention behind such teaming is that a team composed of both humans and autonomous agents will operate better than homogenous teams. Procedures exist for licensing pilots to operate in the national airspace system and current work is being done to define methods for validating the function of autonomous systems, however there is no method in place for assessing the interaction of these two disparate systems. Moreover, currently these systems are operated primarily by subject matter experts, limiting their use and the benefits of such teams. Providing additional information about the ongoing mission to the operator can lead to increased usability and allow for operation by non-experts. Linguistic analysis of the context of verbal communication provides insight into the intended meaning of commonly heard phrases such as "What's it doing now?" Analyzing the semantic sphere surrounding these common phrases enables the prediction of the operator's intent and allows the interface to supply the operator's desired information.

  17. An Intelligent Multiagent System for Autonomous Microgrid Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Kinoshita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A microgrid is an eco-friendly power system because renewable sources such as solar and wind power are used as the main power sources. For this reason, much research, development, and demonstration projects have recently taken place in many countries. Operation is one of the important research topics for microgrids. For efficient and economical microgrid operation, a human operator is required as in other power systems, but it is difficult because there are some restrictions related to operation costs and privacy issues. To overcome the restriction, autonomous operation for microgrids is required. Recently, an intelligent agent system for autonomous microgrid operation has been studied as a potential solution. This paper proposes a multiagent system for autonomous microgrid operation. To build the multiagent system, the functionalities of agents, interactions among agents, and an effective agent protocol have been designed. The proposed system has been implemented by using an ADIPS/DASH framework as an agent platform. The intelligent multiagent system for microgrid operation based on the proposed scheme is tested to show the functionality and feasibility on a distributed environment through the Internet.

  18. [Central nervous system tumors in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podciechowski, Lech; Nowakowska, Dorota; Bielak, Adam; Nowosławska, Emilia; Szymański, Wojciech; Polis, Lech; Krasomski, Grzechorz; Fiks, Tomasz; Wilczyński, Jan

    2003-12-01

    Central nervous system tumour in pregnancy constitutes a serious complication. Considering frequent difficulties in diagnostics and therapy, the aim of the study was to present our experience in management with pregnant women with brain and spinal cord tumours. Between 1988-2000, in The Research Institute Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital in Lodzi, 4 pregnant women had been diagnosed with brain and spinal cord tumours. The incidence of tumours complicating pregnancy was 1/11460. Two patients diagnosed at 29 weeks' gestation, underwent craniotomy and tumour resection during pregnancy. Two other women with central nervous system tumours diagnosed at 39 weeks' gestation, were operated in the postpartum period. The analysis of the postoperative period, gestation and/or postpartum period in all women and well-being of their new-borns confirm undertaken medical decisions. PMID:15029742

  19. [Central nervous system malformations: neurosurgery correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-León, Juan C; Betancourt-Fursow, Yaline M; Jiménez-Betancourt, Cristina S

    2013-09-01

    Congenital malformations of the central nervous system are related to alterations in neural tube formation, including most of the neurosurgical management entities, dysraphism and craniosynostosis; alterations of neuronal proliferation; megalencefaly and microcephaly; abnormal neuronal migration, lissencephaly, pachygyria, schizencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, heterotopia and cortical dysplasia, spinal malformations and spinal dysraphism. We expose the classification of different central nervous system malformations that can be corrected by surgery in the shortest possible time and involving genesis mechanisms of these injuries getting better studied from neurogenic and neuroembryological fields, this involves connecting innovative knowledge areas where alteration mechanisms in dorsal induction (neural tube) and ventral induction (telencephalization) with the current way of correction, as well as the anomalies of cell proliferation and differentiation of neuronal migration and finally the complex malformations affecting the posterior fossa and current possibilities of correcting them.

  20. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Rhailana Fontes; Jéssica Ribeiro; Gupta, Daya S.; Dionis Machado; Fernando Lopes-Júnior; Francisco Magalhães; Victor Hugo Bastos; Kaline Rocha; Victor Marinho; Gildário Lima; Bruna Velasques; Pedro Ribeiro; Marco Orsini; Bruno Pessoa; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms...

  1. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Brizzi, Kate T.; Lyons, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial ag...

  2. Regeneration in the aging peripheral nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, Michio Wendell

    2014-01-01

    In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), aging is associated with a number of disorders, including a decline in regenerative capacity after injury. Although this decline has been observed in both rodents and humans for decades, the cellular and molecular underpinnings of this defect have remained elusive. As such, the goal of this thesis was to elucidate, at least in part, how aging impinges on axonal regeneration.

  3. LGI proteins in the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Bermingham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein–protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe epilepsy also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

  4. LGI proteins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Linde; Aunin, Eerik; Meijer, Dies; Bermingham, John R

    2013-01-01

    The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin) domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein-protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe) epilepsy) also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features). LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions. PMID:23713523

  5. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  6. Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About NINDS Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... 496-5717 "Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet", NINDS, Publication date July 2011. NIH ...

  7. Gemella morbillorum: an underestimated aetiology of central nervous system infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Paolo; Rassu, Mario; Branscombe, Michele; Sefton, Armine; Pellizzer, Giampietro

    2009-12-01

    A case is reported of cerebellar abscess and diffuse cerebritis due to Gemella morbillorum. The clinical course was 'biphasic', developing with an acute meningeal infection followed shortly afterwards by suppuration in the cerebellar and cerebral parenchyma; this pattern seemed to suggest a latent survival of the aetiological agent, probably within the central nervous system (CNS), despite systemic antibiotic therapy. Based upon a review of cases so far described, infections of the CNS caused by G. morbillorum appear to be an emerging reality. PMID:19713361

  8. Autonomous Systems Developments and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kyamaky, Kyandoghere; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    The Workshops on Autonomous Systems emanated from a gathering with the doctoral students of just three chairs at Fernuniversität in Hagen, which we organise twice per year for a number of years now. Their purpose is to discuss on-going research and to create a community spirit. Furthermore, they serve as a means of structuring the students' research processes. The workshop has grown and matured in several respects. The doctoral students presenting their work do not come from a single university anymore, but from three. Besides them and their supervisors, also other scientists became interested in the event and contribute to its programme. Following the model of Advanced Study Institutes, they are available on the premises for relaxed, informal discussions outside the formal sessions. Finally, with the co-sponsorship of Gesellschaft für Informatik, the German Computer Society, and this surprisingly comprehensive volume of contributions published by Springer-Verlag the workshop turned into a visible scientifi...

  9. Tuberculous Panophthalmitis with Lymphadenitis and Central Nervous System Tuberculoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirawat Srichatrapimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a serious infectious disease that spreads globally. The ocular manifestations of TB are uncommon and diverse. TB panophthalmitis has been rarely reported. Here, we described a 38-year-old Thai man presenting with panophthalmitis of the right eye. Further investigation showed that he had concurrent TB lymphadenitis and central nervous system (CNS tuberculoma, as well as HIV infection, with a CD4 cell count of 153 cells/mm3. Despite the initial response to antituberculous agents, the disease had subsequently progressed and enucleation was required. The pathological examination revealed acute suppurative granulomatous panophthalmitis with retinal detachment. Further staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in the tissue. Colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained from tissue culture. He was treated with antiretroviral agents for HIV infection and 12 months of antituberculous agents. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of TB in the differential diagnosis of endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, especially in regions where TB is endemic.

  10. The Association between Baseline Subjective Anxiety Rating and Changes in Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Activity in Response to Tryptophan Depletion in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chih Yin; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Chi, Mei Hung; Chen, Kao Chin; Chen, Po See; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serotonin on anxiety and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function; the correlation between subjective anxiety rating and changes of ANS function following tryptophan depletion (TD) in healthy volunteers was examined. Twenty-eight healthy participants, consisting of 15 females and 13 males, with an average age of 33.3 years, were recruited.Baseline Chinese Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and ANS function measurements were taken. TD was carried out on the testing day, and participants provided blood samples right before and 5 hours after TD. ANS function, somatic symptoms, and Visual Analogue Scales (VASs) were determined after TD. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman ρ correlation were adapted for analyses of the results.The TD procedure reduced total and free plasma tryptophan effectively. After TD, the sympathetic nervous activity increased and parasympathetic nervous activity decreased. Baseline anxiety ratings positively correlated with post-TD changes in sympathetic nervous activity, VAS ratings, and physical symptoms. However, a negative correlation with post-TD changes in parasympathetic nervous activity was found.The change in ANS function after TD was associated with the severity of anxiety in healthy volunteers. This supports the fact that the effect of anxiety on heart rate variability is related to serotonin vulnerability. Furthermore, it also shows that the subjective anxiety rating has a biological basis related to serotonin.

