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Sample records for autonomic nervous function

  1. Autonomic nervous system function in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, J; Schmitz, T; Saft, C; Postert, T; Kraus, P; Epplen, J T; Przuntek, H; Agelink, M W

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether Huntington's disease (HD) affects autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning. Twenty patients with HD who had positive genetic test results underwent standardised ANS function tests including sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) of the hands and feet, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), both during five minutes of resting and deep respiration, and an orthostatic blood pressure test. Patients were classified according to the motor subscale of the unified Huntington's disease rating scale (UHDRS; mean (SD) score 26.4 (13.6)) and divided into two subgroups: UHDRS or =25 points (mid stages, M-HD). Autonomic indices were compared with those obtained for a group of well matched healthy controls (n=60). Overall, patients showed lower HRV indices than controls. Multivariate analysis with the independent factor of "group" (controls, E-HD, M-HD) showed a significant group effect on both the high frequency power (F=4.32, p=0.017) and the coefficient of variation (F=4.23, p=0.018), indicating a significant reduction in vagal modulation in the M-HD group. There was a shift in autonomic neurocardiac balance towards sympathetic predominance in the M-HD group compared with controls (F=2.89, p=0.062). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between the severity of clinical HD symptoms (assessed by the UHDRS) and the modulation of cardiovagal activity (p=0.028). Vagal dysregulation was present in two patients; one of them also showed a pathological blood pressure test and a latency prolongation in the SSRs of the hands. Two other patients had pathologically reduced SSR amplitudes. Only patients of the M-HD group were affected. Autonomic dysfunction is present even in the middle stages of HD and affects both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branch of the ANS.

  2. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  3. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

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    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  4. Complexity of autonomic nervous system function in individuals with COPD

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    Laís Manata Vanzella

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate autonomic modulation in individuals with COPD, compared with healthy controls, via recurrence plots (RPs and linear heart rate variability (HRV indices. Methods: We analyzed data on 74 volunteers, who were divided into two groups: COPD (n = 43 and control (n = 31. For calculation of HRV indices, heart rate was measured beat-by-beat during 30 min of supine rest using a heart-rate meter. We analyzed linear indices in the time and frequency domains, as well as indices derived from the RPs. Results: In comparison with the control group, the COPD group showed significant increases in the indices derived from the RPs, as well as significant reductions in the linear indices in the time and frequency domains. No significant differences were observed in the linear indices in the frequency domains expressed in normalized units or in the low frequency/high frequency ratio. Conclusions: Individuals with COPD show a reduction in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, associated with decreased complexity of autonomic nervous system function, as identified by RPs, which provide important complementary information in the detection of autonomic changes in this population.

  5. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal...

  6. Analysis of Autonomic Nervous System Functional Age and Heart Rate Variability in Mine Workers

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    Vasicko T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy working conditions and many unpropitious factors influencing workers health participate in development of various health disorders, among other autonomic cardiovascular regulation malfunction. The aim of this study is to draw a comparison of autonomic nervous system functional age and heart rate variability changes between workers with and without mining occupational exposure.

  7. Assessment of the peripheral, central, and autonomic nervous system function in styrene workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, K.; Araki, S.; Yokoyama, K. (Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the effects of styrene exposure on peripheral, central, and autonomic nervous system functions in man, we measured the distribution of nerve conduction velocities (DCV), short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), and variability in electrocardiographic R-R interval (CVRR) as well as conventional sensory and motor median nerve conduction velocities (SCV and MCV) in eleven styrene-exposed workers. The styrene workers' urinary phenylglyoxylic acid levels ranged from 31 to 419 (mean 169) mg/g creatinine at the end of the work shift on the examination day (estimated exposure to styrene of 22 ppm in air). Control subjects, matched to each styrene worker by sex and age, were selected from healthy adults without cardiovascular, neurologic and other potentially confounding disorders. In the styrene workers, we found that the V80 velocity of the DCV, below which 80% of active nerve fibers lie, and the SCV were both significantly slowed; the CVRR was also significantly reduced. There were no significant differences in SSEP latencies, MCV, or heart rate between the exposed workers and controls. These data, despite the small sample size, suggest that styrene affects the faster myelinated fibers of the peripheral sensory nerves, and that it also affects autonomic nervous activity.

  8. Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system function and aerobic capacity in type 1 diabetes

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    Harriet eHägglund

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS function has been reported in type 1 diabetes patients. ANS function, evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, has been linked to aerobic capacity (VO2peak in healthy subjects, but relationship is unknown in type 1 diabetes. We examined cardiovascular ANS function at rest and during function tests, and its relations to VO2peak in type 1 diabetes individuals. Ten type 1 diabetes patients (T1D (34 ± 7 years and 11 healthy control (CON (31 ± 6 years age and leisure-time physical activity-matched men were studied. Autonomic nervous system function was recorded at rest and during active standing and handgrip. Determination of VO2peak was obtained with graded cycle ergometer test. During ANS recordings SBPV, BRS, and resting HRV did not differ between groups, but alpha1 responses to manoeuvres in detrended fluctuation analyses were smaller in T1D (active standing; 32%, handgrip; 20%, medians than in CON (active standing; 71%, handgrip; 54%, p < 0.05. VO2peak was lower in T1D (36 ± 4 ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1 than in CON (45 ± 9 ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1, p < 0.05. Resting HRV measures, RMSSD, HF and SD1 correlated with VO2peak in CON (p < 0.05 and when analysing groups together. These results suggest that T1D had lower VO2peak, weaker HRV response to manoeuvres, but not impaired cardiovascular ANS function at rest compared with CON. Resting parasympathetic cardiac activity correlated with VO2peak in CON but not in T1D. Detrended fluctuation analysis could be a sensitive detector of changes in cardiac ANS function in type 1 diabetes.

  9. Early deprivation and autonomic nervous system functioning in post-institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisa A; Koss, Kalsea J; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The relations between early deprivation and the development of the neuroendocrine and central components of the mammalian stress response have been examined frequently. However, little is known about the impact of early deprivation on the developmental trajectories of autonomic function. Children adopted between 15-36 months from institutional care were examined during their first 16 months post-adoption (N = 60). Comparison groups included same-aged peers reared in their birth families (N = 50) and children adopted internationally from overseas foster care (N = 46). The present study examined trajectories of baseline autonomic nervous system function longitudinally following entry into adopted families. Post-institutionalized children had higher sympathetic tone, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP). Individual differences in PEP soon after adoption served as a mediator between early deprivation and parent-reported behavioral problems 2 years post-adoption. There were no group differences in parasympathetic function, indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. All three groups showed similar trajectories of ANS function across the 16 month period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sominsky, Luba; Fuller, Erin A; Bondarenko, Evgeny; Ong, Lin Kooi; Averell, Lee; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Dunkley, Peter R; Dickson, Phillip W; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs) 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli). Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of physiological processes.

  11. Evaluation of Autonomic Nervous System, Saliva Cortisol Levels, and Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder Patients

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    Sukonthar Ngampramuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS and cognitive impairment. Heart rate variability (HRV and Pulse pressure (PP parameters reflect influences of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Cortisol exerts its greatest effect on the hippocampus, a brain area closely related to cognitive function. This study aims to examine the effect of HRV, PPG, salivary cortisol levels, and cognitive function in MDD patients by using noninvasive techniques. We have recruited MDD patients, diagnosed based on DSM-V-TR criteria compared with healthy control subjects. Their HRV and PP were measured by electrocardiogram (ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG. Salivary cortisol levels were collected and measured on the same day. MDD patients exhibited elevated values of mean HR, standard deviation of HR (SDHR, low frequency (LF power, low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF ratio, mean PP, standard deviation of pulse pressure (SDPP, and salivary cortisol levels. Simultaneously, they displayed lower values of mean of R-R intervals (mean NN, standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN, high frequency (HF power, and WCST scores. Results have shown that the ANS of MDD patients were dominated by the sympathetic activity and that they have cognitive deficits especially in the domain of executive functioning.

  12. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1993-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...

  13. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... process. Autonomic disorders may be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous ... with acetylcholine and placed on the legs and forearm. Then, the volume of sweat is measured to ...

  14. Evaluation of autonomic nervous system function in children with overactive bladder syndrome.

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    Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Gursoy, Azize Esra; Goknar, Nilufer; Uzuner, Selcuk; Ozkaya, Emin; Erenberk, Ufuk; Vehapoglu, Aysel; Dundaroz, Mehmet Rusen; Oktem, Faruk

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the autonomic nervous system activity in children with overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. Included in the study were 40 children with overactive bladder and 28 healthy controls. Autonomic tests were performed on all participants, including heart rate interval variation (RRIV), heart rate response to valsalva maneuver, and sympathetic skin response (SSR). Mean valsalva rates in the overactive bladder and control groups were 1.53 ± 0.29 and 1.30 ± 0.18, respectively, a statistically significant difference (P  0.05). This study demonstrated a parasympathetic hyperactivity in children with OAB, results suggesting a dysfunction in their autonomic nervous systems. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:673-676, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The relationship between nature-based tourism and autonomic nervous system function among older adults.

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    Chang, Liang-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has recently become a topic of interest in health research. This study was aimed at examining relationships among nature-based tourism, stress, and the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Three hundred and twenty-two older adults living in Taichung City, Taiwan, were selected as participants. Data were collected by a face-to-face survey that included measures of the frequency of participation in domestic and international nature-based tourism and the stress and ANS function of these participants. The data were analyzed using a path analysis. The results demonstrated that the frequency of participation in domestic nature-based tourism directly contributed to ANS function and that it also indirectly contributed to ANS function through stress reduction. Domestic nature-based tourism can directly and indirectly contribute to ANS function among older adults. Increasing the frequency of participation in domestic nature-based tourism should be considered a critical element of health programs for older adults. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  16. Are Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Perceived Stress Related to Functional Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Riese, Harriëtte; van Roon, Arie M.; Hunfeld, Joke A. M.; Groot, Paul F. C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Stressors have been related to medically insufficiently explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSS). However, the underlying mechanism of this association is largely unclear. In the current study, we examined whether FSS are associated with different perceived stress and cardiac autonomic nervous

  17. Autonomic nervous system function, child behavior, and maternal sensitivity in three-year-old children with surgically corrected transposition.

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    Harrison, Tondi M

    2013-01-01

    Explore relationships among autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, child behavior, and maternal sensitivity in three-year-old children with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and in children healthy at birth. Children surviving complex congenital heart defects are at risk for behavior problems. ANS function is associated with behavior and with maternal sensitivity. Child ANS function (heart rate variability) and maternal sensitivity (Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment) were measured during a challenging task. Mother completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were analyzed descriptively and graphically. Children with TGA had less responsive autonomic function and more behavior problems than healthy children. Autonomic function improved with more maternal sensitivity. Alterations in ANS function may continue years after surgical correction in children with TGA, potentially impacting behavioral regulation. Maternal sensitivity may be associated with ANS function in this population. Continued research on relationships among ANS function, child behavior, and maternal sensitivity is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF NON-FUNCTIONAL OVERREACHING AND OVERTRAINING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION IN HIGHLY TRAINED ATHLETES.

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    Kajaia, T; Maskhulia, L; Chelidze, K; Akhalkatsi, V; Kakhabrishvili, Z

    2017-03-01

    Aim of the study was to compare the ANS functioning, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), in athletes with non-functional overreaching (NFO) and overtraining syndrome (OTS) and in athletes without NFO/OTS. In 43 athletes with NFO/OTS, 40 athletes without NFO/OTS, as well as in 35 sedentary subjects the ANS function was evaluated with the Autonomic Balance Test, based on the HRV analysis of resting heart rate recordings. Results of the study show lower HRV and lower vagal influence along with increased sympathetic cardiovascular control in athletes with non-functional overreaching and particularly in athletes with overtraining, than in highly trained athletes without NFO/OTS. "Stress Response" in athletes with NFO, as well as in some athletes with OTS, showing sympathetic dominance, considered as a sign of physical or mental fatigue and chronic stress, whereas "Total Autonomic Dystonia" in most of the athletes with OTS (67%) reflects more advanced stage of maladaptation associated with depressed regulatory function of the ANS, both sympathetic, as well as vagal influences. Most frequently NFO and OTS were seen in wrestling, which needs further investigation and regular medical monitoring. Thus, results of the study show progression of autonomic imbalance and depression of regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system in athletes with OTS. The cardiac autonomic imbalance observed in overtrained athletes implies changes in HRV and therefore would consider that heart rate variability may provide useful information in detection of overtraining in athletes and can be a valuable adjacent tool for optimising athlete's training program as well as for timely diagnosis and prevention of progression of NFO/OTS.

  19. Role of the functional status of the autonomic nervous system in the clinical course of purulent meningitis

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    D. A. Zadiraka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purulent meningitis is defined by high indices of sickness and lethality rates, a great risk of cerebral and extracerebral complications development, steady residual consequences formation. During neuroinfections, the state of adaptation mechanisms, which is characterized by exhaustion of regulatory systems with the development of decompensation, plays a crucial part. Heart rate variability clearly reflects the degree of regulatory system tension caused by the influence of both physiological and pathological factors. Research aim: to increase the autonomic dysfunction diagnostics efficiency for patients suffering from purulent meningitis in the disease dynamics based on the complex of clinical evidence and functional status of autonomic nervous system. Materials and methods. There were 60 patients with purulent meningitis under medical observation. Wein’s questionnaire was used for the detection of clinical presentations of autonomic dysfunction. Functional status of autonomic nervous system was diagnosed using the method of computer-based cardiointervalometry. The screening group was formed of 20 healthy individuals. Research findings and theirs discussion. Cerebral meningeal symptom was dominant among the patients suffering from purulent meningitis at the peak of the disease. At hospitalization every fifth person (23,3% had the objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction in the form of a postural tremor of upper limbs and eyelids. The analysis of autonomic nervous system parameters functional status among the patients suffering from purulent meningitis at the peak of disease showed heart rate variability decrease in the main branches of autonomic regulation and the presence of autonomic imbalance towards vagotonia. Since the second week, clinical signs of autonomic dysfunction prevailed in the dynamics of patients suffering from purulent meningitis in the course of standard treatment, which was proved by Wein’s survey of the patients. The

  20. Psychological traits influence autonomic nervous system recovery following esophageal intubation in health and functional chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A D; Coen, S J; Kano, M; Worthen, S F; Rossiter, H E; Navqi, H; Scott, S M; Furlong, P L; Aziz, Q

    2013-12-01

    Esophageal intubation is a widely utilized technique for a diverse array of physiological studies, activating a complex physiological response mediated, in part, by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In order to determine the optimal time period after intubation when physiological observations should be recorded, it is important to know the duration of, and factors that influence, this ANS response, in both health and disease. Fifty healthy subjects (27 males, median age 31.9 years, range 20-53 years) and 20 patients with Rome III defined functional chest pain (nine male, median age of 38.7 years, range 28-59 years) had personality traits and anxiety measured. Subjects had heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), sympathetic (cardiac sympathetic index, CSI), and parasympathetic nervous system (cardiac vagal tone, CVT) parameters measured at baseline and in response to per nasum intubation with an esophageal catheter. CSI/CVT recovery was measured following esophageal intubation. In all subjects, esophageal intubation caused an elevation in HR, BP, CSI, and skin conductance response (SCR; all p < 0.0001) but concomitant CVT and cardiac sensitivity to the baroreflex (CSB) withdrawal (all p < 0.04). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that longer CVT recovery times were independently associated with higher neuroticism (p < 0.001). Patients had prolonged CSI and CVT recovery times in comparison to healthy subjects (112.5 s vs 46.5 s, p = 0.0001 and 549 s vs 223.5 s, p = 0.0001, respectively). Esophageal intubation activates a flight/flight ANS response. Future studies should allow for at least 10 min of recovery time. Consideration should be given to psychological traits and disease status as these can influence recovery. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1993-01-01

    disturbed in 22 patients with functional abdominal pain (functional group) as compared with 14 healthy controls (healthy group) and 26 patients with organic abdominal pain (organic group) due to duodenal ulcer (DU), gallstones, or urinary tract calculi. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and serum......Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...... and serum cortisol did not increase at all in any of the groups. As a measure of parasympathetic neural activity, independent of sympathetic neural activity, the beat-to-beat variation of the heart rate was calculated. The functional patients had a significantly higher beat-to-beat variation expressed...

  2. Effect of partition board color on mood and autonomic nervous function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Sokichi; Sugiyama, Yoshiki

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the presence or absence (control) of a partition board and its color (red, yellow, blue) on subjective mood ratings and changes in autonomic nervous system indicators induced by a video game task. The increase in the mean Profile of Mood States (POMS) Fatigue score and mean Oppressive feeling rating after the task was lowest with the blue partition board. Multiple-regression analysis identified oppressive feeling and error scores on the second half of the task as statistically significant contributors to Fatigue. While explanatory variables were limited to the physiological indices, multiple-regression analysis identified a significant contribution of autonomic reactivity (assessed by heart rate variability) to Fatigue. These results suggest that a blue partition board would reduce task-induced subjective fatigue, in part by lowering the oppressive feeling of being enclosed during the task, possibly by increasing autonomic reactivity.

  3. Race Differences in Age-Trends of Autonomic Nervous System Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Williams, David R.; Love, Gayle D.; McKinley, Paula S.; Sloan, Richard P.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to consider race differences in age-trends of autonomic nervous system functioning, using a national dataset with a broad age range. Methods Measures of baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and HRV reactivity were derived from electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings taken at rest and during cognitive stress tasks. Age-trends in HRV and HRV reactivity were compared among 204 African Americans and 833 Whites ages 34 to 83 years (M=53.7, SD=11.4), before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Results For HRV-reactivity, age-trends were steeper among African Americans and lower-SES participants than Whites and higher-SES participants. For baseline HRV, age-trends varied by SES but not race. Discussion Results relating to HRV-reactivity (but not baseline HRV) were consistent with hypotheses suggesting that African Americans are exposed to higher levels of stress and experience accelerated declines in health across the life span. The relevance of the findings to research on social stress and health disparities is discussed. PMID:23781017

  4. Poor autonomic nervous system functioning during sleep in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Baker, Fiona C.; Sugarbaker, David S.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcoholism is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) function is a major indicator of cardiovascular health. Sleep is a suitable model to investigate ANS activity free from wake-related confounders. We investigated night-time ANS functioning, and the relationship between ANS activity and severity of alcohol dependence in chronic alcoholism. Methods Fourteen recently abstaining alcoholics (Age: 42.0±9.0y, 7 women) and sixteen age- and sex-matched controls (Age: 45.2±9.1y, 8 women) underwent a night of standard clinical polysomnography, including electrocardiographic recording. Time- and frequency-domain spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was performed across hours of the night and during artifact-free epochs of stable sleep and wakefulness (pre-sleep wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep). Results Alcoholics had a poorer subjective and objective sleep quality compared to controls. Across the night, alcoholic men and women had elevated heart rate, reduced total HRV, i.e. lower standard deviation of normal-to-normal inter-beat-intervals, and reduced high frequency activity (assessed by the high frequency power and by the square root of the mean squared of successive heart period differences). This ANS pattern was most apparent at the beginning of the night. None of the ANS measures was associated with lifetime alcohol consumption or duration of alcohol dependence. Conclusions Our results show that ANS functioning is disrupted during the night, even in undisturbed sleep periods, indicating poor cardiovascular functioning in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent men and women. PMID:24575956

  5. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1993-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...... cortisol measurements were included, to assess the pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and plasma adrenaline increased significantly in all groups in response to a stress test (mental arithmetic). Plasma noradrenaline increased in the DU patients only, and plasma ACTH...... response as indicated by a lesser stress-induced increment in heart rate, was seen in both patient groups (functional, 13 +/- 2 beats/min; organic, 10 +/- 2 beats/min) as compared with the healthy group (19 +/- 2 beats/min; P = 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  6. Measuring quality of sleep and autonomic nervous function in healthy Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miki Sato,1 Yuko Yasuhara,2 Tetsuya Tanioka,2 Yukie Iwasa,2 Masafumi Miyake,3 Toshiyuki Yasui,2 Masahito Tomotake,2 Haruo Kobayashi,4 Rozzano C Locsin51Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Shikoku University, 2Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3Tokushima Prefectural Minami Health Care Center, Tokushima, 4Faculty of Medical Welfare, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan; 5Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of sleep and autonomic nervous functioning in healthy adult Japanese women using three measures, namely, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI for subjective assessment of sleep quality, actigraphy for objective assessment of sleep, and heart rate variability using high frequency and low frequency domains. Participants were 31 healthy women in their 20s to 40s who met the selection criteria, including having normal monthly menstrual periods. Participants were categorized as good or poor sleepers according to their PSQI score. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency were −0.62 (range −0.43 to −0.84 for good sleepers and −0.45 (range 0.003 to −0.64 for poor sleepers. Good sleepers showed a significantly higher correlation of activity count and high frequency (Z=−2.11, P<0.05. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and low frequency/high frequency were 0.54 (range 0.29–0.73 for good sleepers and 0.41 (range 0.11–0.63 for poor sleepers. The PSQI, actigraphy data, and heart rate variability results showed positive correlations between sleep time as measured by PSQI and duration of inactivity as measured by actigraphy (r=0.446, P<0.05 and sleep time as measured by actigraphy (r=0.377, P<0.05, and a negative correlation between sleep time as measured by PSQI and the

  7. Autonomic nervous system functions in children with breath-holding spells and effects of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkiran, Abdülkerim; Tutar, Ercan; Atalay, Semra; Deda, Gülhis; Cin, Sükrü

    2005-09-01

    To analyse the activity of the autonomic nervous system during breath-holding spells, we assessed the ECG changes, including ventricular repolarization parameters before and during the spell. We also analysed the effects of iron deficiency on these ECG parameters. The study group consisted of 37 children with breath-holding spells (30 cyanotic, 7 pallid) (mean age+/-SD: 12.9+/-10.8 mo). Twenty-six healthy children (mean age+/-SD: 14.4+/-8.6 mo) served as a control group. All patients and controls had standard 12-lead simultaneous surface ECG. All patients had ECG recordings during at least one severe breath-holding spell obtained by "event recorder". Traces obtained by "event recorder" were analysed in terms of mean heart rate and the frequency and duration of asystole during the spell. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia on standard ECGs and asystole frequency during spells were higher in patients with pallid breath-holding spells. Patients with iron deficiency had a lower frequency of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and prolonged asystole time during the spell. There was no difference in terms of ventricular repolarization parameters (QT/QTc intervals and QT/QTc dispersions) between patients and controls and between patient subgroups (cyanotic versus pallid). These results confirmed the presence of autonomic dysregulation in children with breath-holding spells. Iron deficiency may have an impact on this autonomic dysregulation. Ventricular repolarization was unaffected in patients with breath-holding spells.

  8. Investigating the autonomic nervous system and cognitive functions as potential mediators of an association between cardiovascular disease and driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Jeffrey; Bélanger, Mathieu F; Corriveau, Hélène; Mekary, Said; Hay, Dean; Johnson, Michel J

    2013-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) impacts the autonomic nervous system and cognitive functions related to activities of daily living, including driving an automobile. Although CVD has been linked to unsafe driving, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the role of cognitive functions and the autonomic nervous system as potential mediators of driving performance. Nineteen individuals having recently suffered a cardiac event and 16 individuals with no history of CVD completed a simulated drive using a STISIM simulator to assess driving performance. Heart rate was recorded throughout testing using a Polar RS800CX heart rate monitor, and measures of executive, orienting, and alerting functions were obtained through the Attention Network Test. We used the Baron and Kenny analysis method to assess potential mediating effects of the relationship between CVD and driving performance. Executive function was the only potential mediator investigated to be associated with driving (p driving and that further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  9. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Baroreflex Sensitivity And Autonomic Nervous System Function In Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Theibel, Ann Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Syncope in the elderly may be caused by an apparent hypersensitivity in the high pressure baroreflex control of heart rate and blood pressure - carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Previous studies have found ambiguous results regarding the baroreceptor sensitivity in patients with carotid sinus...... hypersensitivity ranging from reduced to increased sensitivity compared to controls. We wanted to establish whether measures of baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic function differed between patients diagnosed with carotid sinus hypersensitivity and age matched controls. We included 36 patients (12 women; 74 +/-10...... and deep breathing at 0.1 Hz. From these measurements we derived indices of baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability. We found differences between groups with respect to the tachycardia ratio (p = 0.037) reflecting vagal withdrawal during the Valsalva maneuver and the adrenergic baroreflex...

  11. Association between Depression, Pressure Pain Sensitivity, Stress and Autonomous Nervous System Function in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Bergmann, Natasha; Karpatschof, Benny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Depression and ischemic heart disease (IHD) are associated with persistent stress and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The former can be measured by pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) of the sternum, and the latter by the PPS and systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to a tilt...... table test (TTT). Beta-blocker treatment reduces the efferent beta-adrenergic ANS function, and thus, the physiological stress response. Objective: To test the effect of beta-blockers on changes in depression score in patients with IHD, as well as the influence on persistent stress and ANS dysfunction....... Methods: Three months of non-pharmacological intervention aiming at reducing PPS and depression score in patients with stable IHD. Beta-blocker users (N = 102) were compared with non-users (N = 75), with respect to signs of depression measured by the Major Depressive Inventory questionnaire (MDI), resting...

  12. Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Central Nervous System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  13. CLOCK 3111T/C genetic variant influences the daily rhythm of autonomic nervous function: relevance to body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M-T; Bandin, C; Yang, H-W; Scheer, F A J L; Hu, K; Garaulet, M

    2018-02-01

    Humans carrying the genetic risk variant C at the circadian CLOCK (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) 3111T/C have been shown to have more difficulties to achieve desired weight loss than TT carriers. We tested the hypothesis that the daily rhythm of autonomic nervous function differs in CLOCK 3111C carriers, leading to reduced effectiveness in weight control. We recruited 40 overweight/obese Caucasian women (body mass index>25), 20 carrying CLOCK 3111C (CC and TC) and 20 non-carriers with matched age and body mass index who participated in a dietary obesity treatment program of up to 30 weeks. Following the treatment, ambulatory electrocardiography was continuously monitored for up to 3.5 days when subjects underwent their normal daily activities. To assess autonomic function, heart rate variability analysis (HRV) was performed hourly to obtain mean inter-beat interval between two consecutive R waves (mean RR) and s.d. of normal-to-normal heartbeat intervals (SDNN), and two parasympathetic measures, namely, proportion of differences between adjacent NN intervals that are >50 ms (pNN50), and high-frequency (HF: 0.15-0.4 Hz) power. In the TT carriers, all tested HRV indices showed significant daily rhythms (all P-values CLOCK variation on body weight control.

  14. Measuring Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Activity in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; van Lien, René; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Geus, Eco J.

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls mainly automatic bodily functions that are engaged in homeostasis, like heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration and renal function. The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the human body for action

  15. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, G.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Creemers, H.E.; van der Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different

  16. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Gwendolyn C.; Huizink, Anja C.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Creemers, Hanneke E.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary

  17. ACE2-mediated reduction of oxidative stress in the central nervous system is associated with improvement of autonomic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Xia

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in the central nervous system mediates the increase in sympathetic tone that precedes the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that by transforming Angiotensin-II (AngII into Ang-(1-7, ACE2 might reduce AngII-mediated oxidative stress in the brain and prevent autonomic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, a relationship between ACE2 and oxidative stress was first confirmed in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro2A cells treated with AngII and infected with Ad-hACE2. ACE2 overexpression resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. In vivo, ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/y mice and non-transgenic (NT littermates were infused with AngII (10 days and infected with Ad-hACE2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Baseline blood pressure (BP, AngII and brain ROS levels were not different between young mice (12 weeks. However, cardiac sympathetic tone, brain NADPH oxidase and SOD activities were significantly increased in ACE2(-/y. Post infusion, plasma and brain AngII levels were also significantly higher in ACE2(-/y, although BP was similarly increased in both genotypes. ROS formation in the PVN and RVLM was significantly higher in ACE2(-/y mice following AngII infusion. Similar phenotypes, i.e. increased oxidative stress, exacerbated dysautonomia and hypertension, were also observed on baseline in mature ACE2(-/y mice (48 weeks. ACE2 gene therapy to the PVN reduced AngII-mediated increase in NADPH oxidase activity and normalized cardiac dysautonomia in ACE2(-/y mice. Altogether, these data indicate that ACE2 gene deletion promotes age-dependent oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction and hypertension, while PVN-targeted ACE2 gene therapy decreases ROS formation via NADPH oxidase inhibition and improves autonomic function. Accordingly, ACE2 could represent a new target for the treatment of hypertension-associated dysautonomia and oxidative stress.

  18. The Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    part of our training and practice is spent acquiring skills in averting or utilizing the autonomic nervous system effects of anaesthetic drugs or surgical procedures under a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Moreover, many of these pathophysiological condi- tions may be associated with impaired preoperative autonomic ...

  19. Postnatal Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Control in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Nederend

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect. During childhood, survival is generally good but, in adulthood, late complications are not uncommon. Abnormal autonomic control in children with congenital heart disease may contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of these long term sequelae. This narrative review of 34 studies aims to summarize current knowledge on function of the autonomic nervous system in children with a congenital heart defect. Large scale studies that measure both branches of the nervous system for prolonged periods of time in well-defined patient cohorts in various phases of childhood and adolescence are currently lacking. Pending such studies, there is not yet a good grasp on the extent and direction of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic function in pediatric congenital heart disease. Longitudinal studies in homogenous patient groups linking autonomic nervous system function and clinical outcome are warranted.

  20. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Gwendolyn C; Huizink, Anja C; Tulen, Joke H M; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Creemers, Hanneke E; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary diagnoses of clinical anxiety disorders (AD) from each other, and from a general population reference group (GP). The study sample consisted of 152 AD children (comparing separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and specific phobia), aged 8- to 12-years, and 200 same-aged reference children. HPA-axis functioning was measured by a diurnal cortisol profile. ANS functioning was measured by continuous measures of skin conductance level in rest and during a mental arithmetic task and high frequency heart rate variability in rest. PA was assessed by a questionnaire. The AD sample showed lower high frequency heart rate variability during rest, heightened anticipatory PA, higher basal and reactive skin conductance levels and lower basal HPA-axis functioning compared to the GP sample. The existence of three or more clinical disorders, i.e. a high clinical 'load', was associated with lower basal HPA-axis functioning, higher skin conductance level and lower posttest PA. Specific phobia could be discerned from social phobia and separation anxiety disorder on higher skin conductance level. Our findings indicated that children with AD have specific psychophysiological characteristics, which resemble the psychophysiological characteristics of chronic stress. A high clinical 'load' is associated with an altered ANS and HPA-axis functioning. Overall, ANS and HPA-axis functioning relate to AD in general, accept for specific phobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. N-Acetylmannosamine improves sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice: relevance to autonomic nervous function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Ito, Koichi; Hayakawa, Koji; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a variety of physiological changes originating peripherally and centrally, including within the autonomic nervous system. Sleep-wake disturbances constitute reliable hallmarks of aging in several animal species and humans. Recent studies have been interested in N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) a potential therapeutic agent for improving quality of life, as well as preventing age-related cognitive decline. In this study, ManNAc (5.0 mg/ml) was administered in the drinking water of middle-aged male C57BL/6J mice (55 weeks old) for 7 days. Mice were housed under a 12:12 h light:dark cycle at 23-24 °C. We evaluated bio-behavioral activity using electrocardiogram, body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by an implanted telemetry transmitter. To estimate sleep-wake profile, surface electroencephalogram and electromyogram leads connected to a telemetry transmitter were also implanted in mice. Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. ManNAc-treated mice spent more time in a wakeful state and less time in slow wave sleep during the dark phase. Parasympathetic nervous activity was increased following ManNAc treatment, then the sympatho-vagal balance was shifted predominance of parasympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, improvement in sleep-wake pattern was associated with increased parasympathetic nervous activity. These results suggest that ManNAc treatment can improve bio-behavioral activity and sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice. This may have implications for improving sleep patterns in elderly humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between maternal responsivity, socioeconomic status, and resting autonomic nervous system functioning in Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan; Deardorff, Julianna; Davis, Elizabeth L; Martinez, William; Eskenazi, Brenda; Alkon, Abbey

    2017-06-01

    Adversity, such as living in poor socioeconomic conditions during early childhood, can become embedded in children's physiology and deleteriously affect their health later in life. On the other hand, maternal responsivity may have adaptive effects on physiology during early childhood development. The current study tested both the additive and interactive effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal responsivity measured at 1year of age on resting autonomic nervous system (ANS) function and trajectory during the first 5years of life. Participants came from a birth cohort comprised of Mexican-origin families living in California. Children's resting ANS functioning (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA; pre-ejection period; PEP; and heart rate; HR) was collected at 1, 3.5, and 5years of age (N=336) and modeled across time using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Consistent with hypotheses, results showed that low SES predicted flatter trajectories of resting HR and PEP over early childhood (i.e., patterns of consistently higher heart rate; shorter PEP), whereas children who experienced positive maternal responsivity had steeper trajectories in RSA and PEP over time (i.e., increasing parasympathetic activation; decreasing sympathetic activation). The interaction between SES and maternal responsivity significantly predicted RSA intercept at age 5, such that among children living in low SES environments, high maternal responsivity mitigated the negative effect of poverty and predicted higher resting RSA at 5years of age. Results are consistent with the early life programming theory that suggests that environmental influences become biologically embedded in the physiology of children living in socially disadvantaged contexts, and identify increased maternal responsivity as a developmental mechanism that could offset the deleterious effects of low SES. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  4. Evaluating the autonomic nervous system in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ju; Shu, Chih-Hung; Chou, Kun-Ta; Wang, Yi-Fen; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Ho, Ching-Yin; Lan, Ming-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) remains unclear. It is linked to but distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has been shown to be related to disturbed autonomic regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether autonomic dysfunction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of LPR. Case-control study. Tertiary care center. Seventeen patients with LPR and 19 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 50 years, were enrolled in the study. The patients were diagnosed with LPR if they had a reflux symptom index (RSI) ≥ 13 and a reflux finding score (RFS) ≥ 7. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic function. Anxiety and depression levels measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were also conducted. In HRV analysis, high frequency (HF) represents the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system, whereas low frequency (LF) represents the total autonomic activity. There were no significant differences in the LF power and HF power between the 2 groups. However, significantly lower HF% (P = .003) and a higher LF/HF ratio (P = .012) were found in patients with LPR, who demonstrated poor autonomic modulation and higher sympathetic activity. Anxiety was also frequently observed in the patient group. The study suggests that autonomic dysfunction seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPR. The potential beneficial effect of autonomic nervous system modulation as a therapeutic modality for LPR merits further investigation.

  5. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder versus resilience on nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity as functions of sleep stage and time of sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Bell, Kimberly; Mellman, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with sleep disturbances including alterations in sleep stages and recently, elevated nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal (i.e., dominance of the sympathetic nervous system over the parasympathetic nervous system). Data suggest that sleep contributes to the regulation of ANS activity. In our previous ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring study, strong relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity in res...

  6. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate,

  7. Chagas' disease and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Ademir Batista

    2003-06-01

    Chagas' disease is a major endemic disease in Latin America and a great cause for concern due to its high incidence: it afflicts 16 to 18 million individuals and places over 90 million people at risk of infection. At present, five mechanisms can be proposed to explain the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas cardiopathy: 1. direct lesion of the tissue by Trypanosoma cruzi; 2. dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (neurogenic concept); 3. microvascular disease; 4. immunologic reaction; 5. alterations in the extracellular matrix. The neurogenic concept is the most attractive explanation for the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas cardiopathy through the involvement of the autonomic nervous system, an issue that has been prominent ever since Chagas first initiated research in the field. Köberle, in his pioneering studies on the role of the autonomic nervous system in Chagas patients in the 1950s, adopted the technique of neuron counts, whereby he registered a reduction in parasympathetic nerve cells, and thus considered Chagas cardiopathy a "parasympathetic reduction" with predominance of the sympathetic. In the 1960s, systematic studies on autonomic function, organized by Professor Dalmo Amorim, were initiated in the School of Medicine in Ribeirão Preto. Several aspects of cardiac autonomic control were later described independently by teams in Brazil (Ribeirão Preto and Brasília), Argentina (Cordoba) and Venezuela (Mérida). In general, the studies performed in Ribeirăo Preto by Amorim and Marin Neto and in Brasília by Junqueira Jr. reflected the functional involvement of the parasympathetic system, while the studies performed in Córdoba were linked with the view of cardiovascular sympathetic dysfunction. In Brazil, the involvement of the sympathetic system, with relation to the functional aspect of sympathetic denervation, is well characterized by Marin Neto through the assessment of heart rate using the tilt test in both Chagas and control groups. Further

  8. DYNAMICS OF CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE HEPATITIS B WITH CHRONIC ALCOHOL USE IN HEPATOTOXIC DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Furyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of hepatitis B due to the high incidence complexity of pathogenesis, ineffective treatment, severe consequences of the disease. Among combined lesions of the liver, special attention is paid to viral-alcoholic type. One of the mechanisms of chronic hepatitis of different etiology is violation of the functional activity of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of this work- to determine the dynamics of spectral indices of heart rate variability in patients with acute hepatitis B from chronic use of alcohol in hepatotoxic doses. Materials and methods. 133 patients with acute hepatitis B were under observation. Patients were divided into groups taking account the presence or absence of chronic use of alcohol in hepatotoxic doses and using the classification of alcohol consumption based on the frequency and dose of consumed alcohol. I group comprised 52 patients with chronic use of alcohol in the hepatotoxic doses, II group consisted of 81 patient without this factor. Heart rate variability was diagnosed using computer cardiointervalometry performed by electrocardiographic diagnostic system CardioLab-2000. 20 healthy individuals were in the control group. Results and discussion. Prodromal period in patients of the I group was longer (p0,05. However, only patients in group I had marked hemorrhagic manifestations (5,8 % and itching (7.7%. Average serum total bilirubin level was higher (p<0,05 in patients from the I group than in patients from II group. Functional state of autonomic nervous system in patients of both groups were decreased in acute period (vagotonia. Period of convalescence in patients from the I group was accompanied by more severe autonomic dysfunction in 33,6 % (p<0,05. Conclusions. 1. Acute hepatitis B in patients with chronic alcohol use in hepatotoxic doses is characterized by longer (p<0,05 prodrome, cholestatic (7,7% and hemorrhagic manifestations (5,8%, higher levels of hyperbilirubinemia (p<0,05, and during

  9. Changes in Autonomic Nervous System Activity are Associated with Changes in Sexual Function in Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney K; Harte, Christopher B; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-07-01

    Women with histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have higher rates of sexual difficulties, as well as high sympathetic nervous system response to sexual stimuli. The study aims to examine whether treatment-related changes in autonomic balance, as indexed by heart rate variability (HRV), were associated with changes in sexual arousal and orgasm function. In study 1, we measured HRV while writing a sexual essay in 42 healthy, sexually functional women without any history of sexual trauma. These data, along with demographics, were used to develop HRV norms equations. In study 2, 136 women with a history of CSA were randomized to one of three active expressive writing treatments that focused on their trauma, sexuality, or daily life (control condition). We recorded HRV while writing a sexual essay at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 2-week, and 1- and 6-month follow-ups; we also calculated the expected HRV for each participant based on the norms equations from study 1. The main outcome measures used were HRV, Female Sexual Function Index, Sexual Satisfaction Scale--Women. The difference between expected and observed HRV decreased over time, indicating that, posttreatment, CSA survivors displayed HRV closer to the expected HRV of a demographics-matched woman with no history of sexual trauma. Also, over time, participants whose HRV became less dysregulated showed the biggest gains in sexual arousal and orgasm function. These effects were consistent across condition. Treatments that reduce autonomic imbalance may improve sexual well-being among CSA populations. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Acute irradiation injury and autonomic nervous system. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Sekine, Ichiro; Shichijo, Kazuko; Ito, Masahiro; Ikeda, Yuzi; Matsuzaki, Sumihiro; Zea-Iriate, W.-L.; Kondo, Takahito

    1996-01-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of occurrence of radiation sickness, whole body irradiation of various doses of X-ray was done on male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) whose sympathetic nervous system is functionally activated and on their original male Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and the change of their body weights was examined. Further, changes of blood pressure in rats irradiated at 7.5 Gy, of norepinephrine contents in their gut as a parameter of sympathetic nervous function and of acetylcholine contents as that of parasympathetic nervous function were measured. Histopathological examinations were also performed. SHR died at smaller dose than WKY. The blood pressure as a parameter of systemic sympathetic nervous system varied greatly in SHR. Norepinephrine contents elevated rapidly and greatly in SHR after irradiation and acetylcholine contents rapidly elevated in WKY. Apoptosis was more frequently observed in the intestinal crypt of SHR. Participation of autonomic nervous system was thus shown in the appearance of acute radiation injury and sickness in SHR, which was thought to be a useful model for the investigation. (K.H.)

  11. Autonomic nervous system function, activity patterns, and sleep after physical or cognitive challenge in people with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvejic, Erin; Sandler, Carolina X; Keech, Andrew; Barry, Benjamin K; Lloyd, Andrew R; Vollmer-Conna, Uté

    2017-12-01

    To explore changes in autonomic functioning, sleep, and physical activity during a post-exertional symptom exacerbation induced by physical or cognitive challenge in participants with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Thirty-five participants with CFS reported fatigue levels 24-h before, immediately before, immediately after, and 24-h after the completion of previously characterised physical (stationary cycling) or cognitive (simulated driving) challenges. Participants also provided ratings of their sleep quality and sleep duration for the night before, and after, the challenge. Continuous ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) and physical activity was recorded from 24-h prior, until 24-h after, the challenge. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV, as high frequency power in normalized units) was derived from the ECG trace for periods of wake and sleep. Both physical and cognitive challenges induced an immediate exacerbation of the fatigue state (psleep quality or sleep duration. Although the normal changes in HR and HRV during the transition from wakefulness to sleep were evident, the magnitude of the increase in HRV was significantly lower after completing the challenge (p=0.016). Preliminary evidence of reduced nocturnal parasympathetic activity, and increased periods of inactivity, were found during post-exertional fatigue in a well-defined group of participants with CFS. Larger studies employing challenge paradigms are warranted to further explore the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of post-exertional fatigue in CFS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder versus resilience on nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity as functions of sleep stage and time of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Bell, Kimberly; Mellman, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with sleep disturbances including alterations in sleep stages and recently, elevated nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal (i.e., dominance of the sympathetic nervous system over the parasympathetic nervous system). Data suggest that sleep contributes to the regulation of ANS activity. In our previous ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring study, strong relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity in resilient participants (i.e., individuals who had never had PTSD despite exposure to high-impact trauma) were not seen with PTSD. In this study, we examined the impact of PTSD vs. resilience on ANS activity as a function of sleep stage and time of sleep. Participants (age 18-35) with current PTSD (n=38) and resilience (n=33) completed two overnight polysomnography recordings in a lab setting. The second night electrocardiogram was analyzed for frequency domain HRV parameters and heart rate within rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Results indicated that ANS arousal indexed by HRV was greater during REM compared with NREM sleep and that the REM-NREM difference was greater in the PTSD than in the resilient participants. This effect of PTSD was reduced to non-significance when analyses controlled for REM sleep percentage, which was lower with PTSD. Exploratory analyses revealed that the REM-NREM difference in HRV was correlated with REM sleep percentage in resilient participants, but not with PTSD. In contrast with our data from home settings, the present study did not find increased overall nocturnal ANS arousal with PTSD. Analyses did reveal higher heart rate during initial NREM sleep with more rapid decline over the course of NREM sleep with PTSD compared with resilience. Findings suggest that elevated ANS arousal indexed by heart rate with PTSD is specific to the early part of sleep and possible impairment in regulating ANS activity with PTSD related to

  13. Impact of cancer and chemotherapy on autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular reactivity in young adults with cancer: a case-controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; Schondorf, Ronald; Benoit, Julie; Kilgour, Robert D

    2015-05-18

    Preliminary evidence suggests cancer- and chemotherapy-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction may contribute to the increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity- and mortality-risks in cancer survivors. However, the reliability of these findings may have been jeopardized by inconsistent participant screening and assessment methods. Therefore, good laboratory practices must be established before the presence and nature of cancer-related autonomic dysfunction can be characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting concurrent ANS and cardiovascular evaluations in young adult cancer patients, according to the following criteria: i) identifying methodological pitfalls and proposing good laboratory practice criteria for ANS testing in cancer, and ii) providing initial physiologic evidence of autonomic perturbations in cancer patients using the composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS). Thirteen patients (mixed diagnoses) were assessed immediately before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Their results were compared to 12 sex- and age-matched controls. ANS function was assessed using standardized tests of resting CV (tilt-table, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva maneuver) and sudomotor (quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test) reactivity. Cardiovascular reactivity during exercise was assessed using a modified Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer protocol. Our feasibility criteria addressed: i) recruitment potential, ii) retention rates, iii) pre-chemotherapy assessment potential, iv) test performance/tolerability, and v) identification and minimizing the influence of potentially confounding medication. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess between- and within-group differences at baseline and follow-up. The overall success rate in achieving our feasibility criteria was 98.4 %. According to the CASS, there was evidence of ANS impairment at baseline in 30.8 % of patients, which persisted in 18.2 % of patients

  14. Impact of cancer and chemotherapy on autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular reactivity in young adults with cancer: a case-controlled feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott C.; Schondorf, Ronald; Benoit, Julie; Kilgour, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests cancer- and chemotherapy-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction may contribute to the increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity- and mortality-risks in cancer survivors. However, the reliability of these findings may have been jeopardized by inconsistent participant screening and assessment methods. Therefore, good laboratory practices must be established before the presence and nature of cancer-related autonomic dysfunction can be characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting concurrent ANS and cardiovascular evaluations in young adult cancer patients, according to the following criteria: i) identifying methodological pitfalls and proposing good laboratory practice criteria for ANS testing in cancer, and ii) providing initial physiologic evidence of autonomic perturbations in cancer patients using the composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS). Thirteen patients (mixed diagnoses) were assessed immediately before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Their results were compared to 12 sex- and age-matched controls. ANS function was assessed using standardized tests of resting CV (tilt-table, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva maneuver) and sudomotor (quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test) reactivity. Cardiovascular reactivity during exercise was assessed using a modified Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer protocol. Our feasibility criteria addressed: i) recruitment potential, ii) retention rates, iii) pre-chemotherapy assessment potential, iv) test performance/tolerability, and v) identification and minimizing the influence of potentially confounding medication. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess between- and within-group differences at baseline and follow-up. The overall success rate in achieving our feasibility criteria was 98.4 %. According to the CASS, there was evidence of ANS impairment at baseline in 30.8 % of patients, which persisted in 18.2 % of patients

  15. Responses of Six-Weeks Aquatic Exercise on the Autonomic Nervous System, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and Lung Functions in Young Adults with Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Kunbootsri, Narupon; Arayawichanon, Preeda; Chainansamit, Seksun; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic respiratory disease. Sympathetic hypofunction is identified in all of the allergic rhinitis patients. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and impaired lung functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of six-week of aquatic exercise on the autonomic nervous system function, PNIF and lung functions in allergic rhinitis patients. Twenty-six allergic rhinitis patients, 12 males and 14 females were recruited in this study. Subjects were diagnosed by a physician based on history, physical examination, and positive reaction to a skin prick test. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The control allergic rhinitis group received education and maintained normal life. The aquatic group performed aquatic exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. Heart rate variability, PNIF and lung functions were measured at the beginning, after three weeks and six weeks. There were statistically significant increased low frequency normal units (LF n.u.), PNIF and showed decreased high frequency normal units (HF n.u.) at six weeks after aquatic exercise compared with the control group. Six weeks of aquatic exercise could increase sympathetic activity and PNIF in allergic rhinitis patients.

  16. Is there anything "autonomous" in the nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia-Filho, Alberto A

    2006-03-01

    The terms "autonomous" or "vegetative" are currently used to identify one part of the nervous system composed of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions. However, the concepts that are under the literal meaning of these words can lead to misconceptions about the actual nervous organization. Some clear-cut examples indicate that no element shows "autonomy" in an integrated body. Nor are they solely "passive" or generated "without mental elaboration." In addition, to be "not consciously controlled" is not a unique attribute of these components. Another term that could be proposed is "homeostatic nervous system" for providing conditions to the execution of behaviors and maintenance of the internal milieu within normal ranges. But, not all homeostatic conditions are under the direct influence of these groups of neurons, and some situations clearly impose different ranges for some variables that are adaptative (or hazardous) in the tentative of successfully coping with challenging situations. Finally, the name "nervous system for visceral control" emerges as another possibility. Unfortunately, it is not only "viscera" that represent end targets for this specific innervation. Therefore, it is commented that no quite adequate term for the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions has already been coined. The basic condition for a new term is that it should clearly imply the whole integrated and collaborative functions that the components have in an indivisible organism, including the neuroendocrine, immunological, and respiratory systems. Until that, we can call these parts simply by their own names and avoid terms that are more "convenient" than appropriate.

  17. 50-57 Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Centra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  18. Autonomic Nervous System in Paralympic Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Matthias; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2018-05-01

    Individuals sustaining a spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer from sensorimotor and autonomic impairment. Damage to the autonomic nervous system results in cardiovascular, respiratory, bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunctions, as well as temperature dysregulation. These complications not only impede quality of life, but also affect athletic performance of individuals with SCI. This article summarizes existing evidence on how damage to the spinal cord affects the autonomic nervous system and impacts the performance in athletes with SCI. Also discussed are frequently used performance-enhancing strategies, with a special focus on their legal aspect and implication on the athletes' health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    the method by applying standardized methods to measure the autonomic function based on heart rate variability (HRV) measures. 3) Based on the results, assess the validity of autonomic dysfunction as an early marker of a neurodegenerative disease. 4) Evaluate the influence of hypocretin loss in narcolepsy...... areas, which is consistent with the Braak hypothesis. In the narcolepsy patients, it was shown that a reduced HRR to arousals was primarily predicted by hypocretin deficiency in both rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep, independent of cataplexy and other factors. The results confirm...... that hypocretin deficiency affects the autonomic nervous system of patients with narcolepsy and that the hypocretin system is important for proper heart rate modulation at rest.Furthermore, it was shown that hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake and REM sleep...

  20. R1 autonomic nervous system in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Dagmara; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rapid loss of kidney function resulting in accumulation of end metabolic products and associated abnormalities in fluid, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The pathophysiology of AKI is complex and multifactorial involving numerous vascular, tubular and inflammatory pathways. Neurohumoral activation with heightened activity of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play a critical role in this scenario. Inflammation and/or local renal ischaemia are underlying mechanisms triggering renal tissue hypoxia and resultant renal microcirculation dysfunction; a common feature of AKI occurring in numerous clinical conditions leading to a high morbidity and mortality rate. The contribution of renal nerves to the pathogenesis of AKI has been extensively demonstrated in a series of experimental models over the past decades. While this has led to better knowledge of the pathogenesis of human AKI, therapeutic approaches to improve patient outcomes are scarce. Restoration of autonomic regulatory function with vagal nerve stimulation resulting in anti-inflammatory effects and modulation of centrally-mediated mechanisms could be of clinical relevance. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that a therapeutic splenic ultrasound approach may prevent AKI via activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This review briefly summarizes renal nerve anatomy, basic insights into neural control of renal function in the physiological state and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathophysiology of AKI chiefly due to sepsis, cardiopulmonary bypass and ischaemia/reperfusion experimental model. Finally, potentially preventive experimental pre-clinical approaches for the treatment of AKI aimed at sympathetic inhibition and/or parasympathetic stimulation are presented. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. The autonomic nervous system and cardiac GLP-1 receptors control heart rate in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie L. Baggio

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: GLP-1R agonists increase HR through multiple mechanisms, including regulation of autonomic nervous system function, and activation of the atrial GLP-1R. Surprisingly, the isolated atrial GLP-1R does not transduce a direct chronotropic effect following exposure to GLP-1R agonists in the intact heart, or isolated atrium, ex vivo. Hence, cardiac GLP-1R circuits controlling HR require neural inputs and do not function in a heart-autonomous manner.

