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Sample records for autonomic modulation combining

  1. Microscale autonomous sensor and communications module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-03-25

    Various technologies pertaining to a microscale autonomous sensor and communications module are described herein. Such a module includes a sensor that generates a sensor signal that is indicative of an environmental parameter. An integrated circuit receives the sensor signal and generates an output signal based at least in part upon the sensor signal. An optical emitter receives the output signal and generates an optical signal as a function of the output signal. An energy storage device is configured to provide power to at least the integrated circuit and the optical emitter, and wherein the module has a relatively small diameter and thickness.

  2. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  3. Impact of malnutrition on cardiac autonomic modulation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Siqueira Carvalho Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Malnourished children present changes in cardiac autonomic modulation, characterized by reductions in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, as well as increased heart rate and decreased blood pressure.

  4. High-frequency autonomic modulation: a new model for analysis of autonomic cardiac control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champéroux, Pascal; Fesler, Pierre; Judé, Sebastien; Richard, Serge; Le Guennec, Jean-Yves; Thireau, Jérôme

    2018-05-03

    Increase in high-frequency beat-to-beat heart rate oscillations by torsadogenic hERG blockers appears to be associated with signs of parasympathetic and sympathetic co-activation which cannot be assessed directly using classic methods of heart rate variability analysis. The present work aimed to find a translational model that would allow this particular state of the autonomic control of heart rate to be assessed. High-frequency heart rate and heart period oscillations were analysed within discrete 10 s intervals in a cohort of 200 healthy human subjects. Results were compared to data collected in non-human primates and beagle dogs during pharmacological challenges and torsadogenic hERG blockers exposure, in 127 genotyped LQT1 patients on/off β-blocker treatment and in subgroups of smoking and non-smoking subjects. Three states of autonomic modulation, S1 (parasympathetic predominance) to S3 (reciprocal parasympathetic withdrawal/sympathetic activation), were differentiated to build a new model of heart rate variability referred to as high-frequency autonomic modulation. The S2 state corresponded to a specific state during which both parasympathetic and sympathetic systems were coexisting or co-activated. S2 oscillations were proportionally increased by torsadogenic hERG-blocking drugs, whereas smoking caused an increase in S3 oscillations. The combined analysis of the magnitude of high-frequency heart rate and high-frequency heart period oscillations allows a refined assessment of heart rate autonomic modulation applicable to long-term ECG recordings and offers new approaches to assessment of the risk of sudden death both in terms of underlying mechanisms and sensitivity. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Self-Assembling Wireless Autonomous Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory propose Self-assembling, Wireless, Autonomous, Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) as an innovative approach to...

  6. Cardiac autonomic modulation impairments in advanced breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Claudia; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; da Silva Paiva, Laércio; Fulghum, Kyle Levi; Fristachi, Carlos Elias; Nazario, Afonso Celso Pinto; Elias, Simone; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique; Ferreira Filho, Celso; Gidron, Yori; Ferreira, Celso

    2018-05-02

    To compare cardiac autonomic modulation in early- versus advanced-stage breast cancer patients before any type of cancer treatment and investigate associated factors. This cross-sectional study included women (30-69 years old) with primary diagnosis of breast cancer and women with benign breast tumors. We evaluated cardiac modulation by heart rate variability and assessed factors of anxiety, depression, physical activity, and other relevant medical variables. Patients were divided into three groups based on TNM staging of cancer severity: early-stage cancer (n = 42), advanced-stage cancer (n = 37), or benign breast tumors to serve as a control (n = 37). We analyzed heart rate variability in time and frequency domains. The advanced-stage cancer group had lower vagal modulation than early-stage and benign groups; also, the advance-stage group had lower overall heart rate variability when compared to benign conditions. Heart rate variability was influenced by age, menopausal status, and BMI. Heart rate variability seems to be a promising, non-invasive tool for early diagnosis of autonomic dysfunction in breast cancer and detection of cardiovascular impairments at cancer diagnosis. Cardiac autonomic modulation is inversely associated with breast cancer staging.

  7. Heart Rate Variability and Autonomic Modulations in Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaza M Musa

    Full Text Available Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not well understood, autonomic nervous system imbalance is suggested as one of the main factors.To investigate heart rate variability (HRV and autonomic modulations in Sudanese pregnant women with preeclampsia.A case-control study (60 women in each arm was conducted at Omdurman Maternity Hospital-Sudan, during the period from June to August, 2014. Cases were women presented with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women were the controls. Studied groups were matched for important determinants of HRV. Natural logarithm (Ln of total power (TP, high frequency (HF, low frequency (LF and very low frequency (VLF were used to determine HRV. Normalized low and high frequencies (LF Norm and HF Norm were used to evaluate sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic modulations respectively.Patients with preeclampsia achieved significantly higher LF Norm [49.80 (16.25 vs. 44.55 (19.15, P = 0.044] and LnLF/HF [0.04 (0.68 vs. -0.28 (0.91, P = 0.023] readings, but lower HF Norm [49.08 (15.29 vs. 55.87 (19.56, P = 0.012], compared with healthy pregnant women. Although all other HRV measurements were higher in the patients with preeclampsia compared with the controls, only LnVLF [4.50 (1.19 vs. 4.01 (1.06, P = 0.017] and LnLF [4.01 (1.58 vs. 3.49 (1.23, P = 0.040] reached statistical significance.The study adds further evidence for the dominant cardiac sympathetic modulations on patients with preeclampsia, probably secondary to parasympathetic withdrawal in this group. However, the higher LnVLF and LnLF readings achieved by preeclamptic women compared with the controls are unexpected in the view that augmented sympathetic modulations usually depresses all HRV parameters including these two measures.

  8. Influence of classic massage on cardiac autonomic modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Augusto Paschoal

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Massage can be defined as the rhythmic and smooth manipulation of body tissues, with the aim to promote health and well-being. Objective: To assess the influence of classic massage on cardiac autonomic modulation. Methods: Cross-sectional study that evaluated healthy participants, with mean age between 18 and 25 years, divided into two groups: test group (TG, n=11 and control group (CG, n=10. The TG had their heartbeat recorded for 5min before receiving a classic massage for 40min and during three periods after this procedure: 0-5min, 5-10min and 10-15min. The CG had their heartbeats recorded at the same time; without receive massage. Cardiac autonomic modulation was investigated by heart rate variability (HRV. Results: The mean values of HRV rates were: pNN50, respectively, for the TG: before massage (10.5 ± 9.5%, and after massage: 0-5min (11.6 ± 7.2%, 5-10min (12.1 ± 8.0% and 10-15min (11.1 ± 7.9%, with no significant statistical difference. The same result was found for the mean values of rMSSD index of the TG; before massage: 52.1 ± 46.2 ms, and after massage: 0-5min (50.0 ± 21.6ms, 5-10min (52.0 ± 27.4 ms and 10-15min (48.2 ± 21.1 ms. Also, the values of LFnuand HFnu indexes did not change significantly before and after massage, and they were not statistically different from the values presented by the control group. Conclusion: The study results suggest that one session of classic massage does not modify cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy young adults.

  9. Is autonomic modulation different between European and Chinese astronauts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiexin; Li, Yongzhi; Verheyden, Bart; Chen, Shanguang; Chen, Zhanghuang; Gai, Yuqing; Liu, Jianzhong; Gao, Jianyi; Xie, Qiong; Yuan, Ming; Li, Qin; Li, Li; Aubert, André E

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to investigate autonomic control in groups of European and Chinese astronauts and to identify similarities and differences. Beat-to-beat heart rate and finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and respiratory frequency were measured from 10 astronauts (five European taking part in three different space missions and five Chinese astronauts taking part in two different space missions). Data recording was performed in the supine and standing positions at least 10 days before launch, and 1, 3, and 10 days after return. Cross-correlation analysis of heart rate and systolic pressure was used to assess cardiac baroreflex modulation. A fixed breathing protocol was performed to measure respiratory sinus arrhythmia and low-frequency power of systolic blood pressure variability. Although baseline cardiovascular parameters before spaceflight were similar in all astronauts in the supine position, a significant increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in vagal modulation occurred in the European astronauts when standing; spaceflight resulted in a remarkable vagal decrease in European astronauts only. Similar baseline supine and standing values for heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and respiratory frequency were shown in both groups. Standing autonomic control was based on a balance of higher vagal and sympathetic modulation in European astronauts. Post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was observed in all European astronauts, whereas post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was significantly reduced in Chinese astronauts. The basis for orthostatic intolerance is not apparent; however, many possibilities can be considered and need to be further investigated, such as genetic diversities between races, astronaut selection, training, and nutrition, etc.

  10. Is autonomic modulation different between European and Chinese astronauts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexin Liu

    Full Text Available The objective was to investigate autonomic control in groups of European and Chinese astronauts and to identify similarities and differences.Beat-to-beat heart rate and finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and respiratory frequency were measured from 10 astronauts (five European taking part in three different space missions and five Chinese astronauts taking part in two different space missions. Data recording was performed in the supine and standing positions at least 10 days before launch, and 1, 3, and 10 days after return. Cross-correlation analysis of heart rate and systolic pressure was used to assess cardiac baroreflex modulation. A fixed breathing protocol was performed to measure respiratory sinus arrhythmia and low-frequency power of systolic blood pressure variability.Although baseline cardiovascular parameters before spaceflight were similar in all astronauts in the supine position, a significant increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in vagal modulation occurred in the European astronauts when standing; spaceflight resulted in a remarkable vagal decrease in European astronauts only. Similar baseline supine and standing values for heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and respiratory frequency were shown in both groups. Standing autonomic control was based on a balance of higher vagal and sympathetic modulation in European astronauts.Post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was observed in all European astronauts, whereas post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was significantly reduced in Chinese astronauts. The basis for orthostatic intolerance is not apparent; however, many possibilities can be considered and need to be further investigated, such as genetic diversities between races, astronaut selection, training, and nutrition, etc.

  11. An autonomous sensor module based on a legacy CCTV camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, P. J.; Faulkner, D. A. A.; Marshall, G. F.

    2016-10-01

    A UK MoD funded programme into autonomous sensors arrays (SAPIENT) has been developing new, highly capable sensor modules together with a scalable modular architecture for control and communication. As part of this system there is a desire to also utilise existing legacy sensors. The paper reports upon the development of a SAPIENT-compliant sensor module using a legacy Close-Circuit Television (CCTV) pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera. The PTZ camera sensor provides three modes of operation. In the first mode, the camera is automatically slewed to acquire imagery of a specified scene area, e.g. to provide "eyes-on" confirmation for a human operator or for forensic purposes. In the second mode, the camera is directed to monitor an area of interest, with zoom level automatically optimized for human detection at the appropriate range. Open source algorithms (using OpenCV) are used to automatically detect pedestrians; their real world positions are estimated and communicated back to the SAPIENT central fusion system. In the third mode of operation a "follow" mode is implemented where the camera maintains the detected person within the camera field-of-view without requiring an end-user to directly control the camera with a joystick.

  12. Breathing frequency-independent effect of Tai Chi Chuan on autonomic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wan-An; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the breathing frequency (BF)-independent effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on autonomic nervous modulation in TCC practitioners. Twenty-five TCC practitioners and 25 sedentary normal controls were recruited. The stationary heart rate variability (HRV) measures of TCC practitioners and controls were compared. The same HRV measures in TCC practitioners and among the controls, TCC practitioners before TCC and TCC practitioners 30 min after TCC were compared. In TCC practitioners, the BF, normalized high-frequency power (nHFP), and normalized very low-frequency power were significantly increased, while the normalized low-frequency power (nLFP) was significantly decreased 30 min after TCC. The BF correlated significantly and negatively with heart rate (HR), nHFP and nLFP, and correlated significantly and positively with mean RR interval (MnRR) before TCC in TCC practitioners. A slower BF is associated with a higher HR, a greater vagal modulation, and a greater combined sympatho-vagal modulation before TCC. To remove the effect of BF on HRV measures, new indices such as HR*BF, nHFP*BF, nLFP*BF, and MnRR/BF were introduced for comparison among the controls, TCC practitioners before TCC, and TCC practitioners 30 min after TCC. Thirty minutes after TCC, the MnRR/BF of TCC practitioner was smaller whereas HR*BF and nHFP*BF were greater than those before TCC. The BF-independent effects of TCC on the autonomic nervous modulation of TCC practitioners are an increase in vagal modulation and HR, and a decrease in mean RR interval. The mechanism underlying the parallel increase in HR and vagal modulation in TCC practitioners is not understood yet at present.

  13. An autonomous CZT module for X-ray diffraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemont, G.; Monnet, O.; Stanchina, S.; Verger, L.; Kosciesza, D.; Schlomka, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    We present the development of a CZT-based detection module dedicated to X-ray diffraction imaging. This kind of application requires a good energy and spatial resolution in order to resolve Bragg peaks. In a first part, we present the detector configuration used and dimensioning constraints. As the input energy range is comprised between 20 and 150 keV, we use 5 mm thick high resistivity CZT crystals. The 660 mm 2 detection area is segmented on both sides into 192 anodes and 12 cathodes. Signals from both sides are read jointly in order to perform multi parametric event corrections (depth of interaction, charge sharing, induction sharing). In order to be integrated easily inside an X-ray imaging system, the system has been conceived to be completely autonomous: it is powered by a single 12 V supply and is interfaced with the external system by Ethernet for communication and RS485 for synchronization. In a second part, we describe the system readout architecture and then the implementation of the data processing. An FPGA circuit embeds a digital processing chain that carries out readout ASIC interfacing and advanced multi parametric data corrections. Gain, offset but also depth of interaction and charge sharing are corrected on the flow. Incoming events from different channels are clustered together by comparing their location and time of occurrence. The FPGA also embeds a processor running an operating system that controls the system, carries out all calibrations, automated tests and acquisitions. Eventually, we show the results obtained and demonstrate the relative influence of depth of interaction and charge sharing. Homogeneity of detector behavior is also discussed and the reproducibility of the performance between modules is presented. The average energy resolution at 25 C is 2.4 % FWHM at 122 keV and 3.8 % FWHM at 60 keV and the average efficiency is 73 %. (authors)

  14. The hemodynamic repercussions of the autonomic modulations in growth-restricted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Victorovich Lakhno

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Fetal heart rate pattern was influenced by maternal and fetal autonomic tone. Maternal cardiovascular oscillations were reflected in the umbilical circulation in healthy pregnancy Fetal distress was featured by sympathetic overactivity and the reduction of vagal tone. Such autonomic modulations was manifested by the decelerative pattern of CTG and deteriorated umbilical hemodynamics.

  15. The hemodynamic repercussions of the autonomic modulations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igor Victorovich Lakhno

    2017-01-16

    Jan 16, 2017 ... autonomic balance, arterial and venous hemodynamic Doppler indices and CTG variables in case of nor- mal fetal ... score of decelerations. Results: The .... puter electrocardiographic system ''Cardiolab Baby Card” (Scien-.

  16. Insulin resistance and circadian rhythm of cardiac autonomic modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Jianwen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance (IR has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Heart rate variability (HRV, an index of cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM, is also associated with CVD mortality and CVD morbidity. Currently, there are limited data about the impairment of IR on the circadian pattern of CAM. Therefore, we conducted this investigation to exam the association between IR and the circadian oscillations of CAM in a community-dwelling middle-aged sample. Method Homeostasis models of IR (HOMA-IR, insulin, and glucose were used to assess IR. CAM was measured by HRV analysis from a 24-hour electrocardiogram. Two stage modeling was used in the analysis. In stage one, for each individual we fit a cosine periodic model based on the 48 segments of HRV data. We obtained three individual-level cosine parameters that quantity the circadian pattern: mean (M, measures the overall average of a HRV index; amplitude (Â, measures the amplitude of the oscillation of a HRV index; and acrophase time (θ, measures the timing of the highest oscillation. At the second stage, we used a random-effects-meta-analysis to summarize the effects of IR variables on the three circadian parameters of HRV indices obtained in stage one of the analysis. Results In persons without type diabetes, the multivariate adjusted β (SE of log HOMA-IR and M variable for HRV were -0.251 (0.093, -0.245 (0.078, -0.19 (0.06, -4.89 (1.76, -3.35 (1.31, and 2.14 (0.995, for log HF, log LF, log VLF, SDNN, RMSSD and HR, respectively (all P Conclusion Elevated IR, among non-diabetics significantly impairs the overall mean levels of CAM. However, the  or θ of CAM were not significantly affected by IR, suggesting that the circadian mechanisms of CAM are not impaired. However, among persons with type 2 diabetes, a group clinically has more severe form of IR, the adverse effects of increased IR on all three HRV circadian parameters are much larger.

  17. Effects of CPAP on clinical variables and autonomic modulation in children during an asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Dantas Gomes, Evelim Leal; Costa, Dirceu; Germano, Sandra Maria; Borges, Pâmela Vieira; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá

    2013-08-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) causes changes in alveolar and intrathoracic pressure and the activation of pulmonary stretch receptors affects the balance of the autonomic nervous system. The acute effects of CPAP on autonomic modulation have been demonstrated in different diseases, but no studies have been carried out addressing CPAP in patients with asthma. The hypothesis tested in the present study is that CPAP can produce an autonomic effect beyond a mechanical effect of bronchial dilatation in children with asthma. The results demonstrated improvements in clinical variables and an increase in vagal tone with the administration of CPAP during an asthma attack, as demonstrated by a diminished respiratory rate and a reduction in signs of respiratory distress. Regarding autonomic modulation, an increase in parasympathetic variables was found, indicating non-cholinergic activation stemming from the persistent increase in peak flow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modulated Source Interferometry with Combined Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved interferometer is produced by modifying a conventional interferometer to include amplitude and/or frequency modulation of a coherent light source at radio or higher frequencies. The phase of the modulation signal can be detected in an interfering beam from an interferometer and can be used to determine the actual optical phase of the beam. As such, this improvement can be adapted to virtually any two-beam interferometer, including: Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, and Sagnac interferometers. The use of an amplitude modulated coherent tight source results in an interferometer that combines the wide range advantages of coherent interferometry with the precise distance measurement advantages of white light interferometry.

  19. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  20. Glycemic Variability Is Associated With Reduced Cardiac Autonomic Modulation in Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Jesper; Lebech Cichosz, Simon; Hoeyem, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sex differences in cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and to determine whether cardiac autonomic modulation is associated with glycemic variability. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated a cohort consisting of 48 men...... and 39 women with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and a known duration of diabetes ... by the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (P = 0.001), the root mean square of successive differences (P = 0.018), LF (P power (P = 0.008), RS ratio (P = 0.027), and expiration-to-inspiration ratio (P = 0.006) was significantly associated with increased glycemic...

  1. Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Richardt, Gert; Potratz, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Circadian Profile of Heart Rate Variability. INTRODUCTION: Although heart rate variability (HRV) has been established as a tool to study cardiac autonomic activity, almost no data are available on the circadian patterns of HRV in healthy subjects aged 20 to 70 years. METHODS AND RESULTS...... higher in men. Younger men also exhibited significantly higher values...... parasympathetic activity. The significant gender-related difference of HRV decreases with aging. These findings emphasize the need to determine age-, gender-, and nycthemeral-dependent normal ranges for HRV assessment....

  2. Autonomous Non-Linear Classification of LPI Radar Signal Modulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulum, Taylan O

    2007-01-01

    ...) radar modulations is investigated. A software engineering architecture that allows a full investigation of various preprocessing algorithms and classification techniques is applied to a database of important LPI radar waveform...

  3. A Role for the Autonomic Nervous System in Modulating the Immune Response during Mild Emotional Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croiset, Gerda; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Wal, Wim E. van der; Boer, Sietse F. de; Wied, David de

    1990-01-01

    The role of the autonomic nervous system in the modulation of the immune response to emotional stimuli, was established in rats subjected to the passive avoidance test. An increase in splenic primary antibody response directed against SRBC was found after exposure of rats to the passive avoidance

  4. The Influence of Motor Impairment on Autonomic Heart Rate Modulation among Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Antonio Roberto; Cunha, Andrea Baraldi; da Silva, Ester; Negri, Ana Paola; Tudella, Eloisa; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    The study of heart rate variability is an important tool for a noninvasive evaluation of the neurocardiac integrity. The present study aims to evaluate the autonomic heart rate modulation in supine and standing positions in 12 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 16 children with typical motor development (control group), as well as to…

  5. Autonomic hyper-reflexia modulated by percutaneous epidural neurostimulation: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R R; Cerullo, L J; Meyer, P R

    1979-06-01

    Our clinical experience in the management of five paraplegic or quadriplegic patients with subjective complaints and objective findings of autonomic hyper-reflexia is presented. These five patients had epidural neurostimulation systems implanted percutaneously to regulate intractable spasticity. During a follow-up period varying from 2 months to almost 2 years, four of the five patients experienced no episodes of autonomic dysfunction with the use of a low frequency, low voltage, square wave pulse output. From their responses and from recent neurophysiological evidence, the potential benefit of percutaneous epidural neurostimulation in the modulation of autonomic hyper-reflexia without antihypertensive medication is suggested. Further follow-up of these patients and additional clinical research should be performed to confirm our initial clinical impressions.

  6. Percutaneous autonomic neural modulation: A novel technique to treat cardiac arrhythmia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSimone, Christopher V.; Madhavan, Malini; Venkatachalam, Kalpathi L.; Knudson, Mark B.; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2013-01-01

    Ablation and anti-arrhythmic medications have shown promise but have been met with varying success and unwanted side effects such as myocardial injury, arrhythmias, and morbidity from invasive surgical intervention. The answer to improving efficacy of ablation may include modulation of the cardiac aspect of the autonomic nervous system. Our lab has developed a novel approach and device to navigate the oblique sinus and to use DC current and saline/alcohol irrigation to selectively stimulate and block the autonomic ganglia found on the epicardial side of the heart. This novel approach minimizes myocardial damage from thermal injury and provides a less invasive and targeted approach. For feasibility, proof-of-concept, and safety monitoring, we carried out canine studies to test this novel application. Our results suggest a safer and less invasive way of modulating arrhythmogenic substrate that may lead to improved treatment of AF in humans

  7. Percutaneous autonomic neural modulation: A novel technique to treat cardiac arrhythmia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSimone, Christopher V.; Madhavan, Malini [Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Venkatachalam, Kalpathi L. [Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Knudson, Mark B. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); EnteroMedics, EnteroMedics, St. Paul, MN (United States); Asirvatham, Samuel J., E-mail: asirvatham.samuel@mayo.edu [Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Ablation and anti-arrhythmic medications have shown promise but have been met with varying success and unwanted side effects such as myocardial injury, arrhythmias, and morbidity from invasive surgical intervention. The answer to improving efficacy of ablation may include modulation of the cardiac aspect of the autonomic nervous system. Our lab has developed a novel approach and device to navigate the oblique sinus and to use DC current and saline/alcohol irrigation to selectively stimulate and block the autonomic ganglia found on the epicardial side of the heart. This novel approach minimizes myocardial damage from thermal injury and provides a less invasive and targeted approach. For feasibility, proof-of-concept, and safety monitoring, we carried out canine studies to test this novel application. Our results suggest a safer and less invasive way of modulating arrhythmogenic substrate that may lead to improved treatment of AF in humans.

  8. Organic solar cell modules for specific applications-From energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niggemann, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Haschke, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Gombert, A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of two types of organic solar cell modules one for energy autonomous systems and one for large area energy harvesting. The first requires a specific tailoring of the solar cell geometry and cell interconnection in order to power an energy autonomous system under its specific operating conditions. We present an organic solar cell module with 22 interconnected solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of 2% under solar illumination has been reached on the active area of 46.2 cm 2 . A voltage of 4 V at the maximum power point has been obtained under indoor illumination conditions. Micro contact printing of a self assembling monolayer was employed for the patterning of the polymer anode. Large area photovoltaic modules have to meet the requirements on efficiency, lifetime and costs simultaneously. To minimize the production costs, a suitable concept for efficient reel-to-reel production of large area modules is needed. A major contribution to reduce the costs is the substitution of the commonly used indium tin oxide electrode by a cheap material. We present the state of the art of the anode wrap through concept as a reel-to-reel suited module concept and show comparative calculations of the module interconnection of the wrap through concept and the standard ITO-based cell architecture. As a result, the calculated overall module efficiency of the anode wrap through module exceeds the overall efficiency of modules based on ITO on glass (sheet resistance 15 Ω/square) and on foils (sheet resistance 60 Ω/square)

  9. Autonomic nervous system profile in fibromyalgia patients and its modulation by exercise: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Poorvi; Deepak, Kishore K

    2013-03-01

    This review imparts an impressionistic tone to our current understanding of autonomic nervous system abnormalities in fibromyalgia. In the wake of symptoms present in patients with fibromyalgia (FM), autonomic dysfunction seems plausible in fibromyalgia. A popular notion is that of a relentless sympathetic hyperactivity and hyporeactivity based on heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and responses to various physiological stimuli. However, some exactly opposite findings suggesting normal/hypersympathetic reactivity in patients with fibromyalgia do exist. This heterogeneous picture along with multiple comorbidities accounts for the quantitative and qualitative differences in the degree of dysautonomia present in patients with FM. We contend that HRV changes in fibromyalgia may not actually represent increased cardiac sympathetic tone. Normal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and normal autonomic reactivity tests in patients with fibromyalgia suggest defective vascular end organ in fibromyalgia. Previously, we proposed a model linking deconditioning with physical inactivity resulting from widespread pain in patients with fibromyalgia. Deconditioning also modulates the autonomic nervous system (high sympathetic tone and a low parasympathetic tone). A high peripheral sympathetic tone causes regional ischaemia, which in turn results in widespread pain. Thus, vascular dysregulation and hypoperfusion in patients with FM give rise to ischaemic pain leading to physical inactivity. Microvascular abnormalities are also found in patients with FM. Therapeutic interventions (e.g. exercise) that result in vasodilatation and favourable autonomic alterations have proven to be effective. In this review, we focus on the vascular end organ in patients with fibromyalgia in particular and its modulation by exercise in general. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  10. Modulation of Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Ischemic Stroke following Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriranjini Sitaram Jaideep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in stroke has implications on morbidity and mortality. Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine describes stroke as pakshaghata. We intended to study the effect of Ayurveda therapies on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Methods. Fifty patients of ischemic stroke (middle cerebral artery territory (mean age 39.26 ± 9.88 years; male 43, female 7 were recruited within one month of ictus. All patients received standard allopathic medications as advised by neurologist. In addition, patients were randomized to receive physiotherapy (Group I or Ayurveda treatment (Group II for 14 days. Continuous electrocardiogram and finger arterial pressure were recorded for 15 min before and after treatments and analyzed offline to obtain heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS. Results were analysed by RMANOVA. Results. Patients in Group II showed statistically significant improvement in cardiac autonomic parameters. The standard deviation of normal to normal intervals,and total and low frequency powers were significantly enhanced (F=8.16, P=0.007, F=9.73, P=0.004, F=13.51, and P=0.001, resp.. The BRS too increased following the treatment period (F=10.129, P=0.004. Conclusions. The current study is the first to report a positive modulation of cardiac autonomic activity after adjuvant Ayurveda treatment in ischemic stroke. Further long term studies are warranted.

  11. Toward an autonomous brain machine interface: integrating sensorimotor reward modulation and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Brandi T; Tarigoppula, Venkata S Aditya; Chen, Chen; Francis, Joseph T

    2015-05-13

    For decades, neurophysiologists have worked on elucidating the function of the cortical sensorimotor control system from the standpoint of kinematics or dynamics. Recently, computational neuroscientists have developed models that can emulate changes seen in the primary motor cortex during learning. However, these simulations rely on the existence of a reward-like signal in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Reward modulation of the primary sensorimotor cortex has yet to be characterized at the level of neural units. Here we demonstrate that single units/multiunits and local field potentials in the primary motor (M1) cortex of nonhuman primates (Macaca radiata) are modulated by reward expectation during reaching movements and that this modulation is present even while subjects passively view cursor motions that are predictive of either reward or nonreward. After establishing this reward modulation, we set out to determine whether we could correctly classify rewarding versus nonrewarding trials, on a moment-to-moment basis. This reward information could then be used in collaboration with reinforcement learning principles toward an autonomous brain-machine interface. The autonomous brain-machine interface would use M1 for both decoding movement intention and extraction of reward expectation information as evaluative feedback, which would then update the decoding algorithm as necessary. In the work presented here, we show that this, in theory, is possible. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357374-14$15.00/0.

  12. Combining a Novel Computer Vision Sensor with a Cleaning Robot to Achieve Autonomous Pig House Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Braithwaite, Ian David; Blanke, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    condition based cleaning. This paper describes how a novel sensor, developed for the purpose, and algorithms for classification and learning are combined with a commercial robot to obtain an autonomous system which meets the necessary quality attributes. These include features to make selective cleaning...

  13. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLombardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of autonomic modulation of sinus node by non-invasive techniques has provided relevant clinical information in patients with several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases and has facilitated the appraisal of neural regulatory mechanisms in normal and diseased subjects. The finding that even during resting conditions the heart period changes on a beat to beat basis and that after a premature ventricular beat there are small variations in RR interval whose measurements may be utilised to evaluate the autonomic modulation of sinus node, has provided unprecedented clinical and pathophysiological information. Heart rate variability (HRV and Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT have been extensively utilised in the clinical setting. To explain the negative predictive value of a reduced HRV it was determined that overall HRV was largely dependent on vagal mechanisms and that a reduction in HRV could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node; i.e. an autonomic alteration favouring cardiac electrical instability. This initial interpretation was challenged by several findings indicating a greater complexity of the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness as well as the possible interference with non-neural mechanisms.Under controlled conditions, however, the computation of low and high frequency components and of their ratio seems capable of providing adequate information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function, thus providing a unique tool to investigate neural control mechanisms. Analysis on non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilised to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective to identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. A reduction on HRT parameters reflecting reduced baroreflex sensitivity as a likely result of a reduced vagal and of an increased sympathetic

  14. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension-Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  15. Analysis of autonomic modulation of heart rate in patients with Parkinson's disease and elderly individuals submitted to game therapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rodrigo Santiago Barbosa; De Oliveira Rocha, Larissa Salgado; Pena, Elza Sara Maués; Caldas, Laiz Cristinna Ponce; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2018-01-01

    Elderly patients and individuals with Parkinson's disease have a reduction in autonomic heart rate modulation, which may influence the survival of these patients, and rehabilitation can minimize this event. We tested the hypothesis that rehabilitation protocol with game console would influence the cardiac autonomic modulation of patients with Parkinson's Disease. Eight-seven volunteers were divided into two groups, control (n = 45) and Parkinson's (n = 42), they completed the study 40 volunteers in the control group (CG) and 31 patients in the Parkinson group (PG), and subjected to 24 sessions of game therapy physiotherapy, thrice a week. Analysis of autonomic HR modulation was conducted before and after the rehabilitation program using a Polar RS800CX HR sensor. For the analysis of heart rate variability the data were transferred to the Kubios HRV 2.2 program. Statistical analysis was performed in the Biostat 5.2 program, the comparison of the data by ANOVA followed by Tukey test, and the general characteristics by the chi-square test. The critical value for rejecting the null hypothesis was set at P modulation of HR values. Subjects with PD exhibit less autonomic modulation of HR and the rehabilitation protocol with game therapy improved autonomic modulation of HR. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 20-25. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Diet and exercise training reduce blood pressure and improve autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Allan R K; Silva, Bruno M; Neves, Fabricia J; Rocha, Natália G; Medeiros, Renata F; Castro, Renata R T; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2012-09-01

    Despite mortality from heart disease has been decreasing, the decline in death in women remains lower than in men. Hypertension (HT) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, approaches to prevent or delay the onset of HT would be valuable in women. Given this background, we investigated the effect of diet and exercise training on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension (PHT). Ten women with PHT (39 ± 6 years, mean ± standard deviation) and ten with normotension (NT) (35 ± 11 years) underwent diet and exercise training for 12 weeks. Autonomic modulation was assessed through heart rate (HR) and systolic BP (SBP) variability, using time and frequency domain analyses. At preintervention, women with PHT had higher SBP (PHT: 128 ± 7 vs. NT: 111 ± 6 mmHg, p 0.05). Moreover, reduction in SBP was associated with augmentation in SDNN (r = -0.46, p diet and exercise training reduced SBP in women with PHT, and this was associated with augmentation in parasympathetic and probably reduction in sympathetic cardiac modulation.

  17. Strengthening exercises improve symptoms and quality of life but do not change autonomic modulation in fibromyalgia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavi, Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira; Vassalo, Dalton Valentin; Amaral, Fabian Tadeu; Macedo, Danielle Constância Felício; Gava, Pablo Lúcio; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Valim, Valéria

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM). Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE) on autonomic modulation, pain perception and the quality of life (QOL) of FM patients. Eighty sedentary women with FM (ACR 1990) were randomly selected to participate in STRE or flexibility (FLEX) exercises in a blinded controlled trial. The intensity of STRE was set at 45% of the estimated load of 1 Repetition Maximum (RM) in 12 different exercises. Outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis, treadmill test, the sit and reach test (Wells and Dillon's Bench), maximal repetitions test and handgrip dynamometry; and quality of life by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck and Idate Trait-State Inventory (IDATE), a short-form health survey (SF-36). The STRE group was more effective to strength gain for all muscles and pain control after 4 and 16 weeks (pquality of life, no effect was observed on the autonomic modulation in both groups. This observation suggests that changes in autonomic modulation are not a target tobe clinically achieved in fibromyalgia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02004405.

  18. Arterial Stiffness and Autonomic Modulation After Free-Weight Resistance Exercises in Resistance Trained Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, J Derek; Mayo, Xián; Tai, Yu Lun; Fennell, Curtis

    2016-12-01

    Kingsley, JD, Mayo, X, Tai, YL, and Fennell, C. Arterial stiffness and autonomic modulation after free-weight resistance exercises in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3373-3380, 2016-We investigated the effects of an acute bout of free-weight, whole-body resistance exercise consisting of the squat, bench press, and deadlift on arterial stiffness and cardiac autonomic modulation in 16 (aged 23 ± 3 years; mean ± SD) resistance-trained individuals. Arterial stiffness, autonomic modulation, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were assessed at rest and after 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-repetition maximum on each exercise with 2 minutes of rest between sets and exercises. Arterial stiffness was analyzed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Linear heart rate variability (log transformed [ln] absolute and normalized units [nu] of low-frequency [LF] and high-frequency [HF] power) and nonlinear heart rate complexity (Sample Entropy [SampEn], Lempel-Ziv Entropy [LZEn]) were measured to determine autonomic modulation. BRS was measured by the sequence method. A 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze time (rest, recovery) across condition (acute resistance exercise, control). There were significant increases in cf-PWV (p = 0.05), heart rate (p = 0.0001), normalized LF (LFnu; p = 0.001), and the LF/HF ratio (p = 0.0001). Interactions were also noted for ln HF (p = 0.006), HFnu (p = 0.0001), SampEn (p = 0.001), LZEn (p = 0.005), and BRS (p = 0.0001) such that they significantly decreased during recovery from the resistance exercise compared with rest and the control. There was no effect on ln total power, or ln LF. These data suggest that a bout of resistance exercise using free-weights increases arterial stiffness and reduces vagal activity and BRS in comparison with a control session. Vagal tone may not be fully recovered up to 30 minutes after a resistance exercise bout.

  19. Is Baseline Cardiac Autonomic Modulation Related to Performance and Physiological Responses Following a Supramaximal Judo Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Martínez-Navarro, Ignacio; Mateo-March, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Little research exists concerning Heart Rate (HR) Variability (HRV) following supramaximal efforts focused on upper-body explosive strength-endurance. Since they may be very demanding, it seems of interest to analyse the relationship among performance, lactate and HR dynamics (i.e. HR, HRV and complexity) following them; as well as to know how baseline cardiac autonomic modulation mediates these relationships. The present study aimed to analyse associations between baseline and post-exercise HR dynamics following a supramaximal Judo test, and their relationship with lactate, in a sample of 22 highly-trained male judoists (20.70±4.56 years). A large association between the increase in HR from resting to exercise condition and performance suggests that individuals exerted a greater sympathetic response to achieve a better performance (Rating of Perceived Exertion: 20; post-exercise peak lactate: 11.57±2.24 mmol/L; 95.76±4.13 % of age-predicted HRmax). Athletes with higher vagal modulation and lower sympathetic modulation at rest achieved both a significant larger ∆HR and a faster post-exercise lactate removal. A enhanced resting parasympathetic modulation might be therefore related to a further usage of autonomic resources and a better immediate metabolic recovery during supramaximal exertions. Furthermore, analyses of variance displayed a persistent increase in α1 and a decrease in lnRMSSD along the 15 min of recovery, which are indicative of a diminished vagal modulation together with a sympathovagal balance leaning to sympathetic domination. Eventually, time-domain indices (lnRMSSD) showed no lactate correlations, while nonlinear indices (α1 and lnSaEn) appeared to be moderate to strongly correlated with it, thus pointing to shared mechanisms between neuroautonomic and metabolic regulation. PMID:24205273

  20. Autonomic Modulation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy during a Computer Task: A Prospective Control Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Priscila Boscolo Alvarez

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is characterized by progressive muscle weakness that can lead to disability. Owing to functional difficulties faced by individuals with DMD, the use of assistive technology is essential to provide or facilitate functional abilities. In DMD, cardiac autonomic dysfunction has been reported in addition to musculoskeletal impairment. Consequently, the objective was to investigate acute cardiac autonomic responses, by Heart Rate Variability (HRV, during computer tasks in subjects with DMD.HRV was assessed by linear and nonlinear methods, using the heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX chest strap Electrocardiographic measuring device. Then, 45 subjects were included in the group with DMD and 45 in the healthy Typical Development (TD control group. They were assessed for twenty minutes at rest sitting, and five minutes after undergoing a task on the computer.Individuals with DMD had a statistically significant lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation at rest when compared to the control group, which further declined when undergoing the tasks on the computer.DMD patients presented decreased HRV and exhibited greater intensity of cardiac autonomic responses during computer tasks characterized by vagal withdrawal when compared to the healthy TD control subjects.

  1. Effects of inspiratory muscle exercise in the pulmonary function, autonomic modulation, and hemodynamic variables in older women with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Coelho, Hélio José; Scapini, Kátia Bilhar; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Mostarda, Cristiano; Ruberti, Olivia Moraes; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters, cardiac autonomic modulation and respiratory function of older women with metabolic syndrome (MS). For this, sixteen older women with MS and 12 aged-matched controls participated of the present study. Two days before and 2 days after the main experiment, fasting blood samples (i.e., total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose), cardiac autonomic modulation (i.e., heart rate variability), and respiratory muscle function were obtained and evaluated. The sessions of physical exercise was based on a IME, which was performed during 7 days. Each session of IME was performed during 20 min, at 30% of maximal static inspiratory pressure. In the results, MS group presented higher levels of triglycerides, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure when compared to control group. IME was not able to change these variables. However, although MS group showed impaired respiratory muscle strength and function, as well as cardiac autonomic modulation, IME was able to improve these parameters. Thus, the data showed that seven days of IME are capable to improve respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation of older women with MS. These results indicate that IME can be a profitable therapy to counteracting the clinical markers of MS, once repeated sessions of acute IME can cause chronical alterations on respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation. PMID:28503537

  2. The Degree of Autonomic Modulation Is Associated With the Severity of Microvascular Complications in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Jesper; Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Jakobsen, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elucidate whether the degree of autonomic modulation is associated with the degree of microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 290 type 1 individuals with diabetes were randomly recruited during normal visits t......, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy in individuals with type 1 diabetes patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autonomic dysfunction is present in early stages of retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  3. Cardiac autonomic modulation by estrogen in female mice undergoing ambulatory monitoring and in vivo electrophysiologic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Samir; Shusterman, Vladimir; Usiene, Irmute; London, Barry

    2004-04-01

    Estrogen is an important modulator of cardiovascular risk, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy and its timing on the cardiac electrophysiology in mice. Thirty female mice (age 18.8 +/- 3.1 weeks) underwent in vivo electrophysiologic testing before and after autonomic blockade. Fifteen mice were ovariectomized prepuberty (PRE) and ten postpuberty (POST), 2 weeks prior to electrophysiologic testing. Five age-matched sham-operated female mice (Control) served as controls. A subset of 13 mice (5 PRE, 3 POST, and 5 Controls) underwent 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. With ambulatory monitoring, the average (668 +/- 28 vs 769 +/- 52 b/min, P = 0.008) and minimum (485 +/- 47 vs 587 +/- 53 b/min, P = 0.02) heart rates were significantly slower in the ovariectomized mice (PRE and POST groups) compared to the Control group. At baseline electrophysiologic testing, there were no significant differences among the ovariectomized and intact mice in any of the measured parameters. With autonomic blockade, the Control group had a significantly larger change (delta) in the atrioventricular (AV) nodal Wenckebach (AVW) periodicity (deltaAVW = 11.3 +/- 2.9 vs 2.1 +/- 7.3 ms, P = 0.05) and functional refractory period (deltaFRP = 11.3 +/- 2.1 vs 1.25 +/- 6.8 ms, P = 0.02) compared to the ovariectomized mice. These results were not altered by the time of ovariectomy (PRE vs POST groups). Our results suggest that estrogen modulates the autonomic inputs into the murine sinus and AV nodes. These findings, if replicated in humans, might underlie the observed clustering of certain arrhythmias around menstruation and explain the higher incidence of arrhythmias in men and postmenopausal women.

  4. Do mobile phones pose a potential risk to autonomic modulation of the heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcu, Irfan; Esen, Ali Metin; Kaya, Dayimi; Turkmen, Muhsin; Karakaya, Osman; Saglam, Mustafa; Melek, Mehmet; Çelik, Ataç; Kilit, Celal; Onrat, Ersel; Kirma, Cevat

    2011-11-01

    It has long been speculated that mobile phones may interact with the cardiac devices and thereby cardiovascular system may be a potential target for the electromagnetic fields emitted by the mobile phones. Therefore, the present study was designed to test possible effects of radiofrequency waves emitted by digital mobile phones on cardiac autonomic modulation by short-time heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. A total of 20 healthy young subjects were included to the study. All participants were rested in supine position at least for 15 minutes on a comfortable bed, and then time and frequency domain HRV parameters were recorded at baseline in supine position for 5 minutes. After completion of baseline records, by using a mobile GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) phone, HRV parameters were recorded at turned off mode, at turned on mode, and at calling mode over 5 minutes periods for each stage. Neither time nor frequency domain HRV parameters altered significantly during off mode compare to their baseline values. Also, neither time nor frequency domain HRV parameters altered significantly during turned on and calling mode compared to their baseline values. Short-time exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone does not affect cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects.

  5. Combined Coding And Modulation Using Runlength Limited Error ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we propose a Combined Coding and Modulation (CCM) scheme employing RLL/ECCs and MPSK modulation as well as RLL/ECC codes and BFSK/MPSK modulation with a view to optimise on channel bandwidth. The CCM codes and their trellis are designed and their error performances simulated in AWGN ...

  6. Autonomous collision avoidance system by combined control of steering and braking using geometrically optimised vehicular trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Isogai, Juzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an autonomous obstacle avoidance system not only by braking but also by steering, as one of the active safety technologies to prevent traffic accidents. The proposed system prevents the vehicle from colliding with a moving obstacle like a pedestrian jumping out from the roadside. In the proposed system, to avoid the predicted colliding position based on constant-velocity obstacle motion assumption, the avoidance trajectory is derived as connected two identical arcs. The system then controls the vehicle autonomously by the combined control of the braking and steering systems. In this paper, the proposed system is examined by real car experiments and its effectiveness is shown from the results of the experiments.

  7. Hemodynamic, morphometric and autonomic patterns in hypertensive rats - renin-angiotensin system modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Zamo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop left ventricular hypertrophy, increased blood pressure and blood pressure variability, which are important determinants of heart damage, like the activation of renin-angiotensin system. AIMS: To investigate the effects of the time-course of hypertension over 1 hemodynamic and autonomic patterns (blood pressure; blood pressure variability; heart rate; 2 left ventricular hypertrophy; and 3 local and systemic Renin-angiotensin system of the spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomized into two groups: young (n=13 and adult (n=12. Hemodynamic signals (blood pressure, heart rate, blood pressure variability (BPV and spectral analysis of the autonomic components of blood pressure were analyzed. LEFT ventricular hypertrophy was measured by the ratio of LV mass to body weight (mg/g, by myocyte diameter (μm and by relative fibrosis area (RFA, %. ACE and ACE2 activities were measured by fluorometry (UF/min, and plasma renin activity (PRA was assessed by a radioimmunoassay (ng/mL/h. Cardiac gene expressions of Agt, Ace and Ace2 were quantified by RT-PCR (AU. RESULTS: The time-course of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats increased BPV and reduced the alpha index in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. Adult rats showed increases in left ventricular hypertrophy and in RFA. Compared to young spontaneously hypertensive rats, adult spontaneously hypertensive rats had lower cardiac ACE and ACE2 activities, and high levels of PRA. No change was observed in gene expression of Renin-angiotensin system components. CONCLUSIONS: The observed autonomic dysfunction and modulation of Renin-angiotensin system activity are contributing factors to end-organ damage in hypertension and could be interacting. Our findings suggest that the management of hypertensive disease must start before blood pressure reaches the highest stable levels and the consequent

  8. Modulation of distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode with the autonomous Chua's circuit: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla Mbé, Jimmi Hervé; Woafo, Paul

    2018-03-01

    We report on a simple way to generate complex optical waveforms with very cheap and accessible equipments. The general idea consists in modulating a laser diode with an autonomous electronic oscillator, and in the case of this study, we use a distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode pumped with an electronic Chua's circuit. Based on the adiabatic P-I characteristics of the laser diode at low frequencies, we show that when the total pump is greater than the laser threshold, it is possible to convert the electrical waveforms of the Chua's circuit into optical carriers. But, if that is not the case, the on-off dynamical behavior of the laser permits to obtain many other optical waveform signals, mainly pulses. Our numerical results are consistent with experimental measurements. The work presents the advantage of extending the range of possible chaotic dynamics of the laser diodes in the time domains (millisecond) where it is not usually expected with conventional modulation techniques. Moreover, this new technique of laser diodes modulation brings a general benefit in the physical equipment, reduces their cost and congestion so that, it can constitute a step towards photonic integrated circuits.

  9. Differentiating between heat pain intensities: the combined effect of multiple autonomic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Roi; Kliger, Mark; Zuckerman, Galit; Goor Aryeh, Itay; Eisenberg, Elon

    2012-09-01

    Although it is well known that pain induces changes in autonomic parameters, the extent to which these changes correlate with the experience of pain is under debate. The aim of the present study was to compare a combination of multiple autonomic parameters and each parameter alone in their ability to differentiate among 4 categories of pain intensity. Tonic heat stimuli (1minute) were individually adjusted to induce no pain, low, medium, and high pain in 45 healthy volunteers. Electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, and galvanic skin response were recorded, and the following parameters were calculated: heart rate; heart rate variability-high frequency (0.15 to 0.4Hz) spectral power; skin conductance level; number of skin conduction fluctuations; and photoplethysmographic pulse wave amplitude. A combination of parameters was created by fitting an ordinal cumulative logit model to the data and using linear coefficients of the model. Friedman test with post-hoc Wilcoxon test were used to compare between pain intensity categories for every parameter alone and for their linear combination. All of the parameters successfully differentiated between no pain and all other pain categories. However, none of the parameters differentiated between all 3 pain categories (i.e., low and medium; medium and high; low and high). In contrast, the linear combination of parameters significantly differentiated not only between pain and no pain, but also between all pain categories (Ppain assessment. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Strengthening exercises improve symptoms and quality of life but do not change autonomic modulation in fibromyalgia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira Gavi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM. Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE on autonomic modulation, pain perception and the quality of life (QOL of FM patients. METHODS: Eighty sedentary women with FM (ACR 1990 were randomly selected to participate in STRE or flexibility (FLEX exercises in a blinded controlled trial. The intensity of STRE was set at 45% of the estimated load of 1 Repetition Maximum (RM in 12 different exercises. Outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS for pain, Heart Rate Variability (HRV analysis, treadmill test, the sit and reach test (Wells and Dillon's Bench, maximal repetitions test and handgrip dynamometry; and quality of life by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, the Beck and Idate Trait-State Inventory (IDATE, a short-form health survey (SF-36. RESULTS: The STRE group was more effective to strength gain for all muscles and pain control after 4 and 16 weeks (p<0.05. The FLEX group showed higher improvements in anxiety (p<0.05. Both groups showed improvements in the QOL, and there was no significant difference observed between the groups. There was no change in the HRV of the STRE and FLEX groups. CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening exercises show greater and more rapid improvements in pain and strength than flexibility exercises. Despite the benefits in fitness, pain, depression, anxiety and quality of life, no effect was observed on the autonomic modulation in both groups. This observation suggests that changes in autonomic modulation are not a target tobe clinically achieved in fibromyalgia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical

  11. Combining Hector SLAM and Artificial Potential Field for Autonomous Navigation Inside a Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Houssein Chouaib Harik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The key factor for autonomous navigation is efficient perception of the surroundings, while being able to move safely from an initial to a final point. We deal in this paper with a wheeled mobile robot working in a GPS-denied environment typical for a greenhouse. The Hector Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM approach is used in order to estimate the robots’ pose using a LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR sensor. Waypoint following and obstacle avoidance are ensured by means of a new artificial potential field (APF controller presented in this paper. The combination of the Hector SLAM and the APF controller allows the mobile robot to perform periodic tasks that require autonomous navigation between predefined waypoints. It also provides the mobile robot with a robustness to changing conditions that may occur inside the greenhouse, caused by the dynamic of plant development through the season. In this study, we show that the robot is safe to operate autonomously with a human presence, and that in contrast to classical odometry methods, no calibration is needed for repositioning the robot over repetitive runs. We include here both hardware and software descriptions, as well as simulation and experimental results.