  11. Mathematical Biomarkers for the Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate and blood pressure are the most important vital signs in diagnosing disease. Both heart rate and blood pressure are characterized by a high degree of short term variability from moment to moment, medium term over the normal day and night as well as in the very long term over months to years. The study of new mathematical algorithms to evaluate the variability of these cardiovascular parameters has a high potential in the development of new methods for early detection of cardiovascular disease, to establish differential diagnosis with possible therapeutic consequences. The autonomic nervous system is a major player in the general adaptive reaction to stress and disease. The quantitative prediction of the autonomic interactions in multiple control loops pathways of cardiovascular system is directly applicable to clinical situations. Exploration of new multimodal analytical techniques for the variability of cardiovascular system may detect new approaches for deterministic parameter identification. A multimodal analysis of cardiovascular signals can be studied by evaluating their amplitudes, phases, time domain patterns and sensitivity to imposed stimuli, i.e. drugs blocking the autonomic system. The causal effects, gains and dynamic relationships may be studied through dynamical fuzzy logic models, such as the discrete-time model and discrete-event model. We expect an increase in accuracy of modeling and a better estimation of the heart rate and blood pressure time series, which could be of benefit for intelligent patient monitoring. We foresee that identifying quantitative mathematical biomarkers for autonomic nervous system will allow individual therapy adjustments to aim at the most favorable sympathetic-parasympathetic balance.

  12. Autonomous agents in bargaining games : an evolutionary investigation of fundamentals, strategies, and business applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gerding, EH

    2004-01-01

    Bargaining is becoming increasingly important due to developments within the field of electronic commerce, especially the development of autonomous software agents. Software agents are programs which, given instructions from a user, are capable of autonomously and intelligently realise a given task. By means of such agents, the bargaining process can be automated, allowing products and services together with related conditions, such as warranty and delivery time, to be flexible and tuned to t...

  13. Atopic dermatitis and the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    Due to the narrow associations between the skin, immune system, and nervous system, nerve endings are very important in the pathophysiology of inflammatory dermatoses and especially in atopic dermatitis. Many neurotransmitters and nerve growth factors that are released in blood or skin are involved in neurogenic inflammation, which dramatically enhance the inflammation induced by immune cells. During times of stress, their release is highly enhanced. In atopic dermatitis lesions, there are many specific changes in skin neurobiology and neurophysiology. These interesting data suggest that novel therapeutic possibilities can be imagined.

  14. Multi-agent for manufacturing systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.; Tulbure, A.; Huţanu, C.-tin

    2016-08-01

    The paper is meant to be a dynamic approach to optimize manufacturing systems based on multi-agent systems. Multi-agent systems are semiautonomous decision makers and cooperate to optimize the manufacturing process. Increasing production the capacity is achieved by developing, implementing efficient and effective systems from control based on current manufacturing process. The model multi-agent proposed in this paper is based on communication between agents who, based on their mechanisms drive to autonomous decision making. Methods based on multi-agent programming are applied between flexible manufacturing processes and cooperation with agents. Based on multi-agent technology and architecture of intelligent manufacturing can lead to development of strategies for control and optimization of scheduled production resulting from the simulation.

  15. The Organizational Hypothesis and Final Common Pathways: Sexual Differentiation of the Spinal Cord and PeripheralNervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    In honor of the 50th anniversary of the “organizational hypothesis,” this paper reviews work on sexual differentiation of the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Topics considered include the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus, the ejaculation center, the cremaster nucleus, sensory and autonomic neurons, and pain. These relatively simple neural systems offer ample confirmation that early exposure to testicular hormones masculinizes the nervous system, including final common pathways...

  16. An introduction to autonomous control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The functions, characteristics, and benefits of autonomous control are outlined. An autonomous control functional architecture for future space vehicles that incorporates the concepts and characteristics described is presented. The controller is hierarchical, with an execution level (the lowest level), coordination level (middle level), and management and organization level (highest level). The general characteristics of the overall architecture, including those of the three levels, are explained, and an example to illustrate their functions is given. Mathematical models for autonomous systems, including 'logical' discrete event system models, are discussed. An approach to the quantitative, systematic modeling, analysis, and design of autonomous controllers is also discussed. It is a hybrid approach since it uses conventional analysis techniques based on difference and differential equations and new techniques for the analysis of the systems described with a symbolic formalism such as finite automata. Some recent results from the areas of planning and expert systems, machine learning, artificial neural networks, and the area restructurable controls are briefly outlined.

  17. Discrimination ability and reproducibility of a new index reflecting autonomic nervous function based on pulsatile amplitude of photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yusuke; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Sugita, Norihiro; Abe, Makoto; Homma, Noriyasu; Tanaka, Akira; Yamauchi, Tsuyoshi; Miura, Hidekazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    A new physiological index (μ(PA)) is proposed to represent the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. The index μ(PA) is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio between two different frequency components of the pulsatile amplitude of the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signal. The discrimination ability and the reproducibility of μ(PA) have been compared with other traditional ANS indices. In the experiment, the electrocardiogram, the PPG and continuous blood pressure were measured in 59 healthy young subjects (age 25.7 ± 6.3) and 86 healthy elderly subjects (age 70.2 ± 4.1) at rest. The discrimination ability and the reproducibility were evaluated by Cohen's d between young and elderly groups and by the interclass correlation coefficient, respectively. The results showed that the elderly subjects were significantly (p<;0.001) lower than young subjects in μ(PA) and a few traditional indices introduced to be compared with μ(PA). Therefore, it suggests that μ(PA) is associated with the decrease in the ANS function accompanied by aging. Moreover, it showed that the discrimination ability and the reproducibility of the proposed index are comparable or larger than those of traditional indices. The proposed index based on the PPG signal will be applied to tele-healthcare systems for monitoring people's health in daily life in combination with the ratio of the standard deviation of the R-R intervals to their average value (CVRR). PMID:25570325

  18. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  19. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  20. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors

  1. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Irfan A. [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Mehler, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mehler@einstein.yu.edu [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States)

    2011-09-13

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors.

  2. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F. Mehler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs, which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors.

  3. Part and Parcel of the Cardiac Autonomic Nerve System: Unravelling Its Cellular Building Blocks during Development

    OpenAIRE

    Végh, Anna M D; Duim, Sjoerd N; Smits, Anke M; Robert E Poelmann; Arend D. J. ten Harkel; DeRuiter, Marco C; Marie José Goumans; Monique R M Jongbloed

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (cANS) is essential for proper heart function, and complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death are associated with an altered cANS function. A changed innervation state may underlie (part of) the atrial and ventricular arrhythmias observed after myocardial infarction. In other cardiac diseases, such as congenital heart disease, autonomic dysfunction may be related to disease outcome. This is also the case after heart transplantat...

  4. Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

  5. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  6. Type 2 diabetes affects the autonomic nervous system function of the eye%2型糖尿病对眼部自主神经功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章伟利; 胡慧丽; 李金瑛; 吴承高; 张纯

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate autonomic nervous function lesions in eyes with type 2 diabetes mellitus by investigating pupil diameters under the natural state and drug-induced dilated conditions and maximum binocular amplitude adjustment.Methods In this prospective cohert study, 80 type 2 diabetic patients from Peking University Shenzhen Hospital were divided into two groups based on the results of fundus fluorescene angiography (FFA), a preclinical group and a non-proliferative group with 40 patients in each group.Thirty age-matched healthy people were selected as controls.Maximum binocular amplitude adjustment was tested with a comprehensive refractometer, pupil diameters under the natural state and drug-induced dilated conditions were measured with corneal topography.A one-way ANOVA was used for data analysis.Results The mean pupil diameters of the two eyes under the natural state in the control group, preclinical group and non-proliferative group were the same, 2.92±0.47 mm, 3.14±0.65 mm, and 3.24±0.58 mm, respectively.The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (F=2.637, P>0.05).For the right eyes, the mean pupil diameters under the drug-induced dilated conditions were 7.28±0.64 mm, 6.66±0.95 mm, and 6.42±1.32 mm, respectively.The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (F=6.008, P<0.05).The mean diameters for the left eyes were 7.37±0.63 mm, 6.50±1.21 mm, and 6.51±1.04 mm, respectively.The differences between the groups were statistically significant (F=7.737, P<0.05).For the right eyes, the mean dilation ratios were 1.56%±0.47%, 1.16%±0.32%, and 0.98%±0.32%, respectively.The differences between the groups were statistically significant (F=21.620, P<0.05).The ratios for the left eyes were 1.59%±0.47%, 1.11%±0.36%, and 1.04%±0.32%, respectively.The differences between the groups were significant (F=20.289, P<0.05).The mean maximum binocular amplitude adjustments were