  2. Patterns of Sensitivity to Emotion in Children with Williams Syndrome and Autism: Relations between Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Grichanik, Mark; Arnold, Andrew J.; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with atypical social-emotional functioning. Affective visual stimuli were used to assess autonomic reactivity and emotion identification, and the social responsiveness scale was used to determine the level social functioning in children with WS and ASD contrasted with typical…

  3. The autonomic nervous system regulates postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinstroop, Eveline; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Foppen, Ewout; Wortel, Joke; Kooijman, Sander; Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2013-01-01

    The liver is a key organ in controlling glucose and lipid metabolism during feeding and fasting. In addition to hormones and nutrients, inputs from the autonomic nervous system are also involved in fine-tuning hepatic metabolic regulation. Previously, we have shown in rats that during fasting an

  4. Responses of the Autonomic Nervous System to Flavors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de René A.; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory flavor perception plays an important role in decision-making, for instance for food products. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, towards such flavor stimuli may provide insights into processes related to consumer acceptance

  5. An Electerophisioligic Study Of Autonomic Nervous System In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorolahi Moghaddam H

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in diabetics can occur apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and sometimes leads to complaints which may be diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Moreover glycemic control of these patients may prevent such a complications."nMaterials and Methods: 30 diabetic patients were compared to the same number of age and sex-matched controls regarding to electrophysiologic findings of autonomic nervous system. Symptoms referable to autonomic disorder including nightly diarrhea, dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, nausea, and mouth dryness were recorded in all diabetic patients. Palmar and plantar SSR and expiration to inspiration ratio (E: I and Valsalva ratio were recorded in all diabetics and control individuals by electromyography device. In addition NCS was performed on two sensory and two motor nerves in diabetic patients."nResults: There was no relation between age of diabetics and abnormal D: I ratio, Valsalva ratio and degree of electrophysiologic autonomic impairment. Also no relation between peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment was found. Plantar SSR was absent in 80% of diabetics with orthostatic hypotension (p~ 0.019. Palmar and plantar SSR were absent in many diabetics in comparison to control group (for palmar SSR p~ 0.00 and for plantar SSR p< 0.015. There was no relation between diabetes duration since diagnosis and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment."nConclusion: According to the above mentioned findings diabetic autonomic neuropathy develops apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and probably with different mechanisms. Remarkable absence of palmar SSR in diabetics with orthostatic hypotension can be due to its sympathetic origin. Absence of any relation between diabetes duration and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment can be due to late diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or no pathophysiologic relation between chronic

  6. [The interface between the immune system and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Shunya; Mukaino, Akihiro; Ando, Yukio

    2017-01-01

      The nervous system and the immune system are two major systems in human body. Although it was revealed these two systems correlated, the control of immune cell dynamics by the nervous system has come to draw a lot of attention at the present time. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in several animal models. One well-characterized cytokine-inhibiting mechanism, termed the "inflammatory reflex", is dependent upon vagus nerve stimulation that inhibits cytokine production and attenuates the inflammation. And the mechanism for controlling lymphocyte trafficking becomes clear, and molecular basis of immune regulation by the nervous system was reported. On the other hand, the nervous system is protected from the invasion of harmful agents by the barrier. However, there are neuroimmunological disorders, which is associated with autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and infection immunity. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder that leads to widespread autonomic manifestations, in which autoantibodies to ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play a central role. Previously, we elucidated the prevalence of extra-autonomic manifestations in patients with AAG. It is necessary to establish the new systems for the detection of autoantibodies to other subunits of acetylcholine receptor.

  7. Autonomic nervous system involvement in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Mylène; Chia, Pamela; Sarji, Shervin; Nguyen, Jason; Hoftman, Nir; Ruffenach, Gregoire; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Mahajan, Aman; Umar, Soban

    2017-12-04

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic pulmonary vascular disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) leading to right ventricular (RV) failure. Autonomic nervous system involvement in the pathogenesis of PAH has been demonstrated several years ago, however the extent of this involvement is not fully understood. PAH is associated with increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, decreased heart rate variability, and presence of cardiac arrhythmias. There is also evidence for increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in PAH patients associated with clinical worsening. Reduction of neurohormonal activation could be an effective therapeutic strategy for PAH. Although therapies targeting adrenergic receptors or RAAS signaling pathways have been shown to reverse cardiac remodeling and improve outcomes in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH)-models, the effectiveness and safety of such treatments in clinical settings have been uncertain. Recently, novel direct methods such as cervical ganglion block, pulmonary artery denervation (PADN), and renal denervation have been employed to attenuate SNS activation in PAH. In this review, we intend to summarize the multiple aspects of autonomic nervous system involvement in PAH and overview the different pharmacological and invasive strategies used to target autonomic nervous system for the treatment of PAH.

  8. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. A history of the autonomic nervous system: part II: from Reil to the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Peter C; Fisahn, Christian; Iwanaga, Joe; DiLorenzo, Daniel; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-12-01

    The history of the study of the autonomic nervous system is rich. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists were beginning to more firmly grasp the reality of this part of the human nervous system. The evolution of our understanding of the autonomic nervous system has a rich history. Our current understanding is based on centuries of research and trial and error.

  10. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHawksley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics and one or more vocal (phonic tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS. Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an

  11. Overview of the Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrwein, Erica A; Orer, Hakan S; Barman, Susan M

    2016-06-13

    Comprised of the sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, and enteric nervous system, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides the neural control of all parts of the body except for skeletal muscles. The ANS has the major responsibility to ensure that the physiological integrity of cells, tissues, and organs throughout the entire body is maintained (homeostasis) in the face of perturbations exerted by both the external and internal environments. Many commonly prescribed drugs, over-the-counter drugs, toxins, and toxicants function by altering transmission within the ANS. Autonomic dysfunction is a signature of many neurological diseases or disorders. Despite the physiological relevance of the ANS, most neuroscience textbooks offer very limited coverage of this portion of the nervous system. This review article provides both historical and current information about the anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. The ultimate aim is for this article to be a valuable resource for those interested in learning the basics of these two components of the ANS and to appreciate its importance in both health and disease. Other resources should be consulted for a thorough understanding of the third division of the ANS, the enteric nervous system. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1239-1278, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in Chagas heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Reis Lopes

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system and especially the intracardiac autonomic nervous system is involved in Chagas' disease. Ganglionitis and periganglionitis were noted in three groups ofpatients dying with Chagas'disease: 1 Those in heart failure; 2 Those dying a sudden, non violent death and; 3 Those dying as a consequence ofaccidents or homicide. Hearts in the threegroups also revealed myocarditis and scattered involvement of intramyocardial ganglion cells as well as lesions of myelinic and unmyelinic fibers ascribable to Chagas'disease. In mice with experimentally induced Chagas' disease weobserved more intensive neuronal lesions of the cardiac ganglia in the acute phase of infection. Perhaps neuronal loss has a role in the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy. However based on our own experience and on other data from the literature we conclude that the loss of neurones is not the main factor responsible for the manifestations exhibited by chronic chagasic patients. On the other hand the neuronal lesions may have played a role in the sudden death ofone group of patients with Chagas'disease but is difficult to explain the group of patients who did not die sudderly but instead progressed to cardiac failure.

  13. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children : The ABCD Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Hoekstra, Christine M C A; Gademan, Maaike G J; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R; Twickler, Marcel T B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system

  14. When do the symptoms of autonomic nervous system malfunction appear in patients with Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luka, Silvio R; Svetel, Marina; Pekmezović, Tatjana; Milovanović, Branislav; Kostić, Vladimir S

    2014-04-01

    Dysautonomia appears in almost all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a certain stage of their condition. The aim of our study was to detect the development and type of autonomic disorders, find out the factors affecting their manifestation by analyzing the potential association with demographic variables related to clinical presentation, as well as the symptoms of the disease in a PD patient cohort. The patients with PD treated at the Clinic of Neurology in Belgrade during a 2-year period, divided into 3 groups were studied: 25 de novo patients, 25 patients already treated and had no long-term levodopa therapy-related complications and 22 patients treated with levodopa who manifested levodopa-induced motor complications. Simultaneously, 35 healthy control subjects, matched by age and sex, were also analyzed. Autonomic nervous system malfunction was defined by Ewing diagnostic criteria. The tests, indicators of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, were significantly different in the PD patients as compared with the controls, suggesting the failure of both systems. However, it was shown, in the selected groups of patients, that the malfunction of both systems was present in two treated groups of PD patients, while de novo group manifested only sympathetic dysfunction. For this reason, the complete autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed only in the treated PD patients, while de novo patients were defined as those with the isolated sympathetic dysfunction. The patients with the complete autonomic neuropathy differed from the subjects without such neuropathy in higher cumulative and motor unified Parkinson's disease rating score (UPDRS) (p nervous system disturbances among PD patients from the near onset of disease, with a predominant sympathetic nervous system involvement. The patients who developed complete autonomic neuropathy (both sympathetic and parasympathetic) were individuals with considerable level of functional failure, more severe clinical

  15. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Concussion: Arterial Pulse Contour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F La Fountaine

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The arterial pulse wave (APW has a distinct morphology whose contours reflect dynamics in cardiac function and peripheral vascular tone as a result of sympathetic nervous system (SNS control. With a transition from rest to increased metabolic demand, the expected augmentation of SNS outflow will not only affect arterial blood pressure and heart rate, it will also induce changes to the contours of the APW. Following a sports concussion, a transient state cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present. How this state affects the APW, has yet to be described. A prospective, parallel-group study on cardiovascular autonomic control (i.e., digital electrocardiogram and continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure was performed in the seated upright position in ten athletes with concussion and 7 non-injured control athletes. Changes in APW were compared at rest and during the first 60 seconds (F60 of an isometric handgrip test (IHGT in concussed athletes and non-injured controls within 48 hours (48hr and 1 week (1wk of injury. The concussion group was further separated by the length of time until they were permitted to return to play (RTP>1wk; RTP≤1wk. SysSlope, an indirect measurement of stroke volume, was significantly lower in the concussion group at rest and during F60 at 48hr and 1wk; a paradoxical decline in SysSlope occurred at each visit during the transition from rest to IHGT F60. The RTP>1wk group had lower SysSlope (405±200; 420±88; 454±236 mmHg/s, respectively at rest 48hr compared to the RTP≤1wk and controls. Similarly at 48hr rest, several measurements of arterial stiffness were abnormal in RTP>1wk compared to RTP≤1wk and controls: Peak-to-Notch Latency (0.12±0.04; 0.16±0.02; 0.17±0.05, respectively, Notch Relative Amplitude (0.70±0.03; 0.71±0.04; 0.66±0.14, respectively and Stiffness Index (6.4±0.2; 5.7±0.4; 5.8±0.5, respectively. Use of APW revealed that concussed athletes have a transient increase in peripheral artery

  16. Motor execution detection based on autonomic nervous system responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Riener, Robert; Zimmermann, Raphael; Lambercy, Olivier; Edelmann, Janis; Fluet, Marie-Christine; Gassert, Roger; Wolf, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Triggered assistance has been shown to be a successful robotic strategy for provoking motor plasticity, probably because it requires neurologic patients’ active participation to initiate a movement involving their impaired limb. Triggered assistance, however, requires sufficient residual motor control to activate the trigger and, thus, is not applicable to individuals with severe neurologic injuries. In these situations, brain and body–computer interfaces have emerged as promising solutions to control robotic devices. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of a body–machine interface to detect motion execution only monitoring the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response. Four physiological signals were measured (blood pressure, breathing rate, skin conductance response and heart rate) during an isometric pinching task and used to train a classifier based on hidden Markov models. We performed an experiment with six healthy subjects to test the effectiveness of the classifier to detect rest and active pinching periods. The results showed that the movement execution can be accurately classified based only on peripheral autonomic signals, with an accuracy level of 84.5%, sensitivity of 83.8% and specificity of 85.2%. These results are encouraging to perform further research on the use of the ANS response in body–machine interfaces. (paper)

  17. Anxiety, depression and autonomic nervous system dysfunction in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajkó, Zoltán; Szekeres, Csilla-Cecília; Kovács, Katalin Réka; Csapó, Krisztina; Molnár, Sándor; Soltész, Pál; Nyitrai, Erika; Magyar, Mária Tünde; Oláh, László; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction, anxiety and depression in untreated hypertension. 86 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients and 98 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The psychological parameters were assessed with Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory by a skilled psychologist. Autonomic parameters were examined during tilt table examination (10min lying position, 10min passive tilt). Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by autoregressive methods. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was calculated by non-invasive sequence method from the recorded beat to beat blood pressure values and RR intervals. Significantly higher state (42.6±9.3 vs. 39.6±10.7 p=0.05) and trait (40.1±8.9 vs. 35.1±8.6, p<0.0001) anxiety scores were found in the hypertension group. There was no statistically significant difference in the depression level. LF-RRI (Low Frequency-RR interval) of HRV in passive tilt (377.3±430.6 vs. 494.1±547, p=0.049) and mean BRS slope (11.4±5.5 vs. 13.2±6.4, p=0.07) in lying position were lower in hypertensives. Trait anxiety score correlates significantly with sympatho/vagal balance (LF/HF-RRI) in passive tilt position (Spearman R=-0.286, p=0.01). Anxiety could play a more important role than depression in the development of hypertension. Altered autonomic control of the heart could be one of the pathophysiological links between hypertension and psychological factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between autonomic nervous activity and physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Yukie; Nakayasu, Kimiko; Nomura, Masahiro; Nakaya, Yutaka; Saito, Ken; Ito, Susumu

    2005-08-01

    There have been few studies that have reported on heart rate variability and the development of autonomic nervous function in children. This study investigated the relationship between heart rate variabilities at night and physical activity in children. The study subjects were 29 children, including 17 boys and 12 girls. The daily activity product and heart rate variabilities during sleep at night (00.00-05.00 hours) were measured and several aspects of these parameters were analyzed. In one child (an 8-year-old girl), heart rate variability and the physical activity product were measured for 12 days. There was a negative correlation between the mean R-R interval and the duration (min) of heavy exercise per day (r = -0.39, P exercise per day was negatively correlated with the mean R-R interval (r = -0.63, P physical activities increase heart rate during sleep, but reduce parasympathetic nervous activity at night. Because both the HF component and RR50 reduce with growth, the exercise-related inhibition of parasympathetic nervous activity may be a developmental stimulus to reach a balanced autonomic nervous pattern in adults.

  19. (Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  20. Maternal rearing environment impacts autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda; Capitanio, John P

    2017-05-01

    While it is now well known that social deprivation during early development permanently perturbs affective responding, accumulating evidence suggests that less severe restriction of the early social environment may also have deleterious effects. In the present report, we evaluate the affective responding of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) infants raised by their mothers in restricted social environments or by their mothers in large social groups by indexing autonomic nervous system activity. Following a 25-hr evaluation of biobehavioral organization, electrocardiogram, and an index of respiration were recorded for 10 min. This allowed for an evaluation of both heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic activity, during a challenging situation. Three- to four-month-old infants raised in restricted social environments had significantly higher heart rates and lower RSA as compared to infants raised in unrestricted social environments, consistent with a more potent stress response to the procedure. These results are consistent with mounting evidence that the environment in which individuals are raised has important consequences for affective processing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The autonomic nervous system regulates postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinstroop, Eveline; la Fleur, Susanne E; Ackermans, Mariette T; Foppen, Ewout; Wortel, Joke; Kooijman, Sander; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Rensen, Patrick C N; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2013-05-15

    The liver is a key organ in controlling glucose and lipid metabolism during feeding and fasting. In addition to hormones and nutrients, inputs from the autonomic nervous system are also involved in fine-tuning hepatic metabolic regulation. Previously, we have shown in rats that during fasting an intact sympathetic innervation of the liver is essential to maintain the secretion of triglycerides by the liver. In the current study, we hypothesized that in the postprandial condition the parasympathetic input to the liver inhibits hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. To test our hypothesis, we determined the effect of selective surgical hepatic denervations on triglyceride metabolism after a meal in male Wistar rats. We report that postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations were significantly elevated in parasympathetically denervated rats compared with control rats (P = 0.008), and VLDL-TG production tended to be increased (P = 0.066). Sympathetically denervated rats also showed a small rise in postprandial triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.045). On the other hand, in rats fed on a six-meals-a-day schedule for several weeks, a parasympathetic denervation resulted in >70% higher plasma triglycerides during the day (P = 0.001), whereas a sympathetic denervation had no effect. Our results show that abolishing the parasympathetic input to the liver results in increased plasma triglyceride levels during postprandial conditions.

  2. Effect of surface spinal stimulation on autonomic nervous system in the patients with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavkiran Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS plays a key role in the regulation of many physiological processes, mediated by supraspinal control from centers in the central nervous system. Spinal cord injury (SCI decreases the ability to sympathetically control blood pressure and to regulate body temperature. Bladder dysfunction has been reported as a serious medical complication following SCI. The purpose of study is to find the effect of surface spinal stimulation on autonomic nervous system i.e., bladder function, skin resistance, and skin temperature. Materials and Methods: Five traumatic spinal cord injury subjects were selected for experimental pilot study; surface spinal stimulation for 45 minute period applied to the skin in T11-L2 area, with a carrier frequency of 2500Hz and modulated to beats frequency of 20Hz. Stimulation amplitude was raised to cause sensory stimulation. The pre- and post-stimulation values using the values of urodynamics testing, galvanic skin response, and infra-red thermometer compared in same patients and results were obtained. Results: Result of the present study indicates that four of five subjects demonstrate a decrease in the infused fluid volume, improved bladder sensation, but shown no effect over the bladder capacity. The skin resistance of the right lower limb was increased post-stimulation, but the improvement was not significant, and skin temperature of thigh and foreleg improved significantly. Conclusion: According to our results, surface spinal stimulation was effective to improve non-reflexive bladder, skin resistance and skin temperature, but further research is needed.

  3. Aromatherapy Improves Work Performance Through Balancing the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Capdevila, Lluis

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzed the efficacy of aromatherapy in improving work performance and reducing workplace stress. The initial sample comprised 42 administrative university workers (M age  = 42.21 years, standard deviation = 7.12; 10 male). All sessions were performed in a university computer classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group (AG) and a control group (CG), and they were invited to participate in a specific session only once. They were seated in front of a computer. During the intervention period, some oil diffusers were switched on and were in operation throughout the session with petitgrain essential oil for AG sessions and a neutral oil (almond) for CG sessions. At the same time, participants completed a computer task on a specific Web site typing on their keyboard until they had finished it. The single times were different for all participants and were recorded on the Web site as "performance time." Before and after the intervention, participants completed anxiety and mood state questionnaires (the Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] and the Profile of Mood States [POMS]). Heart-rate variability (HRV) was measured before (PRE), during (20-25 min), and after (POS) the intervention to analyze autonomic nervous system regulation. The AG performed the Web site task 2.28 min faster than the CG (p = 0.05). The two groups showed differences in the following HRV parameters: low frequency (p = 0.05), high frequency (p = 0.02), standard deviation of all RR intervals (p = 0.05), and root mean square of differences (p = 0.02). All participants in all groups showed a decrease from PRE to POST for STAI (p Aromatherapy (inhaling petitgrain essential oil) can improve performance in the workplace. These results could be explained by an autonomic balance on the sympathetic/parasympathetic system through a combined action of the petitgrain main components (linalyl acetate, linalool, and myrcene). The final

  4. [Autonomic nervous system alteration in multiple sclerosis patients with urinary symptoms. Clinical, urodynamic and cardiovascular study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, G; Raibaut, P; Hubeaux, K; Jousse, M; Sheikh Ismaël, S; Lapeyre, E

    2013-12-01

    To assess symptoms related to autonomic nervous system alteration in a population of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and presenting with urinary symptoms. We investigated 65 patients (mean age 47.5 years) suffering from MS, and presenting with urological dysfunction by means of symptom scores, urodynamic investigation, cardiovascular autonomic function tests (orthostatic hypotension testing, Valsalva test, deep breath test, cold pressor test) and sympathetic skin responses. Forty-five (69%) patients suffered from overactive bladder, 48 (73%) from voiding dysfunction, 14 (21%) from urinary retention and 13 (20%) from fecal incontinence. Urodynamic investigation demonstrated overactive detrusor in 46 (70%) cases, and underactive detrusor in four (6%) cases. Twenty-five (38%) patients had dysautonomia without correlation neither with clinical or urodynamic data, nor gravity of multiple sclerosis (EDSS). In this series, the prevalence of dysautonomia was high in patients suffering from MS and presenting with urinary disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.M.H.E.; Maas, J.; Muller, R.; Braun, A.; Kaandorp, W.; van Lien, R.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; van Mechelen, W.; van den Berg, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded

  6. Central nervous system involvement in the autonomic responses to psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Morree, H.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Rutten, G.J.; Kop, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress can trigger acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death in vulnerable patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism that plays a role in stress-induced cardiac events involves the autonomic nervous system, particularly disproportional sympathetic activation and

  7. Role of the autonomic nervous system in rat liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cunshuan; Zhang, Xinsheng; Wang, Gaiping; Chang, Cuifang; Zhang, Lianxing; Cheng, Qiuyan; Lu, Ailing

    2011-05-01

    To study the regulatory role of autonomic nervous system in rat regenerating liver, surgical operations of rat partial hepatectomy (PH) and its operation control (OC), sympathectomy combining partial hepatectomy (SPH), vagotomy combining partial hepatectomy (VPH), and total liver denervation combining partial hepatectomy (TDPH) were performed, then expression profiles of regenerating livers at 2 h after operation were detected using Rat Genome 230 2.0 array. It was shown that the expressions of 97 genes in OC, 230 genes in PH, 253 genes in SPH, 187 genes in VPH, and 177 genes in TDPH were significantly changed in biology. The relevance analysis showed that in SPH, genes involved in stimulus response, immunity response, amino acids and K(+) transport, amino acid catabolism, cell adhesion, cell proliferation mediated by JAK-STAT, Ca(+), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, cell growth and differentiation through JAK-STAT were up-regulated, while the genes involved in chromatin assembly and disassembly, and cell apoptosis mediated by MAPK were down-regulated. In VPH, the genes associated with chromosome modification-related transcription factor, oxygen transport, and cell apoptosis mediated by MAPK pathway were up-regulated, but the genes associated with amino acid catabolism, histone acetylation-related transcription factor, and cell differentiation mediated by Wnt pathway were down-regulated. In TDPH, the genes related to immunity response, growth and development of regenerating liver, cell growth by MAPK pathway were up-regulated. Our data suggested that splanchnic and vagal nerves could regulate the expressions of liver regeneration-related genes.

  8. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton G. Burt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AIx, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02 independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002 independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54. Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001 but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12. We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies.

  9. Relationships between thermic effect of food, insulin resistance and autonomic nervous activity

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Tomonori; Nomura, Masahiro; Nakayasu, Kimiko; Kawano, Tomohito; Ito, Susumu; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Background: The thermic effect of food (TEF) is higher in lean than in obese human subjects. Objective: Relationships between TEF and insulin resistance during meals, from the point of view of autonomic nervous activity, were evaluated. Methods : Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated in 20 young adults using the spectral analysis of heart rate variability from one hour before to two hours after a meal. Heart rate data were analyzed based on low frequency components (LF power, 0.04 - 0.15Hz...

  10. Brainstem and Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction: A Neurosurgical Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gallego, A; González-García, L; Carrasco-Brenes, A; Segura-Fernández-Nogueras, M; Delgado-Babiano, A; Ros-Sanjuán, A; Romero-Moreno, L; Domínguez-Páez, M; Dawid-Milner, M S; Arráez-Sánchez, M A

    2017-01-01

    Central autonomic control nuclei and pathways are mainly integrated within the brainstem, especially in the medulla oblongata. Lesions within these structures can lead to central dysautonomia.Central autonomic control structures can be damaged by tumors, during surgery, or by other neurosurgical pathologies. These may elicit clinical or subclinical autonomic complications that can constitute a serious clinical problem.The authors present a broad review of the central autonomic nervous system, its possible dysfunctions, and the relation between neurosurgery and this "not-well-known system". Preliminary results of an autonomic study of brainstem lesions that is currently being carried out by the authors are also shown.

  11. Influence of Time and Frequency of Passive Smoking Exposure on Mucociliary Clearance and the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Ana Paula Cf; Ramos, Dionei; Leite, Marceli R; Silva, Bruna Sa; David, Renata M; Uzeloto, Juliana S; Pacagnelli, Francis L; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ramos, Ercy Mara C

    2016-04-01

    There are still gaps in the knowledge regarding the damage to mucociliary and autonomous systems from passive exposure to cigarette smoke. Also, the influence of the frequency and duration of exposure on these systems is still unclear. The objective of this work was to verify the effects of passive smoking on mucociliary clearance and adult autonomic nervous systems and investigate the influence of frequency and time of passive exposure on these systems. 44 smokers (smoking group), 38 passive smokers (passive smoking group), and 38 healthy individuals (control group) were evaluated. Evaluation of lung function was performed. To analyze the autonomic nervous system, heart rate variability data were collected. Hemodynamic parameters were collected. Mucociliary clearance was evaluated using the saccharin transit time test. The passive smoking group presented reduced lung function (P = .02). Systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the passive smoking group when compared with the smoking group (P = .02). The passive smoking group presented significantly slower transportability time than the control group. No differences were observed between the groups for the heart rate variability data. There was a significant correlation (P pulmonary function and autonomic nervous system. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Evaluation of cardiac autonomic function in overweight males: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Debasish Das; Himel Mondal

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Cardiovascular autonomic function tests (CAFTs) are non-invasive tests that can assess both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. Autonomic dysfunction may be considered as a risk factor for obesity and vice versa. For measurement of obesity, body mass index (BMI) is a simple, valid and inexpensive method. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of obesity based on BMI criteria on autonomic nervous system based on CAFT in young adult males. Met...

  13. Effects of Manual Somatic Stimulation on the Autonomic Nervous System and Posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barassi, Giovanni; Bellomo, Rosa Grazia; Di Giulio, Camillo; Giannuzzo, Giuseppe; Irace, Giuseppe; Barbato, Claudia; Saggini, Raoul

    2018-02-13

    Low back pain frequently involves a multifactorial etiology and requires medical attention. The aim of the study was to assess the associations among pain, posture, and autonomic nervous system function in patients with low back pain, using neuromuscular manual therapy versus a generic peripheral manual stimulation (back massage therapy). Twenty young patients with low back pain were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: treated with neuromuscular manual therapy performed after a specific structural evaluation and treated with back massage therapy. Both groups performed eight sessions of 30 min each, once a week for two months. There were three main time points of the assessment: during the first, the fourth, and the last eighth session. In each of these three sessions, data were collected before onset of session (baseline), 5 min from onset, at end of session, and 5 min after the end. All patients were subjected to stabilometric evaluation and were assessed on a visual analogue scale to quantify postural and pain changes. Tabletop capnography and pulse oximetry were used to monitor autonomic changes. The findings were that the improvement in posture and pain reduction were appreciably better in patients subjected to neuromuscular manual therapy than in those subjected to back massage therapy, with a comparable autonomic response in both groups. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that posture modification was significantly more advantageous in patient treated with neuromuscular manual therapy.

  14. Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Richardt, Gert; Potratz, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Circadian Profile of Heart Rate Variability. INTRODUCTION: Although heart rate variability (HRV) has been established as a tool to study cardiac autonomic activity, almost no data are available on the circadian patterns of HRV in healthy subjects aged 20 to 70 years. METHODS AND RESULTS...

  15. Cardiovascular and autonomic modulation by the central nervous system after aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Martins-Pinge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The sympathetic tone, particularly for the cardiovascular system, is generated by sympathetic discharges originating in specific areas of the brainstem. Aerobic exercise training promotes several cardiovascular adjustments that are influenced by the central areas involved in the output of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we emphasize the studies that investigate aerobic exercise training protocols to identify the cardiovascular adaptations that may be the result of central nervous system plasticity due to chronic exercise. The focus of our study is on some groups of neurons involved in sympathetic regulation. They include the nucleus tractus solitarii, caudal ventrolateral medulla and the rostral ventrolateral medulla that maintain and regulate the cardiac and vascular autonomic tonus. We also discuss studies that demonstrate the involvement of supramedullary areas in exercise training modulation, with emphasis on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an important area of integration for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The results of these studies suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity may be due, at least in part, to reductions in sympathetic nervous system activity. Conversely, with the recent association of physical inactivity with chronic disease, these data may also suggest that increases in sympathetic nervous system activity contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  16. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability for assessment of diurnal variation of autonomic nervous activity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Megumi; Ishii, Keiji; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2002-01-01

    We established characteristics of power spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and assessed the diurnal variations of autonomic nervous function in guinea pigs. For this purpose, an electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded for 24 hr from conscious and unrestrained guinea pigs using a telemetry system. There were two major spectral components, at low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands, in the power spectrum of HR variability. On the basis of these data, we defined two frequency bands of interest: LF (0.07-0.7 Hz) and HF (0.7-3.0 Hz). The power of LF was higher than that of HF in the normal guinea pigs. Atropine significantly reduced power at HF. Propranolol also significantly reduced power at LF. Furthermore, the decrease in the parasympathetic mechanism produced by atropine was reflected in a slight increase in the LF/HF ratio. The LF/HF ratio appeared to follow the reductions of sympathetic activity produced by propranolol. Autonomic blockade studies indicated that the HF component reflected parasympathetic activity and the LF/HF ratio seemed to be a convenient index of autonomic balance. Nocturnal patterns, in which the values of heart rate in the dark phase (20:00-06:00) were higher than those in the light phase (06:00-20:00), were observed. However, the HF, LF and the LF/HF ratio showed no daily pattern. These results suggest that the autonomic nervous function in guinea pigs has no clear circadian rhythmicity. Therefore, this information may be useful for future studies concerning the autonomic nervous function in this species.

  17. The role of the autonomic nervous system in hypertension: a bond graph model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shuzhen; Gong, Yuexian; Dai, Kaiyong; Sui, Meirong; Yu, Yi; Ning, Gangmin; Zhang, Shaowen

    2008-01-01

    A bond graph model of the cardiovascular system with embedded autonomic nervous regulation was developed for a better understanding of the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in hypertension. The model is described by a pump model of the heart and a detailed representation of the head and neck, pulmonary, coronary, abdomen and extremity circulation. It responds to sympathetic and parasympathetic activities by modifying systemic peripheral vascular resistance, heart rate, ventricular end-systolic elastance and venous unstressed volumes. The impairment of ANS is represented by an elevation of the baroreflex set point. The simulation results show that, compared with normotensive, in hypertension the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) rose from 112/77 mmHg to 144/94 mmHg and the left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT) increased from 10 mm to 12.74 mm. In the case that ANS regulation was absent, both the SBP and DBP further increased by 8 mmHg and the LVWT increased to 13.22 mm. The results also demonstrate that when ANS regulation is not severely damaged, e.g. the baroreflex set point is 97 mmHg, it still has an effect in preventing the rapid rise of blood pressure in hypertension; however, with the worsening of ANS regulation, its protective role weakens. The results agree with human physiological and pathological features in hemodynamic parameters and carotid baroreflex function curves, and indicate the role of ANS in blood pressure regulation and heart protection. In conclusion, the present model may provide a valid approach to study the pathophysiological conditions of the cardiovascular system and the mechanism of ANS regulation

  18. Exercise training-induced modification in autonomic nervous system: An update for cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnier, Florent; Labrunée, Marc; Pathak, Atul; Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Galès, Céline; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Guiraud, Thibaut

    2017-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease show autonomic dysfunction, including sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal, which leads to fatal events. This review aims to place sympathovagal balance as an essential element to be considered in management for cardiovascular disease patients who benefit from a cardiac rehabilitation program. Many studies showed that exercise training, as non-pharmacologic treatment, plays an important role in enhancing sympathovagal balance and could normalize levels of markers of sympathetic flow measured by microneurography, heart rate variability or plasma catecholamine levels. This alteration positively affects prognosis with cardiovascular disease. In general, cardiac rehabilitation programs include moderate-intensity and continuous aerobic exercise. Other forms of activities such as high-intensity interval training, breathing exercises, relaxation and transcutaneous electrical stimulation can improve sympathovagal balance and should be implemented in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Currently, the exercise training programs in cardiac rehabilitation are individualized to optimize health outcomes. The sports science concept of the heart rate variability (HRV)-vagal index used to manage exercise sessions (for a goal of performance) could be implemented in cardiac rehabilitation to improve cardiovascular fitness and autonomic nervous system function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Tachycardia induced electrical remodeling of the atria and the autonomic nervous system in goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, Yuri; Tieleman, RG; Brower, T; Van den Berg, MP; de Kam, PJ; de Langen, CDJ; Haaksma, J; Grandjean, JG; Patberg, KW; van Gelder, IC; Crijns, HJGM

    1999-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) shortens the atrial effective refractory period (AERP). To investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system during this so-called electrical remodeling of the atria (ERA) and during recovery from ERA we analyzed heart rate variability (HRV). In 12 goats atrioventricular

  20. Dysregulation of the Autonomic Nervous System Predicts the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Context: Stress is suggested to lead to metabolic dysregulations as clustered in the metabolic syndrome. Although dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system is found to associate with the metabolic syndrome and its dysregulations, no longitudinal study has been performed to date to examine the

  1. Autonomic nervous system responses to viewing green and built settings: : differentiating between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Magdalena; Maas, Jolanda; Mulder, Rianne; Braun, Anoek; Kaandorp, Wendy; van Lien, René; van Poppel, Mireille; van Mechelen, Willem; van den Berg, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    his laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram

  2. Influences of lifestyle factors on cardiac autonomic nervous system activity over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Mandy Xian; Lamers, Femke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    Physical activity, alcohol use and smoking might affect cardiovascular disease through modifying autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. We investigated: 1) whether there are consistent relationships between lifestyle factors and cardiac ANS activity over time, and 2) whether 2-year changes in

  3. A Role for the Autonomic Nervous System in Modulating the Immune Response during Mild Emotional Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croiset, Gerda; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Wal, Wim E. van der; Boer, Sietse F. de; Wied, David de

    1990-01-01

    The role of the autonomic nervous system in the modulation of the immune response to emotional stimuli, was established in rats subjected to the passive avoidance test. An increase in splenic primary antibody response directed against SRBC was found after exposure of rats to the passive avoidance

  4. Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

  5. Case Studies in a Physiology Course on the Autonomic Nervous System: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of case studies on the autonomic nervous system in a fourth-semester physiology course unit for Pharmacy students is described in this article. This article considers how these case studies were developed and presents their content. Moreover, it reflects on their implementation and, finally, the reception of such a transformation…

  6. Multifractal and nonlinear assessment of autonomous nervous system response during transient myocardial ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrans, R; Gomis, P; Caminal, P; Wagner, G

    2010-01-01

    We assess autonomic nervous system response during prolonged percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) using heart rate variability analysis with multifractal indices. These indices are used to evaluate the effects of the PTCA procedures at different arteries and locations. A total of 55 patients from the Staff3 database, with no prior history of myocardial infarction, were included in the study. The indices increased significantly during the transient ischaemia and reperfusion periods, indicating an increase in nonlinear multifractal characteristics and a change in temporal correlations in heartbeat fluctuations. This indicates that significant multifractal and nonlinear complex reactions in the autonomic control of the heart rate occurred during coronary artery occlusions and suggests that the multifractal indices may be a promising nonlinear technique for evaluating autonomic nervous system response in the presence of transient myocardial ischaemia

  7. Relationships between thermic effect of food, insulin resistance and autonomic nervous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomonori; Nomura, Masahiro; Nakayasu, Kimiko; Kawano, Tomohito; Ito, Susumu; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2006-02-01

    The thermic effect of food (TEF) is higher in lean than in obese human subjects. Relationships between TEF and insulin resistance during meals, from the point of view of autonomic nervous activity, were evaluated. Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated in 20 young adults using the spectral analysis of heart rate variability from one hour before to two hours after a meal. Heart rate data were analyzed based on low frequency components (LF power, 0.04-0.15 Hz), high frequency components (HF power, 0.15-0.40 Hz), and LF/HF ratios. Energy expenditure and the TEF were measured 30 min after a meal. Homeostasis model of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was also measured. The LF/HF ratio was significantly increased 30 min after a meal (pinsulin sensitivity induces a poor response of sympathetic nervous activity in the postprandial phase and a reduction in postprandial energy expenditure.

  8. Role of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex in stress-evoked cardiovascular responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Daniel Gustavo; Fortaleza, Eduardo Albino Trindade; Tavares, Rodrigo Fiacadori; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2014-07-01

    Restraint stress (RS) is an experimental model to study stress-related cardiovascular responses, characterized by sustained pressor and tachycardiac responses. We used pharmacologic and surgical procedures to investigate the role played by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) in the mediation of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses. Ganglionic blockade with pentolinium significantly reduced RS-evoked pressor and tachycardiac responses. Intravenous treatment with homatropine methyl bromide did not affect the pressor response but increased tachycardia. Pretreatment with prazosin reduced the pressor and increased the tachycardiac response. Pretreatment with atenolol did not affect the pressor response but reduced tachycardia. The combined treatment with atenolol and prazosin reduced both pressor and tachycardiac responses. Adrenal demedullation reduced the pressor response without affecting tachycardia. Sinoaortic denervation increased pressor and tachycardiac responses. The results indicate that: (1) the RS-evoked cardiovascular response is mediated by the autonomic nervous system without an important involvement of humoral factors; (2) hypertension results primarily from sympathovascular and sympathoadrenal activation, without a significant involvement of the cardiac sympathetic component (CSNS); (3) the abrupt initial peak in the hypertensive response to restraint is sympathovascular-mediated, whereas the less intense but sustained hypertensive response observed throughout the remaining restraint session is mainly mediated by sympathoadrenal activation and epinephrine release; (4) tachycardia results from CSNS activation, and not from PSNS inhibition; (5) RS evokes simultaneous CSNS and PSNS activation, and heart rate changes are a vector of both influences; (6) the baroreflex is functional during restraint, and modulates both the vascular and cardiac responses to restraint.

  9. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report, September 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  10. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with

  11. When do the symptoms of autonomic nervous system malfunction appear in patients with Parkinson’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Luka Silvio R.

    2014-01-01

    disease, involved side of the body, pain and freezing, but mini mental status (MMS score and Hamilton depression and anxiety rating scale were significantly lower (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Our results confirm a high prevalence of autonomic nervous system disturbances among PD patients from the near onset of disease, with a predominant sympathetic nervous system involvement. The patients who developed complete autonomic neuropathy (both sympathetic and parasympathetic were individuals with considerable level of functional failure, more severe clinical presentation and the existing anxiety and depression. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175090

  12. Inflammatory and apoptotic remodeling in autonomic nervous system following myocardial infarction.

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    Chen Gao

    Full Text Available Chronic myocardial infarction (MI triggers pathological remodeling in the heart and cardiac nervous system. Abnormal function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS, including stellate ganglia (SG and dorsal root ganglia (DRG contribute to increased sympathoexcitation, cardiac dysfunction and arrythmogenesis. ANS modulation is a therapeutic target for arrhythmia associated with cardiac injury. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the pathological remodeling in ANS following cardiac injury remains to be established.In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing in thoracic SG and (T1-T4 DRG obtained from Yorkshire pigs following either acute (3 to 5 hours or chronic (8 weeks myocardial infarction. By differential expression and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA, we identified significant transcriptome changes and specific gene modules in the ANS tissues in response to myocardial infarction at either acute or chronic phases. Both differential expressed genes and the member genes of the WGCNA gene module associated with post-infarct condition were significantly enriched for inflammatory signaling and apoptotic cell death. Targeted validation analysis supported a significant induction of inflammatory and apoptotic signal in both SG and DRG following myocardial infarction, along with cellular evidence of apoptosis induction based on TUNEL analysis. Importantly, these molecular changes were observed specifically in the thoracic segments but not in their counterparts obtained from lumbar sections.Myocardial injury leads to time-dependent global changes in gene expression in the innervating ANS. Induction of inflammatory gene expression and loss of neuron cell viability in SG and DRG are potential novel mechanisms contributing to abnormal ANS function which can promote cardiac arrhythmia and pathological remodeling in myocardium.

  13. Dynamics of the recovery of autonomic nervous system in patients after surgical treatment of hemorrhagic stroke.

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    Kuftan Mohammed Nazmi Kuftan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We talking about the impact of tools and techniques of physical rehabilitation on the performance of the autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic activity and sympathetic tone and heart rate of patients after surgical treatment of hemorrhagic stroke. The experiment had involved 53 patients aged from 37 to 72 years. The survey was conducted on patients' clinical stage of rehabilitation in the second, third and sixth week after surgery. The analysis is based on the measurement of heart rate variability. A positive effect of the use of tools and techniques of physical rehabilitation program on the state of autonomic regulation.

  14. Child maltreatment under the skin : basal activity and stress reactivity of the autonomic nervous system and attachment representations in maltreating parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijman, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation comprises an empirical study and a meta-analytical study on autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning and attachment representations in maltreating parents. For the empirical study we recruited a sample of 45 mothers with substantiated abuse and neglect and 45 non-maltreating

  15. Chemokines and Heart Disease: A Network Connecting Cardiovascular Biology to Immune and Autonomic Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusi, Veronica; Ghidoni, Alice; Ravera, Alice; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Calvillo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Among the chemokines discovered to date, nineteen are presently considered to be relevant in heart disease and are involved in all stages of cardiovascular response to injury. Chemokines are interesting as biomarkers to predict risk of cardiovascular events in apparently healthy people and as possible therapeutic targets. Moreover, they could have a role as mediators of crosstalk between immune and cardiovascular system, since they seem to act as a “working-network” in deep linkage with the autonomic nervous system. In this paper we will describe the single chemokines more involved in heart diseases; then we will present a comprehensive perspective of them as a complex network connecting the cardiovascular system to both the immune and the autonomic nervous systems. Finally, some recent evidences indicating chemokines as a possible new tool to predict cardiovascular risk will be described. PMID:27242392

  16. Effects of alpha-glucosylhesperidin on the peripheral body temperature and autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumi, Hiroko; Fujishima, Noboru; Shiraishi, Koso; Mori, Yuka; Ariyama, Ai; Kometani, Takashi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Nadamoto, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effects of alpha-glucosylhesperidin (G-Hsp) on the peripheral body temperature and autonomic nervous system in humans. We first conducted a survey of 97 female university students about excessive sensitivity to the cold; 74% of them replied that they were susceptible or somewhat susceptible to the cold. We subsequently conducted a three-step experiment. In the first experiment, G-Hsp (500 mg) was proven to prevent a decrease in the peripheral body temperature under an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C. In the second experiment, a warm beverage containing G-Hsp promoted blood circulation and kept the finger temperature higher for a longer time. We finally used a heart-rate variability analysis to study whether G-Hsp changed the autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component tended to be higher, while the ratio of the low-frequency (LF)/HF components tended to be lower after the G-Hsp administration. These results suggest that the mechanism for temperature control by G-Hsp might involve an effect on the autonomic nervous system.

  17. Altered autonomic nervous system activity in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kumie; Tomiya, Yumi; Sakamoto, Ai; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2015-06-01

    Autonomic nervous system activity was studied to evaluate the physical and mental state of women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of beat-to-beat temporal changes in heart rate and provides indirect insight into autonomic nervous system tone and can be used to assess sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. We studied autonomic nervous system activity by measuring HRV in 100 women with unexplained RPL and 61 healthy female volunteers as controls. The degree of mental distress was assessed using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale. The K6 score in women with unexplained RPL was significantly higher than in control women. HRV evaluated on standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN) and total power was significantly lower in women with unexplained RPL compared with control women. These indices were further lower in women with unexplained RPL ≥4. On spectral analysis, high-frequency (HF) power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly lower in women with unexplained RPL compared with control women, but there was no significant difference in the ratio of low-frequency (LF) power to HF power (LF/HF), an index of sympathetic nervous system activity, between the groups. The physical and mental state of women with unexplained RPL should be evaluated using HRV to offer mental support. Furthermore, study of HRV may elucidate the risk of cardiovascular diseases and the mechanisms underlying unexplained RPL. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function

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    Adam Basiago

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS into a well-established therapy for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target.

  19. Effects of diving and oxygen on autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklewski, Pawel J; Kot, Jacek; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Nuckowska, Magdalena K; Tkachenko, Yurii

    2013-09-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a popular leisure activity with the number of divers reaching several millions worldwide. Scuba diving represents a huge challenge for integrative physiology. In mammalian evolution, physiological reflexes developed to deal with lack of oxygen, rather than with an excess, which makes adaptations to scuba diving more difficult to describe and understand than those associated with breath-hold diving. The underwater environment significantly limits the use of equipment to register the organism's functions, so, in most instances, scientific theories are built on experiments that model real diving to some extent, like hyperbaric exposures, dive reflexes or water immersion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current knowledge related to the influence exerted by physiological conditions specific to diving on the autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow. The main factors regulating cerebral blood flow during scuba diving are discussed as follows: 1) increased oxygen partial pressure; 2) immersion-related trigemino-cardiac reflexes and 3) exposure to cold, exercise and stress. Also discussed are the potential mechanisms associated with immersion pulmonary oedema.

  20. Cardiovascular deconditioning: From autonomic nervous system to microvascular dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, M; Fortrat, J O; Larina, I; Gauquelin-Koch, G; Gharib, C; Custaud, M A

    2009-10-01

    Weightlessness induces an acute syndrome called the cardiovascular deconditioning, associating orthostatic intolerance with syncope, increase in resting heart rate and decrease in physical capability. Orthostatic intolerance occurs after short term and long term head down bed rest and after long term space flight. Both head down bed rest and space flight induce a significant decrease of the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity. However, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity only characterizes the cardiac baroreflex loop. To go further with the analysis of cardiovascular deconditioning we were interested in the microcirculation. As the endothelium plays a crucial role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis and local blood flow, we hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction is associated with bed rest induced changes. We investigated endothelial properties before and after 56 days of bed rest in 8 women of control group and in 8 women who regularly performed physical exercise as countermeasure. Our study shows that prolonged bed rest causes impairment of endothelium-dependent functions at the microcirculation level, along with an increase in circulating endothelial cells. Endothelium should be a target for countermeasures during periods of prolonged bed rest or exposure to weightlessness.

  1. The impact of emotion-related autonomic nervous system responsiveness on pain sensitivity in female patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, H. van; Lumley, M.A.; Houtveen, J.H.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Geenen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with fibromyalgia have shown hyporeactive autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to physical stressors, augmented pain to ANS changes, and heightened negative emotions, which can increase pain. This study examined ANS reactivity to negative emotions and its association with

  2. The importance of the autonomic nervous system for the development and treatment of dental and periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Batig, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of the organism's adaptation to environmental changes and the pathological processes development is the reaction of the autonomic nervous system. It is considered as one of the constitutional characteristics of the organism that determines the type of its response to various physiological and pathological stimuli. Analysis of published data showed a significant influence of the autonomic nervous system to stressful situations, especially among young people and the elderl...

  3. Autonomic neuropathy in Fabry disease: a prospective study using the Autonomic Symptom Profile and cardiovascular autonomic function tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegstraaten, Marieke; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Wieling, Wouter; Wijburg, Frits A.; Hollak, Carla E. M.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fabry patients have symptoms and signs compatible with autonomic dysfunction. These symptoms and signs are considered to be due to impairment of the peripheral nervous system, but findings indicative of autonomic neuropathy in other diseases, such as orthostatic intolerance and

  4. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

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    Azadeh Kushki

    Full Text Available Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1 examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2 characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature during a baseline (movie watching and anxiety condition (Stroop task in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17 and children with ASD (n = 12. The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1 signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2 ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  5. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Drumm, Ellen; Pla Mobarak, Michele; Tanel, Nadia; Dupuis, Annie; Chau, Tom; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1) examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2) characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature) during a baseline (movie watching) and anxiety condition (Stroop task) in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17) and children with ASD (n = 12). The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1) signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2) ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  6. Health monitoring of Japanese payload specialist: Autonomic nervous and cardiovascular responses under reduced gravity condition (L-0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Chiharu

    1993-01-01

    In addition to health monitoring of the Japanese Payload Specialists (PS) during the flight, this investigation also focuses on the changes of cardiovascular hemodynamics during flight which will be conducted under the science collaboration with the Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) Experiment of NASA. For the Japanese, this is an opportunity to examine firsthand the effects of microgravity of human physiology. We are particularly interested in the adaption process and how it relates to space motion sickness and cardiovascular deconditioning. By comparing data from our own experiment to data collected by others, we hope to understand the processes involved and find ways to avoid these problems for future Japanese astronauts onboard Space Station Freedom and other Japanese space ventures. The primary objective of this experiment is to monitor the health condition of Japanese Payload Specialists to maintain a good health status during and after space flight. The second purpose is to investigate the autonomic nervous system's response to space motion sickness. To achieve this, the function of the autonomic nervous system will be monitored using non-invasive techniques. Data obtained will be employed to evaluate the role of autonomic nervous system in space motion sickness and to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness. The third objective is evaluation of the adaption process of the cardiovascular system to microgravity. By observation of the hemodynamics using an echocardiogram we will gain insight on cardiovascular deconditioning. The last objective is to create a data base for use in the health care of Japanese astronauts by obtaining control data in experiment L-O in the SL-J mission.

  7. Dysregulation of Autonomic Nervous System in Chagas’ Heart Disease Is Associated with Altered Adipocytokines Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Ferreira, João Marcos; Mady, Charles; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Lopes, Heno Ferreira; Ramires, Felix José Alvarez; Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Grupi, Cesar José; Hachul, Denise Tessariol; Fernandes, Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease (CD) induces autonomic dysfunction and inflammatory activity, which may promote metabolic abnormalities. We studied metabolism and his correlation with Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and inflammation in CD. Methods and Results Sixty subjects were divided into 4 groups: control group (CG), IF (indeterminate form) group; ECG group (ECG abnormalities and normal left ventricular systolic function), and LVD group (left ventricular sistolic dysfunction). Levels of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were assayed in serum samples by ELISA. ANS was assessed by heart rate variability in frequency domain in 24-hour Holter and postural tilt test (rest and orthostatic position). High frequency (HFr) component values were used to estimate parasympathetic activity and low frequency (LFr) component, sympathetic activity. Analyzes were made of the correlations of each of the metabolic parameters (leptin and adiponectin) with the inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and TNF- alpha) and with the ANS assessment measurements. No significant differences were observed in leptin and insulin levels. Adiponectin was higher in ECG and LVD groups: [CG = 4766.5 (5529.5), IF = 4003.5 (2482.5), ECG = 8376.5 (8388.5), LVD = 8798 (4188.0) ng/mL, p<0.001)]. IL-6 and TNF-alpha were higher in LVD group: [IL-6: CG = 1.85 (6.41); IF = 1.58 (1.91); ECG = 1.0 (1.57); LVD= 31.44 (72.19) pg/ml; p = 0.001. TNF-alpha: CG = 22.57 (88.2); IF = 19.31 (33.16); ECG = 12.45 (3.07); LVD = 75.15 (278.57) pg/ml; p = 0.04]. Adiponectin levels had a positive association with the HFr component (r = 0.539; p = 0.038) and an inverse association with the LFr component (r = - 0.539; p = 0.038) in ECG group. Leptin levels had a negative association with the HFr component (r= - 0.632; p = 0.011) and a positive association with the LFr component (r = 0.632; p = 0.011) in LVD group. Conclusions We found increased adiponectin levels in

  8. The autonomic nervous system and cardiac GLP-1 receptors control heart rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Laurie L; Ussher, John R; McLean, Brent A; Cao, Xiemin; Kabir, M Golam; Mulvihill, Erin E; Mighiu, Alexandra S; Zhang, Hangjun; Ludwig, Andreas; Seeley, Randy J; Heximer, Scott P; Drucker, Daniel J

    2017-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from enteroendocrine cells and exerts a broad number of metabolic actions through activation of a single GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). The cardiovascular actions of GLP-1 have garnered increasing attention as GLP-1R agonists are used to treat human subjects with diabetes and obesity that may be at increased risk for development of heart disease. Here we studied mechanisms linking GLP-1R activation to control of heart rate (HR) in mice. The actions of GLP-1R agonists were examined on the control of HR in wild type mice (WT) and in mice with cardiomyocyte-selective disruption of the GLP-1R (Glp1r CM-/- ). Complimentary studies examined the effects of GLP-1R agonists in mice co-administered propranolol or atropine. The direct effects of GLP-1R agonism on HR and ventricular developed pressure were examined in isolated perfused mouse hearts ex vivo, and atrial depolarization was quantified in mouse hearts following direct application of liraglutide to perfused atrial preparations ex vivo. Doses of liraglutide and lixisenatide that were equipotent for acute glucose control rapidly increased HR in WT and Glp1r CM-/- mice in vivo. The actions of liraglutide to increase HR were more sustained relative to lixisenatide, and diminished in Glp1r CM-/- mice. The acute chronotropic actions of GLP-1R agonists were attenuated by propranolol but not atropine. Neither native GLP-1 nor lixisenatide increased HR or developed pressure in perfused hearts ex vivo. Moreover, liraglutide had no direct effect on sinoatrial node firing rate in mouse atrial preparations ex vivo. Despite co-localization of HCN4 and GLP-1R in primate hearts, HCN4-directed Cre expression did not attenuate levels of Glp1r mRNA transcripts, but did reduce atrial Gcgr expression in the mouse heart. GLP-1R agonists increase HR through multiple mechanisms, including regulation of autonomic nervous system function, and activation of the atrial GLP-1R. Surprisingly, the

  9. Dysregulation of Autonomic Nervous System in Chagas' Heart Disease Is Associated with Altered Adipocytokines Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Barbosa-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD induces autonomic dysfunction and inflammatory activity, which may promote metabolic abnormalities. We studied metabolism and his correlation with Autonomic Nervous System (ANS and inflammation in CD.Sixty subjects were divided into 4 groups: control group (CG, IF (indeterminate form group; ECG group (ECG abnormalities and normal left ventricular systolic function, and LVD group (left ventricular sistolic dysfunction. Levels of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha were assayed in serum samples by ELISA. ANS was assessed by heart rate variability in frequency domain in 24-hour Holter and postural tilt test (rest and orthostatic position. High frequency (HFr component values were used to estimate parasympathetic activity and low frequency (LFr component, sympathetic activity. Analyzes were made of the correlations of each of the metabolic parameters (leptin and adiponectin with the inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and TNF- alpha and with the ANS assessment measurements. No significant differences were observed in leptin and insulin levels. Adiponectin was higher in ECG and LVD groups: [CG = 4766.5 (5529.5, IF = 4003.5 (2482.5, ECG = 8376.5 (8388.5, LVD = 8798 (4188.0 ng/mL, p<0.001]. IL-6 and TNF-alpha were higher in LVD group: [IL-6: CG = 1.85 (6.41; IF = 1.58 (1.91; ECG = 1.0 (1.57; LVD= 31.44 (72.19 pg/ml; p = 0.001. TNF-alpha: CG = 22.57 (88.2; IF = 19.31 (33.16; ECG = 12.45 (3.07; LVD = 75.15 (278.57 pg/ml; p = 0.04]. Adiponectin levels had a positive association with the HFr component (r = 0.539; p = 0.038 and an inverse association with the LFr component (r = - 0.539; p = 0.038 in ECG group. Leptin levels had a negative association with the HFr component (r= - 0.632; p = 0.011 and a positive association with the LFr component (r = 0.632; p = 0.011 in LVD group.We found increased adiponectin levels in Chagas' heart disease with systolic dysfunction and in

  10. Autonomic Nervous System in the Control of Energy Balance and Body Weight: Personal Contributions

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    G. Messina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a “pandemia” in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the “Mona Lisa Hypothesis,” an acronym for “most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity.” Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

  11. A brief review of chronic exercise intervention to prevent autonomic nervous system changes during the aging process

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    Rogério Brandão Wichi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aging process is associated with alterations in the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems. Autonomic changes related to aging involve parasympathetic and sympathetic alterations leading to a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Several studies have suggested that physical exercise is effective in preventing deleterious changes. Chronic exercise in geriatrics seems to be associated with improvement in the cardiovascular system and seems to promote a healthy lifestyle. In this review, we address the major effects of aging on the autonomic nervous system in the context of cardiovascular control. We examine the use of chronic exercise to prevent cardiovascular changes during the aging process.