  12. Decoding a combined amplitude modulated and frequency modulated signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a method for decoding a combined AM/FM encoded signal, comprising the steps of: combining said encoded optical signal with light from a local oscillator configured with a local oscillator frequency; converting the combined local oscillator and encoded optical...... signal into one or more electrical signals by means of at least one opto-electrical converter having a predefined frequency bandwidth, thereby providing an amplified and encoded electrical signal having one or more encoded signal current(s), where one type of states have a higher oscillation frequency...... than other type of states; rectifying the encoded signal current(s), thereby obtaining an encoded power spectrum, wherein said power spectrum has different states, such as "0"-states and "1"-states, with different power levels such that they can be discriminated, said local oscillator frequency...

  13. On battery-less autonomous polygeneration microgrids: Investigation of the combined hybrid capacitors/hydrogen alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakarakos, George; Piromalis, Dimitrios D.; Arvanitis, Konstantinos G.; Dounis, Anastasios I.; Papadakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-less autonomous polygeneration microgrid is technically feasible. • Laboratory testing of hybrid capacitors. • Investigation of hybrid capacitors utilization along with hydrogen subsystem. - Abstract: The autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology aims to cover holistically the needs in remote areas as far as electrical power, potable water through desalination, fuel for transportation in the form of hydrogen, heating and cooling are concerned. Deep discharge lead acid batteries are mostly used in such systems, associated with specific disadvantages, both technical and environmental. This paper investigated the possibility of replacing the battery bank from a polygeneration microgrid with a hybrid capacitor bank and more intensive utilization of a hydrogen subsystem. Initially commercial hybrid capacitors were tested under laboratory conditions and based on the respective results a case study was performed. The optimized combination of hybrid capacitors and higher hydrogen usage was then investigated through simulations and compared to a polygeneration microgrid featuring deep discharge lead acid batteries. From the results it was clear that it is technically possible to exchange the battery bank with a hybrid capacitor bank and higher hydrogen utilization. From the economic point of view, the current cost of the hybrid capacitors and the hydrogen components is high which leads to higher overall cost in comparison with deep discharge lead acid batteries. Taking into account, though, the decreasing cost prospects and trends of both the hybrid capacitors and the hydrogen components it is expected that this approach will become economically competitive in a few years

  14. Modulation of autonomic activity in neurological conditions: Epilepsy and Tourette syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoko eNagai

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript considers the central but neglected role of the autonomic nervous system in the expression and control of seizures in epilepsy (small) and tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS). In epilepsy, consideration of autonomic involvement is typically confined to differential diagnoses (e.g., syncope), or in relation to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Investigation is more limited in Tourette Syndrome. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the generation and prevention of e...

  15. Autonomous Assembly of Solar Array Modules by a Team of Robots

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate the hypothesis that Intelligent Precision Jigging Robots (IPJRs) and auxiliary robotic manipulators can autonomously perform the local...

  16. Distraction or cognitive overload? Using modulations of the autonomic nervous system to discriminate the possible negative effects of advanced assistance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, D; Bos, A J; Ciceri, M R

    2017-06-01

    The interaction with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems has several positive implications for road safety, but also some potential downsides such as mental workload and automation complacency. Malleable attentional resources allocation theory describes two possible processes that can generate workload in interaction with advanced assisting devices. The purpose of the present study is to determine if specific analysis of the different modalities of autonomic control of nervous system can be used to discriminate different potential workload processes generated during assisted-driving tasks and automation complacency situations. Thirty-five drivers were tested in a virtual scenario while using head-up advanced warning assistance system. Repeated MANOVA were used to examine changes in autonomic activity across a combination of different user interactions generated by the advanced assistance system: (1) expected take-over request without anticipatory warning; (2) expected take-over request with two-second anticipatory warning; (3) unexpected take-over request with misleading warning; (4) unexpected take-over request without warning. Results shows that analysis of autonomic modulations can discriminate two different resources allocation processes, related to different behavioral performances. The user's interaction that required divided attention under expected situations produced performance enhancement and reciprocally-coupled parasympathetic inhibition with sympathetic activity. At the same time, supervising interactions that generated automation complacency were described specifically by uncoupled sympathetic activation. Safety implications for automated assistance systems developments are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Diabetes Type 1 in Children on Autonomic Modulation at Rest and in Response to the Active Orthostatic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacon, Thais Roque; Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1), of which one of the first subclinical manifestations is changes in heart rate variability (HRV). Thus, analysis of HRV associated with the autonomic active orthostatic test is important in this population. To analyze the autonomic modulation responses induced by the implementation of the active orthostatic test, in children with DM1, and study the autonomic modulation by means of HRV indices. Data of 35 children were analyzed, of both sexes, aged between 7 and 15 years, who were divided into two groups: Diabetic (n = 16) and Control (n = 19). The following variables were collected initially: weight, height, body fat percentage, heart rate, blood pressure and casual blood glucose. Subsequently, for analysis of autonomic modulation, the beat-to-beat heart rate was captured by a heart rate monitor in the supine position for 30 minutes and after 10 minutes standing during performance of the active orthostatic test. HRV indices were calculated in the time and frequency domains. For data analysis, covariance analysis was used to compare groups and ANOVA for repeated measures to compare the effects of the active orthostatic test. These data were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, with a 5% significance level. The results suggested that diabetic children at rest present a decrease in SDNN (50.4 vs. 75.2), rMSSD (38.7 vs 57.6) and LF [ms2] (693.6 vs 1874.6). During the active orthostatic test the children in both groups demonstrated a reduction in SDNN, RMSSD and LF [ms2] compared to the resting position, and this response was less pronounced in the diabetic group. We conclude that regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, performing the active orthostatic test promoted increased sympathetic modulation and reduced parasympathetic modulation in both groups, and this response was less

  18. Impact of Diabetes Type 1 in Children on Autonomic Modulation at Rest and in Response to the Active Orthostatic Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Roque Giacon

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1, of which one of the first subclinical manifestations is changes in heart rate variability (HRV. Thus, analysis of HRV associated with the autonomic active orthostatic test is important in this population.To analyze the autonomic modulation responses induced by the implementation of the active orthostatic test, in children with DM1, and study the autonomic modulation by means of HRV indices.Data of 35 children were analyzed, of both sexes, aged between 7 and 15 years, who were divided into two groups: Diabetic (n = 16 and Control (n = 19. The following variables were collected initially: weight, height, body fat percentage, heart rate, blood pressure and casual blood glucose. Subsequently, for analysis of autonomic modulation, the beat-to-beat heart rate was captured by a heart rate monitor in the supine position for 30 minutes and after 10 minutes standing during performance of the active orthostatic test. HRV indices were calculated in the time and frequency domains. For data analysis, covariance analysis was used to compare groups and ANOVA for repeated measures to compare the effects of the active orthostatic test. These data were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, with a 5% significance level.The results suggested that diabetic children at rest present a decrease in SDNN (50.4 vs. 75.2, rMSSD (38.7 vs 57.6 and LF [ms2] (693.6 vs 1874.6. During the active orthostatic test the children in both groups demonstrated a reduction in SDNN, RMSSD and LF [ms2] compared to the resting position, and this response was less pronounced in the diabetic group.We conclude that regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, performing the active orthostatic test promoted increased sympathetic modulation and reduced parasympathetic modulation in both groups, and this response

  19. Three frequency modulated combination thermal neutron lifetime log and porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paap, H.J.; Arnold, D.M.; Smith, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for measuring simultaneously the thermal neutron lifetime of the borehole fluid and earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole, together with the formation porosity. A harmonically intensity modulated source of fast neutrons is used to irradiate the earth formations with fast neutrons at three different modulation frequencies. Intensity modulated clouds of thermal neutrons at each of the three modulation frequencies are detected by dual spaced detectors and the relative phase shift of the thermal neutrons with respect to the fast neutrons is determined at each of the three modulation frequencies at each detector. These measurements are then combined to determine simultaneously the thermal neutron decay time of the borehole fluid, the thermal neutron decay time of surrounding earth formation media and the porosity of the formation media

  20. Training-related modulations of the autonomic nervous system in endurance athletes: is female gender cardioprotective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürholz, Monika; Radtke, Thomas; Roten, Laurent; Tanner, Hildegard; Wilhelm, Ilca; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    The risk of sudden death is increased in athletes with a male predominance. Regular physical activity increases vagal tone, and may protect against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated training-related modulations of the autonomic nervous system in female and male endurance athletes. Runners of a 10-mile race were invited. Of 873 applicants, 68 female and 70 male athletes were randomly selected and stratified according to their average weekly training hours in a low (≤4 h) and high (>4 h) volume training group. Analysis of heart rate variability was performed over 24 h. Spectral components (high frequency [HF] and low frequency [LF] power in normalized units) were analyzed for hourly 5 min segments and averaged for day- and nighttime. One hundred and fourteen athletes (50 % female, mean age 42 ± 7 years) were included. No significant gender difference was observed for training volume and 10-mile race time. Over the 24-h period, female athletes exhibited a higher HF and lower LF power for each hourly time-point. Female gender and endurance training hours were independent predictors of a higher HF and lower LF power. In female athletes, higher training hours were associated with a higher HF and lower LF power during nighttime. In male athletes, the same was true during daytime. In conclusion, female and male athletes showed a different circadian pattern of the training-related increase in markers of vagal tone. For a comparable amount of training volume, female athletes maintained their higher markers of vagal tone, possibly indicating a superior protection against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias.

  1. Modulation of autonomic activity in neurological conditions: Epilepsy and Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eNagai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript considers the central but neglected role of the autonomic nervous system in the expression and control of seizures in Epilepsy and tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS. In epilepsy, consideration of autonomic involvement is typically confined to differential diagnoses (e.g. syncope, or in relation to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP. Investigation is more limited in Tourette Syndrome. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the generation and prevention of epileptic seizures is largely overlooked. Emotional stimuli such as anxiety and stress are potent causes of seizures and tic activity in TS, respectively. This manuscript will describe a possible neural mechanism by which afferent autonomic projections linked to cognition and behaviour influence central nervous system thalamo-cortical regulation, which appears to be an important means for controlling both seizure and tic activity. It also summarizes the link between the integrity of the default mode network and autonomic regulation in patients with epilepsy as well as the link between impaired motor control and autonomic regulation in patients with TS. Two neurological conditions; epilepsy and TS were chosen, as seizures and tics represent parameters that can be easily measured to investigate influences of autonomic functions. The EDA biofeedback approach is anticipated

  2. Modulation of autonomic activity in neurological conditions: Epilepsy and Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript considers the central but neglected role of the autonomic nervous system in the expression and control of seizures in epilepsy (small) and tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS). In epilepsy, consideration of autonomic involvement is typically confined to differential diagnoses (e.g., syncope), or in relation to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Investigation is more limited in Tourette Syndrome. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the generation and prevention of epileptic seizures is largely overlooked. Emotional stimuli such as anxiety and stress are potent causes of seizures and tic activity in epilepsy and TS, respectively. This manuscript will describe a possible neural mechanism by which afferent autonomic projections linked to cognition and behavior influence central thalamo-cortical regulation, which appears to be an important means for controlling both seizure and tic activity. It also summarizes the link between the integrity of the default mode network and autonomic regulation in patients with epilepsy as well as the link between impaired motor control and autonomic regulation in patients with TS. Two neurological conditions; epilepsy and TS were chosen, as seizures and tics represent parameters that can be easily measured to investigate influences of autonomic functions. The EDA biofeedback approach is anticipated to gain a strong position within the next generation of treatment for epilepsy, as a non-invasive technique with minimal side effects. This approach also takes advantage of the current practical opportunity to utilize growing digital health technology.

  3. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Carla Cristiane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents.

  4. Positive effect of combined exercise training in a model of metabolic syndrome and menopause: autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Malfitano, Christiane; Morris, Mariana; Llesuy, Susana Francisca; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-12-15

    It is now well established that after menopause cardiometabolic disorders become more common. Recently, resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement to aerobic (combined training, CT) for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CT in hypertensive ovariectomized rats undergoing fructose overload in blood pressure variability (BPV), inflammation, and oxidative stress parameters. Female rats were divided into the following groups (n = 8/group): sedentary normotensive Wistar rats (C), and sedentary (FHO) or trained (FHOT) ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats undergoing and fructose overload. CT was performed on a treadmill and ladder adapted to rats in alternate days (8 wk; 40-60% maximal capacity). Arterial pressure (AP) was directly measured. Oxidative stress and inflammation were measured on cardiac and renal tissues. The association of risk factors (hypertension + ovariectomy + fructose) promoted increase in insulin resistance, mean AP (FHO: 174 ± 4 vs. C: 108 ± 1 mmHg), heart rate (FHO: 403 ± 12 vs. C: 352 ± 11 beats/min), BPV, cardiac inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α-FHO: 65.8 ± 9.9 vs. C: 23.3 ± 4.3 pg/mg protein), and oxidative stress cardiac and renal tissues. However, CT was able to reduce mean AP (FHOT: 158 ± 4 mmHg), heart rate (FHOT: 303 ± 5 beats/min), insulin resistance, and sympathetic modulation. Moreover, the trained rats presented increased nitric oxide bioavailability, reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (FHOT: 33.1 ± 4.9 pg/mg protein), increased IL-10 in cardiac tissue and reduced lipoperoxidation, and increased antioxidant defenses in cardiac and renal tissues. In conclusion, the association of risk factors promoted an additional impairment in metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters and combined exercise training was able to attenuate these dysfunctions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Adaptive Combined Source and Channel Decoding with Modulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an adaptive system employing combined source and channel decoding with modulation is proposed for slow Rayleigh fading channels. Huffman code is used as the source code and Convolutional code is used for error control. The adaptive scheme employs a family of Convolutional codes of different rates ...

  6. Improvements in Attention and Cardiac Autonomic Modulation After a 2-Weeks Sprint Interval Training Program: A Fidelity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilson F. M. de Sousa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to: (1 investigate the influence of a 2-weeks sprint interval training (SIT program on aerobic capacity, cardiac autonomic control, and components of attention in young healthy university students; and (2 to ascertain whether training fidelity would influence these adaptations. One hundred and nine participants were divided into an experimental (EG and control (CG groups. The EG performed a SIT program that consisted of 6 sessions of 4 × 30 s “all-out” efforts on a cycle ergometer, interspersed with active rests of 4 min. The criterion for fidelity was achieving >90% of estimated maximum heart rate (HR during sprint bouts. After analyses, the EG was divided into HIGH (n = 26 and LOW (n = 46 fidelity groups. Components of attention were assessed using the Attention Network Test (ANT. Aerobic capacity (VO2max was estimated while the sum of skinfolds was determined. Autonomic control of HR was assessed by means of HR variability (HRV and HR complexity at rest and during ANT. Both HIGH and LOW significantly increased aerobic capacity, vagal modulation before and during ANT, and executive control, and decreased body fatness after SIT (p < 0.05. However, only participants from HIGH showed an increase in HR complexity and accuracy in ANT when compared to LOW (p < 0.05. Two weeks of SIT improved executive control, body fatness, aerobic fitness, and autonomic control in university students with better results reported in those individuals who exhibited high fidelity.

  7. Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation at rest, during exercise and recovery time in the young overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Alves de Araújo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to assess the blood pressure (BP, cardiac autonomic modulation at rest, in physical exercise and in the recovery in untrained eutrophic (E and overweight (O youth. The body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, systolic BP-SBP (E: 109.80 ± 10.05; O: 121.85 ± 6.98 mmHg and diastolic BP - DBP (E: 65.90 ± 7.28; O: 73.14 ± 12.22 mmHg were higher in overweight and the heart rate recovery (%HRR was lower as compared with E volunteers. The BMI was associated with SBP (r= 0.54, DBP (r= 0.65, load on the heart rate variability threshold - HRVT (r= -0.46, %HRR 2' (r= -0.48 and %HRR 5' (r= -0.48, and WC was associated with SBP (r= 0.54, DBP (r= 0.64 and HRR 2' (r= -0.49. The %HRR was associated to SBP, DBP and HRVT. In summary, the anthropometric variables, BP and cardiac autonomic modulation in the recovery are altered in overweight youth.

  8. Is cardiac autonomic modulation during upper limb isometric contraction and Valsalva maneuver impaired in COPD patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goulart CL

    2017-03-01

    and FVC justified 30% of mean HR. During VM: HR increased (P=0.01; the nadir showed normal bradycardic response; the Valsalva index was =0.7. Conclusion: COPD patients responded properly to the upper limb IC and to the VM; however, HR recovery during VM was impaired in these patients. The severity of the disease and MIP were associated with increased parasympathetic modulation and higher chronotropic response. Keywords: heart rate, autonomic nervous system, COPD, isometric contraction, Valsalva maneuver

  9. Joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining with feedback error compensation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seyeong

    2009-11-01

    This letter investigates the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of error-free feedback channels. We also propose to utilize adaptive diversity to compensate for the performance degradation due to feedback error. We accurately quantify the performance of the joint AMDC scheme in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average number of combined paths, the average spectral efficiency, and the average bit error rate. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. It is observed that the proposed compensation strategy can offer considerable error performance improvement with little loss in processing power and spectral efficiency in comparison with the no compensation case. Copyright © 2009 IEEE.

  10. Joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining with feedback error compensation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seyeong; Hong-Chuan, Yang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2009-01-01

    This letter investigates the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of error-free feedback channels. We also propose to utilize adaptive diversity to compensate for the performance degradation due to feedback error. We accurately quantify the performance of the joint AMDC scheme in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average number of combined paths, the average spectral efficiency, and the average bit error rate. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. It is observed that the proposed compensation strategy can offer considerable error performance improvement with little loss in processing power and spectral efficiency in comparison with the no compensation case. Copyright © 2009 IEEE.

  11. Autonomic nervous system modulation and clinical outcome after pulmonary vein isolation using the second-generation cryoballoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Hachiya, Hitoshi; Kajiyama, Takatsugu; Watanabe, Tomonori; Igarashi, Miyako; Ichijo, Sadamitsu; Hirao, Kenzo; Iesaka, Yoshito

    2017-09-01

    The intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a significant role in atrial fibrillation (AF) mechanisms. This study evaluated the incidence and impact of intraprocedural vagal reactions and ANS modulation by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using second-generation cryoballoons on outcomes. One hundred three paroxysmal AF patients underwent PVI with one 28-mm second-generation balloon. The median follow-up was 15.0 (12.0-18.0) months. ANS modulation was defined as a >20% cycle length decrease on 3-minute resting electrocardiograms at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postindex procedure relative to baseline if sinus rhythm was maintained. Marked sinus arrests/bradycardia and atrioventricular block (intraprocedural vagal reaction) occurred in 14 and 2 patients, and all sinus arrest/bradycardia occurred in 44 patients with left superior pulmonary veins (PVs) targeted before right PVs. ANS modulation was identified in 66 of 95 (69.5%) patients, and it persisted 12-month postprocedure in 36 (37.9%) patients. Additional β-blocker administration was required in 9 patients for sinus tachycardia. ANS modulation was similarly observed in patients with and without intraprocedural vagal reactions (P = 0.443). Forty-eight (46.6%) patients experienced early recurrences, and the single procedure success at 12 months was 72.7%. Neither intraprocedural vagal reactions nor ANS modulation predicted AF freedom within or after the blanking period. Thirty-three patients underwent second procedures, and reconnections were detected in 39 of 130 (30.0%) PVs among 23 (69.7%) patients. The incidence of reconnections was similar in patients with and without ANS modulation. Increased heart rate persisted in 37.9% of patients even at 12-month post-second-generation cryoballoon PVI. Neither intraprocedural vagal reactions nor increased heart rate predicted a single procedure clinical outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Combining A Priori Knowledge and Sensor Information for Updating the Global Position of an Autonomous Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Z.; Schoute, Albert L.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; van Amerongen, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.P.L; Stramigioli, S.

    The problem of updating the global position of an autonomous vehicle is considered. An iterative procedure is proposed to fit a map to a set of noisy measurements. The procedure is inspired by a non-parametric procedure for probability density function mode searching. We show how this could be used

  13. Modulation of cardiac autonomic tone in non-hypotensive hypovolemia during blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Singh, Akanksha; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Coshic, Poonam; Chatterjee, Kabita; Deepak, K K

    2017-08-01

    Non-hypotensive hypovolemia, observed during mild haemorrhage or blood donation leads to reflex readjustment of the cardiac autonomic tone. In the present study, the cardiac autonomic tone was quantified using heart rate and blood pressure variability during and after non-hypotensive hypovolemia of blood donation. 86 voluntary healthy male blood donors were recruited for the study (age 35 ± 9 years; weight 78 ± 12 kg; height 174 ± 6 cms). Continuous lead II ECG and beat-to-beat blood pressure was recorded before, during and after blood donation followed by offline time and frequency domain analysis of HRV and BPV. The overall heart rate variability (SDNN and total power) did not change during or after blood donation. However, there was a decrease in indices that represent the parasympathetic component (pNN50 %, SDSD and HF) while an increase was observed in sympathetic component (LF) along with an increase in sympathovagal balance (LF:HF ratio) during blood donation. These changes were sustained for the period immediately following blood donation. No fall of blood pressure was observed during the period of study. The blood pressure variability showed an increase in the SDNN, CoV and RMSSD time domain measures in the post donation period. These results suggest that mild hypovolemia produced by blood donation is non-hypotensive but is associated with significant changes in the autonomic tone. The increased blood pressure variability and heart rate changes that are seen only in the later part of donation period could be because of the progressive hypovolemia associated parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation that manifest during the course of blood donation.

  14. Acute stress alters autonomic modulation during sleep in women approaching menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sugarbaker, David; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C

    2016-04-01

    Hot flashes, hormones, and psychosocial factors contribute to insomnia risk in the context of the menopausal transition. Stress is a well-recognized factor implicated in the pathophysiology of insomnia; however the impact of stress on sleep and sleep-related processes in perimenopausal women remains largely unknown. We investigated the effect of an acute experimental stress (impending Trier Social Stress Task in the morning) on pre-sleep measures of cortisol and autonomic arousal in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia that developed in the context of the menopausal transition. In addition, we assessed the macro- and micro-structure of sleep and autonomic functioning during sleep. Following adaptation to the laboratory, twenty two women with (age: 50.4 ± 3.2 years) and eighteen women without (age: 48.5 ± 2.3 years) insomnia had two randomized in-lab overnight recordings: baseline and stress nights. Anticipation of the task resulted in higher pre-sleep salivary cortisol levels and perceived tension, faster heart rate and lower vagal activity, based on heart rate variability measures, in both groups of women. The effect of the stress manipulation on the autonomic nervous system extended into the first 4 h of the night in both groups. However, vagal tone recovered 4-6 h into the stress night in controls but not in the insomnia group. Sleep macrostructure was largely unaltered by the stress, apart from a delayed latency to REM sleep in both groups. Quantitative analysis of non-rapid eye movement sleep microstructure revealed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the beta1 range (15-≤23 Hz), reflecting greater EEG arousal during sleep, on the stress night compared to baseline, in the insomnia group. Hot flash frequency remained similar on both nights for both groups. These results show that pre-sleep stress impacts autonomic nervous system functioning before and during sleep in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia. Findings also indicate

  15. Inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed autonomous wearable RF modules for biomonitoring, positioning and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Jo; Bahr, Ryan; Hester, Jimmy; Kimionis, John; Nauroze, Abdullah; Su, Wenjing; Tehrani, Bijan; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, numerous inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed wearable flexible antennas, RF electronics, modules and sensors fabricated on paper and other polymer (e.g. LCP) substrates are introduced as a system-level solution for ultra-low-cost mass production of autonomous Biomonitoring, Positioning and Sensing applications. This paper briefly discusses the state-of-the-art area of fully-integrated wearable wireless sensor modules on paper or flexible LCP and show the first ever 4D sensor module integration on paper, as well as numerous 3D and 4D multilayer paper-based and LCP-based RF/microwave, flexible and wearable structures, that could potentially set the foundation for the truly convergent wireless sensor ad-hoc "on-body networks of the future with enhanced cognitive intelligence and "rugged" packaging. Also, some challenges concerning the power sources of "nearperpetual" wearable RF modules, including flexible miniaturized batteries as well as power-scavenging approaches involving electromagnetic and solar energy forms are discuessed. The final step of the paper will involve examples from mmW wearable (e.g. biomonitoring) antennas and RF modules, as well as the first examples of the integration of inkjet-printed nanotechnology-based (e.g.CNT) sensors on paper and organic substrates for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. It has to be noted that the paper will review and present challenges for inkjetprinted organic active and nonlinear devices as well as future directions in the area of environmentally-friendly "green") wearable RF electronics and "smart-skin conformal sensors.

  16. Bistability of self-modulation oscillations in an autonomous solid-state ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudetskii, V Yu

    2013-01-01

    Bistable self-modulation regimes of generation for a ring YAG : Nd chip laser with the counterpropagating waves asymmetrically coupled via backward scattering are simulated numerically. Two branches of bistable self-modulation regimes of generation are found in the domain of the parametric resonance between the selfmodulation and relaxation oscillations. The self-modulation regimes observed in earlier experiments pertain to only one of the branches. Possible reasons for such a discrepancy are considered, related to the influence of technical and natural noise on the dynamics of solid-state ring lasers. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  17. Hormones and the autonomic nervous system are involved in suprachiasmatic nucleus modulation of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Marieke; Buijs, Ruud M; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2006-05-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in energy expenditure associated with the light-dark cycle induce variations in the plasma glucose concentration that are more gradual. Organisms take advantage of adapting their internal physiology to the predictable daily changes in energy expenditure, because it enables them to anticipate these changes and to prevent unnecessary disturbance of homeostasis. The hypothalamic biological clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), receives light information from the eyes and transmits this information to the rest of the body to synchronize physiology to the environment. Here we review several studies providing evidence for biological clock control of the daily variation in several aspects of glucose metabolism. Although both hormones and the autonomic nervous system can stimulate glucose uptake or production by organs in the periphery, we have shown that the biological clock control of glucose metabolism mostly occurs through the autonomic nervous system. The critical involvement of the biological clock is also indicated by several studies, indicating that disturbance of the biological clock is often associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  18. Effects of Combined Far-Infrared Radiation and Acupuncture at ST36 on Peripheral Blood Perfusion and Autonomic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using four-channel photoplethysmography (PPG for acquiring peripheral arterial waveforms, this study investigated vascular and autonomic impacts of combined acupuncture-far infrared radiation (FIR in improving peripheral circulation. Twenty healthy young adults aged 25.5±4.6 were enrolled for 30-minute measurement. Each subject underwent four treatment strategies, including acupuncture at ST36 (Zusanli, pseudoacupuncture, FIR, and combined acupuncture-FIR at different time points. Response was assessed at 5-minute intervals. Area under arterial waveform at baseline was defined as AreaBaseline, whereas AreaStim referred to area at each 5-minute substage during and after treatment. AreaStim/AreaBaseline was compared at different stages and among different strategies. Autonomic activity at different stages was assessed using low-to-high frequency power ratio (LHR. The results demonstrated increased perfusion for each therapeutic strategy from stage 1 to stage 2 (all p<0.02. Elevated perfusion was noted for all treatment strategies at stage 3 compared to stage 1 except pseudoacupuncture. Increased LHR was noted only in subjects undergoing pseudoacupuncture at stage 3 compared to stage 1 (p=0.045. Reduced LHR at stage 2 compared to stage 1 was found only in combined treatment group (p=0.041. In conclusion, the results support clinical benefits of combined acupuncture-FIR treatment in enhancing peripheral perfusion and parasympathetic activity.

  19. Analysis of cardiac autonomic modulation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Carvalho TD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tatiana Dias de Carvalho,1,2 Rubens Wajnsztejn,3 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,2,7 Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei,4 Moacir Fernandes Godoy,5 Fernando Adami,2 Vitor E Valenti,6 Carlos B M Monteiro,2,7 Claudio Leone,7 Karen Cristina da Cruz Martins,2 Celso Ferreira11Departamento de Medicina, Disciplina de Cardiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Laboratório de Escrita Científica da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, FMABC, Santo André, Brazil; 3Núcleo Especializado em Aprendizagem, Programa de pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, FMABC, Santo André, Brazil; 4Departamento de Fisioterapia da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil; 5Núcleo Transdisciplinar de Estudos do Caos e da Complexidade. Faculdade de Medicina de São José de Rio Preto, FAMERP, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil; 6Departamento de Fonoaudiologia da Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Marília, Brazil; 7Departamento de Saúde Materno-Infantil da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by decreased attention span, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. Autonomic nervous system imbalance was previously described in this population. We aim to compare the autonomic function of children with ADHD and controls by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV.Methods: Children rested in supine position with spontaneous breathing for 20 minutes. Heart rate was recorded beat by beat. HRV analysis was performed in the time and frequency domains and Poincaré plot.Results: Twenty-eight children with ADHD (22 boys, aged 9.964 years and 28 controls (15 boys, age 9.857 years participated in this study. It was determined that the mean and standard deviation of indexes which indicate parasympathetic activity is higher in

  20. Autonomous Time-Frequency Cropping and Feature-Extraction Algorithms for Classification of LPI Radar Modulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zilberman, Eric R

    2006-01-01

    ...), uses the marginal frequency distribution and the adaptive threshold binarization algorithm to determine the start and stop frequencies of the modulation energy to locate and adapt the size of the cropping window...

  1. Does Virtual Reality-based Kinect Dance Training Paradigm Improve Autonomic Nervous System Modulation in Individuals with Chronic Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Subramaniam, Savitha; Arena, Ross; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2016-10-01

    Physical inactivity and low resting heart rate variability (HRV) are associated with an increased cardiovascular deconditioning, risk of secondary stroke and mortality. Aerobic dance is a multidimensional physical activity and recent research supports its application as a valid alternative cardiovascular training. Furthermore, technological advances have facilitated the emergence of new approaches for exercise training holding promise, especially those methods that integrate rehabilitation with virtual gaming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic modulation in individuals with chronic stroke post-training using a virtual reality - based aerobic dance training paradigm. Eleven community-dwelling individuals with hemiparetic stroke [61.7( ± 4.3) years] received a virtual reality-based dance paradigm for 6 weeks using the commercially available Kinect dance video game "Just Dance 3." The training was delivered in a high-intensity tapering method with the first two weeks consisting of 5 sessions/week, next two weeks of 3 sessions/week and last two weeks of 2 sessions/week, with a total of 20 sessions. Data obtained for HRV analysis pre- and post-intervention consists of HRV for ten minutes in (1) supine resting position; (2) quiet standing. High-frequency (HF) power measures as indicators of cardiac parasympathetic activity, low-frequency (LF) power of parasympathetic-sympathetic balance and LF/HF of sympatho-vagal balance were calculated. YMCA submaximal cycle Ergometer test was used to acquire VO 2 max pre- and post-intervention. Changes in physical activity during dance training were assessed using Omran HJ-321 Tri-Axis Pedometer. After training, participants demonstrated a significant improvement in autonomic modulation in the supine position, indicating an improvement in LF=48.4 ( ± 20.1) to 40.3 ( ± 8.0), p =0.03; HF=51.5 ( ± 19) to 59.7 ( ± 8), p = 0.02 and LF/HF=1.6 ( ± 1.9) to 0.8 ( ± 0.26), p =0.05]. Post-training the

  2. Elements of Autonomous Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan

    In this thesis, we study several central elements of autonomous self-reconfigurable modular robots. Unlike conventional robots such robots are: i) Modular, since robots are assembled from numerous robotic modules. ii) Reconfigurable, since the modules can be combined in a variety of ways. iii) Self......-reconfigurable, since the modules themselves are able to change how they are combined. iv) Autonomous, since robots control themselves without human guidance. Such robots are attractive to study since they in theory have several desirable characteristics, such as versatility, reliability and cheapness. In practice...... however, it is challenging to realize such characteristics since state-of-the-art systems and solutions suffer from several inherent technical and theoretical problems and limitations. In this thesis, we address these challenges by exploring four central elements of autonomous self-reconfigurable modular...

  3. Combined moderate and high intensity exercise with dietary restriction improves cardiac autonomic function associated with a reduction in central and systemic arterial stiffness in obese adults: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to assess the effects of exercise with dietary restriction on cardiac autonomic activity, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular biomarkers in obese individuals. Methods Seventeen obese adults completed an 8-week exercise and dietary program. Anthropometry, body composition, and multiple biochemical markers were measured. We used carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, central blood pressure, and augmentation index (AIx to assess arterial stiffness. To determine cardiac autonomic activity, heart rate variability (HRV was analyzed by standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN, square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD, total power (TF, low-frequency power in normalized units (LFnu, high-frequency power in normalized units (HFnu, and low-frequency power/high-frequency power (LF/HF. Results Following the exercise and diet intervention, obese subjects had significant reductions in body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, brachial systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate, and they had shown improvements in blood chemistry markers such as lipid profiles, insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was a significant reduction in both cfPWV and baPWV following the intervention when compared to baseline levels. Moreover, the AIx and aortic systolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after the intervention. The diet and exercise intervention significantly increased cardiac autonomic modulation (determined by improved SDNN, RMSSD, TP LF, HF, and LF/HF, which was partly due to changes in heart rate, insulin resistance, and the inflammatory pattern. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between enhanced cardiac autonomic modulation (LF/HF and decreased arterial stiffness, as measured by central cfPWV and systemic baPWV. Discussion An 8-week combined intervention of diet and

  4. Laser frequency stabilization by combining modulation transfer and frequency modulation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Fei; Wu, Xuejian; Zhong, Weicheng; Parker, Richard H; Yu, Chenghui; Budker, Simon; Lu, Xuanhui; Müller, Holger

    2017-04-01

    We present a hybrid laser frequency stabilization method combining modulation transfer spectroscopy (MTS) and frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) for the cesium D2 transition. In a typical pump-probe setup, the error signal is a combination of the DC-coupled MTS error signal and the AC-coupled FMS error signal. This combines the long-term stability of the former with the high signal-to-noise ratio of the latter. In addition, we enhance the long-term frequency stability with laser intensity stabilization. By measuring the frequency difference between two independent hybrid spectroscopies, we investigate the short-and long-term stability. We find a long-term stability of 7.8 kHz characterized by a standard deviation of the beating frequency drift over the course of 10 h and a short-term stability of 1.9 kHz characterized by an Allan deviation of that at 2 s of integration time.

  5. Combination of Plant Metabolic Modules Yields Synthetic Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Fatemeh; Heene, Ernst; Maisch, Jan; Nick, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The great potential of pharmacologically active secondary plant metabolites is often limited by low yield and availability of the producing plant. Chemical synthesis of these complex compounds is often too expensive. Plant cell fermentation offers an alternative strategy to overcome these limitations. However, production in batch cell cultures remains often inefficient. One reason might be the fact that different cell types have to interact for metabolite maturation, which is poorly mimicked in suspension cell lines. Using alkaloid metabolism of tobacco, we explore an alternative strategy, where the metabolic interactions of different cell types in a plant tissue are technically mimicked based on different plant-cell based metabolic modules. In this study, we simulate the interaction found between the nicotine secreting cells of the root and the nicotine-converting cells of the senescent leaf, generating the target compound nornicotine in the model cell line tobacco BY-2. When the nicotine demethylase NtomCYP82E4 was overexpressed in tobacco BY-2 cells, nornicotine synthesis was triggered, but only to a minor extent. However, we show here that we can improve the production of nornicotine in this cell line by feeding the precursor, nicotine. Engineering of another cell line overexpressing the key enzyme NtabMPO1 allows to stimulate accumulation and secretion of this precursor. We show that the nornicotine production of NtomCYP82E4 cells can be significantly stimulated by feeding conditioned medium from NtabMPO1 overexpressors without any negative effect on the physiology of the cells. Co-cultivation of NtomCYP82E4 with NtabMPO1 stimulated nornicotine accumulation even further, demonstrating that the physical presence of cells was superior to just feeding the conditioned medium collected from the same cells. These results provide a proof of concept that combination of different metabolic modules can improve the productivity for target compounds in plant cell

  6. Cardiac autonomic tone during trandolapril-irbesartan low-dose combined therapy in hypertension: a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, F; Lazzeri, C; Foschi, M; Tosti-Guerra, C; Barletta, G

    2002-08-01

    Pharmacological and clinical studies on the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors support the idea of a central role played Angiotensin II which is able to cause cardiovascular and renal diseases also independently of its blood pressure elevating effects. The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the effect(s) of three different pharmacological regimens on both blood pressure and sympathetic drive in uncomplicated essential hypertension, by means of blood pressure laboratory measurements and ambulatory monitoring, 24-h heart rate variability and plasma noradrenaline levels. Thus, an ACE-inhibitor monotherapy (trandolapril, 2 mg/day), an AT(1)-receptor antagonist monotherapy (irbesartan, 300 mg/day), their low-dose combination (0.5 mg/day plus 150 mg/day, respectively) and placebo were given, in a randomised, single-blind, crossover fashion for a period of 3 weeks each to 12 mild essential hypertensives. Power spectral analysis (short recordings) and noradrenaline measurements were also performed in the supine position and after a postural challenge (60 degrees head-up tilting test: HUT). The low-dose combination therapy induced the greatest reduction in LF component and in LF/HF ratio, both in the resting and tilted positions, as well as in blood pressure. However, the physiological autonomic response to HUT was maintained. Noradrenaline plasma levels were lower after the combined therapy than after each drug alone. Our data demonstrate that in mild and uncomplicated essential hypertension, the chronic low-dose combination therapy with an ACE-inhibitor and an AT(1)-antagonist is more effective than the recommended full-dose monotherapy with either drug in influencing the autonomic regulation of the heart, suggesting a relative reduction in sympathetic drive both at cardiac and systemic levels.

  7. A Combination of Terrain Prediction and Correction for Search and Rescue Robot Autonomous Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel two-step autonomous navigation method for search and rescue robot. The algorithm based on the vision is proposed for terrain identification to give a prediction of the safest path with the support vector regression machine (SVRM trained off-line with the texture feature and color features. And correction algorithm of the prediction based the vibration information is developed during the robot traveling, using the judgment function given in the paper. The region with fault prediction will be corrected with the real traversability value and be used to update the SVRM. The experiment demonstrates that this method could help the robot to find the optimal path and be protected from the trap brought from the error between prediction and the real environment.

  8. Head Exposure to Cold during Whole-Body Cryostimulation: Influence on Thermal Response and Autonomic Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Bieuzen, François; Le Meur, Yann; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Volondat, Marielle; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on whole-body cryotherapy has hypothesized a major responsibility of head cooling in the physiological changes classically reported after a cryostimulation session. The aim of this experiment was to verify this hypothesis by studying the influence of exposing the head to cold during whole-body cryostimulation sessions, on the thermal response and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Over five consecutive days, two groups of 10 participants performed one whole-body cryostimulation session daily, in one of two different systems; one exposing the whole-body to cold (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC), and the other exposing the whole-body except the head (partial-body cryostimulation, PBC).10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. In order to isolate the head-cooling effect on recorded variables, it was ensured that the WBC and PBC systems induced the same decrease in skin temperature for all body regions (mean decrease over the 5 exposures: -8.6°C±1.3°C and -8.3±0.7°C for WBC and PBC, respectively), which persisted up to 20-min after the sessions (P20). The WBC sessions caused an almost certain decrease in tympanic temperature from Pre to P20 (-0.28 ±0.11°C), while it only decreased at P20 (-0.14±0.05°C) after PBC sessions. Heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-8.6%) and WBC (-12.3%) sessions. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely to almost certainly increased after PBC (RMSSD:+49.1%, HF: +123.3%) and WBC (RMSSD: +38.8%, HF:+70.3%). Plasma norepinephrine concentration was likely increased in similar proportions after PBC and WBC, but only after the first session. Both cryostimulation techniques stimulated the ANS with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation from the first to the fifth session and in slightly greater proportion with WBC than PBC

  9. Early recognition of autonomous thyroid tissue by a combination of quantitative thyroid pertechnetate scintigraphy with the free T4 equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, K.; Mahlstedt, J.; Welcke, U.

    1980-01-01

    A suspicion of AFTT can be raised in 80% of still euthyroid patients by a combined evaluation of an equivalent to the free T 4 (FTE) and an equavilant to the clearance using a quantitative evaluation of the thyroid technetium scan (TcTU). The suppression test not only confirms the autonomy in a qualitative manner but also provides an estimate of the volume of autonomous tissue because The TcTU after suppression strictly correlates linearly with the volume of the AFTT. Since after iodine administration FTE increases proportionally to the volume of AFTT, the procedure can be of some prognostic value: those with autonomous tissue in excess of a critical volume will almost certainly develop hyperthyroidism following a certain minimum rate of iodine administration. A prospective study of patients under age 50 whose thyroids contained various amounts of AFTT has shown that prophylactic dietary iodine supplementation will not cause hyperthyroidism to develop provided the additional iodine intake does not exceed 100 μg per day. (orig./MG) [de

  10. A dual character of flavonoids in influenza A virus replication and spread through modulating cell-autonomous immunity by MAPK signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjuan; Wei, Xiuli; Zhang, Fayun; Hao, Junfeng; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Chunling; Liang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are well known as a large class of polyphenolic compounds, which have a variety of physiological activities, including anti-influenza virus activity. The influenza A/WSN/33 infected A549 cells have been used to screen anti-influenza virus drugs from natural flavonoid compounds library. Unexpectedly, some flavonoid compounds significantly inhibited virus replication, while the others dramatically promoted virus replication. In this study, we attempted to understand these differences between flavonoid compounds in their antivirus mechanisms. Hesperidin and kaempferol were chosen as representatives of both sides, each of which exhibited the opposite effects on influenza virus replication. Our investigation revealed that the opposite effects produced by hesperidin and kaempferol on influenza virus were due to inducing the opposite cell-autonomous immune responses by selectively modulating MAP kinase pathways: hesperidin up-regulated P38 and JNK expression and activation, thus resulting in the enhanced cell-autonomous immunity; while kaempferol dramatically down-regulated p38 and JNK expression and activation, thereby suppressing cell-autonomous immunity. In addition, hesperidin restricted RNPs export from nucleus by down-regulating ERK activation, but kaempferol promoted RNPs export by up-regulating ERK activation. Our findings demonstrate that a new generation of anti-influenza virus drugs could be developed based on selective modulation of MAP kinase pathways to stimulate cell-autonomous immunity. PMID:25429875

  11. Self-Alert Training: Volitional Modulation of Autonomic Arousal Improves Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Fitzgerald, Michael; Robertson, Ian H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines a new alertness training strategy (Self-Alert Training, SAT) designed to explore the relationship between the top-down control processes governing arousal and sustained attention. In order to maximally target frontal control systems SAT combines a previously validated behavioural self-alerting technique [Robertson, I.…

  12. Cardiac autonomic modulation during progressive upper limb exercise by patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Machado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of heart rate (HR and HR variability (HRV during different loads of resistance exercise (incline bench press in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and healthy sedentary controls. Ten healthy men (65 ± 1.2 years, control group, CG and 10 men with clinically stable CAD (66 ± 2.4 years, CADG were recruited. A discontinuous progressive protocol was applied with an initial load of 10% of the maximum load achieved in the 1RM (1 repetition maximum with increases of 10% until 30% 1RM was reached, which was followed by subsequent increases of 5% 1RM until exhaustion. HRV was analyzed by linear and non-linear methods. There was a significant reduction in rMSSD (CG: 20 ± 2 to 11 ± 3 ms; CADG: 19 ± 3 to 9 ± 1 ms and SD1 indexes (CG: 14 ± 2 to 8 ± 1 ms; CADG: 14 ± 2 to 7 ± 1 ms. An increase in HR (CG: 69 ± 5 to 90 ± 5 bpm; CADG: 62 ± 4 to 75 ± 4 bpm and in systolic blood pressure (CG: 124 ± 3 to 138 ± 3 mmHg; CADG: 122 ± 6 to 126 ± 9 bpm were observed (P < 0.05 when comparing pre-effort rest and 40% 1RM in both groups. Furthermore, an increase in RMSM index was also observed (CG: 28 ± 3 to 45 ± 9 ms; CADG: 22 ± 2 to 79 ± 33 ms, with higher values in CADG. We conclude that loads up to 30% 1RM during incline bench press result in depressed vagal modulation in both groups, although only stable CAD patients presented sympathetic overactivity at 20% 1RM upper limb exercise.

  13. Circumvention of inherent or acquired cytotoxic drug resistance in vitro using combinations of modulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadagan, David; Merry, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Modulating agents are used to circumvent drug resistance in the clinical setting. However achievable serum concentrations are often lower than those which are optimal in vitro. Combination of modulating agents with non-overlapping toxicities may overcome this obstacle. We have investigated combinations of three modulating agents (quinine, verapamil, and cinnarizine) to circumvent inherent or acquired resistance to the cytotoxic drugs doxorubicin, vincristine and paclitaxel. Dose-response curves to cytotoxic drugs in the presence/absence of modulating agents were determined using colony formation and cell proliferation assays. Doxorubicin accumulation into cell monolayers was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Greater (1.9-fold) sensitisation to particular cytotoxic drugs was observed for certain combinations of modulating agents compared to individual effects. The most effective combination was quinine-plus-verapamil with the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin. This increase in sensitivity was associated with increased doxorubicin accumulation. Such enhanced activity was, however, not observed for all combinations of modulating agents or for all studied cytotoxic drugs. The findings of the present study suggest certain combinations of modulating agents to have a clinical role in circumventing drug resistance. Particular combinations of modulating agents must be carefully chosen to suit particular cytotoxic drug treatments.

  14. Signal recognition and parameter estimation of BPSK-LFM combined modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chao; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Intra-pulse analysis plays an important role in electronic warfare. Intra-pulse feature abstraction focuses on primary parameters such as instantaneous frequency, modulation, and symbol rate. In this paper, automatic modulation recognition and feature extraction for combined BPSK-LFM modulation signals based on decision theoretic approach is studied. The simulation results show good recognition effect and high estimation precision, and the system is easy to be realized.

  15. Autonomic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of autonomic neuropathy. Other diseases. Amyloidosis, porphyria, hypothyroidism and cancer (usually due to side effects from treatment) may also increase the risk of autonomic neuropathy. ...

  16. Performance analysis of joint diversity combining, adaptive modulation, and power control schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Bouida, Zied; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive modulation and diversity combining represent very important adaptive solutions for future generations of wireless communication systems. Indeed, in order to improve the performance and the efficiency of these systems, these two techniques

  17. COMBINATION OF DENSITY AND ENERGY MODULATION IN MICROBUNCHING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Microbunching instability (MBI) has been one of the most challenging issues in the transport of high-brightness electron beams for modern recirculating or energy recovery linac machines. Recently we have developed and implemented a Vlasov solver [1] to calculate the microbunching gain for an arbitrary beamline lattice, based on the extension of existing theoretical formulation [2-4] for the microbunching amplification from an initial density perturbation to the final density modulation. For more thorough analyses, in addition to the case of (initial) density to (final) density amplification, we extend in this paper the previous formulation to more general cases, including energy to density, density to energy and energy to energy amplifications for a recirculation machine. Such semi-analytical formulae are then incorporated into our Vlasov solver, and qualitative agreement is obtained when the semi-analytical Vlasov results are compared with particle tracking simulation using ELEGANT [5].

  18. Cross-layer combining of power control and adaptive modulation with truncated ARQ for cognitive radios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shi-lun; YANG Zhen

    2008-01-01

    To maximize throughput and to satisfy users' requirements in cognitive radios, a cross-layer optimization problem combining adaptive modulation and power control at the physical layer and truncated automatic repeat request at the medium access control layer is proposed. Simulation results show the combination of power control, adaptive modulation, and truncated automatic repeat request can regulate transmitter powers and increase the total throughput effectively.

  19. Modulator noise suppression in the LISA time-delay interferometric combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J W; Estabrook, Frank B

    2008-01-01

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a mission to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation through its influence on the phases of six modulated laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft. We previously showed how the measurements of some 18 time series of relative frequency or phase shifts could be combined (1) to cancel the phase noise of the lasers, (2) to cancel the Doppler fluctuations due to non-inertial motions of the six optical benches and (3) to remove the phase noise of the onboard reference oscillators required to track the photodetector fringes, all the while preserving signals from passing gravitational waves. Here we analyze the effect of the additional noise due to the optical modulators used for removing the phase fluctuations of the onboard reference oscillators. We use the recently measured noise spectrum of an individual modulator (Klipstein et al 2006 Proc. 6th Int. LISA Symp. (Greenbelt, MA) (AIP Conf. Proc. vol 873) ed S M Merkowitz and J C Livas pp 19-23) to quantify the contribution of modulator noise to the first and second-generation time-delay interferometric (TDI) combinations as a function of the modulation frequency. We show that modulator noise can be made smaller than the expected proof-mass acceleration and optical-path noises if the modulation frequencies are larger than ∼682 MHz in the case of the unequal-arm Michelson TDI combination X 1 , ∼ 1.08 GHz for the Sagnac TDI combination α 1 , and ∼706 MHz for the symmetrical Sagnac TDI combination ζ 1 . These modulation frequencies are substantially smaller than previously estimated and may lead to less stringent requirements on the LISA's oscillator noise calibration subsystem. The measurements in Klipstein et al were performed in a laboratory experiment for a range of modulation frequencies, but we emphasize that, for the reference oscillator noise calibration algorithm to work, the modulation frequencies must be equal to the

  20. Engineering of a parainfluenza virus type 5 fusion protein (PIV-5 F): development of an autonomous and hyperfusogenic protein by a combinational mutagenesis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, O; Durupt, F; Cartet, G; Thomas, L; Lina, B; Rosa-Calatrava, M

    2009-12-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is accomplished by fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane. For the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV-5), this fusion involves an attachment protein (HN) and a class I viral fusion protein (F). We investigated the effect of 20 different combinations of 12 amino-acid substitutions within functional domains of the PIV-5 F glycoprotein, by performing cell surface expression measurements, quantitative fusion and syncytia assays. We found that combinations of mutations conferring an autonomous phenotype with mutations leading to an increased fusion activity were compatible and generated functional PIV-5 F proteins. The addition of mutations in the heptad-repeat domains led to both autonomous and hyperfusogenic phenotypes, despite the low cell surface expression of the corresponding mutants. Such engineering approach may prove useful not only for deciphering the fundamental mechanism behind viral-mediated membrane fusion but also in the development of potential therapeutic applications.