  7. [Progress of Researches on Relationship between Acu-moxibustion Induced Modulation of Small Intestinal Motility and Autonomic Nervous Activity ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    A large body of evidence of clinical and experimental outcomes showed that acupuncture and moxibustion can effectively treat disorders of small intestinal motility. The present articJe collected related literatures and made an analysis on the correlation between the effect of acupuncture-moxibustion intervention and needle-manipulation techniques, stimulating quantities, acupoint recipes, and the body functional states, as well as the corresponding mechanisms. Results indicate that acupuncture stimulation of acupoints of the limbs mainly enhance the motility of the small intestine, while acupuncture stimulation of acupoints in the abdominal region predominately suppress it, which may be closely associated with its effects on activities of the autonomic nervous system. This conclusion tells us that in clinical treatment of small intestinal hypodynamia, acupoints of the limbs should be selected first while in treating intestinal hyperdynamia, those acupoints in the abdominal region should be taken preferably. In ad- dition, at present, non-invaded detection techniques of the small intestinal motility are definitely and urgently needed and will greatly promote the progress of researches of acu-moxibustion on the mechanism underlying modulation of small intestinal motility. PMID:25632580

  8. Quantification of cardiac autonomic nervous activities in ambulatory dogs by eliminating cardiac electric activities using cubic smoothing spline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of an implantable radio transmitter system, direct measurement of cardiac autonomic nervous activities (CANAs) became possible for ambulatory animals for a couple of months. However, measured CANAs include not only CANA but also cardiac electric activity (CEA) that can affect the quantification of CANAs. In this study, we propose a novel CEA removal method using moving standard deviation and cubic smoothing spline. This method consisted of two steps of detecting CEA segments and eliminating CEAs in detected segments. Using implanted devices, we recorded stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), vagal nerve activity (VNA) and superior left ganglionated plexi nerve activity (SLGPNA) directly from four ambulatory dogs. The CEA-removal performance of the proposed method was evaluated and compared with commonly used high-pass filtration (HPF) for various heart rates and CANA amplitudes. Results tested with simulated CEA and simulated true CANA revealed stable and excellent performance of the suggested method compared to the HPF method. The averaged relative error percentages of the proposed method were less than 0.67%, 0.65% and 1.76% for SGNA, VNA and SLGPNA, respectively. (paper)

  9. APDS: The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J

    2004-10-04

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.

  10. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    applications. One notable example of such missions are those to explore for the existence of water on planets such as Mars and the moons of Jupiter. It is clear that water does not exist on the surfaces of such bodies, but may well be located at some considerable depth below the surface, thus requiring a subsurface drilling capability. Subsurface drilling on planetary surfaces will require a robust autonomous control and analysis system, currently a major challenge, but within conceivable reach of planned technology developments. This paper will focus on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations, including flight test results, lessons learned, and implications for the future. An additional focus will be on technologies for planetary exploration using autonomous systems and astronaut-assistance systems that employ new spoken language technology. Topics to be presented will include a description of key autonomous control concepts, illustrated by the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will also be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. Current results of autonomous planetary drilling system research will be presented. A key thrust within NASA is to develop technologies that will leverage the capabilities of human astronauts during planetary surface explorations. One such technology is spoken dialogue interfaces, which would allow collaboration with semi-autonomous agents that are engaged in activities that are normally accomplished using language, e.g., astronauts in space suits interacting with groups of semi-autonomous rovers and other

  11. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop....... Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36...... history of chemotherapy and unfavorable cytogenetic profile, survival of individuals free from these negative prognostic factors can be prolonged due to administration of systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Prospective multi-institutional studies are warranted to improve the outcome of patients...

  12. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro;

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  13. A Behavior-based Approach for Multi-agent Q-learning for Autonomous Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Dip Narayan; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit

    2011-01-01

    The use of mobile robots is being popular over the world mainly for autonomous explorations in hazardous/ toxic or unknown environments. This exploration will be more effective and efficient if the explorations in unknown environment can be aided with the learning from past experiences. Currently reinforcement learning is getting more acceptances for implementing learning in robots from the system-environment interactions. This learning can be implemented using the concept of both single-agent and multiagent. This paper describes such a multiagent approach for implementing a type of reinforcement learning using a priority based behaviour-based architecture. This proposed methodology has been successfully tested in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  14. Autonomous Collaborative Agents for Onboard Multi-Sensor Re-Targeting Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In our Phase I effort we developed a prototype software-agent based framework to provide for autonomous re-targeting of sensors hosted on satellites in polar...

  15. Biologically inspired autonomous agent navigation using an integrated polarization analyzing CMOS image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkaer, M.; San Segundo Bello, D.; Van Hoof, C.; Theuwissen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The navigational strategies of insects using skylight polarization are interesting for applications in autonomous agent navigation because they rely on very little information for navigation. A polarization navigation sensor using the Stokes parameters to determine the orientation is presented. The

  16. Towards Autonomous Control of HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brath, P.

    This thesis considered development of an autonomous control system for heating ventilation and air conditioning applications. By including auto-tuning, adaptation, diagnosis and supervision functions in the control system used in the HVAC industry will move the control of HVAC systems towards...... autonomous control. Together with better tuned controllers and more dedicated control it would be possible to decrease the energy consumption, save money and increase the indoor air climate. A flexible HVAC test system was designed and implemented. Standard components and sensors were used in the design...... experiments on the HVAC test system and by using simulations....

  17. Roles of kinins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negraes, Priscilla D; Trujillo, Cleber A; Pillat, Micheli M; Teng, Yang D; Ulrich, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous pathway involved in many biological processes. Although primarily related to blood pressure control and inflammation, its activation goes beyond these effects. Neurogenesis and neuroprotection might be stimulated by bradykinin being of great interest for clinical applications following brain injury. This peptide is also an important player in spinal cord injury pathophysiology and recovery, in which bradykinin receptor blockers represent substantial therapeutic potential. Here, we highlight the participation of kinin receptors and especially bradykinin in mediating ischemia pathophysiology in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, we explore the recent advances on mechanistic and therapeutic targets for biological, pathological, and neural repair processes involving kinins. PMID:25839228

  18. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author).

  19. Effects of work stress and home stress on autonomic nervous function in Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Eri; IWATA, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic imbalance is one of the important pathways through which psychological stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases/sudden death. Although previous studies have focused mainly on stress at work (work stress), the association between autonomic function and stress at home (home stress) is still poorly understood. The purpose was to clarify the effect of work/home stress on autonomic function in 1,809 Japanese male workers. We measured corrected QT (QTc) interval and QT index on the e...

  20. Risk factors and disposition in development of the nervous system infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić Ljiljana; Čanović Predrag; Mijailović Željko; Đoković Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Although well protected, brain is not resistant to infection agents. Acute infections of our nervous system appear more often in children and in persons who have medical history data about previous disorders, especially disorders of the nervous system. It is difficult to list possible risk factors which can be responsible for the appearance of infections of CNS and the resulting conditions. It is often difficult or impossible to determine what previous neural damage was (trauma,...

  1. Autonomous and autonomic systems with applications to NASA intelligent spacecraft operations and exploration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rouff, Christopher; Karlin, Jay; Rash, James; Hinchey, Michael; Sterritt, Roy

    2009-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth discussion of autonomous and autonomic systems, their interdependencies, differences and similarities. Current and pending issues in these evermore increasingly important subjects are highlighted and discussed. Concepts, ideas and experiences are explored in relation to real-life NASA systems in spacecraft control and in the exploration domain.

  2. High Frequency Yoga Breathing: A Review of Nervous System Effects and Adjunctive Therapeutic and Premeditation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Andaházy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High frequency yoga breathing (HFYB results in a shifting of the autonomic nervous system balance towards sympathetic nervous system dominance. In an effort to more fully understand the complex effects of this form of yogic breath-work, tests are being conducted on practitioners’ physiological and neurological response processes. Studies on heart rate variability (HRV indicating cardiac autonomic control have shown a resulting reduction of vagal activity following HFYB, leading to passive sympathetic dominance without overt excitation or exhaustion. Comparative cognitive tests taken after the practice have shown that HFYB results in reduced auditory and visual reaction times, and a decrease in optical illusion. The vigilant, wakeful, yet relaxed state induced by HFYB has been associated with improvements in attention, memory, sensorimotor performance, and mood. As breathing bridges conscious and unconscious functions, the potential role of HFYB as an adjunctive therapeutic intervention as well as its possible application in preparation for meditation is considered.

  3. Control of group of mobile autonomous agents via local strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin GAO; Daizhan CHENG; Yiguang HONG

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the formation control problem of multi-agent systems in a distributed fashion.Two cases of the information propagating topologies among multiple agents,characterized by graphics model,are considered.One is fixed topology.The other is switching topology which represents the limited and less reliable information exchange.The local formation control strategies established in this paper are based on a simple modification of the existing consensus control strategies.Moreover,some existing convergence conditions ale shown to be a special case of our model even in the continuous-time consensus case.Therefore.the results of this paper extend the existing results about the consensus problem.

  4. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-03-07

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought.