  12. A Brief Review of Chronic Exercise Intervention to Prevent Autonomic Nervous System Changes During the Aging Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichi, Rogério Brandão; De Angelis, Kátia; Jones, Lia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The aging process is associated with alterations in the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems. Autonomic changes related to aging involve parasympathetic and sympathetic alterations leading to a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Several studies have suggested that physical exercise is effective in preventing deleterious changes. Chronic exercise in geriatrics seems to be associated with improvement in the cardiovascular system and seems to promote a healthy lifestyle. In this review, we address the major effects of aging on the autonomic nervous system in the context of cardiovascular control. We examine the use of chronic exercise to prevent cardiovascular changes during the aging process. PMID:19330253

  13. Neurotoxic impact of mercury on the central nervous system evaluated by neuropsychological tests and on the autonomic nervous system evaluated by dynamic pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioni, Ana Luiza V; Nagy, Balázs V; Moura, Ana Laura A; Zachi, Elaine C; Barboni, Mirella T S; Ventura, Dora F

    2017-03-01

    Mercury vapor is highly toxic to the human body. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of neuropsychological dysfunction in former workers of fluorescent lamps factories that were exposed to mercury vapor (years after cessation of exposure), diagnosed with chronic mercurialism, and to investigate the effects of such exposure on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) using the non-invasive method of dynamic pupillometry. The exposed group and a control group matched by age and educational level were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory and with the computerized neuropsychological battery CANTABeclipse - subtests of working memory (Spatial Span), spatial memory (Spatial Recognition Memory), visual memory (Pattern Recognition Memory) and action planning (Stockings of Cambridge). The ANS was assessed by dynamic pupillometry, which provides information on the operation on both the sympathetic and parasympathetic functions. Depression scores were significantly higher among the former workers when compared with the control group. The exposed group also showed significantly worse performance in most of the cognitive functions assessed. In the dynamic pupillometry test, former workers showed significantly lower response than the control group in the sympathetic response parameter (time of 75% of pupillary recovery at 10cd/m 2 luminance). Our study found indications that are suggestive of cognitive deficits and losses in sympathetic autonomic activity among patients occupationally exposed to mercury vapor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationships between sensory stimuli and autonomic nervous regulation during real and virtual exercises

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    Iijima Atsuhiko

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of virtual environment (VE technology to motor rehabilitation increases the number of possible rehabilitation tasks and/or exercises. However, enhancing a specific sensory stimulus sometimes causes unpleasant sensations or fatigue, which would in turn decrease motivation for continuous rehabilitation. To select appropriate tasks and/or exercises for individuals, evaluation of physical activity during recovery is necessary, particularly the changes in the relationship between autonomic nervous activity (ANA and sensory stimuli. Methods We estimated the ANA from the R-R interval time series of electrocardiogram and incoming sensory stimuli that would activate the ANA. For experiments in real exercise, we measured vehicle data and electromyogram signals during cycling exercise. For experiments in virtual exercise, we measured eye movement in relation to image motion vectors while the subject was viewing a mountain-bike video image from a first-person viewpoint. Results For the real cycling exercise, the results were categorized into four groups by evaluating muscle fatigue in relation to the ANA. They suggested that fatigue should be evaluated on the basis of not only muscle activity but also autonomic nervous regulation after exercise. For the virtual exercise, the ANA-related conditions revealed a remarkable time distribution of trigger points that would change eye movement and evoke unpleasant sensations. Conclusion For expanding the options of motor rehabilitation using VE technology, approaches need to be developed for simultaneously monitoring and separately evaluating the activation of autonomic nervous regulation in relation to neuromuscular and sensory systems with different time scales.

  15. [The role of dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system in idiopathic overactive urinary bladder in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, V V; Akarachkova, E S; Shvarkov, S B; Grigorashvili, I I; Romikh, V V

    2012-01-01

    A complex urological and neurological examination of female patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (IOAB) has detected clinical signs and neurophysiological correlates of vegetative dysfunction in the form of disturbed sympatho-parasympathic interrelations, failure of segmental and compensatory enhancement of suprasegmental mechanisms of regulation of lower urinary tract activity. The treatment with selective inhibitors of serotonin re-entry reduced severity ofpsychovegetative syndrome and symptoms of the lower urinary tract. This confirms an essential role of the autonomic nervous system in pathogenetic mechanisms of IOAB development and gives grounds for recommending selective inhibitors of serotonin re-entry for combined treatment of IOAB patients.

  16. Effects of neuregulin-1 on autonomic nervous system remodeling post-myocardial infarction in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic nerve and vagus nerve remodeling play an important part in cardiac function post-myocardial infarction (MI. Increasing evidence indicates that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1 improves cardiac function following heart failure. Since its impact on cardiac function and neural remodeling post-MI is poorly understood, we aimed to investigate the role of NRG-1 in autonomic nervous system remodeling post-MI. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were equally randomized into three groups: sham (with the left anterior descending coronary artery exposed but without ligation, MI (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, and MI plus NRG-1 (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation followed by intraperitoneal injection of NRG-1 (10 μg/kg, once daily for 7 days. At 4 weeks after MI, echocardiography was used to detect the rat cardiac function by measuring the left ventricular end-systolic inner diameter, left ventricular diastolic diameter, left ventricular end-systolic volume, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular ejection fraction, and left ventricular fractional shortening. mRNA and protein expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, growth associated protein-43 (neuronal specific protein, nerve growth factor, choline acetyltransferase (vagus nerve marker, and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (cardiac vagal nerve fiber marker in ischemic myocardia were detected by real-time PCR and western blot assay to assess autonomous nervous remodeling. After MI, the rat cardiac function deteriorated significantly, and it was significantly improved after NRG-1 injection. Compared with the MI group, mRNA and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and growth associated protein-43, as well as choline acetyltransferase mRNA level significantly decreased in the MI plus NRG-1 group, while mRNA and protein levels of nerve growth factor and vesicular acetylcholine transporters, as well as choline acetyltransferase protein level slightly

  17. [The effects of an extreme endurance exercise event on autonomic nervous system activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz, Ludmiła; Raczak, Grzegorz; Pinna, Gian Domenico; Maestri, Roberto; Ratkowski, Wojciech; Figura-Chmielewska, Monika; Szwoch, Małgorzata; Kobuszewska-Chwirot, Mariola; Kubica, Jacek; Ambrach-Dorniak, Karolina

    2005-07-01

    Initial response of human body to exercise consists of a decrease in vagal tone, followed by an increase in sympathetic activity. After exercise cessation, the parasympathetic component quickly regains its pre-exercise level, whereas signs of sympathetic activation have been reported to persist as long as 24 hours after intense exercise. To verify in a group of young marathon runners whether extreme endurance exercise may induce an increase of sympathetic activity for up to 48 hours during recovery. Twelve athletes aged 32+/-12 years, taking part in a marathon (42 km) were studied. We measured baroreflex sensitivity using the transfer function method (BRS-WBA), as well as standard spectral indexes of short-term heart rate variability (LF and HF power, LFnu, LF/HF). These parameters were measured before the marathon and on the second day (about 48 hours) following the event. Comparisons were made between the two measurements (after vs. before). We found a statistically significant decrease in BRS-WBA (15.1+/-4.5 vs. 10.5+/-3.5 ms/mmHg, p=0.013), as well as a trend towards higher values of LF/HF (1.0+/-1.0 vs. 1.4+/-1.4, p=0.09). An increase in LF (from 1048+/-874 to 1427+/-1678 ms2) was observed, but it did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that increased sympathetic activity can persist for up to 24 hours after an extreme endurance exercise such as a marathon. It is thus likely that in less trained and less physically active people exposed to excessive amounts of strenuous exercise, the autonomic nervous system response can be similar. Further studies are needed, however, to verify this inference.

  18. Assessment of autonomic function after acute spinal cord injury using heart rate variability analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Bartholdy, Kim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in severe dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. C1-C8 SCI affects the supraspinal control to the heart, T1-T5 SCI affects the spinal sympathetic outflow to the heart, and T6-T12 SCI leaves sympathetic control to the heart intact. Heart rate....... CONCLUSIONS: The rise in SDANN in the incomplete C1-T5 patients could be due to spontaneous functional recovery caused by synaptic plasticity or remodelling of damaged axons. That the autonomic nervous system function differs between C1-C8, T1-T5 and T6-T12 patients suggest that the sympathovagal balance...

  19. Effectiveness of Moderate Intensity Interval Training as an Index of Autonomic Nervous Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Satoru; Nagino, Koji; Ito, Takayoshi; Oi, Rie; Nishimura, Kazushi; Morita, Shuhei; Yaoi, Riyo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of moderate intensity interval training from the change of the autonomic nervous activity. Ten male volunteers aged 21-22 years were studied. After 10-minute rest in a seated position, the subjects were asked to perform the strength of moderate cycling exercise in ergometer. Cycling rate was done in 50 times/min. Load resistance of the ergometer was set to 2.0 kgm. Subjects paused the exercise when the heart rate becomes 120 beats/min. Subjects have resumed the exercise when the heart rate returns to the value at rest. This trial was repeated twice. The experiment was ended when the heart rate of the subjects has returned to resting level. When the heart rate during exercise is maintained to less than 120 beats/min, sympathetic nerve activity during exercise did not work actively compared to the baseline. Vagus nerve activity after exercise cessation exceeds the baseline. It is clarified that the exercise as well as activating the vagus nerve activity stimulates the total autonomic nervous activity. It has revealed that at the time of interval training at moderate load the vagus nerve activity can be carried out.

  20. Effectiveness of Moderate Intensity Interval Training as an Index of Autonomic Nervous Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of moderate intensity interval training from the change of the autonomic nervous activity. Ten male volunteers aged 21-22 years were studied. After 10-minute rest in a seated position, the subjects were asked to perform the strength of moderate cycling exercise in ergometer. Cycling rate was done in 50 times/min. Load resistance of the ergometer was set to 2.0 kgm. Subjects paused the exercise when the heart rate becomes 120 beats/min. Subjects have resumed the exercise when the heart rate returns to the value at rest. This trial was repeated twice. The experiment was ended when the heart rate of the subjects has returned to resting level. When the heart rate during exercise is maintained to less than 120 beats/min, sympathetic nerve activity during exercise did not work actively compared to the baseline. Vagus nerve activity after exercise cessation exceeds the baseline. It is clarified that the exercise as well as activating the vagus nerve activity stimulates the total autonomic nervous activity. It has revealed that at the time of interval training at moderate load the vagus nerve activity can be carried out.

  1. Body mass index is related to autonomic nervous system activity as measured by heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, A; Fiorentini, A; Tubani, L; Martuscelli, M; Rossi Fanelli, F; Laviano, A

    2009-10-01

    Autonomic nervous system activity is involved in body weight regulation. We assessed whether the body mass index (BMI) is related to the autonomic nervous system activity as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty-five adult normotensive, euglycemic healthy males (M) and females (F) were studied (M/F=13/12). BMI was assessed in each individual. HRV was assessed and the domains of low frequencies (LF, index of the sympathetic modulation) and high frequencies (HF, index of the parasympathetic modulation) were measured. Data were statistically analyzed and are presented as mean+/-s.d. Mean BMI did not correlate with either HF or LF. It inversely related to HF (r=-0.50, P<0.01), whereas its relationship with LF was marginally significant (r=-0.39, P=0.05). The HF in individuals with BMI <20 kg/m(2) was significantly higher from those measured in the remaining subjects (P<0.05). The results support the role of parasympathetic activity in influencing BMI through likely modulation of body weight.

  2. Respiratory and cardiovascular indicators of autonomic nervous system dysregulation in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael S; Kenny, Anna S; Patwari, Pallavi P; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2012-07-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a profound sensory and autonomic nervous system disorder associated with an increased risk for sudden death. While bradycardia resulting from loss of sympathetic tone has been hypothesized to play a role in this mortality, extended in-home monitoring has failed to find evidence of low heart rates in children with FD. In order to better characterize the specific cardio-respiratory pathophysiology and autonomic dysregulation in patients with FD, 25 affected children and matched controls were studied with in-home technology, during day and night. Respiratory and heart rate timing and variability metrics were derived from inductance plethysmography and electrocardiogram signals. Selective shortening of inspiratory time produced an overall increase in respiratory frequency in children with FD, with higher daytime respiratory variability (vs. controls), suggesting alterations in central rhythm generating circuits that may contribute to the heightened risk for sudden death. Overall heart rate was increased and variability reduced in FD cases, with elevated heart rates during 20% of study time. Time and frequency domain measures of autonomic tone indicated lower parasympathetic drive in FD patients (vs. controls). These results suggest withdrawal of vagal, rather than sympathetic tone, as a cause for the sustained increase and dramatic lability in respiration and heart rates that characterize this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity and morning proinflammatory cytokines in young adult African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kimberly A; Kobayashi, Ihori; Chen, Yuanxiu; Mellman, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    Compromised sleep and increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are implicated in the pathogenesis of, and disparities in, cardiovascular disease. Parasympathetic dominance during sleep may be important for cardiovascular health. Sleep and autonomic balance influence immune activity, which impacts atherogenesis. We evaluated relationships between autonomic balance during sleep and morning levels of the immune activating cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6. Ninety-four (59 female) young adult African Americans without medical conditions and substance use disorders spent 2 consecutive nights in a clinical research unit for sleep recordings and blood drawing on awakening. Cardiac tracings from the second sleep recording were analysed for heart rate variability (HRV). Body mass index was the only non-HRV measure correlated with cytokine levels. Indicators of SNS activity for the presleep, and first non-rapid eye movement (REM) and REM sleep periods were correlated independently with morning IL-6 levels. Altered autonomic balance during sleep may be a modifiable factor that influences immune activation. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. The Role of the Autonomic Nervous System in the Pathophysiology of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guarino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions globally and represents a major cause of comorbidities, mostly related to cardiovascular disease. The autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction has a two-way relationship with obesity. Indeed, alterations of the ANS might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, acting on different pathways. On the other hand, the excess weight induces ANS dysfunction, which may be involved in the haemodynamic and metabolic alterations that increase the cardiovascular risk of obese individuals, i.e., hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. This article will review current evidence about the role of the ANS in short-term and long-term regulation of energy homeostasis. Furthermore, an increased sympathetic activity has been demonstrated in obese patients, particularly in the muscle vasculature and in the kidneys, possibily contributing to increased cardiovascular risk. Selective leptin resistance, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, hyperinsulinemia and low ghrelin levels are possible mechanisms underlying sympathetic activation in obesity. Weight loss is able to reverse metabolic and autonomic alterations associated with obesity. Given the crucial role of autonomic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of obesity and its cardiovascular complications, vagal nerve modulation and sympathetic inhibition may serve as therapeutic targets in this condition.

  5. Role of the Autonomic Nervous System in the Tumor Micro-Environment and its Therapeutic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhifang; Shioda, Seiji; Masahisa, Jinushi; Kawakami, Yutaka; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Lim, Huimin Calista; Wang, Shenjun; Zhao, Xue; Liu, Yangyang; Zhou, Dan; Guo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although evidence over the last 30 years suggests that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) mediates stress-induced allostatic and immune responses, the crucial role that it plays in the tumor micro-environment has only recently been reported. Here, we review the action of ANS signaling in this micro-environment. Emerging data suggest that primary tumors are innervated by the ANS which mediates stress-related effects on tumor progression. The activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) takes advantage of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides from the innervating neural circuitry and/or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis glucocorticoids via their receptors to modulate the gene expression associated with oncogenesis, the proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells, angiogenesis, and the tumor-associated immune response. The parasympathetic nervous system has also been implicated in some tumor types, but its contribution in the tumor micro-environment remains unclear. In addition to identifying the ANS signaling pathways involved in tumor progression, recent reports suggest that the ANS could be a potential biomarker to predict tumor progression, and have identified new pharmacological strategies, such as the use of β-adrenergic blockers, to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis by targeting this system. These findings are reviewed here. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Temporal stability and drivers of change in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mandy X; Lamers, Femke; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J C

    2017-12-01

    This study determined temporal stability of ambulatory measured cardiac autonomic activity for different time periods and investigated potential drivers of changes in this activity. Data was drawn from baseline (n=2379), 2-year (n=2245), and 6-year (n=1876) follow-up from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Cardiac autonomic activity was measured with heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP). Autonomic temporal stability was determined across 2, 4, and 6year intervals. We subsequently examined the association between sociodemographics, lifestyle, mental health, cardiometabolic health, and the use of antidepressant and cardiac medication with change in cardiac autonomic activity. Over 2years, stability was good for HR (ICC=0.703), excellent for RSA (ICC=0.792) and moderate for PEP (ICC=0.576). Stability decreased for a 4- (HR ICC=0.688, RSA ICC=0.652 and PEP ICC=0.387) and 6-year interval (HR ICC=0.633, RSA ICC=0.654 and PEP ICC=0.355). The most important determinants for increase in HR were (increase in) smoking, increase in body mass index (BMI) and (starting) the use of antidepressants. Beta-blocking/antiarrhythmic drug use led to a decrease in HR. Decrease in RSA was associated with age, smoking and (starting) antidepressant use. Decrease in PEP was associated with age and (increase in) BMI. Cardiac autonomic measures were rather stable over 2years, but stability decreased with increasing time span. Determinants contributing to cardiac autonomic deterioration were older age, (increase in) smoking and BMI, and (starting) the use of antidepressants. (Starting) the use of cardiac medication improved autonomic function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular response to coughing: its value in the assessment of autonomic nervous control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, E. J.; van Lieshout, J. J.; ten Harkel, A. D.; Wieling, W.

    1989-01-01

    1. The relationship between blood pressure and heart rate responses to coughing was investigated in 10 healthy subjects in three body positions and compared with the circulatory responses to commonly used autonomic function tests: forced breathing, standing up and the Valsalva manoeuvre. 2. We

  8. Autonomous functioning of the goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.

    1994-01-01

    The article summarizes the status of knowledge on functional autonomy of the thyroid gland from the standpoint of definition, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment. (orig.) [de

  9. An Educational Board Game to Assist PharmD Students in Learning Autonomic Nervous System Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Shawn; Tincher, Lindsay; Odeng-Otu, Emmanuel; Herdman, Michelle

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To examine whether playing a board game can assist PharmD students in learning autonomic nervous system (ANS) pharmacology. Design. Of 72 students enrolled in a required second-year pharmacology course, 22 students volunteered to play the board game, which was followed by an in-class examination consisting of 42 ANS questions (ANSQs) and 8 control questions (CTLQs). Participants were given a pretest and a posttest to assess immediate educational improvement. Participants' scores for pretest, posttest, in-class examination, and ANSQs were compared. Also, scores for examination, ANSQs, and CTLQs were compared between board game participants (PART) and nonparticipating classmates (NPART). Assessment. Board game participants scored progressively higher between the pretest, posttest, examination, and ANSQs. Additionally, PART scores were higher than NPART scores for examination and ANSQs. Difference between PART and NPART CTLQ scores was not significant. Conclusion. A board game can assist PharmD students in learning ANS pharmacology.

  10. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis; Oliveira, Jose; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Rebelo, Antonio; Brito, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22) and a control group (CG; n = 25). The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results: The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05). However, the FG performed better (P football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest. PMID:26448848

  11. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart.

  12. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorio, Elisabetta; Luca, Maria; Luca, Antonina; Messina, Vincenzo; Calandra, Carmela

    2011-10-28

    To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI) as a new possible biomarker. 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs). The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  13. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messina Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  14. The Impact of Respiratory Events on the Autonomic Nervous System during Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiuxing; Zhang, Xiangmin; Luo, Yuxi; Wang, Tingting; Sun, Lin; Huang, Shaoxiong

    2018-03-30

    Sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the pathophysiology between them is not yet clear. This paper seeks to understand how respiratory events impact the cardiovascular system by heart rate variability. We compared the differences between successional pathological respiratory events (PR) and pure normal respiration (NR) during sleep. The transitions between normal and pathological respiration (TR) were also analyzed. Thirteen patients who suffered moderate or severe SAHS were enrolled in this study. The results demonstrate that the beat-to-beat interval (RR interval) mean value and sample entropy are significantly lower during PR than during NR. RR interval standard deviation, the power of very low frequency (VLF) and low frequency (LF), total power, and the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio were significantly larger during PR than during NR. However, the high frequency (HF) power was not significantly different between normal and pathological respiration. Additionally, the trends during TR also supported these significant differences. The results indicate that during pathological respiration, as the heart rate and its volatility increase, the complexity of its rhythm decreases. We conclude that the energy of the autonomic nervous system rapidly increases during pathological respiration, especially at the beginning. The HF power does not significantly change to modulate the heart rhythm, but the activity of the sympathetic nervous system will significantly increase, resulting in the imbalance of the LF/HF ratio. In addition to these findings, this paper discusses the influence of arousal on these indices during TR.

  15. Infant autonomic nervous system response and recovery: Associations with maternal risk status and infant emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurland, Jill; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Smaling, Hanneke J A; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether risk status and cumulative risk were associated with autonomic nervous system reactivity and recovery, and emotion regulation in infants. The sample included 121 6-month-old infants. Classification of risk status was based on World Health Organization criteria (e.g., presence of maternal psychopathology, substance use, and social adversity). Heart rate, parasympathetic respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and sympathetic preejection period were examined at baseline and across the still face paradigm. Infant emotion regulation was coded during the still face paradigm. Infants in the high-risk group showed increased heart rate, parasympathetic withdrawal, and sympathetic activation during recovery from the still face episode. Higher levels of cumulative risk were associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activation. Moreover, increased heart rate during recovery in the high-risk group was mediated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic activity, indicating mobilization of sympathetic resources when confronted with socioemotional challenge. Distinct indirect pathways were observed from maternal risk to infant emotion regulation during the still face paradigm through parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation. These findings underline the importance of specific measures of parasympathetic and sympathetic response and recovery, and indicate that maternal risk is associated with maladaptive regulation of stress early in life reflecting increased risk for later psychopathology.

  16. Aromatherapy Benefits Autonomic Nervous System Regulation for Elementary School Faculty in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kang-Ming; Shen, Chuh-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic nervous system parameters were recorded 5 minutes before and after the application of the aroma spray. Results showed that there were significant decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, LF power percentage, and LF/HF while there were increases in heart rate variability and HF power percentage (P aromatherapy spray. Further analysis was investigated by dividing subjects into three background variables (position variables, age variables, gender variables) and anxiety degree groups. All parameters were significantly different for most subgroups, except for the substitute teachers and the light-anxiety group. Parasympathetic nervous system activation was measured after aromatherapy in this study. It encouraged further study for other stress working population by aromatherapy. PMID:21584196

  17. Aromatherapy Benefits Autonomic Nervous System Regulation for Elementary School Faculty in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Ming Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic nervous system parameters were recorded 5 minutes before and after the application of the aroma spray. Results showed that there were significant decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, LF power percentage, and LF/HF while there were increases in heart rate variability and HF power percentage (P<.001∗∗∗ after application of the aromatherapy spray. Further analysis was investigated by dividing subjects into three background variables (position variables, age variables, gender variables and anxiety degree groups. All parameters were significantly different for most subgroups, except for the substitute teachers and the light-anxiety group. Parasympathetic nervous system activation was measured after aromatherapy in this study. It encouraged further study for other stress working population by aromatherapy.

  18. Effect of Hinoki and Meniki Essential Oils on Human Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Mood States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Jung; Kumar, K J Senthil; Chen, Yu-Ting; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Chien, Shih-Chang; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Chu, Fang-Hua; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2015-07-01

    Meniki (Chamecyparis formosensis) and Hinoki (C. obtusa) are precious conifers with excellent wood properties and distinctive fragrances that make these species popular in Taiwan for construction, interiors and furniture. In the present study, the compositions of essential oils prepared from Meniki and Hinoki were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-six compounds were identified from the wood essential oil of Meniki, including Δ-cadinene, γ-cadinene, Δ-cadinol, α-muurolene, calamenene, linalyl acetate and myrtenol; 29 compounds were identified from Hinoki, including α-terpineol, α-pinene, Δ-cadinene, borneol, terpinolene, and limonene. Next, we examined the effect of Meniki and Hinoki essential oils on human autonomic nervous system activity. Sixteen healthy adults received Meniki or Hinoki by inhalation for 5 min, and the physiological and psychological effects were examined. After inhaling Meniki essential oil, participant's systolic blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were decreased, and diastolic blood pressure increased. In addition, sympathetic nervous activity (SNS) was significantly decreased, and parasympathetic activity (PSNS) was significantly increased. On the other hand, after inhaling Hinoki essential oil, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and PSNS were decreased, whereas SNA was increased. Indeed, both Meniki and Hinoki essential oils increased heart rate variability (HRV) in tested adults. Furthermore, in the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test, both Meniki and Hinoki wood essential oils stimulated a pleasant mood status. Our results strongly suggest that Meniki and Hinoki essential oils could be suitable agents for the development of regulators of sympathetic nervous system dysfunctions.

  19. Dysregulation of the Autonomic Nervous System and Its Association With the Presence and Intensity of Chronic Widespread Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barakat, Ansam; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Geenen, Rinie; Macfarlane, Gary J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Dekker, Joost

    Objective. To test the hypotheses that dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is associated with the presence of chronic widespread pain (CWP), and that dysregulation of the ANS is associated with higher pain intensity in CWP. Methods. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1,574

  20. Role of the autonomic nervous system in activation of human brown adipose tissue: A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahler, L.; Molenaars, R. J.; Verberne, H. J.; Holleman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is able to convert calories into heat rather than storing them. Therefore, activated BAT could be a potential target in the battle against obesity and type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the role of the autonomic nervous system in the activation of human BAT. Although

  1. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction and serum levels of neurotoxic and neurotrophic cytokines in patients with cobalamin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Çeneli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available neurotrophiccytokines epidermal growth factor (EGF and interleukin-6 (IL-6 plays a role in the pathogenesisof cobalamin (Cbl deficiency-induced neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomicnervous system dysfunction and to look for any relationship between autonomic nervous systemdisturbances and serum cytokine levels (TNF-

  2. Time, touch, and compassion: effects on autonomic nervous system and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Hossam A; Tooze, Janet A; Rosenberger, Erica; Kemper, Kathi J

    2012-01-01

    Compassion is critical for complementary and conventional care, but little is known about its direct physiologic effects. This study tested the feasibility of delivering two lengths of time (10 and 20 minutes) and two strategies (tactile and nontactile) for a practitioner to nonverbally communicate compassion to subjects who were blind to the interventions. Healthy volunteers were informed that we were testing the effects of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. Each subject underwent five sequential study periods in one study session: (1) warm-up; (2) control-with the practitioner while both read neutral material; (3) rest; (4) intervention-with practitioner meditating on loving-kindness toward the subject; and (5) rest. Subjects were randomized to receive one of four interventions: (1) 10 minutes tactile; (2) 20 minutes tactile; (3) 10 minutes nontactile; or (4) 20 minutes nontactile. During all interventions, the practitioner meditated on loving-kindness toward the subject. For tactile interventions, the practitioner touched subjects on arms, legs, and hands; for nontactile interventions, the practitioner pretended to read. Subjects' autonomic activity, including heart rate, was measured continuously. Subjects completed visual analog scales for well-being, including relaxation and peacefulness, at warm-up; postcontrol; immediately postintervention; and after the postintervention rest and were asked about what they and the practitioner had done during each study period. The 20 subjects' mean age was 24.3 ± 4 years; 16 were women. The practitioner maintained a meditative state during all interventions as reflected in lower respiratory rate, and subjects remained blind to the practitioner's meditative activity. Overall, interventions significantly decreased heart rate (P < .01), and although other changes did not reach statistical significance, they were in the expected direction, with generally greater effects for the tactile than nontactile strategies

  3. Neurotechnology for monitoring and restoring sensory, motor, and autonomic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pae C.; Knaack, Gretchen; Weber, Douglas J.

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and exponential advances in micro- and nanotechnologies over the last decade have enabled devices that communicate directly with the nervous system to measure and influence neural activity. Many of the earliest implementations focused on restoration of sensory and motor function, but as knowledge of physiology advances and technology continues to improve in accuracy, precision, and safety, new modes of engaging with the autonomic system herald an era of health restoration that may augment or replace many conventional pharmacotherapies. DARPA's Biological Technologies Office is continuing to advance neurotechnology by investing in neural interface technologies that are effective, reliable, and safe for long-term use in humans. DARPA's Hand Proprioception and Touch Interfaces (HAPTIX) program is creating a fully implantable system that interfaces with peripheral nerves in amputees to enable natural control and sensation for prosthetic limbs. Beyond standard electrode implementations, the Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx) program is investing in innovative approaches to minimally or non-invasively interface with the peripheral nervous system using novel magnetic, optogenetic, and ultrasound-based technologies. These new mechanisms of interrogating and stimulating the peripheral nervous system are driving towards unparalleled spatiotemporal resolution, specificity and targeting, and noninvasiveness to enable chronic, human-use applications in closed-loop neuromodulation for the treatment of disease.

  4. Autonomic nervous system activity assessement by heart rate variability in experimental bladder outlet obstruction 

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    Łukasz Dobrek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A syndrome with urgency, with or without associated urine incontinence and usually accompanied by higher urinary frequency and nocturia has been named “overactive bladder; OAB”. OAB is an entity with complex pathophysiology, involving both myogenic and neurogenic (afferent / efferent bladder innervation disturbances. OAB symptoms accompany benign prostatic hypertrophy - BPH (“obstructive OAB”. The aim of the study was to estimate the autonomic nervous system activity (ANS in the experimental bladder outlet obstruction (BOO which was an animal model of the human BPH. The study was conducted using 30 female rats, divided into two groups: BOO animals (n=15, with surgically induced BOO (by partial ligation of the proximal urethra and control ones (n=15, which underwent sham procedure (without urethral ligation. Two weeks after the surgery, in both groups, ANS activity was estimated using time- and spectral analysis of the heart rate variability recordings. The bladder overactivity in BOO animals was confirmed using urodynamic recordings and bladder histological assessment, juxtaposed against the results of the control group. The key finding of our study was the development of autonomic disturbances in bladder outlet obstruction (BOO rats. Our study revealed that BOO animals were characterised by diminished rMSSD and spectral HRV parameters: TP, LF and HF, in comparison with the control group. The normalised nLF and nHF parameters did not differ significantly in both groups, although slight changes in the nLF (increased and nHF (decreased were noted in BOO group. The absolute VLF value was almost the same in both studied populations, however, the percentage part of this component in the appropriate HRV spectrum differed considerably in both studied groups. In BOO animals, VLF percentage amounted to about 90�20whereas in control animals this parameter reached only about 53�0of the total power spectrum.Thus, to sum up, our findings suggest

  5. Radioiodine therapy of functional autonomy using the functional autonomous volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, T.; Emrich, D.; Sandrock, D.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the effective radiation dose to be delivered by 131 I in functional autonomy we have used the functional autonomous volume calculated from the global 99m Tc thyroid uptake under exogenous or endogenous suppression before and 3 to 7 months after treatment. The radiation dose to the autonomous volume was calculated retrospectively in 131 patients with unifocal, multifocal and disseminated autonomy (75 hyperthyroid, 56 euthyroid) who received 131 I treatment of 200-300 Gy to the total volume of the gland. It could be shown that at least 350 Gy to the autonomous volume are required to reach the desired effect of treatment which was dependent only on the radiation dose delivered to the functional autonomous volume. (orig.) [de

  6. Effect of autogenic training on cardiac autonomic nervous activity in high-risk fire service workers for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Satoko; Fujita, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Satoko; Shirakawa, Taro

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effect of autogenic training (AT) on cardiac autonomic nervous activity in fire services workers with the use of the questionnaire of the Japanese-language version of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-J) and indexes of heart rate variability. We studied 22 male fire services workers who were divided into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related stress group (n=10) and control group (n=12). They underwent AT twice or three times a week for 2 months. Posttraumatic stress disorder-related stress group showed a significantly higher cardiac sympathetic nervous activity and a significantly lower cardiac parasympathetic nervous activity than control group at baseline. Autogenic training significantly decreased cardiac sympathetic nervous activity and significantly increased cardiac parasympathetic nervous activity in both groups. These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in the total points of IES-R-J. Autogenic training is effective for ameliorating the disturbance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and psychological issues secondary to PTSD.

  7. DISORDERS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE: FOCUS ON THE ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Akhmedova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV in patients with ischemic heart disease, a life-threatening heart rhythm disorders, as well as diabetes mellitus (DM is considered. A significant association between the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and death from cardiovascular causes is identified. The reactions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS can serve as a precipitating factor of arrhythmias in patients with heart disorders. Analysis of HRV at rest is the main and informative method for determination of the ANS disorders. HRV decreases greatly in patients with acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and DM, predicting a high risk of death. The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is cardiac autonomic neuropathy, with the development of "silent" ischemia and painless myocardial infarction. Autonomic regulation of the heart rate should be assessed for early diagnosis and prevention of complications in the form of sudden death.

  8. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS ACTIVITY AND LIPID OXIDATION POSTEXERCISE WITH CAPSAICIN IN THE HUMANS

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    Ki Ok Shin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the synergistic effects of acute exercise with capsaicin (200mg upon the restoration of cardiac autonomic functions and depolarization- repolarization interval as well as substrate oxidation. Nine healthy males [21.9(0.8 yrs] volunteered for this study. Cardiac autonomic activity, metabolic responses, and the ECG QT intervals were continuously measured during 5 min at rest and postexercise recovery after 30 min exercise at 50% VO2max on a stationary ergometer with placebo (ECON or capsaicin intake (ECAP, and no exercise control (NCON were randomized. Results indicated that the HF power reflecting parasympathetic activity significantly returned to the baseline much faster during ECAP than ECON trial during postexercise [122.1 (23.2 vs. 60.2 (11.7 %, p < 0.05]. The ECAP trial significantly decreased RQ [0.79(0.02 vs. 0.85 (0.03, p < 0.05] with significantly greater fat oxidation [69.3 (6.0 vs. 49.4 (10.8 %, p < 0.05] in comparison to NCON trial during 120 min postexercise recovery without any adverse effects on cardiac electrical stability as determined by trigger-averaged ECG QT interval analyses. We suggest that capsaicin before the exercise may contribute to the improvement of cardio-protective functions and metabolic responses as one of the beneficial supplements accelerating faster restoration of autonomic activity and enhanced lipolysis during postexercise recovery without any adverse effects on cardiac electrical stability

  9. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children: The ABCD Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja G M Vrijkotte

    Full Text Available In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system activation and metabolic profile and its components in children at age of 5-6 years.Cross-sectional data from an apparently healthy population (within the ABCD study were collected at age 5-6 years in 1540 children. Heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; parasympathetic activity and pre-ejection period (PEP; sympathetic activity were assessed during rest. Metabolic components were waist-height ratio (WHtR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting triglycerides, glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Individual components, as well as a cumulative metabolic score, were analyzed.In analysis adjusted for child's physical activity, sleep, anxiety score and other potential confounders, increased HR and decreased RSA were associated with higher WHtR (P< 0.01, higher SBP (p<0.001 and a higher cumulative metabolic score (HR: p < 0.001; RSA: p < 0.01. Lower PEP was only associated with higher SBP (p <0.05. Of all children, 5.6% had 3 or more (out of 5 adverse metabolic components; only higher HR was associated with this risk (per 10 bpm increase: OR = 1.56; p < 0.001.This study shows that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with central adiposity and higher SBP, indicative of increased metabolic risk, already at age 5-6 years.

  10. Social Adversity and Antisocial Behavior: Mediating Effects of Autonomic Nervous System Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Shawn E; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yu

    2017-11-01

    The display of antisocial behaviors in children and adolescents has been of interest to criminologists and developmental psychologists for years. Exposure to social adversity is a well-documented predictor of antisocial behavior. Additionally, measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and heart rate, have been associated with antisocial behaviors including rule-breaking and aggression. Social neuroscience research has begun to investigate how neurobiological underpinnings affect the relationship between social adversity and antisocial/psychopathic behavior in children and adolescents. This study investigated the potential mediating effects of ANS activity on the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in a group of 7- to 10-year-old children from the community (N = 339; 48.2% male). Moderated multiple mediation analyses revealed that low resting heart rate, but not PEP or HRV, mediated the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in males only. Social adversity but not ANS measures were associated with antisocial behavior in females. Findings have implications for understanding the neural influences that underlie antisocial behavior, illustrate the importance of the social environment regarding the expression of these behaviors, and highlight essential gender differences.

  11. Vagal Reactions during Cryoballoon-Based Pulmonary Vein Isolation: A Clue for Autonomic Nervous System Modulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Peyrol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF is known to be initiated by rapid firing of pulmonary veins (PV and non-PV triggers, the crucial role of cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS in the initiation and maintenance of AF has long been appreciated in both experimental and clinical studies. The cardiac intrinsic ANS is composed of ganglionated plexi (GPs, located close to the left atrium-pulmonary vein junctions and a vast network of interconnecting neurons. Ablation strategies aiming for complete PV isolation (PVI remain the cornerstone of AF ablation procedures. However, several observational studies and few randomized studies have suggested that GP ablation, as an adjunctive strategy, might achieve better clinical outcomes in patients undergoing radiofrequency-based PVI for both paroxysmal and nonparoxysmal AF. In these patients, vagal reactions (VR such as vagally mediated bradycardia or asystole are thought to reflect intrinsic cardiac ANS modulation and/or denervation. Vagal reactions occurring during cryoballoon- (CB- based PVI have been previously reported; however, little is known on resulting ANS modulation and/or prevalence and significance of vagal reactions during PVI with the CB technique. We conducted a review of prevalence, putative mechanisms, and significance of VR during CB-based PVI.

  12. Sensory-specific satiety: Added insights from autonomic nervous system responses and facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Boesveldt, Sanne; Delplanque, Sylvain; de Graaf, Cees; de Wijk, René A

    2017-03-01

    As a food is consumed, its perceived pleasantness declines compared to that of other foods. Although this phenomenon, referred to as sensory-specific satiety, is well-established by means of measuring food intake and pleasantness ratings, this study was aimed at gaining more insight into the mechanisms that underlie such cognitive output behavior using two measures used in (food) emotion research, namely Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) responses and facial expressions. Twenty-four healthy female participants visited four times in a hungry state, in which they received 4 different semi-liquid meals (2 sweet and 2 savory) delivered via a time-controlled pump leading to sensory-specific satiety. Before and after the meals they were presented with a sip of all four different test meals where ANS responses (heart rate, skin conductance and skin temperature) and facial expressions were recorded. As expected, pleasantness ratings showed a significant decrease after eating the same meal or a meal similar in taste (sweet or savory) (psensory-specific satiety. In conclusion, ANS responses and facial expressions indicate that sensory specific satiety of foods 1) not only reduces the food's pleasantness but also arousal and 2) are possibly mediated by changes in food emotions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood pressure morning surge, exercise blood pressure response and autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanindi, Asli; Ugurlu, Murat; Tore, Hasan Fehmi

    2015-08-01

    We investigated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise with respect to BP morning surge (MS), and the association between MS, exercise treadmill test (ETT) and heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Eighty-four healthy subjects without hypertension were enrolled. Ambulatory BP monitoring and 24-hour Holter recordings were obtained for sleep-trough MS and HRV indices: low-frequency (LF) component, high-frequency (HF) component and LF/HF ratio. ETT was performed, and BPs were obtained at rest, end of each stage, and recovery. Third-minute heart rate recovery (HRR) and BP recovery ratio (BPRR) were calculated. When analysed in quartiles of MS, systolic BP at low workloads was higher in the highest than in the lowest quartile, although maximum BPs at maximum exercise were not significantly different. BPRR was highest in the highest quartile in contrast to HRR, which was lowest in the highest quartile. LF/HF was highest during both at daytime and night-time in the highest quartile. BPRR and LF/HF were positively, and HRR was inversely associated with MS. Subjects with a high MS have higher BP at low workloads, at which most daily activities are performed, and impairment in some indices, which indirectly reflect the autonomic nervous system.

  14. Psychological risk factors for HIV pathogenesis: mediation by the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steve W; Kemeny, Margaret E; Fahey, John L; Zack, Jerome A; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2003-12-15

    Epidemiologic studies have identified psychological risk factors for specific physical diseases, but the biological mechanisms mediating these relationships remain poorly defined. Social inhibition and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were assessed on multiple occasions in 54 gay men with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Following baseline ANS assessment, plasma HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ T cell levels were monitored for 12-18 months to assess relationships between ANS activity and HIV pathogenesis. We confirmed the previously reported relationship between socially inhibited temperament and vulnerability to viral pathology. Plasma viral load set-point was elevated eight-fold in socially inhibited individuals, and these individuals showed poorer virologic and immunologic response to initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Effects were independent of duration of infection, HAART regimen, demographic characteristics, and health-relevant behavior. Neurophysiologic assessments documented elevated ANS activity in socially inhibited individuals, and mediational analyses showed that such differences could account for 64%-92% of the covariance between social inhibition and virologic parameters. These data provide the first clinical evidence that differential neural activity mediates relationships between psychological risk factors and infectious disease pathogenesis. Such findings also suggest novel targets for adjunctive therapy in long-term control of HIV-1 disease.

  15. Characterizing Psychological Dimensions in Non-Pathological Subjects through Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimma eNardelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective assessment of psychological traits of healthy subjects and psychiatric patients has been growing interest in clinical and bioengineering research fields during the last decade. Several experimental evidences strongly suggest that a link between Autonomic Nervous System (ANS dynamics and specific dimensions such as anxiety, social phobia, stress and emotional regulation might exist. Nevertheless, an extensive investigation on a wide range of psycho-cognitive scales and ANS non-invasive markers gathered from standard and nonlinear analysis still needs to be addressed. In this study, we analyzed the discerning and correlation capabilities of a comprehensive set of ANS features and psycho-cognitive scales in 29 non-pathological subjects monitored during resting conditions. In particular, the state of the art of standard and nonlinear analysis was performed on Heart Rate Variability, InterBreath Interval series, and Inter-Beat Respiration series, which were considered as monovariate and multivariate measurements. Experimental results show that each ANS feature is linked to specific psychological traits. Moreover, nonlinear analysis outperforms the psychological assessment with respect to standard analysis. Considering that the current clinical practice relies only on subjective scores from interviews and questionnaires, this study provides objective tools for the assessment of psychological dimensions.

  16. Discrete and effortful imagined movements do not specifically activate the autonomic nervous system.

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    Laurent Demougeot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The autonomic nervous system (ANS is activated in parallel with the motor system during cyclical and effortful imagined actions. However, it is not clear whether the ANS is activated during motor imagery of discrete movements and whether this activation is specific to the movement being imagined. Here, we explored these topics by studying the baroreflex control of the cardiovascular system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded in ten subjects who executed or imagined trunk or leg movements against gravity. Trunk and leg movements result in different physiological reactions (orthostatic hypotension phenomenon when they are executed. Interestingly, ANS activation significantly, but similarly, increased during imagined trunk and leg movements. Furthermore, we did not observe any physiological modulation during a control mental-arithmetic task or during motor imagery of effortless movements (horizontal wrist displacements. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that ANS activation during motor imagery is general and not specific and physiologically prepares the organism for the upcoming effortful action.

  17. Subclinical doses of the nerve gas sarin impair T cell responses through the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Roma; Singh, Shashi P; Razani-Boroujerdi, Seddigheh; Langley, Raymond J; Blackwell, Walter B; Henderson, Rogene F; Sopori, Mohan L

    2002-10-15

    The nerve gas sarin is a potent cholinergic agent, and exposure to high doses may cause neurotoxicity and death. Subclinical exposures to sarin have been postulated to contribute to the Gulf War syndrome; however, the biological effects of subclinical exposure are largely unknown. In this communication, evidence shows that subclinical doses (0.2 and 0.4 mg/m(3)) of sarin administered by inhalation to F344 rats for 1 h/day for 5 or 10 days inhibited the anti-sheep red blood cell antibody-forming cell response of spleen cells without affecting the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in the spleen. Moreover, sarin suppressed T cell responses, including the concanavalin A (Con A) and the anti-alphabeta-T cell receptor (TCR) antibody-induced T cell proliferation and the rise in the intracellular calcium following TCR ligation. These concentrations of sarin altered regional but not total brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Interestingly, serum corticosterone levels of the sarin-treated animals were dramatically lower than the control animals, indicating that sarin-induced immunosuppression did not result from the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Pretreatment of animals with the ganglionic blocker chlorisondamine abrogated the inhibitory effects of sarin on spleen cell proliferation in response to Con A and anti-TCR antibodies. These results suggest that the effects of sarin on T cell responsiveness are mediated via the autonomic nervous system and are independent of the HPA axis.

  18. Brain and nervous system (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nervous system controls the many complicated and interconnected functions of the body and mind. Motor, sensory cognitive and autonomic function are all coordinated and driven by the brain and nerves. As people age, nerve ...

  19. Central nervous system control of gastrointestinal motility and secretion and modulation of gastrointestinal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Travagli, R Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Although the gastrointestinal (GI) tract possesses intrinsic neural plexuses that allow a significant degree of autonomy over GI functions, the central nervous system (CNS) provides extrinsic neural inputs that regulate, modulate, and control these functions. While the intestines are capable of functioning in the absence of extrinsic inputs, the stomach and esophagus are much more dependent upon extrinsic neural inputs, particularly from parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. The sympathetic nervous system exerts a predominantly inhibitory effect upon GI muscle and provides a tonic inhibitory influence over mucosal secretion while, at the same time, regulates GI blood flow via neurally mediated vasoconstriction. The parasympathetic nervous system, in contrast, exerts both excitatory and inhibitory control over gastric and intestinal tone and motility. Although GI functions are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and occur, by and large, independently of conscious perception, it is clear that the higher CNS centers influence homeostatic control as well as cognitive and behavioral functions. This review will describe the basic neural circuitry of extrinsic inputs to the GI tract as well as the major CNS nuclei that innervate and modulate the activity of these pathways. The role of CNS-centered reflexes in the regulation of GI functions will be discussed as will modulation of these reflexes under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Finally, future directions within the field will be discussed in terms of important questions that remain to be resolved and advances in technology that may help provide these answers.

  20. Autonomic nervous system dynamics for mood and emotional-state recognition significant advances in data acquisition, signal processing and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This monograph reports on advances in the measurement and study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics as a source of reliable and effective markers for mood state recognition and assessment of emotional responses. Its primary impact will be in affective computing and the application of emotion-recognition systems. Applicative studies of biosignals such as: electrocardiograms; electrodermal responses; respiration activity; gaze points; and pupil-size variation are covered in detail, and experimental results explain how to characterize the elicited affective levels and mood states pragmatically and accurately using the information thus extracted from the ANS. Nonlinear signal processing techniques play a crucial role in understanding the ANS physiology underlying superficially noticeable changes and provide important quantifiers of cardiovascular control dynamics. These have prognostic value in both healthy subjects and patients with mood disorders. Moreover, Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics for Mood and ...

  1. Autonomic nervous system activity in diabetic and healthy obese female subjects and the effect of distinct weight loss strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Mirjam A; de Groot, Gerrit H; De Kam, Marieke; Berends, Frits J; Wiezer, Renee; Van Wagensveld, Bart A; Swank, Dingeman J; Luijten, Arijan; Pijl, Hanno; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2013-10-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are reported to be associated with relative overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which is reversible by weight loss. However, direct effects of weight loss by calorie restriction vs Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on SNS overactivity were not studied in parallel. This study compared the effects of RYGB vs restrictive weight loss in obese patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and with T2DM on SNS function as measured by heart rate variability (HRV). Lean (n=12), obese NGT (n=27) and T2DM (n=27) subjects were included in this study. Weight reduction in NGT subjects was achieved by gastric banding (GB) or RYGB and in T2DM subjects by RYGB or high-protein very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). HRV analysis was performed and blood samples were taken at baseline, 3 weeks and 3 months after intervention. At baseline, T2DM subjects showed SNS overactivity and NGT subjects showed similar, but non-significant, findings when compared with lean controls. Weight loss after 3 weeks was comparable in all treatment groups, whereas after 3 months, weight loss was most in VLCD and RYGB subjects. RYGB and VLCD treatment reduced SNS activity within 3 weeks in T2DM patients. After 3 months, restoration to normal autonomic nervous system activity was evident for all groups, except for the NGT-GB group. We can conclude that SNS overactivity is more pronounced in obese T2DM subjects when compared with NGT subjects. Reduction of SNS overactivity coincides with weight loss with the time-course of reduction dependent on the type of intervention. Surgery or caloric restriction may transiently induce SNS overactivity but do not prevent a direct restoration of sympathovagal balance.

  2. The Phantom in our opera - or the hidden ways of the autonomic nervous system in cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tellingen, C

    2004-11-01

    The role of the autonomic nervous system in the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in a variety of cardiovascular clinico-pathological conditions is highlighted from a clinician's point of view with the focus on coronary mimicry, enhanced sympathetic tone and syndrome X. A unique case is presented where sinus node dysfunction in pandysautonomia seemed to be an early sign of hypothalamic glioblastoma. In addition, relevant literature on this topic is addressed to put distinct clinical patterns into a broader perspective.