  1. The influence of resistance exercise with emphasis on specific contractions (concentric vs. eccentric on muscle strength and post-exercise autonomic modulation: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana O. Gois

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared to eccentric contractions, concentric contractions result in higher cardiovascular stress. However, we do not know how these two types of contractions influence cardiac autonomic modulation during the post-exercise recovery period. Objective: to compare the effect of resistance training that is performed with concentric vs. eccentric emphasis on muscle strength and on post-exercise recovery which was assessed by examining heart rate variability (HRV, for the knee extensor muscle group in young healthy adults. Methods: For this study, 105 men between 18 and 30 years of age were randomized into 4 groups: concentric control (CONCC, eccentric control (ECCC, concentric training (CONCT and eccentric training (ECCT. The CONCC and ECCC groups underwent one session of resistance exercise (RE using the knee extensor muscle group (3 sets of 1 repetition at 100% of the maximal repetition [1MR] and the CONCT and ECCT groups performed 10 training sessions. The HRV was analyzed at baseline and across four recovery periods (T1, T2, T3 and T4. Results: The ECCT group exhibited increased muscle strength at the end of the study. Regarding cardiac autonomic modulation, the CONCC and ECCC groups exhibited increases in overall variability (SDNN and SD2 at T1 compared to baseline, and the ECCT group demonstrated increases in variables reflecting vagal modulation and the recovery process (RMSSD, SD1 and HF [ms2] at T1, T2 and T4 compared to baseline. Conclusions: Resistance training with emphasis on eccentric contractions promoted strength gain and an increase in cardiac vagal modulation during recovery compared to baseline.

  2. Options for greenhouse emission reduction by using a module for combined heat and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankov, Nikola; Ivanov, Bozhidar

    2009-01-01

    This report contains example of CO 2 emission reduction assessment when using module for combined heat and power generation that is fueled by natural gas. Environmental benefits are related to the type of fuel that is used and the increased efficiency of the combined production process. Choosing of the CHP unit and the assessment scheme are also presented

  3. Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu β2 adrenergic polymorphisms influence cardiac autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity in healthy young Brazilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atala, Magda M; Goulart, Alessandra; Guerra, Grazia M; Mostarda, Cristiano; Rodrigues, Bruno; Mello, Priscila R; Casarine, Dulce E; Irigoyen, Maria-Claudia; Pereira, Alexandre C; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M

    2015-01-01

    The association between functional β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) polymorphisms and cardiac autonomic modulation is still unclear. Thus, two common polymorphisms in the β2-AR gene (Gln27Glu β2 and Arg16Gly β2) were studied to determine whether they might affect tonic and reflex cardiac sympathetic activity in healthy young subjects. A total of 213 healthy young white subjects of both genders (53% female), aged 18-30 years (23.5±3.4 y), had their continuous blood pressure curves noninvasively recorded by Finometer at baseline, and other hemodynamic parameters, as cardiac autonomic modulation, baroreflex sensitivity, and allele, genotype, and diplotype frequencies calculated. Associations were made between Arg16Gly β2 and Gln27Glu β2 polymorphisms and between β2-AR diplotypes and all variables. The heart rate was significantly lower (P<0.001) in the presence of homozygous Arg/Arg alleles (60.9±1.5 bpm) than in that of Arg/Gly heterozygotes (65.9±1.0 bpm) or Gly/Gly homozygotes (66.3±1.2 bpm). Homozygous carriers of Arg16 allele had an alpha index (19.2±1.3) significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of the subjects with the Gly allele Gly/Gly (14.5±0.7) or Arg/Gly (14.6±0.7). Furthermore, the recessive Glu27Glu and the heterozygous Gln27Glu genotypes had a higher percentage of low-frequency components (LF%) than the homozygous Gln27Gln (15.1% vs. 16.0% vs. 8.2%, P=0.03, respectively). In healthy young subjects, the presence of β2-AR Arg16 allele in a recessive model was associated with higher baroreflex sensitivity, and increased parasympathetic modulation in studied individuals. PMID:25755837

  4. Brewing controversies: Darwinian perspective on the adaptive and maladaptive effects of caffeine and ethanol as dietary autonomic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Anthony J; Doux, John D; Daniel, Stephanie M

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are two of the oldest human drugs. Their pervasive integration into the modern human diet may reflect behavioral attempts to correct maladaptations induced by evolutionary displacement of the autonomic system. The dietary adoption of caffeine may parallel the emergence of cognition as an independent basis of competition. Enhancement of the cognitive ability to gather and process information likely evolved as a valuable adjunct to physical behavior in prehistoric fight-or-flight encounters. Caffeine effectively exploits this pre-existing association between adrenergic activity and cognitive readiness, leading to its use in the modern environment where success in competition increasingly depends on cognitive, rather than physical, prowess. Ethanol may have emerged as a dietary means to buffer the maladaptive chronic sympathetic activation and fear response associated with stressful lifestyles and the social phobias associated with the dissolution of kin networks. We explore the health implications of ethanol and caffeine use, with particular attention to their acute and chronic effects on the autonomic axis. The putative protective effects of ethanol in surviving major trauma or reducing inflammation and heart disease may relate to tempering the behavioral and cardiovascular consequences of catastrophic or chronic sympathetic activation. Acute or chronic abuse of ethanol manifests paradoxical pro-adrenergic effects such as tremors and insomnia that may partly represent compensatory responses. Compensatory remodeling may also explain why confirmation of detrimental effects related to caffeine-induced sympathetic activation has proven elusive; indeed, paradoxical pro-vagal benefits may eventually be recognized. Ethanol and caffeine are potential agents that may beneficially expand the dynamic range of the autonomic system. In an environment where the Darwinian value of knowledge has increasingly supplanted that of physical traits, the consumption

  5. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on acute changes in cardiac autonomic modulation during rest and physical activity: a cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; Weichenthal, Scott; Kubesch, Nadine; Foraster, Maria; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Bouso, Laura; Martínez, David; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during physical activity (PA), but it is not clear if PA modifies the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic modulation. We conducted a panel study among 28 healthy adults in Barcelona, Spain to examine how PA may modify the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic regulation. Participants completed four 2-h exposure scenarios that included either rest or intermittent exercise in high- and low-traffic environments. Time- and frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during each exposure period along with continuous measures of TRAP. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the impact of TRAP on HRV as well as potential effect modification by PA. Exposure to TRAP was associated with consistent decreases in HRV; however, exposure-response relationships were not always linear over the broad range of exposures. For example, each 10 μg/m(3) increase in black carbon was associated with a 23% (95% CI: -31, -13) decrease in high frequency power at the low-traffic site, whereas no association was observed at the high-traffic site. PA modified the impact of TRAP on HRV at the high-traffic site and tended to weaken inverse associations with measures reflecting parasympathetic modulation (P ≤ 0.001). Evidence of effect modification at the low-traffic site was less consistent. The strength and direction of the relationship between TRAP and HRV may vary across exposure gradients. PA may modify the impact of TRAP on HRV, particularly at higher concentrations.

  6. Performance analysis of joint diversity combining, adaptive modulation, and power control schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive modulation and diversity combining represent very important adaptive solutions for future generations of wireless communication systems. Indeed, in order to improve the performance and the efficiency of these systems, these two techniques have been recently used jointly in new schemes named joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (JAMDC) schemes. Considering the problem of finding low hardware complexity, bandwidth-efficient, and processing-power efficient transmission schemes for a downlink scenario and capitalizing on some of these recently proposed JAMDC schemes, we propose and analyze in this paper three joint adaptive modulation, diversity combining, and power control (JAMDCPC) schemes where a constant-power variable-rate adaptive modulation technique is used with an adaptive diversity combining scheme and a common power control process. More specifically, the modulation constellation size, the number of combined diversity paths, and the needed power level are jointly determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency with the lowest possible processing power consumption quantified in terms of the average number of combined paths, given the fading channel conditions and the required bit error rate (BER) performance. In this paper, the performance of these three JAMDCPC schemes is analyzed in terms of their spectral efficiency, processing power consumption, and error-rate performance. Selected numerical examples show that these schemes considerably increase the spectral efficiency of the existing JAMDC schemes with a slight increase in the average number of combined paths for the low signal-to-noise ratio range while maintaining compliance with the BER performance and a low radiated power which yields to a substantial decrease in interference to co-existing users and systems. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. A combination of transformation optics and surface impedance modulation to design compact retrodirective reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Haddad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new approach to flatten retrodirective corner reflectors. The proposed method enables compact reflectors via Transformation Optics (TO combined with Surface Impedance Modulation (SIM. This combination permits to relax the constraints on the anisotropic material resulting from the TO. Phase gradient approach is generalized to be used within anisotropic media and is implemented with SIM. Different reflector setups are designed, simulated and compared for fop = 8GHz using ANSYS® HFSS® in order to validate the use of such a combination.

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity and its association with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: impact on cardiac autonomic modulation and functional capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangrando KTL

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Katiany Thays Lopes Zangrando,1 Renata Trimer,2 Luiz Carlos Soares de Carvalho Jr,1 Guilherme Peixoto Tinoco Arêas,1 Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso,1 Ramona Cabiddu,1 Meliza Goi Roscani,3 Fabíola Paula Galhardo Rizzatti,3 Audrey Borghi-Silva1 1Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy Laboratory, Physiotherapy Department, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Physical Education and Health Department, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 3Medicine Department, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The study was conducted to determine the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in association with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS on cardiac autonomic control and functional capacity. Subjects and methods: The study was a cross-sectional prospective controlled clinical study. Heart rate variability indices of 24 COPD (n = 12 and COPD+OSAS (n = 12 patients were evaluated and compared by electrocardiographic recordings acquired during rest, active postural maneuver (APM, respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (RSA-m, and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Results: The COPD group presented higher parasympathetic modulation during APM when compared to the COPD+OSAS group (P = 0.02. The COPD+OSAS group presented higher sympathetic modulation during RSA-m when compared to the COPD group (P = 0.00. The performance during 6MWT was similarly impaired in both groups, despite the greater severity of the COPD group. Conclusion: Subjects with COPD+OSAS present marked sympathetic modulation, and the presence of OSAS in COPD subjects has a negative impact on functional capacity regardless of the severity of lung disease. Keywords: COPD, OSAS, COPD+OSAS, functional capacity

  9. Joint Adaptive Modulation and Combining for Hybrid FSO/RF Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-11-12

    In this paper, we present and analyze a new transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF communication system based on joint adaptive modulation and adaptive combining. Specifically, the data rate on the FSO link is adjusted in discrete manner according to the FSO link\\'s instantaneous received signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). If the FSO link\\'s quality is too poor to maintain the target bit-error-rate, the system activates the RF link along with the FSO link. When the RF link is activated, simultaneous transmission of the same modulated data takes place on both links, where the received signals from both links are combined using maximal ratio combining scheme. In this case, the data rate of the system is adjusted according to the instantaneous combined SNRs. Novel analytical expression for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the received SNR for the proposed adaptive hybrid system is obtained. This CDF expression is used to study the spectral and outage performances of the proposed adaptive hybrid FSO/RF system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the proposed adaptive hybrid FSO/RF system with that of switch-over hybrid FSO/RF and FSO-only systems employing the same adaptive modulation schemes. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. Autonomous houses. Autonomous house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    Self-sufficiency type houses are outlined. On condition that people gain a certain amount of income in relation with the society, they self-suffice under the given environment, allowing themselves to accept a minimum of industrial products with small environmental load. Ordinary supply from outside of fossil energy and materials which depend on it is minimized. Types are classified into three: energy, energy materials and perfect self-sufficiency. A study project for environment symbiotic houses is progressing which is planned by the Ministry of Construction and Institute of Building Energy Conservation and is invested by a private company. Its target is making a house for halving an environmental load by CO{sub 2}, for the purpose of creating the environment symbiotic house which is nice to and in harmony with the global environment and human beings. As a part of the studies on energy-saving and resource conservation on houses, introduced is a plan of an autonomous house at Izu-Atagawa. The passive method and high thermal-insulation are used for air conditioning, and hot spring water for hot water supply. Electric power is generated by hydroelectric power generation using mountain streams and by solar cells. Staple food is purchased, while subsidiary food is sufficed. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Promoter library-based module combination (PLMC) technology for optimization of threonine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Xu, Ning; Wang, Yiran; Zhou, Wei; Han, Guoqiang; Ma, Yanhe; Liu, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Due to the lack of efficient control elements and tools, the fine-tuning of gene expression in the multi-gene metabolic pathways is still a great challenge for engineering microbial cell factories, especially for the important industrial microorganism Corynebacterium glutamicum. In this study, the promoter library-based module combination (PLMC) technology was developed to efficiently optimize the expression of genes in C. glutamicum. A random promoter library was designed to contain the putative - 10 (NNTANANT) and - 35 (NNGNCN) consensus motifs, and refined through a three-step screening procedure to achieve numerous genetic control elements with different strength levels, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) screening, agar plate screening, and 96-well plate screening. Multiple conventional strategies were employed for further precise characterizations of the promoter library, such as real-time quantitative PCR, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, FACS analysis, and the lacZ reporter system. These results suggested that the established promoter elements effectively regulated gene expression and showed varying strengths over a wide range. Subsequently, a multi-module combination technology was created based on the efficient promoter elements for combination and optimization of modules in the multi-gene pathways. Using this technology, the threonine biosynthesis pathway was reconstructed and optimized by predictable tuning expression of five modules in C. glutamicum. The threonine titer of the optimized strain was significantly improved to 12.8 g/L, an approximate 6.1-fold higher than that of the control strain. Overall, the PLMC technology presented in this study provides a rapid and effective method for combination and optimization of multi-gene pathways in C. glutamicum.

  12. Cardiac Autonomic Modulations and Psychological Correlates in the Yukon Arctic Ultra: The Longest and the Coldest Ultramarathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea C. Rundfeldt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on human physical performance in extreme environments have effectively approached the investigation of adaptation mechanisms and their physiological limits. As scientific interest in the interplay between physiological and psychological aspects of performance is growing, we aimed to investigate cardiac autonomic control, by means of heart rate variability, and psychological correlates, in competitors of a subarctic ultramarathon, taking place over a 690 km course (temperatures between +5 and −47°C. At baseline (PRE, after 277 km (D1, 383 km (D2, and post-race (POST, 690 km, heart rate (HR recordings (supine, 15 min, psychometric measurements (Profile of Mood States/POMS, Borg fatigue, and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores both upon arrival and departure were obtained in 16 competitors (12 men, 4 women, 38.6 ± 9.5 years. As not all participants reached the finish line, comparison of finishers (FIN, n = 10 and non-finishers (NON, n = 6, allowed differential assessment of performance. Resting HR increased overall significantly at D1 (FIN +15.9; NON +14.0 bpm, due to a significant decrease in parasympathetic drive. This decrease was in FIN only partially recovered toward POST. In FIN only, baseline HR was negatively correlated with mean velocity [r −0.63 (P.04] and parasympathetic drive [pNN50+: r −0.67 (P.03], a lower HR and a higher vagal tone predicting a better performance. Moreover, in FIN, a persistent increase of the long-term self-similarity coefficient, assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFAα2, was retrieved, possibly due to higher alertness. As for psychometrics, at D1, POMS Vigor decreased (FIN: −7.0; NON: −3.8, while Fatigue augmented (FIN: +6.9; NON: +5.0. Sleepiness increased only in NON, while Borg scales did not exhibit changes. Baseline comparison of mood states with normative data for athletes displayed significantly higher positive mood in our athletes. Results show that: the race conditions induced

  13. Correlation between cardiac autonomic modulation in response to orthostatic stress and indicators of quality of life, physical capacity, and physical activity in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thiago R; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras; Gurgel, Jonas L; da Silva Soares, Pedro P

    2015-05-01

    Increased heart rate variability (HRV) at rest is frequently associated to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), physical activity, and markers of quality of life (QoL). However, the HRV has not been observed during physical exercise or orthostatic (ORT) challenge. This study investigated the associations of HRV changes (ΔHRV) from rest at supine (SUP) to ORT positions with (VO2max), physical activity level, and QoL in young adults. Cardiac autonomic modulation was assessed by spectral analysis of R-R time series measured from SUP to ORT positions in 15 healthy volunteers (26 ± 7 years). Questionnaires were applied for evaluation of QoL (SF-36 score), to estimate (VO2max), and to quantify physical activity (Baecke Sport Score). All HRV indices at SUP, but not ORT, strongly correlated to QoL, estimated (VO2max), and physical activity. The ΔHRV from SUP to ORT showed significant correlations with all questionnaire scores (r = 0.52-0.61 for low frequency and r = -0.61 to -0.65 for high frequency, p ≤ 0.05). Higher vagal activity at rest and greater changes in adrenergic and parasympathetic modulation from SUP to ORT were detected in the volunteers exhibiting higher scores of QoL, estimated (VO2max), and physical activity. Taken together, the level of neural adaptations from resting SUP position to active standing, and physical activity and QoL questionnaires seem to be a simple approach to understand the physiological and lifestyle adaptations to exercise that may be applied to a large sample of subjects in almost any sports facilities at a low cost.

  14. Flos Lonicera Combined with Metformin Ameliorates Hepatosteatosis and Glucose Intolerance in Association with Gut Microbiota Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na R. Shin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is important in energy contribution, metabolism and immune modulation, and compositional disruption of the gut microbiota population is closely associated with chronic metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes (T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin (MET and Flos Lonicera (FL are common treatments for metabolic diseases in Western and Oriental medicinal fields. We evaluated the effect of treatment with FL and MET in combination on hepatosteatosis, glucose tolerance, and gut microbial composition. FL and MET were administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats, an animal model of genetic T2D and NAFLD. The FL+MET treatment reduced liver weight, serum cholesterol, insulin resistance, and hepatic MDA level and modulated the gut microbial composition. More specifically, the genera of Prevotella and Lactobacillus were negatively associated with the body and liver weights, hepatic TG and TC content, and serum insulin level. However, the relative abundance of these genera decreased in response to the FL+MET treatment. Interestingly, pathway prediction data revealed that the FL+MET treatment attenuated lipopolysaccharide-related pathways, in keeping with the decrease in serum and fecal endotoxin levels. FL and MET in combination exerts a synergistic effect on the improvement of hepatosteatosis and insulin sensitivity in OLETF rats, and modulates gut microbiota in association with the effect.

  15. Experience with mesodiencephalic modulation in the combination treatment of patients with tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kornienko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the clinical efficiency of using mesodiencephalic modulation (MDM as therapy in the combination treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, the authors examined two groups: 1 the patients who received a MDM cycle in combination with chemotherapy regimens (a study group; 2 those treated using standard chemotherapy regimens (a control group. By the end of one-month therapy, the study group ceased bacterial excretion twice more often than the control group that exhibited the similar results only by the end of three-month treatment. MDM as therapy produced positive X-ray changes in 76.0% of the cases in the study group and in 44.4% in the control one. MDM used in the combination treatment of patients with tuberculosis makes it possible to reduce the length of hospital stay, the number of round-the-clock beds, and the cost of treating these patients.

  16. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory

  17. Alignment of the Pixel and SCT Modules for the 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Ahmad, A.; Andreazza, A.; Atkinson, T.; Baines, J.; Barr, A.J.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, P.J.; Bernabeu, J.; Broklova, Z.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Cauz, D.; Chevalier, L.; Chouridou, S.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Cornelissen, T.; Correard, S.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Cuneo, S.; Dameri, M.; Darbo, G.; de Vivie, J.B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drohan, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Elsing, M.; Emelyanov, D.; Escobar, C.; Facius, K.; Ferrari, P.; Fergusson, D.; Ferrere, D.; Flick,, T.; Froidevaux, D.; Gagliardi, G.; Gallas, M.; Gallop, B.J.; Gan, K.K.; Garcia, C.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gemme, C.; Gerlach, P.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorfine, G.; Gottfert, T.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Hansen, P.H.; Hara, K.; Hartel, R.; Harvey, A.; Hawkings, R.J.; Heinemann, F.E.W.; Henss, T.; Hill, J.C.; Huegging, F.; Jansen, E.; Joseph, J.; Unel, M. Karagoz; Kataoka, M.; Kersten, S.; Khomich, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kostyukhin, V.; Lacasta, C.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Lester, C.G.; Liebig, W.; Lipniacka, A.; Lourerio, K.F.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Mathes, M.; Meroni, C.; Mikulec, B.; Mindur, B.; Moed, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morettini, P.; Moyse, E.W.J.; Nakamura, K.; Nechaeva, P.; Nikolaev, K.; Parodi, F.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Pater, J.; Petti, R.; Phillips, P.W.; Pinto, B.; Poppleton, A.; Reeves, K.; Reisinger, I.; Reznicek, P.; Risso, P.; Robinson, D.; Roe, S.; Rozanov, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santi, L.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schultes, J.; Sfyrla, A.; Shaw, C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Toczek, B.; Troncon, C.; Tyndel, M.; Vernocchi, F.; Virzi, J.; Anh, T. Vu; Warren, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Wellsf, P.S.; Zhelezkow, A.

    2008-06-02

    A small set of final prototypes of the ATLAS Inner Detector silicon tracking system(Pixel Detector and SemiConductor Tracker), were used to take data during the 2004 Combined Test Beam. Data were collected from runs with beams of different flavour (electrons, pions, muons and photons) with a momentum range of 2 to 180 GeV/c. Four independent methods were used to align the silicon modules. The corrections obtained were validated using the known momenta of the beam particles and were shown to yield consistent results among the different alignment approaches. From the residual distributions, it is concluded that the precision attained in the alignmentof the silicon modules is of the order of 5 mm in their most precise coordinate.

  18. Breast-conserving radiation therapy using combined electron and intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.G.; Williams, S.S.; Goffinet, D.R.; Boer, A.L.; Xing, L.

    2000-01-01

    An electron beam with appropriate energy was combined with four intensity modulated photon beams. The direction of the electron beam was chosen to be tilted 10-20 laterally from the anteroposterior direction. Two of the intensity-modulated photon beams had the same gantry angles as the conventional tangential fields, whereas the other two beams were rotated 15-25' toward the anteroposterior directions from the first two photon beams. An iterative algorithm was developed which optimizes the weight of the electron beam as well as the fluence profiles of the photon beams for a given patient. Two breast cancer patients with early-stage breast tumors were planned with the new technique and the results were compared with those from 3D planning using tangential fields as well as 9-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. The combined electron and IMRT plans showed better dose conformity to the target with significantly reduced dose to the ipsilateral lung and, in the case of the left-breast patient, reduced dose to the heart, than the tangential field plans. In both the right-sided and left-sided breast plans, the dose to other normal structures was similar to that from conventional plans and was much smaller than that from the 9-field IMRT plans. The optimized electron beam provided between 70 to 80% of the prescribed dose at the depth of maximum dose of the electron beam. The combined electron and IMRT technique showed improvement over the conventional treatment technique using tangential fields with reduced dose to the ipsilateral lung and the heart. The customized beam directions of the four IMRT fields also kept the dose to other critical structures to a minimum. (author)

  19. Autonomous search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous combinatorial search (AS) represents a new field in combinatorial problem solving. Its major standpoint and originality is that it considers that problem solvers must be capable of self-improvement operations. This is the first book dedicated to AS.

  20. Multi-kW coherent combining of fiber lasers seeded with pseudo random phase modulated light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Angel; Ehrehreich, Thomas; Holten, Roger; Anderson, Brian; Dajani, Iyad

    2016-03-01

    We report efficient coherent beam combining of five kilowatt-class fiber amplifiers with a diffractive optical element (DOE). Based on a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration, the amplifiers were seeded with pseudo random phase modulated light. Each non-polarization maintaining fiber amplifier was optically path length matched and provides approximately 1.2 kW of near diffraction-limited output power (measured M2polarization control. A low power sample of the combined beam after the DOE provided an error signal for active phase locking which was performed via Locking of Optical Coherence by Single-Detector Electronic-Frequency Tagging (LOCSET). After phase stabilization, the beams were coherently combined via the 1x5 DOE. A total combined output power of 4.9 kW was achieved with 82% combining efficiency and excellent beam quality (M2splitter loss was 5%. Similarly, losses due in part to non-ideal polarization, ASE content, uncorrelated wavefront errors, and misalignment errors contributed to the efficiency reduction.

  1. Combined Opto-Acoustical sensor modules for KM3NeT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzenhöfer, A.

    2013-01-01

    KM3NeT is a future multi-cubic-kilometre water Cherenkov neutrino telescope currently entering a first construction phase. It will be located in the Mediterranean Sea and comprise about 600 vertical structures called detection units. Each of these detection units has a length of several hundred metres and is anchored to the sea bed on one side and held taut by a buoy on the other side. The detection units are thus subject to permanent movement due to sea currents. Modules holding photosensors and additional equipment are equally distributed along the detection units. The relative positions of the photosensors has to be known with an uncertainty below 20 cm in order to achieve the necessary precision for neutrino astronomy. These positions can be determined with an acoustic positioning system: dedicated acoustic emitters located at known positions and acoustic receivers along each detection unit. This article describes the approach to combine an acoustic receiver with the photosensors inside one detection module using a common power supply and data readout. The advantage of this approach lies in a reduction of underwater connectors and module configurations as well as in the compactification of the detection units integrating the auxiliary devices necessary for their successful operation.

  2. Mobile Autonomous Reconfigurable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavliuk N.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is a multifunctional modular robot able to assemble independently in a given configuration and responsively change it in the process of operation depending on the current task. In this work we aim at developing and examining unified modules for a modular robot, which can both perform autonomous movement and form a complex structure by connecting to other modules. The existing solutions in the field of modular robotics were reviewed and classified by power supply, the ways of interconnection, the ways of movement and the possibility of independent movement of separate modules. Basing on the analysis of the shortcomings of existing analogues, we have developed a module of mobile autonomous reconfigurable system, including a base unit, a set of magneto-mechanical connectors and two motor wheels. The basic kinematic scheme of the modular robot, the features of a single module, as well as the modular structure formed by an array of similar modules were described. Two schemes for placing sets of magneto-mechanical connectors in the basic module have been proposed. We described the principle of operation of a magneto-mechanical connector based on redirection of the magnetic flux of a permanent magnet. This solution simplifies the system for controlling a mechanism of connection with other modules, increases energy efficiency and a battery life of the module. Since the energy is required only at the moment of switching the operating modes of the connector, there is no need to power constantly the connector mechanism to maintain the coupling mode.

  3. Low level light in combination with metabolic modulators for effective therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingting; Zhang, Qi; Hamblin, Michael R.; Wu, Mei X.

    2015-03-01

    Vascular damage occurs frequently at the injured brain causing hypoxia and is associated with poor outcomes in the clinics. We found high levels of glycolysis, reduced ATP generation, and increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in neurons under hypoxia. Strikingly, these adverse events were reversed significantly by noninvasive exposure of injured brain to low-level light (LLL). LLL illumination sustained the mitochondrial membrane potential, constrained cytochrome C leakage in hypoxic cells, and protected them from apoptosis, underscoring a unique property of LLL. The effect of LLL was further bolstered by combination with metabolic substrates such as pyruvate or lactate both in vivo and in vitro. The combinational treatment retained memory and learning activities of injured mice to a normal level, whereas those treated with LLL or pyruvate alone, or sham light displayed partial or severe deficiency in these cognitive functions. In accordance with well-protected learning and memory function, the hippocampal region primarily responsible for learning and memory was completely protected by a combination of LLL and pyruvate, in marked contrast to the severe loss of hippocampal tissue due to secondary damage in control mice. These data clearly suggest that energy metabolic modulators can additively or synergistically enhance the therapeutic effect of LLL in energy-producing insufficient tissues like injured brain. Keywords:

  4. Cross-layer designed adaptive modulation algorithm with packet combining and truncated ARQ over MIMO Nakagami fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Aniba, Ghassane

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents an optimal adaptive modulation (AM) algorithm designed using a cross-layer approach which combines truncated automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol and packet combining. Transmissions are performed over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Nakagami fading channels, and retransmitted packets are not necessarily modulated using the same modulation format as in the initial transmission. Compared to traditional approach, cross-layer design based on the coupling across the physical and link layers, has proven to yield better performance in wireless communications. However, there is a lack for the performance analysis and evaluation of such design when the ARQ protocol is used in conjunction with packet combining. Indeed, previous works addressed the link layer performance of AM with truncated ARQ but without packet combining. In addition, previously proposed AM algorithms are not optimal and can provide poor performance when packet combining is implemented. Herein, we first show that the packet loss rate (PLR) resulting from the combining of packets modulated with different constellations can be well approximated by an exponential function. This model is then used in the design of an optimal AM algorithm for systems employing packet combining, truncated ARQ and MIMO antenna configurations, considering transmission over Nakagami fading channels. Numerical results are provided for operation with or without packet combining, and show the enhanced performance and efficiency of the proposed algorithm in comparison with existing ones. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. A neutron spectrometer based on the combination of time-of-flight and Larmor modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, F.M.; Kreuger, R.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Kraan, W.H.; Rekveldt, M.Th.; Van Well, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    A study on the feasibility of neutron beam instrumentation that applies Larmor modulation for incoming, and time-of-flight for scattered wavelength determination (or vice versa) is currently under way at IRI. The instrument resulting from this combination can in principle measure quasi elastic and inelastic scattering with a flexible resolution and dynamic range. An important difference with current spectrometers is that there is no selection of neutron wavelengths for either the incoming beam (direct geometry) or scattered beam (inverted geometry). Therefore much of the available flux is used and there is no a priory selection of the energy transfer range and resolution. This instrument will be mainly applicable for quasi-elastic scattering and complex line shapes that are extended over a broad range in energy transfer. Line shapes can be measured directly in Fourier space, which is often advantageous. Due to signal to noise considerations, this instrument will be less suitable for the determination of weak, discrete energy transfer signals. A requirement for the Larmor modulator is that it can work with a white neutron beam. This can be realised for neutrons having a wavelength above ∼ 0.1 nm by use of 'adiabatic resonance π flippers'. This type of instrument may be applied at the future ESS pulsed neutron source in order to complement current spectrometers. (author)

  6. Mechanisms of P-Glycoprotein Modulation by Semen Strychni Combined with Radix Paeoniae Alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen Strychni has been extensively used as a Chinese herb, but its therapeutic window is narrowed by the strong toxicity of the compound, which limits its effectiveness. Radix Paeoniae Alba has been reported to reduce the toxic effects and increase the therapeutic effects of Semen Strychni, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This research aimed to explore the mechanism through which P-glycoprotein (P-gp is modulated by Semen Strychni combined with Radix Paeoniae Alba in vitro. An MTT assay was used to study cytotoxicity in an MDCK-MDR1 cell model. Rh123 efflux and accumulation were measured to assess P-gp function. The expression levels of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp protein in MDCK-MDR1 cells were investigated. A P-gp ATPase activity assay kit was applied to detect the effect on P-gp ATPase activity. Semen Strychni combined with Radix Paeoniae Alba could induce P-gp-mediated drug transport by inhibiting brucine and strychnine transport in MDCK-MDR1 cells, enhancing the P-gp efflux function, upregulating the P-gp expression and MDR1 mRNA levels, and stimulating P-gp ATPase activity.

  7. Improved Outcomes with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Combined with Temozolomide for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel J. Aherne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is optimally treated by maximal debulking followed by combined chemoradiation. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT is gaining widespread acceptance in other tumour sites, although evidence to support its use over three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in the treatment of gliomas is currently lacking. We examined the survival outcomes for patients with GBM treated with IMRT and Temozolomide. Methods and Materials. In all, 31 patients with GBM were treated with IMRT and 23 of these received chemoradiation with Temozolomide. We correlated survival outcomes with patient functional status, extent of surgery, radiation dose, and use of chemotherapy. Results. Median survival for all patients was 11.3 months, with a median survival of 7.2 months for patients receiving 40.05 Gray (Gy and a median survival of 17.4 months for patients receiving 60 Gy. Conclusions. We report one of the few series of IMRT in patients with GBM. In our group, median survival for those receiving 60 Gy with Temozolomide compared favourably to the combined therapy arm of the largest randomised trial of chemoradiation versus radiation to date (17.4 months versus 14.6 months. We propose that IMRT should be considered as an alternative to 3DCRT for patients with GBM.

  8. Improved outcomes with intensity modulated radiation therapy combined with temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherne, Noel J; Benjamin, Linus C; Horsley, Patrick J; Silva, Thomaz; Wilcox, Shea; Amalaseelan, Julan; Dwyer, Patrick; Tahir, Abdul M R; Hill, Jacques; Last, Andrew; Hansen, Carmen; McLachlan, Craig S; Lee, Yvonne L; McKay, Michael J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is optimally treated by maximal debulking followed by combined chemoradiation. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is gaining widespread acceptance in other tumour sites, although evidence to support its use over three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in the treatment of gliomas is currently lacking. We examined the survival outcomes for patients with GBM treated with IMRT and Temozolomide. Methods and Materials. In all, 31 patients with GBM were treated with IMRT and 23 of these received chemoradiation with Temozolomide. We correlated survival outcomes with patient functional status, extent of surgery, radiation dose, and use of chemotherapy. Results. Median survival for all patients was 11.3 months, with a median survival of 7.2 months for patients receiving 40.05 Gray (Gy) and a median survival of 17.4 months for patients receiving 60 Gy. Conclusions. We report one of the few series of IMRT in patients with GBM. In our group, median survival for those receiving 60 Gy with Temozolomide compared favourably to the combined therapy arm of the largest randomised trial of chemoradiation versus radiation to date (17.4 months versus 14.6 months). We propose that IMRT should be considered as an alternative to 3DCRT for patients with GBM.

  9. Modulation of rotavirus severe gastroenteritis by the combination of probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ochoa, Guadalupe; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian K; Icedo-Garcia, Ramona; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Annual mortality rates due to infectious diarrhea are about 2.2 million; children are the most vulnerable age group to severe gastroenteritis, representing group A rotaviruses as the main cause of disease. One of the main factors of rotavirus pathogenesis is the NSP4 protein, which has been characterized as a viral toxin involved in triggering several cellular responses leading to diarrhea. Furthermore, the rotavirus protein NSP1 has been associated with interferon production inhibition by inducing the degradation of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7. On the other hand, probiotics such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species in combination with prebiotics such as inulin, HMO, scGOS, lcFOS have been associated with improved generalized antiviral response and anti-rotavirus effect by the reduction of rotavirus infectivity and viral shedding, decreased expression of NSP4 and increased levels of specific anti-rotavirus IgAs. Moreover, these probiotics and prebiotics have been related to shorter duration and severity of rotavirus diarrhea, to the prevention of infection and reduced incidence of reinfections. In this review we will discuss in detail about the rotavirus pathogenesis and immunity, and how probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in combination with prebiotics have been associated with the prevention or modulation of rotavirus severe gastroenteritis.

  10. Cue combination encoding via contextual modulation of V1 and V2 neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarella MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark D Zarella, Daniel Y Ts’o Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA Abstract: Neurons in early visual cortical areas encode the local properties of a stimulus in a number of different feature dimensions such as color, orientation, and motion. It has been shown, however, that stimuli presented well beyond the confines of the classical receptive field can augment these responses in a way that emphasizes these local attributes within the greater context of the visual scene. This mechanism imparts global information to cells that are otherwise considered local feature detectors and can potentially serve as an important foundation for surface segmentation, texture representation, and figure–ground segregation. The role of early visual cortex toward these functions remains somewhat of an enigma, as it is unclear how surface segmentation cues are integrated from multiple feature dimensions. We examined the impact of orientation- and motion-defined surface segmentation cues in V1 and V2 neurons using a stimulus in which the two features are completely separable. We find that, although some cells are modulated in a cue-invariant manner, many cells are influenced by only one cue or the other. Furthermore, cells that are modulated by both cues tend to be more strongly affected when both cues are presented together than when presented individually. These results demonstrate two mechanisms by which cue combinations can enhance salience. We find that feature-specific populations are more frequently encountered in V1, while cue additivity is more prominent in V2. These results highlight how two strongly interconnected areas at different stages in the cortical hierarchy can potentially contribute to scene segmentation. Keywords: striate, extrastriate, extraclassical, texture, segmentation

  11. THE COMBINATION OF α-LIPOIC ACID INTAKE WITH ECCENTRIC EXERCISE MODULATES ERYTHROPOIETIN RELEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Morawin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RN/OS represents an important mechanism in erythropoietin (EPO expression and skeletal muscle adaptation to physical and metabolic stress. RN/OS generation can be modulated by intense exercise and nutrition supplements such as α-lipoic acid, which demonstrates both anti- and pro-oxidative action. The study was designed to show the changes in the haematological response through the combination of α-lipoic acid intake with running eccentric exercise. Sixteen healthy young males participated in the randomised and placebo-controlled study. The exercise trial involved a 90-min run followed by a 15-min eccentric phase at 65% VO2max (-10% gradient. It significantly increased serum concentrations of nitric oxide (NO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and pro-oxidative products such as 8-isoprostanes (8-iso, lipid peroxides (LPO and protein carbonyls (PC. α-Lipoic acid intake (Thiogamma: 1200 mg daily for 10 days prior to exercise resulted in a 2-fold elevation of serum H2O2 concentration before exercise, but it prevented the generation of NO, 8-iso, LPO and PC at 20 min, 24 h, and 48 h after exercise. α-Lipoic acid also elevated serum EPO level, which highly correlated with NO/H2O2 ratio (r=0.718, P<0.01. Serum total creatine kinase (CK activity, as a marker of muscle damage, reached a peak at 24 h after exercise (placebo 732 ± 207 IU · L-1, α-lipoic acid 481 ± 103 IU · L-1, and correlated with EPO (r = 0.478, P<0.01 in the α-lipoic acid group. In conclusion, the intake of high α-lipoic acid modulates RN/OS generation, enhances EPO release and reduces muscle damage after running eccentric exercise.

  12. Combined analysis of the radar cross-section modulation due to the long ocean waves around 14° and 34° incidence: Implication for the hydrodynamic modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, DanièLe; Caudal, GéRard

    1996-11-01

    The analysis of synthetic aperture radar observations over the ocean to derive the directional spectra of the waves is based upon a complex transfer function which is the sum of three terms: tilt modulation, hydrodynamic modulation, and velocity bunching effect. Both the hydrodynamic and the velocity bunching terms are still poorly known. Here we focus on the hydrodynamic part of the transfer function, from an experimental point of view. In this paper a new method is proposed to estimate the hydrodynamic modulation. The approach consists in analyzing observations obtained with an airborne real-aperture radar (called RESSAC). This radar (C band, HH polarized, broad beam of 14° × 3°) was used during the SEMAPHORE experiment, in two different modes. From the first mode (incidence angles from 7° to 21°) the directional spectra of the long waves are deduced under the assumption that the hydrodynamic modulation can be neglected (small incidence angles) and validated against in situ measurements. From the second mode (incidence angle from 27° to 41°) the amplitude and phase of the hydrodynamic modulation are deduced by combining the measured signal modulation spectrum at a mean incidence angle of 34° and the directional wave spectrum obtained from the first mode. The results, obtained in four different wind-wave cases of the SEMAPHORE experiment, show that the modulus of the hydrodynamic modulation is larger than that of the tilt modulation. Furthermore, we find that the modulus of the hydrodynamic transfer function is several times larger (by a factor 2-12) than the theoretical value proposed in previous works and 1.5-2.5 larger than experimental values reported in recent papers. The phase of the hydrodynamic modulation is found to be close to zero for waves propagating at an angle from the wind direction and between -20° and -40° for waves propagating along the wind direction. This indicates a significant influence of the wind-wave angle on the phase of the

  13. Cross-layer combining of adaptive modulation and truncated ARQ under cognitive radio resource requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Ma, Hao; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In addressing the issue of taking full advantage of the shared spectrum under imposed limitations in a cognitive radio (CR) network, we exploit a cross-layer design for the communications of secondary users (SUs), which combines adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) at the physical layer with truncated automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol at the data link layer. To achieve high spectral efficiency (SE) while maintaining a target packet loss probability (PLP), switching among different transmission modes is performed to match the time-varying propagation conditions pertaining to the secondary link. Herein, by minimizing the SU's packet error rate (PER) with each transmission mode subject to the spectrum-sharing constraints, we obtain the optimal power allocation at the secondary transmitter (ST) and then derive the probability density function (pdf) of the received SNR at the secondary receiver (SR). Based on these statistics, the SU's packet loss rate and average SE are obtained in closed form, considering transmissions over block-fading channels with different distributions. Our results quantify the relation between the performance of a secondary link exploiting the cross-layer-designed adaptive transmission and the interference inflicted on the primary user (PU) in CR networks. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  14. Neonatal exposure to daidzein, genistein, or the combination modulates bone development in female CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Ward, Wendy E

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal exposure to genistein (GEN), an isoflavone abundant in soy, favorably modulates bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in mice at adulthood. The study objective was to determine whether early exposure to a combination of the soy isoflavones daidzein (DAI) and GEN that naturally exists in soy protein-based infant formula results in greater benefits to bone at adulthood than either treatment alone. Male and female CD-1 mice (n = 8-16 pups per group per gender) were randomized to subcutaneous injections of DAI (2 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), GEN (5 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), DAI+GEN (7 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), diethylstilbesterol (DES; positive control) (2 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), or control (CON) from postnatal d 1-5 and were studied to 4 mo of age. BMD, biomechanical bone strength, and bone microarchitecture were assessed at the femur and lumbar vertebrae (LV). Females treated with DAI, GEN, DAI+GEN, or DES had greater (P GEN resulted in greater (P GEN had a positive effect on the skeleton of female mice at adulthood, but, compared with individual treatments, DAI+GEN did not have a greater benefit to bone in females or males.

  15. Identifying cis-regulatory modules by combining comparative and compositional analysis of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierstorff, Nora; Bergman, Casey M; Wiehe, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    Predicting cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in higher eukaryotes is a challenging computational task. Commonly used methods to predict CRMs based on the signal of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) are limited by prior information about transcription factor specificity. More general methods that bypass the reliance on TFBS models are needed for comprehensive CRM prediction. We have developed a method to predict CRMs called CisPlusFinder that identifies high density regions of perfect local ungapped sequences (PLUSs) based on multiple species conservation. By assuming that PLUSs contain core TFBS motifs that are locally overrepresented, the method attempts to capture the expected features of CRM structure and evolution. Applied to a benchmark dataset of CRMs involved in early Drosophila development, CisPlusFinder predicts more annotated CRMs than all other methods tested. Using the REDfly database, we find that some 'false positive' predictions in the benchmark dataset correspond to recently annotated CRMs. Our work demonstrates that CRM prediction methods that combine comparative genomic data with statistical properties of DNA may achieve reasonable performance when applied genome-wide in the absence of an a priori set of known TFBS motifs. The program CisPlusFinder can be downloaded at http://jakob.genetik.uni-koeln.de/bioinformatik/people/nora/nora.html. All software is licensed under the Lesser GNU Public License (LGPL).

  16. Selected spices and their combination modulate hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria A Otunola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effect of aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (garlic, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Capsicum fructensces (cayenne pepper and their mixture on oxidative stress in rats fed high Cholesterol/high fat diet was investigated. Rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n = 6 and given different dietary/spice treatments. Group 1 standard rat chow (control, group 2, hypercholesterolemic diet plus water, and groups 3, 4, 5, 6, hypercholesterolemic diet with 0.5 ml 200 mg · kg-1 aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, cayenne pepper or their mixture respectively daily for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Pronounced oxidative stress in the hypercholesterolemic rats evidenced by significant (p < 0.05 increase in MDA levels, and suppression of the antioxidant enzymes system in rat's liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues was observed. Extracts of spices singly or combined administered at 200 mg.kg-1 body weight significantly (p < 0.05 reduced MDA levels and restored activities of antioxidant enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that consumption of garlic, ginger, pepper, or their mixture may help to modulate oxidative stress caused by hypercholesterolemia in rats.

  17. Cross-layer combining of adaptive modulation and truncated ARQ under cognitive radio resource requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2012-11-01

    In addressing the issue of taking full advantage of the shared spectrum under imposed limitations in a cognitive radio (CR) network, we exploit a cross-layer design for the communications of secondary users (SUs), which combines adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) at the physical layer with truncated automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol at the data link layer. To achieve high spectral efficiency (SE) while maintaining a target packet loss probability (PLP), switching among different transmission modes is performed to match the time-varying propagation conditions pertaining to the secondary link. Herein, by minimizing the SU\\'s packet error rate (PER) with each transmission mode subject to the spectrum-sharing constraints, we obtain the optimal power allocation at the secondary transmitter (ST) and then derive the probability density function (pdf) of the received SNR at the secondary receiver (SR). Based on these statistics, the SU\\'s packet loss rate and average SE are obtained in closed form, considering transmissions over block-fading channels with different distributions. Our results quantify the relation between the performance of a secondary link exploiting the cross-layer-designed adaptive transmission and the interference inflicted on the primary user (PU) in CR networks. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  18. Performance analysis of decode-and-forward dual-hop optical spatial modulation with diversity combiner over atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Kehinde O.; Owolawi, Pius A.; Srivastava, Viranjay M.

    2017-11-01

    Dual-hops transmission is a growing interest technique that can be used to mitigate against atmospheric turbulence along the Free Space Optical (FSO) communication links. This paper analyzes the performance of Decode-and-Forward (DF) dual-hops FSO systems in-conjunction with spatial modulation and diversity combiners over a Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence channel using heterodyne detection. Maximum Ratio Combiner (MRC), Equal Gain Combiner (EGC) and Selection Combiner (SC) are considered at the relay and destination as mitigation tools to improve the system error performance. Power series expansion of modified Bessel function is used to derive the closed form expression for the end-to-end Average Pairwise Error Probability (APEP) expressions for each of the combiners under study and a tight upper bound on the Average Bit Error Rate (ABER) per hop is given. Thus, the overall end-to-end ABER for the dual-hops FSO system is then evaluated. The numerical results depicted that dual-hops transmission systems outperformed the direct link systems. Moreover, the impact of having the same and different combiners at the relay and destination are also presented. The results also confirm that the combination of dual hops transmission with spatial modulation and diversity combiner significantly improves the systems error rate with the MRC combiner offering an optimal performance with respect to variation in atmospheric turbulence, change in links average received SNR and link range of the system.

  19. Flexible organic tandem solar modules with 6% efficiency: combining roll-to-roll compatible processing with high geometric fill factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spyropoulos, G. D.; Kubis, P.; Li, Na

    2014-01-01

    Organic solar cell technology bears the potential for high photovoltaic performance combined with truly low-cost, high-volume processing. Here we demonstrate organic tandem solar modules on flexible substrates fabricated by fully roll-to-roll compatible processing at temperatures...

  20. In vitro modulation of radiation-induced FAS-related apoptosis in CD34+ progenitor cells by combination cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.; Mathieu, J.; Grenier, N.; Soutif, A.; Herodin, F.

    1998-01-01

    Combination cytokines such as SCF, Flt-3 ligand, IL-3 and thrombopoietin can modulate Fas mRNA expression by in vitro irradiated CD34 + cells which results in a moderate decrease of apoptotic ratio and an improved rate of clonogenicity of the irradiated progenitors. (authors)

  1. Module Seven: Combination Circuits and Voltage Dividers; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    In this module the student will learn to apply the rules previously learned for series and parallel circuits to more complex circuits called series-parallel circuits, discover the utility of a common reference when making reference to voltage values, and learn how to obtain a required voltage from a voltage divider network. The module is divided…

  2. Preoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Combined with Temozolomide for Locally Advanced Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, Jens; Wenz, Frederik; Dinter, Dietmar J.; Stroebel, Philipp; Hohenberger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of preoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with temozolomide to improve local tumor control in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). Patients and Methods: A cohort of 15 consecutive patients with nonmetastasized, primary high-grade or locally recurrent Stage III (n = 14) or IIb (n = 1) STS not amenable to surgical resection without significant organ or extremity function loss was prospectively investigated. Median tumor size was 9.8 cm, and most tumors were non-extremity sarcomas. Patients preoperatively received 50 mg/m 2 of temozolomide during IMRT (50.4 Gy). Resection was intended 6 weeks thereafter. Toxicity was assessed by the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, and response was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Results: Of 15 patients, 14 completed preoperative treatment. No Grade 4 toxicities occurred. Nausea and vomiting were the most frequent Grade 3 toxicities. The most frequent toxicities of any grade were dermatologic, gastrointestinal, and hematologic. Response was partial response in 5, stable disease in 7, and progressive disease in 2 patients. Ten patients underwent surgery: 7 were resected with clear margins (R0), and 2 patients had an R1 resection; in 1 patient the tumor was not resectable. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 patients. Five patients did not undergo surgery because of intercurrent metastatic disease, unresectable disease, or refusal. Conclusions: Preoperative chemoradiation with temozolomide and IMRT can be administered safely and with promising efficacy in patients with locally advanced STS.