  5. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought. PMID:26947559

  6. Antihypertensive drugs and the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Colle, Sara; Morello, Fulvio; Rabbia, Franco; Milan, Alberto; Naso, Diego; Puglisi, Elisabetta; Mulatero, Paolo; Veglio, Franco

    2007-11-01

    Hypertension has been associated with several modifications in the function and regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Although it is unclear whether this dysfunction is primary or secondary to the development of hypertension, these alterations are considered to play an important role in the evolution, maintenance, and development of hypertension and its target organ damage. Several pharmacological antihypertensive classes are currently available. The main drugs that have been clearly shown to affect SNS function are beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, and centrally acting drugs. On the contrary, the effects of ACE inhibitors (ACE-Is), AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and diuretics on SNS function remain controversial. These properties are pharmacologically and pathophysiologically relevant and should be considered in the choice of antihypertensive treatments and combination therapies in order to achieve, beyond optimal blood pressure control, a normalization of SNS physiology and the most effective prevention of target organ damage. PMID:18030057

  7. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  8. Scaffolds for central nervous system tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Spector, Myron; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits and to date there is no universally accepted treatment. Owing to the profound impact, extensive studies have been carried out aiming at reducing inflammatory responses and overcoming the inhibitory environment in the CNS after injury so as to enhance regeneration. Artificial scaffolds may provide a suitable environment for axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and are of particular importance in cases in which the injury has resulted in a cavitary defect. In this review we discuss development of scaffolds for CNS tissue engineering, focusing on mechanism of CNS injuries, various biomaterials that have been used in studies, and current strategies for designing and fabricating scaffolds.

  9. Emerging infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer; McArthur, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Emerging infections affecting the central nervous system often present as encephalitis and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis requires not only careful history taking, but also the application of newly developed diagnostic tests. These diseases frequently occur in outbreaks stemming from viruses that have mutated from an animal host and gained the ability to infect humans. With globalization, this can translate to the rapid emergence of infectious clusters or the establishment of endemicity in previously naïve locations. Since these infections are often vector borne and effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis and institution of supportive care. In this review, we focus on some of the recent literature addressing emerging and resurging viral encephalitides in the United States and around the world-specifically, West Nile virus, dengue, polio, and cycloviruses. We also discuss new, or "emerging," techniques for the precise and rapid diagnosis of encephalitides. PMID:24136412

  10. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  11. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  12. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    applications. One notable example of such missions are those to explore for the existence of water on planets such as Mars and the moons of Jupiter. It is clear that water does not exist on the surfaces of such bodies, but may well be located at some considerable depth below the surface, thus requiring a subsurface drilling capability. Subsurface drilling on planetary surfaces will require a robust autonomous control and analysis system, currently a major challenge, but within conceivable reach of planned technology developments. This paper will focus on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations, including flight test results, lessons learned, and implications for the future. An additional focus will be on technologies for planetary exploration using autonomous systems and astronaut-assistance systems that employ new spoken language technology. Topics to be presented will include a description of key autonomous control concepts, illustrated by the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will also be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. Current results of autonomous planetary drilling system research will be presented. A key thrust within NASA is to develop technologies that will leverage the capabilities of human astronauts during planetary surface explorations. One such technology is spoken dialogue interfaces, which would allow collaboration with semi-autonomous agents that are engaged in activities that are normally accomplished using language, e.g., astronauts in space suits interacting with groups of semi-autonomous rovers and other

  13. Investigating Autonomic Control of the Cardiovascular System: A Battery of Simple Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher D.; Roe, Sean; Tansey, Etain A.

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system constantly control the heart (sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions) and blood vessels (predominantly the sympathetic division) to maintain appropriate blood pressure and organ blood flow over sometimes widely varying conditions. This can be adversely affected by…

  14. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Jia

    Full Text Available Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.

  15. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tiantian; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise. PMID:26840532

  16. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tiantian; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.

  17. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise. PMID:26840532

  18. 基于开放式多智能体结构的分布式自主机器人系统%AN OPEN MULTI-AGENT ARCHITECTURE FOR DISTRIBUTED AUTONOMOUS ROBOT SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫东; 董胜龙; 席裕庚

    2001-01-01

    针对多机器人系统的分布式自主控制,本文首先提出了一种开放式的多智能体结构,给出了设计原则和技术特点.然后面向真实世界的多机器人实时协作任务,采用多台自主移动机器人构造了一个多机器人系统,该系统集成了包括机器人视觉、传感器融合、无线通讯网络以及基于行为控制等多项技术.最后采用基于行为融合的加权方法,实现了多机器人的编队控制,实验结果表明了上述体系结构与方案的有效性.%Focusing on distributed autonomous control of multi-robot system, an open multi-agent architecture (OMAA) is presented. Based on the designing principle and techniques of the OMAA, a multiple mobile robot system is established to perform the cooperative tasks in real time and real world. Some agent technologies have been integrated in the system such as machine vision, sensor fusion, wireless network communication, behavior-based control, etc. Experiment results of multi-robot formation control demonstrate the validity of our scheme.

  19. A gene catalogue of the amphioxus nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Èlia Benito-Gutiérrez

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration of extremely complex nervous systems is a major success of evolution. However, at the dawn of the post-genomic era, few data have helped yet to unravel how a nervous system develops and evolves to complexity. On the evolutionary road to vertebrates, amphioxus occupies a key position to tackle this exciting issue. Its “simple” nervous system basically consists of a dorsal nerve cord and a diffuse net of peripheral neurons, which contrasts greatly with the complexity...

  20. Interactions between normative systems and software cognitive agents. A formalization in temporal modal defeasible logic and its implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Riveret, Régis

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable computer systems require some flexibility to adapt to environmental unpredictable changes. A solution lies in autonomous software agents which can adapt autonomously to their environments. Though autonomy allows agents to decide which behavior to adopt, a disadvantage is a lack of control, and as a side effect even untrustworthiness: we want to keep some control over such autonomous agents. How to control autonomous agents while respecting their autonomy? A solut...

  1. Anatomy of the cardiac nervous system with clinical and comparative morphological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu

    2011-03-01

    Unlike autonomic nervous preservation in other surgeries for improving patient quality of life, autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) preservation has been neglected in cardiovascular surgery because of technical difficulties and other unsolved issues. Because such ACNS preservation in cardiovascular surgery is anticipated in the future, detailed anatomical investigation of the human ACNS is required. Therefore, we have conducted morphological studies of the ACNS from macroscopic, clinical, and evolutionary anatomical viewpoints. In this study, I review detailed anatomical studies of the human ACNS together with their clinical implications. In addition, the evolutionary comparative anatomical significance of primate ACNS is also summarized to help understand and translate the findings of functional experiments to humans. These integrated findings will be the subject of a future study unifying molecular embryological and anatomical findings to clarify cardiac functions based on functional animal experiments, clinical applications such as improving surgery techniques and individual order-made surgery in cardiac surgery, and for future evaluation in regenerative medicine. PMID:21116884

  2. Central nervous system manifestations of neonatal lupus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Lin, K-L; Chen, C-L; Wong, A May-Kuen; Huang, J-L

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal lupus is a rare and acquired autoimmune disease. Central nervous system abnormalities are potential manifestations in neonatal lupus. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed the clinical features of previously reported neonatal lupus cases where central nervous system abnormalities had been identified. Most reported neonatal lupus patients with central nervous system involvement were neuroimaging-determined and asymptomatic. Only seven neonatal lupus cases were identified as having a symptomatic central nervous system abnormality which caused physical disability or required neurosurgery. A high percentage of these neurosymptomatic neonatal lupus patients had experienced a transient cutaneous skin rash and had no maternal history of autoimmune disease before pregnancy.

  3. New insights into the pathology of Parkinson's disease: does the peripheral autonomic system become central?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, A; Bloch, A; Tolnay, M

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies in aged, neurologically unimpaired subjects have pointed to a specific induction site of the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the region of the dorsal glossopharyngeus-vagus complex as well as in the anterior olfactory nucleus. From the lower brainstem, the disease process would then pursue an ascending course and involve more rostral brainstem areas, limbic structures, and eventually the cerebral cortex. One barrier to the acceptance of the caudal medullary structures as the induction site of PD pathology is that not all parts of the nervous system have been investigated for the presence of PD-associated lesions in cases of early asymptomatic PD. Using alpha-synuclein immunostaining, we investigated the brain, the sacral, and thoracic autonomic nuclei of the spinal cord as well as several components of the peripheral autonomic nervous system in a autopsy cohort of 98 neurologically unimpaired subjects aged 64 or more. Our data indicate that the autonomic nuclei of the spinal cord and the peripheral autonomic nervous system belong to the most constantly and earliest affected regions next to medullary structures and the olfactory nerves in neurologically unimpaired older individuals, thus providing a pathological basis for early premotor autonomic dysfunctions at a prodromal stage of PD.