  3. The Impact of Menstrual Cycle Phases on Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity: An Observational Study Considering Lifestyle (Diet, Physical Activity, and Sleep) among Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yuki; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tomata, Yasutake; Yokoyama, Yuri; Sunami, Ayaka; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari

    2017-01-01

    Studies examining the impact of menstrual cycle phases on the cardiac autonomic nervous system have produced inconsistent results. This study aimed to investigate this relationship, controlling for the confounding effects of diet, physical activity, and sleep, which can be affected by the menstrual cycle. Fifteen female college students with regular menses were enrolled. Data regarding 24-h heart rate variability (HRV), dietary intake, eating behavior, menstrual distress, and sleep and activity parameters were obtained during the follicular and luteal phases. Power spectral analysis of HRV was used to calculate low-frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz, LF), high-frequency (>0.15 Hz, HF), and total spectral power (TP). Cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity indicators were evaluated as LF/HF and HF/TP, respectively. Intake of protein and fat, as well as total sleep time and number of awakenings, were higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase (pemotional eating scores, and behavioral change scores in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire were observed in the luteal phase (p<0.10). Although LF/HF was higher in the luteal phase (p=0.036), the relationship was weakened after controlling for diet, physical activity, and sleep (p=0.113). Our findings suggest that altering sympathetic nervous system activity during the menstrual cycle was not independent from major lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, and sleep). Menstrual cycle phase and changes of these parameters should be considered when assessing the cardiac autonomic function among menstruating woman.

  4. Acute application of bilevel positive airway pressure influences the cardiac autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoni, Camila Bianca Falasco; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Di Thommazo, Luciana; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure has been used to treat several diseases. However, the physiological response of the cardiac autonomic system during bilevel positive airway pressure (Bilevel) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV) during Bilevel in young healthy subjects. Twenty men underwent 10-minute R-R interval recordings during sham ventilation (SV), Bilevel of 8-15 cmH(2)O and Bilevel of 13-20 cmH(2)O. The HRV was analyzed by means of the parallel R-R interval (mean R-Ri), the standard deviation of all R-Ri (SDNN), the root mean square of the squares of the differences between successive R-Ri (rMSSD), the number of successive R-Ri pairs that differ by more than 50 milliseconds (NN50), the percentage of successive R-Ri that differ by more than 50 milliseconds (pNN50), the low frequency (LF), the high frequency (HF) and SD1 and SD2. Additionally, physiological variables, including blood pressure, breathing frequency and end tidal CO(2), were collected. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Pearson correlation were used to assess the differences between the three studied conditions and the relationships between the delta of Bilevel at 13-20 cmH(2)O and sham ventilation of the HRV indexes and the physiological variables, respectively. The R-Ri mean, rMSSD, NN50, pNN50 and SD1 were reduced during Bilevel of 13-20 cmH(2)O as compared to SV. An R-Ri mean reduction was also observed in Bilevel of 13-20 cmH(2)O compared to 8-15 cmH(2)O. Both the R-Ri mean and HF were reduced during Bilevel of 8-15 cmH(2)O as compared to SV, while the LF increased during application of Bilevel of 8-15 cmH(2)O as compared to SV. The delta (between Bilevel at 13-20 cmH(2)O and sham ventilation) of ETCO(2) correlated positively with LF, HF, the LF/HF ratio, SDNN, rMSSD and SD1. Acute application of Bilevel was able to alter the cardiac autonomic nervous system, resulting in a reduction in parasympathetic activity and an increase in sympathetic activity

  5. Influences of lifestyle factors on cardiac autonomic nervous system activity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mandy Xian; Lamers, Femke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity, alcohol use and smoking might affect cardiovascular disease through modifying autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. We investigated: 1) whether there are consistent relationships between lifestyle factors and cardiac ANS activity over time, and 2) whether 2-year changes in lifestyle factors relate to 2-year changes in cardiac activity. Baseline (n=2618) and 2-year follow-up (n=2010) data of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety was combined. Baseline data was collected in the Netherlands from 2004-2007. Lifestyle factors were habitual physical activity, frequency of sport activities, alcohol use, and smoking. Indicators of cardiac activity were heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP) (100min of registration). The results showed that high physical activity (-1.8beats/min compared to low activity), high frequency of sport activities ('couple of times/week': -2.5beats/min compared to 'almost never') and mild/moderate alcohol use (-1.2beats/min compared to non-drinking) were related to low HR. Heavy smoking was related to high HR (>30cigarettes/day: +5.1beats/min compared to non-smoking). High frequency of sport activities was associated with high RSA ('couple of times/week':+1.7ms compared to 'almost never') and moderate smoking with longer PEP (11-20cigarettes/day: +2.8ms compared to non-smoking). Associations were consistent across waves. Furthermore, 2-year change in frequency of sport activities and number of smoked cigarettes/day was accompanied by 2-year change in HR (β=-0.076 and β=0.101, respectively) and RSA (β=0.046 and β=-0.040, respectively). Our findings support consistent effects of lifestyle on HR and parasympathetic activity in the expected direction. Cardiac autonomic dysregulation may be partly mediating the relationship between lifestyle and subsequent cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of the Fourth Ventricle Compression in the Regulation of the Autonomic Nervous System: A Randomized Control Trial

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    Ana Paula Cardoso-de-Mello-e-Mello-Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is an important factor in the development of chronic pain. Fourth ventricle compression (CV-4 has been shown to influence autonomic activity. Nevertheless, the physiological mechanisms behind these effects remain unclear. Objectives. This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of fourth ventricle compression on the autonomic nervous system. Methods. Forty healthy adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group, on whom CV-4 was performed, or to a control group, who received a placebo intervention (nontherapeutic touch on the occipital bone. In both groups, plasmatic catecholamine levels, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Results. No effects related to the intervention were found. Although a reduction of norepinephrine, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate was found after the intervention, it was not exclusive to the intervention group. In fact, only the control group showed an increment of dopamine levels after intervention. Conclusion. Fourth ventricle compression seems not to have any effect in plasmatic catecholamine levels, blood pressure, or heart rate. Further studies are needed to clarify the CV-4 physiologic mechanisms and clinical efficacy in autonomic regulation and pain treatment.

  7. Autonomic nervous activity changes in relation to the reporting of subjective symptoms among male workers in an information service company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karita, Kanae; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Nishikitani, Mariko; Nomura, Kyoko; Yano, Eiji

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the study was to clarify the relationship between major subjective symptoms and autonomic nervous system function by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Short-term HRV was examined for 413 male workers in a Japanese information service company aged 19-45 years, and questionnaire survey on subjective symptoms and biochemical measurements were conducted at annual health checkup. The most prevalent subjective symptom (> or =10%) was dullness, followed by fatigue, backache, diarrhea, sleep disorder, and irritation. HRV in high frequency (HF 0.15-0.40 Hz) bands and the coefficient of variance in the electrocardiographic R-R interval (CVrr) were lower in the subjects with any of these six symptoms than in those without the symptoms. Both parameters were negatively associated with the reporting of any of the six symptoms by multiple regression analyses, controlling for the significant effects of age (HF and CVrr) and plasma cortisol levels (HF). It was suggested that the reporting of the subjective symptoms is one of good predictors for reduced parasympathetic tones.

  8. Prefrontal cortex modulates the correlations between brain-derived neurotrophic factor level, serotonin, and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei Hung; Lee, I Hui; Chi, Mei Hung; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Kao Chin; Chen, Po See; Chiu, Nan Tsing; Yao, Wei Jen; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2018-02-07

    Top-down regulation in the human brain and anatomical connections between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and specific catecholamine-related regions have been well-studied. However, the way in which the PFC modulates downstream neuro-networks in terms of serotonin and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) by variation in the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is still unclear. We recruited sixty-seven healthy subjects. Serotonin transporter (SERT) availability was examined by SPECT with [ 123 I]ADAM analysis; heart rate variability (HRV) testing was performed, and the BDNF level was measured. The Wisconsin card-sorting test (WCST), which assesses PFC activation, was also conducted. The interactions of BDNF level and SERT availability were significant in relation to the HRV indexes of low frequency, high frequency, total power, and mean heart rate range. Moderate to significant positive correlations between SERT availability and the above-mentioned HRV indexes existed only in subjects with a low BDNF level. Furthermore, in the low BDNF level group, only those with high WCST perseveration errors or low category completions exhibited significant positive correlations between SERT availability and HRV indexes. A lower BDNF level and poorer PFC function might modulate the synergistic effects of serotonergic and ANS systems in order to maintain brain physiological and psychological homeostasis.

  9. Autonomic nervous system under ketamine/ xylazine and pentobarbital anaesthesia in a Wistar rat model: a chronobiological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svorc, P; Bačová, I; Svorc, P; Bužga, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ketamine/ xylazine and pentobarbital anaesthesia on heart rate variability as a marker of autonomic nervous system activity. The experiments were performed in ketamine/ xylazine (10 mg/kg/15 mg/kg) and pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i.p.) anaesthetized female Wistar rats, after adaptation to a light-dark cycle of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark. Heart rate variability parameters (RR interval, power VLF (very low frequency), power LF (low frequency), power HF (high frequency) and relative powers) were evaluated during spontaneous breathing as a function of the light-dark cycle (LD cycle). Significant LD differences were found in the duration of RR intervals in ketamine/xylazine compared with pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats. Correlation analysis revealed moderate dependency between the RR interval duration and HF and LF power parameters in ketamine/xylazine anaesthesia in both light and dark parts of the cycle. In pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats, correlation analysis demonstrated a moderate dependence between RR interval duration and HF and VLF power parameters, but only in the dark part of the LD cycle. Ketamine/xylazine anaesthesia increased parasympathetic activity, and suppressed sympathetic and baroreceptor activity independently of the light-dark cycle. LD differences in RR interval duration were not eliminated. Pentobarbital anaesthesia increased parasympathetic activity, decreased sympathetic and baroreceptor activity, and eliminated LD differences in RR interval duration.

  10. Autonomic Nervous System under Ketamine/xylazine and Pentobarbital Anaesthesia in a Wistar Rat Model: A Chronobiological View

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    Pavol Švorc, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ketamine/xylazine and pentobarbital anaesthesia on heart rate variability as a marker of autonomic nervous system activity. The experiments were performed in ketamine/xylazine (10 mg/kg/15 mg/kg and pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i.p. anaesthetized female Wistar rats, after adaptation to a light-dark cycle of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark. Heart rate variability parameters (RR interval, power  VLF (very low frequency, power LF (low frequency, power HF (high frequency and relative powers were evaluated during spontaneous breathing as a function of the light-dark cycle (LD cycle. Significant LD differences were found in the duration of RR intervals in ketamine/xylazine compared with pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats. Correlation analysis revealed moderate dependency between the RR interval duration and HF and LF power parameters in ketamine/xylazine anaesthesia in both light and dark parts of the cycle. In pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats, correlation analysis demonstrated a moderate dependence between RR interval duration and HF and  VLF power parameters, but only in the dark part of the LD cycle. Ketamine/xylazine anaesthesia increased parasympathetic activity, and suppressed sympathetic and baroreceptor activity independently of the light-dark cycle. LD differences in RR interval duration were not eliminated. Pentobarbital anaesthesia increased parasympathetic activity, decreased sympathetic and baroreceptor activity, and eliminated LD differences in RR interval duration.

  11. Human skin hypoxia modulates cerebrovascular and autonomic functions.

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    Olivia Pucci

    Full Text Available Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen or skin normoxia (with air. The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor.

  12. Dose-response relationship of autonomic nervous system responses to individualized training impulse in marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Vincenzo; Castagna, Carlo; Padua, Elvira; Lombardo, Mauro; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Massaro, Michele; Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2009-06-01

    In athletes, exercise training induces autonomic nervous system (ANS) adaptations that could be used to monitor training status. However, the relationship between training and ANS in athletes has been investigated without regard for individual training loads. We tested the hypothesis that in long-distance athletes, changes in ANS parameters are dose-response related to individual volume/intensity training load and could predict athletic performance. A spectral analysis of heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure variability, and baroreflex sensitivity by the sequences technique was investigated in eight recreational athletes during a 6-mo training period culminating with a marathon. Individualized training load responses were monitored by a modified training impulse (TRIMP(i)) method, which was determined in each athlete using the individual HR and lactate profiling determined during a treadmill test. Monthly TRIMP(i) steadily increased during the training period. All the ANS parameters were significantly and very highly correlated to the dose of exercise with a second-order regression model (r(2) ranged from 0.90 to 0.99; P baroreflex sensitivity resembled a bell-shaped curve with a minimum at the highest TRIMP(i), whereas low-frequency oscillations of HR and systolic arterial pressure variability and the low frequency (LF)-to-high frequency ratio resembled an U-shaped curve with a maximum at the highest TRIMP(i). The LF component of HRV assessed at the last recording session was significantly and inversely correlated to the time needed to complete the nearing marathon. These results suggest that in recreational athletes, ANS adaptations to exercise training are dose related on an individual basis, showing a progressive shift toward a sympathetic predominance, and that LF oscillations in HRV at peak training load could predict athletic achievement in this athlete population.

  13. Anxiety during pregnancy and autonomic nervous system activity: A longitudinal observational and cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Taeko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Tanabe, Keiko

    2017-08-01

    To assess the longitudinal change in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during pregnancy and the association between anxiety during pregnancy and ANS activity. Pregnant Japanese women with a singleton fetus and normal pregnancy were recruited (n=65). ANS activity and anxiety were measured using a self-rating questionnaire at approximately 20, 30, and 36weeks of gestation. Very low (VLF) and high (HF) frequency bands of heart rate variability spectrums were used. Anxiety was assessed using the Japanese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A score of 45 or more on trait-anxiety and the other represent the trait-anxiety group and the non- trait-anxiety group, respectively. The state-anxiety group and the non-state-anxiety group were defined in the same manner. Longitudinal observation of individual pregnant women indicated the significant increasing trend (p=0.002) of VLF power and the significant decreasing trend (panxiety group, the trait-anxiety group had significantly lower VLF values at 20 gestational weeks (p=0.033) and had significantly lower HF values at 30 and 36 gestational weeks (p=0.015 and p=0.044, respectively). The increasing rate of VLF from 20 to 36 gestational weeks was higher among the trait-anxiety group. The same associations were observed between the state-anxiety and non-state-anxiety groups at 20 gestational weeks. Anxiety during pregnancy decreased heart rate variability. Anxiety in second trimester pregnancy promoted a subsequent increase in sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental management of peers and autonomic nervous system reactivity in predicting adolescent peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined sympathetic and parasympathetic indices of autonomic nervous system reactivity as moderators of the prospective association between parental management of peers via directing of youths' friendships and peer adjustment in a sample of typically developing adolescents. Participants included 246 adolescents at Time 1 (T1) [47% boys; 66% European American (EA), 34% African American (AA)] and 226 adolescents at Time 2 (T2; 45% boys; 67% EA, 33% AA). Adolescents were approximately 16 and 17 years old at T1 and T2, respectively. To address study aims, a multiinformant, multimethod longitudinal design was utilized. Skin conductance level (SCL) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured during a baseline period and challenge task (star-tracing). Reactivity was computed as a difference score between the task and baseline period. Results from path models revealed that higher levels of mother-reported parental directing predicted decreases in adolescent-reported peer rejection and friends' deviant behavior from T1 to T2 at relatively low levels of physiological arousal in response to challenge (i.e., low SCL reactivity, RSA augmentation). Further, exploratory analyses indicated that directing was associated with decreases in friends' deviant behavior and peer rejection particularly among boys who exhibited lower levels of physiological arousal, but increases in friends' deviant behavior among boys who exhibited higher levels of arousal reflected in RSA withdrawal only. Overall, findings are consistent with prior studies revealing the benefits of parental behavioral control for underaroused youth, contributing to the growing literature on the interplay of parenting and physiological factors in the adolescent peer domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Fibromyalgia beyond reductionism. Heart rhythm fractal analysis to assess autonomic nervous system resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, C; Martinez-Martinez, L-A; Ruiz, N; Vargas, A; Infante, O; Martinez-Lavin, M

    2016-01-01

    The prevailing linear reductionist medical model seems unable to explain complex multisymptomatic illnesses such as fibromyalgia (FM) and similar maladies. Paradigms derived from the complexity theory may provide a coherent framework for these elusive illnesses. Along these lines is the proposal that FM represents a degradation of our main complex adaptive system (the autonomic nervous system, ANS), in a failed effort to adjust to a hostile environment. Healthy complex systems have fractal structures. Heart rate fractal-like variability reflects resilient ANS performance. Our aim was to measure the heart rate variability (HRV) fractal scaling index in FM patients and to correlate this index with clinical symptoms. We studied 30 women with FM and 30 controls. All participants filled out questionnaires assessing the severity of FM. The HRV fractal scaling index was estimated during 24 h using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The fractal scaling index alpha-1 was higher in FM patients than in controls (mean ± sd: 1.22 ± 0.10 vs. 1.16 ± 0.09; p = 0.031). There was a positive correlation between the fractal scaling index alpha-1 and the visual analogue scale (VAS) for depression (Spearman's ρ = 0.36, p = 0.04). The heart rate fractal exponent alpha-1 is altered in FM patients, suggesting a rigid ANS performance. This tangible non-linear finding supports the notion that FM may represent a degradation of our main complex adaptive system, namely the ANS.

  16. Chinese-chi and Kundalini yoga Meditations Effects on the Autonomic Nervous System: Comparative Study

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    Anilesh Dey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disease is one of the major causes for death all over the world. Heart rate variability (HRV is a significant parameter that used in assessing Autonomous Nervous System (ANS activity. Generally, the 2D Poincare′ plot and 3D Poincaré plot of the HRV signals reflect the effect of different external stimuli on the ANS. Meditation is one of such external stimulus, which has different techniques with different types of effects on the ANS. Chinese Chi-meditation and Kundalini yoga are two different effective meditation techniques. The current work is interested with the analysis of the HRV signals under the effect of these two based on meditation techniques. The 2D and 3D Poincare′ plots are generally plotted by fitting respectively an ellipse/ellipsoid to the dense region of the constructed Poincare′ plot of HRV signals. However, the 2D and 3D Poincaré plots sometimes fail to describe the proper behaviour of the system. Thus in this study, a three-dimensional frequency-delay plot is proposed to properly distinguish these two famous meditation techniques by analyzing their effects on ANS. This proposed 3D frequency-delay plot is applied on HRV signals of eight persons practicing same Chi-meditation and four other persons practising same Kundalini yoga. To substantiate the result for larger sample of data, statistical Student t-test is applied, which shows a satisfactory result in this context. The experimental results established that the Chi-meditation has large impact on the HRVcompared to the Kundalini yoga.

  17. Autonomic nervous system activity and anxiety and depressive symptoms in mothers up to 2 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mie; Manabe, Emiko; Uematsu, Sayo; Watanabe, Ayako; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression for the first 2 years postpartum. A total of 108 participants within 2 years postpartum underwent physiological measurements of ANS activity using the heart rate variability (HRV) power spectrum and self-reported questionnaires (14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score). The cutoff points for anxiety and depressive symptom scores in this questionnaire were as follows: 7 or less, non-cases; 8-10, doubtful cases; 11 or more, definite cases. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 at University Hospital in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine and a nearby obstetrics and gynecology department clinic in Japan. Anxiety and depression non-cases accounted for 67.6% (n = 73) of subjects, anxiety non-cases and depression doubtful and definite cases 7.4% (n = 8), anxiety doubtful and definite cases and depression non-cases 8.3% (n = 9), and anxiety and depression doubtful and definite cases 16.7% (n = 18). Findings were similar for women with anxiety or depression, with total power (TP), low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV among doubtful and definite cases significantly lower than among non-cases for both anxiety (p = 0.006, 0.034, 0.029, respectively) and depression (p = 0.001, 0.004, 0.007). Significant correlations were observed between TP, LF and HF and anxiety and depression scores (respective values for anxiety: rs = -0.331, p <0.001; rs = -0.286, p = 0.003; rs = -0.269, p = 0.005; and depression: rs = -0.389, rs = -0.353, rs = -0.337, all p <0.001). The present study demonstrated that mothers with anxiety or depressive symptoms had significantly lower HRV (HF, LF and TP) than those without.

  18. Recurrence Plots: a New Tool for Quantification of Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Recovery after Transplant

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    Isabela Thomaz Takakura

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate a possible evolutionary post-heart transplant return of autonomic function using quantitative and qualitative information from recurrence plots. Methods: Using electrocardiography, 102 RR tachograms of 45 patients (64.4% male who underwent heart transplantation and that were available in the database were analyzed at different follow-up periods. The RR tachograms were collected from patients in the supine position for about 20 minutes. A time series with 1000 RR intervals was analyzed, a recurrence plot was created, and the following quantitative variables were evaluated: percentage of determinism, percentage of recurrence, average diagonal length, Shannon entropy, and sample entropy, as well as the visual qualitative aspect. Results: Quantitative and qualitative signs of heart rate variability recovery were observed after transplantation. Conclusion: There is evidence that autonomic innervation of the heart begins to happen gradually after transplantation. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of recurrence can be useful tools for monitoring cardiac transplant patients and detecting the gradual return of heart rate variability.

  19. Impaired autonomic function predicts dizziness at onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, MP; Hassink, RJ; Tuinenburg, AE; Lefrandt, JD; de Kam, PJ; Crijns, HJGM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is associated with various symptoms, including dizziness, which presumably reflects hemodynamic deterioration. Given the importance of the autonomic nervous system in mitigating the hemodynamic effect of atrial fibrillation, we hypothesized that autonomic

  20. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, W.W.; Angle, C.R.; Willcockson, N.K.; Padula, M.A. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Korn, T.

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a frog shop for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6--10 years before and 1.2--3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} in 29% and 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR{prime} interval) and the rates of change at low frequency and high frequency. MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used.

  1. Clinical Assessment of Cardiovascular and Autonomic Function

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    Diego Benitez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-invasive virtual medical instrument for the clinical assessment of cardiovascular and autonomic function. The virtual instrument was developed with the aim of analysing and understanding the physiological changes that occurs in the heart and circulation during vasovagal blackout attacks. The automated virtual instrument allows impedance cardiography analysis, time and frequency heart rate and blood pressure variability analysis, invasive and non-invasive baroreflex sensitivity assessment and forearm blood flow measurements. Using this virtual instrument five control subjects (3 male, mean age 30.6 ± 5.4 and five vasovagal syncope suffers (2 male, mean age 38.6 ± 6.3 were used in a study to try to identify the differences between the two groups to tilt induced syncope. The results obtained suggest that there are fundamental differences in the physiological responses to orthostatic stress between vasovagal patients and controls, which are evident before the onset of major haemodynamic changes.

  2. Differential Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity in Depression and Anxiety During Stress Depending on Type of Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mandy X; Lamers, Femke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-06-01

    It remains unclear whether depressive and anxiety disorders are associated with hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and whether deviant reactivity occurs in all types of stressors. This study compared ANS reactivity in people with current or remitted depression/anxiety with reactivity in healthy controls during two stress conditions. From the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, data of 804 individuals with current depression/anxiety, 913 individuals with remitted depression/anxiety, and 466 healthy controls (mean age = 44.1 years; 66.4% female) were available. Two conditions were used to evoke stress: a) an n-back task, a cognitively challenging stressor, and 2) a psychiatric interview, evoking personal-emotional stress related to the occurrence of symptoms of depression/anxiety. Indicators of ANS activity were heart rate (HR), root mean square of differences between successive interbeat intervals (RMSSD), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period. As compared with controls, participants with psychopathology had significant hyporeactivity of HR (controls = 4.1 ± 4.2 beats/min; remitted = 3.5 ± 3.5 beats/min; current psychopathology = 3.1 ± 3.4 beats/min), RMSSD (controls = -6.2 ± 14.5 milliseconds; remitted = -5.4 ± 17.8 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -3.5 ± 15.4 milliseconds), and RSA (controls = -9.3 ± 17.0 milliseconds; remitted = -7.4 ± 16.5 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -6.9 ± 15.0 milliseconds) during the n-back task. In contrast, during the psychiatric interview, they showed significant hyperreactivity of HR (controls = 2.7 ± 3.4 beats/min; remitted = 3.5 ± 3.4 beats/min; current psychopathology = 4.0 ± 3.3 beats/min), RMSSD (controls = -3.4 ± 12.2 milliseconds; remitted = -4.1 ± 12.1 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -5.6 ± 11.8 milliseconds), and RSA (controls = -3.8 ± 8.1 milliseconds; remitted = -4.3 ± 7.9 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -5.0

  3. Consecutive ultra-short-term heart rate variability to track dynamic changes in autonomic nervous system during and after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Yao, Ruijie; Yin, Gezhen; Li, Jin

    2017-06-22

    Quantitative measurement of the dynamic changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) during and after exercise has great significance in clinical, sports training and other fields. A consecutive ultra-short-term (30 s, UST) heart rate variability (HRV) method was proposed to track the exercise-induced autonomic control of heart rate (HR). Twenty-three healthy young men participated in the study. The first four stages of the Modified Bruce Protocol (S0-S3) were performed. Six HRV indices, i.e. HF (power of high frequency ranged from 0.15 to 0.4 Hz), LF (power of low frequency ranged from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz), LF/HF, SD1 and SD2 of Poincaré plot, and SD2/SD1, over 30 s were calculated every 5 s over 3 min RR time series during, as well as after, exercise. The results showed that during exercise, SD1, SD2, HF and LF dropped down quickly and tended to stabilize. Particularly, SD1 and HF showed a slight upward trend in the lower three stages while the declining time of SD2 in S3 lasted longer than the other stages. SD2/SD1 increased rapidly first and then decreased slowly. The values of SD2/SD1 in S3 remained higher than those in the other stages. After exercise, SD1, SD2, HF and LF kept increasing first and then declined slowly or fluctuated with decaying amplitudes. SD2/SD1 increased initially, then decreased and fluctuated slightly. Compared with the indices in frequency domain, the Poincaré indices were more sensitive and accurate in UST measurement of ANS during exercise. The results demonstrated that the UST method could characterize the dynamic changing tendency of ANS during and after exercise and quantify the differences of changes in ANS induced by exercise with different intensities. In particular, the vagal branch functioned dominantly in controlling HR in S0 but the effect of the sympathetic branch on HR enhanced with the increase of exercise intensity. In addition, the transient changes of ANS related with the sudden onset of exercise could also be

  4. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  5. Effects of gender and game type on autonomic nervous system physiological parameters in long-hour online game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Online game playing may induce physiological effects. However, the physical mechanisms that cause these effects remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological effects of long-hour online gaming from an autonomic nervous system (ANS) perspective. Heart rate variability (HRV), a valid and noninvasive electrocardiographic method widely used to investigate ANS balance, was used to measure physiological effect parameters. This study used a five-time, repeated measures, mixed factorial design. Results found that playing violent games causes significantly higher sympathetic activity and diastolic blood pressure than playing nonviolent games. Long-hour online game playing resulted in the gradual dominance of the parasympathetic nervous system due to physical exhaustion. Gaming workload was found to modulate the gender effects, with males registering significantly higher sympathetic activity and females significantly higher parasympathetic activity in the higher gaming workload group.

  6. Autonomic Function Impairment and Brain Perfusion Deficit in Parkinson’s Disease

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    Wei-Che Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAutonomic disorders have been recognized as important Parkinson’s disease (PD components. Some vulnerable structures are related to the central autonomic network and have also been linked to autonomic function alterations. The aims of the study are to evaluate the severity of the autonomic dysfunction and the cortical hypoperfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL MRI. And then, possible relationships of significant between-group differences in perfusion pattern to clinical variables and autonomic functions were examined to determine the pharmaceutical effects of dopaminergic treatment on cerebral blood flow (CBF in patients with PD.MethodsBrain ASL MRI was carried out in 20 patients with PD (6 men and 14 women, mean age: 63.3 ± 6.4 years and 22 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers to assess whole-brain CBF and the effects of dopaminergic therapy on perfusion. All subjects underwent a standardized evaluation of cardiovagal and adrenergic function including a deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and 5-min head-up tilt test. Perfusion MRI data were acquired on a 3.0 T scanner with a pulsed continuous ASL technique. The CBF, autonomic parameters, and clinical data were analyzed after adjusting for age and sex.ResultsPatients exhibited a decline in autonomic function (rapid heart rate in response to deep breathing, low baroreflex sensitivity, high systolic and diastolic pressure, and altered tilting test response, widespread low CBF, and robust response to dopaminergic therapy. Lower perfusion in the middle frontal gyrus was associated with increased clinical disease severity (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale I score, P < 0.001. Lower perfusion in autonomic control areas, such as the frontal lobe and insula, were significantly associated with autonomic impairment (P < 0.001.ConclusionsOur study indicates that PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that changes the perfusion of central nervous system

  7. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  8. Gender differences in autonomic functional status in response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahera Shabnam S, Gopathy Sridevi, Prema Sembulingam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Men and women are similar in their cognitive appraisal of a stress. But their behavior is different when exposed to stress. As stress responses and cognitive abilities are closely associated with autonomic nervous system, an attempt had been made to evaluate the behavioral pattern of autonomic functional status in males and females under stressed conditions. Methodology: 30 normal young male and female students (15 each participated in this study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, heart rate (HR and heart rate variation (HRV were recorded before and after postural change, Valsalva maneuver and cold exposure. Results: SBP and DBP decreased and HR increased after standing from lying posture (p < 0.000 in both the genders. But the changes were less in males than in females (SBP and HR – non significant, DBP p < 0.008, 30:15 ratio was higher in males (p < 0.001 upon standing. After Valsalva maneuver, SBP decreased (p < 0.05 and DBP increased (p < 0.000 with a higher Valsalva ratio (p < 0.002 in females than in males. After exposure to cold, males showed more decrease in SBP and DBP and less increase in HR (non-significant than females. Discussion: Results reveal more sympathetic activity in males than in females when exposed to stress. This may be because of the altered baroreceptor mechanism, male-female type of fat distribution, difference in vascular bed resistance, influence of cortisol and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Conclusion: The fact that females have less tolerance to stress may help us in understanding the sex linked pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and developing a different approach in treating the similar cardiovascular disease in men and women.

  9. Insights into the clinical and functional significance of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Junqueira Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exclusive or associated lesions in various structures of the autonomic nervous system occur in the chronic forms of Chagas disease. In the indeterminate form, the lesions are absent or mild, whereas in the exclusive or combined heart and digestive disease forms, they are often more pronounced. Depending on their severity these lesions can result mainly in cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction but also in sympathetic dysfunction of variable degrees. Despite the key autonomic effect on cardiovascular functioning, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease remains unknown. METHODS: Review of data on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease and their potential consequences, and considerations supporting the possible relationship between this disturbance and general or cardiovascular clinical and functional adverse outcomes. RESULTS: We hypothesise that possible consequences that cardiac dysautonomia might variably occasion or predispose in Chagas disease include: transient or sustained arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, adverse overall and cardiovascular prognosis with enhanced morbidity and mortality, an inability of the cardiovascular system to adjust to functional demands and/or respond to internal or external stimuli by adjusting heart rate and other hemodynamic variables, and immunomodulatory and cognitive disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired cardiac autonomic modulation in Chagas disease might not be a mere epiphenomenon without significance. Indirect evidences point for a likely important role of this alteration as a primary predisposing or triggering cause or mediator favouring the development of subtle or evident secondary cardiovascular functional disturbances and clinical consequences, and influencing adverse outcomes.

  10. The suprachiasmatic nucleus-paraventricular nucleus interactions: a bridge to the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, R. M.; Hermes, M. H.; Kalsbeek, A.

    1998-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is one of the principal neurotransmitters of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By means of anatomical, physiological and electrophysiological techniques we have demonstrated that VP containing pathways from the SCN serve to affect neuroendocrine and 'autonomic' neurons in the

  11. [Impact of aggressive assigment performance on the autonomic nervous systems in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, V G; Stepanian, L S; Stepanian, A Iu; Agababian, A R

    2006-01-01

    Impact of aggressive assignment performance on cardiac rhythm was studied in adolescents, by taking into account permanent aggressiveness and autonomic tendency in the examinees. The adolescents with high baseline aggressiveness were found to have a lower Kerdo autonomic index while the latter was not observed in those with low baseline aggressiveness. Aggressive computer games have been ascertained to have no negative impact and to have a beneficial effect on the adolescents' psychoemotional sphere.

  12. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  13. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  14. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data

  15. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the in vivo memory to glucose of pancreatic beta cell in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guyen, J M; Magnan, C; Laury, M C; Thibault, C; Leveteau, J; Gilbert, M; Pénicaud, L; Ktorza, A

    1994-01-01

    The fact that the potentiating effect of prolonged hyperglycemia on the subsequent insulin secretion is observed in vivo but not in vitro suggests the involvement of extrapancreatic factors in the in vivo memory of pancreatic beta cells to glucose. We have investigated the possible role of the autonomic nervous system. Rats were made hyperglycemic by a 48-h infusion with glucose (HG rats). At the end of glucose infusion as well as 6 h postinfusion, both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities were profoundly altered: parasympathetic and sympathetic activities, assessed by the firing rate either of the thoracic vagus nerve or the superior cervical ganglion, were dramatically increased and decreased, respectively. Moreover, 6 h after the end of glucose infusion, insulin secretion in response to a glucose load was dramatically increased in HG rats compared to controls. To determine whether these changes could be responsible for the increased sensitivity of the beta cell to glucose, insulin release in response to glucose was measured in HG and control rats, either under subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or after administration of the alpha 2A-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline. Both treatments partially abolished the hyperresponsiveness of the beta cell to glucose in HG rats. Therefore chronic hyperglycemia brings about changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system, which in turn are responsible, at least in part, for the generation of enhanced beta cell responsiveness to glucose in vivo. PMID:7929821

  16. Basic and clinical pharmacology of autonomic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Autonomic drugs are used clinically to either imitate or inhibit the normal functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. A large number of additional drug classes also interact with these systems to produce a stunning number of possible side effects. This article reviews the basic function of the autonomic nervous system and the various drug classes that act within these neural synapses.

  17. The Effect of Head Massage on the Regulation of the Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System: A Pilot Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Mir Sohail; Pourrahmat, Mir-Masoud; Liu, Mailan; Guan, Ling; Collet, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a single 10-minute session of Chinese head massage on the activity of the cardiac autonomic nervous system via measurement of heart rate variability (HRV). In this pilot randomized crossover trial, each participant received both head massage and the control intervention in a randomized fashion. The study was conducted at Children's & Women's Health Centre of British Columbia between June and November 2014. Ten otherwise healthy adults (6 men and 4 women) were enrolled in this study. The intervention comprised 10 minutes of head massage therapy (HMT) in a seated position compared with a control intervention of sitting quietly on the same chair with eyes closed for an equal amount of time (no HMT). The primary outcome measures were the main parameters of HRV, including total power (TP), high frequency (HF), HF as a normalized unit, pre-ejection period, and heart rate (HR). A single short session (10 minutes) of head massage demonstrated an increase in TP continuing up to 20 minutes after massage and reaching statistical significance at 10 minutes after massage (relative change from baseline, 66% for HMT versus -6.6% for no HMT; p = 0.017). The effect on HF also peaked up to 10 minutes after massage (59.4% for HMT versus 4% for no HMT; p = 0.139). Receiving head massage also decreased HR by more than three-fold compared to the control intervention. This study shows the potential benefits of head massage by modulating the cardiac autonomic nervous system through an increase in the total variability and a shift toward higher parasympathetic nervous system activity. Randomized controlled trials with larger sample size and multiple sessions of massage are needed to substantiate these findings.

  18. A STUDY ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS IN CAREGIVERS OF STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouse Mubarak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke (cerebrovascular accident is an important cause of disability in countries like India and longterm care of these bedridden patients is usually undertaken by the family members. A caregiver is a person who takes responsibility for those who cannot completely care for themselves. Taking care of a chronically ill member in the family usually causes stress to the caregiver causing disturbances in the autonomic function. Thus, the present study is undertaken to find out the effect of longterm caregiving on cardiovascular autonomic functions in a caregiver. MATERIALS AND METHODS 57 caregivers of post-stroke bedridden patients, both male and female, were included in this longitudinal study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during Valsalva manoeuvre. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip. RESULTS The results of the present study showed statistically significant decrease in Valsalva ratio, decrease in the heart rate following deep breathing and statistically significant increase in systolic blood pressure in response to immediate standing suggestive of autonomic imbalance. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that longterm caregiving is accompanied by dysfunction of the cardiac autonomic nervous system, and these individuals are more prone to autonomic neuropathy.

  19. [A role of the autonomic nervous system in cerebro-cardiac disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basantsova, N Yu; Tibekina, L M; Shishkin, A N

    The authors consider anatomical/physiological characteristics and a role of different autonomic CNS regions, including insula cortex, amygdala complex, anterior cingulate cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus and epiphysis, involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity. The damage of these structures, e.g., due to the acute disturbance of cerebral blood circulation, led to arrhythmia, including fatal arrhythmia, in previously intact myocardium; systolic and diastolic dysfunction, ischemic changes considered in the frames of cerebro-cardial syndrome. On the cellular level, the disturbance of autonomic regulation resulted in catechol amine excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and free radical myocardium injury.

  20. Neuron-glia crosstalk in the autonomic nervous system and its possible role in the progression of metabolic syndrome: A new hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO eDEL RIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is characterized by the following physiological alterations: increase in abdominal fat, insulin resistance, high concentration of triglycerides, low levels of HDL, high blood pressure and a generalized inflammatory state. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of this syndrome is the presence of neurohumoral activation, which involve autonomic imbalance associated to hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system. Indeed, enhanced sympathetic drive has been linked to the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarct and obstructive sleep apnea. Glial cells, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system, control synaptic transmission and regulate neuronal function by releasing bioactive molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently, a new family of plasma membrane channels called hemichannels has been described to allow the release of gliotransmitters and modulate neuronal firing rate. Moreover, a growing amount of evidence indicates that uncontrolled hemichannel opening could impair glial cell functions, affecting synaptic transmission and neuronal survival. Given that glial cell functions are disturbed in various metabolic diseases, we hypothesize that progression of MS may relies on hemichannel-dependent impairment of glial-to-neuron communication by a mechanism related to dysfunction of inflammatory response and mitochondrial metabolism of glial cells. In this manuscript, we discuss how glial cells may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic drive observed in MS, and shed light about the possible role of hemichannels in this process.

  1. Neuron-Glia Crosstalk in the Autonomic Nervous System and Its Possible Role in the Progression of Metabolic Syndrome: A New Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Rodrigo; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Orellana, Juan A; Retamal, Mauricio A

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by the following physiological alterations: increase in abdominal fat, insulin resistance, high concentration of triglycerides, low levels of HDL, high blood pressure, and a generalized inflammatory state. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of this syndrome is the presence of neurohumoral activation, which involve autonomic imbalance associated to hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system. Indeed, enhanced sympathetic drive has been linked to the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarct, and obstructive sleep apnea. Glial cells, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system, control synaptic transmission, and regulate neuronal function by releasing bioactive molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently, a new family of plasma membrane channels called hemichannels has been described to allow the release of gliotransmitters and modulate neuronal firing rate. Moreover, a growing amount of evidence indicates that uncontrolled hemichannel opening could impair glial cell functions, affecting synaptic transmission and neuronal survival. Given that glial cell functions are disturbed in various metabolic diseases, we hypothesize that progression of MS may relies on hemichannel-dependent impairment of glial-to-neuron communication by a mechanism related to dysfunction of inflammatory response and mitochondrial metabolism of glial cells. In this manuscript, we discuss how glial cells may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic drive observed in MS, and shed light about the possible role of hemichannels in this process.

  2. Temporal stability and drivers of change in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Mandy Xian; Lamers, Femke; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J C

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined temporal stability of ambulatory measured cardiac autonomic activity for different time periods and investigated potential drivers of changes in this activity. METHODS: Data was drawn from baseline (n=2379), 2-year (n=2245), and 6-year (n=1876) follow-up from the

  3. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  4. Morphology of subcortical brain nuclei is associated with autonomic function in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffle, James K; Coen, Steven J; Giampietro, Vincent; Williams, Steven C R; Apkarian, A Vania; Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

    2018-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a brain body interface which serves to maintain homeostasis by influencing a plethora of physiological processes, including metabolism, cardiorespiratory regulation and nociception. Accumulating evidence suggests that ANS function is disturbed in numerous prevalent clinical disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. While the brain is a central hub for regulating autonomic function, the association between resting autonomic activity and subcortical morphology has not been comprehensively studied and thus was our aim. In 27 healthy subjects [14 male and 13 female; mean age 30 years (range 22-53 years)], we quantified resting ANS function using validated indices of cardiac sympathetic index (CSI) and parasympathetic cardiac vagal tone (CVT). High resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired, and differences in subcortical nuclei shape, that is, 'deformation', contingent on resting ANS activity were investigated. CSI positively correlated with outward deformation of the brainstem, right nucleus accumbens, right amygdala and bilateral pallidum (all thresholded to corrected P brain differences in various disorders may partly be attributable to perturbation in autonomic function. Further work is warranted to investigate these findings in clinical populations. Hum Brain Mapp 39:381-392, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Quality of life in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and its predictors : importance of the autonomic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.P; Hassink, R.J; Tuinenburg, A.E; van Sonderen, E.; Lefrandt, J.D; Kam, P.J; van Gelder, Isabelle; Smit, A.J; Sanderman, R.; Crijns, H.J G M

    Aims To determine the impact of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation on quality of life and to determine the predictors of quality of life, particularly the role of symptomatology and autonomic function. Methods and Results The study group comprised 73 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (mean

  6. Person perception and autonomic nervous system response: the costs and benefits of possessing a high social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, J; Norman, G J; Li, T; Berntson, G G

    2013-02-01

    This research was designed to investigate the relationship between sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to the perception of social targets varying in social status. Participants varying in subjective financial status were presented with faces assigned with either a low, average, or high financial status. Electrocardiographic and impedance cardiography signals were recorded and measures of sympathetic (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic (high frequency heart rate variability; HF HRV) cardiac control were derived. These measures associated with the presentation of each face condition were examined in relation to the subjective status of the perceivers. Participants with high subjective financial status showed reduced sympathetic activity when viewing low- and medium-status targets as compared to high-status targets, and lower parasympathetic response when viewing high- and medium-status targets relative to low-status targets. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Odors generated from the Maillard reaction affect autonomic nervous activity and decrease blood pressure through the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lanxi; Ohata, Motoko; Owashi, Chisato; Nagai, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Issei; Arihara, Keizo

    2018-02-01

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. This study identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 5-methyl-2-pyrazinemethanol (MPM) decreased SBP significantly. The earliest decrease in blood pressure was observed 5 min after exposure to DMHF. Application of zinc sulfate to the nasal cavity eliminated the effect. Furthermore, gastric vagal (parasympathetic) nerve activity was elevated and renal sympathetic nerve activity was lowered after exposure to DMHF. It is indicated that DMHF affects blood pressure through the olfactory system, and the mechanism for the effect of DMHF on blood pressure involves the autonomic nervous system. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Measurement of the effect of Isha Yoga on cardiac autonomic nervous system using short-term heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, Krishnan; Balakrishnan, Bhavani; Balasubramanian, Kabali; Visnegarawla, Fehmida

    2012-04-01

    Beneficial effects of Yoga have been postulated to be due to modulation of the autonomic nervous system. To assess the effect of Isha Yoga practices on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system through short-term heart rate variability (HRV). Short-term HRV of long-term regular healthy 14 (12 males and 2 females) Isha Yoga practitioners was compared with that of age- and gender-matched 14 (12 males and 2 females) non-Yoga practitioners. ECG Lead II and respiratory movements were recorded in both groups using Polyrite during supine rest for 5 min and controlled deep breathing for 1 minute. Frequency domain analysis [RR interval is the mean of distance between subsequent R wave peaks in ECG], low frequency (LF) power, high frequency (HF) power, LF normalized units (nu), HF nu, LF/HF ratio] and time domain analysis [Standard Deviation of normal to normal interval (SDNN), square of mean squared difference of successive normal to normal intervals (RMSSD), normal to normal intervals which are differing by 50 ms (NN50), and percentage of NN50 (pNN50)] of HRV variables were analyzed for supine rest. Time domain analysis was recorded for deep breathing. Results showed statistically significant differences between Isha Yoga practitioners and controls in both frequency and time domain analyses of HRV indices, with no difference in resting heart rate between the groups. Practitioners of Isha Yoga showed well-balanced beneficial activity of vagal efferents, an overall increased HRV, and sympathovagal balance, compared to non-Yoga practitioners during supine rest and deep breathing.

  9. Alterations of autonomic nervous activity and energy metabolism by capsaicin ingestion during aerobic exercise in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ki Ok; Moritani, Toshio

    2007-04-01

    We investigated whether capsaicin ingestion (150 mg) enhances substrate oxidation associated with thermogenic sympathetic activity as an energy metabolic modulator without causing prolongation of the cardiac OT interval during aerobic exercise in humans. Ten healthy males [24.4 (4.3) y] volunteered for this study. The cardiac autonomic nervous activities evaluated by means of heart rate variability of power spectral analysis, energy metabolism, and ECG QT interval were continuously measured during 5-min rest and 30-min exercise at 50% of maximal ventilatory threshold (50% VT(max)) on a stationary ergometer with placebo or capsaicin oral administration chosen at random. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in heart rate during rest or exercise between the two trials. Autonomic nervous activity increased in the capsaicin tablet trial during exercise, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Capsaicin, however, significantly induced a lower respiratory gas exchange ratio [0.92 (0.02) vs. 0.94 (0.02), means (SE), p means (SE), p < 0.05] during exercise. On the other hand, the data on the cardiac OT interval showed no significant difference, indicating that oral administration of capsaicin did not cause any adverse effect on cardiac depolarization-repolarization. In conclusion, it may be considered that capsaicin consumption 1 h before low intensity exercise (50% VT(max)) is a valuable supplement for the treatment of individuals with hyperlipidemia and/or obesity because it improves lipolysis without any adverse effects on the cardiac depolarization and repolarization process.

  10. Measurement of the effect of Isha Yoga on cardiac autonomic nervous system using short-term heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Muralikrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beneficial effects of Yoga have been postulated to be due to modulation of the autonomic nervous system. Objective: To assess the effect of Isha Yoga practices on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system through short-term heart rate variability (HRV. Design of the Study: Short-term HRV of long-term regular healthy 14 (12 males and 2 females Isha Yoga practitioners was compared with that of age- and gender-matched 14 (12 males and 2 females non-Yoga practitioners. Methods and Materials: ECG Lead II and respiratory movements were recorded in both groups using Polyrite during supine rest for 5 min and controlled deep breathing for 1 minute. Frequency domain analysis [RR interval is the mean of distance between subsequent R wave peaks in ECG], low frequency (LF power, high frequency (HF power, LF normalized units (nu, HF nu, LF/HF ratio] and time domain analysis [Standard Deviation of normal to normal interval (SDNN, square of mean squared difference of successive normal to normal intervals (RMSSD, normal to normal intervals which are differing by 50 ms (NN50, and percentage of NN50 (pNN50] of HRV variables were analyzed for supine rest. Time domain analysis was recorded for deep breathing. Results: Results showed statistically significant differences between Isha Yoga practitioners and controls in both frequency and time domain analyses of HRV indices, with no difference in resting heart rate between the groups. Conclusions: Practitioners of Isha Yoga showed well-balanced beneficial activity of vagal efferents, an overall increased HRV, and sympathovagal balance, compared to non-Yoga practitioners during supine rest and deep breathing.

  11. Left Recumbent Position Decreases Heart Rate without Alterations in Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Konosuke; Haga, Mayu; Endo, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Junko; Maruyama, Ryoko

    2017-04-01

    Some studies have reported that recumbent position may have advantages in patients with heart disease and in pregnancy. However, it remains controversial whether recumbent position affects autonomic nervous system activity and hemodynamics in healthy adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and hemodynamics in the supine, left recumbent and right recumbent positions in healthy young adults. A total of 80 participants aged 22.8 ± 3.1 years were enrolled in this observational study. Fifty-eight volunteers (29 men and 29 women) maintained the supine position followed by the left and right recumbent positions, while electrocardiographic data were recorded for spectral analysis of HRV to assess cardiac vagal nerve and sympathetic nerve activities. The heart rate (HR) was significantly lower in the left recumbent position than in the other positions. There were no statistically significant differences in HRV among the three positions. Considering the possibility that the echographic procedure affects autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, the other 22 participants (11 men and 11 women) underwent an echographic evaluation of hemodynamics in the heart and inferior vena cava (IVC) across the three positions. Although a low HR was also observed, there were no statistically significant differences in the IVC or the heart blood volume between the supine and the left recumbent positions. A postural change to the left recumbent position does not affect the cardiac blood circulation or ANS activity, though it does decrease HR in healthy young adults. This finding indicates that the lower HR in the left recumbent position is not attributable to the ANS activity.

  12. Monitoring fetal maturation-objectives, techniques and indices of autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Żebrowski, Jan; Cysarz, Dirk; Gonçalves, Hernâni; Pytlik, Adelina; Amorim-Costa, Célia; Bernardes, João; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Witte, Otto W; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Stroux, Lisa; Redman, Christopher; Georgieva, Antoniya; Payne, Stephen; Clifford, Gari; Signorini, Maria G; Magenes, Giovanni; Andreotti, Fernando; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Lakhno, Igor; Schneider, Uwe

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring the fetal behavior does not only have implications for acute care but also for identifying developmental disturbances that burden the entire later life. The concept, of 'fetal programming', also known as 'developmental origins of adult disease hypothesis', e.g. applies for cardiovascular, metabolic, hyperkinetic, cognitive disorders. Since the autonomic nervous system is involved in all of those systems, cardiac autonomic control may provide relevant functional diagnostic and prognostic information. The fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) are one of the few functional signals in the prenatal period that relate to autonomic control and, therefore, is predestinated for its evaluation. The development of sensitive markers of fetal maturation and its disturbances requires the consideration of physiological fundamentals, recording technology and HRP parameters of autonomic control. Based on the ESGCO2016 special session on monitoring the fetal maturation we herein report the most recent results on: (i) functional fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS), Recurrence Quantitative Analysis and Binary Symbolic Dynamics of complex HRP resolve specific maturation periods, (ii) magnetocardiography (MCG) based fABAS was validated for cardiotocography (CTG), (iii) 30 min recordings are sufficient for obtaining episodes of high variability, important for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) detection in handheld Doppler, (iv) novel parameters from PRSA to identify Intra IUGR fetuses, (v) evaluation of fetal electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings, (vi) correlation between maternal and fetal HRV is disturbed in pre-eclampsia. The reported novel developments significantly extend the possibilities for the established CTG methodology. Novel HRP indices improve the accuracy of assessment due to their more appropriate consideration of complex autonomic processes across the recording technologies (CTG, handheld Doppler, MCG, ECG). The ultimate objective is their dissemination

  13. Role of Training and Detraining on Inflammatory and Metabolic Profile in Infarcted Rats: Influences of Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (ET, 50–70% of VO2 max, 5 days/week and detraining (DT on inflammatory and metabolic profile after myocardial infarction (MI in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C, n=8, sedentary infarcted (SI, n=9, trained infarcted (TI,  n=10; 3 months of ET, and detrained infarcted (DI, n=11; 2 months of ET + 1 month of DT. After ET and DT protocols, ventricular function and inflammation, cardiovascular autonomic modulation (spectral analysis, and adipose tissue inflammation and lipolytic pathway were evaluated. ET after MI improved cardiac and vascular autonomic modulation, and these benefits were correlated with reduced inflammatory cytokines on the heart and adipose tissue. These positive changes were sustained even after 1 month of detraining. No expressive changes were observed in oxidative stress and lipolytic pathway in experimental groups. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the autonomic improvement promoted by ET, and maintained even after the detraining period, was associated with reduced inflammatory profile in the left ventricle and adipose tissue of rats subjected to MI. These data encourage enhancing cardiovascular autonomic function as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory process triggered by MI.