  3. THE COMBINATION OF α-LIPOIC ACID INTAKE WITH ECCENTRIC EXERCISE MODULATES ERYTHROPOIETIN RELEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawin, B; Turowski, D; Naczk, M; Siatkowski, I; Zembron-Lacny, A

    2014-08-01

    The generation of reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RN/OS) represents an important mechanism in erythropoietin (EPO) expression and skeletal muscle adaptation to physical and metabolic stress. RN/OS generation can be modulated by intense exercise and nutrition supplements such as α-lipoic acid, which demonstrates both anti- and pro-oxidative action. The study was designed to show the changes in the haematological response through the combination of α-lipoic acid intake with running eccentric exercise. Sixteen healthy young males participated in the randomised and placebo-controlled study. The exercise trial involved a 90-min run followed by a 15-min eccentric phase at 65% VO2max (-10% gradient). It significantly increased serum concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and pro-oxidative products such as 8-isoprostanes (8-iso), lipid peroxides (LPO) and protein carbonyls (PC). α-Lipoic acid intake (Thiogamma: 1200 mg daily for 10 days prior to exercise) resulted in a 2-fold elevation of serum H2O2 concentration before exercise, but it prevented the generation of NO, 8-iso, LPO and PC at 20 min, 24 h, and 48 h after exercise. α-Lipoic acid also elevated serum EPO level, which highly correlated with NO/H2O2 ratio (r = 0.718, P exercise (placebo 732 ± 207 IU · L(-1), α-lipoic acid 481 ± 103 IU · L(-1)), and correlated with EPO (r = 0.478, P release and reduces muscle damage after running eccentric exercise.

  4. Combined electric and pressure cuff pain stimuli for assessing conditioning pain modulation (CPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, M; Petersen, K K; Mørch, C D; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2017-12-29

    Aims Traditionally, conditioning pain modulation (CPM) can be assessed by applying a test stimulus (TS) before and after application of a conditioning stimulus (CS), which is normally applied extra-segmental. Currently, no studies have attempted to apply the TS and CS to the same site using different stimuli modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate electrical TS and cuff pressure CS applied to the same experimental site for studying CPM. Methods 20 male volunteers participated in this study, which consisted of stimulations applied by a cuff-algometer (NociTech and Aalborg University, Denmark) and current stimulator (Digitimer DS5, UK), through two Ag/AgCl electrodes (Ambu® Neuroline 700, Denmark). The cuff was wrapped around the lower leg and stimulation electrodes were placed under the cuff and to the same location on the contralateral leg. Electrical TS were applied to the non-dominant leg with or without cuff pressure CS on the dominant (CS1) or the same (non-dominant) leg (CS2, electrode under cuff). The subjects were instructed to rate the electrical evoked pain intensity on a 10-cm continuous visual analog scale (VAS, "0" represented "no pain", and "10" represented "maximal pain"). The pain detection threshold (PDT) was defined as "1" on the VAS scale. Results There was no significant deference in PDT for neither CS1 nor CS2. A median split subanalysis on CPM-responders versus CPM-nonresponders to the TS + CS1 combination. Using this grouping, there was significant increase in PDT when comparing TS to TS + CS1 or TS + CS2 (4.0 mA vs 5.6 mA; P CPM can be evoked in a subgroup of subjects by applying the electrical test stimulus and cuff pressure conditioning stimuli to the same experimental site.

  5. Multifractional microablative laser combined with spacially modulated ablative (SMA) technology for facial skin rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersant, Barbara; SidAhmed-Mezi, Mounia; Chossat, Adrien; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for aesthetic procedures, especially facial aesthetic surgery, a new laser technology has been developed for facial skin rejuvenation and wrinkle treatment. The aim of this study was to objectively and subjectively assess the clinical efficacy and safety of Erbium:YAG laser combined with Spatially Modulated Ablation (Er:YAG + SMA) on facial skin rejuvenation. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin type's I-IV were prospectively included. Inclusion criteria consisted of having wrinkles and irregular skin texture. All patients underwent two Er:YAG + SMA sessions (1 month apart) to stimulate tissue regeneration. Er:YAG laser emits wavelength at 2,940 nm and when combined with SMA, a resonance effect is produced in the dermis to promote tissue regeneration. Facial skin elasticity and firmness were objectively assessed by Cutometer at baseline and month 6 (M6). Aesthetic improvement was qualitatively assessed using digital photographs. Patient satisfaction with regard to their facial appearance was self-assessed using the validated FACE-Q scale and the patient-perceived age VAS scale at baseline, M1, and M6. Side effects were investigated after each session. Thirty-four patients were included, 50% (18 patients) had Fitzpatrick skin type III and 41% (14 patients) were smokers. Skin elasticity indices were significantly improved: from 0.335 ± 0.015 at baseline to 0.387 ± 0.021 at M6 (P = 0.05*) for R5 (net elasticity). Skin firmness was assessed through R7 (biological elasticity) and R6 (viscoelastic ratio) at baseline and M6: a significant increase from 0.235 ± 0.01 to 0.2709 ± 0.009 (P technology offers an effective and safe treatment alternative for facial skin rejuvenation. It reduces the recovery time compared to conventional lasers such as carbon dioxide laser. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:78-83, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Thermal Efficiency of Power Module “Boiler with Solar Collectors as Additional Heat Source” For Combined Heat Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova A.E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is to increase the efficiency of the combined heat supply system with solar collectors as additional thermal generators. In order to optimize the parameters of combined heat supply system the mathematical modeling of thermal processes in multi module solar collectors as additional thermal generators for preheating of the water for boiler have been done. The method of calculation of multi-module solar collectors working with forced circulation for various configurations of hydraulic connection of solar collector modules as the new result of our work have been proposed. The results of numerical simulation of thermal efficiency of solar heat source for boiler of combined heat supply system with the account of design features of the circuit; regime parameters of thermal generators that allow establishing rational conditions of its functioning have been worked out. The conditions of functioning that provide required temperature of heat carrier incoming to boiler and value of flow rate at which the slippage of heat carrier is not possible for different hydraulic circuits of solar modules have been established.

  7. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T van den Heever

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of generalised tetanus in a 50-year-old female patient after sustaining a wound to her right lower leg. She developed autonomic dysfunction, which included labile hypertension alternating with hypotension and sweating. The autonomic dysfunction was treated successfully with a combination of morphine sulphate infusion, magnesium sulphate, and clonidine. She also received adrenaline and phenylephrine infusions as needed for hypotension. We then discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment options of autonomic dysfunction.

  8. Linear combination of auditory steady-state responses evoked by co-modulated tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Marozeau, Jeremy; Epp, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Up to medium intensities and in the 80–100-Hz region, the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to a multi-tone carrier is commonly considered to be a linear sum of the dipoles from each tone specific ASSR generator. Here, this hypothesis was investigated when a unique modulation frequency is used...... for all carrier components. Listeners were presented with a co-modulated dual-frequency carrier (1 and 4 kHz), from which the modulator starting phase Ui of the 1-kHz component was systematically varied. The results support the hypothesis of a linear superposition of the dipoles originating from different...

  9. Brillouin suppression in a fiber optical parametric amplifier by combining temperature distribution and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....

  10. Determination of the Modulation Transfer Function of Screen-Film Combinations in X-ray photography by the grating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, D.

    1987-01-01

    An intercomparison experiment concerning the determination of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of Screen-Film Combinations in x-ray photography by the grating method was made. Six laboratories located in four countries participated. Each laboratory has used its own, individually developed measurement procedure. The results have shown a surprisingly good agreement, the standard deviation (1 σ value) of MTF values reported by the different laboratories was about ± 0.02

  11. Delivery confirmation of bolus electron conformal therapy combined with intensity modulated x-ray therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanaugh, James A.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Fontenot, Jonas P.; Henkelmann, Gregory; Chu, Connel; Carver, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that a bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT) dose plan and a mixed beam plan, composed of an intensity modulated x-ray therapy (IMXT) dose plan optimized on top of the bolus ECT plan, can be accurately delivered. Methods: Calculated dose distributions were compared with measured dose distributions for parotid and chest wall (CW) bolus ECT and mixed beam plans, each simulated in a cylindrical polystyrene phantom that allowed film dose measurements. Bolus ECT plans were created for both parotid and CW PTVs (planning target volumes) using 20 and 16 MeV beams, respectively, whose 90% dose surface conformed to the PTV. Mixed beam plans consisted of an IMXT dose plan optimized on top of the bolus ECT dose plan. The bolus ECT, IMXT, and mixed beam dose distributions were measured using radiographic films in five transverse and one sagittal planes for a total of 36 measurement conditions. Corrections for film dose response, effects of edge-on photon irradiation, and effects of irregular phantom optical properties on the Cerenkov component of the film signal resulted in high precision measurements. Data set consistency was verified by agreement of depth dose at the intersections of the sagittal plane with the five measured transverse planes. For these same depth doses, results for the mixed beam plan agreed with the sum of the individual depth doses for the bolus ECT and IMXT plans. The six mean measured planar dose distributions were compared with those calculated by the treatment planning system for all modalities. Dose agreement was assessed using the 4% dose difference and 0.2 cm distance to agreement. Results: For the combined high-dose region and low-dose region, pass rates for the parotid and CW plans were 98.7% and 96.2%, respectively, for the bolus ECT plans and 97.9% and 97.4%, respectively, for the mixed beam plans. For the high-dose gradient region, pass rates for the parotid and CW plans were 93.1% and 94

  12. Combined amino acids modulation with H 2 O 2 stress for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies of amino acids addition coupled with H2O2 stresses were developed for glutathione (GSH) overproduction in high cell density (HCD) cultivation of Candida utilis. Based on the fact that glycine shows two functions of promoting cells growth as well as GSH production, precursor amino acids modulations of feeding ...

  13. Uncertainty in anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension is modulated by the autonomic nervous system--a fMRI study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Amandine; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Pellissier, Sonia; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; Lafaye de Micheaux, Hugo; Tack, Jan; Dantzer, Cécile; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-02-15

    The human brain responds both before and during the application of aversive stimuli. Anticipation allows the organism to prepare its nociceptive system to respond adequately to the subsequent stimulus. The context in which an uncomfortable stimulus is experienced may also influence neural processing. Uncertainty of occurrence, timing and intensity of an aversive event may lead to increased anticipatory anxiety, fear, physiological arousal and sensory perception. We aimed to identify, in healthy volunteers, the effects of uncertainty in the anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension, and the impact of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and anxiety-related psychological variables on neural mechanisms of anticipation of rectal distension using fMRI. Barostat-controlled uncomfortable rectal distensions were preceded by cued uncertain or certain anticipation in 15 healthy volunteers in a fMRI protocol at 3T. Electrocardiographic data were concurrently registered by MR scanner. The low frequency (LF)-component of the heart rate variability (HRV) time-series was extracted and inserted as a regressor in the fMRI model ('LF-HRV model'). The impact of ANS activity was analyzed by comparing the fMRI signal in the 'standard model' and in the 'LF-HRV model' across the different anticipation and distension conditions. The scores of the psychological questionnaires and the rating of perceived anticipatory anxiety were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis. Our experiments led to the following key findings: 1) the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is the only activation site that relates to uncertainty in healthy volunteers and is directly correlated to individual questionnaire score for pain-related anxiety; 2) uncertain anticipation of rectal distension involved several relevant brain regions, namely activation of sgACC and medial prefrontal cortex and deactivation of amygdala, insula, thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, supplementary

  14. Towards an autonomous sensor architecture for persistent area protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul A.; Marshall, Gillian F.; Stubbins, Daniel J.; Faulkner, David A.

    2016-10-01

    The majority of sensor installations for area protection (e.g. critical national infrastructure, military forward operating bases, etc.) make use of banks of screens each containing one or more sensor feeds, such that the burden of combining data from the various sources, understanding the situation, and controlling the sensors all lies with the human operator. Any automation in the system is generally heavily bespoke for the particular installation, leading to an inflexible system which is difficult to change or upgrade. We have developed a modular system architecture consisting of intelligent autonomous sensor modules, a high level decision making module, a middleware integration layer and an end-user GUI. The modules are all effectively "plug and play", and we have demonstrated that it is relatively simple to incorporate legacy sensors into the architecture. We have extended our previously-reported SAPIENT demonstration system to operate with a larger number and variety of sensor modules, over an extended area, detecting and classifying a wider variety of "threat activities", both vehicular and pedestrian. We report the results of a demonstration of the SAPIENT system containing multiple autonomous sensor modules with a range of modalities including laser scanners, radar, TI, EO, acoustic and seismic sensors. They operate from a combination of mains, generator and battery power, and communicate with the central "hub" over Ethernet, point-to-point wireless links and Wi-Fi. The system has been configured to protect an extended area in a complex semi-urban environment. We discuss the operation of the SAPIENT system in a realistic demonstration environment (which included significant activity not under trial control), showing sensor cueing, multi-modal sensor fusion, threat prioritisation and target hand-off.

  15. Gap opening and tuning in single-layer graphene with combined electric and magnetic field modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xin; Wang Hai-Long; Pan Hui; Xu Huai-Zhe

    2011-01-01

    The energy band structure of single-layer graphene under one-dimensional electric and magnetic field modulation is theoretically investigated. The criterion for bandgap opening at the Dirac point is analytically derived with a two-fold degeneracy second-order perturbation method. It is shown that a direct or an indirect bandgap semiconductor could be realized in a single-layer graphene under some specific configurations of the electric and magnetic field arrangement. Due to the bandgap generated in the single-layer graphene, the Klein tunneling observed in pristine graphene is completely suppressed.

  16. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  17. CAPSAICIN SUPPLEMENTATION FAILS TO MODULATE AUTONOMIC AND CARDIAC ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC ACTIVITY DURING EXERCISE IN THE OBESE: WITH VARIANTS OF UCP2 AND UCP3 POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Ok Shin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of capsaicin supplementation (150mg on alterations of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity associated with adverse effects of cardiac depolarization-repolarization intervals during aerobic exercise in obese humans. Nine obese males (26.1 ± 1.5 yrs volunteered between study designed. The cardiac ANS activities evaluated by means of heart rate variability of power spectral analysis and cardiac QT interval were continuously measured during 5-min rest and 30-min exercise at 50% of maximal ventilation threshold (50%VTmax on stationary ergometer with placebo (CON or capsaicin (CAP oral administration chosen at random. The uncoupling protein (UCP 2 and UCP 3 genetic variants of the subjects were analyzed by noninvasive genotyping method from collecting buccal mucosa cells. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in cardiac ANS activities during rest and exercise between CON and CAP trials. Although no significant difference, A/A allele of UCP2 polymorphism showed a reduced sympathetic nervous system (SNS index activity compared to G/G + G/A allele during exercise intervention in our subjects. On the other hand, the data on cardiac QT interval showed no significant difference, indicating that oral administration of capsaicin did not cause any adverse effect on cardiac depolarization-repolarization. In conclusion, our results suggest that capsaicin supplementation 1 h before exercise intervention has no effect on cardiac ANS activities and cardiac electrical stability during exercise in obese individuals. Further studies should also consider genetic variants for exercise efficacy against obesity

  18. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  19. Modulation of Antioxidant Defense System Is Associated with Combined Drought and Heat Stress Tolerance in Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Zandalinas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported. According to our results, the ability of Carrizo plants to efficiently coordinate superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, and glutathione reductase (GR activities involved in ROS detoxification along with the maintenance of a favorable GSH/GSSG ratio could be related to their relative tolerance to this stress combination. On the other hand, the increment of SOD activity and the inefficient GR activation along with the lack of CAT and APX activities in Cleopatra plants in response to the combination of drought and heat stress, could contribute to an increased oxidative stress and the higher sensibility of this citrus genotype to this stress combination.

  20. Modulation of Antioxidant Defense System Is Associated with Combined Drought and Heat Stress Tolerance in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Balfagón, Damián; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2017-01-01

    Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported. According to our results, the ability of Carrizo plants to efficiently coordinate superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities involved in ROS detoxification along with the maintenance of a favorable GSH/GSSG ratio could be related to their relative tolerance to this stress combination. On the other hand, the increment of SOD activity and the inefficient GR activation along with the lack of CAT and APX activities in Cleopatra plants in response to the combination of drought and heat stress, could contribute to an increased oxidative stress and the higher sensibility of this citrus genotype to this stress combination.

  1. Cardiac Autonomic Modulation and the Kinetics of Heart Rate Responses in the On- and Off-Transient during Exercise in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. B. E. Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test whether women with metabolic syndrome (MS have impairments in the on- and off-transients during an incremental test and to study whether any of the MS components are independently associated with the observed responses.Research Design and Methods: Thirty-six women aged 35–55 years were divided into a group with MS (MSG, n = 19 and a control group (CG, n = 17. R-R intervals (RRi and heart rate variability (HRV were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis and the heart rate (HR at the on- and off-transient were analyzed during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET.Results: MSG showed lower aerobic capacity and lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation at rest compared with CG. HR values in on-transient phase were significantly lower in MSG compared with CG. The exponential amplitudes “amp” and the parameters “τ” [speed of heart rate recovery (HRR] were lower in MSG. MSG exhibited higher HR values in comparison to CG during the off-transient indicating a slower HRR. In MSG, there was an inverse and significant correlation between fasting plasma vs. ΔF and glucose vs. exponential “τ” of HRR dynamics.Conclusion: MS is associated with poor heart rate kinetics. The altered HR kinetics seems to be related to alterations in cardiac parasympathetic modulation, and glucose metabolism seems to be the major determinant.

  2. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests....... diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, 2. detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, OH, nondipping, QT interval prolongation), 3. risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 4. modulation of targets of diabetes therapy...

  3. [Modulating effect of weak combined magnetic fields on duration of mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor metamorphosis stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V V; Sheĭman, I M; Iablokova, E V; Fesenko, E E

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that an exposure of pupae of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor to the combined static (42 μT) and very weak alternating (250 nT) magnetic fields exerts different influence, depending on the frequency of the alternating magnetic field, on duration of metamorphosis processes in these insects. For instance, an exposure of pupae to weak combined magnetic fields, adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for glutaminic acid (4,4 Hz), stimulates metamorphosis process--a transitional stage from pupae to imago lasts shorter. An inhibiting effect was observed when adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for Ca2 (32,2 Hz). At some frequencies this effect is not seen. For instance, an exposure at a frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for K+ (16,5 Hz) exerts no noticeable effect on the duration of the pupal metamorphosis stage.

  4. Space Charge Modulated Electrical Breakdown of Oil Impregnated Paper Insulation Subjected to AC-DC Combined Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanwei Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the existing acknowledgment that space charge modulates AC and DC breakdown of insulating materials, this investigation promotes the related investigation into the situations of more complex electrical stress, i.e., AC-DC combined voltages. Experimentally, the AC-DC breakdown characteristics of oil impregnated paper insulation were systematically investigated. The effects of pre-applied voltage waveform, AC component ratio, and sample thickness on AC-DC breakdown characteristics were analyzed. After that, based on an improved bipolar charge transport model, the space charge profiles and the space charge induced electric field distortion during AC-DC breakdown were numerically simulated to explain the differences in breakdown characteristics between the pre-applied AC and pre-applied DC methods under AC-DC combined voltages. It is concluded that large amounts of homo-charges are accumulated during AC-DC breakdown, which results in significantly distorted inner electric field, leading to variations of breakdown characteristics of oil impregnated paper insulation. Therefore, space charges under AC-DC combined voltages must be considered in the design of converter transformers. In addition, this investigation could provide supporting breakdown data for insulation design of converter transformers and could promote better understanding on the breakdown mechanism of insulating materials subjected to AC-DC combined voltages.

  5. An intensive combined training program modulates physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical parameters in women basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Fatih

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the investigation of the effects of an intensive combined training program based on the pretest scores of a university women's basketball team on their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. Twenty-four university volunteers were equally divided into two groups: an experiment group (intensive combined training group) and a control (technical training) group. The 10-week intensive combined training program was performed on the experiment group according to their pretest outcomes. Before and at the end of each period of training, which was scheduled four times a week, the physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical performance of each subject were determined. With respect to the pre- and posttest measurements, the basketball group showed significant differences (p training program performed on university women basketball players had a significant effect on improving their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. It proved to be highly recommendable for female basketball players who are preparing for short-term tournaments; the basketball group in this study won a championship.

  6. Interobserver Delineation variation using CT versus combined CT + MRI in intensity- modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeirs, G.M.; Verstraete, K.L.; Vaerenbergh, K. van; Vakaet, L.; Bral, S.; Claus, F.; Neve, W.J. de; Meerleer, G.O. de

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to quantify interobserver variation of prostate and seminal vesicle delineations using CT only versus CT + MRI in consensus reading with a radiologist. Material and methods: the prostate and seminal vesicles of 13 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma were retrospectively delineated by three radiation oncologists on CT only and on CT + MRI in consensus reading with a radiologist. The volumes and margin positions were calculated and intermodality and interobserver variations were assessed for the clinical target volume (CTV), seminal vesicles, prostate and three prostatic subdivisions (apical, middle and basal third). Results: using CT + MRI as compared to CT alone, the mean CTV, prostate and seminal vesicle volumes significantly decreased by 6.54%, 5.21% and 10.47%, respectively. More importantly, their standard deviations significantly decreased by 63.06%, 62.65% and 44.83%, respectively. The highest level of variation was found at the prostatic apex, followed by the prostatic base and seminal vesicles. Conclusion: addition of MRI to CT in consensus reading with a radiologist results in a moderate decrease of the CTV, but an important decrease of the interobserver delineation variation, especially at the prostatic apex. (orig.)

  7. Combined enteral infusion of glutamine, carbohydrates, and antioxidants modulates gut protein metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coëffier, Moïse; Claeyssens, Sophie; Lecleire, Stéphane; Leblond, Jonathan; Coquard, Aude; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Lavoinne, Alain; Ducrotté, Philippe; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Available data suggest that nutrients can affect intestinal protein metabolism, which contributes to the regulation of gut barrier function. We aimed to assess whether an oral nutritional supplement (ONS) containing glutamine (as the dipeptide Ala-Gln), carbohydrates, and antioxidants would modulate duodenal protein metabolism in healthy humans. Thirty healthy control subjects were included and, over a period of 5 h, received by nasogastric tube either saline or ONS providing 11.7 kcal/kg as 0.877 g Ala-Gln/kg, 3.9 g carbohydrates/kg, and antioxidants (29.25 mg vitamin C/kg, 9.75 mg vitamin E/kg, 195 microg beta-carotene/kg, 5.85 mg Se/kg, and 390 microg Zn/kg) or glutamine (0.585 g/kg, 2.34 kcal/kg). Simultaneously, a continuous intravenous infusion of l-[1-(13)C]-leucine was done until endoscopy. Leucine enrichment was assessed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, and mucosal fractional synthesis rate was calculated by using intracellular amino acid enrichment as precursor. Mucosal proteolytic pathways were also evaluated. ONS infusion resulted in a doubling increase (P < 0.01) of duodenal fractional synthesis rate and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in cathepsin D-mediated proteolysis compared with saline, whereas proteasome and Ca(2+)-dependent activities were unaffected. ONS infusion significantly (P < 0.01) decreased duodenal glutathione but not glutathione disulfide concentrations or the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide. Insulinemia increased after ONS infusion, whereas plasma essential amino acids decreased. Infusion of glutamine alone did not reproduce ONS effects. ONS infusion improves duodenal protein balance in healthy humans. Further investigations are needed to study the origin of these effects and to evaluate ONS supply in stressed persons.

  8. Ethanol modulates cortical activity: direct evidence with combined TMS and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, S; Kesäniemi, M; Nikouline, V V; Karhu, J; Ollikainen, M; Holi, M; Ilmoniemi, R J

    2001-08-01

    The motor cortex of 10 healthy subjects was stimulated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after ethanol challenge (0.8 g/kg resulting in blood concentration of 0.77 +/- 0.14 ml/liter). The electrical brain activity resulting from the brief electromagnetic pulse was recorded with high-resolution electroencephalography (EEG) and located using inversion algorithms. Focal magnetic pulses to the left motor cortex were delivered with a figure-of-eight coil at the random interstimulus interval of 1.5-2.5 s. The stimulation intensity was adjusted to the motor threshold of abductor digiti minimi. Two conditions before and after ethanol ingestion (30 min) were applied: (1) real TMS, with the coil pressed against the scalp; and (2) control condition, with the coil separated from the scalp by a 2-cm-thick piece of plastic. A separate EMG control recording of one subject during TMS was made with two bipolar platinum needle electrodes inserted to the left temporal muscle. In each condition, 120 pulses were delivered. The EEG was recorded from 60 scalp electrodes. A peak in the EEG signals was observed at 43 ms after the TMS pulse in the real-TMS condition but not in the control condition or in the control scalp EMG. Potential maps before and after ethanol ingestion were significantly different from each other (P = 0.01), but no differences were found in the control condition. Ethanol changed the TMS-evoked potentials over right frontal and left parietal areas, the underlying effect appearing to be largest in the right prefrontal area. Our findings suggest that ethanol may have changed the functional connectivity between prefrontal and motor cortices. This new noninvasive method provides direct evidence about the modulation of cortical connectivity after ethanol challenge. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Consumption of milk-protein combined with green tea modulates diet-induced thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-08-01

    Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP) in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18-60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Green tea (GT)vs. placebo (PL) capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL), and 3.5 g (3.5 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL). After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT.

  10. MicroRNA modulation combined with sunitinib as a novel therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passadouro M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marta Passadouro,1,2 Maria C Pedroso de Lima,1,2 Henrique Faneca11Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, 2Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, PortugalAbstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is a highly aggressive and mortal cancer, characterized by a set of known mutations, invasive features, and aberrant microRNA expression that have been associated with hallmark malignant properties of PDAC. The lack of effective PDAC treatment options prompted us to investigate whether microRNAs would constitute promising therapeutic targets toward the generation of a gene therapy approach with clinical significance for this disease. In this work, we show that the developed human serum albumin–1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine:cholesterol/anti-microRNA oligonucleotides (+/– (4/1 nanosystem exhibits the ability to efficiently deliver anti-microRNA oligonucleotides targeting the overexpressed microRNAs miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-10 in PDCA cells, promoting an almost complete abolishment of microRNA expression. Silencing of these microRNAs resulted in a significant increase in the levels of their targets. Moreover, the combination of microRNA silencing, namely miR-21, with low amounts of the chemotherapeutic drug sunitinib resulted in a strong and synergistic antitumor effect, showing that this combined strategy could be of great importance for therapeutic application in PDAC. Keywords: pancreatic cancer gene therapy, anti-microRNAs oligonucleotides, delivery nanosystems, albumin-associated lipoplexes

  11. Sleep restriction progress to cardiac autonomic imbalance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since it's more difficult to maintain adequate sleep duration among night watchmen during their working schedule, hence the purpose of our present study was to investigate whether mental stress or fatigue over restricted sleep period in night shift, affects HRV, in order to elucidate on cardiac autonomic modulation among ...

  12. Integrating the autonomous subsystems management process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Barry R.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which the ranking of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution testbed may be achieved and an individual subsystem's internal priorities may be managed within the complete system are examined. The application of these results in the integration and performance leveling of the autonomously managed system is discussed.

  13. Extended-bandwidth frequency sweeps of a distributed feedback laser using combined injection current and temperature modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferman, Gerald; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Tao

    2017-07-01

    This article details the generation of an extended-bandwidth frequency sweep using a single, communication grade distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The frequency sweep is generated using a two-step technique. In the first step, injection current modulation is employed as a means of varying the output frequency of a DFB laser over a bandwidth of 99.26 GHz. A digital optical phase lock loop is used to lock the frequency sweep speed during current modulation, resulting in a linear frequency chirp. In the second step, the temperature of the DFB laser is modulated, resulting in a shifted starting laser output frequency. A laser frequency chirp is again generated beginning at this shifted starting frequency, resulting in a frequency-shifted spectrum relative to the first recorded data. This process is then repeated across a range of starting temperatures, resulting in a series of partially overlapping, frequency-shifted spectra. These spectra are then aligned using cross-correlation and combined using averaging to form a single, broadband spectrum with a total bandwidth of 510.9 GHz. In order to investigate the utility of this technique, experimental testing was performed in which the approach was used as the swept-frequency source of a coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry system. This system was used to interrogate an optical fiber containing a 20 point, 1-mm pitch length fiber Bragg grating, corresponding to a period of 100 GHz. Using this technique, both the periodicity of the grating in the frequency domain and the individual reflector elements of the structure in the time domain were resolved, demonstrating the technique's potential as a method of extending the sweeping bandwidth of semiconductor lasers for frequency-based sensing applications.

  14. Design and construction of a small animal PET/CT scanner combining scintillation Phoswich modules and hybrid pixels detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, St.

    2010-07-01

    The pathway that has been followed by the imXgam team at CPPM was to combine on a single rotating device the detector modules of the small animal PET scanner ClearPET with a photon counting X-ray detector in order to perform simultaneous acquisition of images from the anatomy (X-ray CT) and from the metabolic function (PET) of the common field-of-view. A preliminary study of the hybrid imaging system ClearPET/XPAD3 carried out using Gate led us to form a new PET detection assembly based on 21 Phoswich modules, to fix the design of the PET/CT device, as well as to study and solve the difficulties arising from simultaneous hybrid imaging. Last but not least, the simulation tool also allowed us for thinking how well such a system could judiciously use the spatial and temporal correlations between anatomic and functional information. From an instrumentation point of view, we succeeded to set up the ClearPET/XPAD3 prototype. Once both imaging systems were operational individually, we demonstrated on one side that the ClearPET prototype was perfectly capable of performing correctly in simultaneous acquisition conditions, providing that the detector modules were appropriately shielded. On the other side, the new generation of the hybrid pixel camera using the XPAD3-S chip proved to be quite promising given the good quality of the first reconstructed images. Finally, the proof of concept of simultaneous PET/CT data acquisition was made using a sealed positron source and an X-ray tube. (author)

  15. Extended-bandwidth frequency sweeps of a distributed feedback laser using combined injection current and temperature modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferman, Gerald; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Tao

    2017-07-01

    This article details the generation of an extended-bandwidth frequency sweep using a single, communication grade distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The frequency sweep is generated using a two-step technique. In the first step, injection current modulation is employed as a means of varying the output frequency of a DFB laser over a bandwidth of 99.26 GHz. A digital optical phase lock loop is used to lock the frequency sweep speed during current modulation, resulting in a linear frequency chirp. In the second step, the temperature of the DFB laser is modulated, resulting in a shifted starting laser output frequency. A laser frequency chirp is again generated beginning at this shifted starting frequency, resulting in a frequency-shifted spectrum relative to the first recorded data. This process is then repeated across a range of starting temperatures, resulting in a series of partially overlapping, frequency-shifted spectra. These spectra are then aligned using cross-correlation and combined using averaging to form a single, broadband spectrum with a total bandwidth of 510.9 GHz. In order to investigate the utility of this technique, experimental testing was performed in which the approach was used as the swept-frequency source of a coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry system. This system was used to interrogate an optical fiber containing a 20 point, 1-mm pitch length fiber Bragg grating, corresponding to a period of 100 GHz. Using this technique, both the periodicity of the grating in the frequency domain and the individual reflector elements of the structure in the time domain were resolved, demonstrating the technique's potential as a method of extending the sweeping bandwidth of semiconductor lasers for frequency-based sensing applications.

  16. Urethra sparing – potential of combined Nickel–Titanium stent and intensity modulated radiation therapy in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Jakob Borup; Arp, Dennis Tideman; Carl, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate a novel method for sparing urethra in external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer and to evaluate the efficacy of such a treatment in terms of tumour control using a mathematical model. Materials and methods: This theoretical study includes 20 patients previously treated for prostate cancer using external beam radiotherapy. All patients had a Nickel–Titanium (Ni–Ti) stent inserted into the prostate part of urethra. The stent has been used during the treatment course as an internal marker for patient positioning prior to treatment. In this study the stent is used for delineating urethra while intensity modulated radiotherapy was used for lowering dose to urethra. Evaluation of the dose plans were performed using a tumour control probability model based on the concept of uniform equivalent dose. Results: The feasibility of the urethra dose reduction method is validated and a reduction of about 17% is shown to be possible. Calculations suggest a nearly preserved tumour control probability. Conclusions: A new concept for urethra dose reduction is presented. The method relies on the use of a Ni–Ti stent as a fiducial marker combined with intensity modulated radiotherapy. Theoretical calculations suggest preserved tumour control.

  17. Urethra sparing - potential of combined Nickel-Titanium stent and intensity modulated radiation therapy in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jakob Borup; Arp, Dennis Tideman; Carl, Jesper

    2012-05-01

    To investigate a novel method for sparing urethra in external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer and to evaluate the efficacy of such a treatment in terms of tumour control using a mathematical model. This theoretical study includes 20 patients previously treated for prostate cancer using external beam radiotherapy. All patients had a Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) stent inserted into the prostate part of urethra. The stent has been used during the treatment course as an internal marker for patient positioning prior to treatment. In this study the stent is used for delineating urethra while intensity modulated radiotherapy was used for lowering dose to urethra. Evaluation of the dose plans were performed using a tumour control probability model based on the concept of uniform equivalent dose. The feasibility of the urethra dose reduction method is validated and a reduction of about 17% is shown to be possible. Calculations suggest a nearly preserved tumour control probability. A new concept for urethra dose reduction is presented. The method relies on the use of a Ni-Ti stent as a fiducial marker combined with intensity modulated radiotherapy. Theoretical calculations suggest preserved tumour control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumption of Milk-Protein Combined with Green Tea Modulates Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18–60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m2. They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ were measured. Green tea (GT vs. placebo (PL capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL, and 3.5 g (3.5 MP (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL. After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p < 0.001. Post-hoc, areas under the curve (AUCs for diet-induced energy expenditure were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001 for GT + water (41.11 [91.72] kJ·3.5 h vs. PL + water (10.86 [28.13] kJ·3.5 h, GT + 3.5 MP (10.14 [54.59] kJ·3.5 h and PL + 3.5 MP (12.03 [34.09] kJ·3.5 h, but not between GT + 3.5 MP, PL + 3.5 MP and PL + water, indicating that MP inhibited DIT following GT. DIT after GT + 15 MP (167.69 [141.56] kJ·3.5 h and PL + 15 MP (168.99 [186.56] kJ·3.5 h was significantly increased vs. PL + water (P < 0.001, but these were not different from each other indicating that 15 g MP stimulated DIT, but inhibited the GT effect on DIT. No significant differences in RQ were seen between conditions for baseline and post-treatment. In conclusion, consumption of milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT.

  19. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  20. Thermal expansion of the cryoprotectant cocktail DP6 combined with synthetic ice modulators in presence and absence of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David P; Taylor, Michael J; Rabin, Yoed

    2012-10-01

    This study explores physical effects associated with the application of cryopreservation via vitrification using a class of compounds which are defined here as synthetic ice modulators (SIMs). The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. A sub-category of SIMs, referred to in the literature as synthetic ice blockers (SIBs), are compounds that interact directly with ice nuclei or crystals to modify their structure and/or rate of growth. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects during vitrification, with emphasis on measuring the physical property of thermal expansion-the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. Materials under investigation are the cryoprotective agent (CPA) cocktail DP6 in combination with one of the following SIMs: 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3 cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3 butanediol. Results are presented for the CPA-SIM cocktail in the absence and presence of bovine muscle and goat artery specimens. This study focuses on the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the CPA behaves as a fluid for all practical applications. Results of this study indicate that the addition of SIMs to DP6 allows lower cooling rates to ensure vitrification and extends the range of measurements. It is demonstrated that the combination of SIM with DP6 increases the thermal expansion of the cocktail, with implications for the likelihood of fracture formation-the most dramatic outcome of thermo-mechanical stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Combined Ultrasound With Pre modulated interferential Current in Discogenic Sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selem, A.I.; El Hafez, H.M.; Alshatoury, H.A.; Ismail, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose : Lumbar- spine disorders rank fifth among disease categories in the cost of hospital care and account for higher costs resulting in absence from work and disability than any other category. Sciatica is a common clinical condition that can be extremely painful, disabling and life changing. This study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of adding interferential current therapy to conventional treatment and to compare with conventional treatment only in patients with chronic discogenic sciatica. Methods : This randomized controlled trial was conducted at Ismailia General Hospital. Sixty patients (22 males and 38 females) aged between 20 and 40 years old and duration of illness of more than 3 months. They were classified randomly into two groups of equal number. The Experimental Group received interferential therapy (IFT) combined with conventional therapy while control Group received conventional therapy only, 3 times/ week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures : back and leg pain intensity was measured by numeric pain rating scale (0 - 10), functional disability was measured by Roland Morris disability questionnaire, range of motion (Rom) was measured by inclinometer and latency of H- reflex was measured by electromyography. The assessment was done twice for every subject (pre and post the treatment program). Results : Statistical interpretation showed significant improvement of both groups. But in case of experimental group, the amount of improvement was higher with decrease in pain, increasing functional ability, increasing range of motion and improvement in H- reflex latency when compared to control group

  2. Clinical comparative investigation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy combined with concurrent chemotherapy for the local advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yingchao; Dai Xiaofang; Wu Gang; Zhao Yanxia; Luo Ming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To research the early effects and side-effects of the local advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with concurrent chemotherapy. Methods: From January 2005 to January 2007, 60 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma of stage m-IV b were received IMRT combined with concurrent chemotherapy in our center. Sixty patients were divided into paclitaxel concurrent group (32 patients) and cisplatin concurrent group (28 patients). The prescribing doses of the primary tumor were 68-72 Gy for each group. The patients of paclitaxel concurrent group received 5-7 times pacitaxel liposome chemotherapy of 30 mg · m -2 ·. The patients of cisplatin concurrent group received 5-7 times cisplatin chemotherapy of 30 mg · m -2 · week -1 . Results: As to the side-effects, the patients of the cisplatin concurrent group got earlier radiodermatitis and radiation-induced mucositis but also got significantly higher rate of radiodermatitis, radiation-induced mucositis, radiation-induced leucopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity, as well as the loss of weight. No significant difference was found on liver and renal functions between two groups.Four patients (12.5%) of the paclitaxel concurrent group were broken-off, which was much better than the cisplatin concurrent group. There was no significant difference on the specific length of break-off time, the 2-year overall survival rate and the 2-year diseaee-free survival rate between two groups. Conclusions: IMRT combined with concurrent chemotherapy of paclitaxel liposome for local advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma results in less side-effects and better tolerance than IMRT combined with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy. (authors)

  3. Combined cetuximab and volumetric modulated arc-radiotherapy in advanced recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old male patient presented with an ulcerated exophytic tumor (T2, N0, M0 with three macroscopically visible satellite metastases in the right temporo-occipital region. Mohs surgery could not control the disease due to lymphangiosis carcinomatosa and perineural infiltration, and recurrence of satellite skin metastases. Re-staging demonstrated a T2, N1, M0 profile (stage III, AJCC. Chemotherapy was limited by the patient’s co-morbidities. Therefore, we used targeted therapy with monoclonal anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab in combination with volumetric modulated arc- radiotherapy (VMAT. Cetuximab was well tolerated except for the loading dose when the patient developed fever chills. To verify the correct application of VMAT, it was applied to a 3-dimensional measuring phantom prior to the patient’s first treatment session. To minimize these tolerances, patient set-up was checked and corrected by orthogonal fluoroscopic images recorded daily by the on-board imager used in our Varian accelerator. The average daily beam time was 6 min (6 arcs, 767 monitor units; the total treatment time including patient set-up and set-up correction was less than 20 min. Combined therapy was well tolerated and complete remission was achieved.

  4. Multicenter safety study on cetuximab combined with intensity modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy of cisplatin in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chunyan; Zhao Chong; Gao Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety of cetuximab combined with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plus concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in a Chinese multicenter clinical study. Methods: From July 2008 to April 2009, 100 Patients with primary stage III- IV b non-keratinizing NPC were enrolled. The planned dose of IMRT to gross tumor volume and positive cervical lymph nodes was 66.0-75.9 Gy and 60-70 Gy in 30-33 fractions. Cisplatin (80 mg/m 2 , q3 week (w)) and cetuximab (400 mg/m 2 one w before radiation, and then 250 mg/m 2 per w) were given concurrently. The adverse events (AEs) were graded according to common terminology criteria for adverse events v3.0. Results: The compliance of the entire group of patient was satisfactory. Actual median dose to gross tumor volume was 69.96 Gy, and the median dose to positive cervical lymph nodes was 68 Gy. Median dose of cisplatin was 133 mg, median first-dose of cetuximab was 690 mg, and median weekly dose was 410 mg. AEs were well tolerated and manageable, mainly consisting of acneiform skin eruptions,dermatitis and mucositis. Grade 4 mucositis was observed in 2% of the patients and no other grade 4 AEs were observed. Conclusions: The combined treatment modality of IMRT + concurrent chemotherapy + cetuximab in loco-regionally advanced NPC is well tolerated. (authors)

  5. Immune Modulation of NYVAC-Based HIV Vaccines by Combined Deletion of Viral Genes that Act on Several Signalling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Gómez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An HIV-1 vaccine continues to be a major target to halt the AIDS pandemic. The limited efficacy of the RV144 phase III clinical trial with the canarypox virus-based vector ALVAC and a gp120 protein component led to the conclusion that improved immune responses to HIV antigens are needed for a more effective vaccine. In non-human primates, the New York vaccinia virus (NYVAC poxvirus vector has a broader immunogenicity profile than ALVAC and has been tested in clinical trials. We therefore analysed the HIV immune advantage of NYVAC after removing viral genes that act on several signalling pathways (Toll-like receptors—TLR—interferon, cytokines/chemokines, as well as genes of unknown immune function. We generated a series of NYVAC deletion mutants and studied immune behaviour (T and B cell to HIV antigens and to the NYVAC vector in mice. Our results showed that combined deletion of selected vaccinia virus (VACV genes is a valuable strategy for improving the immunogenicity of NYVAC-based vaccine candidates. These immune responses were differentially modulated, positive or negative, depending on the combination of gene deletions. The deletions also led to enhanced antigen- or vector-specific cellular and humoral responses. These findings will facilitate the development of optimal NYVAC-based vaccines for HIV and other diseases.

  6. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    Autonomic neuropathy is a common complication in long-term diabetes, about 30% of the patients showing measurable signs of autonomic dysfunction after 10 years duration of disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to establish because clinical symptoms generally occur late in the course of the di......Autonomic neuropathy is a common complication in long-term diabetes, about 30% of the patients showing measurable signs of autonomic dysfunction after 10 years duration of disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to establish because clinical symptoms generally occur late in the course...

  7. The non-protein coding breast cancer susceptibility locus Mcs5a acts in a non-mammary cell-autonomous fashion through the immune system and modulates T-cell homeostasis and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Bart M G; Sharma, Deepak; Samuelson, David J; Woditschka, Stephan; Mau, Bob; Haag, Jill D; Gould, Michael N

    2011-08-16

    Mechanisms underlying low-penetrance, common, non-protein coding variants in breast cancer risk loci are largely undefined. We showed previously that the non-protein coding mammary carcinoma susceptibility locus Mcs5a/MCS5A modulates breast cancer risk in rats and women. The Mcs5a allele from the Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rat strain consists of two genetically interacting elements that have to be present on the same chromosome to confer mammary carcinoma resistance. We also found that the two interacting elements of the resistant allele are required for the downregulation of transcript levels of the Fbxo10 gene specifically in T-cells. Here we describe mechanisms through which Mcs5a may reduce mammary carcinoma susceptibility. We performed mammary carcinoma multiplicity studies with three mammary carcinoma-inducing treatments, namely 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) carcinogenesis, and mammary ductal infusion of retrovirus expressing the activated HER2/neu oncogene. We used mammary gland and bone marrow transplantation assays to assess the target tissue of Mcs5a activity. We used immunophenotyping assays on well-defined congenic rat lines carrying susceptible and resistant Mcs5a alleles to identify changes in T-cell homeostasis and function associated with resistance. We show that Mcs5a acts beyond the initial step of mammary epithelial cell transformation, during early cancer progression. We show that Mcs5a controls susceptibility in a non-mammary cell-autonomous manner through the immune system. The resistant Mcs5a allele was found to be associated with an overabundance of gd T-cell receptor (TCR)+ T-cells as well as a CD62L (L-selectin)-high population of all T-cell classes. In contrast to in mammary carcinoma, gdTCR+ T-cells are the predominant T-cell type in the mammary gland and were found to be overabundant in the mammary epithelium of Mcs5a resistant congenic rats. Most of them simultaneously expressed the CD4, CD8, and CD161

  8. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  9. Feasibility of combined operation and perioperative intensity-modulated brachytherapy of advanced/recurrent malignancies involving the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strege, R.J.; Eichmann, T.; Mehdorn, H.M. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kovacs, G.; Niehoff, P. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Interdisciplinary Brachytherapy Center; Maune, S. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Otolaryngology; Holland, D. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Ophthalmology

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the technical feasibility and toxicity of combined operation and perioperative intensity-modulated fractionated interstitial brachytherapy (IMBT) in advanced-stage malignancies involving the skull base with the goal of preserving the patients' senses of sight. Patients and Methods: This series consisted of 18 consecutive cases: ten patients with paranasal sinus carcinomas, five with sarcomas, two with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), and one with parotid gland carcinoma. After, in most cases, subtotal surgical resection (R1-R2: carried out so that the patients' senses of sight were preserved), two to twelve (mean five) afterloading plastic tubes were placed into the tumor bed. IMBT was performed with an iridium-192 stepping source in pulsed-dose-rate/high-dose-rate (PDR/HDR) afterloading technique. The total IMBT dose, ranging from 10 to 30 Gy, was administered in a fractionated manner (3-5 Gy/day, 5 days/week). Results: Perioperative fractionated IMBT was performed in 15 out of 18 patients and was well tolerated. Complications that partially prevented or delayed IMBT in some cases included cerebrospinal fluid leakage (twice), meningitis (twice), frontal brain syndrome (twice), afterloading tube displacement (twice), seizure (once), and general morbidity (once). No surgery- or radiation-induced injuries to the cranial nerves or eyes occurred. Median survival times were 33 months after diagnosis and 16 months after combined operation and IMBT. Conclusion: Perioperative fractionated IMBT after extensive but vision-preserving tumor resection seems to be a safe and well-tolerated treatment of advanced/recurrent malignancies involving the skull base. These preliminary state suggest that combined operation and perioperative fractionated IMBT is a palliative therapeutic option in the management of fatal malignancies involving the base of the skull, a strategy which leaves the patients' visual acuity intact. (orig.)

  10. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  11. Generalized Thermohydraulics Module GENFLO for Combining With the PWR Core Melting Model, BWR Recriticality Neutronics Model and Fuel Performance Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, Jaakko; Hamalainen, Anitta; Pekkarinen, Esko

    2002-01-01

    Thermal hydraulic simulation capability for accident conditions is needed at present in VTT in several programs. Traditional thermal hydraulic models are too heavy for simulation in the analysis tasks, where the main emphasis is the rapid neutron dynamics or the core melting. The GENFLO thermal hydraulic model has been developed at VTT for special applications in the combined codes. The basic field equations in GENFLO are for the phase mass, the mixture momentum and phase energy conservation equations. The phase separation is solved with the drift flux model. The basic variables to be solved are the pressure, void fraction, mixture velocity, gas enthalpy, liquid enthalpy, and concentration of non-condensable gas fractions. The validation of the thermohydraulic solution alone includes large break LOCA reflooding experiments and in specific for the severe accident conditions QUENCH tests. In the recriticality analysis the core neutronics is simulated with a two-dimensional transient neutronics code TWODIM. The recriticality with one rapid prompt peak is expected during a severe accident scenario, where the control rods have been melted and ECCS reflooding is started after the depressurization. The GENFLO module simulates the BWR thermohydraulics in this application. The core melting module has been developed for the real time operator training by using the APROS engineering simulators. The core heatup, oxidation, metal and fuel pellet relocation and corium pool formation into the lower plenum are calculated. In this application the GENFLO model simulates the PWR vessel thermohydraulics. In the fuel performance analysis the fuel rod transient behavior is simulated with the FRAPTRAN code. GENFLO simulates the subchannel around a single fuel rod and delivers the heat transfer on the cladding surface for the FRAPTRAN. The transient boundary conditions for the subchannel are transmitted from the system code for operational transient, loss of coolant accidents and

  12. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Isabelle

    2009-05-01

    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  13. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — VisionThe Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  14. Toward an Autonomous Telescope Network: the TBT Scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racero, E.; Ibarra, A.; Ocaña, F.; de Lis, S. B.; Ponz, J. D.; Castillo, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2015-09-01

    Within the ESA SSA program, it is foreseen to deploy several robotic telescopes to provide surveillance and tracking services for hazardous objects. The TBT project will procure a validation platform for an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor SSA services. In this context, the planning and scheduling of the night consists of two software modules, the TBT Scheduler, that will allow the manual and autonomous planning of the night, and the control of the real-time response of the system, done by the RTS2 internal scheduler. The TBT Scheduler allocates tasks for both telescopes without human intervention. Every night it takes all the inputs needed and prepares the schedule following some predefined rules. The main purpose of the scheduler is the distribution of the time for follow-up of recently discovered targets and surveys. The TBT Scheduler considers the overall performance of the system, and combine follow-up with a priori survey strategies for both kind of objects. The strategy is defined according to the expected combined performance for both systems the upcoming night (weather, sky brightness, object accessibility and priority). Therefore, TBT Scheduler defines the global approach for the network and relies on the RTS2 internal scheduler for the final detailed distribution of tasks at each sensor.