  4. Connecting orbits of autonomous Lagrangian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to the time-dependent case, the time-t-section of Mañé set of autonomous Lagrangian systems is independent of time, thus, it is nowhere disconnected. This causes some difference in the study of dynamics, for instance, Mather's c-equivalence cannot exist among different cohomology classes if they are not in a flat of the α-function (cf (Bernard 2002 Ann. Inst. Fourier 52 1533–68.)). In this paper, we show how to construct connecting orbits in autonomous systems, and propose a modified notion of c-equivalence. We also apply the result to construct diffusion orbits in an energy surface

  5. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Feng,1 Aijie Chen,1 Yanli Zhang,1 Jianfeng Wang,2 Longquan Shao,1 Limin Wei2 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano­neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. Keywords: nanomaterials, neurotoxicity, blood–brain barrier, autophagy, ROS

  6. Autonomous planning system based on temporal constraint satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑞; 崔平远; 徐晓飞; 吴伟仁; 田玉龙

    2003-01-01

    In order to realize spacecraft autonomy activity duration and complex temporal relations must betaken into consideration. In the space mission planning system, the traditional planners are unable to describethis knowledge, so an object-oriented temporal knowledge representation method is proposed to model every ac-tivity as an object to describe the activity' s duration, start-time, end-time and the temporal relations with otheractivities. The layered planming agent architecture is then designed for spacecraft autonomous operation, and thefunctions of every component are given. A planning algorithm based on the temporal constraint satisfaction isbuilt in detail using this knowledge representation and system architecture. The prototype of Deep Space MissionAutonomous Planning System is implemented. The results show that with the object-oriented temporal knowledgedescription method, the space mission planning system can be used to describe simultaneous activities, resourceand temporal constraints, and produce a complete plan for exploration mission quickly under complex con-straints.

  7. DualTrust: A Distributed Trust Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiden, Wendy M.; Dionysiou, Ioanna; Frincke, Deborah A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Bakken, David E.

    2011-02-01

    For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, trust management is important for the acceptance of the mobile agent sensors and to protect the system from malicious behavior by insiders and entities that have penetrated network defenses. This paper examines the trust relationships, evidence, and decisions in a representative system and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. We then propose the DualTrust conceptual trust model. By addressing the autonomic manager’s bi-directional primary relationships in the ACS architecture, DualTrust is able to monitor the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers, protect the sensor swarm in a scalable manner, and provide global trust awareness for the orchestrating autonomic manager.

  8. Philosophical aspects of the use of autonomous agents in music production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Moore, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Music interaction through software agents is bound to become the goal of researchers in the near future. Some of the situations to be found in mu- sic interaction using autonomous agents are analyzed here. The seclusion sce- nario, in which a single person is isolated with her own musical ideas......, is dis- armed if an autonomous agent is recognized as a (quasi-) person. This enables the interaction that produces the meaning of the music. The unilateral scenario, in which music tends to contain either novelty, or understanding, is avoided if enough interaction and encounters are taking place....

  9. Autonomous Systems, Robotics, and Computing Systems Capability Roadmap: NRC Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornetzer, Steve; Gage, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction. Process, Mission Drivers, Deliverables, and Interfaces. Autonomy. Crew-Centered and Remote Operations. Integrated Systems Health Management. Autonomous Vehicle Control. Autonomous Process Control. Robotics. Robotics for Solar System Exploration. Robotics for Lunar and Planetary Habitation. Robotics for In-Space Operations. Computing Systems. Conclusion.

  10. Adjustably Autonomous Multi-agent Plan Execution with an Internal Spacecraft Free-Flying Robot Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Nicewarner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    We present an multi-agent model-based autonomy architecture with monitoring, planning, diagnosis, and execution elements. We discuss an internal spacecraft free-flying robot prototype controlled by an implementation of this architecture and a ground test facility used for development. In addition, we discuss a simplified environment control life support system for the spacecraft domain also controlled by an implementation of this architecture. We discuss adjustable autonomy and how it applies to this architecture. We describe an interface that provides the user situation awareness of both autonomous systems and enables the user to dynamically edit the plans prior to and during execution as well as control these agents at various levels of autonomy. This interface also permits the agents to query the user or request the user to perform tasks to help achieve the commanded goals. We conclude by describing a scenario where these two agents and a human interact to cooperatively detect, diagnose and recover from a simulated spacecraft fault.

  11. Advances in autonomous systems for space exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. D.; Gross, A. R.; Clancy, D. J.; Cannon, H. N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Muscettola, N.; Chien, S.; Johnson, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operation, including distributed autonomous systems, flight test results, and implications and directions for future systems.

  12. Miniature Autonomous Rocket Recovery System (MARRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Yakimenko, O.A.; Yingling, A.J.; Hewgley, C.W.; Seigenthaler, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2011-2597 Proceedings of the 21st AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Technology Conference, Dublin, Ireland, May 23-26, 2011. This paper discusses the development and testing of the new-generation recovery system in highpowered rockets. It starts from the overall description of the rocket system, the requirements of the Miniature Autonomous Rocket Recovery System (MARRS) and is followed by a descrip...

  13. Autonomous Detection of Aerosolized Biological Agents by Multiplexed Immunoassay with PCR Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Setlur, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Nasarabadi, S L; Venkateswaran, K S; Farrow, S W; Colston, Jr., B W; Dzenitis, J M

    2004-05-27

    The autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) is an automated, podium-sized instrument that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed to warn of a biological attack in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The APDS performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and detection using multiplexed immunoassay followed by confirmatory PCR using real-time TaqMan assays. We have integrated completely reusable flow-through devices that perform DNA extraction and PCR amplification. The fully integrated system was challenged with aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii and botulinum toxoid. By coupling highly selective antibody and DNA based assays, the probability of an APDS reporting a false positive is extremely low.

  14. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) controls hepatic VLDL-triglyceride secretion in rats via the sympathetic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinstroop, E.; Pei, L.; Ackermans, M.T.; Foppen, E.; Borgers, A.J.F.; Kwakkel, J.; Alkemade, A.; Fliers, E.; Kalsbeek, A.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive secretion of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG) contributes to diabetic dyslipidemia. Earlier studies have indicated a possible role for the hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system in the regulation of VLDL-TG. In the current study, we investigated whether the auto

  15. Non-autonomous second order Hamiltonian systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pipan, J; Schechter, M

    2014-01-01

    We study the existence of periodic solutions for a second order non-autonomous dynamical system containing variable kinetic energy terms. Our assumptions balance the interaction between the kinetic energy and the potential energy with neither one dominating the other. We study sublinear problems and the existence of non-constant solutions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Gap junctions in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, R; Giaume, C; Spray, D C

    2000-04-01

    Synapses are classically defined as close connections between two nerve cells or between a neuronal cell and a muscle or gland cell across which a chemical signal (i.e., a neurotransmitter) and/or an electrical signal (i.e., current-carrying ions) can pass. The definition of synapse was developed by Charles Sherrington and by Ramon y Cajal at the beginning of this century and refined by John Eccles and Bernard Katz 50 years later; in this collection of papers, the definition of synapses is discussed further in the chapter by Mike Bennett. who provided the first functional demonstration of electrical transmission via gap junction channels between vertebrate neurons. As is evidenced by the range of topics covered in this issue, research dealing with gap junctions in the nervous system has expanded enormously in the past decade, major findings being that specific cell types in the brain expresses specific types of connexins and that expression patterns coincide with tissue compartmentalization and function and that these compartments change during development.

  17. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  18. Plants and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed. PMID:12895668

  19. Controlling Underwater Robots with Electronic Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing robot controllers based on biomimetic design principles. The goal is to realise the adaptive capabilities of the animal models in natural environments. We report feasibility studies of a hybrid architecture that instantiates a command and coordinating level with computed discrete-time map-based (DTM neuronal networks and the central pattern generators with analogue VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration electronic neuron (aVLSI networks. DTM networks are realised using neurons based on a 1-D or 2-D Map with two additional parameters that define silent, spiking and bursting regimes. Electronic neurons (ENs based on Hindmarsh–Rose (HR dynamics can be instantiated in analogue VLSI and exhibit similar behaviour to those based on discrete components. We have constructed locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs with aVLSI networks that can be modulated to select different behaviours on the basis of selective command input. The two technologies can be fused by interfacing the signals from the DTM circuits directly to the aVLSI CPGs. Using DTMs, we have been able to simulate complex sensory fusion for rheotaxic behaviour based on both hydrodynamic and optical flow senses. We will illustrate aspects of controllers for ambulatory biomimetic robots. These studies indicate that it is feasible to fabricate an electronic nervous system controller integrating both aVLSI CPGs and layered DTM exteroceptive reflexes.