  14. Role of Training and Detraining on Inflammatory and Metabolic Profile in Infarcted Rats: Influences of Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Aline Alves; Santamarina, Aline Boveto; Oyama, Lila Missae; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Barboza, Catarina de Andrade; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Figueroa, Diego; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Lira, Fábio Santos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (ET, 50–70% of VO2 max, 5 days/week) and detraining (DT) on inflammatory and metabolic profile after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C, n = 8), sedentary infarcted (SI, n = 9), trained infarcted (TI, n = 10; 3 months of ET), and detrained infarcted (DI, n = 11; 2 months of ET + 1 month of DT). After ET and DT protocols, ventricular function and inflammation, cardiovascular autonomic modulation (spectral analysis), and adipose tissue inflammation and lipolytic pathway were evaluated. ET after MI improved cardiac and vascular autonomic modulation, and these benefits were correlated with reduced inflammatory cytokines on the heart and adipose tissue. These positive changes were sustained even after 1 month of detraining. No expressive changes were observed in oxidative stress and lipolytic pathway in experimental groups. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the autonomic improvement promoted by ET, and maintained even after the detraining period, was associated with reduced inflammatory profile in the left ventricle and adipose tissue of rats subjected to MI. These data encourage enhancing cardiovascular autonomic function as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory process triggered by MI. PMID:25045207

  15. Sleep Duration and Quality in Relation to Autonomic Nervous System Measures: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Diez Roux, Ana V; Redline, Susan; Seeman, Teresa; McKinley, Paula; Sloan, Richard; Shea, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Potential pathophysiological mechanisms include sleep-associated alterations in the autonomic nervous system. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of shorter sleep duration and poorer sleep quality with markers of autonomic tone: heart rate (HR), high-frequency HR variability (HF-HRV) and salivary amylase. Cross-sectional analysis of data from actigraphy-based measures of sleep duration and efficiency and responses to a challenge protocol obtained from 527 adult participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants who slept fewer than 6 h per night (compared to those who slept 7 h or more per night) had higher baseline HR (fully adjusted model 0.05 log beats/min, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01, 0.09) and greater HR orthostatic reactivity (fully adjusted model 0.02 log beats/min, 95% CI 0.002, 0.023). Participants who slept 6 to less than 7 h/night (compared to those who slept 7 h or more per night) had lower baseline HF-HRV (fully adjusted model -0.31 log msec 2 , 95% CI -0.60, -0.14). Participants with low sleep efficiency had lower baseline HF-HRV than those with higher sleep efficiency (fully adjusted model -0.59 log msec 2 , 95% CI -1.03, -0.15). Participants with low sleep efficiency had higher baseline levels of amylase than those with higher sleep efficiency (fully adjusted model 0.45 log U/mL, 95% CI 0.04, 0.86). Short sleep duration, low sleep efficiency, and insomnia combined with short sleep duration were associated with markers of autonomic tone that indicate lower levels of cardiac parasympathetic (vagal) tone and/or higher levels of sympathetic tone. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Role of the autonomic nervous system in activation of human brown adipose tissue: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahler, L; Molenaars, R J; Verberne, H J; Holleman, F

    2015-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is able to convert calories into heat rather than storing them. Therefore, activated BAT could be a potential target in the battle against obesity and type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the role of the autonomic nervous system in the activation of human BAT. Although the number of studies focusing on BAT in humans is limited, involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in BAT activation is evident. Metabolic BAT activity can be visualized with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, whereas sympathetic activation of BAT can be visualized with nuclear-medicine techniques using different radiopharmaceuticals. Also, interruption of the sympathetic nerves leading to BAT activation diminishes sympathetic stimulation, resulting in reduced metabolic BAT activity. Furthermore, both β- and α-adrenoceptors might be important in the stimulation process of BAT, as pretreatment with propranolol or α-adrenoceptor blockade also diminishes BAT activity. In contrast, high catecholamine levels are known to activate and recruit BAT. There are several interventional studies in which BAT was successfully inhibited, whereas only one interventional study aiming to activate BAT resulted in the intended outcome. Most studies have focused on the SNS for activating BAT, although the parasympathetic nervous system might also be a target of interest. To better define the possible role of BAT in strategies to combat the obesity epidemic, it seems likely that future studies focusing on both histology and imaging are essential for identifying the factors and receptors critical for activation of human BAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Axonal Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination: Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingseisen, Anna; Lyons, David A

    2018-02-01

    Approximately half of the human brain consists of myelinated axons. Central nervous system (CNS) myelin is made by oligodendrocytes and is essential for nervous system formation, health, and function. Once thought simply as a static insulator that facilitated rapid impulse conduction, myelin is now known to be made and remodeled in to adult life. Oligodendrocytes have a remarkable capacity to differentiate by default, but many aspects of their development can be influenced by axons. However, how axons and oligodendrocytes interact and cooperate to regulate myelination in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of how such interactions generate the complexity of myelination known to exist in vivo. We highlight intriguing results that indicate that the cross-sectional size of an axon alone may regulate myelination to a surprising degree. We also review new studies, which have highlighted diversity in the myelination of axons of different neuronal subtypes and circuits, and structure-function relationships, which suggest that myelinated axons can be exquisitely fine-tuned to mediate precise conduction needs. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of how neuronal activity regulates CNS myelination, and aim to provide an integrated overview of how axon-oligodendrocyte interactions sculpt neuronal circuit structure and function.

  18. Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pérez-Lloret

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melody that they would use to relax. The low-to-high-frequency ratio was significantly higher when subjects were exposed to "new age" music when compared with silence (3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3, respectively, P < 0.02, while no differences were found with "classical" or "romantic" melodies (2.1 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.3. These results were related to a reduction in the high frequency component with "new age" compared to silence (17.4 ± 1.9 vs. 23.1 ± 1.1, respectively P < 0.004. Significant differences across melodies were also found for nonlinear HRV indexes. Subjects′ preferences did not correlate with autonomic responses to melodies. The results suggest that "new age" music induced a shift in HRV from higher to lower frequencies, independently on the music preference of the listener.

  19. Impaired Neural Structure and Function Contributing to Autonomic Symptoms in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

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    Ronald M Harper

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS patients show major autonomic alterations in addition to their better-known breathing deficiencies. The processes underlying CCHS, mutations in the PHOX2B gene, target autonomic neuronal development, with frame shift extent contributing to symptom severity. Many autonomic characteristics, such as impaired pupillary constriction and poor temperature regulation, reflect parasympathetic alterations, and can include disturbed alimentary processes, with malabsorption and intestinal motility dyscontrol. The sympathetic nervous system changes can exert life-threatening outcomes, with dysregulation of sympathetic outflow leading to high blood pressure, time-altered and dampened heart rate and breathing responses to challenges, cardiac arrhythmia, profuse sweating, and poor fluid regulation. The central mechanisms contributing to failed autonomic processes are readily apparent from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, which reveal substantial cortical thinning, tissue injury, and disrupted functional responses in hypothalamic, hippocampal, posterior thalamic, and basal ganglia sites and their descending projections, as well as insular, cingulate, and medial frontal cortices, which influence subcortical autonomic structures. Midbrain structures are also compromised, including the raphe system and its projections to cerebellar and medullary sites, the locus coeruleus, and medullary reflex integrating sites, including the dorsal and ventrolateral medullary nuclei. The damage to rostral autonomic sites overlaps metabolic, affective and cognitive regulatory regions, leading to hormonal disruption, anxiety, depression, behavioral control, and sudden death concerns. The injuries suggest that interventions for mitigating hypoxic exposure and nutrient loss may provide cellular protection, in the same fashion as interventions in other conditions with similar malabsorption, fluid turnover

  20. Safety analysis of autonomous excavator functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, D.; Pace, C.; Morrey, R.; Sommerville, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an account of carrying out a hazard analysis to define the safety requirements for an autonomous robotic excavator. The work is also relevant to the growing generic class of heavy automated mobile machinery. An overview of the excavator design is provided and the concept of a safety manager is introduced. The safety manager is an autonomous module responsible for all aspects of system operational safety, and is central to the control system's architecture. Each stage of the hazard analysis is described, i.e. system model creation, hazard definition and hazard analysis. Analysis at an early stage of the design process, and on a system that interfaces directly to an unstructured environment, exposes certain issues relevant to the application of current hazard analysis methods. The approach taken in the analysis is described. Finally, it is explained how the results of the hazard analysis have influenced system design, in particular, safety manager specifications. Conclusions are then drawn about the applicability of hazard analysis of requirements in general, and suggestions are made as to how the approach can be taken further

  1. The Autonomic Nervous System Regulates the Heart Rate through cAMP-PKA Dependent and Independent Coupled-Clock Pacemaker Cell Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Joachim; Ganesan, Ambhighainath; Zhang, Jin; Yaniv, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs) generate spontaneous action potentials (APs) that control the cardiac rate. The brain modulates SANC automaticity, via the autonomic nervous system, by stimulating membrane receptors that activate (adrenergic) or inactivate (cholinergic) adenylyl cyclase (AC). However, these opposing afferents are not simply additive. We showed that activation of adrenergic signaling increases AC-cAMP/PKA signaling, which mediates the increase in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., positive chronotropic modulation). However, there is a limited understanding of the underlying internal pacemaker mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between cholinergic receptors and the decrease in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., negative chronotropic modulation). We hypothesize that changes in AC-cAMP/PKA activity are crucial for mediating either decrease or increase in the AP firing rate and that the change in rate is due to both internal and membrane mechanisms. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected with an adenovirus expressing the FRET sensor AKAR3, PKA activity and AP firing rate were tightly linked in response to either adrenergic receptor stimulation (by isoproterenol, ISO) or cholinergic stimulation (by carbachol, CCh). To identify the main molecular targets that mediate between PKA signaling and pacemaker function, we developed a mechanistic computational model. The model includes a description of autonomic-nervous receptors, post- translation signaling cascades, membrane molecules, and internal pacemaker mechanisms. Yielding results similar to those of the experiments, the model simulations faithfully reproduce the changes in AP firing rate in response to CCh or ISO or a combination of both (i.e., accentuated antagonism). Eliminating AC-cAMP-PKA signaling abolished the core effect of autonomic receptor stimulation on the AP firing rate. Specifically, disabling the phospholamban modulation of the SERCA activity resulted in a significantly reduced effect

  2. Evidence for cell autonomous AP1 function in regulation of Drosophila motor-neuron plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consoulas Christos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor AP1 mediates long-term plasticity in vertebrate and invertebrate central nervous systems. Recent studies of activity-induced synaptic change indicate that AP1 can function upstream of CREB to regulate both CREB-dependent enhancement of synaptic strength as well as CREB-independent increase in bouton number at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ. However, it is not clear from this study if AP1 functions autonomously in motor neurons to directly modulate plasticity. Results Here, we show that Fos and Jun, the two components of AP1, are abundantly expressed in motor neurons. We further combine immunohistochemical and electrophysiological analyses with use of a collection of enhancers that tightly restrict AP1 transgene expression within the nervous system to show that AP1 induction or inhibition in, but not outside of, motor neurons is necessary and sufficient for its modulation of NMJ size and strength. Conclusion By arguing against the possibility that AP1 effects at the NMJ occur via a polysynaptic mechanism, these observations support a model in which AP1 directly modulates NMJ plasticity processes through a cell autonomous pathway in the motor neuron. The approach described here may serve as a useful experimental paradigm for analyzing cell autonomy of genes found to influence structure and function of Drosophila motor neurons.

  3. Importance of early physical rehabilitation in improving functional state of vegetative nervous system of women with postmastectomy syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Odynets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the expediency of early application of physical rehabilitation to improve the functional state of vegetative nervous system of women with postmastectomy syndrome. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis of scientific and methodical literature, analysis of heart rate variability, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 135 women with postmastectomy syndrome who underwent radical mastectomy for Madden. Results: at the end of the research value of high-frequency component of the spectrum was significantly higher in women MG1 compared to MG on 257,72 ms² (p<0,01 and the stress index was lower on 107,01 c. u (p<0,001. Conclusions: the feasibility of early rehabilitation intervention to improve the functional state of the autonomic nervous system is not detected during the year classes on problem-oriented programs.

  4. Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Diez, Joaquín; Domé, María Natalia; Delvenne, Andrea Alvarez; Braidot, Nestor; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV) of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melody that they would use to relax. The low-to-high-frequency ratio was significantly higher when subjects were exposed to "new age" music when compared with silence (3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3, respectively, P classical" or "romantic" melodies (2.1 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.3). These results were related to a reduction in the high frequency component with "new age" compared to silence (17.4 ± 1.9 vs. 23.1 ± 1.1, respectively P music induced a shift in HRV from higher to lower frequencies, independently on the music preference of the listener.

  5. Effects of body position on autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function in young, healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Polus Barbara I; Reece John; Watanabe Nobuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Analysis of rhythmic patterns embedded within beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (heart rate variability) is a tool used to assess the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and may be predictive for prognosis of some medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been used to evaluate the impact of manipulative therapeutics and body position on autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system. However, few have compared cardiac autonomic activit...

  6. Effects of long-term exercise training on cardiac autonomic nervous activities and baroreflex sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Linda Massako; Moritani, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Reductions in tonic vagal controls of the heart and depressed baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) have been associated with a postural fall in blood pressure (BP) and the incidence of cardiac events among older people. We examined the hypothesis that BP regulation during orthostatic challenge as well as heart rate variability (HRV) at rest can be better maintained in long-term exercise-trained, healthy, older men (aged 60-70 years). Subjects were classified into two groups; long-term exercise-trained (LTET, n=14) and sedentary (SED, n=10) according to their history of physical activity. Prior to the dynamic BRS assessment, supine resting autonomic cardiac modulation was assessed by means of time domain HRV [standard deviation of ECG R-R interval (RRISD) and the coefficient of variation (CV)]. The BRS was assessed during 60 degrees head-up tilting by simultaneously measuring beat-by-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) and ECG R-R interval changes. The BRS gain was determined by the regression slope coefficient based on the extent of the SBP fall and the corresponding ECG R-R shortening during the orthostatic challenge. The results indicated that the LTET group manifested greater ECG R-R interval fluctuations with significantly higher resting RRISD and CV, compared with the SED group [59.5 (10.4) versus 27.7 (7.8) ms, ptraining as another possible cardioprotective factor that might decrease susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation as well as assist arterial BP at the onset of an orthostatic challenge in older men.

  7. ROLE OF YOGA ON CARDIC AUTONOMIC FUNCTION TESTS AND COGNITION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, Santhakumari Nagothu; Indla, Yogananda Reddy; Archana, R; Rajesh, P

    2015-01-01

    According to International Diabetic Federation, type 2 diabetic population is on the rise globally and cognitive decline is one of the complications seen in type 2 diabetes. The present study is aimed at exploring the role of regular practice of yoga on cognition in type 2 diabetes and also to study the relation between the cognition and functional status of autonomic nervous system by considering the Cardiac Autonomic (CAN) function tests. Ten type 2 diabetic subjects of both the sex, aged between 35-55 years, who practiced yoga for a period of six months at Yogi Vemana Yoga Research Institute were recruited as test group. Age and sex matched ten type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited as control group; both the group subjects are on oral hypoglycemic agents. Glycosylated hemoglobin concentration was estimated with Bio-Rad instrument, cognition was assessed with Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised battery and Cardiac autonomic function tests were also conducted. Unpaired student t test was performed and pyoga in combination with oral hypoglycemic agents has a positive effect on cognition in type 2 diabetes.

  8. Evaluation of cardiac autonomic function in overweight males: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cardiovascular autonomic function tests (CAFTs are non-invasive tests that can assess both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. Autonomic dysfunction may be considered as a risk factor for obesity and vice versa. For measurement of obesity, body mass index (BMI is a simple, valid and inexpensive method. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of obesity based on BMI criteria on autonomic nervous system based on CAFT in young adult males. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 43 young adult males in the age group of 18–25 years with an age-matched control (n = 43 group. After initial screening, anthropometric measurements were recorded. CAFTs were performed and recorded by the Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Analysis System (CANWin. Unpaired t- test was done to compare the parameters of study and control groups in Microsoft Excel® 2010. Results: Parasympathetic test parameters of study and control groups when expressed in mean ± standard deviation were not found statistically significant (P > 0.05. The fall in systolic blood pressure (BP in orthostatic test of study group (12.19 ± 4.8 mmHg was significantly (P = 0.0001 higher than that of control group (7.33 ± 5.16 mmHg. Increase in diastolic BP in isometric handgrip exercise test of study group (11.84 ± 5.39 mmHg was significantly less (P = 0.004 than that of control group (16.39 ± 8.71 mmHg. Conclusion: Overweight young males have altered sympathetic activity but parasympathetic activity did not show any significant difference when compared to normal weight males.

  9. Effect of Forest Walking on Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Middle-Aged Hypertensive Individuals: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorong Song

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing attention on the therapeutic effects of the forest environment. However, evidence-based research that clarifies the physiological effects of the forest environment on hypertensive individuals is lacking. This study provides scientific evidence suggesting that a brief forest walk affects autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals. Twenty participants (58.0 ± 10.6 years were instructed to walk predetermined courses in forest and urban environments (as control. Course length (17-min walk, walking speed, and energy expenditure were equal between the forest and urban environments to clarify the effects of each environment. Heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate were used to quantify physiological responses. The modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States were used to determine psychological responses. The natural logarithm of the high-frequency component of HRV was significantly higher and heart rate was significantly lower when participants walked in the forest than when they walked in the urban environment. The questionnaire results indicated that, compared with the urban environment, walking in the forest increased “comfortable”, “relaxed”, “natural” and “vigorous” feelings and decreased “tension-anxiety,” “depression,” “anxiety-hostility,” “fatigue” and “confusion”. A brief walk in the forest elicited physiological and psychological relaxation effects on middle-aged hypertensive individuals.

  10. Sex-specific effects of intranasal oxytocin on autonomic nervous system and emotional responses to couple conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzen, Beate; Nater, Urs M; Schaer, Marcel; La Marca, Roberto; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Unhappy couple relationships are associated with impaired individual health, an effect thought to be mediated through ongoing couple conflicts. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms regulating psychobiological stress, and particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, during negative couple interaction. In this study, we tested the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin on ANS reactivity during couple conflict in a standardized laboratory paradigm. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally prior to instructed couple conflict. Participants' behavior was videotaped and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic activity, and emotional arousal were repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly reduced sAA during couple conflict in women, whereas men showed increases in sAA levels (sex × group interaction: B = -49.36, t = -2.68, P = 0.009). In men, these increases were related to augmented emotional arousal (r = 0.286, P = 0.028) and more positive behavior (r = 0.291, P = 0.026), whereas there was no such association in women. Our results imply sex-specific effects of oxytocin on sympathetic activity, to negative couple interaction, with the neuropeptide reducing sAA responses and emotional arousal in women while increasing them in men.

  11. Assessment of Fetal Autonomic Nervous System Activity by Fetal Magnetocardiography: Comparison of Normal Pregnancy and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimune Fukushima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To clarify the developmental activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS of the normal fetus and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR cases using fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG. Subjects and Methods. Normal pregnancy (n=35 and IUGR (n=12 cases at 28–39 and 32–37 weeks of gestation, respectively, were included in this study. The R-R interval variability was used to calculate the coefficient of variance (CVRR and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF ratio. Results. The value of CVRR in the normal pregnancy group displayed a slight increasing trend with gestational age. However, no such trend was observed in the IUGR group. In contrast, the LF/HF ratio in both the normal pregnancy group and the IUGR group clearly increased over the gestational period; the normal group showing statistical significance. Conclusion. The development of fetal ANS activity in IUGR cases might differ from that observed in the normal pregnancy group, and this may facilitate early detection of IUGR.

  12. Baseline autonomic nervous system arousal and physical and relational aggression in preschool: the moderating role of effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Crick, Nicki R

    2011-09-01

    The current study investigates whether established associations between physical aggression and low autonomic nervous system arousal, as indexed by heart rate and blood pressure, also apply to the study of the development of relational aggression. Baseline heart rate and blood pressure were collected in two samples of preschoolers, and teachers reported on classroom physical and relational aggression. In Study 1, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure were related to increased engagement in relational aggression among older preschoolers. In Study 2, lower heart rate and blood pressure predicted increased engagement in classroom physical and relational aggression concurrently and across a preschool year in some cases. Low baseline arousal-aggression associations were strongest for children with poorer self-regulation abilities, whereas high self-regulation appeared to protect children with low heart rate and blood pressure from engagement in aggressive classroom behavior. These findings suggest the utility of examining baseline physiological measures in the study of relational aggression as well as physical aggression. Implications for interventions targeted to physical and relational aggression in early childhood are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex-specific effects of intranasal oxytocin on autonomic nervous system and emotional responses to couple conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M.; Schaer, Marcel; La Marca, Roberto; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Unhappy couple relationships are associated with impaired individual health, an effect thought to be mediated through ongoing couple conflicts. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms regulating psychobiological stress, and particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, during negative couple interaction. In this study, we tested the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin on ANS reactivity during couple conflict in a standardized laboratory paradigm. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally prior to instructed couple conflict. Participants’ behavior was videotaped and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic activity, and emotional arousal were repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly reduced sAA during couple conflict in women, whereas men showed increases in sAA levels (sex × group interaction: B = −49.36, t = −2.68, P = 0.009). In men, these increases were related to augmented emotional arousal (r = 0.286, P = 0.028) and more positive behavior (r = 0.291, P = 0.026), whereas there was no such association in women. Our results imply sex-specific effects of oxytocin on sympathetic activity, to negative couple interaction, with the neuropeptide reducing sAA responses and emotional arousal in women while increasing them in men. PMID:22842905

  14. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal activity and autonomic nervous system arousal predict developmental trajectories of children's comorbid behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Glenn, Andrea L; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-04-01

    The combined effects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal were examined on developmental trajectories of children's comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants were 394 urban dwelling, primarily African American, youth (50% male, age 11-12 years). Parent-reported child behavior problems were obtained initially, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Saliva samples (collected at the initial assessment) were assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Cross-domain latent class growth analysis identified a stable comorbid trajectory and four other distinct short-term developmental trajectories of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. ANS arousal was negatively associated with the probability of stable comorbidity, but only among youth who also had high levels of HPA axis activity. Findings underscore the predictive value of the interaction of HPA axis activity and ANS arousal in differentiating children with stable comorbidity and have important implications for etiological theories and treatment outcome research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The significance of amlodipine on autonomic nervous system adjustment (ANSA method: A new approach in the treatment of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardiovascular autonomic modulation is altered in patients with essential hypertension. Objective To evaluate acute and long-term effects of amlodipine on cardiovascular autonomic function and haemodynamic status in patients with mild essential hypertension. Methods. Ninety patients (43 male, mean age 52.12 ±10.7 years with mild hypertension were tested before, 30 minutes after the first 5 mg oral dose of amlodipine and three weeks after monotherapy with amlodipine. A comprehensive study protocol was done including finger blood pressure variability (BPV and heart rate variability (HRV beat-to-beat analysis with impedance cardiography, ECG with software short-term HRV and nonlinear analysis, 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring with QT and HRV analysis, 24-hour blood pressure (BP monitoring with systolic and diastolic BPV analysis, cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests, cold pressure test, mental stress test. The patients were also divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic groups, depending on predominance in short time spectral analysis of sympathovagal balance according to low frequency and high frequency values. Results. We confirmed a significant systolic and diastolic BP reduction, and a reduction of pulse pressure during day, night and early morning hours. The reduction of supraventricular and ventricular ectopic beats during the night was also achieved with therapy, but without statistical significance. The increment of sympathetic activity in early phase of amlodipine therapy was without statistical significance and persistence of sympathetic predominance after a few weeks of therapy detected based on the results of short-term spectral HRV analysis. All time domain parameters of long-term HRV analysis were decreased and low frequency amongst spectral parameters. Amlodipne reduced baroreflex sensitivity after three weeks of therapy, but increased it immediately after the administration of the first dose. Conclusion. The results

  16. Determination of the autonomously functioning volume of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Erlenmaier, U.; Pohl, M.; Luig, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the autonomously functioning volume in euthyroid and hyperthyroid goitres for prognostic and therapeutic pruposes. To this end, various groups of patients were selected: Individuals without evidence of thyroid disease, euthyroid patients with diffuse goitre of normal structure and function, euthyroid patients with evidence of autonomy and patients with hyperthyroidism due to autonomy. In all of them the thyroid uptake of Technetium-99m was determined under exogeneous suppression (TcU s ) in the euthyroid state and under endogenous suppression (TcU) in the hyperthyroid state. It was demonstrated that: 1. In patients with unifocal autonomy the TcU s and TcU correlated linearly with the autonomous volume delineated and measured by sonography. 2. A nearly identical result was obtained if the mean autonomous volume in individuals without thyroid disease of 2.2±1.1 ml calculated by TcU s /TcU x total thyroid volume was used as a basis. 3. The critical autonomous volume, i.e. the volume at which hyperthryroidism will occur, was found to be 16 ml at a cumulated sensitivity and specificity of >0.9. The method can be used to select patients for definitive treatment before hyperthryroidism occurs and to measure the autonomously functioning volume independent of its distribution within the thyroid for treatment with radioiodine. The method is easy to perform and is also an example of how a relative parameter of a function can be converted into an absolute parameter of a functioning volume. (orig.)

  17. Effect of Guizhi Decoction ([symbols; see text]) on heart rate variability and regulation of cardiac autonomic nervous imbalance in diabetes mellitus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Jiang, Yue-hua; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Jin-long; Ma, Du-fang; Yang, Chuan-hua

    2014-07-01

    To observe abnormalities in heart rate variability (HRV) in diabetic rats and to explore the effects of treatment with Guizhi Decoction ([symbols; see text]) on cardiac autonomic nervous (CAN) imbalance. A radio-telemetry system for monitoring physiological parameters was implanted into rats to record electrocardiac signals and all indictors of HRV [time domain measures: standard deviation of all RR intervals in 24 h (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), percentage of differences between adjacent RR intervals greater than 50 ms (PNN50), and standard deviation of the averages of RR intervals (SDANN); frequency domain measures: low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), total power (TP), and LF/HF ratio]. The normal group was randomly selected, and the remaining rats were used to establish streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model. After 4 weeks, the model rats were divided into the model group, the methycobal group, and the Guizhi Decoction group, 9 rats in each group. Four weeks after intragastric administration of the corresponding drugs, the right atria of the rats were collected for immunohistochemical staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) to observe the distribution of the sympathetic and vagus nerves in the right atrium. The myocardial homogenate from the interventricular septum and the left ventricle was used for determination of TH, CHAT, growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), nerve growth factor (NGF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (1) STZ rats had elevated blood glucose levels, reduced body weight, and decreased heart rate; there was no difference between the model group and the drug treated groups. (2) Compared with the model group, only RMSSD and TP increased in the methycobal group significantly (P0.05). TH increased, CHAT decreased, and TH/CHAT increased in the myocardial homogenate of the model group (Peffective in improving the

  18. Effects of body position on autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function in young, healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polus Barbara I

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of rhythmic patterns embedded within beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (heart rate variability is a tool used to assess the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and may be predictive for prognosis of some medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been used to evaluate the impact of manipulative therapeutics and body position on autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system. However, few have compared cardiac autonomic activity in supine and prone positions, postures commonly assumed by patients in manual therapy. We intend to redress this deficiency. Methods Heart rate, heart rate variability, and beat-to-beat blood pressure were measured in young, healthy non-smokers, during prone, supine, and sitting postures and with breathing paced at 0.25 Hz. Data were recorded for 5 minutes in each posture: Day 1 – prone and supine; Day 2 – prone and sitting. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to evaluate posture-related differences in blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability. Results Prone versus supine: blood pressure and heart rate were significantly higher in the prone posture (p p Conclusion Cardiac autonomic activity was not measurably different in prone and supine postures, but heart rate and blood pressure were. Although heart rate variability parameters indicated sympathetic dominance during sitting (supporting work of others, blood pressure was higher in the prone posture. These differences should be considered when autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function is studied in different postures.

  19. Directed Autonomic Flow : Functional Motility Fluidics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, Philipp T.; de Miranda, Barbara Santos; van Rijn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Unidirectional coherent motion of a self-moving droplet is achieved and combined in a functional motility fluidic chip for chemical reactions via a novel and straightforward approach. The droplet shows both increased movement speeds and displacement distances without any input of energy.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging study of lumbosacral spinal cord nerves before artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway establish ment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xianbo; Kong Xiangquan; Feng Gansheng; Han Ping; Liu Dingxi; Ma Hui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of MRI as imaging technique for lumbosacral spinal nerves before artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway establish ment. Methods: Conventional MRI and T 2 W CISS 3D were performed in 10 patients with neurogenic bladder planned for the operation of artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway. The Three-dimensional data were then constructed into composite images using a standard multiple planar reformation (MPR). Results: Five patients showed tethered spinal cord syndrome, whose spinal cord nerves were circuitous distributed and had abnormity number when penetrated the dura. Of these 5 patients, one patient was accompanied by spinal cord vas malformation. Four patients had vertebral fracture and spinal injury, and the other one patients demonstrated tumor in vertebral canal on MRI examinations. The spinal cord nerves in these 5 patients floated down river and had normal number of spinal cord nerves. Conclusion: Conventional MRI and T 2 W CISS 3D MRI were essential for the pre-operative planning of artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway, especially in patients with tethered spinal cord syndrome. Spinal cord nerves distribute and anterior and posterior roots array can be clearly showed by MPR. (authors)

  1. Diminished autonomic neurocardiac function in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyungwook Kim,1 Seul Lee,2 Jong-Hoon Kim1–3 1Gachon University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, 3Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder that is characterized by a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate variability (HRV, measuring autonomic regulation, and to evaluate the relationship between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety, in medication-free patients with GAD. Methods: Assessments of linear and nonlinear complexity measures of HRV were performed in 42 medication-free patients with GAD and 50 healthy control subjects. In addition, the severity of anxiety symptoms was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The values of the HRV measures of the groups were compared, and the correlations between the HRV measures and the severity of anxiety symptoms were assessed. Results: The GAD group showed significantly lower standard deviation of RR intervals and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal sinus intervals values compared to the control group (P<0.01. The approximate entropy value, which is a nonlinear complexity indicator, was also significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01. In correlation analysis, there were no significant correlations between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion: The present study indicates that GAD is significantly associated with reduced HRV, suggesting that autonomic neurocardiac integrity is substantially impaired in patients with GAD. Future prospective studies are required to investigate the effects of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment on

  2. Effects of Short Forest Bathing Program on Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Mood States in Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Pin; Lin, Chia-Min; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2017-08-09

    The present study investigated changes in autonomic nervous system activity and emotions after a short (2 h) forest bathing program in the Xitou Nature Education Area (XNEA), Taiwan. One hundred and twenty-eight (60.0 ± 7.44 years) middle-aged and elderly participants were recruited. Physiological responses, pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), and psychological indices were measured before and after the program. We observed that pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower after the program, which indicated physiological benefits from stress recovery. The Profile of Mood States negative mood subscale scores of "tension-anxiety", "anger-hostility", "fatigue-inertia", "depression-dejection", and "confusion-bewilderment" were significantly lower, whereas the positive mood subscale score of "vigor-activity" was higher. Furthermore, participants exhibited significantly lower anxiety levels according to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. However, changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity were nonsignificant. Our study determined that the short forest bathing program is a promising therapeutic method for enhancing heart rate and blood pressure functions as well as an effective psychological relaxation strategy for middle-aged and elderly individuals.

  3. Effects of Short Forest Bathing Program on Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Mood States in Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pin Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated changes in autonomic nervous system activity and emotions after a short (2 h forest bathing program in the Xitou Nature Education Area (XNEA, Taiwan. One hundred and twenty-eight (60.0 ± 7.44 years middle-aged and elderly participants were recruited. Physiological responses, pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV, and psychological indices were measured before and after the program. We observed that pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower after the program, which indicated physiological benefits from stress recovery. The Profile of Mood States negative mood subscale scores of “tension-anxiety”, “anger-hostility”, “fatigue-inertia”, “depression-dejection”, and “confusion-bewilderment” were significantly lower, whereas the positive mood subscale score of “vigor-activity” was higher. Furthermore, participants exhibited significantly lower anxiety levels according to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. However, changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity were nonsignificant. Our study determined that the short forest bathing program is a promising therapeutic method for enhancing heart rate and blood pressure functions as well as an effective psychological relaxation strategy for middle-aged and elderly individuals.

  4. Autonomic Nervous System and Stress to Predict Secondary Ischemic Events after Transient Ischemic Attack or Minor Stroke: Possible Implications of Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Collet, Jean-Paul; Mazowita, Garey; Claydon, Victoria E

    2018-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke have high risks of recurrence and deterioration into severe ischemic strokes. Risk stratification of TIA and minor stroke is essential for early effective treatment. Traditional tools have only moderate predictive value, likely due to their inclusion of the limited number of stroke risk factors. Our review follows Hans Selye's fundamental work on stress theory and the progressive shift of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) from adaptation to disease when stress becomes chronic. We will first show that traditional risk factors and acute triggers of ischemic stroke are chronic and acute stress factors or "stressors," respectively. Our first review shows solid evidence of the relationship between chronic stress and stroke occurrence. The stress response is tightly regulated by the ANS whose function can be assessed with heart rate variability (HRV). Our second review demonstrates that stress-related risk factors of ischemic stroke are correlated with ANS dysfunction and impaired HRV. Our conclusions support the idea that HRV parameters may represent the combined effects of all body stressors that are risk factors for ischemic stroke and, thus, may be of important predictive value for the risk of subsequent ischemic events after TIA or minor stroke.

  5. Effects of Short Forest Bathing Program on Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Mood States in Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Pin; Lin, Chia-Min; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated changes in autonomic nervous system activity and emotions after a short (2 h) forest bathing program in the Xitou Nature Education Area (XNEA), Taiwan. One hundred and twenty-eight (60.0 ± 7.44 years) middle-aged and elderly participants were recruited. Physiological responses, pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), and psychological indices were measured before and after the program. We observed that pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower after the program, which indicated physiological benefits from stress recovery. The Profile of Mood States negative mood subscale scores of “tension-anxiety”, “anger-hostility”, “fatigue-inertia”, “depression-dejection”, and “confusion-bewilderment” were significantly lower, whereas the positive mood subscale score of “vigor-activity” was higher. Furthermore, participants exhibited significantly lower anxiety levels according to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. However, changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity were nonsignificant. Our study determined that the short forest bathing program is a promising therapeutic method for enhancing heart rate and blood pressure functions as well as an effective psychological relaxation strategy for middle-aged and elderly individuals. PMID:28792445

  6. Autonomic Nervous System and Stress to Predict Secondary Ischemic Events after Transient Ischemic Attack or Minor Stroke: Possible Implications of Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Collet, Jean-Paul; Mazowita, Garey; Claydon, Victoria E.

    2018-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke have high risks of recurrence and deterioration into severe ischemic strokes. Risk stratification of TIA and minor stroke is essential for early effective treatment. Traditional tools have only moderate predictive value, likely due to their inclusion of the limited number of stroke risk factors. Our review follows Hans Selye’s fundamental work on stress theory and the progressive shift of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) from adaptation to disease when stress becomes chronic. We will first show that traditional risk factors and acute triggers of ischemic stroke are chronic and acute stress factors or “stressors,” respectively. Our first review shows solid evidence of the relationship between chronic stress and stroke occurrence. The stress response is tightly regulated by the ANS whose function can be assessed with heart rate variability (HRV). Our second review demonstrates that stress-related risk factors of ischemic stroke are correlated with ANS dysfunction and impaired HRV. Our conclusions support the idea that HRV parameters may represent the combined effects of all body stressors that are risk factors for ischemic stroke and, thus, may be of important predictive value for the risk of subsequent ischemic events after TIA or minor stroke. PMID:29556209

  7. Improving cerebral oxygenation, cognition and autonomic nervous system control of a chronic alcohol abuser through a three-month running program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aranha Cabral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The abusive use of alcohol has shown to be associated to cerebral damage, impaired cognition, poor autonomic nervous control, impaired cardiovascular health, increased levels of stress and anxiety, depression symptoms and poor quality of life. Aerobic exercise has shown to be an efficient tool to reduce and overcome these issues. In this case report, a patient (forty-four years old, male under treatment in public psychiatric hospital, classified as having a substance use disorder, underwent a three-month running program. The maximal oxygen consumption increased from 24.2ml/kg/min to 30.1ml/kg/min, running time increased from 6min to 45min (650% and distance covered from 765m to 8700m (1037.2%. In prefrontal cortex oxygenation, oxyhemoglobin levels improved by 76.1%, deoxyhemoglobin decreased 96.9% and total hemoglobin increased 78.8% during exercise. Reaction time in the cognitive test during rest decreased 23%, and the number of correct answers increased by 266.6%. Parasympathetic cardiac parameters increased in several heart rate variability indices. Thus, we conclude that running exercise performed by an alcoholic patient hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital improves cerebral function, cognition and cardiovascular health. Keywords: Alcohol addiction, Near infrared spectroscopy, Prefrontal cortex, Running exercise, Treatment

  8. Association of evening smartphone use with cardiac autonomic nervous activity after awakening in adolescents living in high school dormitories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Yoko; Fujinaga, Rina; Suzuki, Maki; Hayashi, Ikuyo; Moritani, Toshio; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nagai, Narumi

    2017-04-01

    Smartphones are prevalently used among adolescents; however, nighttime exposure to blue-enriched light, through electric devices, is known to induce delays of the circadian rhythm phases and poor morning somatic conditions. We therefore investigated whether evening smartphone use may affect sleep-wake cycle and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity after awaking in dormitory students. The participants were high school students, living under dormitory rules regarding the curfew, study, meals, lights-out, and wake-up times. The students were forbidden from the use of both television and personal computer in their private rooms, and only the use of a smartphone was permitted. According to prior assessment of smartphone use, we chose age-, sex-, exercise time-matched long (n = 22, >120 min) and short (n = 14, ≤60 min) groups and compared sleep-wake cycle and physiological parameters, such as cardiac ANS activity, blood pressure, and intra-aural temperature. All measurements were performed during 6:30 to 7:00 a.m. in the dormitories. Compared with the short group, the long group showed a significantly lower cardiac ANS activity (2727 ± 308 vs. 4455 ± 667 ms 2 , p = 0.030) with a tendency toward a high heart rate, in addition to later bedtimes during weekdays and more delayed wake-up times over the weekend. Blood pressure and intra-aural temperature did not differ between the groups. In this population, evening smartphone use may be associated with altered sleep-wake cycle and a diminished cardiac ANS activity after awakening could be affecting daytime activities.

  9. Autonomic nervous system modulation and clinical outcome after pulmonary vein isolation using the second-generation cryoballoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Hachiya, Hitoshi; Kajiyama, Takatsugu; Watanabe, Tomonori; Igarashi, Miyako; Ichijo, Sadamitsu; Hirao, Kenzo; Iesaka, Yoshito

    2017-09-01

    The intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a significant role in atrial fibrillation (AF) mechanisms. This study evaluated the incidence and impact of intraprocedural vagal reactions and ANS modulation by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using second-generation cryoballoons on outcomes. One hundred three paroxysmal AF patients underwent PVI with one 28-mm second-generation balloon. The median follow-up was 15.0 (12.0-18.0) months. ANS modulation was defined as a >20% cycle length decrease on 3-minute resting electrocardiograms at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postindex procedure relative to baseline if sinus rhythm was maintained. Marked sinus arrests/bradycardia and atrioventricular block (intraprocedural vagal reaction) occurred in 14 and 2 patients, and all sinus arrest/bradycardia occurred in 44 patients with left superior pulmonary veins (PVs) targeted before right PVs. ANS modulation was identified in 66 of 95 (69.5%) patients, and it persisted 12-month postprocedure in 36 (37.9%) patients. Additional β-blocker administration was required in 9 patients for sinus tachycardia. ANS modulation was similarly observed in patients with and without intraprocedural vagal reactions (P = 0.443). Forty-eight (46.6%) patients experienced early recurrences, and the single procedure success at 12 months was 72.7%. Neither intraprocedural vagal reactions nor ANS modulation predicted AF freedom within or after the blanking period. Thirty-three patients underwent second procedures, and reconnections were detected in 39 of 130 (30.0%) PVs among 23 (69.7%) patients. The incidence of reconnections was similar in patients with and without ANS modulation. Increased heart rate persisted in 37.9% of patients even at 12-month post-second-generation cryoballoon PVI. Neither intraprocedural vagal reactions nor increased heart rate predicted a single procedure clinical outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Circadian variation of cardiac autonomic nervous profile is affected in Japanese ambulance men with a working system of 24-h shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Satoko; Fujita, Masatoshi; Shirakawa, Taro

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the stress levels of Japanese ambulance men between on-duty and off-duty days, by using the physiological indices of heart rate variability (HRV) and cortisol in urine, measured over each 24-h period. Measurements were made during one on-duty and one off-duty day for each subject. The participants were monitored for 24 h with a Holter recording system and a parameter reflecting overall stress levels was obtained by measuring the cortisol level in urine collected over 24 h. The circadian variation of cardiac autonomic nervous system activity was affected when the subjects were on duty. The low-frequency/high-frequency power ratio (=low-frequency power/high-frequency power: LF/HF), which is a useful parameter that reflects the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity, differed significantly between the waking and sleeping times on the off-duty day (P=0.03), while it did not differ between these two states on the on-duty day (P=0.56). Similarly, the normalized high-frequency power [=high-frequency/(high-frequency+low-frequency) power: HF/(HF+LF)] ratio, which is a useful measure of the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, differed significantly between these two states on the off-duty day (P=0.04), while there was no significant difference in the ratio between the two states on the on-duty day (P=0.13). These results show that the diurnal balance of the cardiac autonomic nervous system is affected on the on-duty day, even though it is possible for ambulance men to sleep regular hours.

  11. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  12. Adiponectin, biomarkers of inflammation and changes in cardiac autonomic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Stevns; Vistisen, Dorte; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2017-01-01

    changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. METHODS: Data are based on up to 25,050 person-examinations for 8469 study participants of the Whitehall II cohort study. Measures of CAN included HR and several HRV indices. Associations between baseline......BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of inflammation and adiponectin are associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data are scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of biomarkers of subclinical inflammation and adiponectin with subsequent......: Higher IL-1Ra levels appeared as novel risk marker for increases in HR. Higher adiponectin levels were associated with a more favourable development of cardiovascular autonomic function in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of multiple confounders....

  13. Association between pressure pain sensitivity and autonomic function as assessed by a tilt table test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Bergmann, Natasha; Karpatschof, Benny

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that pressure sensitivity of the sternum (PPS) is associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) function as assessed by tilt table test (TTT). in patients with stable ischemic heart disease. OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate an association between PPS and systolic...... blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) responses to TTT; and (2) to test the hypothesis that a reduction of resting PPS raises the PPS, SBP and HR responses to TTT response and lowers risk factors for ANS dysfunction (ANSD). METHODS: Cross-sectional study: In 361 patients with stable ischemic heart...... disease we measured PPS, SBP, and HR during TTT. Intervention study: We reassessed subjects with persistent stress who concluded a stress intervention trial by a second TTT. RESULTS: Cross-sectional study: Resting PPS and the PPS response to TTT were correlated (r = - 0.37). The PPS response to TTT...

  14. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients

    OpenAIRE

    M U Sujan; M Raghavendra Rao; Ravikiran Kisan; Hulegar A Abhishekh; Atchayaram Nalini; Trichur R Raju; T N Sathyaprabha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head) in migraine pati...

  15. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  16. Autonomic nervous system activity in purebred Arabian horses evaluated according to the low frequency and high frequency spectrum versus racing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Janczarek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional excitability influences horses’ performance in sports and races. The aim of the study was to analyse whether the balance of the autonomic system which can occur when sympathetic system activity is at various levels might impact the horses’ racing performance. The study was carried out on 67 purebred Arabian horses trained for racing. The following indices were analysed: low frequency (LF, high frequency (HF, and the ratio of spectrum power at low frequencies to high frequencies (LF/HF. The autonomic nervous system activity was measured × 3 during the training season, at three-month intervals. Each examination included a 30-min measurement at rest and after a training session. The racing performance indices in these horses were also analysed. Better racing results were found in horses with enhanced LF/HF. The worst racing results were determined in horses with low LF.

  17. The oral cavity as a guide for the application of low level laser energy and its direct effect on the autonomic nervous system providing true energy healing for all health practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolin, Herbert S.

    2008-03-01

    This manuscript is intended to demonstrate the important role that dentistry plays in regulating the balance of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) through the proprioceptive feedback of the posterior teeth to the brain. An old paradigm called Dental Distress Syndrome, relatively unknown in dentistry today, has at its core, the importance of the height of the posterior (back) teeth and its impact on total body health which is greatly aided by low level laser energy. The rationale behind the belief that the alteration of the posterior teeth affects the ANS begins with basic concepts in embryology. The functioning of the ANS will support the fact of Dental Distress Syndrome. Health practitioners of all disciplines can learn to recognize Dental Distress Syndrome and initiate non-invasive treatment and team with a trained dentist to enhance the wellness and health of the patient if they so desire. A synopsis of my oral paper presented to the Academy of Laser Dentistry demonstrating temporary balancing of the Autonomic Nervous System with three minutes of cold laser energy, as well as my rationale as to why results vary with different cold lasers will be discussed. Clinical case studies will be presented.

  18. Functional structure and dynamics of the human nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The status of an effort to define the directions needed to take in extending pilot models is reported. These models are needed to perform closed-loop (man-in-the-loop) feedback flight control system designs and to develop cockpit display requirements. The approach taken is to develop a hypothetical working model of the human nervous system by reviewing the current literature in neurology and psychology and to develop a computer model of this hypothetical working model.

  19. Accessing Autonomic Function Can Early Screen Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meng; Li, Mian; Yang, Zhi; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Bi, Yufang

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. Methodology and Principal Findings The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend metabolic syndrome components (p for trend metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.64) for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. Conclusions and Significance In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome. PMID:22916265

  20. Accessing autonomic function can early screen metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend <0.0001. Moreover, EZSCAN value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (p for trend <0.0001. Compared with the no risk group (EZSCAN value 0-24, participants at the high risk group (EZSCAN value: 50-100 had a 2.35 fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.64 for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome.

  1. Children's sleep and autonomic function: low sleep quality has an impact on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Clays, Els; De Buyzere, Marc; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality in children have been associated with concentration, problem behavior, and emotional instability, but recently also with disrupted autonomic nervous function, which predicts cardiovascular health. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as noninvasive indicator of autonomic function to examine the influence of sleep. Cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study on the effect of sleep on HRV. Belgian children (5-11 years) of the ChiBS study in 2010 (N = 334) and 2011 (N = 293). N/A. Sleep duration was reported and in a subgroup sleep quality (efficiency, latency, awakenings) was measured with accelerometry. High-frequency (HF) power and autonomic balance (LF/HF) were calculated on supine 5-minute HRV measurements. Stress was measured by emotion and problem behavior questionnaires. Sleep duration and quality were used as HRV predictors in corrected cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions. Stress was tested as mediator (intermediate pathway) or moderator (interaction) in sleep-HRV associations. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, long sleep latency could predict lower HF (parasympathetic activity), while nocturnal awakenings, sleep latency, low sleep efficiency, and low corrected sleep duration were related to higher LF/HF (sympathetic/parasympathetic balance). Parental reported sleep duration was not associated with HRV. The significances remained after correction for stress. Stress was not a mediator, but a moderator (enhancer) in the relationship between sleep quality and HRV. Low sleep quality but not parent-reported low sleep duration leads to an unhealthier heart rate variability pattern (sympathetic over parasympathetic dominance). This stresses the importance of good sleep quality for cardiovascular health in children.

  2. Fitness, Fatness, Physical Activity, and Autonomic Function in Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Antti M; Perkiömäki, Nelli; Auvinen, Juha; Niemelä, Maisa; Tammelin, Tuija; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Tulppo, Mikko P; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jämsä, Timo; Huikuri, Heikki V; Korpelainen, Raija

    2017-12-01

    Although low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical inactivity, and obesity are associated with impaired autonomic function, they are also extensively interrelated. The present study aimed to assess the extent to which they contribute to autonomic function independently of each other. At the age of 46 yr, 1383 men and 1761 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes underwent assessments of vagally mediated heart rate (HR) variability (root mean square of successive differences in R-R interval (rMMSD)), peak HR during a submaximal step test (CRF), and 60-s HR recovery (HRR). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ≥3.5 METs, 2 wk) was measured by wrist-worn accelerometer and body fat percentage (Fat%) by bioimpedance. In men, CRF and Fat% were significantly associated with higher rMSSD (standardized β = 0.31 and -0.16) and HRR (β = 0.19 and -0.18), whereas higher MVPA was linked with higher HRR (β = 0.13) when including CRF, MVPA, and Fat% in the initial regression. After adjustments for other lifestyle and cardiometabolic factors, CRF remained significantly associated with rMMSD (β = 0.24) and HRR (β = 0.14), as did MVPA with HRR (β = 0.11). In women, CRF was associated with rMSSD (β = 0.23) and HRR (β = 0.15), and MVPA (β = 0.17) and Fat% (β = -0.07) with HRR, when CRF, MVPA, and Fat% were adjusted for each other. After further adjustments, CRF remained a significant determinant of rMSSD (β = 0.20) and HRR (β = 0.13), as did MVPA with HRR (β = 0.15). The final models explained 23% and 21% of variation in rMSSD and HRR in men, and 10% and 12% in women, respectively. CRF was a more important determinant of cardiac autonomic function than MVPA and body fat. Furthermore, MVPA but not body fat was independently associated with cardiac autonomic function in both men and women.

  3. Insights into the background of autonomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Geraldes, Vera; Oliveira, Mário; Rocha, Isabel

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the physiology underlying the autonomic nervous system is pivotal for understanding autonomic dysfunction in clinical practice. Autonomic dysfunction may result from primary modifications of the autonomic nervous system or be secondary to a wide range of diseases that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Together with a detailed history and physical examination, laboratory assessment of autonomic function is essential for the analysis of various clinical conditions and the establishment of effective, personalized and precise therapeutic schemes. This review summarizes the main aspects of autonomic medicine that constitute the background of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on a control system for autonomous distributed cooperative function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    Developments of an autonomous plant simulator, a plant function model and an indicating function for plant conditions were further progressed in the second stage of this project based on the concept of autonomous plant. And integration of the results from the research of operation control system by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. and the research of maintenance system by Institute of Physical and Chemical Research was attempted in this stage. Developments of system techniques which can provide transparent informations on the cooperation among the artificial intelligent units distributed in various sites and the process and results of judgement were conducted focusing on a monitoring system for plant operation. And it became possible to express the plant conditions such as temperature, pressure and flow rate at nearly real time using three-dimensional color graphics. Automatic classification method for clustering the plant conditions was investigated using COBWEB and 14 kinds of conditions were defined using 6 factors. The functional certification of them is undertaken. (M.N.)

  5. Zebrafish heart as a model to study the integrative autonomic control of pacemaker function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyek, Matthew R.; Quinn, T. Alexander; Croll, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac pacemaker sets the heart's primary rate, with pacemaker discharge controlled by the autonomic nervous system through intracardiac ganglia. A fundamental issue in understanding the relationship between neural activity and cardiac chronotropy is the identification of neuronal populations that control pacemaker cells. To date, most studies of neurocardiac control have been done in mammalian species, where neurons are embedded in and distributed throughout the heart, so they are largely inaccessible for whole-organ, integrative studies. Here, we establish the isolated, innervated zebrafish heart as a novel alternative model for studies of autonomic control of heart rate. Stimulation of individual cardiac vagosympathetic nerve trunks evoked bradycardia (parasympathetic activation) and tachycardia (sympathetic activation). Simultaneous stimulation of both vagosympathetic nerve trunks evoked a summative effect. Effects of nerve stimulation were mimicked by direct application of cholinergic and adrenergic agents. Optical mapping of electrical activity confirmed the sinoatrial region as the site of origin of normal pacemaker activity and identified a secondary pacemaker in the atrioventricular region. Strong vagosympathetic nerve stimulation resulted in a shift in the origin of initial excitation from the sinoatrial pacemaker to the atrioventricular pacemaker. Putative pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular regions expressed adrenergic β2 and cholinergic muscarinic type 2 receptors. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the zebrafish heart contains the accepted hallmarks of vertebrate cardiac control, establishing this preparation as a viable model for studies of integrative physiological control of cardiac function by intracardiac neurons. PMID:27342878

  6. Impact of exercise training associated to pyridostigmine treatment on autonomic function and inflammatory profile after myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J; Souza, Gabriel I H; Carrozzi, Nicolle M; Mostarda, Cristiano; Dourado, Paulo M M; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; De Angelis, Kátia; Moreno, Heitor; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2017-01-15

    The effects of exercise training (ET) associated with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on inflammatory profile after myocardial infarction (MI), are unclear. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: control (C); sedentary+infarcted (I); sedentary+infarcted treated with PYR (IP); infarcted submitted to aerobic exercise training (IT); and infarcted submitted to treatment with PYR and aerobic exercise training (ITP). After 12weeks of ET (50-70% maximal running speed; 1h a day, 5days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14mg/mL on drink water), hemodynamic, autonomic and cytokines expression were performed. We observed that both aerobic ET, associated or not with PYR treatment in MI animals, were able to: reduced MI area, improved systolic and diastolic function, baroreflex sensitivity, cardiovascular autonomic modulation, and tonic activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Also, they led to a reduction of inflammatory profile measured at plasma, left ventricle and soleus skeletal muscle. However, additional effects were observed when ET and PYR were associated, such as an increase in vagal tonus and modulation, reduction of MI area, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as an increase of interleukin-10/TNF-α ratio on left ventricle. These data suggest that associating ET and PYR promotes some additional benefits on cardiovascular autonomic modulation and inflammatory profile in infarcted rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In this study, on a base of result of a nuclear substrate cross-over study on 'Artificial intelligence for nuclear plant' promoted by 5 years plan since 1989 fiscal year, further developed studies are conducted. The studies are promoted by next 5 years plan on following 6 items: (1) Study on stratified expression technique of autonomous function. (2) Study on expression technique of motion state in decentralized-cooperative function. (3) Study on expression technique of decision making process. (4) Integration to operation control system. (5) Integration to maintenance system. And, (6) Comprehensive evaluation experiment. In 1996 fiscal year, improvement and investigation on automatic classification function of plant state were executed. And, preparation of development environment for expression of robot group motion state was conducted. Furthermore, communication experiment using network to realize integration to operation control and maintenance systems and periodical meetings with other institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  8. Functional Observational Battery Testing for Nervous System Effects of Drugs and Other Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has become standard practice in preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology. Behavior represents the integrated sum of activities mediated by the nervous system. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observat...