  15. Genetic autonomic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2013-03-01

    Genetic disorders affecting the autonomic nervous system can result in abnormal development of the nervous system or they can be caused by neurotransmitter imbalance, an ion-channel disturbance or by storage of deleterious material. The symptoms indicating autonomic dysfunction, however, will depend upon whether the genetic lesion has disrupted peripheral or central autonomic centers or both. Because the autonomic nervous system is pervasive and affects every organ system in the body, autonomic dysfunction will result in impaired homeostasis and symptoms will vary. The possibility of genetic confirmation by molecular testing for specific diagnosis is increasing but treatments tend to remain only supportive and directed toward particular symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Phase II study of gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy combined with intensity modulated radiotherapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Dan; He Xiayun; Hu Chaosu; Ying Hongmei; Zhu Guopei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy combined with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 71 patients (Stage III: 41, Stage IV A : 30) with locoregionally advanced NPC were entered this study. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was consisted of cisplatin 25 mg/m 2 intravenously on d1-3 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m 2 in 30 minutes intravenous infusion on days 1 and 8, every 3 weeks for 2 cycles. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of 2 cycles of the same GP regimen was given at 28 days after the end of radiotherapy. The prescription doses was 66.0-70.4 Gy to the gross tumor volume, 66 Gy to positive neck nodes, 60 Gy to the high-risk clinical target volume, 54 Gy to the low-risk clinical target volume. Results: The overall response rate to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 91.2%, acute toxicity was mainly grade 1-2 myleosuppression. All patients completed IMRT. The median follow-up duration was 38 months. The 3-year nasopharyngeal local control, regional control, distant metastasis-free survival rate and overall survival rate were 93%, 99%, 91%, 90%, respectively. Severe late toxicities included grade 3 trismus in 1 patient, grade 3 hearing impairment in 2 patients and cranial nerve palsy in 2 patients, respectively. No grade 4 late toxicities were observed. Conclusions: The combination of GP chemotherapy and IMRT for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is well-tolerated, convenient, effective, and warrants further studies of more proper cycles of GP regimen. (authors)

  17. Evaluating the autonomic nervous system in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ju; Shu, Chih-Hung; Chou, Kun-Ta; Wang, Yi-Fen; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Ho, Ching-Yin; Lan, Ming-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) remains unclear. It is linked to but distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has been shown to be related to disturbed autonomic regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether autonomic dysfunction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of LPR. Case-control study. Tertiary care center. Seventeen patients with LPR and 19 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 50 years, were enrolled in the study. The patients were diagnosed with LPR if they had a reflux symptom index (RSI) ≥ 13 and a reflux finding score (RFS) ≥ 7. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic function. Anxiety and depression levels measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were also conducted. In HRV analysis, high frequency (HF) represents the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system, whereas low frequency (LF) represents the total autonomic activity. There were no significant differences in the LF power and HF power between the 2 groups. However, significantly lower HF% (P = .003) and a higher LF/HF ratio (P = .012) were found in patients with LPR, who demonstrated poor autonomic modulation and higher sympathetic activity. Anxiety was also frequently observed in the patient group. The study suggests that autonomic dysfunction seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPR. The potential beneficial effect of autonomic nervous system modulation as a therapeutic modality for LPR merits further investigation.

  18. Combined frequency modulated atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy detection for multi-tip scanning probe microscopy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawski, Ireneusz; Spiegelberg, Richard; Korte, Stefan; Voigtländer, Bert

    2015-01-01

    A method which allows scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip biasing independent of the sample bias during frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) operation is presented. The AFM sensor is supplied by an electronic circuit combining both a frequency shift signal and a tunneling current signal by means of an inductive coupling. This solution enables a control of the tip potential independent of the sample potential. Individual tip biasing is specifically important in order to implement multi-tip STM/AFM applications. An extensional quartz sensor (needle sensor) with a conductive tip is applied to record simultaneously topography and conductivity of the sample. The high resonance frequency of the needle sensor (1 MHz) allows scanning of a large area of the surface being investigated in a reasonably short time. A recipe for the amplitude calibration which is based only on the frequency shift signal and does not require the tip being in contact is presented. Additionally, we show spectral measurements of the mechanical vibration noise of the scanning system used in the investigations

  19. Combined frequency modulated atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy detection for multi-tip scanning probe microscopy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, Ireneusz [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-3) and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland); Spiegelberg, Richard; Korte, Stefan; Voigtländer, Bert [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-3) and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A method which allows scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip biasing independent of the sample bias during frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) operation is presented. The AFM sensor is supplied by an electronic circuit combining both a frequency shift signal and a tunneling current signal by means of an inductive coupling. This solution enables a control of the tip potential independent of the sample potential. Individual tip biasing is specifically important in order to implement multi-tip STM/AFM applications. An extensional quartz sensor (needle sensor) with a conductive tip is applied to record simultaneously topography and conductivity of the sample. The high resonance frequency of the needle sensor (1 MHz) allows scanning of a large area of the surface being investigated in a reasonably short time. A recipe for the amplitude calibration which is based only on the frequency shift signal and does not require the tip being in contact is presented. Additionally, we show spectral measurements of the mechanical vibration noise of the scanning system used in the investigations.

  20. On the use of polarization modulation in combined interferometry and polarimetry. Corrigendum. 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, v. 40 p. 153-161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the main text, the appendix and two curves are corrected in this corrigendum to the paper entitled ''On the use of polarization modulation in combined interferometry and polarimetry'', written by S.E. Segre and published in 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, v. 40 p. 153-161

  1. Combining automatic tube current modulation with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for low-dose chest CT screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Hong Chen

    Full Text Available To reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in low-dose chest computed tomography (CT by combining adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM.Patients undergoing cancer screening (n = 200 were subjected to 64-slice multidetector chest CT scanning with ASIR and ATCM. Patients were divided into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (n = 50 each, with a noise index (NI of 15, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Each image set was reconstructed with 4 ASIR levels (0% ASIR, 30% ASIR, 50% ASIR, and 80% ASIR in each group. Two radiologists assessed subjective image noise, image artifacts, and visibility of the anatomical structures. Objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR were measured, and effective dose (ED was recorded.Increased NI was associated with increased subjective and objective image noise results (P<0.001, and SNR decreased with increasing NI (P<0.001. These values improved with increased ASIR levels (P<0.001. Images from all 4 groups were clinically diagnosable. Images with NI = 30 and 50% ASIR had average subjective image noise scores and nearly average anatomical structure visibility scores, with a mean objective image noise of 23.42 HU. The EDs for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.79 ± 1.17, 1.69 ± 0.59, 0.74 ± 0.29, and 0.37 ± 0.22 mSv, respectively. Compared to group 1 (NI = 15, the ED reductions were 39.43%, 73.48%, and 86.74% for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively.Using NI = 30 with 50% ASIR in the chest CT protocol, we obtained average or above-average image quality but a reduced ED.

  2. Combining automatic tube current modulation with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for low-dose chest CT screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Hong; Jin, Er-Hu; He, Wen; Zhao, Li-Qin

    2014-01-01

    To reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by combining adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). Patients undergoing cancer screening (n = 200) were subjected to 64-slice multidetector chest CT scanning with ASIR and ATCM. Patients were divided into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (n = 50 each), with a noise index (NI) of 15, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Each image set was reconstructed with 4 ASIR levels (0% ASIR, 30% ASIR, 50% ASIR, and 80% ASIR) in each group. Two radiologists assessed subjective image noise, image artifacts, and visibility of the anatomical structures. Objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured, and effective dose (ED) was recorded. Increased NI was associated with increased subjective and objective image noise results (PASIR levels (PASIR had average subjective image noise scores and nearly average anatomical structure visibility scores, with a mean objective image noise of 23.42 HU. The EDs for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.79 ± 1.17, 1.69 ± 0.59, 0.74 ± 0.29, and 0.37 ± 0.22 mSv, respectively. Compared to group 1 (NI = 15), the ED reductions were 39.43%, 73.48%, and 86.74% for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Using NI = 30 with 50% ASIR in the chest CT protocol, we obtained average or above-average image quality but a reduced ED.

  3. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  4. Autonomous Systems and Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Systems and Operations (ASO) project will develop an understanding of the impacts of increasing communication time delays on mission operations,...

  5. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  6. Wireless autonomous device data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

  7. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    areas, which is consistent with the Braak hypothesis. In the narcolepsy patients, it was shown that a reduced HRR to arousals was primarily predicted by hypocretin deficiency in both rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep, independent of cataplexy and other factors. The results confirm...... that hypocretin deficiency affects the autonomic nervous system of patients with narcolepsy and that the hypocretin system is important for proper heart rate modulation at rest.Furthermore, it was shown that hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake and REM sleep...... control, indicating that the disorder may serve as a human model for the sleep-wake and REM sleep flip-flop switches. The increased frequency of transitions may cause increased sympathetic activity during sleep and thereby increased heart rate, or the increased heart rate could be caused by decreased...

  8. Reactive oxygen species modulator 1, a novel protein, combined with carcinoembryonic antigen in differentiating malignant from benign pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianmeng; Zhang, Na; Dong, Jiahui; Sun, Gengyun

    2017-05-01

    The differential diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and benign pleural effusion remains a clinical problem. Reactive oxygen species modulator 1 is a novel protein overexpressed in various human tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of joint detection of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen in the differential diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and benign pleural effusion. One hundred two consecutive patients with pleural effusion (including 52 malignant pleural effusion and 50 benign pleural effusion) were registered in this study. Levels of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results showed that the concentrations of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 both in pleural fluid and serum of patients with malignant pleural effusion were significantly higher than those of benign pleural effusion (both p pleural fluid reactive oxygen species modulator 1 were 61.54% and 82.00%, respectively, with the optimized cutoff value of 589.70 pg/mL. However, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum reactive oxygen species modulator 1 were only 41.38% and 86.21%, respectively, with the cutoff value of 27.22 ng/mL, indicating that serum reactive oxygen species modulator 1 may not be a good option in the differential diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and benign pleural effusion. The sensitivity and specificity of pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen were 69.23% and 88.00%, respectively, at the cutoff value of 3.05 ng/mL, while serum carcinoembryonic antigen were 80.77% and 72.00% at the cutoff value of 2.60 ng/mL. The sensitivity could be raised to 88.17% in parallel detection of plural fluid reactive oxygen species modulator 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen concentration, and the specificity could be improved to 97.84% in serial detection.

  9. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  10. Development of e-module combining science process skills and dynamics motion material to increasing critical thinking skills and improve student learning motivation senior high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Adie Perdana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning media is one of the most components in the teaching and learning process. This research was conducted to design and develop the electronic modules combining science process skills and dynamics motion content for increasing critical thinking skills and improve student learning motivation for senior high school. The Methods used in this research is Research and Development (R&D. Model research and development using a research 4D Thiagarajan model. Physics module was developed using science process skills approach: observing, formulating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, identify variables, conduct experiments, analyse the data, summarise and communicate. The results showed that: 1 the electronics module has been developed by integrating the science process skills for enhancing critical thinking skills and student motivation. 2 Electronic Module Physics-based science process skills meet the criteria very well, judging from the results of validation content, validation media, validation of peer education and practitioners, with an average value of 3.80 is greater than the minimum eligibility 3.78. 3 effectiveness the modules of science process skills got N-gain value obtained from a large trial in grade samples of 0.67 and 0.59 in the control group were categorised as moderate. 4 Implementation of electronic modules Physics-based science process skills is considered an effective to enhance the students' motivation. Statistical analysis showed a significance value of 0.027 is lower than the significance level α = 0.05, this means that there are significant differences between learning motivation grade sample and the control class. As a result of analysis data obtained from the research, it was seen that the students' motivation that uses Physics module based science process skills better than conventional learning.

  11. The modulation of visceral functions by somatic afferent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A; Schmidt, R F

    1987-01-01

    We began by briefly reviewing the historical background of neurophysiological studies of the somato-autonomic reflexes and then discussed recent studies on somatic-visceral reflexes in combination with autonomic efferent nerve activity and effector organ responses. Most of the studies that have advanced our knowledge in this area have been carried out on anesthetized animals, thus eliminating emotional factors. We would like to emphasize again that the functions of many, or perhaps all visceral organs can be modulated by somato-sympathetic or somato-parasympathetic reflex activity induced by a appropriate somatic afferent stimulation in anesthetized animals. As mentioned previously, some autonomic nervous outflow, e.g. the adrenal sympathetic nerve activity, is involved in the control of hormonal secretion. John F. Fulton wrote in his famous textbook "Physiology of the Nervous System" (1949) that the posterior pituitary neurosecretion system (i.e. for oxytocin and vasopressin) could be considered a part of the parasympathetic nervous system. In the study of body homeostasis and environmental adaptation it would seem very important to further analyze the contribution of somatic afferent input to the autonomic nervous and hormonal regulation of visceral organ activity. Also, some immunological functions have been found to be influenced by autonomic nerves or hormones (e.g. adrenal cortical hormone and catecholamines). Finally, we must take into account, as we have briefly discussed, that visceral functions can be modulated by somatic afferent input via various degrees of integration of autonomic nerves, hormones, and immunological processes. We trust that such research will be expanded to higher species of mammals, and that ultimately this knowledge of somato-visceral reflexes obtained in the physiological laboratory will become clinically useful in influencing visceral functions.

  12. Cross-layer designed adaptive modulation algorithm with packet combining and truncated ARQ over MIMO Nakagami fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Aniba, Ghassane; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    works addressed the link layer performance of AM with truncated ARQ but without packet combining. In addition, previously proposed AM algorithms are not optimal and can provide poor performance when packet combining is implemented. Herein, we first show

  13. Combining Functional Neuroimaging with Off-Line Brain Stimulation: Modulation of Task-Related Activity in Language Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Jamila; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive TMS (rTMS) provides a noninvasive tool for modulating neural activity in the human brain. In healthy participants, rTMS applied over the language-related areas in the left hemisphere, including the left posterior temporal area of Wernicke (LTMP) and inferior frontal area of Broca, have been shown to affect performance on word…

  14. Hierarchical system for autonomous sensing-healing of delamination in large-scale composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Sun, Denghao; Takeda, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    This study combines our hierarchical fiber-optic-based delamination detection system with a microvascular self-healing material to develop the first autonomous sensing-healing system applicable to large-scale composite structures. In this combined system, embedded vascular modules are connected through check valves to a surface-mounted supply tube of a pressurized healing agent while fiber-optic-based sensors monitor the internal pressure of these vascular modules. When delamination occurs, the healing agent flows into the vascular modules breached by the delamination and infiltrates the damage for healing. At the same time, the pressure sensors identify the damaged modules by detecting internal pressure changes. This paper begins by describing the basic concept of the combined system and by discussing the advantages that arise from its hierarchical nature. The feasibility of the system is then confirmed through delamination infiltration tests. Finally, the hierarchical system is validated in a plate specimen by focusing on the detection and infiltration of the damage. Its self-diagnostic function is also demonstrated. (paper)

  15. Sequential Modulations in a Combined Horizontal and Vertical Simon Task: Is There ERP Evidence for Feature Integration Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Katharina; Küper, Kristina; Wascher, Edmund

    2017-01-01

    In the Simon task, participants respond faster when the task-irrelevant stimulus position and the response position are corresponding, for example on the same side, compared to when they have a non-corresponding relation. Interestingly, this Simon effect is reduced after non-corresponding trials. Such sequential effects can be explained in terms of a more focused processing of the relevant stimulus dimension due to increased cognitive control, which transfers from the previous non-corresponding trial (conflict adaptation effects). Alternatively, sequential modulations of the Simon effect can also be due to the degree of trial-to-trial repetitions and alternations of task features, which is confounded with the correspondence sequence (feature integration effects). In the present study, we used a spatially two-dimensional Simon task with vertical response keys to examine the contribution of adaptive cognitive control and feature integration processes to the sequential modulation of the Simon effect. The two-dimensional Simon task creates correspondences in the vertical as well as in the horizontal dimension. A trial-by-trial alternation of the spatial dimension, for example from a vertical to a horizontal stimulus presentation, generates a subset containing no complete repetitions of task features, but only complete alternations and partial repetitions, which are equally distributed over all correspondence sequences. In line with the assumed feature integration effects, we found sequential modulations of the Simon effect only when the spatial dimension repeated. At least for the horizontal dimension, this pattern was confirmed by the parietal P3b, an event-related potential that is assumed to reflect stimulus-response link processes. Contrary to conflict adaptation effects, cognitive control, measured by the fronto-central N2 component of the EEG, was not sequentially modulated. Overall, our data provide behavioral as well as electrophysiological evidence for feature

  16. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  17. Treatment of locally advanced carcinomas of head and neck with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy: the REACH protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habl, Gregor; Münter, Marc W; Jensen, Alexandra D; Potthoff, Karin; Uhl, Matthias; Hof, Holger; Hajda, Jacek; Simon, Christian; Debus, Jürgen; Krempien, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Primary treatment of carcinoma of the oro-/hypopharynx or larynx may consist of combined platinum-containing chemoradiotherapy. In order to improve clinical outcome (i.e. local control/overall survival), combined therapy is intensified by the addition of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab (Erbitux ® ). Radiation therapy (RT) is carried out as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) to avoid higher grade acute and late toxicity by sparing of surrounding normal tissues. The REACH study is a prospective phase II study combining chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and the monoclonal epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) antibody cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell carcinomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. Patients receive weekly chemotherapy infusions in the 1 st and 5 th week of RT. Additionally, cetuximab is administered weekly throughout the treatment course. IMRT is delivered as in a classical concomitant boost concept (bid from fraction 16) to a total dose of 69,9 Gy. Primary endpoint of the trial is local-regional control (LRC). Disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, toxicity, proteomic and genomic analyses are secondary endpoints. The aim is to explore the efficacy as well as the safety and feasibility of this combined radioimmunchemotherapy in order to improve the outcome of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. ISRCTN87356938

  18. Treatment of locally advanced carcinomas of head and neck with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy: the REACH protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Christian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary treatment of carcinoma of the oro-/hypopharynx or larynx may consist of combined platinum-containing chemoradiotherapy. In order to improve clinical outcome (i.e. local control/overall survival, combined therapy is intensified by the addition of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab (Erbitux®. Radiation therapy (RT is carried out as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT to avoid higher grade acute and late toxicity by sparing of surrounding normal tissues. Methods/Design The REACH study is a prospective phase II study combining chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU and the monoclonal epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR antibody cetuximab (Erbitux® as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell carcinomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. Patients receive weekly chemotherapy infusions in the 1st and 5th week of RT. Additionally, cetuximab is administered weekly throughout the treatment course. IMRT is delivered as in a classical concomitant boost concept (bid from fraction 16 to a total dose of 69,9 Gy. Discussion Primary endpoint of the trial is local-regional control (LRC. Disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, toxicity, proteomic and genomic analyses are secondary endpoints. The aim is to explore the efficacy as well as the safety and feasibility of this combined radioimmunchemotherapy in order to improve the outcome of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Trial registration ISRCTN87356938

  19. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  20. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  1. Towards autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We are moving towards an age of autonomous vehicles. Cycles of innovation initiated in the public and private sectors : have led one into another since the 1990s; and out of these efforts have sprung a variety of Advanced Driver Assistance : Systems ...

  2. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André; Vervoort, Wiek

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is

  3. Acoustic processing of temporally modulated sounds in infants: evidence from a combined near-infrared spectroscopy and EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eTelkemeyer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception requires rapid extraction of the linguistic content from the acoustic signal. The ability to efficiently process rapid changes in auditory information is important for decoding speech and thereby crucial during language acquisition. Investigating functional networks of speech perception in infancy might elucidate neuronal ensembles supporting perceptual abilities that gate language acquisition. Interhemispheric specializations for language have been demonstrated in infants. How these asymmetries are shaped by basic temporal acoustic properties is under debate. We recently provided evidence that newborns process non-linguistic sounds sharing temporal features with language in a differential and lateralized fashion. The present study used the same material while measuring brain responses of 6 and 3 month old infants using simultaneous recordings of electroencephalography (EEG and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. NIRS reveals that the lateralization observed in newborns remains constant over the first months of life. While fast acoustic modulations elicit bilateral neuronal activations, slow modulations lead to right-lateralized responses. Additionally, auditory evoked potentials and oscillatory EEG responses show differential responses for fast and slow modulations indicating a sensitivity for temporal acoustic variations. Oscillatory responses reveal an effect of development, that is, 6 but not 3 month old infants show stronger theta-band desynchronization for slowly modulated sounds. Whether this developmental effect is due to increasing fine-grained perception for spectrotemporal sounds in general remains speculative. Our findings support the notion that a more general specialization for acoustic properties can be considered the basis for lateralization of speech perception. The results show that concurrent assessment of vascular based imaging and electrophysiological responses have great potential in the research on language

  4. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity...... of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors......) are not altered in circulating blood cells in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Thus, a generalized up-regulation of adrenoceptors does not occur in diabetic autonomic neuropathy....

  5. Single or combined treatment with L-DOPA and quinpirole differentially modulate expression and phosphorylation of key regulatory kinases in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzzati-Armentero, Marie Therese; Ghezzi, Cristina; Nisticò, Robert; Oda, Adriano; Blandini, Fabio

    2013-09-27

    In the past decades, the clinical use of dopamine agonists has expanded from adjunct therapy in patients with a deteriorating response to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to monotherapy for the treatment of early PD. Dopamine agonists provide their antiparkinsonian benefit through stimulation of brain postsynaptic type 2 dopamine receptors that exert their effect through classical cAMP-dependent mechanisms, as well as cAMP-independent cellular signaling cascades, including the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) pathway. Alterations of Akt/GSK3 have been observed and may contribute to the neurodegenerative processes and the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. The effects L-DOPA and quinpirole, a dopamine agonist, on the two key regulatory kinases, Akt and GSK3, were evaluated in neuroblastoma cell line. L-DOPA and dopamine agonist dose-dependently and differentially modulated Akt and GSK3 expression and phosphorylation when added alone or combined. The combined treatment inverted or potentiated the modulatory properties of the single compound. The drug- and concentration-dependent balance of dopamine receptor stimulation over auto-oxidation may distinctively modulate GSK3 isoforms and Akt. Our results indicate that particular attention must be given to drug concentration and combination when multiple therapies are applied for the clinical treatment of PD patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Collateral Resistance and Sensitivity Modulate Evolution of High-Level Resistance to Drug Combination Treatment in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Evgrafov, Mari Cristina Rodriguez; Gumpert, Heidi; Munck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    As drug-resistant pathogens continue to emerge, combination therapy will increasingly be relied upon to treat infections and to help combat further development of multidrug resistance. At present a dichotomy exists between clinical practice, which favors therapeutically synergistic combinations......, to reflect drug concentrations more likely to be encountered during treatment. We performed a series of adaptive evolution experiments using Staphylococcus aureus. Interestingly, no relationship between drug interaction type and resistance evolution was found as resistance increased significantly beyond wild......-type levels. All drug combinations, irrespective of interaction types, effectively limited resistance evolution compared with monotreatment. Cross-resistance and collateral sensitivity were found to be important factors in the extent of resistance evolution toward a combination. Comparative genomic analyses...

  7. Methods of monitoring the technical condition of the braking system of an autonomous vehicle during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revin, A.; Dygalo, V.; Boyko, G.; Lyaschenko, M.; Dygalo, L.

    2018-02-01

    Possibilities of diagnosing of a technical condition of braking system of the autonomous vehicles with automated modules while in service are considered. The concept of sharing of onboard means and stands for diagnosing is presented.

  8. Tolerance of citrus plants to the combination of high temperatures and drought is associated to the increase in transpiration modulated by a reduction in abscisic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Rivero, Rosa M; Martínez, Vicente; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2016-04-27

    In natural environments, several adverse environmental conditions occur simultaneously constituting a unique stress factor. In this work, physiological parameters and the hormonal regulation of Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin, two citrus genotypes, in response to the combined action of high temperatures and water deprivation were studied. The objective was to characterize particular responses to the stress combination. Experiments indicated that Carrizo citrange is more tolerant to the stress combination than Cleopatra mandarin. Furthermore, an experimental design spanning 24 h stress duration, heat stress applied alone induced higher stomatal conductance and transpiration in both genotypes whereas combined water deprivation partially counteracted this response. Comparing both genotypes, Carrizo citrange showed higher phostosystem-II efficiency and lower oxidative damage than Cleopatra mandarin. Hormonal profiling in leaves revealed that salicylic acid (SA) accumulated in response to individual stresses but to a higher extent in samples subjected to the combination of heat and drought (showing an additive response). SA accumulation correlated with the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related gene 2 (CsPR2), as a downstream response. On the contrary, abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation was higher in water-stressed plants followed by that observed in plants under stress combination. ABA signaling in these plants was confirmed by the expression of responsive to ABA-related gene 18 (CsRAB18). Modulation of ABA levels was likely carried out by the induction of 9-neoxanthin cis-epoxicarotenoid dioxygenase (CsNCED) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CsCYP707A) while conversion to ABA-glycosyl ester (ABAGE) was a less prominent process despite the strong induction of ABA O-glycosyl transferase (CsAOG). Cleopatra mandarin is more susceptible to the combination of high temperatures and water deprivation than Carrizo citrange. This is likely a result of a higher transpiration rate in

  9. A Combined Water Extract of Frankincense and Myrrh Alleviates Neuropathic Pain in Mice via Modulation of TRPV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyou Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Frankincense and myrrh are widely used in clinics as a pair of herbs to obtain a synergistic effect for relieving pain. To illuminate the analgesia mechanism of frankincense and myrrh, we assessed its effect in a neuropathic pain mouse model. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 plays a crucial role in neuropathic pain and influences the plasticity of neuronal connectivity. We hypothesized that the water extraction of frankincense and myrrh (WFM exerted its analgesia effect by modulating the neuronal function of TRPV1. In our study, WFM was verified by UHPLC-TQ/MS assay. In vivo study showed that nociceptive response in mouse by heat and capsaicin induced were relieved by WFM treatment. Furthermore, thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia were also alleviated by WFM treatment in a chronic constriction injury (CCI mouse model. CCI resulted in increased TRPV1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in predominantly small-to-medium neurons. However, after WFM treatment, TRPV1 expression was reverted in real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence experiments. Calcium response to capsaicin was also decreased in cultured DRG neurons from CCI model mouse after WFM treatment. In conclusion, WFM alleviated CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hypersensitivity via modulating TRPV1.

  10. Autonomous Intersection Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    detects that the driver is not slowing sufficiently fast. Jaguar, Honda, and BMW offer similar systems. Nissan and Toyota have recently begun offering...that the driver is not braking hard enough. Both Toyota and BMW are currently selling vehicles that can parallel park completely autonomously, even...other vehicles. The system was tested both in simulation and with a robotic vehicle. This work is sponsored by Toyota , who have also currently have an

  11. Autonomía

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Muñoz, Juan Antonio

    2007-01-01

    En este ensayo la noción de autonomía es estudiada de un modo diferente al sentido habitual; sus implicaciones y las contradicciones que encierra, específicamente como sucedáneo de la genuina libertad. El artículo describe el modelo de hombre presupuesto en su uso. Concluye con su inviabilidad para resolver problemas morales y sociales.

  12. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra R. Raol; Ajith Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS) is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i) perception and reasoning, (ii) mobility and navigation,(iii) haptics and teleoperation, (iv) image fusion/computervision, (v) modelling of manipulators, (vi) hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii) ve...

  13. Highly Skilled Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Acosta Reche; Stratis Kanarachos; Mike V Blundell

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that collision mitigation on low grip surfaces might require autonomous vehicles to execute maneuvers such as drift, trail braking or Scandinavian flick. In order to achieve this it is necessary to perceive the vehicle states and their interaction with the environment, and use this information to determine the chassis limits. A first look at the virtual automotive sensing problem is provided, followed by a description of Rally driving modeling approaches. Finally, a c...

  14. Autonomous Underwater Gliders

    OpenAIRE

    Wood,; Stephen,

    2009-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles are only now being marketed as robust commercial vehicles for many industries, and of these vehicles underwater gliders are becoming the new tool for oceanographers. Satellites have provided scientists and marine specialists with measurements of the sea surface such as temperature since the late 1970s, and data via subsurface oceanographic moorings since the 1950's. As stated by David Smeed of the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, England, that "gliders...

  15. A Passive, Adaptive and Autonomous Gas Gap Heat Switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Colijn, B.A.; Vermeer, Cristian Hendrik; Holland, Herman J.; Tirolien, T.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development of a heat switch for autonomous temperature control of electronic components in a satellite. A heat switch can modulate when needed between roles of a good thermal conductor and a good thermal insulator. Electronic boxes on a satellite should be maintained within a

  16. Cardiac autonomic impairment and chronotropic incompetence in fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha Ribeiro, Roberta Potenza; Roschel, Hamilton; Artioli, Guilherme Gianini; Dassouki, Thalita; Perandini, Luiz Augusto; Calich, Ana Luisa; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Bonfá, Eloísa; Gualano, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We aimed to gather knowledge on the cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) in response to exercise and to investigate whether this population suffers from chronotropic incompetence (CI). Methods Fourteen women with FM (age: 46 ± 3 y...

  17. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  18. The modulation of oxygen vacancies by the combined current effect and temperature cycling in La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, J.; Kuang, H.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Qiao, K. M.; Liu, Y.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

    2018-05-01

    Modulating the oxygen defect concentration has been accepted as an effective method to obtain high catalytic activity in perovskite cobaltites. However, controllably modifying the oxygen vacancy is still a challenge in this type of materials, which strongly obstructs their application. Here, we report a successful oxygen vacancies modulation in the La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 (LSCO) film by using combined current effect and temperature cycling. The temperature dependent transport properties of the LSCO/LAO film were investigated. The results revealed that the resistance of the film keeps increasing under the repeated measurements. It was found that the accumulation of the oxygen vacancy by current effect transforms the Co4+ ion into Co3+ ion, which results in the enhancement of the resistance and thus the transport switching behavior. Moreover, the resistance in the cooling process was found to be much higher than that in previous cooling and heating processes, which indicates that the oxygen escapes more quickly in the high temperature region. On the other hand, our analysis indicates that the CoO6 distortion may contribute to the switching of transport behaviors in the low temperature region. Our work provides an effective and controllable way to modulate oxygen defect in the perovskite-type oxides.

  19. Combined resonant tank capacitance and pulse frequency modulation control for ZCS-SR inverter-fed high voltage DC power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S S; Iqbal, S; Kamarol, M

    2011-01-01

    Conventional pulse frequency modulated (PFM) zero current switching (ZCS) series resonant (SR) inverter fed high voltage dc power supplies have nearly zero switching loss. However, they have limitations of poor controllability at light loads and large output voltage ripple at low switching frequencies. To address these problems, this paper proposes a combined resonant tank capacitance and pulse frequency modulation based control approach. For the realization of the proposed control approach, the tank circuit of the resonant inverter is made up of several resonant capacitors that are switched into or out of the tank circuit by electromechanical switches. The output voltage of the converter is regulated by digitally modulating the resonant tank capacitance and narrowly varying the switching frequency. The proposed control scheme has several features, namely a wide range of controllability even at light loads, less output voltage ripple, and less current stress on the inverter's power switches at light loads. Therefore, the proposed control approach alleviates most of the problems associated with conventional PFM. Experimental results obtained from a scaled down laboratory prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  20. SU-F-BRA-05: Utility of the Combined Use of Two Types of HDR Sources with the Direction Modulation Brachytherapy (DMBT) Tandem Applicator for Cervical Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Meigooni, A Soleimani [Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Scanderbeg, D [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To maximize the dose to HRCTV while minimizing dose to the OARs, the combination of two HDR brachytherapy sources, 192-Ir and 169-Yb, used in combination with the recently-proposed novel direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator were examined. Methods: The DMBT tandem, made from nonmagnetic tungsten-alloy rod, with diameter of 5.4mm, has 6 symmetric peripheral holes of 1.3mm diameter. The 0.3mm thick bio-compatible plastic tubing wraps the tandem. MCNPX v.2.6 was used to simulate the mHDR 192-Ir V2 and 4140 HDR 169-Yb sources inside the DMBT applicator. Thought was by combining the higher energy 192-Ir (380keV) and lower energy 169-Yb (92.7keV) sources could create unprecedented level of dose conformality when combined with the high-degree intensity modulation capable DMBT tandem applicator. 3D dose matrices, with 1 mm3 resolution, were imported into an in-house-coded inverse optimization planning system to evaluate plan quality of 19 clinical patient cases. Prescription dose was 15Gy. All plans were normalized to receive the same HRCTV D90. Results: Generally, the use of dual sources produced better plans than using either of the sources alone, with significantly better performance in some patients. The mean D2cc for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 11.65±2.30Gy, 7.47±3.05Gy, and 9.84±2.48Gy for 192-Ir-only, respectively. For 169 -Yb-only, they were 11.67±2.26Gy, 7.44±3.02Gy, and 9.83±2.38Gy, respectively. The corresponding data for the dual sources were 11.51±2.24Gy, 7.30±3.00Gy, and 9.68 ±2.39Gy, respectively. The HRCTV D98 and V100 were 16.37±1.86Gy and 97.37±1.92Gy for Ir-192-only, respectively. For 169-Yb-only, they were 16.43±1.86Gy, and 97.51±1.91Gy, respectively. For the dual source, they were 16.42±1.87Gy and 97.47±1.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The plan quality improves, in some cases quite significantly, for when dual 192-Ir and 169-Yb sources are used in combination with highly intensity modulation capable

  1. Synchronization of autonomous objects in discrete event simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1990-01-01

    Autonomous objects in event-driven discrete event simulation offer the potential to combine the freedom of unrestricted movement and positional accuracy through Euclidean space of time-driven models with the computational efficiency of event-driven simulation. The principal challenge to autonomous object implementation is object synchronization. The concept of a spatial blackboard is offered as a potential methodology for synchronization. The issues facing implementation of a spatial blackboard are outlined and discussed.

  2. The modulation of radiosensitivity by combined treatment of selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS 398 and EGF receptor blocker AG 1478 in HeLa cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Seon Min; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, Joo Heon; Park, Mi Ja; Seong, In Ock [Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ki Mun; Chai, Gyu Yong [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Selective inhibition of multiple molecular targets may improve the antitumor activity of radiation. Two specific inhibitors of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were combined with radiation on the HeLa cell line. To investigate cooperative mechanism with selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker, in vitro experiments were done. Antitumor effect was obtained by growth inhibition and apoptosis analysis by annexin V-Flous method. Radiation modulation effects were determined by the clonogenic cell survival assay. Surviving fractions at 2 Gy (SF{sub 2}) and dose enhancement radio at a surviving fraction of 0.25 were evaluated. To investigate the mechanism of the modulation of radiosensitivity, the cell cycle analyses were done by flow cytometry. The bcl-2 and bax expressions were analyzed by western blot. A cooperative effect were observed on the apoptosis of the HeLa cell line when combination of the two drugs, AG 1478 and NS 398 with radiation at the lowest doses, apoptosis of 22.70% compare with combination of the one drug with radiation, apoptosis of 8.49%. In cell cycle analysis, accumulation of cell on G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase and decrement of S phase fraction was observed from 24 hours to 72 hours after treatment with radiation, AG 1478 and NS 398. The combination of NS 398 and AG 1478 enhanced radiosensitivity in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells with dose enhancement ratios of 3.00 and SF{sub 2} of 0.12 but the combination of one drug with radiation was not enhanced radiosensitivity with dose enhancement ratios of 1.12 and SF2 of 0.68 ({rho} = 0.005). The expression levels of bcl-2 and bax were reduced when combined with AG 1478 and NS 398. Our results indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker combined with radiation have potential additive or cooperative effects on radiation treatment and may act through various mechanisms including direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation

  3. The modulation of radiosensitivity by combined treatment of selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS 398 and EGF receptor blocker AG 1478 in HeLa cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Seon Min; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, Joo Heon; Park, Mi Ja; Seong, In Ock; Kang, Ki Mun; Chai, Gyu Yong

    2005-01-01

    Selective inhibition of multiple molecular targets may improve the antitumor activity of radiation. Two specific inhibitors of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were combined with radiation on the HeLa cell line. To investigate cooperative mechanism with selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker, in vitro experiments were done. Antitumor effect was obtained by growth inhibition and apoptosis analysis by annexin V-Flous method. Radiation modulation effects were determined by the clonogenic cell survival assay. Surviving fractions at 2 Gy (SF 2 ) and dose enhancement radio at a surviving fraction of 0.25 were evaluated. To investigate the mechanism of the modulation of radiosensitivity, the cell cycle analyses were done by flow cytometry. The bcl-2 and bax expressions were analyzed by western blot. A cooperative effect were observed on the apoptosis of the HeLa cell line when combination of the two drugs, AG 1478 and NS 398 with radiation at the lowest doses, apoptosis of 22.70% compare with combination of the one drug with radiation, apoptosis of 8.49%. In cell cycle analysis, accumulation of cell on G 0 /G 1 phase and decrement of S phase fraction was observed from 24 hours to 72 hours after treatment with radiation, AG 1478 and NS 398. The combination of NS 398 and AG 1478 enhanced radiosensitivity in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells with dose enhancement ratios of 3.00 and SF 2 of 0.12 but the combination of one drug with radiation was not enhanced radiosensitivity with dose enhancement ratios of 1.12 and SF2 of 0.68 (ρ = 0.005). The expression levels of bcl-2 and bax were reduced when combined with AG 1478 and NS 398. Our results indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker combined with radiation have potential additive or cooperative effects on radiation treatment and may act through various mechanisms including direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, suppression of tumor cell

  4. SOLON: An autonomous vehicle mission planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The State-Operator Logic Machine (SOLON) Planner provides an architecture for effective real-time planning and replanning for an autonomous vehicle. The highlights of the system, which distinguish it from other AI-based planners that have been designed previously, are its hybrid application of state-driven control architecture and the use of both schematic representations and logic programming for the management of its knowledge base. SOLON is designed to provide multiple levels of planning for a single autonomous vehicle which is supplied with a skeletal, partially-specified mission plan at the outset of the vehicle's operations. This mission plan consists of a set of objectives, each of which will be decomposable by the planner into tasks. These tasks are themselves comparatively complex sets of actions which are executable by a conventional real-time control system which does not perform planning but which is capable of making adjustments or modifications to the provided tasks according to constraints and tolerances provided by the Planner. The current implementation of the SOLON is in the form of a real-time simulation of the Planner module of an Intelligent Vehicle Controller (IVC) on-board an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The simulation is embedded within a larger simulator environment known as ICDS (Intelligent Controller Development System) operating on a Symbolics 3645/75 computer.

  5. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, Sabita N., E-mail: sabivan@uab.edu [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104 (United States); Kala, Rishabh [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Tollefsbol, Trygve O., E-mail: trygve@uab.edu [Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 175 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Center for Healthy Aging, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Diabetes Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells. - Highlights: • EGCG and NaB as a combination inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • The combination treatment induces DNA damage, G2/M and G1 arrest and apoptosis. • Survivin is effectively down-regulated by the combination treatment. • p21 and p53 expressions are induced by the combination treatment. • Epigenetic proteins DNMT1 and HDAC1 are

  6. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldanha, Sabita N.; Kala, Rishabh; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells. - Highlights: • EGCG and NaB as a combination inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • The combination treatment induces DNA damage, G2/M and G1 arrest and apoptosis. • Survivin is effectively down-regulated by the combination treatment. • p21 and p53 expressions are induced by the combination treatment. • Epigenetic proteins DNMT1 and HDAC1 are

  7. Treatment of Diabetic Mice with a Combination of Ketogenic Diet and Aerobic Exercise via Modulations of PPARs Gene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingyan; Xia, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Qian, Min

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease arising as a serious public health problem worldwide. Diet intervention is considered to be a critical strategy in glycemic control of diabetic patients. Recently, the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet is shown to be effective in glycemic control and weight loss. However, hepatic lipid accumulation could be observed in mice treated with ketogenic diet. On the other hand, exercise is a well-known approach for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We thus hypothesize that the combination of ketogenic diet and exercise could improve insulin sensitivity, while minimizing adverse effect of hepatic steatosis. In order to test this hypothesis, we established diabetic mice model with streptozotocin (STZ) and divided them into control group, ketogenic diet group, and ketogenic diet with aerobic exercise group. We found that after six weeks of intervention, mice treated with ketogenic diet and ketogenic diet combined with exercise both have lower body weights, HbAlc level, HOMA index, and improvements in insulin sensitivity, compared with diabetes group. In addition, mice in ketogenic diet intervention exhibited hepatic steatosis shown by serum and hepatic parameters, as well as histochemistry staining in the liver, which could be largely relieved by exercise. Furthermore, gene analysis revealed that ketogenic diet in combination with exercise reduced PPARγ and lipid synthetic genes, as well as enhancing PPARα and lipid β-oxidation gene program in the liver compared to those in ketogenic diet without exercise. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the combination of ketogenic diet and a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice, while avoiding hepatic steatosis, which provided a novel strategy in the combat of diabetes. PMID:29743883

  8. Treatment of Diabetic Mice with a Combination of Ketogenic Diet and Aerobic Exercise via Modulations of PPARs Gene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Lingyan; Xia, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Qian, Min; Ding, Shuzhe

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease arising as a serious public health problem worldwide. Diet intervention is considered to be a critical strategy in glycemic control of diabetic patients. Recently, the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet is shown to be effective in glycemic control and weight loss. However, hepatic lipid accumulation could be observed in mice treated with ketogenic diet. On the other hand, exercise is a well-known approach for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We thus hypothesize that the combination of ketogenic diet and exercise could improve insulin sensitivity, while minimizing adverse effect of hepatic steatosis. In order to test this hypothesis, we established diabetic mice model with streptozotocin (STZ) and divided them into control group, ketogenic diet group, and ketogenic diet with aerobic exercise group. We found that after six weeks of intervention, mice treated with ketogenic diet and ketogenic diet combined with exercise both have lower body weights, HbAlc level, HOMA index, and improvements in insulin sensitivity, compared with diabetes group. In addition, mice in ketogenic diet intervention exhibited hepatic steatosis shown by serum and hepatic parameters, as well as histochemistry staining in the liver, which could be largely relieved by exercise. Furthermore, gene analysis revealed that ketogenic diet in combination with exercise reduced PPAR γ and lipid synthetic genes, as well as enhancing PPAR α and lipid β -oxidation gene program in the liver compared to those in ketogenic diet without exercise. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the combination of ketogenic diet and a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice, while avoiding hepatic steatosis, which provided a novel strategy in the combat of diabetes.

  9. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent ...

  10. Not Deep Learning but Autonomous Learning of Open Innovation for Sustainable Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinHyo Joseph Yun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What do we need for sustainable artificial intelligence that is not harmful but beneficial human life? This paper builds up the interaction model between direct and autonomous learning from the human’s cognitive learning process and firms’ open innovation process. It conceptually establishes a direct and autonomous learning interaction model. The key factor of this model is that the process to respond to entries from external environments through interactions between autonomous learning and direct learning as well as to rearrange internal knowledge is incessant. When autonomous learning happens, the units of knowledge determinations that arise from indirect learning are separated. They induce not only broad autonomous learning made through the horizontal combinations that surpass the combinations that occurred in direct learning but also in-depth autonomous learning made through vertical combinations that appear so that new knowledge is added. The core of the interaction model between direct and autonomous learning is the variability of the boundary between proven knowledge and hypothetical knowledge, limitations in knowledge accumulation, as well as complementarity and conflict between direct and autonomous learning. Therefore, these should be considered when introducing the interaction model between direct and autonomous learning into navigations, cleaning robots, search engines, etc. In addition, we should consider the relationship between direct learning and autonomous learning when building up open innovation strategies and policies.

  11. Unveiling combinatorial regulation through the combination of ChIP information and in silico cis-regulatory module detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Guns, Tias; Fierro, Ana Carolina; Thorrez, Lieven; Nijssen, Siegfried; Marchal, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Computationally retrieving biologically relevant cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) is not straightforward. Because of the large number of candidates and the imperfection of the screening methods, many spurious CRMs are detected that are as high scoring as the biologically true ones. Using ChIP-information allows not only to reduce the regions in which the binding sites of the assayed transcription factor (TF) should be located, but also allows restricting the valid CRMs to those that contain the assayed TF (here referred to as applying CRM detection in a query-based mode). In this study, we show that exploiting ChIP-information in a query-based way makes in silico CRM detection a much more feasible endeavor. To be able to handle the large datasets, the query-based setting and other specificities proper to CRM detection on ChIP-Seq based data, we developed a novel powerful CRM detection method ‘CPModule’. By applying it on a well-studied ChIP-Seq data set involved in self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells, we demonstrate how our tool can recover combinatorial regulation of five known TFs that are key in the self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells. Additionally, we make a number of new predictions on combinatorial regulation of these five key TFs with other TFs documented in TRANSFAC. PMID:22422841

  12. Autostereoscopic three-dimensional display by combining a single spatial light modulator and a zero-order nulled grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanfeng; Cai, Zhijian; Liu, Quan; Lu, Yifan; Guo, Peiliang; Shi, Lingyan; Wu, Jianhong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, an autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) display system based on synthetic hologram reconstruction is proposed and implemented. The system uses a single phase-only spatial light modulator to load the synthetic hologram of the left and right stereo images, and the parallax angle between two reconstructed stereo images is enlarged by a grating to meet the split angle requirement of normal stereoscopic vision. To realize the crosstalk-free autostereoscopic 3D display with high light utilization efficiency, the groove parameters of the grating are specifically designed by the rigorous coupled-wave theory for suppressing the zero-order diffraction, and then the zero-order nulled grating is fabricated by the holographic lithography and the ion beam etching. Furthermore, the diffraction efficiency of the fabricated grating is measured under the illumination of a laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm. Finally, the experimental verification system for the proposed autostereoscopic 3D display is presented. The experimental results prove that the proposed system is able to generate stereoscopic 3D images with good performances.

  13. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in combination with cetuximab: the NEAR protocol (NCT00115518)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, AD; Hoess, A; Haberkorn, U; Huber, PE; Steins, M; Thomas, M; Debus, J; Herfarth, KK; Münter, MW; Bischoff, H; Haselmann, R; Timke, C; Krempien, R; Sterzing, F; Nill, S; Heeger, S

    2006-01-01

    Even today, treatment of Stage III NSCLC still poses a serious challenge. So far, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Patients whose tumour is not resectable or who are unfit to undergo surgery are usually referred to a combined radio-chemotherapy. However, combined radio-chemotherapeutic treatment is also associated with sometimes marked side effects but has been shown to be more efficient than radiation therapy alone. Nevertheless, there is a significant subset of patients whose overall condition does not permit administration of chemotherapy in a combined-modality treatment. It could be demonstrated though, that NSCLCs often exhibit over-expression of EGF-receptors hence providing an excellent target for the monoclonal EGFR-antagonist cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) which has already been shown to be effective in colorectal as well as head-and-neck tumours with comparatively mild side-effects. The NEAR trial is a prospective phase II feasibility study combining a monoclonal EGF-receptor antibody with loco-regional irradiation in patients with stage III NSCLC. This trial aims at testing the combination's efficacy and rate of development of distant metastases with an accrual of 30 patients. Patients receive weekly infusions of cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) plus loco-regional radiation therapy as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. After conclusion of radiation treatment patients continue to receive weekly cetuximab for 13 more cycles. The primary objective of the NEAR trial is to evaluate toxicities and feasibility of the combined treatment with cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) and IMRT loco-regional irradiation. Secondary objectives are remission rates, 3-year-survival and local/systemic progression-free survival

  14. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in combination with cetuximab: the NEAR protocol (NCT00115518

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoess A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even today, treatment of Stage III NSCLC still poses a serious challenge. So far, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Patients whose tumour is not resectable or who are unfit to undergo surgery are usually referred to a combined radio-chemotherapy. However, combined radio-chemotherapeutic treatment is also associated with sometimes marked side effects but has been shown to be more efficient than radiation therapy alone. Nevertheless, there is a significant subset of patients whose overall condition does not permit administration of chemotherapy in a combined-modality treatment. It could be demonstrated though, that NSCLCs often exhibit over-expression of EGF-receptors hence providing an excellent target for the monoclonal EGFR-antagonist cetuximab (Erbitux® which has already been shown to be effective in colorectal as well as head-and-neck tumours with comparatively mild side-effects. Methods/design The NEAR trial is a prospective phase II feasibility study combining a monoclonal EGF-receptor antibody with loco-regional irradiation in patients with stage III NSCLC. This trial aims at testing the combination's efficacy and rate of development of distant metastases with an accrual of 30 patients. Patients receive weekly infusions of cetuximab (Erbitux® plus loco-regional radiation therapy as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. After conclusion of radiation treatment patients continue to receive weekly cetuximab for 13 more cycles. Discussion The primary objective of the NEAR trial is to evaluate toxicities and feasibility of the combined treatment with cetuximab (Erbitux® and IMRT loco-regional irradiation. Secondary objectives are remission rates, 3-year-survival and local/systemic progression-free survival.

  15. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  16. Autonomic Fuselet Specification and Composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Peter H

    2006-01-01

    A framework for autonomic fuselet business logic development was developed, using semantic web services and workflow technologies to specify fuselet information needs, to define an executable workflow...