  20. Diabetes and the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, B; Srinivasan, S

    2007-12-01

    Diabetes is associated with several changes in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and associated symptoms such as nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and constipation. The pathogenesis of altered GI functions in diabetes is multifactorial and the role of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in this respect has gained significant importance. In this review, we summarize the research carried out on diabetes-related changes in the ENS. Changes in the inhibitory and excitatory enteric neurons are described highlighting the role of loss of inhibitory neurons in early diabetic enteric neuropathy. The functional consequences of these neuronal changes result in altered gastric emptying, diarrhoea or constipation. Diabetes can also affect GI motility through changes in intestinal smooth muscle or alterations in extrinsic neuronal control. Hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of these ENS changes. Antioxidants to prevent or treat diabetic GI motility problems have therapeutic potential. Recent research on the nerve-immune interactions demonstrates inflammation-associated neurodegeneration which can lead to motility related problems in diabetes. PMID:17971027

  1. Diseases of the nervous system associated with calcium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Boyan Bogdanov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate how abnormal CaV2.1 channel function can cause disease, in particular motor coordination dysfunction. The chapters illustrate how various neuronal cell types in the periphery (peripheral nervous system) and the central nervous system

  2. Functional State of Puberty Aged Hockey Players’ Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shichavin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article estimates age-specific indexes of nervous system, responsible for juveniles’ speed qualities, training in Children and Youth Ice Hockey School. The received data justifies the necessity for individual approach to each hockey player, considering his age peculiarities and, respectively the functioning of the nervous system in the course of training organization.

  3. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation of the nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, D; Han, Yong-Chang; Rani, M R;

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on the production of chemokines by resident glial cells of the nervous system. We describe studies in two distinct categories of inflammation within the nervous system: immune-mediated inflammation as seen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) or multiple sclerosis...

  4. A programming model and execution environment for autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Razafimahefa, Chrislain

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and implementation of a programming model for autonomous systems. Autonomous systems are distributed systems based on wireless networks, mobile devices and the Internet. They are characterized by the high dynamics with which their configuration evolves. Ad hoc networks, a member of autonomous systems, illustrate this point since in these networks participants can join and leave at any time. Similarly in Peer-to-Peer networks, another member of autonomous system...

  5. Therapeutic approaches of magnetic nanoparticles for the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent one of the fastest growing areas of concern requiring urgent medical attention. Treatment of CNS ailments is hindered owing to different physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits the accessibility of potential drugs. With the assistance of a nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategy, the problems could be overcome. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proven immensely useful as drug carriers for site-specific delivery and as contrast agents owing to their magnetic susceptibility and biocompatibility. By utilizing MNPs, diagnosis and treatment of CNS diseases have progressed by overcoming the hurdles of the BBB. In this review, the therapeutic aspect and the future prospects related to the theranostic approach of MNPs are discussed.

  6. Embedded Autonomous Agents in Products Supporting Repair and Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    van Moergestel, Leo; Puik, Erik; Telgen, Daniël; Meyer, John-Jules

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a concept where products are equipped with agents that will assist in recycling and repairing the product. These so-called product agents represent the product in cyberspace and are capable to negotiate with other products in case of recycling or repair. Some product agents of broken products will offer spare parts, other agents will look for spare parts to repair a broken product. On the average this will enlarge the lifetime of a product and in some cases prevent wastin...

  7. Capsaicin Stimulation on Autonomic Nervous System in Human by Heart Rate Variability Analysis%心率变异性分析评价辣椒素致痛对自主神经活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芳; 房泽; 张健; 申岱

    2015-01-01

    second card (Sigma Tel c-major Audio) of the laptop (DELL INSPIRON 501) was used to collect the ECG of volunteers. Results The VAS scores after the stimulation of capsaicin was 63.36 ± 11.21. The hemodynamic features of pa⁃tients showed the contrast within the two groups, the value of HR at T1 was significantly increased (P>0.05). The results of time-domain analysis showed the value of SDNN and RMSSD at T1 significantly increased (P<0.05). Frequency-analysis showed the value of TP, LF, HF and LF/HF at T1 significantly increased (P<0.05). The result of scatter diagram showed the value of SD1 and SD2 at T1 significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion It is feasible to build the capsaicin pain model. During the stimulation of capsaicin, the action of the autonomic nerve has significantly increased. Both the sympathetic nerve and the pneumogastric nerve can be enhanced. The heart rate variability can be used as the indicator to the evaluation of pain.

  8. SOFT CONTROL ON COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR OF A GROUP OF AUTONOMOUS AGENTS BY A SHILL AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing HAN; Ming LI; Lei GUO

    2006-01-01

    This paper asks a new question: how can we control the collective behavior of self-organized which keeps the local rule of the existing agents in the system. We show the feasibility of soft control by a case study. Consider the simple but typical distributed multi-agent model proposed by Vicsek et al. for flocking of birds: each agent moves with the same speed but with different headings which are updated using a local rule based on the average of its own heading and the headings of its neighbors.Most studies of this model are about the self-organized collective behavior, such as synchronization of headings. We want to intervene in the collective behavior (headings) of the group by soft control. A as an ordinary agent by other agents. We construct a control law for the shill so that it can synchronize the whole group to an objective heading. This control law is proved to be effective analytically and numerically. Note that soft control is different from the approach of distributed control. It is a natural way to intervene in the distributed systems. It may bring out many interesting issues and challenges on the control of complex systems.

  9. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  10. Action Control of Autonomous Agents in Continuous Valued Space Using RFCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Shinichi; Nagao, Tomoharu

    Researches on action control of autonomous agents and multiple agents have attracted increasing attentions in recent years. The general method using action control of agents are neural network, genetic programming and reinforcement learning. In this study, we use neural network for action control of autonomous agents. Our method determines the structure and parameter of neural network in evolution. We proposed Flexibly Connected Neural Network (FCN) previously as a method of constructing arbitrary neural networks with optimized structures and parameters to solve unknown problems. FCN was applied to action control of an autonomous agent and showed experimentally that it is effective for perceptual aliasing problems. All of the experiments of FCN, however, are in only grid space. In this paper, we propose a new method based on FCN which can decide correct action in real and continuous valued space. The proposed method which called Real valued FCN (RFCN) optimizes input-output functions of each units, parameters of the input-output functions and speed of each units. In order to examine the effectiveness, we applied the proposed method to action control of an autonomous agent to solve continuous valued maze problems.

  11. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  12. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  13. Geometric formulations and variational integrators of discrete autonomous Birkhoff systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variational integrators of autonomous Birkhoff systems are obtained by the discrete variational principle. The geometric structure of the discrete autonomous Birkhoff system is formulated. The discretization of mathematical pendulum shows that the discrete variational method is as effective as symplectic scheme for the autonomous Birkhoff systems. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  14. Geometric formulations and variational integrators of discrete autonomous Birkhoff systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shi-Xing; Liu Chang; Guo Yong-Xin

    2011-01-01

    The variational integrators of autonomous Birkhoff systems are obtained by the discrete variational principle. The geometric structure of the discrete autonomous Birkhoff system is formulated. The discretization of mathematical pendulum shows that the discrete variational method is as effective as symplectic scheme for the autonomous Birkhoff systems.

  15. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels as Potential Pharmacological Targets in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the body and represent good sensors for detecting protons. The pH drop in the nervous system is equivalent to ischemia and acidosis, and ASICs are very good detectors in discriminating slight changes in acidity. ASICs are important pharmacological targets being involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes affecting both the peripheral nervous system (e.g., peripheral pain, diabetic neuropathy) and the central nervous system (e.g., stroke, epilepsy, migraine, anxiety, fear, depression, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.). This review discusses the role played by ASICs in different pathologies and the pharmacological agents acting on ASICs that might represent promising drugs. As the majority of above-mentioned pathologies involve not only neuronal dysfunctions but also microvascular alterations, in the next future, ASICs may be also considered as potential pharmacological targets at the vasculature level. Perspectives and limitations in the use of ASICs antagonists and modulators as pharmaceutical agents are also discussed.

  16. Applying neural networks in autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornbrugh, Allison L.; Layne, J. D.; Wilson, James M., III

    1992-03-01

    Autonomous and teleautonomous operations have been defined in a variety of ways by different groups involved with remote robotic operations. For example, Conway describes architectures for producing intelligent actions in teleautonomous systems. Applying neural nets in such systems is similar to applying them in general. However, for autonomy, learning or learned behavior may become a significant system driver. Thus, artificial neural networks are being evaluated as components in fully autonomous and teleautonomous systems. Feed- forward networks may be trained to perform adaptive signal processing, pattern recognition, data fusion, and function approximation -- as in control subsystems. Certain components of particular autonomous systems become more amenable to implementation using a neural net due to a match between the net's attributes and desired attributes of the system component. Criteria have been developed for distinguishing such applications and then implementing them. The success of hardware implementation is a crucial part of this application evaluation process. Three basic applications of neural nets -- autoassociation, classification, and function approximation -- are used to exemplify this process and to highlight procedures that are followed during the requirements, design, and implementation phases. This paper assumes some familiarity with basic neural network terminology and concentrates upon the use of different neural network types while citing references that cover the underlying mathematics and related research.

  17. Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

  18. 13th International Conference Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Nathan; Berns, Karsten; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the latest research accomplishments, innovations, and visions in the field of robotics as presented at the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS), held in Padua in July 2014, by leading researchers, engineers, and practitioners from across the world. The contents amply confirm that robots, machines, and systems are rapidly achieving intelligence and autonomy, mastering more and more capabilities such as mobility and manipulation, sensing and perception, reasoning, and decision making. A wide range of research results and applications are covered, and particular attention is paid to the emerging role of autonomous robots and intelligent systems in industrial production, which reflects their maturity and robustness. The contributions have been selected through a rigorous peer-review process and contain many exciting and visionary ideas that will further galvanize the research community, spurring novel research directions. The series of biennial IAS conferences ...