  9. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M U Sujan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head in migraine patients. Methods: Forty chronic migraine patients fulfilling the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria were recruited from the neurology outpatient clinic. Patients were randomized to receive either hydrotherapy plus conventional pharmacological care (n = 20 or conventional medication only (n = 20. Hydrotherapy group received treatment with hot arm and foot bath (103°F to 110°F and ice massage to head daily for 20 min for 45 days. Patients were assessed using headache impact test (HIT, visual analog scale for pain and cardiac autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV before and after intervention period. Results: There was a significant decrease in HIT score, frequency, and intensity of headaches following treatment in both the groups. However, it was more evident in add on hydrotherapy group compared to pharmacological treatment alone group. There was also significant improvement in the HRV parameters. In particular, there was a significant decrease in heart rate (P = 0.017, increase in high frequency (HF (P = 0.014 and decrease in low frequency/HF ratio (P = 0.004 in add on hydrotherapy group. Conclusion: Our study shows that add on hydrotherapy enhanced the vagal tone in addition to reducing the frequency and intensity of headaches in migraine patients.

  10. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, M U; Rao, M Raghavendra; Kisan, Ravikiran; Abhishekh, Hulegar A; Nalini, Atchayaram; Raju, Trichur R; Sathyaprabha, T N

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head) in migraine patients. Forty chronic migraine patients fulfilling the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria were recruited from the neurology outpatient clinic. Patients were randomized to receive either hydrotherapy plus conventional pharmacological care (n = 20) or conventional medication only (n = 20). Hydrotherapy group received treatment with hot arm and foot bath (103°F to 110°F) and ice massage to head daily for 20 min for 45 days. Patients were assessed using headache impact test (HIT), visual analog scale for pain and cardiac autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV) before and after intervention period. There was a significant decrease in HIT score, frequency, and intensity of headaches following treatment in both the groups. However, it was more evident in add on hydrotherapy group compared to pharmacological treatment alone group. There was also significant improvement in the HRV parameters. In particular, there was a significant decrease in heart rate (P = 0.017), increase in high frequency (HF) (P = 0.014) and decrease in low frequency/HF ratio (P = 0.004) in add on hydrotherapy group. Our study shows that add on hydrotherapy enhanced the vagal tone in addition to reducing the frequency and intensity of headaches in migraine patients.

  11. Comparing the accuracy of ES-BC, EIS-GS, and ES Oxi on body composition, autonomic nervous system activity, and cardiac output to standardized assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis JE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available John E Lewis1, Stacey L Tannenbaum1, Jinrun Gao3, Angelica B Melillo1, Evan G Long1, Yaima Alonso2, Janet Konefal1, Judi M Woolger2, Susanna Leonard1, Prabjot K Singh1, Lawrence Chen1, Eduard Tiozzo1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3State Farm Insurance, Bloomington, IL, USA Background and purpose: The Electro Sensor Complex (ESC is software that combines three devices using bioelectrical impedance, galvanic skin response, and spectrophotometry: (1 ES-BC (Electro Sensor-Body Composition; LD Technology, Miami, FL to assess body composition, (2 EIS-GS (Electro Interstitial Scan-Galvanic Skin; LD Technology to predict autonomic nervous system activity, and (3 ES Oxi (Electro Sensor Oxi; LD Technology to assess cardiac output. The objective of this study was to compare each to a standardized assessment: ES-BC to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, EIS-GS to heart rate variability, and ES Oxi to BioZ Dx Diagnostic System (BioZ Dx; SonoSite Inc, Bothell, WA. Patients and methods: The study was conducted in two waves. Fifty subjects were assessed for body composition and autonomic nervous system activity. Fifty-one subjects were assessed for cardiac output. Results: We found adequate relative and absolute agreement between ES-BC and DXA for fat mass (r = 0.97, P < 0.001 with ES-BC overestimating fat mass by 0.1 kg and for body fat percentage (r = 0.92, P < 0.001 with overestimation of fat percentage by 0.4%. For autonomic nervous system activity, we found marginal relative agreement between EIS-GS and heart rate variability by using EIS-GS as the predictor in a linear regression equation (adjusted R2 = 0.56, P = 0.03. For cardiac output, adequate relative and absolute agreement was found between ES Oxi and BioZ Dx at baseline (r = 0.60, P < 0.001, after the first exercise stage (r = 0.79, P < 0.001, and after the second exercise stage (r = 0.86, P

  12. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanba, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a study further advanced on a base of results of study on artificial intelligence for nuclear power', one of nuclear basis crossover studies, conducted at five years planning from 1989 fiscal year was executed. Here was conducted on study on a system technology for supplying cooperation, judgement process, judgement results, and so forth between decentralized artificial intelligent elements (agents) to operation managers (supervisors) by focussing a system for monitoring if autonomous decentralized system containing plant operation and robot group action functioned appropriately. In 1997 fiscal year, by mainly conducting development for displaying working state of robot group, some investigations on integrated management of each function already development and maintained were executed. Furthermore, some periodical meetings on realization of its integration with operation control system and maintenance system with other research institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  13. Distraction or cognitive overload? Using modulations of the autonomic nervous system to discriminate the possible negative effects of advanced assistance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, D; Bos, A J; Ciceri, M R

    2017-06-01

    The interaction with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems has several positive implications for road safety, but also some potential downsides such as mental workload and automation complacency. Malleable attentional resources allocation theory describes two possible processes that can generate workload in interaction with advanced assisting devices. The purpose of the present study is to determine if specific analysis of the different modalities of autonomic control of nervous system can be used to discriminate different potential workload processes generated during assisted-driving tasks and automation complacency situations. Thirty-five drivers were tested in a virtual scenario while using head-up advanced warning assistance system. Repeated MANOVA were used to examine changes in autonomic activity across a combination of different user interactions generated by the advanced assistance system: (1) expected take-over request without anticipatory warning; (2) expected take-over request with two-second anticipatory warning; (3) unexpected take-over request with misleading warning; (4) unexpected take-over request without warning. Results shows that analysis of autonomic modulations can discriminate two different resources allocation processes, related to different behavioral performances. The user's interaction that required divided attention under expected situations produced performance enhancement and reciprocally-coupled parasympathetic inhibition with sympathetic activity. At the same time, supervising interactions that generated automation complacency were described specifically by uncoupled sympathetic activation. Safety implications for automated assistance systems developments are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1993-01-01

    cortisol measurements were included, to assess the pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and plasma adrenaline increased significantly in all groups in response to a stress test (mental arithmetic). Plasma noradrenaline increased in the DU patients only, and plasma ACTH...

  15. Influence of yearlong training on the state of cardiovascular, autonomic nervous system and physical performance in female 400 meters runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Mikhalyuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – identification and comparison of heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical performance in 400 meters runners from the III category to masters of sports of international class (MSIC in the annual cycle of the training process. Materials and methods. The study included 22 female athletes, 400 meters runners between the ages of 14 and 27 years (mean age – 16.8 ± 0.67 years, running experience – from 2 to 13 years (average – 4.4 ± 0.68 years in the preparatory and competitive periods. Body length and weight of athletes were 167.9 ± 0.91 cm and 52.5 ± 0.98 kg, respectively. For the analysis of the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity mathematical methods of HRV analysis were used. Analysis and evaluation of periodic components of heart rate were carried out by means of the research of spectral parameters of autocorrelation functions. Determination of physical performance was carried out under the practical standard on the cycle ergometer. It was established that in high class sportswomen (n=12 and ones with qualifications of the II–III category (n=10 in the competitive period there were strengthening of parasympathetic effects of ANS, transformation of eukinetic circulation type (CT into hypokinetic CT and absence of sportswomen with hyperkinetic CT. In high class sportswomen there were significant increase of the relative value of physical working capacity (PWC170/kg by 12.33% and tendency to increase of index of functional state (IFS by 9.46%, in sportswomen with qualifications of II–III category PWC170/kg significantly increased by 19.26%, and IFS by 17.87%. Correlation analysis conducted in both periods in the group and separately in high class sportswomen and ones with qualifications of II–III category found the relationship indicating that the increase of PWC170/kg and IFS is associated with the prevalence of hypokinetic CT and parasympathetic ANS influences. In the competitive period

  16. Noninvasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system. Final progress report, December 24, 1993--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    During the first year of funding, C-11 hydroxyephedrine has been introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue. Studies in normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders indicated the feasibility of this tracer for further evaluation. Simultaneously, animal studies have been used to assess the use of these radiopharmaceuticals in ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threo-hydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, the authors are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve their ability to identify abnormalities. They are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. In addition, they are participating in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in their institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by preliminary PET data. A compilation of all publications funded by this grant is presented in this report.

  17. Noninvasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system. Final progress report, December 24, 1993--February 28, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    During the first year of funding, C-11 hydroxyephedrine has been introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue. Studies in normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders indicated the feasibility of this tracer for further evaluation. Simultaneously, animal studies have been used to assess the use of these radiopharmaceuticals in ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threo-hydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, the authors are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve their ability to identify abnormalities. They are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. In addition, they are participating in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in their institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by preliminary PET data. A compilation of all publications funded by this grant is presented in this report

  18. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Zabolotny, Janice M; Huang, Hu; Lee, Hyon; Kim, Young-Bum

    2016-08-01

    Insulin, a pleotrophic hormone, has diverse effects in the body. Recent work has highlighted the important role of insulin's action in the nervous system on glucose and energy homeostasis, memory, and mood. Here we review experimental and clinical work that has broadened the understanding of insulin's diverse functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including glucose and body weight homeostasis, memory and mood, with particular emphasis on intranasal insulin. Implications for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dementia, and mood disorders are discussed in the context of brain insulin action. Intranasal insulin may have potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related metabolic disorders.

  19. Multi-Functional Distributed Secondary Control for Autonomous Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad

    or connected to the main grid. Apart from the obvious benefits of MGs, their introduction into the traditional distribution network raises many new challenges, thus, a hierarchical control concept has been introduced for these systems. While the decentralized primary control of this hierarchy ensures...... power exchange with external grid or/and with other MGs and includes functions related to efficiency and economic enhancement. This thesis is focused on development of distributed control strategies for secondary control of autonomous ac and dc MGs to avoid a central controller and complex communication...... to proportionally share the load power even at the presence of different control parameters and initial values. This thesis also proposes a distributed hierarchical control framework for dc MG clusters to ensure smooth connection and reliable operation of these systems. A decentralize adaptive droop method...

  20. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Zabolotny, Janice M.; Huang, Hu; Lee, Hyon; Kim, Young-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin, a pleotrophic hormone, has diverse effects in the body. Recent work has highlighted the important role of insulin's action in the nervous system on glucose and energy homeostasis, memory, and mood. Scope of review: Here we review experimental and clinical work that has broadened the understanding of insulin's diverse functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including glucose and body weight homeostasis, memory and mood, with particular emphasis on intra...

  1. Cerebral Hemispheric Lateralization Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis May Affect Interictal Cardiovascular Autonomic Functions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokia Ghchime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is linked to the autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Seizures alter the function of different systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible factors which may be involved in interictal cardiovascular autonomic function in temporal lobe epilepsy with complex partial seizures, and with particular attention to hippocampal sclerosis. The study was conducted in 30 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (19 with left hippocampal sclerosis, 11 with right hippocampal sclerosis. All subjects underwent four tests of cardiac autonomic function: heart rate changes in response to deep breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure variations throughout resting activity and during hand grip, mental stress, and orthostatic tests. Our results show that the right cerebral hemisphere predominantly modulates sympathetic activity, while the left cerebral hemisphere mainly modulates parasympathetic activity, which mediated tachycardia and excessive bradycardia counterregulation, both of which might be involved as a mechanism of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP.

  2. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulton Alan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1 the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2 the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3 white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4 central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively, with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis; this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept. In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic

  3. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Struzyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following nervous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways - the long-distance fibers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals - is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regeneration rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engineered "living scaffolds", which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a defined, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration - mimicking key developmental mechanisms- or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  4. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for the management of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease with autonomic nervous system dysregulation in Vietnamese children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qui, Phan Tu; Khanh, Truong Huu; Trieu, Huynh Trung; Giang, Phạm Thanh; Bich, Nguyen Ngọc; Thoa, Le Phan Kim; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Van Doorn, Rogier; Toan, Nguyen Duc; Merson, Laura; Dung, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Khanh, Lam Phung; Wolbers, Marcel; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Wills, Bridget

    2016-02-19

    Over the last 15 years, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has emerged as a major public health burden across the Asia-Pacific region. A small proportion of HFMD patients, typically those infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71), develop brainstem encephalitis with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation and may progress rapidly to cardiopulmonary failure and death. Although milrinone has been reported to control hypertension and support myocardial function in two small studies, in practice, a number of children still deteriorate despite this treatment. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is a cheap, safe, and readily available medication that is effective in managing tetanus-associated ANS dysregulation and has shown promise when used empirically in EV71-confirmed severe HFMD cases. We describe the protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of intravenous MgSO4 in Vietnamese children diagnosed clinically with HFMD plus ANS dysregulation with systemic hypertension. A loading dose of MgSO4 or identical placebo is given over 20 min followed by a maintenance infusion for 72 h according to response, aiming for Mg levels two to three times the normal level in the treatment arm. The primary endpoint is a composite of disease progression within 72 h defined as follows: development of pre-specified blood pressure criteria necessitating the addition of milrinone, the need for ventilation, shock, or death. Secondary endpoints comprise these parameters singly, plus other clinical endpoints including the following: requirement for other inotropic agents; duration of hospitalization; presence of neurological sequelae at discharge in survivors; and neurodevelopmental status assessed 6 months after discharge. The number and severity of adverse events observed in the two treatment arms will also be compared. Based on preliminary data from a case series, and allowing for some losses, 190 patients (95 in each arm) will allow detection of a 50 % reduction in disease

  5. Validation of a questionnaire measuring the regulation of autonomic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthes H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To broaden the range of outcomes that we can measure for patients undergoing treatment for oncological and other chronic conditions, we aimed to validate a questionnaire measuring self-reported autonomic regulation (aR, i.e. to characterise a subject's autonomic functioning by questions on sleeping and waking, vertigo, morningness-eveningness, thermoregulation, perspiration, bowel movements and digestion. Methods We administered the questionnaire to 440 participants (♀: N = 316, ♂: N = 124: 95 patients with breast cancer, 49 with colorectal cancer, 60 with diabetes mellitus, 39 with coronary heart disease, 28 with rheumatological conditions, 32 with Hashimoto's disease, 22 with multiple morbidities and 115 healthy people. We administered the questionnaire a second time to 50.2% of the participants. External convergence criteria included the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D, a short questionnaire on morningness-eveningness, the Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire (HLQ and a short version questionnaire on self-regulation. Results A principal component analysis yielded a three dimensional 18-item inventory of aR. The subscales orthostatic-circulatory, rest/activity and digestive regulation had internal consistency (Cronbach-α: rα = 0.65 – 0.75 and test-retest reliability (rrt = 0.70 – 85. AR was negatively associated with anxiety, depression, and dysmenorrhoea but positively correlated to HLQ, self-regulation and in part to morningness (except digestive aR (0.49 – 0.13, all p Conclusion An internal validation of the long-version scale of aR yielded consistent relationships with health versus illness, quality of life and personality. Further studies are required to clarify the issues of external validity, clinical and physiological relevance.

  6. Responses of the autonomic nervous system during periods of perceived high and low work stress in younger and older female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvanen, Tiina; Louhevaara, Veikko; Helin, Pertti; Väisänen, Sari; Hänninen, Osmo

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the response of the autonomic nervous system in younger (mean age 31 yrs, n=14) and older (mean age 54 yrs, n=14) healthy female teachers during work periods of perceived high and low stress. In the younger participants, heart rate, cortisol excretion rate and psychosomatic symptoms were significantly higher during the high work stress period. The older participants experienced no decrease in their heart rate and cortisol excretion during the low stress period and they exhibited no significant decrease in blood pressure after the work in the evening during both periods. It may be concluded that the recovery from the stress in the older teachers was insufficient particularly in view of their elevated diastolic blood pressure during the low work stress period. Ergonomic and individually tailored measures in terms of work time control, specific relaxation techniques, and a part-time retirement may improve the stress management of older teachers.

  7. The biphasic effects of moderate alcohol consumption with a meal on ambiance-induced mood and autonomic nervous system balance: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C Schrieks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. METHODS: In a crossover design 28 women (age 18-45 y, BMI 18.5-27 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. RESULTS: Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. CONCLUSION: Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022.

  8. The biphasic effects of moderate alcohol consumption with a meal on ambiance-induced mood and autonomic nervous system balance: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Kallen, Victor L; Grootjen, Marc; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2014-01-01

    The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. In a crossover design 28 women (age 18-45 y, BMI 18.5-27 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022.

  9. The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C.; Stafleu, Annette; Kallen, Victor L.; Grootjen, Marc; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. Methods In a crossover design 28 women (age 18–45 y, BMI 18.5–27 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Results Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Conclusion Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022. PMID:24465955

  10. Effects of Music Therapy on the Cardiovascular and Autonomic Nervous System in Stress-Induced University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Soon; Jeong, Hyeon Cheol; Yim, Jong Eun; Jeon, Mi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Stress is caused when a particular relationship between the individual and the environment emerges. Specifically, stress occurs when an individual's abilities are challenged or when one's well-being is threatened by excessive environmental demands. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of music therapy on stress in university students. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty-four students were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 33) or the control group (n = 31). Music therapy. Initial measurement included cardiovascular indicators (blood pressure and pulse), autonomic nervous activity (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN], normalized low frequency, normalized high frequency, low/high frequency), and subjective stress. After the first measurement, participants in both groups were exposed to a series of stressful tasks, and then a second measurement was conducted. The experimental group then listened to music for 20 minutes and the control group rested for 20 minutes. A third and final measurement was then taken. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the first or second measurement. However, after music therapy, the experimental group and the control group showed significant differences in all variables, including systolic blood pressure (p = .026), diastolic blood pressure (p = .037), pulse (p stress (p = .026). Classical music tends to relax the body and may stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. These results suggest music therapy as an intervention for stress reduction.

  11. Autonomic nervous system activation mediates the increase in whole-body glucose uptake in response to electroacupuncture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benrick, Anna; Kokosar, Milana; Hu, Min

    2017-01-01

    measured by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp during and after 45 min of low-frequency EA in 21 overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 21 controls matched for age, weight, and body mass index (experiment 1) and in rats receiving autonomic receptor blockers (experiment 2). GIR......, but not in controls, suggesting increased sympathetic-driven adipose tissue metabolism. Administration of α-/β-adrenergic receptor blockers in rats blocked the increase in GIR in response to EA. Muscarinic and dopamine receptor antagonist also blocked the response but with slower onset. In conclusion, a single bout...

  12. Circulating opioids: possible physiological roles in central nervous function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, J L

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed regarding the release of endorphins by such diverse conditions as stress, long distance running, acupuncture, sexual activity, suggestion and ritualistic dancing ceremonies. Additional evidence is cited regarding possible physiological roles of endorphins in antinociception, socialization, euphoria, some mental disorders, drive states and vegetative functions. The concentration of this latter type of evidence is on conditions during which endorphins seem to be exerting effects on a number of different systems together (for example, euphoria is almost always accompanied by analgesia), and the possibility is suggested that the activation of a number of functions together may be due to a global activation of opiate receptors throughout the CNS. A possible basis for this global activation arises from results from this laboratory indicating the presence of a blood-borne opioid hormone, secreted by the pituitary or by an endocrine gland under pituitary control, which is capable of passing from the blood into the CNS. This diffuse endorphinergic system, which is complementary to the well-established endorphinergic neuronal systems in the CNS, thus derives its property of global action on opiate receptors by the diffuse means by which the hormone reaches its target sites, i.e., by passing through the blood brain barrier. Thus, while each specific endorphin-mediated function can be activated by the activation of its respective neural pathway, it is proposed that the hormonal endorphinergic mechanism is activated to produce a global response provoked by conditions to which a more generalized response, including physiological and behavioural changes, is most appropriate.

  13. Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination in Higher Brain Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Nickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic support and can profoundly affect neural circuit computation. Recent studies have revealed that long-lasting changes of myelination can be induced in these brain regions by experience, such as social isolation, stress, and alcohol abuse, as well as by neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. However, the mechanism and function of these changes remain poorly understood. Myelin regulation represents a new form of neural plasticity. Some progress has been made to provide new mechanistic insights into activity-independent and activity-dependent regulations of myelination in different experimental systems. More extensive investigations are needed in this important but underexplored research field, in order to shed light on how higher brain functions and myelination interplay in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  14. Formation and function of eicosanoids in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, G; Seregi, A

    1989-01-01

    Neuronal firing during experimental convulsions triggered a large increase in brain eicosanoid synthesis. Mature astrocytes are an important source of cerebral prostanoids. Endogenously formed prostaglandins possess anticonvulsive properties of biological relevance. These conclusions suggest new ideas that might explain the formation and functions of prostanoids in the brain. First, as augmented neuronal discharge is a prerequisite for enhanced prostanoid synthesis during seizures, a functional coupling between firing neurons and prostanoid-forming astrocytes may be expected. Second, the anticonvulsive effects of endogenous prostanoids suggest that astroglia-derived substances might regulate neuronal activity. The phenomenon of convulsion-induced prostanoid synthesis may, therefore, represent a new example of neuron-glia interaction. Neither K+-induced membrane depolarization nor receptor activation by drugs with affinity to alpha or beta adrenoceptors, dopamine, serotonin, muscarine, histamine, GABA, glutamate, aspartate, adenosine, and opioid receptors evoked eicosanoid synthesis in astrocytes. The only physiologically relevant ligand that induced prostanoid synthesis concentration dependently in astrocytes was ATP and related nucleotide triphosphates, as well as nucleotide disphosphates. In peripheral nerves ATP serves as a cotransmitter. The effect of the P2 agonists was reduced by pertussis toxin. The mechanism by which eicosanoids regulate neuronal activity remains to be elucidated.

  15. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in childhood and adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, R.D. III; Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Reddick, R.L.; Tawil, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) in children and adolescents (under age 18) are unusual but are not as rare as earlier reports suggested. These lesions have a significantly different biologic potential than similar lesions in older patients. In the younger age group there is a more rapid progression toward toxicity and a higher incidence of thyroid carcinoma. Our experience with 12 patients is combined with those previously reported for identification of a total of 61 children and adolescents with AFTNs, of whom 53 have undergone operation. Hyperthyroidism was present in 15 patients (24.6%), and in six patients (11.3%) the AFTN was due to a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgical treatment is advisable for all children and adolescents with AFTNs because of the risks of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. Surgical excision (lobectomy is preferred) results in rapid restoration of a euthyroid state for the toxic AFTN and allows histopathologic diagnosis. Therapy with radioiodine is not advisable for treatment of AFTNs in this age group. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression should be used for all patients with a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma

  16. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Bodner, D

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experts opinions consensus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI). BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use...... of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of SCI. These standards document the remaining motor and sensory function that a person may have; however, they do not provide information about the status of a person's autonomic function. METHODS: Based on this deficiency, the American Spinal Injury...... Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) commissioned a group of international experts to develop a common strategy to document the remaining autonomic neurologic function. RESULTS: Four subgroups were commissioned: bladder, bowel, sexual function and general autonomic function. On...

  17. Central Nervous System Control of Gastrointestinal Motility and Secretion and Modulation of Gastrointestinal Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Kirsteen N.; Travagli, R. Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Although the gastrointestinal (GI) tract possesses intrinsic neural plexuses that allow a significant degree of autonomy over GI functions, the central nervous system (CNS) provides extrinsic neural inputs that regulate, modulate, and control these functions. While the intestines are capable of functioning in the absence of extrinsic inputs, the stomach and esophagus are much more dependent upon extrinsic neural inputs, particularly from parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. The sympathet...

  18. Microglia - insights into immune system structure, function, and reactivity in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Babcock, Alicia A; Vinters, Harry V

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are essential cellular components of a well-functioning central nervous system (CNS). The development and establishment of the microglial population differs from the other major cell populations in the CNS i.e. neurons and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). This different...

  19. Renal denervation in an animal model of diabetes and hypertension: Impact on the autonomic nervous system and nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Ubiratan F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of renal denervation on cardiovascular reflexes and markers of nephropathy in diabetic-hypertensive rats have not yet been explored. Methods Aim: To evaluate the effects of renal denervation on nephropathy development mechanisms (blood pressure, cardiovascular autonomic changes, renal GLUT2 in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Forty-one male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR ~250 g were injected with STZ or not; 30 days later, surgical renal denervation (RD or sham procedure was performed; 15 days later, glycemia and albuminuria (ELISA were evaluated. Catheters were implanted into the femoral artery to evaluate arterial pressure (AP and heart rate variability (spectral analysis one day later in conscious animals. Animals were killed, kidneys removed, and cortical renal GLUT2 quantified (Western blotting. Results Higher glycemia (p vs. nondiabetics (p vs. SHR. Conclusions Renal denervation in diabetic-hypertensive rats improved previously reduced heart rate variability. The GLUT2 equally overexpressed by diabetes and renal denervation may represent a maximal derangement effect of each condition.

  20. Gpr126/Adgrg6 Has Schwann Cell Autonomous and Nonautonomous Functions in Peripheral Nerve Injury and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogha, Amit; Harty, Breanne L; Carlin, Dan; Joseph, Jessica; Sanchez, Nicholas E; Suter, Ueli; Piao, Xianhua; Cavalli, Valeria; Monk, Kelly R

    2016-12-07

    Schwann cells (SCs) are essential for proper peripheral nerve development and repair, although the mechanisms regulating these processes are incompletely understood. We previously showed that the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor Gpr126/Adgrg6 is essential for SC development and myelination. Interestingly, the expression of Gpr126 is maintained in adult SCs, suggestive of a function in the mature nerve. We therefore investigated the role of Gpr126 in nerve repair by studying an inducible SC-specific Gpr126 knock-out mouse model. Here, we show that remyelination is severely delayed after nerve-crush injury. Moreover, we also observe noncell-autonomous defects in macrophage recruitment and axon regeneration in injured nerves following loss of Gpr126 in SCs. This work demonstrates that Gpr126 has critical SC-autonomous and SC-nonautonomous functions in remyelination and peripheral nerve repair. Lack of robust remyelination represents one of the major barriers to recovery of neurological functions in disease or following injury in many disorders of the nervous system. Here we show that the adhesion class G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr126/Adgrg6 is required for remyelination, macrophage recruitment, and axon regeneration following nerve injury. At least 30% of all approved drugs target GPCRs; thus, Gpr126 represents an attractive potential target to stimulate repair in myelin disease or following nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612351-17$15.00/0.

  1. Children’s Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Moderates the Relations between Family Adversity and Sleep Problems in Latino 5-Year Olds in the CHAMACOS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W. Thomas; Neilands, Torsten B.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Sleep problems are common for young children especially if they live in adverse home environments. Some studies investigate if young children may also be at a higher risk of sleep problems if they have a specific biological sensitivity to adversity. This paper addresses the research question, does the relations between children’s exposure to family adversities and their sleep problems differ depending on their autonomic nervous system’s sensitivity to challenges? As part of a larger cohort study of Latino, low-income families, we assessed the cross-sectional relations among family demographics (education, marital status), adversities [routines, major life events (MLE)], and biological sensitivity as measured by autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity associated with parent-rated sleep problems when the children were 5 years old. Mothers were interviewed in English or Spanish and completed demographic, family, and child measures. The children completed a 15-min standardized protocol while continuous cardiac measures of the ANS [respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), preejection period (PEP)] were collected during resting and four challenge conditions. Reactivity was defined as the mean of the responses to the four challenge conditions minus the first resting condition. Four ANS profiles, co-activation, co-inhibition, reciprocal low RSA and PEP reactivity, and reciprocal high RSA and PEP reactivity, were created by dichotomizing the reactivity scores as high or low reactivity. Logistic regression models showed there were significant main effects for children living in families with fewer daily routines having more sleep problems than for children living in families with daily routines. There were significant interactions for children with low PEP reactivity and for children with the reciprocal, low reactivity profiles who experienced major family life events in predicting children’s sleep problems. Children who had a reciprocal, low reactivity ANS profile had

  2. Children's Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Moderates the Relations between Family Adversity and Sleep Problems in Latino 5-Year Olds in the CHAMACOS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W Thomas; Neilands, Torsten B; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Sleep problems are common for young children especially if they live in adverse home environments. Some studies investigate if young children may also be at a higher risk of sleep problems if they have a specific biological sensitivity to adversity. This paper addresses the research question, does the relations between children's exposure to family adversities and their sleep problems differ depending on their autonomic nervous system's sensitivity to challenges? As part of a larger cohort study of Latino, low-income families, we assessed the cross-sectional relations among family demographics (education, marital status), adversities [routines, major life events (MLE)], and biological sensitivity as measured by autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity associated with parent-rated sleep problems when the children were 5 years old. Mothers were interviewed in English or Spanish and completed demographic, family, and child measures. The children completed a 15-min standardized protocol while continuous cardiac measures of the ANS [respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), preejection period (PEP)] were collected during resting and four challenge conditions. Reactivity was defined as the mean of the responses to the four challenge conditions minus the first resting condition. Four ANS profiles, co-activation, co-inhibition, reciprocal low RSA and PEP reactivity, and reciprocal high RSA and PEP reactivity, were created by dichotomizing the reactivity scores as high or low reactivity. Logistic regression models showed there were significant main effects for children living in families with fewer daily routines having more sleep problems than for children living in families with daily routines. There were significant interactions for children with low PEP reactivity and for children with the reciprocal, low reactivity profiles who experienced major family life events in predicting children's sleep problems. Children who had a reciprocal, low reactivity ANS profile had more

  3. Children’s Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Moderates the Relations between Family Adversity and Sleep Problems in Latino 5-Year Olds in the CHAMACOS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey Alkon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common for young children especially if they live in adverse home environments. Some studies investigate if young children may also be at a higher risk of sleep problems if they have a specific biological sensitivity to adversity. This paper addresses the research question, does the relations between children’s exposure to family adversities and their sleep problems differ depending on their autonomic nervous system’s sensitivity to challenges? As part of a larger cohort study of Latino, low-income families, we assessed the cross-sectional relations among family demographics (education, marital status, adversities [routines, major life events (MLE], and biological sensitivity as measured by autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity associated with parent-rated sleep problems when the children were 5 years old. Mothers were interviewed in English or Spanish and completed demographic, family, and child measures. The children completed a 15-min standardized protocol while continuous cardiac measures of the ANS [respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, preejection period (PEP] were collected during resting and four challenge conditions. Reactivity was defined as the mean of the responses to the four challenge conditions minus the first resting condition. Four ANS profiles, co-activation, co-inhibition, reciprocal low RSA and PEP reactivity, and reciprocal high RSA and PEP reactivity, were created by dichotomizing the reactivity scores as high or low reactivity. Logistic regression models showed there were significant main effects for children living in families with fewer daily routines having more sleep problems than for children living in families with daily routines. There were significant interactions for children with low PEP reactivity and for children with the reciprocal, low reactivity profiles who experienced major family life events in predicting children’s sleep problems. Children who had a reciprocal, low reactivity

  4. Differential effects of high-fat and high-carbohydrate isoenergetic meals on cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, N; Tsigos, C; Perea, D; Koukou, E; Kyriaki, D; Kitsou, E; Daskas, S; Daifotis, Z; Makrilakis, K; Raptis, S A; Katsilambros, N

    2003-11-01

    Food ingestion can influence autonomic nervous system activity. This study compares the effects of 2 different isoenergetic meals on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels, in lean and obese women. Fifteen lean and 15 obese healthy women were examined on 2 occasions: after a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich and after a fat-rich test meal. Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, resting energy expenditure, plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, leptin, and NE, as well as spectral analysis of the HRV, were performed at baseline and every 1 hour for 3 hours after meals. At baseline, obese women had higher SNS activity than lean controls (higher values of low-to-high frequency ratio [LF/HF], 1.52 +/- 0.31 v 0.78 +/- 0.13, P=.04; and plasma NE levels, 405.6 +/- 197.9 v 240.5 +/- 95.8 pg/mL, Pmeal a greater increase in LF/HF and in plasma NE levels was observed in lean, compared to obese women (1.21 +/- 0.6 v 0.32 +/- 0.06, P=.04; and 102.9 +/- 35.4 v 38.7 +/- 12.3 pg/mL, P=.01, respectively), while no differences were observed after the fat-rich meal. Meal-induced thermogenesis was higher after the CHO-rich as compared to the fat-rich meal and was comparable between lean and obese women. Changes in HRV were not associated with the thermogenic response to the test meals. In conclusion, consumption of a CHO-rich meal causes greater cardiac SNS activation in lean than in obese women, while fat ingestion does not result in any appreciable change in either group. SNS activation does not appear to influence the thermic effect of the food in either lean or obese women.

  5. Testing an exercise intervention to improve aerobic conditioning and autonomic function after an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Glenny, Robb W; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Malinick, Todd E; Flo, Gayle L

    2010-08-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are an increasingly common treatment for survivors of sudden cardiac arrest or others with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Health-care providers are often reluctant to prescribe exercise for this group because of the belief that it will provoke ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest; patients are often afraid to exercise because of concern over receiving an ICD shock. A social cognitive theory-driven exercise intervention aimed at stabilizing cardiac arrhythmias and reducing ICD shocks by increasing parasympathetic autonomic nervous system control is described. The exercise intervention has two phases that include an 8-week aerobic conditioning component followed by a 16-week exercise maintenance component. The aerobic exercise intervention is expected to have significant impact on cardiopulmonary function, ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac autonomic function, and self-efficacy in persons who have an ICD. The exercise intervention is currently being tested using a randomized clinical trial format, the results of which will be available in 2012. The exercise after ICD trial is one of the first clinical trials to test the effects of aerobic exercise on cardiopulmonary outcomes after receiving an ICD for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest.

  6. Autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to experimentally induced cold pain in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Rinnewitz, Lena; Warth, Marco; Kaess, Michael

    2015-07-07

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with altered sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. Adolescents engaging in NSSI report greater pain threshold and pain tolerance, as well as lower pain intensity and pain unpleasantness compared to healthy controls. The experience of pain is associated with reactivity of both the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, previous research has not yet systematically addressed differences in the physiological response to experimentally induced pain comparing adolescents with NSSI and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Adolescents with NSSI and healthy controls undergo repeated painful stimulation with the cold pressor task. ANS activity is continuously recorded throughout the procedure to assess changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. Blood pressure is monitored and saliva is collected prior to and after nociceptive stimulation to assess levels of saliva cortisol. The study will provide evidence whether lower pain sensitivity in adolescents with NSSI is associated with blunted physiological and endocrinological responses to experimentally induced pain compared to healthy controls. Extending on the existing evidence on altered pain sensitivity in NSSI, measured by self-reports and behavioural assessments, this is the first study to take a systematic approach in evaluating the physiological response to experimentally induced pain in adolescent NSSI. Deutsche Register Klinischer Studien, Study ID: DRKS00007807; Trial Registration Date: 13.02.2015.

  7. Latino children’s autonomic nervous system reactivity moderates the relations between cumulative socioeconomic adversity in the first five years and externalizing behavior problems at seven years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey Alkon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thirty-seven percent of Hispanic and Latino children under 5 years of age are living in poverty in the United States. Children growing up under conditions of cumulative adversity are at much greater risk for compromised psychosocial adjustment with long-lasting ramifications for mental and physical health. This study assessed whether the relations between adversity early in life and later externalizing behaviors was moderated by children’s autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity for immigrant, poor, MexicanAmerican children. Methods: A cumulative socioeconomic adversity index of children’s exposure to poverty, father’s absence, household crowding, mothers speaking Spanish, and poor housing condition at 6 months and 1, 3.5, and 5 years of age was calculated. At 5 years, ANS profiles during resting and social- and emotion-evoking challenges were calculated as combined parasympathetic and sympathetic difference scores. At 7 years, parents assessed children’s externalizing behavior problems. Results: Multiple regression models (n=220 showed that the relations between cumulative socioeconomic adversity and externalizing behaviors were moderated by children’s ANS profiles of coactivation during a social, not emotion-evoking, challenge, controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions: Children living in adverse conditions early in life with specific psychobiologic responses to social challenges may be at risk for developing externalizing behavior problems later in life.

  8. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The course of autonomic neural function in chronic uraemic patients during haemodialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, G; Savica, V; Puglisi, R M; Marabello, L; Bellinghieri, G; Messina, C

    1992-01-01

    Autonomic function was followed in 19 patients with uraemia on chronic haemodialysis treatment over a period of 18 months. A smaller group of 12 patients were studied over 56 months. The battery of cardiovascular reflex tests included R-R interval variation test, deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to standing and sustained handgrip. Two indices of autonomic function were measured: the autonomic score, and the confidence level on Bayesian analysis. There was great variability in the course of autonomic function over the period studied, with improvement occurring in some subjects and deterioration in others. In addition some patients did not develop any abnormality. Among those patients with uraemia and normal autonomic function at the start of the study, a deterioration occurred in 33-36% in the 18-month follow-up but in 62.5% in the 56-month follow-up. As a group there was no significant change in autonomic function during follow-up, although a clear trend to deterioration was found despite chronic haemodialysis treatment.

  10. NG2-glia and their functions in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Dimou, L; Gallo, V

    2015-01-01

    In the central nervous system, NG2-glia represent a neural cell population that is distinct from neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While in the past the main role ascribed to these cells was that of progenitors for oligodendrocytes, in the last years it has become more obvious that they have further functions in the brain. Here, we will discuss some of the most current and highly debated issues regarding NG2-glia: Do these cells represent a heterogeneous population? Can they give rise...

  11. Autonomic reactivity in muscle pain : clinical and experimental assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kalezic, Nebojsa

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous indications of possible involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the genesis of chronic pain. The possibility exists that sympathetic activation is related to motor dysfunction and changes in sensory processing, which have otherwise been implicated in musculoskeletal disorders. The primary aim of the thesis has been to investigate autonomic regulation at rest and in response to laboratory tests of autonomic function in subjects suffering from chronic pain in different...

  12. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including...... the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), which documents the neurological examination of individuals with SCI. The Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is recommended to be completed during the evaluation of individuals with SCI, but is not a part of the ISNCSCI. A web-based training course (Autonomic Standards...

  13. Therapeutic options in the management of autonomously functioning thyroid adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.A.; Ong, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules or adenomas (AFTN or AFTA) was established as a clinical entity in 1918 by Goetsch correlating cellular mitochondrial content with nodular function and showing the inverse correlation between AFTN function and extra nodular tissue function. They are almost always benign and degeneration, which is common in AFTN, can result in the development of hyperthyroidism. It is therefore important to know the function of these nodules by requesting for the thyroid function tests namely T3, T4, and TSH. They are diagnosed by thyroid scans using I-131 or Tc 99m as a hot solitary nodule in one lobe with the other lobe not appearing on scan or suppressed. The frequency of AFTA worldwide is quite variable depending on geography. It ranges from 1% in North America to 10 % in some areas in Europe and Asia or in areas of iodine deficiency. The traditional methods of treatment of these nodules have been surgery and radioactive iodine ablation. Surgical treatment as a rule is indicated in young patients with nodules larger than 3 cm and those with local compressive symptoms. RAI is used in elderly patients and those who are poor surgical risks. The usual dose ranges from 20 to 30 mCi and is definitely larger that when treating Graves' disease. Others have resorted to PEI or percutaneous ethanol injection with reported success. There has been no definite management of these AFTA due to the variable natural history and some would only recommend observation for asymptomatic small adenomas, which are euthyroid. Therefore this paper studied the results of treatment using RAI ablation, surgery or plain observation for AFTA. Percutaneous ethanol injection is not being done in our center. In the local setting, where thyroid disease is still endemic, the incidence of AFTA is not so high. Graves' disease is still the predominating cause of hyperthyroidism followed by multinodular goiter. Toxic AFTA occurs in 3% of the total hyperthyroid

  14. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin levels in type 2 diabetes and their association with cardiovascular autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Raelene E; Lenhard, M James; Pohlig, Ryan T; Balagopal, P Babu

    2016-04-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are bone metabolism biomarkers potentially associated with nerve function. We evaluated the association of cardiovascular autonomic nerve function, OPN, and OPG in 50 individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RR-variation during deep breathing (i.e., mean circular resultant (MCR) and expiration/inspiration (E/I) ratio) was used to assess parasympathetic nerve function. Participants' demographics, HbA1c, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), BMI, HOMA-IR, calcium, parathyroid hormone, creatinine, OPN, and OPG were determined. Using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with MCR or E/I ratio as the dependent variable, OPN was independently associated with reduced autonomic function. A previous report showed a significant association of cardiovascular autonomic function with age, 25(OH)D insufficiency, and the interaction of age×25(OH)D insufficiency. Here we report a novel association for OPN and its interaction with age indicating that for those who are younger, elevated OPN levels are related to a greater loss of autonomic function (MCR model R2=0.598, p<0.001; E/I model R2=0.594, p<0.001). Our results suggest that OPN is associated with reduced parasympathetic function, particularly in younger individuals with T2DM. Further studies are needed to determine if OPN is neuroprotective, involved in the pathogenesis of autonomic dysfunction, or a bystander. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Co-expression of Cholinergic and Noradrenergic Phenotypes in Human and Non-Human Autonomic Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Weihe, Eberhard; Schütz, Burkhard; Hartschuh, Wolfgang; Anlauf, Martin; Schäfer, Martin K.; Eiden, Lee E.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that the sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands is cholinergic in most mammalian species, and that during development, rodent sympathetic cholinergic sweat gland innervation transiently expresses noradrenergic traits. We show here that some noradrenergic traits persist in cholinergic sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands in rodents, but that lack of expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter renders these cells functionally non-noradrenergic. Adult hum...

  16. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Qian-Qian Li; Guang-Xia Shi; Qian Xu; Jing Wang; Cun-Zhi Liu; Lin-Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temp...

  17. Functions of flavonoids in the central nervous system: Astrocytes as targets for natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Isadora; Buosi, Andrea Schmidt; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, there have been major advances in the understanding of the role of glial cells as key elements in the formation, maintenance and refinement of synapses. Recently, the discovery of natural compounds capable of modulating nervous system function has revealed new perspectives on the restoration of the injured brain. Among these compounds, flavonoids stand out as molecules easily obtainable in the diet that have remarkable effects on cognitive performance and behavior. Nevertheless, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of flavonoids in the nervous system. The present review presents recent advances in the effects of natural compounds, particularly flavonoids, in the nervous system. We shed light on astrocytes as targets of flavonoids and discuss how this interaction might contribute to the effects of flavonoids on neuronal survival, differentiation and function. Finally, we discuss how the effects of flavonoids on astrocytes might contribute to the development of alternative therapeutic approaches to the treatment of neural diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and function of voltage-gated sodium channels in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ou, Shao-Wu; Wang, Yun-Jie

    2017-11-02

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the basic ion channels for neuronal excitability, which are crucial for the resting potential and the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons. To date, at least nine distinct sodium channel isoforms have been detected in the nervous system. Recent studies have identified that voltage-gated sodium channels not only play an essential role in the normal electrophysiological activities of neurons but also have a close relationship with neurological diseases. In this study, the latest research findings regarding the structure, type, distribution, and function of VGSCs in the nervous system and their relationship to neurological diseases, such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain, brain tumors, neural trauma, and multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in detail.

  19. CD44: molecular interactions, signalling and functions in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Marek Wilczynski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CD44 is the major surface hyaluronan receptor implicated in intercellular and cell-matrix adhesion, cell migration and signalling. It is a transmembrane, highly glycosylated protein with several isoforms resulting from alternative gene splicing. The CD44 molecule consists of several domains serving different functions: the N-terminal extracellular domain, the stem region, the transmembrane domain and the C-terminal tail. In the nervous system, CD44 expression occurs in both glial and neuronal cells. The role of CD44 in the physiology and pathology of the nervous system is not entirely understood, however, there exists evidence suggesting it might be involved in the axon guidance, cytoplasmic Ca2+ clearance, dendritic arborization, synaptic transmission, epileptogenesis, oligodendrocyte and astrocyte differentiation, post-traumatic brain repair and brain tumour development.

  20. The Primo Vascular Structures Alongside Nervous System: Its Discovery and Functional Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-sung Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular structures comprising primo nodes and vessels (originally called Bonghan corpuscles and ducts, resp. have recently been suggested to be the anatomical correlate of acupuncture, a therapeutic technique used in oriental medicine. Although the primo vascular structures have been observed in many parts of animals, including the nervous system, using anatomical methodologies, its physiological functions are still unclear. This paper summarizes the reports on the primo vascular structures, particularly in the nervous system and its surroundings, as well as the electrophysiological properties of cells in the primo nodes. In addition, recent reports examining the potential roles of the primo vascular structures in acupuncture are discussed. This review raises some fundamental questions and, at the same time, highlights the potential physiological roles of the primo vascular structures in acupuncture.

  1. Uncertainty in anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension is modulated by the autonomic nervous system--a fMRI study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Amandine; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Pellissier, Sonia; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; de Micheaux, Hugo Lafaye; Tack, Jan; Dantzer, Cécile; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-02-15

    The human brain responds both before and during the application of aversive stimuli. Anticipation allows the organism to prepare its nociceptive system to respond adequately to the subsequent stimulus. The context in which an uncomfortable stimulus is experienced may also influence neural processing. Uncertainty of occurrence, timing and intensity of an aversive event may lead to increased anticipatory anxiety, fear, physiological arousal and sensory perception. We aimed to identify, in healthy volunteers, the effects of uncertainty in the anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension, and the impact of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and anxiety-related psychological variables on neural mechanisms of anticipation of rectal distension using fMRI. Barostat-controlled uncomfortable rectal distensions were preceded by cued uncertain or certain anticipation in 15 healthy volunteers in a fMRI protocol at 3T. Electrocardiographic data were concurrently registered by MR scanner. The low frequency (LF)-component of the heart rate variability (HRV) time-series was extracted and inserted as a regressor in the fMRI model ('LF-HRV model'). The impact of ANS activity was analyzed by comparing the fMRI signal in the 'standard model' and in the 'LF-HRV model' across the different anticipation and distension conditions. The scores of the psychological questionnaires and the rating of perceived anticipatory anxiety were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis. Our experiments led to the following key findings: 1) the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is the only activation site that relates to uncertainty in healthy volunteers and is directly correlated to individual questionnaire score for pain-related anxiety; 2) uncertain anticipation of rectal distension involved several relevant brain regions, namely activation of sgACC and medial prefrontal cortex and deactivation of amygdala, insula, thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, supplementary

  2. Cardioprotection afforded by exercise training prior to myocardial infarction is associated with autonomic function improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Barboza, Catarina Andrade; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego; Souza, Gabriel Inacio Honorato; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-07-14

    It has been suggested that exercise training (ET) protects against the pathological remodeling and ventricular dysfunction induced by myocardial infarction (MI). However, it remains unclear whether the positive adjustments on baroreflex and cardiac autonomic modulations promoted by ET may afford a cardioprotective mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic ET, prior to MI, on cardiac remodeling and function, as well as on baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary rats submitted to Sham surgery (C); trained rats submitted to Sham surgery (TC); sedentary rats submitted to MI (I), trained rats submitted to MI (TI). Sham and MI were performed after ET period. After surgeries, echocardiographic, hemodynamic and autonomic (baroreflex sensitivity, cardiovascular autonomic modulation) evaluations were conducted. Prior ET prevented an additional decline in exercise capacity in TI group in comparison with I. MI area was not modified by previous ET. ET was able to increase the survival and prevent additional left ventricle dysfunction in TI rats. Although changes in hemodynamic evaluations were not observed, ET prevented the decrease of baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic dysfunction in TI animals when compared with I animals. Importantly, cardiac improvement was associated with the prevention of cardiac autonomic impairment in studied groups. Prior ET was effective in changing aerobic capacity, left ventricular morphology and function in rats undergoing MI. Furthermore, these cardioprotective effects were associated with attenuated cardiac autonomic dysfunction observed in trained rats. Although these cause-effect relationships can only be inferred, rather than confirmed, our study suggests that positive adaptations of autonomic function by ET can play a vital role in preventing changes associated with cardiovascular disease, particularly in relation to MI.

  3. Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka P Jyotsna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to observe the effect comprehensive yogic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga [SKY] and Pranayam had on cardiac autonomic functions in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 64 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program. Standard therapy included dietary advice, brisk walking for 45 min daily, and administration of oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was introduced to the participants through a course of 12 h spread over 3 days. It was an interactive session in which SKY, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam is taught under the guidance of a certified teacher. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and after 6 months of intervention. Results: In the intervention group, after practicing the breathing techniques for 6 months, the improvement in sympathetic functions was statistically significant (P 0.04. The change in sympathetic functions in the standard therapy group was not significant (P 0.75.Parasympathetic functions did not show any significant change in either group. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P 0.06. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P 0.99. Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic functions improved in patients with diabetes on standard treatment who followed the comprehensive yogic breathing program compared to patients who were on standard therapy alone.