  17. Associação entre função endotelial e a modulação autonômica em pacientes com doença de chagas Association between endothelial function and autonomic modulation in patients with chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Barni Truccolo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Em condição homeostática, o Sistema Nervoso Autônomo (SNA, pela liberação de neurotransmissores vasoconstritores, e o endotélio, pela liberação de substâncias vasodilatadoras, atuam em sintonia para manter o tônus vascular. Todavia, a associação entre esses dois sistemas em portadores da doença de Chagas na forma indeterminada (DChI ainda não foi estudada. OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre parâmetros referentes à modulação autonômica e à função endotelial em portadores da DChI. MÉTODOS: Treze pacientes com DChI (59,2 ± 11,23 anos sem fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular foram avaliados para modulação autonômica pelo método oscilométrico da pressão arterial (Finapress e a análise dos registros mediante a técnica da Variabilidade da Frequência Cardíaca (VFC no domínio da frequência. A função endotelial foi avaliada pelo método de dilatação mediada pelo fluxo da artéria braquial (DMF, usando imagens de ultrassom de alta resolução. RESULTADOS: Na posição em decúbito dorsal foi observada correlação entre os componentes espectrais de alta (HF (r = 0,78 p = 0,007 e baixa (LF frequências normalizadas (r = 0,68 p = 0,01, bem como com o balanço simpatovagal (LF/HF (r= -0,78 p = 0,004 com a DMF. CONCLUSÃO: Nosso estudo aponta a existência de uma relação entre as alterações na modulação autonômica e na função endotelial em pacientes com Doença de Chagas na forma indeterminada.BACKGROUND: Under homeostatic condition, the autonomic nervous system (ANS, through the release of vasoconstrictor neurotransmitters, and the endothelium, through the release of vasodilating substances, interact to maintain blood vessel tone. However, the association between those two systems in patients with Chagas disease in its indeterminate phase (IChD has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between autonomic modulation parameters and endothelial function in patients with

  18. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  19. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  20. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  1. Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combined Modality Treatment for Bladder Preservation in Elderly Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Guy-Anne [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis, E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L.; Faria, Sergio L.; Duclos, Marie [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sturgeon, Jeremy [Department of Medical Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. Results: 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible. A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid

  2. Learning Objects and Grasp Affordances through Autonomous Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Detry, Renaud; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We describe a system for autonomous learning of visual object representations and their grasp affordances on a robot-vision system. It segments objects by grasping and moving 3D scene features, and creates probabilistic visual representations for object detection, recognition and pose estimation...... image sequences as well as (3) a number of built-in behavioral modules on the one hand, and autonomous exploration on the other hand, the system is able to generate object and grasping knowledge through interaction with its environment....

  3. Autonomic headache with autonomic seizures: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Aynur; Kaleagasi, Hakan; Yalçin Tasmertek, Fazilet

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the report is to present a case of an autonomic headache associated with autonomic seizures. A 19-year-old male who had had complex partial seizures for 15 years was admitted with autonomic complaints and left hemicranial headache, independent from seizures, that he had had for 2 years and were provoked by watching television. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed right hippocampal sclerosis and electroencephalography revealed epileptic activity in right hemispheric areas. Treatment with valproic acid decreased the complaints. The headache did not fulfil the criteria for the diagnosis of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, and was different from epileptic headache, which was defined as a pressing type pain felt over the forehead for several minutes to a few hours. Although epileptic headache responds to anti-epileptics and the complaints of the present case decreased with antiepileptics, it has been suggested that the headache could be a non-trigeminal autonomic headache instead of an epileptic headache.

  4. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  5. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  6. Salmosan, a β-galactomannan-rich product, in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum contributes to restore intestinal epithelial barrier function by modulation of cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brufau, M Teresa; Campo-Sabariz, Joan; Carné, Sergi; Ferrer, Ruth; Martín-Venegas, Raquel

    2017-03-01

    Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOSs) are mannose-rich substrates with several intestinal health-promoting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential capacity of Salmosan (S-βGM), a β-galactomannan-rich MOS product, to restore epithelial barrier function independently from its capacity to reduce bacterial invasion. In addition, the combination of S-βGM with the proven probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) was also tested. Paracellular permeability was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in co-cultures of Caco-2 cells and macrophages (differentiated from THP-1 cells) stimulated with LPS of Salmonella Enteritidis and in Caco-2 cell cultures stimulated with TNF-α in the absence or presence of 500 μg/ml S-βGM, LP (MOI 10) or a combination of both. In both culture models, TER was significantly reduced up to 25% by LPS or TNF-α stimulation, and the addition of S-βGM or LP alone did not modify TER, whereas the combination of both restored TER to values of nonstimulated cells. Under LPS stimulation, TNF-α production was significantly increased by 10-fold, whereas IL-10 and IL-6 levels were not modified. The combination of S-βGM and LP reduced TNF-α production to nonstimulated cell values and significantly increased IL-10 and IL-6 levels (5- and 7.5-fold, respectively). Moreover, S-βGM has the capacity to induce an increase of fivefold in LP growth. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that S-βGM in combination with LP protects epithelial barrier function by modulation of cytokine secretion, thus giving an additional value to this MOS as a potential symbiotic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Grid administration: towards an autonomic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ubeda Garcia, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Charpentier, P; Bernardof, V

    2012-01-01

    Within the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we deployed an autonomous policy system acting as a central status information point for grid elements. Experts working as grid administrators have a broad and very deep knowledge about the underlying system which makes them very precious. We have attempted to formalize this knowledge in an autonomous system able to aggregate information, draw conclusions, validate them, and take actions accordingly. The DIRAC Resource Status System (RSS) is a monitoring and generic policy system that enforces managerial and operational actions automatically. As an example, the status of a grid entity can be evaluated using a number of policies, each making assessments relative to specific monitoring information. Individual results of these policies can be combined to evaluate and propose a global status for the resource. This evaluation goes through a validation step driven by a state machine and an external validation system. Once validated, actions can be triggered acco...

  8. Wavefront Propagation and Fuzzy Based Autonomous Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Al-Jumaily

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Path planning and obstacle avoidance are the two major issues in any navigation system. Wavefront propagation algorithm, as a good path planner, can be used to determine an optimal path. Obstacle avoidance can be achieved using possibility theory. Combining these two functions enable a robot to autonomously navigate to its destination. This paper presents the approach and results in implementing an autonomous navigation system for an indoor mobile robot. The system developed is based on a laser sensor used to retrieve data to update a two dimensional world model of therobot environment. Waypoints in the path are incorporated into the obstacle avoidance. Features such as ageing of objects and smooth motion planning are implemented to enhance efficiency and also to cater for dynamic environments.

  9. SU-E-T-539: Fixed Versus Variable Optimization Points in Combined-Mode Modulated Arc Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, K; Prah, D; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A novel modulated arc therapy technique, mARC, enables superposition of step-and-shoot IMRT segments upon a subset of the optimization points (OPs) of a continuous-arc delivery. We compare two approaches to mARC planning: one with the number of OPs fixed throughout optimization, and another where the planning system determines the number of OPs in the final plan, subject to an upper limit defined at the outset. Methods: Fixed-OP mARC planning was performed for representative cases using Panther v. 5.01 (Prowess, Inc.), while variable-OP mARC planning used Monaco v. 5.00 (Elekta, Inc.). All Monaco planning used an upper limit of 91 OPs; those OPs with minimal MU were removed during optimization. Plans were delivered, and delivery times recorded, on a Siemens Artiste accelerator using a flat 6MV beam with 300 MU/min rate. Dose distributions measured using ArcCheck (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Inc.) were compared with the plan calculation; the two were deemed consistent if they agreed to within 3.5% in absolute dose and 3.5 mm in distance-to-agreement among > 95% of the diodes within the direct beam. Results: Example cases included a prostate and a head-and-neck planned with a single arc and fraction doses of 1.8 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Aside from slightly more uniform target dose for the variable-OP plans, the DVHs for the two techniques were similar. For the fixed-OP technique, the number of OPs was 38 and 39, and the delivery time was 228 and 259 seconds, respectively, for the prostate and head-and-neck cases. For the final variable-OP plans, there were 91 and 85 OPs, and the delivery time was 296 and 440 seconds, correspondingly longer than for fixed-OP. Conclusion: For mARC, both the fixed-OP and variable-OP approaches produced comparable-quality plans whose delivery was successfully verified. To keep delivery time per fraction short, a fixed-OP planning approach is preferred

  10. SU-E-T-539: Fixed Versus Variable Optimization Points in Combined-Mode Modulated Arc Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainz, K; Prah, D; Ahunbay, E; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel modulated arc therapy technique, mARC, enables superposition of step-and-shoot IMRT segments upon a subset of the optimization points (OPs) of a continuous-arc delivery. We compare two approaches to mARC planning: one with the number of OPs fixed throughout optimization, and another where the planning system determines the number of OPs in the final plan, subject to an upper limit defined at the outset. Methods: Fixed-OP mARC planning was performed for representative cases using Panther v. 5.01 (Prowess, Inc.), while variable-OP mARC planning used Monaco v. 5.00 (Elekta, Inc.). All Monaco planning used an upper limit of 91 OPs; those OPs with minimal MU were removed during optimization. Plans were delivered, and delivery times recorded, on a Siemens Artiste accelerator using a flat 6MV beam with 300 MU/min rate. Dose distributions measured using ArcCheck (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Inc.) were compared with the plan calculation; the two were deemed consistent if they agreed to within 3.5% in absolute dose and 3.5 mm in distance-to-agreement among > 95% of the diodes within the direct beam. Results: Example cases included a prostate and a head-and-neck planned with a single arc and fraction doses of 1.8 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Aside from slightly more uniform target dose for the variable-OP plans, the DVHs for the two techniques were similar. For the fixed-OP technique, the number of OPs was 38 and 39, and the delivery time was 228 and 259 seconds, respectively, for the prostate and head-and-neck cases. For the final variable-OP plans, there were 91 and 85 OPs, and the delivery time was 296 and 440 seconds, correspondingly longer than for fixed-OP. Conclusion: For mARC, both the fixed-OP and variable-OP approaches produced comparable-quality plans whose delivery was successfully verified. To keep delivery time per fraction short, a fixed-OP planning approach is preferred.

  11. An Immune-Modulating Diet in Combination with Chemotherapy Prevents Cancer Cachexia by Attenuating Systemic Inflammation in Colon 26 Tumor-Bearing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kentaro; Sasayama, Akina; Takahashi, Takeshi; Yamaji, Taketo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by muscle wasting caused partly by systemic inflammation. We previously demonstrated an immune-modulating diet (IMD), an enteral diet enriched with immunonutrition and whey-hydrolyzed peptides, to have antiinflammatory effects in some experimental models. Here, we investigated whether the IMD in combination with chemotherapy could prevent cancer cachexia in colon 26 tumor-bearing mice. Forty tumor-bearing mice were randomized into 5 groups: tumor-bearing control (TB), low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and standard diet (LF/ST), low dose 5-FU and IMD (LF/IMD), high dose 5-FU and standard diet (HF/ST) and high dose 5-FU and IMD (HF/IMD). The ST and IMD mice received a standard diet or the IMD ad libitum for 21 days. Muscle mass in the IMD mice was significantly higher than that in the ST mice. The LF/IMD in addition to the HF/ST and HF/IMD mice preserved their body and carcass weights. Plasma prostaglandin E2 levels were significantly lower in the IMD mice than in the ST mice. A combined effect was also observed in plasma interleukin-6, glucose, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. Tumor weight was not affected by different diets. In conclusion, the IMD in combination with chemotherapy prevented cancer cachexia without suppressing chemotherapeutic efficacy.

  12. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Offspring of Hypertensive Parents During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leonardo Barbosa de; Peçanha, Tiago; Mira, Pedro Augusto de Carvalho; Souza, Livia Victorino de; da Silva, Lílian Pinto; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Freitas, Isabelle Magalhães Guedes; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2017-12-01

    Offspring of hypertensive parents present autonomic dysfunction at rest and during physiological maneuvers. However, the cardiac autonomic modulation during exercise remains unknown. This study tested whether the cardiac autonomic modulation would be reduced in offspring of hypertensive parents during exercise. Fourteen offspring of hypertensive and 14 offspring of normotensive individuals were evaluated. The groups were matched by age (24.5±1.0 vs. 26.6±1.5 years; p=0.25) and BMI (22.8±0.6 vs. 24.2±1.0 kg/m 2 ; p=0.30). Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed simultaneously during 3 min at baseline followed by 3-min isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction. Cardiac autonomic modulation was evaluated using heart rate variability. Primary variables were subjected to two-way ANOVA (group vs. time). P valueexercise protocol. In contrast, offspring of hypertensive subjects showed a reduction of SDNN (Basal=34.8±3.5 vs. 45.2±3.7 ms; Exercise=30.8±3.3 vs. 41.5±3.9 ms; p group=0.01), RMSSD (Basal=37.1±3.7 vs. 52.0±6.0 ms; Exercise=28.6±3.4 vs. 41.9±5.3 ms; p group=0.02) and pNN50 (Basal=15.7±4.0 vs. 29.5±5.5%; Exercise=7.7±2.4 vs. 18.0±4.3%; p group=0.03) during the exercise protocol in comparison with offspring of normotensive parents. We concluded that normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents exhibit impaired cardiac autonomic modulation during exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Behavioural domain knowledge transfer for autonomous agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , and Behavior Transfer in Autonomous Robots, AAAI 2014 Fall Symposium Series, 13-15 November 2014 Behavioural Domain Knowledge Transfer for Autonomous Agents Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Modelling and Digital Science Council...

  14. From cooperative to autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sande, T.P.J.; Nijmeijer, H.; Fossen, T.I.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    What defines an autonomous vehicle? In this chapter the authors will try to answer this question and formulate the limitations of driver assistance systems as well as for—conditionally—autonomous vehicles . First a short summary of the levels of automation as provided by the society of automotive

  15. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.

    2016-01-01

    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  16. Monolithic Integration of Sampled Grating DBR with Electroabsorption Modulator by Combining Selective-Area-Growth MOCVD and Quantum-Well Intermixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Bo, Liu; Ling-Juan, Zhao; Jiao-Qing, Pan; Hong-Liang, Zhu; Fan, Zhou; Bao-Jun, Wang; Wei, Wang

    2008-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of a sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) laser with a quantum-well electroabsorption modulator (QW-EAM) by combining ultra-low-pressure (55mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG) metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and quantum-well intermixing (QWI) for the first time. The QW-EAM and the gain section can be grown simultaneously by using SAG MOCVD technology. Meanwhile, the QWI technology offers an abrupt band-gap change between two functional sections, which reduces internal absorption loss. The experimental results show that the threshold current Ith = 62 mA, and output power reaches 3.6mW. The wavelength tuning range covers 30nm, and all the corresponding side mode suppression ratios are over 30 dB. The extinction ratios at available wavelength channels can reach more than 14 dB with bias of -5 V

  17. Measurement of the modulation transfer function of a charge-coupled device array by the combination of the self-imaging effect and slanted edge method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Sedigheh; Madanipour, Khosro

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, by a combination of the self-imaging effect for Ronchi gratings and the standard slanted edge modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement method for CCD cameras, the MTF of the CCD array without optics is measured. For this purpose, a Ronchi-type grating is illuminated by an expanded He-Ne laser. A self-image of the grating appears without optics on the CCD array that is located on the Talbot distance. The lines of the self-image of the grating are used as a slanted edge array. This method has all the advantages of the slanted edge method, and also since the array of the edge is ready, the total area of the CCD can be tested. The measured MTF is related to the CCD array without optics.

  18. Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

    Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

  19. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogacki, John R

    2007-01-01

    ... vehicles, cooperative flight of autonomous aerial vehicles using GPS and vision information, cooperative and sharing of information in search missions involving multiple autonomous agents, multi-scale...

  20. Epigenetic modulation of AR gene expression in prostate cancer DU145 cells with the combination of sodium butyrate and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialova, Barbora; Luzna, Petra; Gursky, Jan; Langova, Katerina; Kolar, Zdenek; Trtkova, Katerina Smesny

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a consequence of androgen deprivation therapy. Unchecked CRPC followed by metastasis is lethal. Some CRPCs show decreased AR gene expression due to epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. The aim of this study was to epigenetically modulate the methylated state of the AR gene leading to targeted demethylation and AR gene expression in androgen-independent human prostate cancer DU145 cell line, representing the CRPC model with very low or undetectable AR levels. The cell treatment was based on single and combined applications of two epigenetic inhibitors, sodium butyrate (NaB) as histone deacetylases inhibitor and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferases inhibitor. We found that the Aza-dC in combination with NaB may help reduce the toxicity of higher NaB concentrations in cancer cells. In normal RWPE-1 cells and even stronger in cancer DU145 cells, the combined treatment induced both AR gene expression on the mRNA level and increased histone H4 acetylation in AR gene promoter. Also activation and maintenance of G2/M cell cycle arrest and better survival in normal RWPE-1 cells compared to cancer DU145 cells were observed after the treatments. These results imply the selective toxicity effect of both inhibitors used and their potentially more effective combined use in the epigenetic therapy of prostate cancer patients.

  1. Genome-Wide Immune Modulation of TLR3-Mediated Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Differs between Single and Multi-Strain Probiotic Combination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W MacPherson

    Full Text Available Genome-wide transcriptional analysis in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC can aid in elucidating the impact of single versus multi-strain probiotic combinations on immunological and cellular mechanisms of action. In this study we used human expression microarray chips in an in vitro intestinal epithelial cell model to investigate the impact of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 (Lh-R0052, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033 (Bl-R0033 and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (Bb-R0071 individually and in combination, and of a surface-layer protein (SLP purified from Lh-R0052, on HT-29 cells' transcriptional profile to poly(I:C-induced inflammation. Hierarchical heat map clustering, Set Distiller and String analyses revealed that the effects of Lh-R0052 and Bb-R0071 diverged from those of Bl-R0033 and Lh-R0052-SLP. It was evident from the global analyses with respect to the immune, cellular and homeostasis related pathways that the co-challenge with probiotic combination (PC vastly differed in its effect from the single strains and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments. The multi-strain PC resulted in a greater reduction of modulated genes, found through functional connections between immune and cellular pathways. Cytokine and chemokine analyses based on specific outcomes from the TNF-α and NF-κB signaling pathways revealed single, multi-strain and Lh-R0052-SLP specific attenuation of the majority of proteins measured (TNF-α, IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL10, indicating potentially different mechanisms. These findings indicate a synergistic effect of the bacterial combinations relative to the single strain and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments in resolving toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3-induced inflammation in IEC and maintaining cellular homeostasis, reinforcing the rationale for using multi-strain formulations as a probiotic.

  2. Evaluation of a mixed beam therapy for post-mastectomy breast cancer patients: bolus electron conformal therapy combined with intensity modulated photon radiotherapy and volumetric modulated photon arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Heins, David; Sanders, Mary; Guo, Beibei; Hogstrom, Kenneth

    2018-05-10

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential benefits and limitations of a mixed beam therapy, which combined bolus electron conformal therapy (BECT) with intensity modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated photon arc therapy (VMAT), for left-sided post-mastectomy breast cancer patients. Mixed beam treatment plans were produced for nine post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) patients previously treated at our clinic with VMAT alone. The mixed beam plans consisted of 40 Gy to the chest wall area using BECT, 40 Gy to the supraclavicular area using parallel opposed IMRT, and 10 Gy to the total planning target volume (PTV) by optimizing VMAT on top of the BECT+IMRT dose distribution. The treatment plans were created in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), and all plans were evaluated based on PTV coverage, dose homogeneity index (DHI), conformity index (CI), dose to organs at risk (OARs), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and secondary cancer complication probability (SCCP). The standard VMAT alone planning technique was used as the reference for comparison. Both techniques produced clinically acceptable PMRT plans but with a few significant differences: VMAT showed significantly better CI (0.70 vs. 0.53, p 0.5 cm and volume of tissue between the distal PTV surface and heart or lung approximately > 250 cm 3 ) between distal PTV surface and lung may benefit the most from mixed beam therapy. This work has demonstrated that mixed beam therapy (BECT+IMRT : VMAT = 4 : 1) produces clinically acceptable plans having reduced OAR doses and risks of side effects compared with VMAT. Even though VMAT alone produces more homogenous and conformal dose distributions, mixed beam therapy remains as a viable option for treating post-mastectomy patients, possibly leading to reduced normal tissue complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  4. Separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ⁹-THC in humans discriminating Δ⁹-THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lile, Joshua A; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2014-10-01

    Our previous research suggested the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in particular the GABAB receptor subtype, in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). The aim of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the GABAA receptor subtype by assessing the separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ(9)-THC using pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedures. Ten cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ(9)-THC from placebo and then received diazepam (5 and 10mg), Δ(9)-THC (5, 15 and 30 mg) and placebo, alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance and physiological measures were also collected. Δ(9)-THC functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced subjective effects typically associated with cannabinoids (e.g., High, Stoned, Like Drug) and elevated heart rate. Diazepam alone impaired performance on psychomotor performance tasks and increased ratings on a limited number of self-report questionnaire items (e.g., Any Effect, Sedated), but did not substitute for the Δ(9)-THC discriminative stimulus or alter the Δ(9)-THC discrimination dose-response function. Similarly, diazepam had limited impact on the other behavioral effects of Δ(9)-THC. These results suggest that the GABAA receptor subtype has minimal involvement in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-THC, and by extension cannabis, in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilot study of combination transcriptional modulation therapy with sodium phenylbutyrate and 5-azacytidine in patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslak, P; Chanel, S; Camacho, L H; Soignet, S; Pandolfi, P P; Guernah, I; Warrell, R; Nimer, S

    2006-02-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis have recently received much attention as potential therapeutic targets of human cancer. We designed a pilot study to target DNA methylation and histone deacetylation through the sequential administration of 5-azacytidine followed by sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Ten evaluable patients (eight AML, two MDS) were treated with seven consecutive daily subcutaneous injections of 5-azacytidine at 75 mg/m2 followed by 5 days of sodium PB given intravenously at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Five patients (50%) were able to achieve a beneficial clinical response (partial remission or stable disease). One patient with MDS proceeded to allogeneic stem cell transplantation and is alive without evidence of disease 39 months later. The combination regimen was well tolerated with common toxicities of injection site skin reaction (90% of the patients) from 5-azacytidine, and somnolence/fatigue from the sodium PB infusion (80% of the patients). Correlative laboratory studies demonstrated the consistent reacetylation of histone H4, although no relationship with the clinical response could be demonstrated. Results from this pilot study demonstrate that a combination approach targeting different mechanisms of transcriptional modulation is clinically feasible with acceptable toxicity and measurable biologic and clinical outcomes.

  6. Numerical investigation of the thermal and electrical performances for combined solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) modules based on internally extruded fin flow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. C.; Li, Q. P.; Wang, G. J.

    2017-11-01

    A solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) module based on internally extruded fin flow channel was investigated numerically in this paper. First of all, the structures of the thin plate heat exchanger and the PV/T module were presented. Then, a numerical model of the PV/T module considering solar irradiation, fluid flow and heat transfer was developed to analyze the performance of the module. Finally, the steady electrical and thermal efficiencies of the PV/T module at different inlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were achieved. These numerical results supply theory basis for practical application of the PV/T module.

  7. Interoception and Autonomic Correlates during Social Interactions. Implications for Anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ambrosecchia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the bodily-self in Restrictive Anorexia, focusing on two basic aspects related to the bodily self: autonomic strategies in social behavior, in which others' social desirability features, and social cues (e.g., gaze are modulated, and interoception (i.e., the sensitivity to stimuli originating inside the body. Furthermore, since previous studies carried out on healthy individuals found that interoception seems to contribute to the autonomic regulation of social behavior, as measured by Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA, we aimed to explore this link in anorexia patients, whose ability to perceive their bodily signal seems to be impaired. To this purpose, we compared a group of anorexia patients (ANg; restrictive type with a group of Healthy Controls (HCg for RSA responses during both a resting state and a social proxemics task, for their explicit judgments of comfort in social distances during a behavioral proxemics task, and for their Interoceptive Accuracy (IA. The results showed that ANg displayed significantly lower social disposition and a flattened autonomic reactivity during the proxemics task, irrespective of the presence of others' socially desirable features or social cues. Moreover, unlike HCg, the autonomic arousal of ANg did not guide behavioral judgments of social distances. Finally, IA was strictly related to social disposition in both groups, but with opposite trends in ANg. We conclude that autonomic imbalance and its altered relationship with interoception might have a crucial role in anorexia disturbances.

  8. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  9. QFD-based conceptual design of an autonomous underwater robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thip Pasawang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater robots in the past few years have been designed according to the individual concepts and experiences of the researchers. To design a robot, which meets all the requirements of potential users, is an advanced work. Hence, a systematic design method that could include users’ preferences and requirements is needed. This paper presents the quality function deployment (QFD technique to design an autonomous underwater robot focusing on the Thai Navy military mission. Important user requirements extracted from the QFD method are the ability to record videos, operating at depth up to 10 meters, the ability to operate remotely with cable and safety concerns related to water leakages. Less important user requirements include beauty, using renewable energy, operating remotely with radio and ability to work during night time. The important design parameters derived from the user requirements are a low cost-controller, an autonomous control algorithm, a compass sensor and vertical gyroscope, and a depth sensor. Of low-importance ranked design parameters include the module design, use clean energy, a low noise electric motor, remote surveillance design, a pressure hull, and a beautiful hull form design. The study results show the feasibility of using QFD techniques to systematically design the autonomous underwater robot to meet user requirements. Mapping between the design and expected parameters and a conceptual drafting design of an autonomous underwater robot are also presented.

  10. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  11. Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicles by John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, Pedram Hovareshti CSHCN TR 2003-8 (ISR TR 2003-14) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...AND SUBTITLE Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles ∗ John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, and Pedram

  12. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Roelof J; Few, Douglas A; Kinoshita, Robert A; Johnson, Doug; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-02-24

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  13. Therapeutic Response in Patients with Advanced Malignancies Treated with Combined Dendritic Cell–Activated T Cell Based Immunotherapy and Intensity–Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasumi, Kenichiro; Aoki, Yukimasa; Watanabe, Ryuko; Hankey, Kim G.; Mann, Dean L.

    2011-01-01

    Successful cancer immunotherapy is confounded by the magnitude of the tumor burden and the presence of immunoregulatory elements that suppress an immune response. To approach these issues, 26 patients with advanced treatment refractory cancer were enrolled in a safety/feasibility study wherein a conventional treatment modality, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), was combined with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. We hypothesized that radiation would lower the tumor burdens, decrease the number/function of regulatory cells in the tumor environment, and release products of tumor cells that could be acquired by intratumoral injected immature dendritic cells (iDC). Metastatic lesions identified by CT (computed tomography) were injected with autologous iDC combined with a cytokine-based adjuvant and KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin), followed 24 h later by IV-infused T-cells expanded with anti-CD3 and IL-2 (AT). After three to five days, each of the injected lesions was treated with fractionated doses of IMRT followed by another injection of intratumoral iDC and IV-infused AT. No toxicity was observed with cell infusion while radiation-related toxicity was observed in seven patients. Five patients had progressive disease, eight demonstrated complete resolution at treated sites but developed recurrent disease at other sites, and 13 showed complete response at various follow-up times with an overall estimated Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival of 345 days. Most patients developed KLH antibodies supporting our hypothesis that the co-injected iDC are functional with the capacity to acquire antigens from their environment and generate an adaptive immune response. These results demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of this multimodality strategy combining immunotherapy and IMRT in patients with advanced malignancies

  14. In the field: exploiting the untapped potential of immunogenic modulation by radiation in combination with immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKwilas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiation has long been the standard of care for many types of cancer. It is employed to locally eradicate tumor cells as well as alter tumor stroma with either curative or palliative intent. Radiation-induced cell damage is an immunologically active process in which danger signals are released that stimulate immune cells to phagocytose and present locally released tumor-associated antigens (TAAs. Recent studies have indicated that radiotherapy can also induce immunogenic modulation; an alteration in the phenotype of cancer cells that remain after treatment and renders these cells more sensitive to immune mediated attack.. These cells upregulate TAAs as well as markers, including MHC and costimulatory molecules, that make them much more immunostimulatory. As our understanding of the immunomodulatory effects of radiation has improved, interest in combining this type of therapy with immune-based therapies for the treatment of cancer has grown. Therapeutic cancer vaccines have been shown to initiate the dynamic process of host immune system activation, culminating in the recognition of host cancer cells as foreign. The environment created after radiotherapy can be exploited by active therapeutic cancer vaccines in order to achieve further, more robust immune system activation. This review highlights preclinical studies that have examined the alteration of the tumor microenvironment with regard to immunostimulatory molecules following different types of radiotherapy, including external beam radiation, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, bone-seeking radionuclides, and brachytherapy. We also emphasize how combination therapy with a cancer vaccine can exploit these changes to achieve improved therapeutic benefit. Lastly, we describe how these laboratory findings are translating into clinical benefit for patients undergoing combined radiotherapy and cancer vaccination.

  15. Modulational effects in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed

  16. Exercise improves cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Christina; Pagoni, Stamatina; Vinik, Aaron; Poirier, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity is a key element in the prevention and management of obesity and diabetes. Regular physical activity efficiently supports diet-induced weight loss, improves glycemic control, and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Furthermore, physical activity positively affects lipid profile, blood pressure, reduces the rate of cardiovascular events and associated mortality, and restores the quality of life in type 2 diabetes. However, recent studies have documented that a high percentage of the cardiovascular benefits of exercise cannot be attributed solely to enhanced cardiovascular risk factor modulation. Obesity in concert with diabetes is characterized by sympathetic overactivity and the progressive loss of cardiac parasympathetic influx. These are manifested via different pathogenetic mechanisms, including hyperinsulinemia, visceral obesity, subclinical inflammation and increased thrombosis. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an underestimated risk factor for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes. The same is true for the role of physical exercise in the restoration of the heart cardioprotective autonomic modulation in these individuals. This review addresses the interplay of cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes, and focuses on the importance of exercise in improving cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The ESP Instruction: A Study Based on the Pattern of Autonomous Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous inquiry learning is a kind of learning model, which relies mainly on learners and emphasizes that learners should inquire knowledge actively; moreover, ESP, which emphasizes the combination of language learning and specific purposes learning, is a goal-oriented and well targeted instruction system. Therefore, ESP and autonomous inquiry…

  18. The Autonomous Student: A Footnote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jancis

    1987-01-01

    An argument that rationality is a learned behavior, rather than a natural facility, is developed vis-a-vis certain educational theories. The difficulties students face in maintaining a rational stance in an autonomous classroom are also discussed. (JL)

  19. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for structural discrimination to be woven into the fabric of autonomous vehicle developments, which remain underexplored and undiscussed. The prospect for structural discrimination arises as a result of the coordinated modes of autonomous vehicle behaviour...... individual identity, and potentially relative worth, to autonomous vehicles engaging in a crash damage calculus. At the risk of introducing these ideas into the development of autonomous vehicles, this paper hopes to spark a debate to foreclose these eventualities....... that is prescribed by its code. This leads to the potential for individuated outcomes to be networked and thereby multiplied consistently to any number of vehicles implementing such a code. The aggregated effects of such algorithmic policy preferences will thus cumulate in the reallocation of benefits and burdens...

  20. Pretreatment combination of platelet counts and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio predicts survival of nasopharyngeal cancer patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin YH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Hsuan Lin,1 Kuo-Ping Chang,2 Yaoh-Shiang Lin,2,3 Ting-Shou Chang2–4 1Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 4Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Increased cancer-related inflammation has been associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. The combination of platelet count and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR has related outcomes in several cancers, except for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. This study evaluated the prognostic value of COP-NLR in predicting outcome in NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT.Materials and methods: We analyzed the data collected from 232 NPC patients. Pretreatment total platelet counts, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and COP-NLR score were evaluated as potential predictors. Optimal cutoff values for NLR and platelets were determined using receiver operating curve. Patients with both elevated NLR (>3 and platelet counts (>300×109/L were assigned a COP-NLR score of 2; those with one elevated or no elevated value were assigned a COP-NLR a score of 1 or 0. Cox proportional hazards model was used to test the association of these factors and relevant 3-year survivals.Results: Patients (COP-NLR scores 1 and 2=85; score 0=147 were followed up for 55.19 months. Univariate analysis showed no association between pretreatment NLR >2.23 and platelet counts >290.5×109/L and worse outcomes. Multivariate analysis revealed that those with COP-NLR scores of 0 had better 3-year disease-specific survival (P=0.02, overall survival (P=0.024, locoregional relapse-free survival (P=0.004, and distant

  1. AN AUTONOMOUS GPS-DENIED UNMANNED VEHICLE PLATFORM BASED ON BINOCULAR VISION FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Qin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based navigation has become an attractive solution for autonomous navigation for planetary exploration. This paper presents our work of designing and building an autonomous vision-based GPS-denied unmanned vehicle and developing an ARFM (Adaptive Robust Feature Matching based VO (Visual Odometry software for its autonomous navigation. The hardware system is mainly composed of binocular stereo camera, a pan-and tilt, a master machine, a tracked chassis. And the ARFM-based VO software system contains four modules: camera calibration, ARFM-based 3D reconstruction, position and attitude calculation, BA (Bundle Adjustment modules. Two VO experiments were carried out using both outdoor images from open dataset and indoor images captured by our vehicle, the results demonstrate that our vision-based unmanned vehicle is able to achieve autonomous localization and has the potential for future planetary exploration.

  2. An Autonomous Gps-Denied Unmanned Vehicle Platform Based on Binocular Vision for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M.; Wan, X.; Shao, Y. Y.; Li, S. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Vision-based navigation has become an attractive solution for autonomous navigation for planetary exploration. This paper presents our work of designing and building an autonomous vision-based GPS-denied unmanned vehicle and developing an ARFM (Adaptive Robust Feature Matching) based VO (Visual Odometry) software for its autonomous navigation. The hardware system is mainly composed of binocular stereo camera, a pan-and tilt, a master machine, a tracked chassis. And the ARFM-based VO software system contains four modules: camera calibration, ARFM-based 3D reconstruction, position and attitude calculation, BA (Bundle Adjustment) modules. Two VO experiments were carried out using both outdoor images from open dataset and indoor images captured by our vehicle, the results demonstrate that our vision-based unmanned vehicle is able to achieve autonomous localization and has the potential for future planetary exploration.

  3. Simple autonomous Mars walker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1989-01-01

    Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

  4. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  5. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  6. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: rlindner@astro.wisc.edu [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  7. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes

  8. Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the chemical robot.

  9. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Causes Fewer Side Effects than Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy When Used in Combination With Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsythe, Kevin; Blacksburg, Seth; Stone, Nelson; Stock, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the benefits of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) when used in combination with brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with localized prostate cancer who received external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in combination with brachytherapy with at least 1 year follow-up (n = 812). Combination therapy consisted of 103 Pd or 125 I implant, followed by a course of EBRT. From 1993 to March 2003 521 patients were treated with 3D-CRT, and from April 2003 to March 2009 291 patients were treated with IMRT. Urinary symptoms were prospectively measured with the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire with a single quality of life (QOL) question; rectal bleeding was assessed per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Schema. The Pearson χ 2 test was used to compare toxicities experienced by patients who were treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT. Logistic regression analyses were also performed to rule out possible confounding factors. Results: Within the first 3 months after treatment, patients treated with 3D-CRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 19% mild, 44% moderate, and 37% severe; patients treated with IMRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 36% mild, 47% moderate, and 17% severe (p < 0.001). The 3D-CRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 35% positive, 20% neutral, and 45% negative; IMRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 51% positive, 18% neutral, and 31% negative (p < 0.001). After 1 year of follow-up there was no longer any difference in urinary morbidity between the two groups. Logistic regression confirmed the differences in International Prostate Symptom Score and QOL in the acute setting (p < 0.001 for both). Grade ≥2 rectal bleeding was reported by 11% of 3D-CRT patients and 7

  10. Safety analysis of autonomous excavator functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, D.; Pace, C.; Morrey, R.; Sommerville, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an account of carrying out a hazard analysis to define the safety requirements for an autonomous robotic excavator. The work is also relevant to the growing generic class of heavy automated mobile machinery. An overview of the excavator design is provided and the concept of a safety manager is introduced. The safety manager is an autonomous module responsible for all aspects of system operational safety, and is central to the control system's architecture. Each stage of the hazard analysis is described, i.e. system model creation, hazard definition and hazard analysis. Analysis at an early stage of the design process, and on a system that interfaces directly to an unstructured environment, exposes certain issues relevant to the application of current hazard analysis methods. The approach taken in the analysis is described. Finally, it is explained how the results of the hazard analysis have influenced system design, in particular, safety manager specifications. Conclusions are then drawn about the applicability of hazard analysis of requirements in general, and suggestions are made as to how the approach can be taken further

  11. Design and Implementation of Autonomous Stair Climbing with Nao Humanoid Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    With the development of humanoid robots, autonomous stair climbing is an important capability. Humanoid robots will play an important role in helping people tackle some basic problems in the future. The main contribution of this thesis is that the NAO humanoid robot can climb the spiral staircase autonomously. In the vision module, the algorithm of image filtering and detecting the contours of the stair contributes to calculating the location of the stairs accurately. Additionally, the st...

  12. Comparison of image quality and radiation dose between combined automatic tube current modulation and fixed tube current technique in CT of abdomen and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sanghee (Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)); Yoon, Sang-Wook; Yoo, Seung-Min; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Sang Heum; Lee, Jong Tae (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA Univ. (Korea, Republic of)), email: jansons@cha.ac.kr; Ji, Young Geon (Preventive Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA Univ. (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-12-15

    Background. Tube current is an important determinant of radiation dose and image quality in X-ray-based examination. The combined automatic tube current modulation technique (ATCM) enables automatic adjustment of the tube current in various planes (x-y and z) based on the size and attenuation of the body area scanned. Purpose. To compare image quality and radiation dose of the ATCM with those of a fixed tube current technique (FTC) in CT of the abdomen and pelvis performed with a 16-slice multidetector row CT. Material and Methods. We reviewed 100 patients in whom initial and follow-up CT of the abdomen and pelvis were performed with FTC and ATCM. All acquisition parameters were identical in both techniques except for tube current. We recorded objective image noise in liver parenchyma, subjective image noise and diagnostic acceptability by using a five-point scale, radiation dose, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2). Data were analyzed with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Results. There was no significant difference in image noise and diagnostic acceptability between two techniques. All subjects had acceptable subjective image noise in both techniques. The significant reduction in radiation dose (45.25% reduction) was noted with combined ATCM (P < 0.001). There was a significant linear statistical correlation between BMI and dose reduction (r = -0.78, P < 0.05). Conclusion. The ATCM for CT of the abdomen and pelvis substantially reduced radiation dose while maintaining diagnostic image quality. Patients with lower BMI showed more reduction in radiation dose

  13. Evaluation of the optimal combinations of modulation factor and pitch for Helical TomoTherapy plans made with TomoEdge using Pareto optimal fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kerf, Geert; Van Gestel, Dirk; Mommaerts, Lobke; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Verellen, Dirk

    2015-09-17

    Modulation factor (MF) and pitch have an impact on Helical TomoTherapy (HT) plan quality and HT users mostly use vendor-recommended settings. This study analyses the effect of these two parameters on both plan quality and treatment time for plans made with TomoEdge planning software by using the concept of Pareto optimal fronts. More than 450 plans with different combinations of pitch [0.10-0.50] and MF [1.2-3.0] were produced. These HT plans, with a field width (FW) of 5 cm, were created for five head and neck patients and homogeneity index, conformity index, dose-near-maximum (D2), and dose-near-minimum (D98) were analysed for the planning target volumes, as well as the mean dose and D2 for most critical organs at risk. For every dose metric the median value will be plotted against treatment time. A Pareto-like method is used in the analysis which will show how pitch and MF influence both treatment time and plan quality. For small pitches (≤0.20), MF does not influence treatment time. The contrary is true for larger pitches (≥0.25) as lowering MF will both decrease treatment time and plan quality until maximum gantry speed is reached. At this moment, treatment time is saturated and only plan quality will further decrease. The Pareto front analysis showed optimal combinations of pitch [0.23-0.45] and MF > 2.0 for a FW of 5 cm. Outside this range, plans will become less optimal. As the vendor-recommended settings fall within this range, the use of these settings is validated.

  14. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA A R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA A R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA A R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor alters

  15. Vaccine platforms combining circumsporozoite protein and potent immune modulators, rEA or EAT-2, paradoxically result in opposing immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel J Schuldt

    Full Text Available Malaria greatly impacts the health and wellbeing of over half of the world's population. Promising malaria vaccine candidates have attempted to induce adaptive immune responses to Circumsporozoite (CS protein. Despite the inclusion of potent adjuvants, these vaccines have limited protective efficacy. Conventional recombinant adenovirus (rAd based vaccines expressing CS protein can induce CS protein specific immune responses, but these are essentially equivalent to those generated after use of the CS protein subunit based vaccines. In this study we combined the use of rAds expressing CS protein along with rAds expressing novel innate immune response modulating proteins in an attempt to significantly improve the induction of CS protein specific cell mediated immune (CMI responses.BALB/cJ mice were co-vaccinated with a rAd vectors expressing CS protein simultaneous with a rAd expressing either TLR agonist (rEA or SLAM receptors adaptor protein (EAT-2. Paradoxically, expression of the TLR agonist uncovered a potent immunosuppressive activity inherent to the combined expression of the CS protein and rEA. Fortunately, use of the rAd vaccine expressing EAT-2 circumvented CS protein's suppressive activity, and generated a fivefold increase in the number of CS protein responsive, IFNγ secreting splenocytes, as well as increased the breadth of T cells responsive to peptides present in the CS protein. These improvements were positively correlated with the induction of a fourfold improvement in CS protein specific CTL functional activity in vivo.Our results emphasize the need for caution when incorporating CS protein into malaria vaccine platforms expressing or containing other immunostimulatory compounds, as the immunological outcomes may be unanticipated and/or counter-productive. However, expressing the SLAM receptors derived signaling adaptor EAT-2 at the same time of vaccination with CS protein can overcome these concerns, as well as significantly

  16. A combination of quercetin and resveratrol reduces obesity in high-fat diet-fed rats by modulation of gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Le; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Weini; Tian, Feng; Shen, Hongyi; Zhou, Mingmei

    2017-12-13

    Resveratrol and quercetin, widely found in foods and vegetables, are plant polyphenols reported to have a wide range of biological activities. Despite their limited bioavailabilities, both resveratrol and quercetin are known to exhibit anti-inflammation and anti-obesity effects. We hypothesized that gut microbiota may be a potential target for resveratrol and quercetin to prevent the development of obesity. The aim of this research was to confirm whether a combination of quercetin and resveratrol (CQR) could restore the gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). In this study, Wistar rats were divided into three groups: a normal diet (ND) group, a HFD group and a CQR group. The CQR group was treated with a HFD and administered with a combination of quercetin [30 mg per kg body weight (BW) per day] and resveratrol [15 mg per kg body weight (BW) per day] by oral gavage. At the end of 10 weeks, CQR reduced the body weight gain and visceral (epididymal, perirenal) adipose tissue weight. Moreover, CQR also reduced serum lipids, attenuated serum inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1] and reversed serum biochemical parameters (adiponectin, insulin, leptin, etc.). Importantly, our results demonstrated that CQR could modulate the gut microbiota composition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that CQR had an impact on gut microbiota, decreasing Firmicutes (P obesity. Moreover, compared with the HFD group, the relative abundance of Bacteroidales_S24-7_group (P obesity, was markedly increased in the CQR group. Overall, these results indicated that administration of CQR may have beneficial effects on ameliorating HFD-induced obesity and reducing HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis.

  17. Modulation of Radiation-Induced Disorders in plasma and red blood cells of females rats by combined treatment with vitamins E, C and β-Carotene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Safi, H.M.; Ashry, O.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the outcome of the main dietary micro nutrients (vitamin E, C and β-carotene) on 9 Gy whole body γ-irradiated female rats as single or fractionated (1.5 Gy daily for 6 days) doses. Animals were divided into four group: control, irradiated, vitamins treated and vitamins administered 3 hours prior to irradiation. Vitamins were orally administered for 6 consecutive days and rats were sacrificed on the 3 rd, 6 Th and 9 Th days post irradiation and/or vitamin administration. Exposure to ionizing radiation with both regimens elevated significantly malondialdehyde (MDA) levels with concomitant decline in glutathione (GSH) levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The single dose elevated total plasma protein level, while the fractionated dose elevated total plasma protein level, while the fractionated one declined it. Both regimens increased significantly blood creatinine and urea levels than the control level, denoting renal dysfunction occurrence. Vitamins administration before irradiation modulated the MDA and GSH levels in both plasma and RBCs. Indeed, it slightly ameliorated the disturbed plasma levels of total protein, creatinine and urea. The study promotes the usage of the combined vitamins (E, ascorbic acid and β-carotene) as useful protectors against harmful environmental oxidative stresses

  18. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Defining high-risk patients who may benefit before concurrent chemotherapy combined with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Jing; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Guo, Rui; Liu, Xu; Sun, Ying; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Kang, Tie-Bang; Shao, Jian-Yong; Lin, Ai-Hua; Ma, Jun

    2015-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to create a prognostic model for distant metastasis in patients with locally advanced NPC who accept concurrent chemotherapy combined with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (CCRT) to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). A total of 881 patients with newly-diagnosed, non-disseminated, biopsy-proven locoregionally advanced NPC were retrospectively reviewed; 411 (46.7%) accepted CCRT and 470 (53.3%) accepted NACT followed by CCRT. Multivariate analysis demonstrated N2-3 disease, plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA > 4000 copies/mL, serum albumin ≤ 46 g/L and platelet count >300 k/cc were independent prognostic factors for distant metastasis in the CCRT group. Using these four factors, a prognostic model was developed, as follows: 1) low-risk group: 0-1 risk factors; and 2) high-risk group: 2-4 risk factors. In the high-risk group, patients who accepted NACT + CCRT had significantly higher distant metastasis-free survival and progression-free survival rates than the CCRT group (P = 0.001; P = 0.011). This simple prognostic model for distant metastasis in locoregionally advanced NPC may facilitate with the selection of high-risk patients who may benefit from NACT prior to CCRT.

  19. Objective speckle velocimetry for autonomous vehicle odometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, D; Charrett, T O H; Waugh, L; Tatam, R P

    2012-06-01

    Speckle velocimetry is investigated as a means of determining odometry data with potential for application on autonomous robotic vehicles. The technique described here relies on the integration of translation measurements made by normalized cross-correlation of speckle patterns to determine the change in position over time. The use of objective (non-imaged) speckle offers a number of advantages over subjective (imaged) speckle, such as a reduction in the number of optical components, reduced modulation of speckles at the edges of the image, and improved light efficiency. The influence of the source/detector configuration on the speckle translation to vehicle translation scaling factor for objective speckle is investigated using a computer model and verified experimentally. Experimental measurements are presented at velocities up to 80  mm s(-1) which show accuracy better than 0.4%.

  20. Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS): A Demonstration of Autonomic Principles at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassari, James D.; Kopec, Christopher L.; Leshay, Eric S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Finkel, David

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications, while simultaneously affording the ability to. increase that capability simply by adding more (inexpensive) processors. However, the task of manually managing and con.guring a cluster quickly becomes impossible as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing is a relatively new approach to managing complex systems that can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Automatic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management.

  1. Autonomous controller (JCAM 10) for CAMAC crate with 8080 (INTEL) microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallice, P.; Mathis, M.

    1975-01-01

    The CAMAC crate autonomous controller JCAM-10 is designed around an INTEL 8080 microprocessor in association with a 5K RAM and 4K REPROM memory. The concept of the module is described, in which data transfers between CAMAC modules and the memory are optimised from software point of view as well as from execution time. In fact, the JCAM-10 is a microcomputer with a set of 1000 peripheral units represented by the CAMAC modules commercially available

  2. Developing operation algorithms for vision subsystems in autonomous mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhman, M. V.; Shidlovskiy, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper analyzes algorithms for selecting keypoints on the image for the subsequent automatic detection of people and obstacles. The algorithm is based on the histogram of oriented gradients and the support vector method. The combination of these methods allows successful selection of dynamic and static objects. The algorithm can be applied in various autonomous mobile robots.

  3. Compact autonomous navigation system (CANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. C.; Ying, L.; Xiong, K.; Cheng, H. Y.; Qiao, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous navigation of Satellite and constellation has series of benefits, such as to reduce operation cost and ground station workload, to avoid the event of crises of war and natural disaster, to increase spacecraft autonomy, and so on. Autonomous navigation satellite is independent of ground station support. Many systems are developed for autonomous navigation of satellite in the past 20 years. Along them American MANS (Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System) [1] of Microcosm Inc. and ERADS [2] [3] (Earth Reference Attitude Determination System) of Honeywell Inc. are well known. The systems anticipate a series of good features of autonomous navigation and aim low cost, integrated structure, low power consumption and compact layout. The ERADS is an integrated small 3-axis attitude sensor system with low cost and small volume. It has the Earth center measurement accuracy higher than the common IR sensor because the detected ultraviolet radiation zone of the atmosphere has a brightness gradient larger than that of the IR zone. But the ERADS is still a complex system because it has to eliminate many problems such as making of the sapphire sphere lens, birefringence effect of sapphire, high precision image transfer optical fiber flattener, ultraviolet intensifier noise, and so on. The marginal sphere FOV of the sphere lens of the ERADS is used to star imaging that may be bring some disadvantages., i.e. , the image energy and attitude measurements accuracy may be reduced due to the tilt image acceptance end of the fiber flattener in the FOV. Besides Japan, Germany and Russia developed visible earth sensor for GEO [4] [5]. Do we have a way to develop a cheaper/easier and more accurate autonomous navigation system that can be used to all LEO spacecraft, especially, to LEO small and micro satellites? To return this problem we provide a new type of the system—CANS (Compact Autonomous Navigation System) [6].