  19. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja;

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  20. Autonomous system for cross-country navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, Anthony; Brumitt, Barry L.; Coulter, R. C.; Kelly, Alonzo

    1993-05-01

    Autonomous cross-country navigation is essential for outdoor robots moving about in unstructured environments. Most existing systems use range sensors to determine the shape of the terrain, plan a trajectory that avoids obstacles, and then drive the trajectory. Performance has been limited by the range and accuracy of sensors, insufficient vehicle-terrain interaction models, and the availability of high-speed computers. As these elements improve, higher- speed navigation on rougher terrain becomes possible. We have developed a software system for autonomous navigation that provides for greater capability. The perception system supports a large braking distance by fusing multiple range images to build a map of the terrain in front of the vehicle. The system identifies range shadows and interpolates undersamples regions to account for rough terrain effects. The motion planner reduces computational complexity by investigating a minimum number of trajectories. Speeds along the trajectory are set to provide for dynamic stability. The entire system was tested in simulation, and a subset of the capability was demonstrated on a real vehicle. Results to date include a continuous 5.1 kilometer run across moderate terrain with obstacles. This paper begins with the applications, prior work, limitations, and current paradigms for autonomous cross-country navigation, and then describes our contribution to the area.

  1. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  2. [Malignant lymphoma in the central nervous system: overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekawa, Michito

    2014-08-01

    Malignant lymphoma can affect the central nervous system (CNS) in three different ways: as a consequence (relapse or invasion) of systemic lymphoma, as a primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) without systemic involvement, and through intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL). It is essential to distinguish PCNSL from the others, since the therapeutic strategy for treating this disease differs. FDG-PET/CT fusion imagery is a powerful tool for detecting systemic lesions. If a marked elevation of lactate dehydrogenase and the soluble IL-2 receptor suggests IVL, a random skin biopsy can permit a differential diagnosis. It is not certain why PCNSL occurs solely in the CNS, where there is no lymphatic system. The special environment, so-called "sanctuary site", where is free from attack of the immune system and penetration of chemotherapeutic agents by blood-brain barrier is deeply related to malignant transformation. The prognoses for patients with CNS invasion of systemic lymphoma and those with PCNSL remain bleak in the post-rituximab era. Over half of the patients who received high-dose methotrexate will subsequently relapse. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are earnestly sought. PMID:25082313

  3. Organisation of autonomic nervous structures in the small intestine of chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, E

    2014-08-01

    Using histochemical, histological and immunocytochemical methods, organisation of the autonomic nerve structures in small intestine of chinchilla was investigated. Myenteric plexus was localised between circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. Forming network nodes, the small autonomic, cholinergic ganglia were linked with the bundles of nerve fibres. Adrenergic structures were visible as specific varicose, rosary-like fibres forming bundles of parallel fibres connecting network nodes. Structures of the submucosal plexus formed a finer network than those of the myenteric plexus. Moreover, in 'whole-mount' specimens, fibres forming thick perivascular plexuses were also observed. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the cholinergic and adrenergic character of the investigated structures. VAChT-positive neurones were found only in myenteric plexus, and numerous VAChT-positive and DBH-positive fibres were found in both plexuses.

  4. The Behaviors Decision of Agent in Multi-agent System%多agent系统中agent的行为决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新军; 王怀民; 楚蓓蓓; 王逸欣

    2003-01-01

    The behavior decision of agent in multi-agent system is dependent on the task of individual agent ,the cooperation with other agents,and the multi-agent system' constraints. The paper presents three abstract concept models of achievement intention,joint intention and maintenance intention representing the factors that affect agent's behaviors respectively,to investigate autonomous agent's behaviors decision in support of agent-oriented software development. The paper discusses and analyzes how they will affect agent's behavior decision and the relationship among them,defines their formal and rigorous semantics,finally specifies and proves a number of important properties.

  5. Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Mount, Frances; Carreon, Patricia; Torney, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering and Mission Operations Directorates at NASA Johnson Space Center are combining laboratories and expertise to establish the Human Centered Autonomous and Assistant Systems Testbed for Exploration Operations. This is a testbed for human centered design, development and evaluation of intelligent autonomous and assistant systems that will be needed for human exploration and development of space. This project will improve human-centered analysis, design and evaluation methods for developing intelligent software. This software will support human-machine cognitive and collaborative activities in future interplanetary work environments where distributed computer and human agents cooperate. We are developing and evaluating prototype intelligent systems for distributed multi-agent mixed-initiative operations. The primary target domain is control of life support systems in a planetary base. Technical approaches will be evaluated for use during extended manned tests in the target domain, the Bioregenerative Advanced Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). A spinoff target domain is the International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC). Prodl}cts of this project include human-centered intelligent software technology, innovative human interface designs, and human-centered software development processes, methods and products. The testbed uses adjustable autonomy software and life support systems simulation models from the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed, to represent operations on the remote planet. Ground operations prototypes and concepts will be evaluated in the Exploration Planning and Operations Center (ExPOC) and Jupiter Facility.

  6. System for autonomous monitoring of bioagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Richard G.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Colston, Jr, Billy W.; Brown, Steve B.; Masquelier, Don A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Venkateswaran, Kodomudi

    2015-06-09

    An autonomous monitoring system for monitoring for bioagents. A collector gathers the air, water, soil, or substance being monitored. A sample preparation means for preparing a sample is operatively connected to the collector. A detector for detecting the bioagents in the sample is operatively connected to the sample preparation means. One embodiment of the present invention includes confirmation means for confirming the bioagents in the sample.

  7. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  8. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-08-01

    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  9. Autonomous systems for plant protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm;

    2010-01-01

    Advances in automation are demanded by the market mainly as a response to high labor costs. Robotic outdoor systems are ready to allow not only economically viable operations but also increased efficiency in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. The aim of this chapter is to give examples of au...... and safe behaviors. In general the potential of saving e.g. of herbicides are huge when high precision targeting based on individual weed plant detections is used....

  10. Distributed Resource Exploitation for Autonomous Mobile Sensor Agents in Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    This paper studies the distributed resource exploitation problem (DREP) where many resources are distributed across an unknown environment, and several agents move around in it with the goal to exploit/visit the resources. A resource may be anything that can be harvested/sensed/acted upon by an agent when the agent visits that resource's physical location. A sensory agent (SA) is a mobile and autonomous sensory entity that has the capability of sensing a resource's attribute and therefore determining the exploitatory gain factor or profitability when this resource is visited. This type of problem can be seen as a combination of two well-known problems: the Dynamic Traveling Salesman Problem (DTSP) [8] and the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) [1]. But the DREP differs significantly from these two. In the DTSP we have a single agent that needs to visit many fixed cities that have costs associated to their pairwise links, so it is an optimization of paths on a static graph with time-varying costs. In VRP on the other hand, we have a number of vehicles with uniform capacity, a common depot, and several stationary customers scattered around an environment, so the goal is to find the set of routes with overall minimum route cost to service all the customers. In our problem, we have multiple SAs deployed in an unknown environment with multiple dynamic resources each with a dynamically varying value. The goal of the SAs is to adapt their paths collaboratively to the dynamics of the resources in order to maximize the general profitability of the system.

  11. Engineering an Ontology for Autonomous Systems - The OASys Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Alonso, Julita; Sanz Bravo, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Hernández Corbato, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an ontology for autonomous systems, as the initial stage of a research programe on autonomous systems’ engineering within a model-based control approach. The ontology aims at providing a unified conceptual framework for the autonomous systems’ stakeholders, from developers to software engineers. The modular ontology contains both generic and domain-specific concepts for autonomous systems description and engineering. The ontology serves as the basis in a ...

  12. The eye and visual nervous system: anatomy, physiology and toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    McCaa, C S

    1982-01-01

    The eyes are at risk to environmental injury by direct exposure to airborne pollutants, to splash injury from chemicals and to exposure via the circulatory system to numerous drugs and bloodborne toxins. In addition, drugs or toxins can destroy vision by damaging the visual nervous system. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the eye and visual nervous system and includes a discussion of some of the more common toxins affecting vision in man. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2.

  13. Multi-agent systems ??? Theory, approaches and NASA applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hinchey, Mike; Vassev, Emil

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed This chapter introduces the multi-agent paradigm and presents concepts and approaches related to multi-agent systems and paradigm-inspired popular research topics such as grid computing, intelligent swarms, sensor networks, service-oriented computing, cloud computing and autonomic computing. Additionally, the chapter reflects the authors??? experience and presents a review of the NASA multi-agent applications of ground control and space-exploration systems. ...