  4. Effects of glucose ingestion on autonomic and cardiovascular measures during rest and mental challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synowski, S.J.; Kop, W.J.; Warwick, Z.S.; Waldstein, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of dietary sugar consumption may result in dysregulated glucose metabolism and lead to elevated cardiovascular disease risk via autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular dysfunction. Altered cardiovascular function can be examined using perturbation tasks such as mental

  5. Assessment of respiratory disturbance index determined with a non-restrictive monitor and of autonomic nervous system parameters in heart failure patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Shuzo; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Adachi, Shiro; Kondo, Takahisa; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-09-01

    There is a link between sympathetic overactivity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and both of which are important indicators of the development of heart failure. To manage the increasing numbers of heart failure patients, any method used to check for them needs to be as non-invasive, simple, and cost-effective as possible. The purpose of this study is to assess screening of SDB with a non-restrictive monitor and the autonomic nervous system in heart failure patients. The subjects were 49 patients (mean age: 67 years; male: 78%) hospitalized for worsening heart failure. After stabilization with appropriate medical therapy, each patient simultaneously underwent sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) screening with the SD-101 (Kenzmedico Co. Ltd., Saitama, Japan), which is a novel, non-restrictive, sheet-like monitor for SAS screening, and assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) with a Holter monitor. In addition, we assessed daytime sleepiness by using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was 21.9 events/h. Males had significantly greater RDI values than females (24.5±11.2 events/h vs. 13.0±6.2 events/h, p<0.001). RDI on SD-101 testing was closely correlated with cyclic variation of heart rate index obtained with a Holter electrocardiogram scanner (r=0.843). Although plasma brain natriuretic peptide level was not correlated with HRV, plasma norepinephrine level was moderately well correlated with the total low- to high-frequency ratio of HRV (r=0.529). SAS screening is important for heart failure patients, because absence of subjective sleepiness is not reliable in ruling out SDB. The SAS screening with SD-101 might apply for managing heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Roland Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive

  7. Method to measure autonomic control of cardiac function using time interval parameters from impedance cardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, Jan H; Boesveldt, Sanne; Elbertse, Eskeline; Berendse, H W

    2008-01-01

    The time difference between the electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram can be considered as a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activities of the heart. This time interval, characterized by the pre-ejection period (PEP), is related to the sympathetic autonomous nervous control of cardiac activity. PEP, however, is difficult to measure in practice. Therefore, a novel parameter, the initial systolic time interval (ISTI), is introduced to provide a more practical measure. The use of ISTI instead of PEP was evaluated in three groups: young healthy subjects, patients with Parkinson's disease, and a group of elderly, healthy subjects of comparable age. PEP and ISTI were studied under two conditions: at rest and after an exercise stimulus. Under both conditions, PEP and ISTI behaved largely similarly in the three groups and were significantly correlated. It is concluded that ISTI can be used as a substitute for PEP and, therefore, to evaluate autonomic neuropathy both in clinical and extramural settings. Measurement of ISTI can also be used to non-invasively monitor the electromechanical cardiac time interval, and the associated autonomic activity, under physiological circumstances

  8. Electrospun micro- and nanofiber tubes for functional nervous regeneration in sciatic nerve transections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadio Stefano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many nerve prostheses have been proposed in recent years, in the case of consistent loss of nervous tissue peripheral nerve injury is still a traumatic pathology that may impair patient's movements by interrupting his motor-sensory pathways. In the last few decades tissue engineering has opened the door to new approaches;: however most of them make use of rigid channel guides that may cause cell loss due to the lack of physiological local stresses exerted over the nervous tissue during patient's movement. Electrospinning technique makes it possible to spin microfiber and nanofiber flexible tubular scaffolds composed of a number of natural and synthetic components, showing high porosity and remarkable surface/volume ratio. Results In this study we used electrospun tubes made of biodegradable polymers (a blend of PLGA/PCL to regenerate a 10-mm nerve gap in a rat sciatic nerve in vivo. Experimental groups comprise lesioned animals (control group and lesioned animals subjected to guide conduits implantated at the severed nerve stumps, where the tubular scaffolds are filled with saline solution. Four months after surgery, sciatic nerves failed to reconnect the two stumps of transected nerves in the control animal group. In most of the treated animals the electrospun tubes induced nervous regeneration and functional reconnection of the two severed sciatic nerve tracts. Myelination and collagen IV deposition have been detected in concurrence with regenerated fibers. No significant inflammatory response has been found. Neural tracers revealed the re-establishment of functional neuronal connections and evoked potential results showed the reinnervation of the target muscles in the majority of the treated animals. Conclusion Corroborating previous works, this study indicates that electrospun tubes, with no additional biological coating or drug loading treatment, are promising scaffolds for functional nervous regeneration. They

  9. The brain on itself: Nobel laureates and the history of fundamental nervous system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2007-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been given in recognition of work in the neurosciences a number of times. Laureates have been awarded for work on both fundamental and more complex nervous system functions. This review is restricted to contributions by 20th century laureates to the understanding of fundamental nervous system function on the cellular level. In 1906, Camillo Golgi and Ramón y Cajal were awarded for their work on the microscopic structure of the nervous system. Their achievement and those of others within this field, coupled with technological progress, gradually allowed more complex physiological studies. In 1932, the prize was awarded to Charles Sherrington and Edgar Adrian for their discoveries of how neurons function. They were followed in 1944 by Herbert Gasser and Joseph Erlanger who uncovered the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibers. Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley were awarded for the detection of the ionic mechanism of the action potential and its mathematical explanation in 1963. In 1991, Erwin Neher and Bernd Sakmann were awarded for their work on single ion channels. Although the scientists who proved the hypothesis (Fridjof Nansen, Wilhelm His, and August Forel) were never awarded by the Nobel Committee, their studies gave rise to one of the most fundamental questions in 20th century neuroscience: How is information carried from one neuron to another or to an effector cell? This was first solved in the vegetative nervous system, and, in 1936, Henry Dale and Otto Loewi received the prize for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses. In 1963, John Eccles was awarded the prize for his work on the physiology of synapses. In 1970, Bernhard Katz received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of quantal release. Katz shared the prize with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler, who were central in finding that transmitters are stored in presynaptic vesicles and that the effect in many synapses is

  10. The transforming growth factor-betas: structure, signaling, and roles in nervous system development and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttner, M; Krieglstein, K; Unsicker, K

    2000-12-01

    Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) are among the most widespread and versatile cytokines. Here, we first provide a brief overview of their molecular biology, biochemistry, and signaling. We then review distribution and functions of the three mammalian TGF-beta isoforms, beta1, beta2, and beta3, and their receptors in the developing and adult nervous system. Roles of TGF-betas in the regulation of radial glia, astroglia, oligodendroglia, and microglia are addressed. Finally, we review the current state of knowledge concerning the roles of TGF-betas in controlling neuronal performances, including the regulation of proliferation of neuronal precursors, survival/death decisions, and neuronal differentiation.

  11. Exercise training and cardiac autonomic function in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Pooja; Shenoy, Shweta; Hussain, M Ejaz

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been found to independently predict all cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. It remains unclear whether exercise training could improve autonomic control in T2DM patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effects of exercise training on cardiac autonomic function in T2DM patients. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PEDro, Scopus and Web of science) were systematically searched to retrieve relevant evidence. Clinical trials administering exercise training for at least 4 weeks and examining either heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate recovery (HRR) as outcome measures were eligible. Eighteen articles were found to be relevant and were then assessed for characteristics and quality. Fifteen studies out of 18 found that exercise training leads to positive improvements in autonomic function of T2DM patients. Exercise participation enhances cardiac autonomic function of type 2 diabetics and therefore should be implemented in their management programs. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of Autonomic Function in Exercise-induced Endogenous Analgesia: A Case-control Study in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Healthy People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijck, Jessica Van; Marusic, Uros; De Wandele, Inge; Paul, Lorna; Meeus, Mira; Moorkens, Greta; Lambrecht, Luc; Danneels, Lieven; Nijs, Jo

    2017-03-01

    Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are unable to activate brain-orchestrated endogenous analgesia (or descending inhibition) in response to exercise. This physiological impairment is currently regarded as one factor explaining post-exertional malaise in these patients. Autonomic dysfunction is also a feature of ME/CFS. This study aims to examine the role of the autonomic nervous system in exercise-induced analgesia in healthy people and those with ME/CFS, by studying the recovery of autonomic parameters following aerobic exercise and the relation to changes in self-reported pain intensity. A controlled experimental study. The study was conducted at the Human Physiology lab of a University. Twenty women with ME/CFS- and 20 healthy, sedentary controls performed a submaximal bicycle exercise test known as the Aerobic Power Index with continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring. Before and after the exercise, measures of autonomic function (i.e., heart rate variability, blood pressure, and respiration rate) were performed continuously for 10 minutes and self-reported pain levels were registered. The relation between autonomous parameters and self-reported pain parameters was examined using correlation analysis. Some relationships of moderate strength between autonomic and pain measures were found. The change (post-exercise minus pre-exercise score) in pain severity was correlated (r = .580, P = .007) with the change in diastolic blood pressure in the healthy group. In the ME/CFS group, positive correlations between the changes in pain severity and low frequency (r = .552, P = .014), and between the changes in bodily pain and diastolic blood pressure (r = .472, P = .036), were seen. In addition, in ME/CHFS the change in headache severity was inversely correlated (r = -.480, P = .038) with the change in high frequency heart rate variability. Based on the cross-sectional design of the study, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the

  13. Measures of Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Gastro- intestinal Pupillary Response Respiratory Salivary Amylase Vascular Manipulative Body-Based/ Tension-Release Practices Trauma...Physiological Activities ANS Physiological Activities Cardiac Pupillary Response Catecholamines Respiration Cortisol Salivary Amylase Galvanic Skin...results reported  Cronbach alpha exceeding 0.70 Validity was assessed by the tool’s ability to quantify the data to be measured and was

  14. New roles for ‘old’ microRNAs in nervous system function and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eHartl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, microRNAs became prominent candidates providing missing links on how to explain the developmental and phenotypical variation within one species or among different species. In addition, microRNAs were implicated in diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. More recently, the regulation of animal behavior was shown to be influenced by microRNAs. In spite of their numerous functions, only a few microRNAs were discovered by using classic genetic approaches. Due to the very mild or redundant phenotypes of most microRNAs or their genomic location within introns of other genes many regulatory microRNAs were missed. In this review, we focus on three microRNAs first identified in a forward genetic screen in invertebrates for their essential function in animal development, namely bantam, let-7 and miR-279. All three are essential for survival, are not located in introns of other genes, and are highly conserved among species. We highlight their important functions in the nervous system and discuss their emerging roles, especially during nervous system disease and behavior.

  15. Autonomic changes in fibromyalgia: Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is one of the suggested pathophysiological mechanisms of fibromyalgia (FM). Its dysfunction may contribute to enhanced pain and other clinical problems associated with FM. Previous studies showed conflicting results regarding ANS function in FM. Some studies ...

  16. Autonomic changes in fibromyalgia: Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha El-Sawy

    2012-03-14

    Mar 14, 2012 ... Fibromyalgia;. Tilt table test;. Standing and supine blood pressure and heart rate;. Sympathetic skin response. Abstract Background: Autonomic nervous ... Depression(HRSD) and 4 – functional status by Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ). ..... may affect the sleep pattern and psychological state of the.

  17. Origin of Heart Rate Variability and Turbulence: An Appraisal of Autonomic Modulation of Cardiovascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Federico; Stein, Phyllis K.

    2011-01-01

    Heart period constantly changes on a beat to beat basis, due to autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, and changes can be quantified as heart rate variability (HRV). In addition, after a premature ventricular beat, there are reproducible variations in RR interval, also due to baroreflex mediated autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, that can be measured as heart rate turbulence (HRT). Impaired autonomic function as measured by HRV and HRT has proven to predict adverse outcomes in clinical settings. The ability of reduced HRV and HRT to predict adverse outcomes has been explained by their dependency on vagal mechanisms that could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node, thus favoring cardiac electrical instability. Analysis of non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilized to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective in identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Despite the clinical validity of these measures, it has also been evident that the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness is extremely complex and variable in different clinical conditions. Thus, abnormal HRV or HRT on a clinical Holter recordings may reflect non-neural as well as autonomic mechanisms, and this also needs to be taken into account when interpreting any findings. However, under controlled conditions, the computation of the low and high frequency components of HRV and of their normalized powers or ratio seems capable of providing valid information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects, as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function. Thus, analysis of HRV does provide a unique tool to specifically assess autonomic control mechanisms in association with various perturbations. In conclusion, HRV measures are of substantial utility to identify patients with an increased cardiac mortality and to evaluate autonomic control mechanisms, but

  18. Autonomic nervous system activity assessment in recreational half marathon runners [Hodnocení aktivity autonomního nervového systému u rekreačních účastníků půlmaratonského běhu

    OpenAIRE

    David Smékal; Michal Šafář; Pavel Stejskal; Michal Botek

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spectral analysis (SA) of heart rate variability (HRV) is considered to be a non invasive method for the quantification of autonomic cardiac activity in relationship to the sinoatrial node. It is well known that autonomic regulation is affected by various stress factors such as anxiety and/or physical activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-competitive anxiety on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and, further, to monitor the ti...

  19. Effect of 48?h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    OpenAIRE

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Art?ras; Terentjevien?, Asta; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48?h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48?h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated befor...

  20. Temperamental activation and inhibition associated with autonomic function in preadolescents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; van Roon, Arie M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    We investigated the temperamental traits high-intensity pleasure (temperamental activation) and shyness (temperamental inhibition) in relation to autonomic function as measured by heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in 938 10-13-year-old

  1. 12-month efficacy of a single radiofrequency ablation on autonomously functioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Stacul, Fulvio; Michelli, Andrea; Giudici, Fabiola; Zuolo, Giulia; de Manzini, Nicolò; Dobrinja, Chiara; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Fabris, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has been advocated as an alternative to radioiodine and/or surgery for the treatment of autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. However, only a few studies have measured radiofrequency ablation efficacy on autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. The aim of this work was to evaluate the 12-month efficacy of a single session of radiofrequency ablation (performed with the moving shot technique) on solitary autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Thirty patients with a single, benign autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules, who were either unwilling or ineligible to undergo surgery and radioiodine, were treated with radiofrequency ablation between April 2012 and May 2015. All the patients underwent a single radiofrequency ablation, performed with the 18-gauge needle and the moving shot technique. Clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound evaluations were scheduled at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months from the procedure. A single radiofrequency ablation reduced thyroid nodule volume by 51, 63, 69, and 75 % after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. This was associated with a significant improvement of local cervical discomfort and cosmetic score. As for thyroid function, 33 % of the patients went into remission after 3 months, 43 % after 6 months, and 50 % after 12 months from the procedure. This study demonstrates that a single radiofrequency ablation allowed us to withdraw anti-thyroid medication in 50 % of the patients, who remained euthyroid afterwards. This study shows that a single radiofrequency ablation was effective in 50 % of patients with autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Patients responded gradually to the treatment. It is possible that longer follow-up studies might show greater response rates.

  2. Cardiovascular control, autonomic function, and elite endurance performance in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C R; Gee, C M; Voss, C; Hubli, M; Currie, K D; Schmid, J; Krassioukov, A V

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between level of injury, completeness of injury, resting as well as exercise hemodynamics, and endurance performance in athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-three elite male paracycling athletes (C3-T8) were assessed for neurological level/completeness of injury, autonomic completeness of injury, resting cardiovascular function, and time to complete a 17.3-km World Championship time-trial test. A subset were also fitted with heart rate (HR) monitors and their cycles were fitted with a global positioning systems device (n = 15). Thoracic SCI exhibited higher seated systolic blood pressure along with superior time-trial performance compared with cervical SCI (all P athletes with cervical autonomic incomplete SCI exhibited a faster time-trial time and a higher average speed compared with cervical autonomic complete SCI (all P speed between thoracic autonomic complete vs incomplete SCI. In conclusion, autonomic completeness of injury and the consequent ability of the cardiovascular system to respond to exercise appear to be a critical determinant of endurance performance in elite athletes with cervical SCI. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Autonomic dysfunction in different subtypes of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Claudia; Herting, Birgit; Prieur, Silke; Junghanns, Susann; Schweitzer, Katherine; Globas, Christoph; Schöls, Ludger; Reichmann, Heinz; Berg, Daniela; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2008-09-15

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) can clinically be divided into the cerebellar (MSA-C) and the parkinsonian (MSA-P) variant. However, till now, it is unknown whether autonomic dysfunction in these two entities differs regarding severity and profile. We compared the pattern of autonomic dysfunction in 12 patients with MSA-C and 26 with MSA-P in comparison with 27 age- and sex-matched healthy controls using a standard battery of autonomic function tests and a structured anamnesis of the autonomic nervous system. MSA-P patients complained significantly more often about the symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions than MSA-C patients, especially regarding vasomotor, secretomotor, and gastrointestinal subsystems. However, regarding cardiovascular, sudomotor pupil, urogenital, and sleep subsystems, there were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences as analyzed by autonomic anamnesis and testing. Our results suggest that there are only minor differences in the pattern of autonomic dysfunction between the two clinical MSA phenotypes. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Diverse autonomic regulation of pupillary function and the cardiovascular system during alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Thomas; Hoyme, Johannes; Schulz, Steffen; Weißenfels, Markus; Voss, Andreas; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Previous research indicated the complexity of autonomic dysfunction during acute alcohol withdrawal. This study aimed to investigate the pupillary light reflex as an indicator of midbrain and brainstem regulatory systems in relation to cardiovascular autonomic function. Thirty male patients were included in the study. They were investigated during acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome and 24h later during clomethiazole treatment and compared to healthy controls. Parameters of pupillary light reflex of both eyes as well as heart rate variability, blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were studied. We observed significantly reduced sympathetic (small diameter, e.g., left eye: 5.00 in patients vs. 5.91 mm in controls) and vagal modulation (e.g., prolonged latencies, left eye: 0.28 vs. 0.26 ms) regarding both pupils during acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Cardiovascular parameters showed reduced vagal modulation (e.g., b-slope of BRS: 7. 57 vs. 13.59 ms/mm Hg) and mixed results for sympathetic influence. After 24h, autonomic dysfunction improved significantly, both for the pupils (e.g., left diameter: 5.38 mm) and the heart (e.g., b-slope of BRS: 9.34 ms/mm Hg). While parameters obtained from the pupil correlated with cardiac autonomic function (e.g, BRS and left diameter: r=0.564) in healthy controls, no such pattern was observed in patients. Results obtained from the pupil during acute alcohol withdrawal do not simply mirror autonomic dysfunction regarding the heart. Pupillary and cardiovascular changes after 24h indicate state dependencies of the results. The findings are discussed with respect to autonomic mechanisms and potentially involved brain regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for vestibular regulation of autonomic functions in a mouse genetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Dean M.; Erkman, Linda; Hermanson, Ola; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Fuller, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Physiological responses to changes in the gravitational field and body position, as well as symptoms of patients with anxiety-related disorders, have indicated an interrelationship between vestibular function and stress responses. However, the relative significance of cochlear and vestibular information in autonomic regulation remains unresolved because of the difficulties in distinguishing the relative contributions of other proprioceptive and interoceptive inputs, including vagal and somatic information. To investigate the role of cochlear and vestibular function in central and physiological responses, we have examined the effects of increased gravity in wild-type mice and mice lacking the POU homeodomain transcription factor Brn-3.1 (Brn-3bPou4f3). The only known phenotype of the Brn-3.1(-/-) mouse is related to hearing and balance functions, owing to the failure of cochlear and vestibular hair cells to differentiate properly. Here, we show that normal physiological responses to increased gravity (2G exposure), such as a dramatic drop in body temperature and concomitant circadian adjustment, were completely absent in Brn-3.1(-/-) mice. In line with the lack of autonomic responses, the massive increase in neuronal activity after 2G exposure normally detected in wild-type mice was virtually abolished in Brn-3.1(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that cochlear and vestibular hair cells are the primary regulators of autonomic responses to altered gravity and provide genetic evidence that these cells are sufficient to alter neural activity in regions involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine control.

  6. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  7. Association between Birth Characteristics and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function at Mid-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkiömäki, Nelli; Auvinen, Juha; Tulppo, Mikko P; Hautala, Arto J; Perkiömäki, Juha; Karhunen, Ville; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Huikuri, Heikki V; Kiviniemi, Antti M

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects. At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD) from R-R intervals (RRi) and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965-1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking) and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status) potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function. In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014) and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, pmid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth weight in males may contribute to less favourable cardiovascular autonomic regulation and potentially to an elevated cardiovascular risk in later life.

  8. The effects of prophylactic treatment of the central nervous system on the intellectual functioning of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, H.A.; Nannis, E.D.; Poplack, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of central nervous system prophylaxis (cranial radiation and intrathecal chemotherapy) on intellectual function was studied in 24 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. The Wechsler Intelligence tests were administered to these children and to a sample of their healthy siblings, who served as a comparison group. The mean Full Scale lQ was 98.6 for the patients and 112.5 for the sibling controls (p less than 0.001 level). Those patients who received central nervous system preventive treatment at a young age exhibited a greater decrement in intellectual abilities than did patients who were older when they received this treatment. In contrast, leukemia patients who had not received central nervous system prophylaxis had IQs that did not differ statistically from those of their siblings. These data suggest that central nervous system prophylaxis may have an adverse effect on the intellectual capability of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

  9. The relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid levels and cardiac autonomic function in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Gulgun; Kursat, Fidanci Muzaffer; Ahmet, Tas; Alparslan, Genc Fatih; Omer, Gunes; Sertoglu, Erdem; Erkan, Sarı; Ediz, Yesilkaya; Turker, Turker; Ayhan, Kılıc

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide health concern. Studies have shown autonomic dysfunction in obese children. The exact mechanism of this dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) levels and cardiac autonomic function in obese children using heart rate variability (HRV). A total of 48 obese and 32 healthy children were included in this case-control study. Anthropometric and biochemical data, HRV indices, and EMFA levels in both groups were compared statistically. HRV parameters including standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (NN), root mean square of successive differences, the number of pairs of successive NNs that differ by >50 ms (NN50), the proportion of NN50 divided by the total number of NNs, high-frequency power, and low-frequency power were lower in obese children compared to controls, implying parasympathetic impairment. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels were lower in the obese group (p<0.001 and p=0.012, respectively). In correlation analysis, in the obese group, body mass index standard deviation and linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein levels showed a linear correlation with one or more HRV parameter, and age, eicosapentaenoic acid, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure correlated with mean heart rate. In linear regression analysis, age, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, body mass index standard deviation, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were related to HRV parameters, implying an effect on cardiac autonomic function. There is impairment of cardiac autonomic function in obese children. It appears that levels of EMFAs such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid play a role in the regulation of cardiac autonomic function in obese children. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa

  10. Venous and autonomic function in formerly pre-eclamptic women and BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, Wieteke M; van Drongelen, Joris; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Scholten, Ralph R

    2018-03-25

    Pre-pregnancy reduced plasma volume increases the risk on subsequent pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Reduced plasma volume is thought to reflect venous reserve capacity, especially when venous vasculature is constricted and sympathetic tone is elevated. As obesity might affect these variables and also relates to pre-eclampsia, increased body weight may underlie these observations. We hypothesized that the relationship between reduced venous reserve and preeclampsia is independent of body mass index (BMI). We compared the non-pregnant venous reserve capacity in 30 formerly pre-eclamptic women, equally divided in 3 BMI-classes (BMI 19.5-24.9, BMI 25-29.9, BMI ≥30) to 30 controls. Cases and controls were matched for BMI, age and parity. The venous reserve capacity was quantified by assessing plasma volume and venous compliance. The autonomic nervous system regulating the venous capacitance was evaluated with heart rate variability analysis in resting supine position and during positive head-up tilt (HUT). Formerly pre-eclamptic women had in supine position lower plasma volume than controls (1339 ± 79 vs 1547 ± 139 ml/m 2 (pBMI-matched controls, reduced venous reserve capacity. This is reflected by lower plasma volume and venous compliance, the autonomic balance is shifted towards sympathetic dominance and lower baroreceptor sensitivity. This suggests that not BMI, but underlying reduced venous reserve relates to pre-eclampsia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Katrien; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lagae, Lieven

    2012-12-01

    West syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy. Autonomic changes are increasingly being recognized in patients with epilepsy: cardiac autonomic function is mediated by sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent activity to the heart and can provide information on the functional state of the autonomic nervous system. The goal of the study is to evaluate the effect of an early epileptic encephalopathy on the autonomic nervous system by measuring heart rate variability. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated in 13 patients with West syndrome by measuring heart rate variability during 5 min epochs of ECG in wake, stage 2 and slow wave sleep. In 5 patients who developed subsequently another type of epilepsy, a second evaluation was performed after 3 years of follow-up. Results showed a lower heart rate in stage 2 sleep in patients with West syndrome. Spectral components did not show significant differences compared to age matched controls at the moment of presentation. After follow-up of 3 years we were able to demonstrate higher low frequency (LF), lower high frequency (HF) and a higher LF/HF ratio during slow wave sleep. This study shows a lower heart rate in patients presenting with West syndrome, already at the onset of the syndrome and before ACTH treatment. The epileptic encephalopathy is not sufficient to alter spectral components of heart rate at the moment of presentation. However, already after 3 years of epilepsy, chronic autonomic changes appear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative indices of baroreflex-sympathoneural function: application to patients with chronic autonomic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Faisal; Goldstein, David S

    2014-06-01

    Chronic autonomic failure syndromes such as Parkinson disease with orthostatic hypotension (PD + OH), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and pure autonomic failure (PAF) typically feature arterial baroreflex failure. Identifying baroreflex-sympathoneural failure from hemodynamic responses to the maneuver usually has been qualitative. We report quantitative methods for evaluating baroreflex-sympathoneural function, based on beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (BPs) responses to the Valsalva maneuver. Using the trapezoid rule, we calculated the area under the curve (baroreflex area, BRA) between baseline systolic blood pressure (BPs) and the BPs for each beat in Phase II (BRA-II) and Phase IV (BRA-IV) in 136 autonomic failure patients and 171 controls. The sum of the areas was defined as total BRA (BRA-T). We compared individual values by the BRA approach with those by other measures. Mean values for log BRA-II, BRA-IV, and BRA-T were higher in PD + OH, PAF, and MSA than in controls (p baroreflex-cardiovagal slope (r = -0.40, p baroreflex-sympathoneural function. Chronic autonomic failure syndromes entail deficiencies of both the cardiovagal and sympathoneural limbs of the arterial baroreflex.

  13. Low intensity resistance training improves systolic function and cardiovascular autonomic control in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostarda, Cristiano T; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Moraes-Silva, Ivana C; Arruda, Paula Barros Olinto; Cardoso, Ruymar; Scapini, Katia Bilhar; Dos Santos, Fernando; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of low intensity resistance training (RT) on left ventricular (LV) function, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and cardiovascular autonomic control of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into (n=8 each group): sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD), and trained diabetic (TD). Trained groups underwent low intensity RT (40%-50% 1 repetition maximum) for 10 weeks. Echocardiographic evaluation, arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), BRS, and autonomic measurements were performed. Diabetes induced an increase in glycemia and a reduction in body weight in diabetics when compared with control animals. Diabetic rats displayed cardiac dysfunction, reduced systolic AP and HR, impaired BRS and autonomic derangement when compared to control rats. RT improved ejection fraction (SD: 68%±1.3% vs. TD: 75%±3.0%) and velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (SD: 0.32±0.02 vs. TD: 0.40±0.01 circ/seg.10(-4)). Trained diabetic rats presented increased AP (+10.2%), HR (+10.4%), and BRS after RT protocol. Low intensity RT induced an increase in systolic function in diabetic rats. This may be due to positive LV remodeling and BRS improvement, which may have played an important role in the attenuation of hemodynamic impairment and cardiac autonomic neuropathy in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of rate of perceived exertion-based exercise training in patients with heart failure: insights from autonomic nervous system adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iellamo, Ferdinando; Manzi, Vincenzo; Caminiti, Giuseppe; Vitale, Cristiana; Massaro, Michele; Cerrito, Anna; Rosano, Giuseppe; Volterrani, Maurizio

    2014-09-20

    Exercise prescription in cardiac patients is based on heart rate (HR) response to exercise. How to prescribe long-term exercise training outside medically-supervised settings also considering changes in individual physical capacity over time is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) the session-rate of perceived exertion (RPE), a subjective-based training methodology, provides autonomic and functional capacity changes superimposable to those observed with HR-based Training Impulses (TRIMPi) method. Twenty patients with stable CHF were randomized to either aerobic continuous training (ACT) or aerobic interval training (AIT) for 12 weeks. For each TRIMPi-guided exercise session, the session-RPE was recorded. By this method, internal training load (TL) is quantified by multiplying the RPE of the whole training session, using the Borg CR10-scale, by its duration. Heart rate variability (HRV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were assessed at baseline and at 3 weeks intervals. Significant correlations were found between TRIMPi and individual session-RPE, for both ACT and AIT (r=0.63 to 0.81), (Ptraining, that could be used for long-term physical activity in patients with CHF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick eMcConnell; Patrick eMcConnell; Brett eFroeliger; Eric L. Garland; Jeffrey C. Ives; Gary A. Sforzo

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics (heart-rate variability (HRV)) during post-exercise relaxation...

  16. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Patrick A.; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L.; Ives, Jeffrey C.; Sforzo, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation...

  17. K voprosu ocenki aktivnosti vegetativnoj nervnoj sistemy u sportsmenov [To a question of an estimation of activity of autonomic nervous system at sportsmen

    OpenAIRE

    Romanchuk, AP

    2015-01-01

    At simultaneous research of heart rhythm variability and frequency of breath at highly skilled sportsmen we establish regress between parameters ТР (ms) and BF which has allowed to establish, that parameters ТР describing autonomic activity, at BF is lower 14 and higher 19 in a minute have close interrelation with frequency of breath. On the basis of the received data it has been constructed nomogramma estimations of autonomic activity.

  18. Progressive dysregulation of autonomic and HPA axis functions in HIV-1 clade C infection in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittiprol, Seetharamaiah; Kumar, Adarsh M; Satishchandra, P; Taranath Shetty, K; Bhimasena Rao, R S; Subbakrishna, D K; Philip, Mariyamma; Satish, K S; Ravi Kumar, H; Kumar, Mahendra

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes a wide spectrum of abnormalities in neurological, neuropsychological, and neuroendocrinological functions. Several studies report disturbance in autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in HIV-1B infected individuals. However, no such investigations on the effect of HIV-1 clade C infection, particularly during the initial phase of the disease progression, have been reported. The present investigations were carried out longitudinally over a 2-year period at 12 monthly intervals in clinically asymptomatic HIV-1 clade C seropositive patients (n=120) and seronegative control subjects (n=29). We determined both the basal levels and the dynamic changes in plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT). Studies were also extended longitudinally (at three separate yearly visits of each participant), to evaluate the response of autonomic and HPA axis to mirror star tracing challenge test (MSTCT) and the values were determined as area under the curve (AUC, corrected for baseline levels of NE, E, ACTH, and CORT). The findings show that the values of basal plasma NE levels, as well as NE response to MSTCT (AUC) at the first visit of HIV-1 seropositive individuals did not differ from those found in the control subjects (NE, pg/ml, HIV-1C=313.5+/-12.7 vs. controls=353.0+/-21.3; p=NS; AUC, HIV-1C=225+/-14.75 vs. controls=232.7+/-19.34; p=NS, respectively). At the subsequent two visits of HIV-1 positive patients however, NE response to MSTCT challenge was progressively attenuated (AUC=235+/-19.5 and 162.7+/-13.6; p<0.01 and 0.05, respectively) compared to that found at the first visit. On the other hand, plasma levels of E as well as E response to MSTCT at the first visit were significantly lower in HIV-1C seropositive individuals compared to those in the control subjects (pg/ml, HIV-1C=77.30+/-5.7 vs. controls

  19. Integrated Control Strategies Supporting Autonomous Functionalities in Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Sights

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available High-level intelligence allows a mobile robot to create and interpret complex world models, but without a precise control system, the accuracy of the world model and the robot's ability to interact with its surroundings are greatly diminished. This problem is amplified when the environment is hostile, such as in a battlefield situation where an error in movement or a slow response may lead to destruction of the robot. As the presence of robots on the battlefield continues to escalate and the trend toward relieving the human of the low-level control burden advances, the ability to combine the functionalities of several critical control systems on a single platform becomes imperative.

  20. Association between Birth Characteristics and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function at Mid-Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Perkiömäki

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects.At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD from R-R intervals (RRi and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965-1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function.In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014 and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, p<0.001, as well as with standing BRS (r = -0.092, p = 0.006. These observations were verified using relevant birth weight categories (<2,500 g; 2,500-3,999 g; ≥4,000 g. In women, birth weight was positively correlated with seated BRS (r = 0.081, p = 0.010, but none of the other measures of cardiovascular autonomic function. These correlations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.05 for all.In men, higher birth weight was independently associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function at mid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth weight in males may contribute to less

  1. Relation between preoperative autonomic function and blood pressure change after tourniquet deflation during total knee replacement arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In Young; Kim, Dae-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Soo Jin; Cho, Young Woo; Park, Soon Eun

    2012-02-01

    Tourniquets are used to provide a bloodless surgical field for extremities. Hypotension due to vasodilation and bleeding after tourniquet deflation is a common event. Hemodynamic stability is modulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a sensitive method for detecting individuals who may be at risk of hemodynamic instability during general anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate ANS function to predict hypotension after tourniquet deflation. Eighty-six patients who underwent total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA) were studied. HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were analyzed. We assigned two groups depending on the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP) or mean BP (MBP) after tourniquet release (Group H; SBP 80 mmHg and MBP > 60 mmHg). Fifteen patients developed severe hypotension and ten patients were treated with ephedrine. Of the parameters of HRV, SBPV, and BRS, only BRS(SEQ) was significant being low in Group H. BRS and high-frequency SBPV were correlated with the degree of MBP change after tourniquet deflation. Preoperative low BRS is associated with hypotension after tourniquet deflation, suggesting the importance of baroreflex regulation for intraoperative hemodynamic stability.

  2. Motion planning for autonomous vehicle based on radial basis function neural network in unstructured environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Zhao, Pan; Liang, Huawei; Mei, Tao

    2014-09-18

    The autonomous vehicle is an automated system equipped with features like environment perception, decision-making, motion planning, and control and execution technology. Navigating in an unstructured and complex environment is a huge challenge for autonomous vehicles, due to the irregular shape of road, the requirement of real-time planning, and the nonholonomic constraints of vehicle. This paper presents a motion planning method, based on the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network, to guide the autonomous vehicle in unstructured environments. The proposed algorithm extracts the drivable region from the perception grid map based on the global path, which is available in the road network. The sample points are randomly selected in the drivable region, and a gradient descent method is used to train the RBF network. The parameters of the motion-planning algorithm are verified through the simulation and experiment. It is observed that the proposed approach produces a flexible, smooth, and safe path that can fit any road shape. The method is implemented on autonomous vehicle and verified against many outdoor scenes; furthermore, a comparison of proposed method with the existing well-known Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) method is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is highly effective in planning the vehicle path and offers better motion quality.

  3. Cardiovascular autonomic function tests in type 2 diabetes mellitus with micro albuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhavana S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in type2 diabetes (DM. Microalbuminuria (MAis strongly associated with cardiovascular complications in type2 diabetes. Impaired cardiovascular autonomicfunction and increased albumin excretion are related in patients with diabetes. So this study is designed toinvestigate the relationship between cardiovascular autonomic function and microalbuminuria in type2 diabetes.Methods: The study comprised of 180 subjects of age group>50 years, classified into 3 groups of 60 subjects each.DM without MA, DM with MA and controls. The tests performed were 1 Heart rate response to deep breathing,valsalva maneuver and standing; 2 Blood pressure response to standing and to sustained handgrip. Individual testswere given score of 0, 1, or 2 and an overall autonomic test score of 0-10 was obtained.Results: Mean autonomic score in control, DM without MA and DM with MA are 1.97 ± 0.81, 5.73 ± 1.26 and 7.00± 1.80 respectively. The Coefficient of variation (% of control, DM without MA, DM with MA is 41.1, 21.9 and25.7 respectively. A significant difference in autonomic score was observed in the DM without MA (P<0.01 andDM with MA (P<0.01 when compared to controls.Conclusion: In conclusion type2 diabetic individuals should be diagnosed early to prevent disease progression tomicroalbuminuria and thus minimize complications.

  4. Alterations in autonomic function and cerebral hemodynamics to orthostatic challenge following a mountain marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Carissa; Wilson, Luke; Cotter, James D; Lucas, Samuel; Ogoh, Shigehiko; George, Keith; Ainslie, Philip N

    2007-07-01

    We examined potential mechanisms (autonomic function, hypotension, and cerebral hypoperfusion) responsible for orthostatic intolerance following prolonged exercise. Autonomic function and cerebral hemodynamics were monitored in seven athletes pre-, post- (marathon [42.2 km; cumulative gain approximately 1,000 m; approximately 15 degrees C; completion time, 261 +/- 27 (SD) min]. In each condition, middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and cardiac output (Modelflow) were measured continuously before and during a 6-min stand. Measurements of HR and BP variability and time-domain analysis were used as an index of sympathovagal balance and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Cerebral autoregulation was assessed using transfer-function gain and phase shift in BP and MCAv. Hypotension was evident following the marathon during supine rest and on standing despite increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic control, and elevations in HR and cardiac output. On standing, following the marathon, there was less elevation in normalized low-frequency HR variability (P marathon. These findings indicate that following prolonged exercise, hypotension and postural reductions in autonomic function or baroreflex control, or both, rather than a compromise in cerebral autoregulation, may place the brain at risk of hypoperfusion. Such changes may be critical factors in collapse following prolonged exercise.

  5. Executive Cognitive Functioning and Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation in a Population-Based sample of Working Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ulrika Dagsdotter Stenfors

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulationThe aim was thus to study the associations between multiple measures of CV autonomic regulation and measures of different executive cognitive processes. Method: Participants were 119 healthy working adults (79% women, from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Electrocardiogram was sampled for analysis of heart rate variability measures, including the Standard Deviation of NN, here heart beats (SDNN, root of the mean squares of successive differences (RMSSD, high frequency (HF power band from spectral analyses, and QT variability index (QTVI, a measure of myocardial repolarization patterns. Executive cognitive functioning was measured by 7 neuropsychological tests. The relationships between CV autonomic regulation measures and executive cognitive measures were tested with bivariate and partial correlational analyses, controlling for demographic variables and mental health symptoms.Results: Higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower QTVI were significantly associated with better performance on cognitive tests tapping inhibition, updating, shifting and psychomotor speed. After adjustments for demographic factors however (age being the greatest confounder, only QTVI was clearly associated with these executive tests. No such associations were seen for working memory capacity. Conclusion: Poorer cardiovascular autonomic regulation in terms of lower SDNN & RMSSD and higher QTVI was associated with poorer

  6. Navigation of autonomous mobile robot using different activation functions of wavelet neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Pratap Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous mobile robot is a robot which can move and act autonomously without the help of human assistance. Navigation problem of mobile robot in unknown environment is an interesting research area. This is a problem of deducing a path for the robot from its initial position to a given goal position without collision with the obstacles. Different methods such as fuzzy logic, neural networks etc. are used to find collision free path for mobile robot. This paper examines behavior of path planning of mobile robot using three activation functions of wavelet neural network i.e. Mexican Hat, Gaussian and Morlet wavelet functions by MATLAB. The simulation result shows that WNN has faster learning speed with respect to traditional artificial neural network.

  7. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, Cristiano [Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA), São Luís, MA (Brazil); Figueroa, Diego Mendrot [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelis, Kátia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.rodrigues@incor.usp.br [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  8. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Figueiredo Grans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week. At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results: The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32% and trained infarcted (+46% in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%, myocardial performance index (-39% and systolic blood pressure (+6% improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%, as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46% in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  9. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats. PMID:25014059

  10. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats

  11. Resistance training after myocardial infarction in rats: its role on cardiac and autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  12. Altered Autonomic Functions and Distressed Personality Traits in Male Adolescents with Internet Gaming Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-11-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been associated with many negative health outcomes, especially for youth; however, few studies have examined the physiological parameters and personality features related to this addiction. This study aimed to identify differences in autonomic functions and distressed (type D) personality traits among Korean adolescent males with and without IGA. In a cross-sectional study, 68 adolescent males were recruited in a Korean city using convenience and snowball sampling methods. For each subject, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were measured as autonomic functions and questionnaires were used to identify IGA and type D personality traits. Data were analyzed using descriptive analyses, t tests, χ 2 tests, and Pearson's correlation. Most HRV parameters significantly differed between the IGA and non-IGA groups (all p gaming was related to alterations in autonomic functions and distressed personality traits in male adolescents. These findings provide further understanding of the IGA phenomenon and highlight the need for interventions that address male adolescents with IGA.

  13. Early atherosclerosis and cardiac autonomic responses to mental stress: a population-based study of the moderating influence of impaired endothelial function

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    Juonala Markus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute mental stress may contribute to the cardiovascular disease progression via autonomic nervous system controlled negative effects on the endothelium. The joint effects of stress-induced sympathetic or parasympathetic activity and endothelial function on atherosclerosis development have not been investigated. The present study aims to examine the interactive effect of acute mental stress-induced cardiac reactivity/recovery and endothelial function on the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis. Methods Participants were 81 healthy young adults aged 24-39 years. Preclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT and endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD using ultrasound techniques. We also measured heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, and pre-ejection period (PEP in response to the mental arithmetic and speech tasks. Results We found a significant interaction of FMD and cardiac RSA recovery for IMT (p = 0.037, and a significant interaction of FMD and PEP recovery for IMT (p = 0.006. Among participants with low FMD, slower PEP recovery was related to higher IMT. Among individuals with high FMD, slow RSA recovery predicted higher IMT. No significant interactions of FMD and cardiac reactivity for IMT were found. Conclusions Cardiac recovery plays a role in atherosclerosis development in persons with high and low FMD. The role of sympathetically mediated cardiac activity seems to be more important in those with impaired FMD, and parasympathetically mediated in those with relatively high FMD. The development of endothelial dysfunction may be one possible mechanism linking slow cardiac recovery and atherosclerosis via autonomic nervous system mediated effect.

  14. Early atherosclerosis and cardiac autonomic responses to mental stress: a population-based study of the moderating influence of impaired endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumaeva, Nadja; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Ravaja, Niklas; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2010-03-29

    Acute mental stress may contribute to the cardiovascular disease progression via autonomic nervous system controlled negative effects on the endothelium. The joint effects of stress-induced sympathetic or parasympathetic activity and endothelial function on atherosclerosis development have not been investigated. The present study aims to examine the interactive effect of acute mental stress-induced cardiac reactivity/recovery and endothelial function on the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis. Participants were 81 healthy young adults aged 24-39 years. Preclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) using ultrasound techniques. We also measured heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and pre-ejection period (PEP) in response to the mental arithmetic and speech tasks. We found a significant interaction of FMD and cardiac RSA recovery for IMT (p = 0.037), and a significant interaction of FMD and PEP recovery for IMT (p = 0.006). Among participants with low FMD, slower PEP recovery was related to higher IMT. Among individuals with high FMD, slow RSA recovery predicted higher IMT. No significant interactions of FMD and cardiac reactivity for IMT were found. Cardiac recovery plays a role in atherosclerosis development in persons with high and low FMD. The role of sympathetically mediated cardiac activity seems to be more important in those with impaired FMD, and parasympathetically mediated in those with relatively high FMD. The development of endothelial dysfunction may be one possible mechanism linking slow cardiac recovery and atherosclerosis via autonomic nervous system mediated effect.

  15. Developmental and functional expression of miRNA-stability related genes in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Érica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Otávio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we first described the

  16. Autonomic management of multiple non-functional concerns in behavioural skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinucci, Marco; Danelutto, Marco; Kilpatrick, Peter

    We introduce and address the problem of concurrent autonomic management of different non-functional concerns in parallel applications build as a hierarchical composition of behavioural skeletons. We first define the problems arising when multiple concerns are dealt with by independent managers, then we propose a methodology supporting coordinated management, and finally we discuss how autonomic management of multiple concerns may be implemented in a typical use case. Being based on the behavioural skeleton concept proposed in the CoreGRID GCM, it is anticipated that the methodology will be readily integrated into the current reference implementation of GCM based on Java ProActive and running on top of major grid middleware systems.

  17. NG2-glia and their functions in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimou, L; Gallo, V

    2015-08-01

    In the central nervous system, NG2-glia represent a neural cell population that is distinct from neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. While in the past the main role ascribed to these cells was that of progenitors for oligodendrocytes, in the last years it has become more obvious that they have further functions in the brain. Here, we will discuss some of the most current and highly debated issues regarding NG2-glia: Do these cells represent a heterogeneous population? Can they give rise to different progenies, and does this change under pathological conditions? How do they respond to injury or pathology? What is the role of neurotransmitter signaling between neurons and NG2-glia? We will first give an overview on the developmental origin of NG2-glia, and then discuss whether their distinct properties in different brain regions are the result of environmental influences, or due to intrinsic differences. We will then review and discuss their in vitro differentiation potential and in vivo lineage under physiological and pathological conditions, together with their electrophysiological properties in distinct brain regions and at different developmental stages. Finally, we will focus on their potential to be used as therapeutic targets in demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review article will highlight the importance of NG2-glia not only in the healthy, but also in the diseased brain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Potassium channels in the central nervous system of the snail, Helix pomatia: localization and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battonyai, I; Krajcs, N; Serfőző, Z; Kiss, T; Elekes, K

    2014-05-30

    The distribution and functional presence of three voltage-dependent potassium channels, Kv2.1, Kv3.4, Kv4.3, respectively, were studied in the central nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia by immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods. Cell clusters displaying immunoreactivity for the different channels were observed in all parts of the CNS, although their localization and number partly varied. Differences were also found in their intracellular, perikaryonal and axonal localization, as well as in their presence in non-neuronal tissues nearby the CNS, such as the perineurium and the aorta wall. At ultrastructural level Kv4.3 channel immunolabeling was observed in axon profiles containing large 80-100nm granular vesicles. Blotting analyses revealed specific signals for the Kv2.1, Kv3.4 and Kv4.3 channels, confirming the presence of the channels in the Helix CNS. Voltage-clamp recordings proved that outward currents obtained from neurons displaying Kv3.4 or Kv4.3 immunoreactivity contained transient components while Kv2.1 immunoreactive cells were characterized by delayed currents. The distribution of the K(+)-channels containing neurons suggests specific roles in intercellular signaling processes in the Helix CNS, most probably related to well-defined, partly local events. The cellular localization of the K(+)-channels studied supports their involvement in both pre- and postsynaptic events at perikaryonal and axonal levels. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling the functional repair of nervous tissue in spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantila, Sara M.; Camp, Jon J.; Krych, Aaron J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2004-05-01

    Functional repair of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most challenging goals in modern medicine. The annual incidence of SCI in the United States is approximately 11,000 new cases. The prevalence of people in the U.S. currently living with SCI is approximately 200,000. Exploring and understanding nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is a critical first step in attempting to reverse the devastating consequences of SCI. At Mayo Clinic, a preliminary study of implants in the transected rat spinal cord model demonstrates potential for promoting axon regeneration. In collaborative research between neuroscientists and bioengineers, this procedure holds promise for solving two critical aspects of axon repair-providing a resorbable structural scaffold to direct focused axon repair, and delivery of relevant signaling molecules necessary to facilitate regeneration. In our preliminary study, regeneration in the rat's spinal cord was modeled in three dimensions utilizing an image processing software system developed in the Biomedical Imaging Resource at Mayo Clinic. Advanced methods for image registration, segmentation, and rendering were used. The raw images were collected at three different magnifications. After image processing the individual channels in the scaffold, axon bundles, and macrophages could be identified. Several axon bundles could be visualized and traced through the entire volume, suggesting axonal growth throughout the length of the scaffold. Such information could potentially allow researchers and physicians to better understand and improve the nerve regeneration process for individuals with SCI.

  20. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for evaluation of farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency doma...

  1. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2016-08-01

    Major conclusions: Implications for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dementia, and mood disorders are discussed in the context of brain insulin action. Intranasal insulin may have potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related metabolic disorders.

  2. Peptides in the nervous systems of cnidarians: structure, function, and biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Leviev, I; Carstensen, Kathrine

    1996-01-01

    Cnidarians are the lowest animal group having a nervous system and it was probably within this phylum or in a related ancestor group that nervous systems first evolved. The primitive nervous systems of cnidarians are strongly peptidergic. From a single sea anemone species, Anthopleura elegantissima...... molecule. In addition to well-known, "classical" processing enzymes, novel prohormone processing enzymes must be present in cnidarian neurons. These include a processing enzyme hydrolyzing at the C-terminal sides of acidic (Asp and Glu) residues and a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase digesting at the C......-terminal sides of N-terminally located X-Pro and X-Ala sequences. All this shows that the primitive nervous systems of cnidarians are already quite complex, and that neuropeptides play a central role in the physiology of these animals....

  3. Locus coeruleus lesions and PCOS: role of the central and peripheral sympathetic nervous system in the ovarian function of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction”. “Autonomic and central nervous systems play important roles in the regulation of ovarian physiology”. The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC plays a central role in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and synaptically connected to the preganglionic cell bodies of the ovarian sympathetic pathway and its activation is essential to trigger spontaneous or induced LH surges. This study evaluates sympathetic outflow in central and peripheral pathways in PCO rats. Objective: Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate LC activity in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to antagonized alpha2a adrenoceptor in systemic conditions with yohimbine. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats were divided into two groups: 1 LC and yohimbine and 2 control. Every group subdivided in two groups: eighteen rats were treated with estradiol valerate for induction of follicular cysts and the remainders were sesame oil groups. Results: Estradiol concentration was significantly augmented by the LC lesion in PCO rats (p<0.001, while LC lesion could not alter serum concentrations of LH and FSH, like yohimbine. The morphological observations of ovaries of LC lesion rats showed follicles with hyperthecosis, but yohimbine reduced the number of cysts, increased corpus lutea and developed follicles. Conclusion: Rats with EV-induced PCO increased sympathetic activity. LC lesion and yohimbine decreased the number of cysts and yohimbine increased corpus lutea and developed follicles in PCO rats.

  4. The mind body problem, part three: ascension of sexual function to cerebral level

    OpenAIRE

    Ion G. Motofei; David L. Rowland

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically, the somatic nervous system intervenes in external interaction between the body and environment, while autonomic nervous system ensures the functioning of internal organs. We present in this paper a psycho-physiological perspective suggesting that mental function (somatic in nature, because coordinates environmental interaction) is closer to and more aligned with the physiologic functioning of autonomic nervous system (due to autonomy, duality, etc.). At opposite end, sexual f...

  5. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  6. Acupuncture effect and central autonomic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Xu, Qian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Wang, Lin-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  7. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Huser

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  8. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Annina; Rohwedder, Astrid; Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Maiolo, Elena M; Selcho, Mareike; Pauls, Dennis; von Essen, Alina; Gupta, Tripti; Sprecher, Simon G; Birman, Serge; Riemensperger, Thomas; Stocker, Reinhard F; Thum, Andreas S

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  9. A review of nanoparticle functionality and toxicity on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Liu, Z W; Allaker, R P; Reip, P; Oxford, J; Ahmad, Z; Ren, G

    2010-08-06

    Although nanoparticles have tremendous potential for a host of applications, their adverse effects on living cells have raised serious concerns recently for their use in the healthcare and consumer sectors. As regards the central nervous system (CNS), research data on nanoparticle interaction with neurons has provided evidence of both negative and positive effects. Maximal application dosage of nanoparticles in materials to provide applications such as antibacterial and antiviral functions is approximately 0.1-1.0 wt%. This concentration can be converted into a liquid phase release rate (leaching rate) depending upon the host or base materials used. For example, nanoparticulate silver (Ag) or copper oxide (CuO)-filled epoxy resin demonstrates much reduced release of the metal ions (Ag(+) or Cu(2+)) into their surrounding environment unless they are mechanically removed or aggravated. Subsequent to leaching effects and entry into living systems, nanoparticles can also cross through many other barriers, such as skin and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and may also reach bodily organs. In such cases, their concentration or dosage in body fluids is considered to be well below the maximum drug toxicity test limit (10(-5) g ml(-1)) as determined in artificial cerebrospinal solution. As this is a rapidly evolving area and the use of such materials will continue to mature, so will their exposure to members of society. Hence, neurologists have equal interests in nanoparticle effects (positive functionality and negative toxicity) on human neuronal cells within the CNS, where the current research in this field will be highlighted and reviewed.

  10. Assessment of Autonomic Function by Phase Rectification of RRInterval Histogram Analysis in Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivassé Nasari Junior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In chronic Chagas disease (ChD, impairment of cardiac autonomic function bears prognostic implications. Phase‑rectification of RR-interval series isolates the sympathetic, acceleration phase (AC and parasympathetic, deceleration phase (DC influences on cardiac autonomic modulation. Objective: This study investigated heart rate variability (HRV as a function of RR-interval to assess autonomic function in healthy and ChD subjects. Methods: Control (n = 20 and ChD (n = 20 groups were studied. All underwent 60-min head-up tilt table test under ECG recording. Histogram of RR-interval series was calculated, with 100 ms class, ranging from 600–1100 ms. In each class, mean RR-intervals (MNN and root-mean-squared difference (RMSNN of consecutive normal RR-intervals that suited a particular class were calculated. Average of all RMSNN values in each class was analyzed as function of MNN, in the whole series (RMSNNT, and in AC (RMSNNAC and DC (RMSNNDC phases. Slopes of linear regression lines were compared between groups using Student t-test. Correlation coefficients were tested before comparisons. RMSNN was log-transformed. (α < 0.05. Results: Correlation coefficient was significant in all regressions (p < 0.05. In the control group, RMSNNT, RMSNNAC, and RMSNNDC significantly increased linearly with MNN (p < 0.05. In ChD, only RMSNNAC showed significant increase as a function of MNN, whereas RMSNNT and RMSNNDC did not. Conclusion: HRV increases in proportion with the RR-interval in healthy subjects. This behavior is lost in ChD, particularly in the DC phase, indicating cardiac vagal incompetence.

  11. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M; Handrakis, John P; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Jensen, A Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n=20; TETRA: C4-C8), high paraplegia (n=10; HP: T2-T5), low paraplegia (n=9; LP: T7-T12), and non-SCI controls (n=10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R-R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (Pcontrol groups (Pcontrol groups (P<0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P<0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P<0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated.