  4. Efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy or surgery in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head-and-neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang H

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hua Yang,* Li-Qiong Diao,* Mei Shi, Rui Ma, Jian-Hua Wang, Jian-Ping Li, Feng Xiao, Ying Xue, Man Xu, Bin ZhouDepartment of Radiotherapy Oncology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjectives: Long-term locoregional control following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head-and-neck (SCCHN remains challenging. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of IMRT with and without chemotherapy or surgery in locally advanced SCCHN.Materials and methods: Between January 2007 and January 2011, 61 patients with locally advanced SCCHN were treated with curative IMRT in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University; 28% underwent definitive IMRT and 72% postoperative IMRT, combined with simultaneous cisplatin-based chemotherapy in 58%. The mean doses of definitive and postoperative IMRT were 70.8 Gy (range, 66–74 Gy. Outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier curves. Acute and late toxicities were graded according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer radiation morbidity scoring criteria.Results: At a median follow-up of 35 months, 3-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS, regional recurrence-free survival (RRFS, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS were 83.8%, 86.1%, 82.4%, 53.2%, and 62%, respectively. Postoperative IMRT (n = 44, 72% had significantly higher LRFS/OS/DMFS than definitive IMRT (n = 17, 28%; P < 0.05. IMRT combined with chemotherapy (n = 35, 58% had significantly higher LRFS/OS/DMFS than IMRT alone (n = 26, 42%; P < 0.05. One year after radiotherapy, the incidence of xerostomia of grade 1, 2, or 3 was 13.1%, 19.7%, and 1.6%, respectively. No grade 4 acute or late toxicity was observed.Conclusion: IMRT combined with

  5. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, James

    2014-01-01

    The Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management plays a key role for future ground operations at NASA. The software that is integrated into this system is called G2 2011 Gensym. The purpose of this report is to describe the Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management with the use of the G2 Gensym software and the G2 NASA toolkit for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) which is a Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI). The decision rationale for the use of the G2 platform is to develop a modular capability for ISHM and AC. Toolkit modules include knowledge bases that are generic and can be applied in any application domain module. That way, there's a maximization of reusability, maintainability, and systematic evolution, portability, and scalability. Engine modules are generic, while application modules represent the domain model of a specific application. Furthermore, the NASA toolkit, developed since 2006 (a set of modules), makes it possible to create application domain models quickly, using pre-defined objects that include sensors and components libraries for typical fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems.

  6. Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong M; Kota, Pavan Kumar; Nguyen, Minh Q; Dubey, Souvik; Rao, Smitha; Mays, Jeffrey; Chiao, J-C

    2015-09-23

    In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu). A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations.

  7. Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong M. Nguyen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu. A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations.

  8. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  9. Discrimination of bladder cancer cells from normal urothelial cells with high specificity and sensitivity: combined application of atomic force microscopy and modulated Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Riches, Andrew; Borger, Eva; Herrington, Simon; Dholakia, Kishan; Adya, Ashok K

    2014-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and modulated Raman spectroscopy (MRS) were used to discriminate between living normal human urothelial cells (SV-HUC-1) and bladder tumour cells (MGH-U1) with high specificity and sensitivity. MGH-U1 cells were 1.5-fold smaller, 1.7-fold thicker and 1.4-fold rougher than normal SV-HUC-1 cells. The adhesion energy was 2.6-fold higher in the MGH-U1 cells compared to normal SV-HUC-1 cells, which possibly indicates that bladder tumour cells are more deformable than normal cells. The elastic modulus of MGH-U1 cells was 12-fold lower than SV-HUC-1 cells, suggesting a higher elasticity of the bladder cancer cell membranes. The biochemical fingerprints of cancer cells displayed a higher DNA and lipid content, probably due to an increase in the nuclear to cytoplasm ratio. Normal cells were characterized by higher protein contents. AFM studies revealed a decrease in the lateral dimensions and an increase in thickness of cancer cells compared to normal cells; these studies authenticate the observations from MRS. Nanostructural, nanomechanical and biochemical profiles of bladder cells provide qualitative and quantitative markers to differentiate between normal and cancerous cells at the single cellular level. AFM and MRS allow discrimination between adhesion energy, elasticity and Raman spectra of SV-HUC-1 and MGH-U1 cells with high specificity (83, 98 and 95%) and sensitivity (97, 93 and 98%). Such single-cell-level studies could have a pivotal impact on the development of AFM-Raman combined methodologies for cancer profiling and screening with translational significance. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Combined With Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Locally Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Irradiation Dose Escalation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhigang; Zhao Jiandong; Gu Ke; Chen Zhen; Lin Junhua; Xu Zhiyong; Hu Weigang; Zhou Zhenhua; Liu Luming; Jiang Guoliang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)/intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients were assigned to two subgroups based on tumor diameter: Group 1 had tumors <10 cm; Group II had tumors ≥10 cm. Escalation was achieved by increments of 4.0 Gy for each cohort in both groups. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as a grade of ≥3 acute liver or gastrointestinal toxicity or any grade 5 acute toxicity in other organs at risk or radiation-induced liver disease. The dose escalation would be terminated when ≥2 of 8 patients in a cohort experienced DLT. Results: From April 2005 to May 2008, 40 patients were enrolled. In Group I, 11 patients had grade ≤2 acute treatment-related toxicities, and no patient experienced DLT; and in Group II, 10 patients had grade ≤2 acute toxicity, and 1 patient in the group receiving 52 Gy developed radiation-induced liver disease. MTD was 62 Gy for Group I and 52 Gy for Group II. In-field progression-free and local progression-free rates were 100% and 69% at 1 year, and 93% and 44% at 2 years, respectively. Distant metastasis rates were 6% at 1 year and 15% at 2 years. Overall survival rates for 1-year and 2-years were 72% and 62%, respectively. Conclusions: The irradiation dose was safely escalated in hepatocellular carcinoma patients by using 3DCRT/IMRT with an active breathing coordinator. MTD was 62 Gy and 52 Gy for patients with tumor diameters of <10 cm and ≥10 cm, respectively.

  11. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...... autonomous star tracker the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). One feature of this instrument is that potential targets are registered directly in terms of date, right ascension, declination, and intensity, which greatly facilitates both tracking search and registering. Results from ground and inflight tests...

  12. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry......) with a quick and gentle overview of AIMM. Furthermore, the paper identifies key open issues and promising research directions to realize real-world integration and maturation of the AIMM technology. Originality/value - This paper reviews the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile...

  13. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vito, Stephen T., E-mail: stvito@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Austin, Adam T., E-mail: aaustin@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Banks, Christopher N., E-mail: Christopher.Banks@oehha.ca.gov [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Inceoglu, Bora, E-mail: abinceoglu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bruun, Donald A., E-mail: dabruun@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zolkowska, Dorota, E-mail: dzolkowska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Tancredi, Daniel J., E-mail: djtancredi@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Rogawski, Michael A., E-mail: rogawski@ucdavis.edu [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  14. Combined impacts of nitrous acid and nitryl chloride on lower-tropospheric ozone: new module development in WRF-Chem and application to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous acid (HONO and nitryl chloride (ClNO2 – through their photolysis – can have profound effects on the nitrogen cycle and oxidation capacity of the lower troposphere. Previous numerical studies have separately considered and investigated the sources/processes of these compounds and their roles in the fate of reactive nitrogen and the production of ozone (O3, but their combined impact on the chemistry of the lower part of the troposphere has not been addressed yet. In this study, we updated the WRF-Chem model with the currently known sources and chemistry of HONO and chlorine in a new chemical mechanism (CBMZ_ReNOM, and applied it to a study of the combined effects of HONO and ClNO2 on summertime O3 in the boundary layer over China. We simulated the spatial distributions of HONO, ClNO2, and related compounds at the surface and within the lower troposphere. The results showed that the modeled HONO levels reached up to 800–1800 ppt at the surface (0–30 m over the North China Plain (NCP, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, and the Pearl River Delta (PRD regions and that HONO was concentrated within a 0–200 m layer. In comparison, the simulated surface ClNO2 mixing ratio was around 800–1500 ppt over the NCP, YRD, and central China regions and was predominantly present in a 0–600 m layer. HONO enhanced daytime ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2 and O3 at the surface (0–30 m by 2.8–4.6 ppt (28–37 % and 2.9–6.2 ppb (6–13 %, respectively, over the three most developed regions, whereas ClNO2 increased surface O3 in the NCP and YRD regions by 2.4–3.3 ppb (or 5–6 % and it also had a significant impact (3–6 % on above-surface O3 within 200–500 m. The combined effects increased surface O3 by 11.5, 13.5, and 13.3 % in the NCP, YRD, and PRD regions, respectively. Over the boundary layer (0–1000 m, the HONO and ClNO2 enhanced O3 by up to 5.1 and 3.2 %, respectively, and their combined effect increased O

  15. Combined impacts of nitrous acid and nitryl chloride on lower-tropospheric ozone: new module development in WRF-Chem and application to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Qinyi; Wang, Tao; Ahmadov, Ravan; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Meng; Lv, Mengyao

    2017-08-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) - through their photolysis - can have profound effects on the nitrogen cycle and oxidation capacity of the lower troposphere. Previous numerical studies have separately considered and investigated the sources/processes of these compounds and their roles in the fate of reactive nitrogen and the production of ozone (O3), but their combined impact on the chemistry of the lower part of the troposphere has not been addressed yet. In this study, we updated the WRF-Chem model with the currently known sources and chemistry of HONO and chlorine in a new chemical mechanism (CBMZ_ReNOM), and applied it to a study of the combined effects of HONO and ClNO2 on summertime O3 in the boundary layer over China. We simulated the spatial distributions of HONO, ClNO2, and related compounds at the surface and within the lower troposphere. The results showed that the modeled HONO levels reached up to 800-1800 ppt at the surface (0-30 m) over the North China Plain (NCP), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) regions and that HONO was concentrated within a 0-200 m layer. In comparison, the simulated surface ClNO2 mixing ratio was around 800-1500 ppt over the NCP, YRD, and central China regions and was predominantly present in a 0-600 m layer. HONO enhanced daytime ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) and O3 at the surface (0-30 m) by 2.8-4.6 ppt (28-37 %) and 2.9-6.2 ppb (6-13 %), respectively, over the three most developed regions, whereas ClNO2 increased surface O3 in the NCP and YRD regions by 2.4-3.3 ppb (or 5-6 %) and it also had a significant impact (3-6 %) on above-surface O3 within 200-500 m. The combined effects increased surface O3 by 11.5, 13.5, and 13.3 % in the NCP, YRD, and PRD regions, respectively. Over the boundary layer (0-1000 m), the HONO and ClNO2 enhanced O3 by up to 5.1 and 3.2 %, respectively, and their combined effect increased O3 by 7.1-8.9 % in the three regions. The new module noticeably improved O3

  16. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  17. Political accountability and autonomous weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Igoe Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous weapons would have the capacity to select and attack targets without direct human input. One important objection to the introduction of such weapons is that they will make it more difficult to identify and hold accountable those responsible for undesirable outcomes such as mission failures and civilian casualties. I hypothesize that individuals can modify their attribution of responsibility in predicable ways to accommodate this new technology. The results of a survey experiment are consistent with this; subjects continue to find responsible and hold accountable political and military leaders when autonomous weapons are used, but also attribute responsibility to the designers and programmers of such weapons.

  18. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta, E-mail: aneta@lancaster.ac.uk

    2014-09-30

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale—from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems—their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous

  19. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  20. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale—from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems—their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous

  1. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases...

  2. Energy homeostasis, autonomic activity and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Balkan, B; Nyakas, C; vanDijk, G; Steffens, AB; Bohus, B

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by alterations in both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The present paper summarizes the results of a number of studies designed to investigate autonomic functioning in normal, genetically, and experimentally obese rats, Particular emphasis is given

  3. Connected and autonomous vehicles 2040 vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) commissioned a one-year project, Connected and Autonomous : Vehicles 2040 Vision, with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to assess the implications of connected and : autonomous ve...

  4. Context recognition and situation assessment in autonomous mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavnai, Arie

    1993-05-01

    The capability to recognize the operating context and to assess the situation in real-time is needed, if a high functionality autonomous mobile robot has to react properly and effectively to continuously changing situations and events, either external or internal, while the robot is performing its assigned tasks. A new approach and architecture for context recognition and situation assessment module (CORSA) is presented in this paper. CORSA is a multi-level information processing module which consists of adaptive decision and classification algorithms. It performs dynamic mapping from the data space to the context space, and dynamically decides on the context class. Learning mechanism is employed to update the decision variables so as to minimize the probability of misclassification. CORSA is embedded within the Mission Manager module of the intelligent autonomous hyper-controller (IAHC) of the mobile robot. The information regarding operating context, events and situation is then communicated to other modules of the IAHC where it is used to: (a) select the appropriate action strategy; (b) support the processes to arbitration and conflict resolution between reflexive behaviors and reasoning-driven behaviors; (c) predict future events and situations; and (d) determine criteria and priorities for planning, replanning, and decision making.

  5. Autonomous sensors 2010. Microsensors without external power supply and with remote signal processing. Proceedings; Energieautarke Sensorik 2010. Mikrosensorik mit autarker Energieversorgung und drahtloser Signaluebertragung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the meeting 'Energy autonomous sensor technology 2010' at 26th to 27th October, 2010 in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Application of thermoelectrics in energy autonomous sensors (K. Bartholoma); (2) Optimisation of micro fuel cells for power generation of energy autonomous sensors (M. Weiland); (3) Thin, flexible primary and secondary batteries produced by the screen printing process (M. Wendler); (4) Energy transformation in the surface area by means of piezoelectric PVDF converter modules (E. Bischur); (5) Energy sources of the human body (P. Husar); (6) Binary Zero Power Sensor - An alternative solution for energy autonomous sensor systems (T. Frank); (7) Energy autonomous Tilger sensor modules (T. Bein); (8) Energy autonomous pressure sensor for automobiles by vibration (M. Kurth); (9) Passive microwaves RFID with integrated and external sensor technology (N. Gay); (10) Energy autonomous Microsystems as an enabling technology (J. Rittner); (11) Energy supply of microelectronic sensor modules via radio communication (G. v. Boegle); (12) System design of a MST based piezoelectric power supply module for energy autonomous applications (A. Frey); (13) Miniaturized energy autonomous components with reliable wireless communication for the automation (MIKOA) (H. Haase); (14) Mobile tagging in logistics, automation and sensor technology (R. Assfalg); (15) Energy autonomous sensor systems for the condition-oriented maintenance and logistics (R. Thomasius); (16) Energy autonomous systems for aeronautic applications (M. Kluge); (17) Energy autonomous sensor technology in automobiles (I. Kuehne); (18) The wireless Retina implantate in clinical test (A. Harscher); (19) Sensoric protective clothing for the forestry work with chainsaws (M. Rupp); (20) A systematic selection of concepts for energy transformation for the use in machine tools (B. Denkena); (21) Monitoring of risk patients by means of a portable

  6. Mining in the Future: Autonomous Robotics for Safer Mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shahdi, A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ? Require less support infrastructure ? Advanced sensors ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 Degree of Autonomy ? Teleoperation ? Semi-autonomous ? Autonomous ? CSIR 2012 Slide 5 Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Group ? The Mobile Intelligent Autonomous...

  7. Formal Verification of Autonomous Vehicle Platooning

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali, Maryam; Dennis, Louise A.; McAree, Owen; Fisher, Michael; Veres, Sandor M.

    2016-01-01

    The coordination of multiple autonomous vehicles into convoys or platoons is expected on our highways in the near future. However, before such platoons can be deployed, the new autonomous behaviors of the vehicles in these platoons must be certified. An appropriate representation for vehicle platooning is as a multi-agent system in which each agent captures the "autonomous decisions" carried out by each vehicle. In order to ensure that these autonomous decision-making agents in vehicle platoo...

  8. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated...

  9. Designing Assessment for Autonomous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Marie; Mathers, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to disseminate and evaluate an autonomous learning framework developed through collaborative research with first- and second-year undergraduate students at De Montfort University. Central to the framework is the involvement of students in the assessment of their peers and themselves using dialogue about the assessment and feedback…

  10. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  11. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    -deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures

  12. Brain Circuitry Supporting Multi-Organ Autonomic Outflow in Response to Nausea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclocco, Roberta; Kim, Jieun; Garcia, Ronald G; Sheehan, James D; Beissner, Florian; Bianchi, Anna M; Cerutti, Sergio; Kuo, Braden; Barbieri, Riccardo; Napadow, Vitaly

    2016-02-01

    While autonomic outflow is an important co-factor of nausea physiology, central control of this outflow is poorly understood. We evaluated sympathetic (skin conductance level) and cardiovagal (high-frequency heart rate variability) modulation, collected synchronously with functional MRI (fMRI) data during nauseogenic visual stimulation aimed to induce vection in susceptible individuals. Autonomic data guided analysis of neuroimaging data, using a stimulus-based (analysis windows set by visual stimulation protocol) and percept-based (windows set by subjects' ratings) approach. Increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic modulation was associated with robust and anti-correlated brain activity in response to nausea. Specifically, greater autonomic response was associated with reduced fMRI signal in brain regions such as the insula, suggesting an inhibitory relationship with premotor brainstem nuclei. Interestingly, some sympathetic/parasympathetic specificity was noted. Activity in default mode network and visual motion areas was anti-correlated with parasympathetic outflow at peak nausea. In contrast, lateral prefrontal cortical activity was anti-correlated with sympathetic outflow during recovery, soon after cessation of nauseogenic stimulation. These results suggest divergent central autonomic control for sympathetic and parasympathetic response to nausea. Autonomic outflow and the central autonomic network underlying ANS response to nausea may be an important determinant of overall nausea intensity and, ultimately, a potential therapeutic target. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The effect of flow modes and electrode combinations on the performance of a multiple module microbial fuel cell installed at wastewater treatment plant

    KAUST Repository

    He, Weihua; Wallack, Maxwell J.; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Wulin; Zhu, Xiuping; Feng, Yujie; Logan, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    and power generation. Domestic wastewater was fed either in parallel (raw wastewater to each individual anode module) or series (sequentially through the chambers), with the flow direction either alternated every one or two days or kept fixed in a single

  14. Autonomous military robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the objec

  15. On the market of wind with hydro-pumped storage systems in autonomous Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caralis, G.; Zervos, A.; Rados, K.

    2010-01-01

    In autonomous islands, the wind penetration is restricted due to technical reasons related with the safe operation of the electrical systems. The combined use of wind energy with pumped storage (WPS) is considered as a mean to exploit the abundant wind potential, increase the wind installed capacity and substitute conventional peak supply. In this paper, the experience gained from the analysis of WPS in three specific islands is used towards the estimation of the WPS market in autonomous Greek islands. Parameterized diagrams and a methodology towards the pre-dimensioning and initial design of the WPS are proposed and used towards the estimation of the market in autonomous Greek islands. The objective is to make an initial general prefeasibility study of WPS prospects in the autonomous Greek islands. Results show that there is a significant market for WPS in Greece and the development cost of WPS is competitive to the fuel cost of local power stations in autonomous islands. (author)

  16. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with concurrent but not adjuvant chemotherapy in primary nasopharyngeal cancer – a retrospective single center analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh-Ebrahimi, Ladan; Zwicker, Felix; Muenter, Marc W; Bischof, Marc; Lindel, Katja; Debus, Juergen; Huber, Peter E; Roeder, Falk

    2013-01-01

    We report our experience in 49 consecutive patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were treated by Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with simultaneous but not adjuvant chemotherapy (CHT). The medical records of 49 patients with histologically proven primary nasopharygeal carcinoma treated with IMRT and concurrent platin-based CHT (predominantly cisplatin weekly) were retrospectively reviewed. The majority of patients showed advanced clinical stages (stage III/IV:72%) with undifferentiated histology (82%). IMRT was performed in step-and-shoot technique using an integrated boost concept in 84%. In this concept, the boost volume covered the primary tumor and involved nodes with doses of 66–70.4 Gy (single dose 2.2 Gy). Uninvolved regional nodal areas were covered with doses of 54–59.4 Gy (median single dose 1.8 Gy). At least one parotid gland was spared. None of the patients received adjuvant CHT. The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 48 months. Radiation therapy was completed without interruption in all patients and 76% of the patients received at least 80% of the scheduled CHT. Four local recurrences have been observed, transferring into 1-, 3-, and 5-year Local Control (LC) rates of 98%, 90% and 90%. One patient developed an isolated regional nodal recurrence, resulting in 1-, 3-, and 5-year Regional Control (RC) rates of 98%. All locoregional failures were located inside the radiation fields. Distant metastases were found in six patients, transferring into 1-, 3, and 5-year Distant Control (DC) rates of 92%, 86% and 86%. Progression free survival (PFS) rates after 1, 3 and 5 years were 86%, 70% and 69% and 1-, 3- and 5-year Overall Survival (OS) rates were 96%, 82% and 79%. Acute toxicity ≥ grade III mainly consisted of dysphagia (32%), leukopenia (24%), stomatitis (16%), infection (8%) and nausea (8%). Severe late toxicity (grade III) was documented in 18% of the patients, mainly as xerostomia (10%). Concurrent chemoradiation

  17. The Concept of Autonomous Power Supply System Fed with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Fedak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development requires the use of renewable energy sources in a rational and thoughtful way. In Polish conditions the use of several types of renewable energy sources on a single setup is a new issue. In particular, hybrid devices in conjunction with intelligent energy systems, such as lighting systems are generally not used. Therefore, the Polish energy production still relies on the burning of coal. Despite their advantages, renewable energy sources are characterized by seasonality and considerable instability. Access to renewable energy varies daily and seasonally, hence activities promoting the use of autonomous, hybrid power systems must be intensified. The presented research aims at the development of the Autonomous Power Supply (APS system based on the so-called energy mix. Such a system works in an isolated arrangement and serves to reliably supply electricity from renewable sources for small residential or public utility devices in an urban area. Systems with up to 3 kW power consist of modules, whose modular design allows the combination of various power configurations and types of renewable energy used. The basic system consists of a primary power source, additional power source, emergency power source, energy storage device, weather station and controller. The energy mix depends on the geographical location of the system. The emergency source can be implemented as an on-grid connector or fuel power generator with the participation of 100% until the primary or accessory power source failure is removed. The energy storage system consists of batteries or supercapacitors. The proposed system can be combined to create a local network that automatically responds to energy shortages in various network nodes by adjusting the supply of electricity within the network depending on its needs. For Poland realistic solutions in this article are the new and modern answer to these requirements.

  18. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksley, Jack; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics) and one or more vocal (phonic) tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist) is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus, the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an implanted device

  19. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  20. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  1. Landmark navigation and autonomous landing approach with obstacle detection for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Simon; Werner, Stefan; Dickmanns, Dirk; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    A machine perception system for aircraft and helicopters using multiple sensor data for state estimation is presented. By combining conventional aircraft sensor like gyros, accelerometers, artificial horizon, aerodynamic measuring devices and GPS with vision data taken by conventional CCD-cameras mounted on a pan and tilt platform, the position of the craft can be determined as well as the relative position to runways and natural landmarks. The vision data of natural landmarks are used to improve position estimates during autonomous missions. A built-in landmark management module decides which landmark should be focused on by the vision system, depending on the distance to the landmark and the aspect conditions. More complex landmarks like runways are modeled with different levels of detail that are activated dependent on range. A supervisor process compares vision data and GPS data to detect mistracking of the vision system e.g. due to poor visibility and tries to reinitialize the vision system or to set focus on another landmark available. During landing approach obstacles like trucks and airplanes can be detected on the runway. The system has been tested in real-time within a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Simulated aircraft measurements corrupted by noise and other characteristic sensor errors have been fed into the machine perception system; the image processing module for relative state estimation was driven by computer generated imagery. Results from real-time simulation runs are given.

  2. Active matter logic for autonomous microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Chemically or optically powered active matter plays an increasingly important role in materials design, but its computational potential has yet to be explored systematically. The competition between energy consumption and dissipation imposes stringent physical constraints on the information transport in active flow networks, facilitating global optimization strategies that are not well understood. Here, we combine insights from recent microbial experiments with concepts from lattice-field theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to introduce a generic theoretical framework for active matter logic. Highlighting conceptual differences with classical and quantum computation, we demonstrate how the inherent non-locality of incompressible active flow networks can be utilized to construct universal logical operations, Fredkin gates and memory storage in set-reset latches through the synchronized self-organization of many individual network components. Our work lays the conceptual foundation for developing autonomous microfluidic transport devices driven by bacterial fluids, active liquid crystals or chemically engineered motile colloids.

  3. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  4. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Yong Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

  5. Insights into the background of autonomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Geraldes, Vera; Oliveira, Mário; Rocha, Isabel

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the physiology underlying the autonomic nervous system is pivotal for understanding autonomic dysfunction in clinical practice. Autonomic dysfunction may result from primary modifications of the autonomic nervous system or be secondary to a wide range of diseases that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Together with a detailed history and physical examination, laboratory assessment of autonomic function is essential for the analysis of various clinical conditions and the establishment of effective, personalized and precise therapeutic schemes. This review summarizes the main aspects of autonomic medicine that constitute the background of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Portable Digital Devices to Analyze Autonomic Stress Response in Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Velasco, Ana Isabel; Bellido-Esteban, Alberto; Ruisoto-Palomera, Pablo; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2018-01-12

    The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the autonomic stress response of Psychology students in a Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their relationship with OSCE performance. Variables of autonomic modulation by the analysis of heart rate variability in temporal, frequency and non-linear domains, subjective perception of distress strait and academic performance were measured before and after the two different evaluations that composed the OSCE. A psychology objective structured clinical examination composed by two different evaluation scenarios produced a large anxiety anticipatory response, a habituation response in the first of the evaluation scenarios and a in the entire evaluation, and a no habituation response in the second evaluation scenario. Autonomic modulation parameters do not correlate with academic performance of students.

  7. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinda eKhalaf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI and cardiovascular disease (CVD as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated with CVD, has not been established. The current study aims to investigate the association between ABPI, and cardiac rhythm, as an indicator of cardiovascular health and functionality, utilising heart rate variability (HRV.Methods and Results: Two hundred and thirty six patients underwent ABPI assessment. Standard time and frequency domain, and non-linear HRV measures were determined from 5-minute electrocardiogram. ABPI data were divided into normal (n=101, low (n=67 and high (n=66 and compared to HRV measures.(DFAα1 and SampEn were significantly different between the low ABPI, high ABPI and control groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: A possible coupling between arterial stenosis and vascular calcification with decreased and increased HRV respectively was observed. Our results suggest a model for interpreting the relationship between vascular pathophysiology and cardiac rhythm. The cardiovascular system may be viewed as a complex system comprising a number of interacting subsystems. These cardiac and vascular subsystems/networks may be coupled and undergo transitions in response to internal or external perturbations. From a clinical perspective, the significantly increased sample entropy compared to the normal ABPI group and the decreased and increased complex correlation properties measured by DFA for the low and high ABPI groups respectively, may be useful indicators that a more holistic treatment approach in line with this more complex clinical picture is required.

  8. Autonomous Laser-Powered Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An autonomous laser-powered vehicle designed to autonomously penetrate through ice caps of substantial (e.g., kilometers) thickness by melting a path ahead of the vehicle as it descends. A high powered laser beam is transmitted to the vehicle via an onboard bare fiber spooler. After the beam enters through the dispersion optics, the beam expands into a cavity. A radiation shield limits backscatter radiation from heating the optics. The expanded beam enters the heat exchanger and is reflected by a dispersion mirror. Forward-facing beveled circular grooves absorb the reflected radiant energy preventing the energy from being reflected back towards the optics. Microchannels along the inner circumference of the beam dump heat exchanger maximize heat transfer. Sufficient amount of fiber is wound on the fiber spooler to permit not only a descent but also to permit a sample return mission by inverting the vehicle and melting its way back to the surface.

  9. Health, autonomic financing and transferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cantarero Prieto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as objective to study the whole relative problem to the autonomous communities and regional heath care expenditure financing in Spain. This article has a dual purpose. First, the financing of the current health care attendance is approached in the Spanish regions passing magazine to its possible variants and we observe that the balance of our system is clearly inclined towards the side of the integration in the general pattern of financing («Fiscal Room» with specific conditions («Mixed System». Secondly, we examine the new situation in the mark of health care and its corresponding financing in the new model approved in 2001, in terms of the effects of tax assignment on autonomous communities.

  10. Autonomously managed high power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.J.; Bechtel, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The need for autonomous power management capabilities will increase as the power levels of spacecraft increase into the multi-100 kW range. The quantity of labor intensive ground and crew support consumed by the 9 kW Skylab cannot be afforded in support of a 75-300 kW Space Station or high power earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft. Marshall Space Flight Center is managing a program to develop necessary technologies for high power system autonomous management. To date a reference electrical power system and automation approaches have been defined. A test facility for evaluation and verification of management algorithms and hardware has been designed with the first of the three power channel capability nearing completion

  11. Development of autonomous operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, Akira; Watanabe, Kenshiu; Miki, Tetsushi

    1992-01-01

    To enhance operation reliability of nuclear plants by removing human factors, study on an autonomous operation system has been carried out to substitute artificial intelligence (AI) for plant operators and, in addition, traditional controllers used in existing plants. For construction of the AI system, structurization of knowledge on the basis of the principles such as physical laws, function and structure of relevant objects and generalization of problem solving process are intended. A hierarchical distributed cooperative system configuration in employed because it is superior from the viewpoint of dynamical reorganization of system functions. This configuration is realized by an object-oriented multi-agent system. Construction of a prototype system was planned and the conceptual design was made for FBR plant in order to evaluate applicability of AI to the autonomous operation and to have a prospect for the realization of the system. The prototype system executes diagnosis, state evaluation, operation and control for the main plant subsystems. (author)

  12. Autonomous Agents as Artistic Collaborators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadish, David

    In this paper, I ask whether it is possible to exert creative direction on the emergence of large scale patterns from the actions of autonomous or semi-autonomous actors. As an artist and an engineer, I undertake installations and projects with an intent to create, to make art or innovative...... structures. At the same time, one of my artistic interests is in ceding a great deal of creative control to a cluster of robotic actors, in the process interrogating the lack of control that we, as a species, exert over the world. Here, I explore this idea in the context of an ongoing project called...... that navigate the space as well. My work has implications for how we as a species address planetary-scale challenges and whether we can organize societies to find emergent solutions to complex problems. Behind my artistic interest is the idea that "creation" has no teleological impulse. The creative force from...

  13. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  14. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    insect brain, allow these animals to fly with damaged wings, order of body mass payloads (e.g., foraging bees with a load of pollen , blood satiated...The research focus addressed two broad, complementary research areas : autonomous systems concepts inspired by the behavior and neurobiology...UL 46 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 850 883-1887 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 iii Table of

  15. Autonomous Electrical Vehicles’ Charging Station

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Łukasz Rosłaniec; Rafał Bielas; Magdalena Błędzińska

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an autonomous electrical vehicles’ charging station. It consists of renewable energy sources: wind turbine system, photovoltaic cells, as well as an energy storage, load, and EV charging station. In order to optimise the operating conditions, power electronic converters were added to the system. The model was implemented in the Homer Energy programme. The first part of the paper presents the design assumptions and technological solutions. Further in the paper...

  16. Fleet management for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bsaybes, Sahar; Quilliot, Alain; Wagler, Annegret K.

    2016-01-01

    The VIPAFLEET project consists in developing models and algorithms for man- aging a fleet of Individual Public Autonomous Vehicles (VIPA). Hereby, we consider a fleet of cars distributed at specified stations in an industrial area to supply internal transportation, where the cars can be used in different modes of circulation (tram mode, elevator mode, taxi mode). One goal is to develop and implement suitable algorithms for each mode in order to satisfy all the requests under an economic point...

  17. Urban planning for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Pieter J.; Ordoñez Medina, Sergio A.; Maheshwari, Tanvi; Wang, Biyu; Erath, Alexander; Cairns, Stephen; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2018-01-01

    In land-scarce Singapore, population growth and increasingly dense development are running up against limited remaining space for mobility infrastructure expansion. Autonomous Vehicles (AV) promise to relieve some of this pressure, through more efficient use of road space through platooning and intersection coordination, reducing the need for parking space, and reducing overall reliance on privately owned cars, realising Singapore’s vision of a “car-lite” future. In a collaborative resear...

  18. Failure Prediction for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Simon; Dai, Dengxin; Van Gool, Luc

    2018-01-01

    The primary focus of autonomous driving research is to improve driving accuracy. While great progress has been made, state-of-the-art algorithms still fail at times. Such failures may have catastrophic consequences. It therefore is important that automated cars foresee problems ahead as early as possible. This is also of paramount importance if the driver will be asked to take over. We conjecture that failures do not occur randomly. For instance, driving models may fail more likely at places ...

  19. Autonomic computing meets SCADA security

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, S; Patel, S; Patel, D

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 IEEE. National assets such as transportation networks, large manufacturing, business and health facilities, power generation, and distribution networks are critical infrastructures. The cyber threats to these infrastructures have increasingly become more sophisticated, extensive and numerous. Cyber security conventional measures have proved useful in the past but increasing sophistication of attacks dictates the need for newer measures. The autonomic computing paradigm mimics the auton...

  20. The autonomous house: a bio-hydrogen based energy self-sufficient approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-04-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment.

  1. Hybrid ARQ Scheme with Autonomous Retransmission for Multicasting in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Ho; Choi, Jihoon

    2017-02-25

    A new hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) scheme for multicast service for wireless sensor networks is proposed in this study. In the proposed algorithm, the HARQ operation is combined with an autonomous retransmission method that ensure a data packet is transmitted irrespective of whether or not the packet is successfully decoded at the receivers. The optimal number of autonomous retransmissions is determined to ensure maximum spectral efficiency, and a practical method that adjusts the number of autonomous retransmissions for realistic conditions is developed. Simulation results show that the proposed method achieves higher spectral efficiency than existing HARQ techniques.

  2. Hybrid ARQ Scheme with Autonomous Retransmission for Multicasting in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Jung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ scheme for multicast service for wireless sensor networks is proposed in this study. In the proposed algorithm, the HARQ operation is combined with an autonomous retransmission method that ensure a data packet is transmitted irrespective of whether or not the packet is successfully decoded at the receivers. The optimal number of autonomous retransmissions is determined to ensure maximum spectral efficiency, and a practical method that adjusts the number of autonomous retransmissions for realistic conditions is developed. Simulation results show that the proposed method achieves higher spectral efficiency than existing HARQ techniques.

  3. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an “autonomous house” emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses’ two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment. PMID:19440531

  4. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  5. The effect of flow modes and electrode combinations on the performance of a multiple module microbial fuel cell installed at wastewater treatment plant

    KAUST Repository

    He, Weihua

    2016-09-13

    A larger (6.1 L) MFC stack made in a scalable configuration was constructed with four anode modules and three (two-sided) cathode modules, and tested at a wastewater treatment plant for performance in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and power generation. Domestic wastewater was fed either in parallel (raw wastewater to each individual anode module) or series (sequentially through the chambers), with the flow direction either alternated every one or two days or kept fixed in a single direction over time. The largest impact on performance was the wastewater COD concentration, which greatly impacted power production, but did not affect the percentage of COD removal. With higher COD concentrations (∼500 mg L−1) and alternating flow conditions, power generation was primarily limited by the cathode specific area. In alternating flow operation, anode modules connected to two cathodes produced an average maximum power density of 6.0 ± 0.4 W m−3, which was 1.9 ± 0.2 times that obtained for anodes connected to a single cathode. In fixed flow operation, a large subsequent decrease in COD influent concentration greatly reduced power production independent of reactor operation in parallel or serial flow modes. Anode modules connected to two cathodes did not consistently produce more power than the anodes connected to a single cathode, indicating power production became limited by restricted anode performance at low CODs. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data supported restricted anode performance with low COD. These results demonstrate that maintaining power production of MFC stack requires higher influent and effluent COD concentrations. However, overall performance of the MFC in terms of COD removal was not affected by operational modes.

  6. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  7. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  8. Modelling of a PMSG Wind Turbine with Autonomous Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to model an autonomous control wind turbine driven permanent magnetic synchronous generator (PMSG which feeds alternating current (AC power to the utility grid. Furthermore, this research also demonstrates the effects and the efficiency of PMSG wind turbine which is integrated by autonomous controllers. In order for well autonomous control, two voltage source inverters are used to control wind turbine connecting with the grid. The generator-side inverter is used to adjust the synchronous generator as well as separating the generator from the grid when necessary. The grid-side inverter controls the power flow between the direct current (DC bus and the AC side. Both of them are oriented control by space vector pulse width modulation (PWM with back-to-back frequency inverter. Moreover, the proportional-integral (PI controller is enhanced to control both of the inverters and the pitch angle of the wind turbine. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT is integrated in generator-side inverter to track the maximum power, when wind speed changes. The simulation results in Matlab Simulink 2012b showing the model have good dynamic and static performance. The maximum power can be tracked and the generator wind turbine can be operated with high efficiency.

  9. Combined effects of potassium chloride and ethanol as mobile phase modulators on hydrophobic interaction and reversed-phase chromatography of three insulin variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Karolina; Frederiksen, Søren S; Degerman, Marcus; Breil, Martin P; Mollerup, Jørgen M; Nilsson, Bernt

    2015-02-13

    The two main chromatographic modes based on hydrophobicity, hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), are widely used for both analytical and preparative chromatography of proteins in the pharmaceutical industry. Despite the extensive application of these separation methods, and the vast amount of studies performed on HIC and RPC over the decades, the underlying phenomena remain elusive. As part of a systematic study of the influence of mobile phase modulators in hydrophobicity-based chromatography, we have investigated the effects of both KCl and ethanol on the retention of three insulin variants on two HIC adsorbents and two RPC adsorbents. The focus was on the linear adsorption range, separating the modulator effects from the capacity effects, but some complementary experiments at higher load were included to further investigate observed phenomena. The results show that the modulators have the same effect on the two RPC adsorbents in the linear range, indicating that the modulator concentration only affects the activity of the solute in the mobile phase, and not that of the solute-ligand complex, or that of the ligand. Unfortunately, the HIC adsorbents did not show the same behavior. However, the insulin variants displayed a strong tendency toward self-association on both HIC adsorbents; on one in particular. Since this causes peak fronting, the retention is affected, and this could probably explain the lack of congruity. This conclusion was supported by the results from the non-linear range experiments which were indicative of double-layer adsorption on the HIC adsorbents, while the RPC adsorbents gave the anticipated increased tailing at higher load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes: clinical impact, assessment, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy; Bernardi, Luciano; Frontoni, Simona; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Stevens, Martin; Kempler, Peter; Hilsted, Jannik; Tesfaye, Solomon; Low, Phillip; Valensi, Paul

    2011-10-01

    The Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of the Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control in the setting of diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The prevalence of confirmed CAN is around 20%, and increases up to 65% with age and diabetes duration. Established risk factors for CAN are glycaemic control in type 1 and a combination of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: (1) one abnormal cardiovagal test result identifies possible or early CAN; (2) at least two abnormal cardiovagal test results are required for definite or confirmed CAN; and (3) the presence of orthostatic hypotension in addition to abnormal heart rate test results identifies severe or advanced CAN. Progressive stages of CAN are associated with increasingly worse prognosis. CAN assessment is relevant in clinical practice for (1) diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, (2) detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, non-dipping, QT interval prolongation), (3) risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and (4) modulation of targets of diabetes therapy. Evidence on the cost-effectiveness of CAN testing is lacking. Apart from the preventive role of intensive glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes, recommendations cannot be made for most therapeutic approaches to CAN. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Human Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2013-0143 HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES Heath A. Ruff Ball...REPORT TYPE Interim 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 09-16-08 – 03-22-13 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES 5a...Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles To support the vision of a system that enables a single operator to control multiple next-generation

  12. Rearrangeable and exchangeable optical module with system-on-chip for wearable functional near-infrared spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funane, Tsukasa; Numata, Takashi; Sato, Hiroki; Hiraizumi, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Kuwabara, Hidenobu; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kiguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    We developed a system-on-chip (SoC)-incorporated light-emitting diode (LED) and avalanche photodiode (APD) modules to improve the usability and flexibility of a fiberless wearable functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. The SoC has a microprocessing unit and programmable circuits. The time division method and the lock-in method were used for separately detecting signals from different positions and signals of different wavelengths, respectively. Each module autonomously works for this time-divided-lock-in measurement with a high sensitivity for haired regions. By supplying [Formula: see text] of power and base and data clocks, the LED module emits both 730- and 855-nm wavelengths of light, amplitudes of which are modulated in each lock-in frequency generated from the base clock, and the APD module provides the lock-in detected signals synchronizing with the data clock. The SoC provided many functions, including automatic-power-control of the LED, automatic judgment of detected power level, and automatic-gain-control of the programmable gain amplifier. The number and the arrangement of modules can be adaptively changed by connecting this exchangeable modules in a daisy chain and setting the parameters dependent on the probing position. Therefore, users can configure a variety of arrangements (single- or multidistance combinations) of them with this module-based system.

  13. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  14. A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbier, Magali; Gabard, Jean-Francois; Ayreault, Herve

    2007-01-01

    ...; few solutions propose architecture adaptive to several types of platform. Autonomous vehicles that move in partially known and dynamic environments have to deal with asynchronous disruptive events...

  15. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogacki, John R

    2007-01-01

    ... actuators, development of a visualization lab for modeling vision based guidance algorithms, concept development of a rapid prototyping and aero characterization lab, vision based control of autonomous...

  16. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  17. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  18. Autonomous quality assurance and troubleshooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPlain, Ronald F.; Radziwill, Nicole M.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2006-06-01

    To improve operational availability (the proportion of time that a telescope is able to accomplish what a visiting observer wants at the time the observation is scheduled), response time to faults must be minimized. One way this can be accomplished is by characterizing the relationships and interdependencies between components in a control system, developing algorithms to identify the root cause of a problem, and capturing expert knowledge of a system to simplify the process of troubleshooting. Results from a prototype development are explained, along with deployment issues. Implications for the future, such as effective knowledge representation and management, and learning processes which integrate autonomous and interactive components, are discussed.

  19. Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, William; Thanjavur, Karun

    2011-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is key to the natural evolution of today's automated telescopes to fully autonomous systems. Based on its rapid development over the past five decades, AI offers numerous, well-tested techniques for knowledge based decision making essential for real-time telescope monitoring and control, with minimal - and eventually no - human intervention. We present three applications of AI developed at CFHT for monitoring instantaneous sky conditions, assessing quality of imaging data, and a prototype for scheduling observations in real-time. Closely complementing the current remote operations at CFHT, we foresee further development of these methods and full integration in the near future.

  20. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  1. BART: The Czech Autonomous Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Štrobl, Jan; Polášek, Cyril

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, Spec. Is. (2010), 103986/1-103986/5 ISSN 1687-7969. [Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Observatories. Málaga, 18.05.2009-21.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : robotic telescope * BART * gamma ray bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aa/2010/103986.html

  2. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHawksley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics and one or more vocal (phonic tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS. Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an

  3. Stability Analysis and Internal Heating Effect on Oscillatory Convection in a Viscoelastic Fluid Saturated Porous Medium Under Gravity Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, B. S.; Singh, M. K.; Singh, A.; Singh, B. K.; Kiran, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of internal heating and time periodic gravity modulation in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous medium by reducing the problem into a complex non-autonomous Ginzgburg-Landau equation. Weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of gravity modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of the amplitude for oscillatory mode of convection. The influence of viscoelastic parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Gravity modulation is found to have a destabilizing effect at low frequencies and a stabilizing effect at high frequencies. Finally, it is found that overstability advances the onset of convection, more with internal heating. The conditions for which the complex Ginzgburg-Landau equation undergoes Hopf bifurcation and the amplitude equation undergoes supercritical pitchfork bifurcation are studied.

  4. Stability Analysis and Internal Heating Effect on Oscillatory Convection in a Viscoelastic Fluid Saturated Porous Medium Under Gravity Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhadauria B.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of internal heating and time periodic gravity modulation in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous medium by reducing the problem into a complex non-autonomous Ginzgburg-Landau equation. Weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of gravity modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of the amplitude for oscillatory mode of convection. The influence of viscoelastic parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Gravity modulation is found to have a destabilizing effect at low frequencies and a stabilizing effect at high frequencies. Finally, it is found that overstability advances the onset of convection, more with internal heating. The conditions for which the complex Ginzgburg-Landau equation undergoes Hopf bifurcation and the amplitude equation undergoes supercritical pitchfork bifurcation are studied.

  5. Modulation of radio-induced oxidative damage by the combination of pentoxifylline and γ-tocopherol in skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Carine; Roy, Laurence; Voisin, Philippe; Pouget, JeanPierre

    2004-01-01

    Clinical or accidental localized ionizing radiation exposure can induce severe skin damage constituting the cutaneous radiological syndrome which is divided in acute and late phases. The combination of pentoxifylline (PTX), antioxidant phytochemical, and γ-tocopherol, antioxidant nutrient shows effectiveness in reducing the late radio-induced skin damage with a long period. This work aims to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the effects of this combination

  6. Adaptive Control System for Autonomous Helicopter Slung Load Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2010-01-01

    system on the helicopter that measures the position of the slung load. The controller is a combined feedforward and feedback scheme for simultaneous avoidance of swing excitation and active swing damping. Simulations and laboratory flight tests show the effectiveness of the combined control system......This paper presents design and verification of an estimation and control system for a helicopter slung load system. The estimator provides position and velocity estimates of the slung load and is designed to augment existing navigation in autonomous helicopters. Sensor input is provided by a vision......, yielding significant load swing reduction compared to the baseline controller....

  7. Interaction of Harsh Weather Operation and Collision Avoidance in Autonomous Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Burmeister

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the autonomous navigation system design and today’s state of the art navigation with regards to weather and collision avoidance this paper presents the architecture of the integrated approach, its links to existing rules and regulations and the test scenarios. These demonstrate how safe and efficient navigation of autonomous vessels can be achieved by showing the module's interaction and validating the feasibility of the approach. These analyses will be based on historical traffic data sets as well as simulation results.

  8. Diminished autonomic neurocardiac function in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyungwook Kim,1 Seul Lee,2 Jong-Hoon Kim1–3 1Gachon University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, 3Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder that is characterized by a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate variability (HRV, measuring autonomic regulation, and to evaluate the relationship between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety, in medication-free patients with GAD. Methods: Assessments of linear and nonlinear complexity measures of HRV were performed in 42 medication-free patients with GAD and 50 healthy control subjects. In addition, the severity of anxiety symptoms was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The values of the HRV measures of the groups were compared, and the correlations between the HRV measures and the severity of anxiety symptoms were assessed. Results: The GAD group showed significantly lower standard deviation of RR intervals and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal sinus intervals values compared to the control group (P<0.01. The approximate entropy value, which is a nonlinear complexity indicator, was also significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01. In correlation analysis, there were no significant correlations between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion: The present study indicates that GAD is significantly associated with reduced HRV, suggesting that autonomic neurocardiac integrity is substantially impaired in patients with GAD. Future prospective studies are required to investigate the effects of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment on

  9. Autonomous Lawnmower using FPGA implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Lokman, Nabill bin; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, there are various types of robot have been invented for multiple purposes. The robots have the special characteristic that surpass the human ability and could operate in extreme environment which human cannot endure. In this paper, an autonomous robot is built to imitate the characteristic of a human cutting grass. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the movements where all data and information would be processed. Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is used to describe the hardware using Quartus II software. This robot has the ability of avoiding obstacle using ultrasonic sensor. This robot used two DC motors for its movement. It could include moving forward, backward, and turning left and right. The movement or the path of the automatic lawn mower is based on a path planning technique. Four Global Positioning System (GPS) plot are set to create a boundary. This to ensure that the lawn mower operates within the area given by user. Every action of the lawn mower is controlled by the FPGA DE' Board Cyclone II with the help of the sensor. Furthermore, Sketch Up software was used to design the structure of the lawn mower. The autonomous lawn mower was able to operate efficiently and smoothly return to coordinated paths after passing the obstacle. It uses 25% of total pins available on the board and 31% of total Digital Signal Processing (DSP) blocks.

  10. Structured control for autonomous robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    To operate in rich, dynamic environments, autonomous robots must be able to effectively utilize and coordinate their limited physical and occupational resources. As complexity increases, it becomes necessary to impose explicit constraints on the control of planning, perception, and action to ensure that unwanted interactions between behaviors do not occur. This paper advocates developing complex robot systems by layering reactive behaviors onto deliberative components. In this structured control approach, the deliberative components handle normal situations and the reactive behaviors, which are explicitly constrained as to when and how they are activated, handle exceptional situations. The Task Control Architecture (TCA) has been developed to support this approach. TCA provides an integrated set of control constructs useful for implementing deliberative and reactive behaviors. The control constructs facilitate modular and evolutionary system development: they are used to integrate and coordinate planning, perception, and execution, and to incrementally improve the efficiency and robustness of the robot systems. To date, TCA has been used in implementing a half-dozen mobile robot systems, including an autonomous six-legged rover and indoor mobile manipulator

  11. Improved Object Proposals with Geometrical Features for Autonomous Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliu Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at generating high-quality object proposals for object detection in autonomous driving. Most existing proposal generation methods are designed for the general object detection, which may not perform well in a particular scene. We propose several geometrical features suited for autonomous driving and integrate them into state-of-the-art general proposal generation methods. In particular, we formulate the integration as a feature fusion problem by fusing the geometrical features with existing proposal generation methods in a Bayesian framework. Experiments on the challenging KITTI benchmark demonstrate that our approach improves the existing methods significantly. Combined with a convolutional neural net detector, our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on all three KITTI object classes.

  12. LHCb: Grid administration,towards an autonomic approach

    CERN Multimedia

    Ubeda Garcia, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Within the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we deployed an autonomous policy system acting as a central status information point for grid elements. Experts working as grid administrators have a broad and very deep knowledge about the underlying system which makes them very precious. We have attempted to formalize this knowledge in an autonomous system able to aggregate information, draw conclusions, validate them, and take actions accordingly. The DIRAC Resource Status System is a monitoring and generic policy system that enforces managerial and operational actions automatically. As an example, the status of a grid entity can be evaluated using a number of policies, each making assessments relative to specific monitoring information. Individual results of these policies can be combined to evaluate and propose a global status for the resource. This evaluation goes through a validation step driven by a state machine and an external validation system. Once validated, actions can be triggered accordingl...