  14. Trust and reputation in open multi-agent systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Trung Dong

    2006-01-01

    Trust and reputation are central to effective interactions in open multi-agent systems (MAS) in which agents, that are owned by a variety of stakeholders, continuously enter and leave the system. This openness means existing trust and reputation models cannot readily be used since their performance suffers when there are various (unforseen) changes in the environment. To this end, this thesis develops and evaluates FIRE, a trust and reputation model that enables autonomous agents in open MAS ...

  15. DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiden, Wendy M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.

  16. Autonomic and surgical substrate modulation of atrial fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Krul, S.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the effects of fibrosis and the autonomic nervous system on conduction in patients with atrial fibrillation and the surgical ablation of the atria and autonomic nervous system as treatment of atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia and results from multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Both fibrosis and the autonomic nervous system influence the occurrence and maintenance of AF. Animal and clinical studies have shown that the parasympath...

  17. Review of Static Compensation of Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarnath Banerji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deregulation of the electric power energy market has thrown open opportunities for tapping the large number of small pockets of renewable energy sources with the asynchronous generators. Whether the power is supplied by asynchronous generator or by the grid at the remote location, its quality has become an important aspect for consumers of electricity. Efforts have been made to improve the power quality using passive filters, active filters and the new concept of Custom Power. Use of Custom power devices ensures that a load do not pollute the power supply of the other loads. One such custom power device is the DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Compensator which is connected in shunt at the load end. The heart of the DSTATCOM is an inverter. The focus on the autonomous generation has increased in the recent years. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the DSTATCOM used for autonomous generation. It is aimed at providing a broad perspective on the status of DSTATCOM, used with Asynchronous generators, vis-à-vis its working principle, topology, solid state switching devices and technology, supply system, control methodologies and approaches, technical and economic considerations, etc. to researchers and application engineers dealing with power quality aspects of Autonomous Systems. Classified manner in which the references are presented in this paper will serve them as quick and useful reference.

  18. Autonomic and Apoptotic, Aeronautical and Aerospace Systems, and Controlling Scientific Data Generated Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy (Inventor); Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A self-managing system that uses autonomy and autonomicity is provided with the self-* property of autopoiesis (self-creation). In the event of an agent in the system self-destructing, autopoiesis auto-generates a replacement. A self-esteem reward scheme is also provided and can be used for autonomic agents, based on their performance and trust. Art agent with greater self-esteem may clone at a greater rate compared to the rate of an agent with lower self-esteem. A self-managing system is provided for a high volume of distributed autonomic/self-managing mobile agents, and autonomic adhesion is used to attract similar agents together or to repel dissimilar agents from an event horizon. An apoptotic system is also provided that accords an "expiry date" to data and digital objects, for example, that are available on the internet, which finds usefulness not only in general but also for controlling the loaning and use of space scientific data.

  19. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P.E. Vincent (Arnoud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is

  20. [Microglial cells and development of the embryonic central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Pascal; Le Corronc, Hervé

    2014-02-01

    Microglia cells are the macrophages of the central nervous system with a crucial function in the homeostasis of the adult brain. However, recent studies showed that microglial cells may also have important functions during early embryonic central nervous system development. In this review we summarize recent works on the extra embryonic origin of microglia, their progenitor niche, the pattern of their invasion of the embryonic central nervous system and on interactions between embryonic microglia and their local environment during invasion. We describe microglial functions during development of embryonic neuronal networks, including their roles in neurogenesis, in angiogenesis and developmental cell death. These recent discoveries open a new field of research on the functions of neural-microglial interactions during the development of the embryonic central nervous system.

  1. Nervous system in the fibrillar theory of Giorgio Baglivi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurak, N

    2000-01-01

    The drafts, epistles, headwords, and conceptual basis known as the fibrillar theory of Giorgio Baglivi, published in his book entitled De fibra motrice et morbosa, were analyzed in an attempt to re-evaluate Baglivi's contribution, generally considered quite modest, to the development of scientific thought on the nervous system functions. The analysis revealed Baglivi's identification of the reflex organization, vegetative nervous system function, and neural aspect of the vasomotor function to be surprisingly valuable. I believe that the lucidity and genuine contemporariness of Baglivi's standpoints arise the question of the historical precedence in the discovery of these functions (it is usually attributed to F.X. Bichat for vegetative nervous system, and to Claude Bernard for vasomotor nerves). In the light of these facts, the need of an expert revision of the history of discovering nervous system functions is suggested. PMID:11624709

  2. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tumor responds to treatment. Newly Diagnosed CNS Teratomas Treatment of newly diagnosed mature and immature central nervous system (CNS) teratomas may include the following: Surgery to remove as ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  4. General Information about Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  5. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ravish Parekh; Alexis Haftka; Ashleigh Porter

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB). We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as we...

  6. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joao E.; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the ...

  7. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Axon Regeneration in the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Eric A.; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is extremely limited after injury. Consequently, functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury, stroke, and related conditions that involve axonal disconnection. This situation differs from that in the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS), where long- distance axon regeneration and substantial functional recovery can occur in the adult. Both extracellular molecules and the intrinsi...

  9. Role of neuroactive steroids in the peripheral nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Cosimo eMelcangi; Silvia eGiatti; Marzia ePesaresi; Donato eCarabrese; Nico eMitro; Donatella eCaruso; Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura

    2011-01-01

    Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they ...

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Höke, Ahmet; Brushart, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system offers unique opportunities and challenges to medicine. Compared to the central nervous system, peripheral axons can and do regenerate resulting in functional recovery, especially if the distance to target is short as in distal limb injuries. However, this regenerative capacity is often incomplete and functional recovery with proximal lesions is limited. Furthermore, regeneration of axons to the appropriate targets remains a challenge with inappro...

  11. Expression and function of aquaporins in peripheral nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Tong-hui; Gao, Hong-Wen; Fang, Xue-Dong; Yang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The expression and role of the aquaporin (AQP) family water channels in the peripheral nervous system was less investigated. Since 2004, however, significant progress has been made in the immunolocalization, regulation and function of AQPs in the peripheral nervous system. These studies showed selective localization of three AQPs (AQP1, AQP2, and AQP4) in dorsal root ganglion neurons, enteric neurons and glial cells, periodontal Ruffini endings, trigeminal ganglion neurons and vomeronasal sen...

  12. Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in primary Sjogren's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Barendregt, Pieternella; Bent, Martin; Raaij-van den Aarssen, V.J.; Meiracker, Anton; Vecht, C. J.; Heijde, G.L.; Markusse, H M

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) has been reported, but its prevalence in neurologically asymptomatic patients is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and neurophysiological features of the peripheral nervous system in patients with primary SS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 39 (38 female) consecutive patients with primary SS, aged 20-81 years (mean 50), with a disease duration of 1-30 years (mean 8) were stu...

  13. Role of Neuroactive Steroids in the Peripheral Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Giatti, Silvia; Pesaresi, Marzia; Calabrese, Donato; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they ...

  14. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes;

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  15. Experimental and causal view on information integration in autonomous agents

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Philipp; Hofmann, Katja; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The amount of digitally available but heterogeneous information about the world is remarkable, and new technologies such as self-driving cars, smart homes or the "internet of things" will further increase it. In this paper we examine certain aspects of the problem of how such heterogeneous information can be harnessed by intelligent agents. We first discuss potentials and limitations of some existing approaches, followed by two investigations. The focus of the first investigation is on using ...

  16. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  17. Central nervous system adaptation to exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lois Anne

    Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral

  18. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Chandy C.; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M.; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R.; Peterson, Phillip K.

    2015-01-01

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26580325

  19. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Chandy C; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2015-11-19

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26580325

  20. Holothurian Nervous System Diversity Revealed by Neuroanatomical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Lázaro-Peña, María I; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D; Díaz-Balzac, Roberto J; García-Arrarás, José E

    2016-01-01

    The Echinodermata comprise an interesting branch in the phylogenetic tree of deuterostomes. Their radial symmetry which is reflected in their nervous system anatomy makes them a target of interest in the study of nervous system evolution. Until recently, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has been hindered by a shortage of neuronal markers. However, in recent years several markers of neuronal and fiber subpopulations have been described. These have been used to identify subpopulations of neurons and fibers, but an integrative study of the anatomical relationship of these subpopulations is wanting. We have now used eight commercial antibodies, together with three antibodies produced by our group to provide a comprehensive and integrated description and new details of the echinoderm neuroanatomy using the holothurian Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) as our model system. Immunoreactivity of the markers used showed: (1) specific labeling patterns by markers in the radial nerve cords, which suggest the presence of specific nerve tracts in holothurians. (2) Nerves directly innervate most muscle fibers in the longitudinal muscles. (3) Similar to other deuterostomes (mainly vertebrates), their enteric nervous system is composed of a large and diverse repertoire of neurons and fiber phenotypes. Our results provide a first blueprint of the anatomical organization of cells and fibers that form the holothurian neural circuitry, and highlight the fact that the echinoderm nervous system shows unexpected diversity in cell and fiber types and their distribution in both central and peripheral nervous components.