  12. Autonomic Dysfunction in Children with Acute Community-Acquired Pneumonia and the Ways of Drug Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Nyankovsky

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the features of clinical course, intensity of toxic, asthenic syndromes, autonomic functioning in children of 7 years old with signs of community-acquired pneumonia based on instrumental autonomic testing and EEG findings. The probiotic Enterol and metabolic medication Stimol included into the treatment scheme fasten normalization of clinical, instrumental and functional parameters, reduce autonomic dysfunction, improve physical condition, adaptive opportunities, stress resistance, reduce imbalance between humoral-metabolic and central ergotropic influence, normalize responsiveness of parasympathetic nervous system and balance of autonomic modulation of cardiac rhythm, improve EEG findings.

  13. Central nervous system function and organophosphate insecticide use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F; Jones, Michael P; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2011-01-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure is associated with adverse central nervous system (CNS) outcomes, however, little is known about the neurotoxicity of chronic exposures that do not result in acute poisoning. To examine associations between long-term pesticide use and CNS function, neurobehavioral (NB) tests were administered to licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa and North Carolina. Between 2006 and 2008, 701 male participants completed nine NB tests to assess memory, motor speed and coordination, sustained attention, verbal learning and visual scanning and processing. Data on ever-use and lifetime days of use of 16 OP pesticides were obtained from AHS interviews conducted before testing between 1993 and 2007 and during the NB visit. The mean age of participants was 61 years (SD = 12). Associations between pesticide use and NB test performance were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. NB test performance was associated with lifetime days of use of some pesticides. Ethoprop was significantly associated with reduced performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning. Malathion was significantly associated with poor performance on a test of visual scanning and processing. Conversely, we observed significantly better test performance for five OP pesticides. Specifically, chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos were associated with better verbal learning and memory; coumaphos was associated with better performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning; and parathion was associated with better performance on a test of sustained attention. Several associations varied by state. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence that long-term OP pesticide use is associated with adverse CNS-associated NB test performance among this older sample of pesticide applicators. Potential reasons for these mostly null associations

  14. Developmental and functional expression of miRNA-stability related genes in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica de Sousa

    Full Text Available In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we

  15. Perioperative implications of the patient with autonomic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Stuart; Atria, Nicklaus P; Barwise, John A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system functions to control heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, gastrointestinal motility, hormone release, and body temperature on a second-to-second basis. Here we summarize some of the latest literature on autonomic dysfunction, focusing primarily on the perioperative implications. The variety of autonomic dysfunction now extends to a large number of clinical conditions in which the cause or effect of the autonomic component is blurred. Methods for detecting dysautonomia can be as simple as performing a history and physical examination that includes orthostatic vital signs measured in both recumbent and vertical positions; however, specialized laboratories are required for definitive diagnosis. Heart rate variability monitoring is becoming more commonplace in the assessment and understanding of autonomic instability. Degenerative diseases of the autonomic nervous system include Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, with the most serious manifestations being postural hypotension and paradoxical supine hypertension. Other conditions occur in which the autonomic dysfunction is only part of a larger disease process, such as diabetic autonomic neuropathy, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Patients with dysautonomia often have unpredictable and paradoxical physiological responses to various perioperative stimuli. Knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology of their condition is required in order to reduce symptom exacerbation and limit morbidity and mortality during the perioperative period.

  16. Functional Based Adaptive and Fuzzy Sliding Controller for Non-Autonomous Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiuh-Jer; Chen, Hung-Yi

    In this paper, an adaptive sliding controller is developed for controlling a vehicle active suspension system. The functional approximation technique is employed to substitute the unknown non-autonomous functions of the suspension system and release the model-based requirement of sliding mode control algorithm. In order to improve the control performance and reduce the implementation problem, a fuzzy strategy with online learning ability is added to compensate the functional approximation error. The update laws of the functional approximation coefficients and the fuzzy tuning parameters are derived from the Lyapunov theorem to guarantee the system stability. The proposed controller is implemented on a quarter-car hydraulic actuating active suspension system test-rig. The experimental results show that the proposed controller suppresses the oscillation amplitude of the suspension system effectively.

  17. COE loss-of-function analysis reveals a genetic program underlying maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system in planarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martis W Cowles

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of the COE family of transcription factors are required for central nervous system (CNS development. However, the function of COE in the post-embryonic CNS remains largely unknown. An excellent model for investigating gene function in the adult CNS is the freshwater planarian. This animal is capable of regenerating neurons from an adult pluripotent stem cell population and regaining normal function. We previously showed that planarian coe is expressed in differentiating and mature neurons and that its function is required for proper CNS regeneration. Here, we show that coe is essential to maintain nervous system architecture and patterning in intact (uninjured planarians. We took advantage of the robust phenotype in intact animals to investigate the genetic programs coe regulates in the CNS. We compared the transcriptional profiles of control and coe RNAi planarians using RNA sequencing and identified approximately 900 differentially expressed genes in coe knockdown animals, including 397 downregulated genes that were enriched for nervous system functional annotations. Next, we validated a subset of the downregulated transcripts by analyzing their expression in coe-deficient planarians and testing if the mRNAs could be detected in coe+ cells. These experiments revealed novel candidate targets of coe in the CNS such as ion channel, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter genes. Finally, to determine if loss of any of the validated transcripts underscores the coe knockdown phenotype, we knocked down their expression by RNAi and uncovered a set of coe-regulated genes implicated in CNS regeneration and patterning, including orthologs of sodium channel alpha-subunit and pou4. Our study broadens the knowledge of gene expression programs regulated by COE that are required for maintenance of neural subtypes and nervous system architecture in adult animals.

  18. COE loss-of-function analysis reveals a genetic program underlying maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Martis W; Omuro, Kerilyn C; Stanley, Brianna N; Quintanilla, Carlo G; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2014-10-01

    Members of the COE family of transcription factors are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. However, the function of COE in the post-embryonic CNS remains largely unknown. An excellent model for investigating gene function in the adult CNS is the freshwater planarian. This animal is capable of regenerating neurons from an adult pluripotent stem cell population and regaining normal function. We previously showed that planarian coe is expressed in differentiating and mature neurons and that its function is required for proper CNS regeneration. Here, we show that coe is essential to maintain nervous system architecture and patterning in intact (uninjured) planarians. We took advantage of the robust phenotype in intact animals to investigate the genetic programs coe regulates in the CNS. We compared the transcriptional profiles of control and coe RNAi planarians using RNA sequencing and identified approximately 900 differentially expressed genes in coe knockdown animals, including 397 downregulated genes that were enriched for nervous system functional annotations. Next, we validated a subset of the downregulated transcripts by analyzing their expression in coe-deficient planarians and testing if the mRNAs could be detected in coe+ cells. These experiments revealed novel candidate targets of coe in the CNS such as ion channel, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter genes. Finally, to determine if loss of any of the validated transcripts underscores the coe knockdown phenotype, we knocked down their expression by RNAi and uncovered a set of coe-regulated genes implicated in CNS regeneration and patterning, including orthologs of sodium channel alpha-subunit and pou4. Our study broadens the knowledge of gene expression programs regulated by COE that are required for maintenance of neural subtypes and nervous system architecture in adult animals.

  19. The pattern of autonomic tone disorder and its correction in children with overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Morozov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysregulation is one of the leading components in the pathogenesis of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. These disorders lead to diverse changes in the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems with disordered release of mediators (norepinephrine, acetylcholine, hormones of the adrenal cortex and other endocrine glands, a number of biologically active substances (polypeptides, prostaglandins, as well as to the impaired sensitivity of vascular a- and p-adrenoceptors. Children with dysuria concurrently develop visceral, CNS, and circulatory system dysfunctions and metabolic disturbances. The paper describes the clinical trial of children with overactive bladder, which demonstrates the autonomic tone in these patients (и=44. The findings point to the important involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathogenesis of the disease and provide a rationale for the incorporation of vegetotropic drugs normalizing the autonomic nervous system into the combination therapy of overactive bladder.

  20. Prospective randomized controlled intervention trial: Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Improves Cardiac autonomic functions and Quality of life in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Program on glycemic control, quality of life, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Material and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 120 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes (n = 56 and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program (n = 64. Standard therapy included advice on diet, walk, and oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was an interactive session in which Sudarshan kriya yoga, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam was taught under guidance of a certified teacher. Change in fasting, post prandial blood sugars, glycated hemoglobin, and quality of life were assessed. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and six months after intervention. Results: There was significant improvement in psychological (P = 0.006 and social domains (P = 0.04 and total quality of life (P = 0.02 in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing program as compared to the group following standard therapy alone. In the group following breathing program, the improvement in sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions was statistically significant (P = 0.01, while the change in the standard group was not significant (P = 0.17. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P = 0.07. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P = 0.76. The parameters of glycemic control were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: There was significant improvement in quality of life and cardiac autonomic functions in the diabetes patients practicing comprehensive yogic breathing

  1. [Effect of artificial mountain climate on the functional state of higher regions of the central nervous system in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovskiĭ, V A; Levashov, M I

    2009-01-01

    The study included 97 patients with vegetative vascular dystonia and chronic non-specific pulmonary diseases exposed to artificial high-altitude climate in an Orotron climatic chamber during 2 weeks. Atmospheric conditions maintained in the chamber had the following parameters: partial pressure of oxygen--147-160 gPa, relative humidity--60-70%, air temperature--16-18 degrees C, light aeroion content--up to 6000 cub.cm. It was shown that the exposure to artificial mountain climatic conditions enhanced functional mobility of nervous processes and decreased the length of the sensorimotor reactions of the patients. Individual differences in the change of parameters being measured depended on the degree of initial functional flexibility of nervous processes.

  2. Effect of Mild Hyperglycemia on Autonomic Function in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Amanda C.; Bagai, Kanika; Artibee, Kay; Diedrich, André; Garland, Emily; Elasy, Thomas; Shi, Yaping; Wang, Lily; Feldman, Eva L.; Robertson, David; Malow, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been hypothesized to cause a hypersympathetic state, which may be the mechanism for the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in OSA. However, there is a high prevalence of hyperglycemia in OSA patients which may also contribute to autonomic dysfunction. Thirty-five patients with OSA and eleven controls with average body-mass index (BMI) of 32.0 ± 4.6 underwent polysomnography, glucose tolerance testing, autonomic function tests, lying and standing catecholamines, overnight urine collection, and baseline ECG and continuous blood pressure measurements for spectral analysis. A linear regression model adjusting for age and BMI was used to analyze spectral data, other outcome measures were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test. Twenty-three OSA patients and two control patients had hyperglycemia (based on 2001 American Diabetes Association criteria). AHI correlated with total power and low frequency (LF) power (r=0.138, 0.177, p=0.031; and r= 0.013) but not with the LF/high frequency (HF) ratio (p=0.589). Glucose negatively correlated with LF systolic power (r=-0.171, p=0.038) but not AHI (p=0.586) and was marginally associated with pnn50, total power, LF, and HF power (p ranged from 0.07 to 0.08). These data suggest that patients with OSA and mild hyperglycemia have a trend towards lower heart rate variability and sympathetic tone. Hyperglycemia is an important confounder and should be evaluated in studies of OSA and autonomic function. PMID:21796355

  3. A randomized controlled trial of exercise training on cardiovascular and autonomic function among renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidi, Evangelia; Vergoulas, George; Anifanti, Maria; Deligiannis, Asterios

    2013-05-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the effects of renal transplantation (RT) on uraemic autonomic dysfunction. Moreover, no study has examined the impact of physical training on the cardiac autonomic function in RT patients. Thus, we studied the effects of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), which are sensitive markers of cardiac autonomic outflow, in RT recipients. Eleven patients (Exercise group-aged 52.1 ± 5.6 years) were studied before and after 6 months of exercise training. Twelve age- and sex- matched RT patients (Sedentary) and 12 healthy sedentary individuals (Healthy), who remained untrained, served as controls. At baseline and follow-up, all the subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing for the evaluation of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), a tilt test for the evaluation of BRS and baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) and an ambulatory 24-h Holter monitoring for time- and frequency-domain measures of HRV. In the exercise group, VO2peak increased by 15.8% (P training. Specifically, the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (SDNN) significantly increased by 92.5%, the root-mean-square of the differences between consecutive NN intervals by 45.4%, the percentage value of NN50 count by 58.2%, the high-frequency by 74.8% and low-frequency spectral power by 41.6%, BRS by 43.7% and BEI by 57.3%. None of the variables studied was altered over time in either control group. The increased cardiorespiratory fitness by exercise training was associated with an improved BRS function and a modification of the sympathovagal control of HRV towards a persistent increase in parasympathetic tone. These alterations may lead to a better cardiovascular prognosis in RT recipients.

  4. Structural and functional effects of heavy metals on the nervous system, including sense organs, of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1991-01-01

    1. Today, fish in the environment are inevitably exposed to chemical pollution. Although most hazardous substances are present at concentrations far below the lethal level, they may still cause serious damage to the life processes of these animals. 2. Fish depend on an intact nervous system, incl...

  5. [Psycho-autonomic aspects in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and functional esophageal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogromov, A P; Diukova, G M; Rykova, S M; Bein, A M

    2005-01-01

    The subjects of the study were 79 patients (35 with functional esophageal disorders (FED), 24 with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), and 20 with erosive reflux disease (ERD), who were selected on the basis of clinical complaints, 24-hour ph-study, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. All the subjects were evaluated by means of clinical questionnaires and psychological tests: Beck depression test, Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety inventory (STAI), and Toronto alexithymia test (TAS). In FED and NERD patients vs. ERD patients the following abnormalities were observed more frequently: autonomic and functional somatic symptoms (apart from gastrointestinal tract (GIT) complaints) (p eating behavior disorders (DEBQ) (p < 0.05), maternal overprotection in childhood (p < 0.05), psychophysioligical GIT reaction in childhood (p < 0.05), higher levels of state and trait anxiety (p < 0.05), and hypochondria (p < 0.05). The clinical symptom index (CSI) (the sum of stomach and bowel complaints to the sum of esophageal complaints ratio) was calculated. CSI in FED and NERD patients was 1.8, while CSI in ERD patients--0.1 (p < 0). Thus, compared to ERD patients, patients with FED and NERD were characterized by more pronounced emotional, motivational, and autonomic disorders. Besides, CSI demonstrated that the character of gastrointestinal dysfunction was more diffuse in NERD and FED and more local--in ERD patients.

  6. Physiology of school burnout in medical students: Hemodynamic and autonomic functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross W. May

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between burnout and hemodynamic and autonomic functioning in both medical students (N = 55 and premedical undergraduate students (N = 77. Questionnaires screened for health related issues and assessed school burnout and negative affect symptomatology (anxiety and depression. Continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP through finger plethysmography and electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring was conducted during conditions of baseline and cardiac stress induced via the cold pressor task to produce hemodynamic, heart rate variability, and blood pressure variability indices. Independent sample t-tests demonstrated that medical students had significantly higher school burnout scores compared to their undergraduate counterparts. Controlling for age, BMI, anxiety and depressive symptoms, multiple regression analyses indicated that school burnout was a stronger predictor of elevated hemodynamics (blood pressure, decreased heart rate variability, decreased markers of vagal activity and increased markers of sympathetic tone at baseline for medical students than for undergraduates. Analyses of physiological values collected during the cold pressor task indicated greater cardiac hyperactivity for medical students than for undergraduates. The present study supports previous research linking medical school burnout to hemodynamic and autonomic functioning, suggests biomarkers for medical school burnout, and provides evidence that burnout may be implicated as a physiological risk factor in medical students. Study limitations and potential intervention avenues are discussed.

  7. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signorá Peres Konrad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. METHOD: The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10 and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13 groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. RESULTS: Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%, an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%, and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times, bradycardic responses (>4 times, and vagal (~38% and sympathetic effects (~36% were reduced as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  8. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Signorá Peres; Farah, Vera; Rodrigues, Bruno; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Lopes, Heno Ferreira; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10) and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13) groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%), an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%), and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times), bradycardic responses (>4 times), and vagal (~38%) and sympathetic effects (~36%) were reduced as compared to the control group. Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  9. On the existence and function of galanin receptor heteromers in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell eFuxe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Galanin receptor (GalR subtypes1-3 linked to central galanin neurons may form heteromers with each other and other types of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs in the Central Nervous System (CNS. These heteromers may be one molecular mechanism for galanin peptides and their N-terminal fragments (gal 1-15 to modulate the function of different types of glia-neuronal networks in the CNS, especially the emotional and the cardiovascular networks. GalR-5-HT1A heteromers likely exist with antagonistic GalR-5-HT1A receptor-receptor interactions in the ascending midbrain raphe 5-HT neuron systems and their target regions. They represent a novel target for antidepressant drugs. Evidence is given for the existence of GalR1-5-HT1A heteromers in cellular models with transinhibition of the protomer signaling. A GalR1-GalR2 heteromer is proposed to be a galanin N-terminal fragment preferring receptor (1-15 in the CNS. Furthermore, a GalR1-GalR2-5-HT1A heterotrimer is postulated to explain why only galanin (1-15 but not galanin (1-29 can antagonistically modulate the 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal hippocampus rich in gal fragment binding sites. The results underline a putative role of different types of GalR-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes in depression. GalR antagonists may also have therapeutic actions in depression by blocking the antagonistic GalR-NPYY1 receptor interactions in putative GalR-NPYY1 receptor heteromers in the CNS resulting in increases in NPYY1 transmission and antidepressant effects. In contrast the galanin fragment receptor (a postulated GalR1-GalR2 heteromer appears to be linked to the NPYY2 receptor enhancing the affinity of the NPYY2 binding sites in a putative GalR1-GalR2-NPYY2 heterotrimer. Finally, putative GalR-α2-adrenoreceptor heteromers with antagonistic receptor-receptor interactions may be a widespread mechanism in the CNS for integration of galanin and noradrenaline signals also of likely relevance for depression.

  10. [Effects of radio- and microwaves emitted by wireless communication devices on the functions of the nervous system selected elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politański, Piotr; Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Zmyślony, Marek

    Nervous system is the most "electric" system in the human body. The research of the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of different frequencies on its functioning have been carried out for years. This paper presents the results of the scientific literature review on the EMF influence on the functioning of the human nervous system with a particular emphasis on the recent studies of the modern wireless communication and data transmission systems. In the majority of the analyzed areas the published research results do not show EMF effects on the nervous system, except for the influence of GSM telephony signal on resting EEG and EEG during patients' sleep and the influence of radiofrequency EMF on the cardiovascular regulation. In other analyzed areas (EMF impact on sleep, the evoked potentials and cognitive processes), there are no consistent results supporting any influence of electromagnetic fields. Neurophysiological studies of the effect of radio- and microwaves on the brain functions in humans are still considered inconclusive. This is among others due to, different exposure conditions, a large number of variables tested, deficiencies in repeatability of research and statistical uncertainties. However, methodological guidelines are already available giving a chance of unifying research that definitely needs to be continued in order to identify biophysical mechanisms of interaction between EMFs and the nervous system. One of the EMF research aspects, on which more and more attention is paid, are inter-individual differences. Med Pr 2016;67(3):411-421. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Effects of inspiratory muscle exercise in the pulmonary function, autonomic modulation, and hemodynamic variables in older women with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Coelho, Hélio José; Scapini, Kátia Bilhar; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Mostarda, Cristiano; Ruberti, Olivia Moraes; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters, cardiac autonomic modulation and respiratory function of older women with metabolic syndrome (MS). For this, sixteen older women with MS and 12 aged-matched controls participated of the present study. Two days before and 2 days after the main experiment, fasting blood samples (i.e., total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose), cardiac autonomic modulation (i.e., heart rate variability), and respiratory muscle function were obtained and evaluated. The sessions of physical exercise was based on a IME, which was performed during 7 days. Each session of IME was performed during 20 min, at 30% of maximal static inspiratory pressure. In the results, MS group presented higher levels of triglycerides, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure when compared to control group. IME was not able to change these variables. However, although MS group showed impaired respiratory muscle strength and function, as well as cardiac autonomic modulation, IME was able to improve these parameters. Thus, the data showed that seven days of IME are capable to improve respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation of older women with MS. These results indicate that IME can be a profitable therapy to counteracting the clinical markers of MS, once repeated sessions of acute IME can cause chronical alterations on respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation. PMID:28503537

  12. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p Fasting decreased (p Fasting also increased (p fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it. PMID:28025637

  13. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras; Terentjevienė, Asta; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased ( p anger, whereas other mood states were not affected by it. Conclusions. 48 h fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it.

  14. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLombardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of autonomic modulation of sinus node by non-invasive techniques has provided relevant clinical information in patients with several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases and has facilitated the appraisal of neural regulatory mechanisms in normal and diseased subjects. The finding that even during resting conditions the heart period changes on a beat to beat basis and that after a premature ventricular beat there are small variations in RR interval whose measurements may be utilised to evaluate the autonomic modulation of sinus node, has provided unprecedented clinical and pathophysiological information. Heart rate variability (HRV and Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT have been extensively utilised in the clinical setting. To explain the negative predictive value of a reduced HRV it was determined that overall HRV was largely dependent on vagal mechanisms and that a reduction in HRV could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node; i.e. an autonomic alteration favouring cardiac electrical instability. This initial interpretation was challenged by several findings indicating a greater complexity of the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness as well as the possible interference with non-neural mechanisms.Under controlled conditions, however, the computation of low and high frequency components and of their ratio seems capable of providing adequate information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function, thus providing a unique tool to investigate neural control mechanisms. Analysis on non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilised to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective to identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. A reduction on HRT parameters reflecting reduced baroreflex sensitivity as a likely result of a reduced vagal and of an increased sympathetic

  15. Hemodynamic and autonomic nervous system responses to mixed meal ingestion in healthy young and old subjects and dysautonomic patients with postprandial hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitz, L. A.; Ryan, S. M.; Parker, J. A.; Freeman, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although postprandial hypotension is a common cause of falls and syncope in elderly persons and in patients with autonomic insufficiency, the pathophysiology of this disorder remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS. We examined the hemodynamic, splanchnic blood pool, plasma norepinephrine (NE), and heart rate (HR) power spectra responses to a standardized 400-kcal mixed meal in 11 healthy young (age, 26 +/- 5 years) and nine healthy elderly (age, 80 +/- 5 years) subjects and 10 dysautonomic patients with symptomatic postprandial hypotension (age, 65 +/- 16 years). Cardiac and splanchnic blood pools were determined noninvasively by radionuclide scans, and forearm vascular resistance was determined using venous occlusion plethysmography. In healthy young and old subjects, splanchnic blood volume increased, but supine blood pressure remained unchanged after the meal. In both groups, HR increased and systemic vascular resistance remained stable. Forearm vascular resistance and cardiac index increased after the meal in elderly subjects, whereas these responses were highly variable and of smaller magnitude in the young. Young subjects demonstrated postprandial increases in low-frequency HR spectral power, representing cardiac sympatho-excitation, but plasma NE remained unchanged. In elderly subjects, plasma NE increased after the meal but without changes in the HR power spectrum. Patients with dysautonomia had a large postprandial decline in blood pressure associated with no change in forearm vascular resistance, a fall in systemic vascular resistance, and reduction in left ventricular end diastolic volume index. HR increased in these patients but without changes in plasma NE or the HR power spectrum. CONCLUSIONS. 1) In healthy elderly subjects, the maintenance of blood pressure homeostasis after food ingestion is associated with an increase in HR, forearm vascular resistance, cardiac index, and plasma NE. In both young and old, systemic vascular resistance is

  16. Effect of exposure to anesthesia on the functions of nervous system of children in the growth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei DENG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the update of concept of anesthesia and the improvement in anesthesia technology, an increasing number of children received surgical treatment under general anesthesia. Subsequently, the influence of anesthetic agents on the development of nervous system becomes a focused issue. Basic research found that anesthetic agents can lower the synaptic plasticity of nervous system, produce neuronal apoptosis and other neurodegenerative diseases during the vulnerable window period for brain development, thus affect learning and memory function when the children reach adulthood. Since 2007, a number of research centers around the world conducted a large-scale clinical study on this issue, but there are relevant studies showing that there is no direct correlation between the two. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.16

  17. A comparative study of lipid profile and autonomic functions in vegetarian and non-vegetarian postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dyslipedaemia, autonomic dysfunction leading to cardiovascular diseases, increases with menopause and an ageing population. Autonomic dysfunction as measured by lower heart rate variability is an established risk factor for cardiac death. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases and are also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: To compare lipid profile and autonomic functions of postmenopausal women on vegetarian and non- vegetarian diet. Materials and Methods: 120 Postmenopausal women (menopausal duration and age-matched without any gross systemic disease from an Industrial population were selected. Sixty women were on vegetarian diet and 60 on non-vegetarian diet. BMI and waist/hip ratios were calculated, lipid profile was analyzed, and autonomic function tests were carried out. A comparison was done between the two groups using Students t test. Pearson′s correlation coefficient was calculated between the independent variable (lipid profile parameters and the dependent variables (deep breath test, valsalva ratio, 30:15 ratio, OTT, IHG, CPT to understand the effect of lipid profile on autonomic control of heart. Results : Significant increases in total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, cholesterol/HDL ratio were noticed in women on non-vegetarian diet. Results of autonomic function tests, i.e. valsalva ratio, deep breath test, 30: 15R-R intervals ratio, isometric hand grip test, cold pressor test, and orthostatic tolerance test were significantly worsened in postmenopausal women on non-vegetarian diet. Conclusion: Dietary factors may be an important cause of alteration of lipid metabolism. Increased cholesterol decreases heart rate variability and increased LDL cholesterol decreases baroreceptor sensitivity thereby worsening autonomic functions in postmenopausal women.

  18. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Patrick A; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L; Ives, Jeffrey C; Sforzo, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats ('wide-band' theta-frequency binaural beats) or placebo (carrier tones) for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high-frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity), low-frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural-beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, increased parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural-beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.

  19. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eMcConnell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation, few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics (heart-rate variability (HRV during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design. At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats (‘wide-band’ theta-frequency binaural beats or placebo (carrier tone for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity, low frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, as well as increased parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.

  20. Radioiodine therapy of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guhlmann, C.A.; Rendl, J.; Boerner, W.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effects of radioiodine therapy (RIT) for autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) and Graves' disease on thyroid function and size up to one year after RIT. In 230 patients with AFTNs, a dose of 300 Gy was effective in about 90% of the cases 6 months after RIT. Out of 65 patients suffering from Graves' disease, 5 patients (8%) had persisting hyperthyroidism 6 months after RIT with a dose of 150 Gy. This group consisted exclusively of patients with manifest hyperthyroidism at the time of RIT. As determined by ultrasonography 6 months after RIT, a reduction of thyroid size by about 40% and 60% was observed in patients with AFTNs and Graves' disease, respectively. (orig.) [de

  1. Developmental and Functional Expression of miRNA-Stability Related Genes in the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, ?rica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Ot?vio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We fi...

  2. Feeding and wounding responses in Hydra suggest functional and structural polarization of the tentacle nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H

    2002-03-01

    The nervous system of Hydra, a freshwater cnidaria, occurs as dispersed, or diffuse, nerve net throughout the animal. It is widely accepted that in a diffuse nervous system an external stimulus is conducted in all directions over the net. Here I report observations that hydra tentacles respond to feeding and wounding stimuli in a unidirectional manner. Upon contact of a tentacle with a brine shrimp larva during feeding, tissue on the proximal side of the point of contact contracted strongly, whereas tissue on the distal side contracted only very weakly. Feeding a tentacle to which a second tentacle was grafted to the proximal end in the reversed orientation showed that unidirectional conduction, once initiated, was blocked by the reversal of polarity, demonstrating that the distal to proximal polarity of tissue is crucial for unidirectional conduction. Unidirectional conduction was obtained also by mechanically pinching the tissue. The response of tentacles devoid of neurons examined was bidirectional, demonstrating that the nervous system is responsible for the unidirectional responses. These observations suggest that polarized property of the nerve net in hydra tentacles is responsible for the unidirectional tentacle contraction.

  3. "Brain over body"-A study on the willful regulation of autonomic function during cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Otto; Reilly, Kaice T; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2018-02-10

    The defense of body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is a core objective of homeostatic regulation governed by the autonomic nervous system. Autonomous mechanisms of thermoregulation are only weakly affected by top-down modulation, allowing only transient tolerance for extreme cold. There is however, anecdotal evidence of a unique set of individuals known for extreme cold tolerance. Here we present a case study of a 57-year old Dutch national, Wim Hof, the so-called "Iceman", with the ability to withstand frequent prolonged periods of extreme cold exposure based on the practice of a self-developed technique involving a combination of forced breathing, cold exposure and meditation (collectively referred to as the Wim Hof Method, henceforth "WHM"). The relative contributions of the brain and the periphery that endow the Iceman with these capabilities is unknown. To investigate this, we conducted multi-modal imaging assessments of the brain and the periphery using a combination of fMRI and PET/CT imaging. Thermoregulatory defense was evoked by subjecting the Iceman (and a cohort of typical controls) to a fMRI paradigm designed to generate periods of mild hypothermia interspersed by periods of return to basal core body temperature. fMRI was acquired in two separate sessions: in a typical (passive) state and following the practice of WHM. In addition, the Iceman also underwent a whole body PET/CT imaging session using the tracers C11-hydroxyephedrine (HED) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) during both thermoneutral and prolonged mild cold conditions. This acquisition allowed us to determine changes in sympathetic innervation (HED) and glucose consumption (FDG) in muscle and fat tissues in the absence of the WHM. fMRI analyses indicated that the WHM activates primary control centers for descending pain/cold stimuli modulation in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), possibly initiating a stress-induced analgesic response. In addition, the WHM also engages

  4. Real-time elastography in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules: relationship with TSH levels, scintigraphy, and ultrasound patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Paone, Gaetano; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Ceriani, Luca; Giovanella, Luca

    2017-12-01

    Real-time elastography has been proposed to increase the sensitivity of ultrasound and improve the detection of thyroid nodules at risk of malignancy. To date sparse data on real-time elastography assessment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules exist. Here, we investigated the potential role of real-time elastography in autonomously functioning thyroid nodule assessment. Specifically, the correlation between serum hormones and real-time elastography score, as well as other clinical and ultrasound features, was analyzed. Patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule identified by I-123 scintigraphy from September 2015 to July 2016 and undergoing ultrasound, real-time elastography, and thyroid function evaluation were selected. All autonomously functioning thyroid nodule were classified as RTE I (prevalence of red or green color with blue in up to 25% of the nodule area), RTE II (blue in 25-75%), or RTE III (blue in more than 75%). The association between suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone and patient's age, nodule's size, ultrasound presentation, and real-time elastography scoring was analyzed by Odds Ratio in univariate fashion and multivariate model. A number of 47 subjects with single autonomously functioning thyroid nodule were enrolled. Median age of 63 years, median size of 2.0 cm, and suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone levels in 32% of cases were found. Those nodules classified by ultrasound at high risk underwent fine-needle aspiration cytology and cancer was excluded. At real-time elastography evaluation, a 45% of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule had a hard appearance (RTE III) and had thyroid stimulating hormone significantly lower than the other (p < 0.0001). A model of multivariate logistic regression including nodule's size, ultrasound characteristics, and elastographic presentation showed that only RTE III was significantly associated with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (Odds Ratio of 50). Autonomously

  5. Vagus nerve stimulation: state of the art of stimulation and recording strategies to address autonomic function neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Bonnet, Stéphane; Carrault, Guy; Couderc, Pascal; Hagège, Albert; Henry, Christine; Hernandez, Alfredo; Karam, Nicole; Le Rolle, Virginie; Mabo, Philippe; Maciejasz, Paweł; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Marijon, Eloi; Maubert, Sandrine; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Bonnet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Neural signals along the vagus nerve (VN) drive many somatic and autonomic functions. The clinical interest of VN stimulation (VNS) is thus potentially huge and has already been demonstrated in epilepsy. However, side effects are often elicited, in addition to the targeted neuromodulation. Approach. This review examines the state of the art of VNS applied to two emerging modulations of autonomic function: heart failure and obesity, especially morbid obesity. Main results. We report that VNS may benefit from improved stimulation delivery using very advanced technologies. However, most of the results from fundamental animal studies still need to be demonstrated in humans.

  6. αII Spectrin Forms a Periodic Cytoskeleton at the Axon Initial Segment and Is Required for Nervous System Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Claire Yu-Mei; Zhang, Chuansheng; Ho, Tammy Szu-Yu; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Burlingame, Alma L; Lalonde, Joshua; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Leterrier, Christophe; Rasband, Matthew N

    2017-11-22

    Spectrins form a submembranous cytoskeleton proposed to confer strength and flexibility to neurons and to participate in ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Neuronal spectrin cytoskeletons consist of diverse β subunits and αII spectrin. Although αII spectrin is found in neurons in both axonal and somatodendritic domains, using proteomics, biochemistry, and superresolution microscopy, we show that αII and βIV spectrin interact and form a periodic AIS cytoskeleton. To determine the role of spectrins in the nervous system, we generated Sptan1 f/f mice for deletion of CNS αII spectrin. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that loss of αII spectrin causes profound reductions in all β spectrins. αII spectrin-deficient mice die before 1 month of age and have disrupted AIS and many other neurological impairments including seizures, disrupted cortical lamination, and widespread neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the importance of the spectrin cytoskeleton both at the AIS and throughout the nervous system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spectrin cytoskeletons play diverse roles in neurons, including assembly of excitable domains such as the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. However, the molecular composition and structure of these cytoskeletons remain poorly understood. Here, we show that αII spectrin partners with βIV spectrin to form a periodic cytoskeleton at the AIS. Using a new αII spectrin conditional knock-out mouse, we show that αII spectrin is required for AIS assembly, neuronal excitability, cortical lamination, and to protect against neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the broad importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for nervous system function and development and have important implications for nervous system injuries and diseases because disruption of the spectrin cytoskeleton is a common molecular pathology. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711311-12$15.00/0.

  7. Emotional and autonomic consequences of spinal cord injury explored using functional brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Alessia; Critchley, Hugo D; Mathias, Christopher J; Dolan, Raymond J

    2006-03-01

    In health, emotions are integrated with autonomic bodily responses. Emotional stimuli elicit changes in somatic (including autonomic) bodily states, which feedback to influence the expression of emotional feelings. In patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), this integration of emotion and bodily arousal is partially disrupted, impairing both efferent generation of sympathetic responses and afferent sensory feedback of visceral state via the spinal cord. A number of theoretical accounts of emotion predict emotional deficits in SCI patients, particularly at the level of emotional feelings, yet evidence for such a deficit is equivocal. We used functional MRI (fMRI) and a basic emotional learning paradigm to investigate the expression of emotion-related brain activity consequent upon SCI. We scanned seven SCI patients and seven healthy controls during an aversive fear conditioning task. Subjects viewed randomized presentations of four angry faces. One of the faces (CS + arm) was associated with delivery of electrical shock to the upper arm on 50% of trials. This shock was painful to all subjects. A face of the same gender acted as a 'safe' control stimulus (CS - arm). In both control subjects and SCI patients, painful cutaneous stimulation of the arm evoked enhanced activity within components of a central pain matrix, including dorsal anterior cingulate, right insula and medial temporal lobe. However, SCI patients differed from controls in conditioning-related brain activity. SCI patients showed a relative enhancement of activity within dorsal anterior cingulate, periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) and superior temporal gyrus. Conversely, SCI patients showed relative attenuation of activity in subgenual cingulate, ventromedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices to threat of painful arm stimulation (CS + arm > CS - arm). Our findings provide evidence for differences in emotion-related brain activity in SCI patients. We suggest that the observed functional

  8. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: Implications for cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M.; Handrakis, John P.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Jensen, A. Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A.; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n = 20; TETRA: C4–C8), high paraplegia (n = 10; HP: T2–T5), low paraplegia (n = 9; LP: T7–T12), and non-SCI controls (n = 10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R–R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R–R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.05); daytime HR was higher in both paraplegic groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01) and nighttime HR was significantly elevated in the LP group compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P < 0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated. PMID:21903013

  9. Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium: Association with autonomic cardiovascular function in normotensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2017-12-01

    Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium vary widely person-to-person. Salt sensitive rodent models display altered autonomic function, a trait thought to contribute to poor cardiovascular health. Thus, we hypothesized that increased salt sensitivity (SS) in normotensive humans would be associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Healthy normotensive men and women completed 1week of high (300mmol·day -1 ) and 1week of low (20mmol·day -1 ) dietary sodium (random order) with 24h mean arterial pressure (MAP) assessed on the last day of each diet to assess SS. Participants returned to the lab under habitual sodium conditions for testing. Forty-two participants are presented in this analysis, 19 of which successful MSNA recordings were obtained (n=42: age 39±2yrs., BMI 24.3±0.5kg·(m 2 ) -1 , MAP 83±1mmHg, habitual urine sodium 93±7mmol·24h -1 ; n=19: MSNA burst frequency 20±2 bursts·min -1 ). The variables of interest were linearly regressed over the magnitude of SS. Higher SS was associated with increased MSNA (burst frequency: r=0.469, p=0.041), decreased HF-HRV (r=-0.349, p=0.046), and increased LF/HF-HRV (r=0.363, p=0.034). SS was not associated with sympathetic or cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (p>0.05). Multiple regression analysis accounting for age found that age, not SS, independently predicted HF-HRV (age adjusted no longer significant; p=0.369) and LF/HF-HRV (age adjusted p=0.273). These data suggest that age-related salt sensitivity of blood pressure in response to dietary sodium is associated with altered resting autonomic cardiovascular function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Memories and Promises of the Enteric Nervous System and Its Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcello

    This is a very personal reminiscence of the long period of Enteric Nervous System research in which I have been involved. I started to work on the gut in the early 60s really because in Turin when I arrived from Argentina, where my family migrated temporarily after the WWII, nobody was seriously working on the brain. In Anatomy they were studying the neural "intramural plexuses" and that for me was close enough to the nervous system. I grew up in the mountains near Turin near the French border where our ex-family house still bears our name. I joined the Department of Anatomy as an intern student and I was privileged to seat at a desk where a previous generation of young scientists, who studied under the professor of Anatomy A. Levi, the founder of the methods for culturing neural tissue. They were Salvador Luria, Renato Dulbecco and Rita Levi-Montalcini, who, after migrating to the USA, were each were given the Noble prize.

  11. Affect during incremental exercise: The role of inhibitory cognition, autonomic cardiac function, and cerebral oxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslley Quirino Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available Pleasure is a key factor for physical activity behavior in sedentary individuals. Inhibitory cognitive control may play an important role in pleasure perception while exercising, especially at high intensities. In addition, separate work suggests that autonomic regulation and cerebral hemodynamics influence the affective and cognitive responses during exercise.We investigated the effects of exercise intensity on affect, inhibitory control, cardiac autonomic function, and prefrontal cortex (PFC oxygenation.Thirty-seven sedentary young adults performed two experimental conditions (exercise and control in separate sessions in a repeated-measures design. In the exercise condition, participants performed a maximum graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer as we continuously measured oxygen consumption, heart rate variability (HRV, and PFC oxygenation. At each of 8 intensity levels we also measured inhibitory control (Stroop test, associative and dissociative thoughts (ADT, and affective/pleasure ratings. In the control condition, participants sat motionless on a cycle ergometer without active pedaling, and we collected the same measures at the same points in time as the exercise condition. We evaluated the main effects and interactions of exercise condition and intensity level for each measure using two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between affect and inhibitory control, ADT, HRV, and PFC oxygenation using Pearson's correlation coefficients.For exercise intensities below and at the ventilatory threshold (VT, participants reported feeling neutral, with preservation of inhibitory control, while intensities above the VT were associated with displeasure (p<0.001, decreased inhibitory control and HRV (p<0.001, and increased PFC oxygenation (p<0.001. At the highest exercise intensity, pleasure was correlated with the low-frequency index of HRV (r = -0.34; p<0.05 and the low-frequency/high-frequency HRV ratio (r

  12. The effects of dihydropyridine and phenylalkylamine calcium antagonist classes on autonomic function in hypertension : The VAMPHYRE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, JD; Heitmann, J; Sevre, K; Castellano, M; Hausberg, M; Fallon, M; Fluckiger, L; Urbigkeit, A; Rostrup, M; Agabiti-Rosei, E; Rahn, KH; Murphy, M; Zannad, F; de Kam, PJ; van Roon, AM; Smit, AJ

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a long-acting dihydropyridine (amlodipine) and a nondihydropyridine. (verapamil) on autonomic function in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. A total of 145 patients with a diastolic blood pressure (BP) between 95 and 110 mm Hg

  13. Regulation of Pannexin 1 Surface Expression by Extracellular ATP: Potential Implications for Nervous System Function in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A. Swayne

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pannexin 1 (Panx1 channels are widely recognized for their role in ATP release, and as follows, their function is closely tied to that of ATP-activated P2X7 purinergic receptors (P2X7Rs. Our recent work has shown that extracellular ATP induces clustering of Panx1 with P2X7Rs and their subsequent internalization through a non-canonical cholesterol-dependent mechanism. In other words, we have demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels can regulate the cell surface expression of Panx1. Here we discuss two situations in which we hypothesize that ATP modulation of Panx1 surface expression could be relevant for central nervous system function. The first scenario involves the development of new neurons in the ventricular zone. We propose that ATP-induced Panx1 endocytosis could play an important role in regulating the balance of cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation within this neurogenic niche in the healthy brain. The second scenario relates to the spinal cord, in which we posit that an impairment of ATP-induced Panx1 endocytosis could contribute to pathological neuroplasticity. Together, the discussion of these hypotheses serves to highlight important outstanding questions regarding the interplay between extracellular ATP, Panx1, and P2X7Rs in the nervous system in health and disease.

  14. Autonomous gathering of livestock using a multi-functional sensor network platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we develop algorithms and hardware for the autonomous gathering of cattle. We present a comparison of three different autonomous gathering algorithms that employ sound and/or electric stimuli to guide the cattle. We evaluate these algorithms in simulation by extending previous behavior...

  15. Burnout versus work engagement in their effects on 24-hour ambulatory monitored cardiac autonomic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.P. van Doornen (Lorenz); J.H. Houtveen (Jan); S. Langelaan (Saar); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); W. van Rhenen (Willem); W.B. Schaufeli (Wilmar)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBurnout has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This relationship may be mediated by a stress-related disruption in cardiac autonomic activity. The aim of the present study was to assess cardiac autonomic activity (sympathetic and parasympathetic) during a

  16. Impaired cardiac uptake of meta-[123I]iodobenzylguanidine in Parkinson's disease with autonomic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braune, S.; Luecking, C.H.; Reinhardt, M.; Bathmann, J.; Krause, T.; Lehmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To selectively investigate postganglionic sympathetic cardiac neurons in patients with Parkinson's disease and autonomic failure. Material and methods - Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is a pharmacologically inactive analogue of noradrenaline, which is similarly metabolized in noradrenergic neurons. Therefore the uptake of radiolabelled MIBG represents not only the localization of postganglionic sympathetic neurons but also their functional integrity. Ten patients with Parkinson's disease and autonomic failure underwent standardized autonomic testing, assessment of catecholamine plasma levels and scintigraphy with [ 123 I]MIGB. Results - The cardiac uptake of MIBG, as demonstrated by the heart/mediastinum ratio, was significantly lower in patients in comparison with controls. Scintigraphy with MIBG allowed the selective in-vivo investigation of postganglionic sympathetic cardiac efferent in patients with autonomic failure, a procedure which was previously confined to post-mortem examination. Conclusion - These findings point to a relevant postganglionic pattern of involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in Parkinson's disease and autonomic failure. (au)

  17. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on the Central Nervous System in Rats -using the Functional Observational Battery-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Chul An

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV-pure melittin, the major component of honey bee venom on the central nervous system in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male rats of 5 weeks old were chosen for this study and after confirming condition of rats was stable, Sweet BV was administered in thigh muscle of rats. And checked the effects of Sweet BV on the central nervous system using the functional observational battery (FOB, which is a neuro-toxicity screening assay composed of 30 descriptive, scalar, binary, and continuous endpoints. And home cage observations, home cage removal and handling, open field activity, sensorimotor reflex test/physiological measurements were conducted. Results: 1. In the home cage observation, there was not observed any abnormal signs in rats. 2. In the observation of open field activity, the reduction of number of unit areas crossed and rearing count was observed caused by Sweet BV treatment. 3. In the observation of handling reactivity, there was not observed any abnormal signs in rats. 4. In the observation of sensorimotor reflex tests/physiological measurements, there was not observed any neurotoxic signs in rats. 5. In the measurement of rectal temperature, treatment of Sweet BV did not showed great influences in the body temperature of rats. Conclusions: Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the central nervous system. But in the using of over dose, Sweet BV may the cause of local pain and disturbance of movement. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  18. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Yong Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

  19. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-01

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.

  20. Modulation of autonomic activity in neurological conditions: Epilepsy and Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eNagai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript considers the central but neglected role of the autonomic nervous system in the expression and control of seizures in Epilepsy and tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS. In epilepsy, consideration of autonomic involvement is typically confined to differential diagnoses (e.g. syncope, or in relation to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP. Investigation is more limited in Tourette Syndrome. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the generation and prevention of epileptic seizures is largely overlooked. Emotional stimuli such as anxiety and stress are potent causes of seizures and tic activity in TS, respectively. This manuscript will describe a possible neural mechanism by which afferent autonomic projections linked to cognition and behaviour influence central nervous system thalamo-cortical regulation, which appears to be an important means for controlling both seizure and tic activity. It also summarizes the link between the integrity of the default mode network and autonomic regulation in patients with epilepsy as well as the link between impaired motor control and autonomic regulation in patients with TS. Two neurological conditions; epilepsy and TS were chosen, as seizures and tics represent parameters that can be easily measured to investigate influences of autonomic functions. The EDA biofeedback approach is anticipated

  1. microRNA involvement in developmental and functional aspects of the nervous system and in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Schratt, Gerhard M

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, are emerging as important regulatory molecules involved in the fine-tuning of gene expression during neuronal development and function. microRNAs have roles during neuronal stem cell commitment...... and early differentiation as well as in later stages of neuronal development, such as dendritogenesis and synaptic plasticity. A link between microRNAs and neurological diseases, such as neurodegeneration or synaptic dysfunction, is becoming increasingly clear. This review summarizes the current knowledge...... of the function of microRNAs in the developing and adult nervous system and their potential contribution to the etiology of neurological diseases....

  2. Non-centralized and functionally localized nervous system of ophiuroids: evidence from topical anesthetic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiya Matsuzaka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ophiuroids locomote along the seafloor by coordinated rhythmic movements of multi-segmented arms. The mechanisms by which such coordinated movements are achieved are a focus of interest from the standpoints of neurobiology and robotics, because ophiuroids appear to lack a central nervous system that could exert centralized control over five arms. To explore the underlying mechanism of arm coordination, we examined the effects of selective anesthesia to various parts of the body of ophiuroids on locomotion. We observed the following: (1 anesthesia of the circumoral nerve ring completely blocked the initiation of locomotion; however, initiation of single arm movement, such as occurs during the retrieval of food, was unaffected, indicating that the inability to initiate locomotion was not due to the spread of the anesthetic agent. (2 During locomotion, the midsegments of the arms periodically made contact with the floor to elevate the disc. In contrast, the distal segments of the arms were pointed aborally and did not make contact with the floor. (3 When the midsegments of all arms were anesthetized, arm movements were rendered completely uncoordinated. In contrast, even when only one arm was left intact, inter-arm coordination was preserved. (4 Locomotion was unaffected by anesthesia of the distal arms. (5 A radial nerve block to the proximal region of an arm abolished coordination among the segments of that arm, rendering it motionless. These findings indicate that the circumoral nerve ring and radial nerves play different roles in intra- and inter-arm coordination in ophiuroids.

  3. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglong Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of cannabinoids, the major constituents of the ancient medicinal plant Cannabis sativa (marijuana are mediated by two members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1R and 2. The CB1R is the prominent subtype in the central nervous system (CNS and has drawn great attention as a potential therapeutic avenue in several pathological conditions, including neuropsychological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, cannabinoids also modulate signal transduction pathways and exert profound effects at peripheral sites. Although cannabinoids have therapeutic potential, their psychoactive effects have largely limited their use in clinical practice. In this review, we briefly summarized our knowledge of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, focusing on the CB1R and the CNS, with emphasis on recent breakthroughs in the field. We aim to define several potential roles of cannabinoid receptors in the modulation of signaling pathways and in association with several pathophysiological conditions. We believe that the therapeutic significance of cannabinoids is masked by the adverse effects and here alternative strategies are discussed to take therapeutic advantage of cannabinoids.

  4. Influence of sympathetic nervous system on sensorimotor function: whiplash associated disorders (WAD) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passatore, Magda; Roatta, Silvestro

    2006-11-01

    There is increasing interest about the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in initiation and maintenance of chronic muscle pain syndromes of different aetiology. Epidemiological data show that stresses of different nature, e.g. work-related, psychosocial, etc., typically characterised by SNS activation, may be a co-factor in the development of the pain syndrome and/or negatively affect its time course. In spite of their clear traumatic origin, whiplash associated disorders (WAD) appear to share many common features with other chronic pain syndromes affecting the musculo-skeletal system. These features do not only include symptoms, like type of pain or sensory and motor dysfunctions, but possibly also some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that may concur to establish the chronic pain syndrome. This review focuses on WAD, particular emphasis being devoted to sensorimotor symptoms, and on the actions exerted by the sympathetic system at muscle level. Besides its well-known action on muscle blood flow, the SNS is able to affect the contractility of muscle fibres, to modulate the proprioceptive information arising from the muscle spindle receptors and, under certain conditions, to modulate nociceptive information. Furthermore, the activity of the SNS itself is in turn affected by muscle conditions, such as its current state of activity, fatigue and pain signals originating in the muscle. The possible involvement of the SNS in the development of WAD is discussed in light of the several positive feedback loops in which it is implicated.

  5. Assesment of Autonomic Function in Metabolic Syndrome using Combination Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Aydın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is described as a group of various abnormal metabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, increased plasma glucose levels, prothrombotic condition and proinflammatory state. These parameters are related to decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic activity. We aimed to evaluate autonomic function using a combination with heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate turbulence (HRT in metabolic syndrome to compare non-metabolic syndrome(non-MetS. METHODS: We selected consecutive 50 patients with MetS and 50 patients with healthy non-MetS individuals. All patients underwent 24 hours holter monitoring to evaluate HRT and HRV parameters. RESULTS: Age of patients was not different in two groups. Mean age of MetS patients was 57,50±12,13 and 54,6±10,25 in non- MetS individuals. Sex of patients was non different in MetS compared to non-MetS (37 female and 13 male vs. 22 female, 28 male p<0,05 respectively. SDNN and RMSSD was lower in MetS compared to those without MetS (131,96±49,12 vs 179,59±85,83 p=0,03 and 78,64±35,22 vs 112,73±81,24 p=0,08 respectively. SDANN, pNN50,Mean RR, mean heart rate, count of ventricular premature complex(VPC were not different between two groups. Turbulence Slope(TS was not different in two groups. Turbulence Onset(TO was higher in MetS compared to non-MetS (2,01±15,29 and -6,21±13,5 p=0,005. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We showed that autonomic function in MetS was impaired using a combination with HRT and HRV. These patients should be followed closely for adverse cardiovascular outcome especially including cardiac arrhythmia.

  6. Effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic and endocrine functions throughout the day and on exercise tolerance in the evening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Endo, Naoya; Numao, Shigeharu; Takagi, Shun; Miyashita, Masashi; Midorikawa, Taishi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic and endocrine functions during the day and on exercise tolerance in the evening. Ten healthy young males completed two, 2-day control and sleep deprivation trials. For the control trial, participants were allowed normal sleep from 23:00 to 07:00 h. For the sleep deprivation trial, participants did not sleep for 34 h. Autonomic activity was measured from 19:00 h on day 1 to 16:00 h on day 2 by frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability. Endocrine function was examined by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol from venous blood samples collected on day 2 at 09:00, 13:00, and 17:00 h and immediately after an exercise tolerance testing. Autonomic regulation, particularly parasympathetic regulation estimated from the high-frequency component of heart rate variability analysis, was significantly higher in the sleep deprivation trial than in the control trial in the morning and afternoon of day 2. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations were significantly higher at 09:00 and 13:00 h of day 2 under sleep deprivation. Heart rate during exercise was significantly lower following sleep deprivation. Therefore, the effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic regulation depend on the time of the day.

  7. Epidemiology of Gait and Daily Functioning : The role of the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAcross the world, people continue to live longer, resulting in increasing numbers of older people. Age-related functional deficiencies, such as problems in gait and daily functioning, will therefore become a major issue for society. People with problems in gait and daily functioning

  8. Assessment of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal autonomic complications of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)