  13. The pattern of autonomic tone disorder and its correction in children with overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Morozov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysregulation is one of the leading components in the pathogenesis of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. These disorders lead to diverse changes in the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems with disordered release of mediators (norepinephrine, acetylcholine, hormones of the adrenal cortex and other endocrine glands, a number of biologically active substances (polypeptides, prostaglandins, as well as to the impaired sensitivity of vascular a- and p-adrenoceptors. Children with dysuria concurrently develop visceral, CNS, and circulatory system dysfunctions and metabolic disturbances. The paper describes the clinical trial of children with overactive bladder, which demonstrates the autonomic tone in these patients (и=44. The findings point to the important involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathogenesis of the disease and provide a rationale for the incorporation of vegetotropic drugs normalizing the autonomic nervous system into the combination therapy of overactive bladder.

  14. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  15. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are available to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions

  16. Overfeeding, autonomic regulation and metabolic consequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, A.J.W.; Balkan, B; Strubbe, J.H.; van Dijk, G.; Steffens, A.B

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of body processes in health and disease. Overfeeding and obesity (a disproportional increase of the fat mass of the body) are often accompanied by alterations in both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The

  17. Technologies for highly miniaturized autonomous sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, K.; Gyselinckx, B.; Torfs, T.; Leonov, V.; Yazicioglu, F.; Brebels, S.; Donnay, S.; Vanfleteren, J.; Beyne, E.; Hoof, C. van

    2006-01-01

    Recent results of the autonomous sensor research program HUMAN++ will be summarized in this paper. The research program aims to achieve highly miniaturized and (nearly) autonomous sensor systems that assist our health and comfort. Although the application examples are dedicated to human

  18. Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-03

    I I Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles F49620-01-1-0337 6. AUTHOR(S... Autonomous Vehicles Final Report Kendall E. Nygard Department of Computer Science and Operations Research North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58105-5164

  19. 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    TITLE (Include Security Classification) W 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, inso Kweoni... Autonomous Vehicles Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, Inso Kweon CMU-RI-TR-88-12 The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Acession For Pittsburgh

  20. Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report Hui-Min Huang, Elena Messina, James Albus...Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  1. Intelligent autonomous systems 12. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukhan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of). College of Information and Communication Engineering; Yoon, Kwang-Joon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyungsuck [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangmyung (eds.) [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Recent research in Intelligent and Autonomous Systems. Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, jeju Island, Korea. Written by leading experts in the field. Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of ''Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security and space applications, and intelligent autonomous systems for manufacturing and healthcare. This volume 2 includes contributions devoted to Service Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction and Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems and Life Engineering.

  2. Safe and Autonomous Drones for Urban Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are no longer futuristic technology; in fact, there are already cars with self-driving features on the road. Over the next five years, the connected vehicles will disrupt the entire automotive and UAS ecosystems. The industry will undergo fundamental change as semi-autonomous driving and flying emerges, followed by an eventual shift to full autonomy.

  3. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  4. More with thermal energy storage. Report 8. Autonomous heating. Autonomous development of ground temperature. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 8. Autonome opwarming. Autonome ontwikkeling bodemtemperatuur. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drijver, B. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-03-30

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. This report contains an analysis of the thermal impact of climate change and urbanization on the soil temperature. Attention is paid to the autonomous heating of the subsurface that occurred since 1900 and that still may be expected up to 2040. A distinction is made between rural areas, where only the climate change plays a role, and urban areas, where the UHI effect (Urban Heat Island) is of importance [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te

  5. Combined ginger extract & Gelam honey modulate Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway genes in colon cancer HT29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Analhuda Abdullah; Sani, Nur Fathiah Abdul; Murad, Noor Azian; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2015-04-01

    The interconnected Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways play a central role in colorectal tumorigenesis, and they are targets for elucidating mechanisms involved in attempts to induce colon cancer cell death. Both ginger (Zingiber officinale) and honey have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor and anti-inflammation properties against many types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. However, there are currently no reports showing the combined effect of these two dietary compounds in cancer growth inhibition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of crude ginger extract and Gelam honey in combination as potential cancer chemopreventive agents against the colorectal cancer cell line HT29. The cells were divided into 4 groups: the first group represents HT29 cells without treatment, the second and third groups were cells treated singly with either ginger or Gelam honey, respectively, and the last group represents cells treated with ginger and Gelam honey combined. The results of MTS assay showed that the IC50 of ginger and Gelam honey alone were 5.2 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC50 of the combination treatment was 3 mg/ml of ginger plus 27 mg/ml of Gelam honey with a combination index of ginger and Gelam honey treatment was associated with the stimulation of early apoptosis (upregulation of caspase 9 and IκB genes) accompanied by downregulation of the KRAS, ERK, AKT, Bcl-xL, NFkB (p65) genes in a synergistic manner. In conclusion, the combination of ginger and Gelam honey may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for inducing the death of colon cancer cells.

  6. ROV90 - A prototype autonomous inspection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedseth, Oe.J.; Hallset, J.O.

    1991-04-01

    Simple autonomous inspection vehicles are suitable for operations where the cost, danger to humans, or area of operation prohibits the use of conventional underwater technology. Autonomous vehicles are, however, in their infancy and few such vehicles are available. There are still some problems to be overcome before this technology becomes useful in commercial applications. We have built ROV90 to investigate these problems. It is a test bed for experimenting with the different parts of an autonomous underwater vehicle. ROV90 will be able to autonomously follow prominent features in the real world, man made or natural. Examples are pipelines or walls in tunnels. ROV90 is tethered, but we are planning to use experience and results from ROV90 to develop av ''real'' autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) called PISCIS. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Current challenges in autonomous driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  8. Phase II study of induction chemotherapy with TPF followed by radioimmunotherapy with Cetuximab and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in combination with a carbon ion boost for locally advanced tumours of the oro-, hypopharynx and larynx - TPF-C-HIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavtratzas Athanasios

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term locoregional control in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN remains challenging. While recent years have seen various approaches to improve outcome by intensification of treatment schedules through introduction of novel induction and combination chemotherapy regimen and altered fractionation regimen, patient tolerance to higher treatment intensities is limited by accompanying side-effects. Combined radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab as well as modern radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and carbon ion therapy (C12 are able to limit toxicity while maintaining treatment effects. In order to achieve maximum efficacy with yet acceptable toxicity, this sequential phase II trial combines induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF followed by radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. We expect this approach to result in increased cure rates with yet manageable accompanying toxicity. Methods/design The TPF-C-HIT trial is a prospective, mono-centric, open-label, non-randomized phase II trial evaluating efficacy and toxicity of the combined treatment with IMRT/carbon ion boost and weekly cetuximab in 50 patients with histologically proven locally advanced SCCHN following TPF induction chemotherapy. Patients receive 24 GyE carbon ions (8 fractions and 50 Gy IMRT (2.0 Gy/fraction in combination with weekly cetuximab throughout radiotherapy. Primary endpoint is locoregional control at 12 months, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, acute and late radiation effects as well as any adverse events of the treatment as well as quality of life (QoL analyses. Discussion The primary objective of TPF-C-HIT is to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of cetuximab in combination with combined IMRT/carbon ion therapy following TPF induction in locally advanced SCCHN. Trial Registration

  9. Performance test of PSA-type O{sub 2} separator for efficient O{sub 2} supply to room ventilation system combined with CO{sub 2} adsorption module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gi Bo; Jang, Jung Hee; Choi, Changsik [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Jin [School of Chemical Engineering Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    High purity O{sub 2} concentrated by the PSA-type O{sub 2} separator was applied to a room ventilation system combined with CO{sub 2} adsorption module to remove the indoor CO{sub 2} for the indoor air quality. And then the room was occupied by several persons to breathe for the O{sub 2} consumption and CO{sub 2} generation. As a result, the indoor air quality was improved by the ventilation system combined with the O{sub 2} supply and the CO{sub 2} adsorption module. It was due to the fact that the CO{sub 2} concentration was not steeply increased, but also even decreased and then the increasing rate of the O{sub 2} concentration with the O{sub 2} supply was simultaneously increased by the CO{sub 2} removal despite the CO{sub 2} generation and O{sub 2} consumption with the four persons' breathing. As a representative result, in the case of supplying the high purity O{sub 2} of 30 L/min under using the CO{sub 2} adsorption module, the best performance with the highest increasing rate of O{sub 2} concentration and the lowest increasing rate of CO{sub 2} concentration was obtained among the various cases, and then the increasing rates of CO{sub 2} radiation and O{sub 2} concentration were -2.3 ppm/min and 33.3%/min, respectively.

  10. Autonomous navigation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  11. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  12. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  13. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  14. Full autonomous microline trace robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Deer; Lu, Si; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan

    2000-10-01

    Optoelectric inspection may find applications in robotic system. In micro robotic system, smaller optoelectric inspection system is preferred. However, as miniaturizing the size of the robot, the number of the optoelectric detector becomes lack. And lack of the information makes the micro robot difficult to acquire its status. In our lab, a micro line trace robot has been designed, which autonomous acts based on its optoelectric detection. It has been programmed to follow a black line printed on the white colored ground. Besides the optoelectric inspection, logical algorithm in the microprocessor is also important. In this paper, we propose a simply logical algorithm to realize robot's intelligence. The robot's intelligence is based on a AT89C2051 microcontroller which controls its movement. The technical details of the micro robot are as follow: dimension: 30mm*25mm*35*mm; velocity: 60mm/s.

  15. Intracellular Calcium Dynamics and Autonomic Stimulation in Atrial Fibrillation: Mechanisms and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chuan Chou, MD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available While atrial fibrillation is characterized by the co-existence of multiple activation waves within the atria, rapid activations in the pulmonary veins play an important role for the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. In addition to reentry, non-reentrant mechanisms resulting from abnormal intracellular calcium handling and intracellular calcium overload can also be responsible for these rapid activations in the pulmonary veins. Meanwhile, alterations of autonomic tone, involving both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, have been implicated in initiating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. But the effectiveness of autonomic modulation as an adjunctive therapeutic strategy to catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been inconsistent. The interactions between the autonomic nervous system and atrial fibrillation are more complex than currently understood and further mechanistic and clinical studies are warranted.

  16. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Penzel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages based on the differences in autonomic nervous system regulation. Furthermore, up to some degree, it is possible to track transitions from wakefulness to sleep by analysis of heart-rate variations. ECG and heart rate analysis allow assessment of selected sleep disorders as well. Sleep disordered breathing can be detected reliably by studying cyclical variation of heart rate combined with respiration-modulated changes in ECG morphology (amplitude of R wave and T wave.

  17. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, Thomas; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Bartsch, Ronny P; Riedl, Maik; Kraemer, Jan F; Wessel, Niels; Garcia, Carmen; Glos, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Schöbel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages based on the differences in autonomic nervous system regulation. Furthermore, up to some degree, it is possible to track transitions from wakefulness to sleep by analysis of heart-rate variations. ECG and heart rate analysis allow assessment of selected sleep disorders as well. Sleep disordered breathing can be detected reliably by studying cyclical variation of heart rate combined with respiration-modulated changes in ECG morphology (amplitude of R wave and T wave).

  18. The dataset from administration of single or combined immunomodulation agents to modulate anti-FVIII antibody responses in FVIII plasmid or protein primed hemophilia A mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lien Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A mice with pre-existing inhibitory antibodies against factor VIII (FVIII were treated with single agents, AMD3100 and GCS-F, respectively. Inhibitor titers in treated mice and control HemA inhibitors mice were followed over time. Total B cells and plasma cells (PCs were characterized by flow cytometry. HemA inhibitor mice were then treated with a combination regimen of IL-2/IL-2mAb complexes plus rapamycin and AMD3100. Finally, HemA inhibitor mice were treated with a new combination therapy using include IL-2/IL-2mAb complexes + Anti-CD20+AMD3100+G-CSF. The timeline of combination therapy was illustrated. Inhibitor titers following treatment in FVIII plasmid or protein induced inhibitor mice were evaluated overtime. A representative figure and gating strategies to characterize the subsets of Treg cells and B cells are presented. Please see http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2016.01.005 [1] for interpretation and discussion of these data and results.

  19. An autonomous structural health monitoring solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherston, Carol A.; Holford, Karen M.; Pullin, Rhys; Lees, Jonathan; Eaton, Mark; Pearson, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Combining advanced sensor technologies, with optimised data acquisition and diagnostic and prognostic capability, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time assessment of the integrity of bridges, buildings, aircraft, wind turbines, oil pipelines and ships, leading to improved safety and reliability and reduced inspection and maintenance costs. The implementation of power harvesting, using energy scavenged from ambient sources such as thermal gradients and sources of vibration in conjunction with wireless transmission enables truly autonomous systems, reducing the need for batteries and associated maintenance in often inaccessible locations, alongside bulky and expensive wiring looms. The design and implementation of such a system however presents numerous challenges. A suitable energy source or multiple sources capable of meeting the power requirements of the system, over the entire monitoring period, in a location close to the sensor must be identified. Efficient power management techniques must be used to condition the power and deliver it, as required, to enable appropriate measurements to be taken. Energy storage may be necessary, to match a continuously changing supply and demand for a range of different monitoring states including sleep, record and transmit. An appropriate monitoring technique, capable of detecting, locating and characterising damage and delivering reliable information, whilst minimising power consumption, must be selected. Finally a wireless protocol capable of transmitting the levels of information generated at the rate needed in the required operating environment must be chosen. This paper considers solutions to some of these challenges, and in particular examines SHM in the context of the aircraft environment.

  20. Evolving autonomous learning in cognitive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheneman, Leigh; Hintze, Arend

    2017-12-01

    There are two common approaches for optimizing the performance of a machine: genetic algorithms and machine learning. A genetic algorithm is applied over many generations whereas machine learning works by applying feedback until the system meets a performance threshold. These methods have been previously combined, particularly in artificial neural networks using an external objective feedback mechanism. We adapt this approach to Markov Brains, which are evolvable networks of probabilistic and deterministic logic gates. Prior to this work MB could only adapt from one generation to the other, so we introduce feedback gates which augment their ability to learn during their lifetime. We show that Markov Brains can incorporate these feedback gates in such a way that they do not rely on an external objective feedback signal, but instead can generate internal feedback that is then used to learn. This results in a more biologically accurate model of the evolution of learning, which will enable us to study the interplay between evolution and learning and could be another step towards autonomously learning machines.

  1. Autonomous Multicamera Tracking on Embedded Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Horst

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a strong trend towards the deployment of advanced computer vision methods on embedded systems. This deployment is very challenging since embedded platforms often provide limited resources such as computing performance, memory, and power. In this paper we present a multicamera tracking method on distributed, embedded smart cameras. Smart cameras combine video sensing, processing, and communication on a single embedded device which is equipped with a multiprocessor computation and communication infrastructure. Our multicamera tracking approach focuses on a fully decentralized handover procedure between adjacent cameras. The basic idea is to initiate a single tracking instance in the multicamera system for each object of interest. The tracker follows the supervised object over the camera network, migrating to the camera which observes the object. Thus, no central coordination is required resulting in an autonomous and scalable tracking approach. We have fully implemented this novel multicamera tracking approach on our embedded smart cameras. Tracking is achieved by the well-known CamShift algorithm; the handover procedure is realized using a mobile agent system available on the smart camera network. Our approach has been successfully evaluated on tracking persons at our campus.

  2. Autonomous control of a locomotion vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yoshiaki; Senoh, Makoto; Miyata, Kenji

    1984-01-01

    A path planner and an execution system are proposed for autonomous vehicle control. The planner creates a near shortest path avoiding obstacles that are represented by combinations of circles and line segments on a two dimensional map. For realizing real time execution, path search procedures employ a heuristic pruning strategies in selecting a node to expand and in generating successor nodes. Nodes are selected for expansion in order, according to a cost assigned to each node. The cost is mainly evaluated by approximating a path length from the initial node to the goal node. In order to expand a node and to generate successor nodes, a specific search procedure is activated that finds positions avoiding obstacles in the direction of the goal, and creates successor nodes corresponding to the positions. The execution system, utilizing an ultrasonic range finder equipped to the vehicle performs a plan repair against unknown obstacles when echoes from the obstacles are observed. The plan repair is conducted by a map edition and replanning in such a way that new circles representing the echoes are added to the map. Obstacle avoidance tests with a vehicle controlled by microprocessors demonstrate the utility of heuristics just outlined. (author)

  3. An autonomic approach to configure HEP (High Energy Physics) experiments, applied to LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty)

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, L; Charpentier, P

    2006-01-01

    Properly configuring an HEP (High Energy Phys ics) experiment becomes a more and more complex task as the number of electronics modules grows and technologies evolve quickly. Anticipating a fault in the software or in the hardware during the configuration or the data taking requires an adaptive and modular control system. The introduction of autonomic tools and data bases in the HEP world is quite recent and contributes to implement a more reliable system . The LHCb control system innovates as it has been built using autonomic tools. The main contribution of this PhD is the implementation of an autonomic 3-Tier architectur e to configure the LHCb experiment which is a huge network of devices of different types, and its integrat ion in the control system. This new type of autonomics architecture consists of: • A database layer. A relational Oracle databa se implemented using the Oracle technology contains the information...

  4. DHA Supplementation Alone or in Combination with Other Nutrients Does not Modulate Cerebral Hemodynamics or Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A. Jackson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent trials have demonstrated positive effects of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on measures of cognitive function in healthy young and older adults. One potential mechanism by which EPA, and DHA in particular, may exert these effects is via modulation of cerebral hemodynamics. In order to investigate the effects of DHA alone or provided as one component of a multinutrient supplement (also including Gingko biloba, phosphatidylserine and vitamins B9 and B12 on measures of cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive function, 86 healthy older adults aged 50–70 years who reported subjective memory deficits were recruited to take part in a six month daily dietary supplementation trial. Relative changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin were assessed using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS during the performance of cognitive tasks prior to and following the intervention period. Performance on the cognitive tasks was also assessed. No effect of either active treatment was found for any of the NIRS measures or on the cognitive performance tasks, although the study was limited by a number of factors. Further work should continue to evaluate more holistic approaches to cognitive aging.

  5. The Autonomic Nervous System Regulates the Heart Rate through cAMP-PKA Dependent and Independent Coupled-Clock Pacemaker Cell Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Joachim; Ganesan, Ambhighainath; Zhang, Jin; Yaniv, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs) generate spontaneous action potentials (APs) that control the cardiac rate. The brain modulates SANC automaticity, via the autonomic nervous system, by stimulating membrane receptors that activate (adrenergic) or inactivate (cholinergic) adenylyl cyclase (AC). However, these opposing afferents are not simply additive. We showed that activation of adrenergic signaling increases AC-cAMP/PKA signaling, which mediates the increase in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., positive chronotropic modulation). However, there is a limited understanding of the underlying internal pacemaker mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between cholinergic receptors and the decrease in the SANC AP firing rate (i.e., negative chronotropic modulation). We hypothesize that changes in AC-cAMP/PKA activity are crucial for mediating either decrease or increase in the AP firing rate and that the change in rate is due to both internal and membrane mechanisms. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected with an adenovirus expressing the FRET sensor AKAR3, PKA activity and AP firing rate were tightly linked in response to either adrenergic receptor stimulation (by isoproterenol, ISO) or cholinergic stimulation (by carbachol, CCh). To identify the main molecular targets that mediate between PKA signaling and pacemaker function, we developed a mechanistic computational model. The model includes a description of autonomic-nervous receptors, post- translation signaling cascades, membrane molecules, and internal pacemaker mechanisms. Yielding results similar to those of the experiments, the model simulations faithfully reproduce the changes in AP firing rate in response to CCh or ISO or a combination of both (i.e., accentuated antagonism). Eliminating AC-cAMP-PKA signaling abolished the core effect of autonomic receptor stimulation on the AP firing rate. Specifically, disabling the phospholamban modulation of the SERCA activity resulted in a significantly reduced effect

  6. Innovative thermal energy harvesting for future autonomous applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfray, Stephane

    2013-12-01

    As communicating autonomous systems market is booming, the role of energy harvesting will be a key enabler. As example, heat is one of the most abundant energy sources that can be converted into electricity in order to power circuits. Harvesting systems that use wasted heat open new ways to power autonomous sensors when the energy consumption is low, or to create systems of power generators when the conversion efficiency is high. The combination of different technologies (low power μ-processors, μ-batteries, radio, sensors...) with new energy harvesters compatible with large varieties of use-cases with allow to address this booming market. Thanks to the conjunction of ultra-low power electronic development, 3D technologies & Systems in Package approaches, the integration of autonomous sensors and electronics with ambient energy harvesting will be achievable. The applications are very wide, from environment and industrial sensors to medical portable applications, and the Internet of things may also represent in the future a several billions units market.

  7. Innovative thermal energy harvesting for future autonomous applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfray, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    As communicating autonomous systems market is booming, the role of energy harvesting will be a key enabler. As example, heat is one of the most abundant energy sources that can be converted into electricity in order to power circuits. Harvesting systems that use wasted heat open new ways to power autonomous sensors when the energy consumption is low, or to create systems of power generators when the conversion efficiency is high. The combination of different technologies (low power μ-processors, μ-batteries, radio, sensors...) with new energy harvesters compatible with large varieties of use-cases with allow to address this booming market. Thanks to the conjunction of ultra-low power electronic development, 3D technologies and Systems in Package approaches, the integration of autonomous sensors and electronics with ambient energy harvesting will be achievable. The applications are very wide, from environment and industrial sensors to medical portable applications, and the Internet of things may also represent in the future a several billions units market

  8. In the field: exploiting the untapped potential of immunogenic modulation by radiation in combination with immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwilas, Anna R.; Donahue, Renee N.; Bernstein, Michael B.; Hodge, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation has long been the standard of care for many types of cancer. It is employed to locally eradicate tumor cells as well as alter tumor stroma with either curative or palliative intent. Radiation-induced cell damage is an immunologically active process in which danger signals are released that stimulate immune cells to phagocytose and present locally released tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Recent studies have indicated that radiotherapy can also alter the phenotype of cancer cells that remain after treatment. These cells upregulate TAAs as well as markers, including major histocompatibility complex and costimulatory molecules, that make them much more immunostimulatory. As our understanding of the immunomodulatory effects of radiation has improved, interest in combining this type of therapy with immune-based therapies for the treatment of cancer has grown. Therapeutic cancer vaccines have been shown to initiate the dynamic process of host immune system activation, culminating in the recognition of host cancer cells as foreign. The environment created after radiotherapy can be exploited by active therapeutic cancer vaccines in order to achieve further, more robust immune system activation. This review highlights preclinical studies that have examined the alteration of the tumor microenvironment with regard to immunostimulatory molecules following different types of radiotherapy, including external beam radiation, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, bone-seeking radionuclides, and brachytherapy. We also emphasize how combination therapy with a cancer vaccine can exploit these changes to achieve improved therapeutic benefit. Lastly, we describe how these laboratory findings are translating into clinical benefit for patients undergoing combined radiotherapy and cancer vaccination.

  9. In the field: exploiting the untapped potential of immunogenic modulation by radiation in combination with immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwilas, Anna R.; Donahue, Renee N. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bernstein, Michael B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Hodge, James W., E-mail: jh241d@nih.gov [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-09-06

    Radiation has long been the standard of care for many types of cancer. It is employed to locally eradicate tumor cells as well as alter tumor stroma with either curative or palliative intent. Radiation-induced cell damage is an immunologically active process in which danger signals are released that stimulate immune cells to phagocytose and present locally released tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Recent studies have indicated that radiotherapy can also alter the phenotype of cancer cells that remain after treatment. These cells upregulate TAAs as well as markers, including major histocompatibility complex and costimulatory molecules, that make them much more immunostimulatory. As our understanding of the immunomodulatory effects of radiation has improved, interest in combining this type of therapy with immune-based therapies for the treatment of cancer has grown. Therapeutic cancer vaccines have been shown to initiate the dynamic process of host immune system activation, culminating in the recognition of host cancer cells as foreign. The environment created after radiotherapy can be exploited by active therapeutic cancer vaccines in order to achieve further, more robust immune system activation. This review highlights preclinical studies that have examined the alteration of the tumor microenvironment with regard to immunostimulatory molecules following different types of radiotherapy, including external beam radiation, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, bone-seeking radionuclides, and brachytherapy. We also emphasize how combination therapy with a cancer vaccine can exploit these changes to achieve improved therapeutic benefit. Lastly, we describe how these laboratory findings are translating into clinical benefit for patients undergoing combined radiotherapy and cancer vaccination.

  10. Molecular rectification modulated by alternating boron and nitrogen co-doping in a combined heterostructure of two zigzag-edged trigonal graphenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-hua; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Zi-zhen; Ding, Bing-jun; Guo, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The rectifying properties of a heterostructure combined with two trigonal graphenes are investigated by first-principles approach. The graphenes have left (left and right) vertical benzenes substituted with alternating nitrogen and boron atoms. The results indicate that co-doping atoms have distinct influences on the rectifying performance of such devices. When the left trigonal graphene is doped and two trigonal graphenes are bound through a BH pair, a reverse rectifying behavior can be observed. However, a forward rectifying behavior is observed when they are bound through an NH (NB) pair. The rectifying effect is more prominent for the NB pair.

  11. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  12. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...

  13. Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan; Lee, Dah-Jye; Schoenberger, Robert; Wei, Zhaoyi; Archibald, James

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have advantages over people in a number of different applications, ranging from sentry duty, scouting hazardous areas, convoying goods and supplies over long distances, and exploring caves and tunnels. Despite recent advances in electronics, vision, artificial intelligence, and control technologies, fully autonomous UGVs are still far from being a reality. Currently, most UGVs are fielded using tele-operation with a human in the control loop. Using tele-operations, a user controls the UGV from the relative safety and comfort of a control station and sends commands to the UGV remotely. It is difficult for the user to issue higher level commands such as patrol this corridor or move to this position while avoiding obstacles. As computer vision algorithms are implemented in hardware, the UGV can easily become partially autonomous. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) become larger and more powerful, vision algorithms can run at frame rate. With the rapid development of CMOS imagers for consumer electronics, frame rate can reach as high as 200 frames per second with a small size of the region of interest. This increase in the speed of vision algorithm processing allows the UGVs to become more autonomous, as they are able to recognize and avoid obstacles in their path, track targets, or move to a recognized area. The user is able to focus on giving broad supervisory commands and goals to the UGVs, allowing the user to control multiple UGVs at once while still maintaining the convenience of working from a central base station. In this paper, we will describe a novel control system for the control of semi-autonomous UGVs. This control system combines a user interface similar to a simple tele-operation station along with a control package, including the FPGA and multiple cameras. The control package interfaces with the UGV and provides the necessary control to guide the UGV.

  14. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  15. Depersonalization disorder: disconnection of cognitive evaluation from autonomic responses to emotional stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Michal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. METHODS: 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1 electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2 autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing. RESULTS: DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.

  16. Modulation of friction dynamics in water by changing the combination of the loop- and graft-type poly(ethylene glycol) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hun; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Kobari, Akinori; Shimojo, Masayuki; Hanawa, Takao; Yui, Nobuhiko

    2015-02-07

    A Velcro-like poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) interface was prepared in order to control the friction dynamics of material surfaces. Graft- and loop-type PEGs were formed on mirror-polished Ti surfaces using an electrodeposition method with mono- and di-amine functionalized PEGs. The friction dynamics of various combinations of PEG surfaces (i.e., graft-on-graft, loop-on-loop, graft-on-loop, and loop-on-graft) were investigated by friction testing. Here, only the Velcro-like combinations (graft-on-loop and loop-on-graft) exhibited a reversible friction behavior (i.e., resetting the kinetic friction coefficient and the reappearance of the maximum static friction coefficient) during the friction tests. The same tendency was observed when the molecular weights of loop- and graft-type PEGs were tested at 1 k and 10 k, respectively. This indicates that a Velcro-like friction behavior could be induced by simply changing the conformation of PEGs, which suggests a novel concept of altering polymer surfaces for the effective control of friction dynamics.

  17. Oxygen availability and strain combination modulate yeast growth dynamics in mixed culture fermentations of grape must with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englezos, Vasileios; Cravero, Francesco; Torchio, Fabrizio; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Lambri, Milena; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) is a non-Saccharomyces yeast that has been proposed as a co-inoculant of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in mixed culture fermentations to enhance the analytical composition of the wines. In order to acquire further knowledge on the metabolic interactions between these two species, in this study we investigated the impact of oxygen addition and combination of Starm. bacillaris with S. cerevisiae strains on the microbial growth and metabolite production. Fermentations were carried out under two different conditions of oxygen availability. Oxygen availability and strain combination clearly influenced the population dynamics throughout the fermentation. Oxygen concentration increased the survival time of Starm. bacillaris and decreased the growth rate of S. cerevisiae strains in mixed culture fermentations, whereas it did not affect the growth of the latter in pure culture fermentations. This study reveals new knowledge about the influence of oxygen availability on the successional evolution of yeast species during wine fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Onboard Autonomous Corrections for Accurate IRF Pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J. L.; Betto, M.; Denver, T.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past decade, the Noise Equivalent Angle (NEA) of onboard attitude reference instruments, has decreased from tens-of-arcseconds to the sub-arcsecond level. This improved performance is partly due to improved sensor-technology with enhanced signal to noise ratios, partly due to improved processing electronics which allows for more sophisticated and faster signal processing. However, the main reason for the increased precision, is the application of onboard autonomy, which apart from simple outlier rejection also allows for removal of "false positive" answers, and other "unexpected" noise sources, that otherwise would degrade the quality of the measurements (e.g. discrimination between signals caused by starlight and ionizing radiation). The utilization of autonomous signal processing has also provided the means for another onboard processing step, namely the autonomous recovery from lost in space, where the attitude instrument without a priori knowledge derive the absolute attitude, i.e. in IRF coordinates, within fractions of a second. Combined with precise orbital state or position data, the absolute attitude information opens for multiple ways to improve the mission performance, either by reducing operations costs, by increasing pointing accuracy, by reducing mission expendables, or by providing backup decision information in case of anomalies. The Advanced Stellar Compass's (ASC) is a miniature, high accuracy, attitude instrument which features fully autonomous operations. The autonomy encompass all direct steps from automatic health checkout at power-on, over fully automatic SEU and SEL handling and proton induced sparkle removal, to recovery from "lost in space", and optical disturbance detection and handling. But apart from these more obvious autonomy functions, the ASC also features functions to handle and remove the aforementioned residuals. These functions encompass diverse operators such as a full orbital state vector model with automatic cloud

  19. Autonomic modulation of arterial pressure and heart rate variability in hypertensive diabetic rats Modulação autonômica da pressão arterial e variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca em ratos hipertensos e diabéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera de Moura Azevedo Farah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, evaluating baroreflex sensitivity and arterial pressure and heart rate variability. METHODS: Male SHR were divided in control (SHR and diabetic (SHR+DM, 5 days after STZ groups. Arterial pressure (AP and baroreflex sensitivity (evaluated by tachycardic and bradycardic responses to changes in AP were monitored. Autoregressive spectral estimation was performed for systolic AP (SAP and pulse interval (PI with oscillatory components quantified as low (LF:0.2-0.6Hz and high (HF:0.6-3.0Hz frequency ranges. RESULTS: Mean AP and heart rate in SHR+DM (131±3 mmHg and 276±6 bpm were lower than in SHR (160±7 mmHg and 330±8 bpm. Baroreflex bradycardia was lower in SHR+DM as compared to SHR (0.55±0.1 vs. 0.97±0.1 bpm/mmHg. Overall SAP variability in the time domain (standard deviation of beat-by-beat time series of SAP was lower in SHR+DM (3.1±0.2 mmHg than in SHR (5.7±0.6 mmHg. The standard deviation of the PI was similar between groups. Diabetes reduced the LF of SAP (3.3±0.8 vs. 28.7±7.6 mmHg2 in SHR, while HF of SAP were unchanged. The power of oscillatory components of PI did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the association of hypertension and diabetes causes an impairment of the peripheral cardiovascular sympathetic modulation that could be, at least in part, responsible for the reduction in AP levels. Moreover, this study demonstrates that diabetes might actually impair the reduced buffer function of the baroreceptors while reducing blood pressure.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a modulação autonômica do sistema cardiovascular em ratos espontâneamente hipertensos (SHR e diabéticos por estreptozotocina (STZ, avaliando a sensibilidade do reflexo barorreceptor e a variabilidade da pressão arterial e da

  20. Role of the functional status of the autonomic nervous system in the clinical course of purulent meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zadiraka

    2014-04-01

    predominance of the autonomic dysfunction signs in the clinical picture was combined with the prolonged decreasing rating of humoral effects’ spectrum (p<0,04 against the background of other stably changed heart rate variability parameters. In the course of standard treatment a certain regress of autonomic dysfunction symptoms was stated among the patients suffering from purulent meningitis, the evidence of which was the decreasing score (р<0,00001 according to Wein’s questionnaire in comparison with the previous data. At the moment of dismissal from hospital most patients (72,7% had, however, both visual and clinical signs of autonomic disorders. The functional status of autonomic nervous system among the patients suffering from purulent meningitis at the period of reconvalescence was characterized by low rate of heart rate variability spectral parameters combined with the autonomic imbalance towards vagotonia. SUMMARY 1. The predominance of cerebral meningeal symptom among the patients suffering from purulent meningitis at the peak of the disease is combined with individual visual signs of autonomic dysfunction in the form of eyelids and upper limbs postural tremor and heart rate variability lowering rate with the presence of autonomic imbalance towards vagotonia. 2. Since the second week, clinical signs of autonomic dysfunction prevailed in the dynamics of patients suffering from purulent meningitis in the course of standard treatment, which was combined with the prolonged decreasing rating of humoral effects’ spectrum (p<0,04 against the background of other stably changed parameters of heart rate variability. 3. The period of reconvalescence among the patients suffering from purulent meningitis is characterized by the retention of autonomic disorders clinical signs among 72,7% of patients and low intensity of heart rate variability with the presence of autonomic imbalance towards vagotonia.

  1. Command and Service Module Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Command and Service Module (CSM) Communications. The communication system's capabilities are defined, including CSM-Earth, CSM-Lunar Module and CSM-Extravehicular crewman communications. An overview is provided for S-band communications, including data transmission and receiving rates, operating frequencies and major system components (pre-modulation processors, unified S-band electronics, S-band power amplifier and S-band antennas). Additionally, data transmission rates, operating frequencies and the capabilities of VHF communications are described. Major VHF components, including transmitters and receivers, and the VHF multiplexer and antennas are also highlighted. Finally, communications during pre-launch, ascent, in-flight and entry are discussed. Overall, the CSM communication system was rated highly by flight controllers and crew. The system was mostly autonomous for both crew and flight controllers and no major issues were encountered during flight.

  2. Advanced Modulation Formats in Cognitive Optical Networks: EU project CHRON Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Klonidis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate real-time path establishment and switching of coherent modulation formats (QPSK, 16QAM) within an optical network driven by cognitive algorithms. Cognition aims at autonomous configuration optimization to satisfy quality of transmission requirements.......We demonstrate real-time path establishment and switching of coherent modulation formats (QPSK, 16QAM) within an optical network driven by cognitive algorithms. Cognition aims at autonomous configuration optimization to satisfy quality of transmission requirements....

  3. Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Staehelin Jensen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autonomic function has received little attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology has an impact on brain regions which are important for central autonomic control, but it is unclear if AD is associated with disturbance of autonomic function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autonomic...

  4. Autonomous Evolution of Complete Piano Pieces and Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are used to evolve musical score material and corresponding performance data, in an autonomous process. In this way complete piano compositions are created and subsequently performed on a computer-controlled grand piano. The efficiency of the creative evolution depends...... gestures. This is combined with a set of automated formalized selection criteria based on experiences from human selection processes in a previous, interactive version of the same system, leading to surprisingly musical output and convincing performances. The system is also capable of rudimentary learning...

  5. Autonomous Operations Design Guidelines for Flight Hardware

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSC experimentally modified an autonomous operations flexible system suite developed for a ground application for a flight system under development by JSC. The...

  6. Interpersonal communication and issues for autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Interpersonal roadway communication is a vital component of the transportation system. Road users communicate to coordinate movement and increase roadway safety. Future autonomous vehicle research needs to account for the role of interpersonal roadwa...

  7. Autonomous Task Primitives for Complex Manipulation Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this research effort is to enable robots to autonomously perform the complex manipulation tasks that are necessary to maintain a spacecraft. Robots, like...

  8. Adaptively detecting changes in Autonomic Grid Computing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang; Germain, Cé cile; Sebag, Michè le

    2010-01-01

    Detecting the changes is the common issue in many application fields due to the non-stationary distribution of the applicative data, e.g., sensor network signals, web logs and gridrunning logs. Toward Autonomic Grid Computing, adaptively detecting

  9. Autonomous Operations System: Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.; Wilkins, Kim N.; Walker, Mark; Stahl, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous control systems provides the ability of self-governance beyond the conventional control system. As the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems increases, there develops a natural drive for developing robust control systems to manage complicated operations. By closing the bridge between conventional automated systems to knowledge based self-awareness systems, nominal control of operations can evolve into relying on safe critical mitigation processes to support any off-nominal behavior. Current research and development efforts lead by the Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) group at NASA Kennedy Space Center aims to improve cryogenic propellant transfer operations by developing an automated control and health monitoring system. As an integrated systems, the center aims to produce an Autonomous Operations System (AOS) capable of integrating health management operations with automated control to produce a fully autonomous system.

  10. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  11. Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System (CAPS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent efforts led by the PI of this proposal have studied the benefits of a satellite navigation technique known as Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit...

  12. Computer vision for an autonomous mobile robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Withey, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems are essential for practical, autonomous, mobile robots – machines that employ artificial intelligence and control their own motion within an environment. As with biological systems, computer vision systems include the vision...

  13. Eye Accommodation, Personality, and Autonomic Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    associated with central nervous system action, "transient catecnolamine ( dopamine and norepinephrine) action followed by a cholinergic rebound together with...parallels of psycnopatny: A psychophysiological model relating autonomic imbalance to hyperactivity, psychopathy, and autism . Advnces in Cild

  14. Data Provisioning Systems for Autonomous Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varaiya, Pravin

    1999-01-01

    This project is part of a portfolio comprising four other projects to investigate the possibility of operating a collection of intelligent autonomous agents so that the collection can undertakes complex missions...

  15. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  16. Layered Safe Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The major problem addressed by this research is how to plan a safe motion for autonomous vehicles in a two dimensional, rectilinear world. With given start and goal configurations, the planner performs motion planning which

  17. Framework for Autonomous Optimization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration and MIT propose to create a novel autonomous optimization tool and application programming interface (API). The API will demonstrate the ability...

  18. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  19. The Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    system that continues to sustain and control our vital organ systems. .... vagal tone and increased sympathetic outflow to the sinus node due to the fall in blood pressure) ... intraoperative autonomic balance of a particular patient population.

  20. Adaptive Sampling in Autonomous Marine Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eickstedt, Donald P

    2006-01-01

    ... oceanographic network scenario. This architecture has three major components, an intelligent, logical sensor that provides high-level environmental state information to a behavior-based autonomous vehicle control system, a new...

  1. Future Autonomous and Automated Systems Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trust is the greatest obstacle to implementing greater autonomy and automation (A&A) in the human spaceflight program. The Future Autonomous and Automated...

  2. Autonomous Training for Long-Term Spaceflight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the autonomous capability to intelligently select/generate practice scenarios in order to provide individually targeted crew training when...

  3. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Li-Yan; Xu Lu-Ping; Zhang Hua; Sun Jing-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The log–polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. (paper)

  4. Imposing limits on autonomous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P A

    2017-02-01

    Our present era is witnessing the genesis of a sea-change in the way that advanced technologies operate. Amongst this burgeoning wave of untrammelled automation there is now beginning to arise a cadre of ever-more independent, autonomous systems. The degree of interaction between these latter systems with any form of human controller is becoming progressively more diminished and remote; and this perhaps necessarily so. Here, I advocate for human-centred and human favouring constraints to be designed, programmed, promulgated and imposed upon these nascent forms of independent entity. I am not sanguine about the collective response of modern society to this call. Nevertheless, the warning must be voiced and the issue debated, especially among those who most look to mediate between people and technology. Practitioner Summary: Practitioners are witnessing the penetration of progressively more independent technical orthotics into virtually all systems' operations. This work enjoins them to advocate for sentient, rational and mindful human-centred approaches towards such innovations. Practitioners need to place user-centred concerns above either the technical or the financial imperatives which motivate this line of progress.

  5. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  6. Models Supporting Trajectory Planning in Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles have the potential to drastically improve the safety, efficiency and cost of transportation. Instead of a driver, an autonomous vehicle is controlled by an algorithm, offering improved consistency and the potential to eliminate human error from driving: by far the most common cause of accidents. Data collected from different types of sensors, along with prior information such as maps, are used to build models of the surrounding traffic scene, encoding relevant aspects of t...

  7. Autonomous Flight in Unknown Indoor Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bachrach, Abraham Galton; He, Ruijie; Roy, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are already commodities on ground vehicles, air vehicles seeking the same performance face unique challenges. In this paper, we describe the difficulties in achieving fully autonomous helicopter flight, highlighting the differences between ground and helicopter robots that make it ...

  8. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  9. Differential modulation of ammonia excretion, Rhesus glycoproteins and ion-regulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following individual and combined exposure to waterborne copper and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kapotwe, Mumba; Dabi, Shambel Boki; Montes, Caroline da Silva; Shrivastava, Jyotsna; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the mode of interaction between waterborne copper (Cu) and high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure on freshwater fish, and how they influence the toxicity of each other when present together. For this purpose, individual and combined effects of Cu and HEA were examined on selected physiological and ion-regulatory processes and changes at transcript level in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to 2.6μM Cu (25% of the 96h LC50value) and to 0.65mM ammonia (25% of the 96h LC50value) singly and as a mixture for 12h, 24h, 48h, 84h and 180h. Responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea (Jurea) excretion rate, plasma ammonia and urea, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)), muscle water content (MWC) as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA, H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-3) and Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins were investigated under experimental conditions. Results show that Jamm was inhibited during Cu exposure, while HEA exposed fish were able to increase excretion efficiently. In the combined exposure, Jamm remained at the control levels indicating that Cu and HEA abolished each other's effect. Expression of Rhcg (Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b) mRNA was upregulated during HEA, thereby facilitated ammonia efflux out of gills. On the contrary, Rhcg-a transcript level declined following Cu exposure which might account for Cu induced Jamm inhibition. Likewise, Rhcg-a was also down-regulated in Cu-HEA co-exposed fish whilst a temporary increment was noted for Rhch-b. Fish exposed to HEA displayed pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity and stable plasma ion levels. In both the Cu exposure alone and combined Cu-HEA exposure, ion-osmo homeostasis was adversely affected, exemplified by the significant reduction in plasma [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)], and elevated plasma [K(+)], along with an elevation in MWC. These changes were accompanied

  10. An approach to multiobjective optimization of rotational therapy. II. Pareto optimal surfaces and linear combinations of modulated blocked arcs for a prostate geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Montero, Juan; Fenwick, John D

    2010-06-01

    comprising two regions: One where the dose to the target is close to prescription and trade-offs can be made between doses to the organs at risk and (small) changes in target dose, and one where very substantial rectal sparing is achieved at the cost of large target underdosage. Plans computed following the approach using a conformal arc and four blocked arcs generally lie close to the Pareto front, although distances of some plans from high gradient regions of the Pareto front can be greater. Only around 12% of plans lie a relative Euclidean distance of 0.15 or greater from the Pareto front. Using the alternative distance measure of Craft ["Calculating and controlling the error of discrete representations of Pareto surfaces in convex multi-criteria optimization," Phys. Medica (to be published)], around 2/5 of plans lie more than 0.05 from the front. Computation of blocked arcs is quite fast, the algorithms requiring 35%-80% of the running time per iteration needed for conventional inverse plan computation. The geometry-based arc approach to multicriteria optimization of rotational therapy allows solutions to be obtained that lie close to the Pareto front. Both the image-reconstruction type and gradient-descent algorithms produce similar modulated arcs, the latter one perhaps being preferred because it is more easily implementable in standard treatment planning systems. Moderate unblocking provides a good way of dealing with OARs which abut the PTV. Optimization of geometry-based arcs is faster than usual inverse optimization of treatment plans, making this approach more rapid than an inverse-based Pareto front reconstruction.

  11. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  12. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  13. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  14. Synergistic effects of combined immunosuppressive modulation. I. Unresponsiveness to dendritic cell-depleted renal allografts in dogs exposed to total-lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaport, F.T.; Meek, A.; Miura, S.; Hayashi, R.; Arnold, A.N.; Strober, S.

    1988-01-01

    Attenuation of the allogeneic stimulus provided by dendritic cells (DC) was achieved by irradiation of the donors, followed by their reconstitution with bone marrow from the prospective DLA-identical recipient. Following long-term (131-187 days) recovery free of graft-versus-host (GVH) disease, the chimeric kidneys were placed into the corresponding recipients; such allografts were rejected at 55, 55, and 60 days, respectively. Four other recipients were conditioned with 1750-1790 cgy of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and were then given a similar chimeric kidney from the corresponding partner. These allografts currently survive for 296, 295, 290, and 252 days, respectively. A third group of four dogs was exposed to TLI prior to transplantation of a normal DLA-identical kidney. These grafts were rejected at 20, 42, 46, and 242 days, respectively. Thirteen DLA-identical renal allografts transplanted into normal dogs survived for 13-38 days (mean survival time = 28.6 days). Depletion of allogeneic DC alone, or TLI alone, produced relative prolongations in allograft survival in canine recipients. Combined use of these two modalities, however, resulted in long-term allogeneic unresponsiveness in the recipients

  15. Combined exercise training reduces fatigue and modulates the cytokine profile of T-cells from multiple sclerosis patients in response to neuromediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga-Filho, Helcio; Sacramento, Priscila M; Ferreira, Thais B; Hygino, Joana; Abreu, Jorge Eduardo Canto; Carvalho, Sonia Regina; Wing, Ana Cristina; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2016-04-15

    Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), a classical Th1- and Th17-mediated autoimmune disease. There is no effective pharmacological treatment for fatigue, but some reports point towards beneficial effects of physical activity on management of the fatigue in MS patients. As both MS and fatigue have been associated with dysregulated cytokine network production, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a physical activity program consisting of a 12-week series of combining Pilates and aerobic exercises on fatigue severity, determined by FSS, and cytokine production, quantified by ELISA, by T cells from MS patients (n=08) with low disability (EDSS≤2). The results showed decrease in FSSs in all patients at the end of physical activity intervention. Regarding the cytokines, a significant reduction of IL-22 release was observed in polyclonally-activated T cells form MS patients post-training follow-up. Interestingly, while the physical activity attenuated the ability of dopamine in up-regulating Th17-related cytokines, it enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of serotonin, evidenced by high IL-10 production. In summary, all results suggest that programmed physical activity has beneficial effects on management of fatigue in MS patients, and it could be related, at least in part, to its ability in regulating neuroimmune parameters into T cell compartment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Autonomous, agile micro-satellites and supporting technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitfeller, E; Dittman, M D; Gaughan, R J; Jones, M S; Kordas, J F; Ledebuhr, A G; Ng, L C; Whitehead, J C; Wilson, B

    1999-01-01

    This paper updates the on-going effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop autonomous, agile micro-satellites (MicroSats). The objective of this development effort is to develop MicroSats weighing only a few tens of kilograms, that are able to autonomously perform precision maneuvers and can be used telerobotically in a variety of mission modes. The required capabilities include satellite rendezvous, inspection, proximity-operations, docking, and servicing. The MicroSat carries an integrated proximity-operations sensor-suite incorporating advanced avionics. A new self-pressurizing propulsion system utilizing a miniaturized pump and non-toxic mono-propellant hydrogen peroxide was successfully tested. This system can provide a nominal 25 kg MicroSat with 200-300 m/s delta-v including a warm-gas attitude control system. The avionics is based on the latest PowerPC processor using a CompactPCI bus architecture, which is modular, high-performance and processor-independent. This leverages commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies and minimizes the effects of future changes in processors. The MicroSat software development environment uses the Vx-Works real-time operating system (RTOS) that provides a rapid development environment for integration of new software modules, allowing early integration and test. We will summarize results of recent integrated ground flight testing of our latest non-toxic pumped propulsion MicroSat testbed vehicle operated on our unique dynamic air-rail

  17. Impaired autonomic responses to emotional stimuli in autoimmune limbic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eSchröder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Limbic encephalitis (LE is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that affects structures of the limbic system, in particular the amygdala. The amygdala constitutes a brain area substantial for processing of emotional, especially fear-related signals. The amygdala is also involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including skin conductance responses (SCRs to emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigates behavioral and autonomic responses to discrete emotion-evoking and neutral film clips in a patient suffering from LE associated with contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2-antibodies as compared to a healthy control group. Results show a lack of SCRs in the patient while watching the film clips, with significant differences compared to healthy controls in the case of fear-inducing videos. There was no comparable impairment in behavioral data (emotion report, valence and arousal ratings. The results point to a defective modulation of sympathetic responses during emotional stimulation in patients with LE, probably due to impaired functioning of the amygdala.

  18. Performance evaluation of 3D vision-based semi-autonomous control method for assistive robotic manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Hyun W; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Ding, Dan; James, Khara; Cooper, Rory

    2018-02-01

    We developed a 3D vision-based semi-autonomous control interface for assistive robotic manipulators. It was implemented based on one of the most popular commercially available assistive robotic manipulator combined with a low-cost depth-sensing camera mounted on the robot base. To perform a manipulation task with the 3D vision-based semi-autonomous control interface, a user starts operating with a manual control method available to him/her. When detecting objects within a set range, the control interface automatically stops the robot, and provides the user with possible manipulation options through audible text output, based on the detected object characteristics. Then, the system waits until the user states a voice command. Once the user command is given, the control interface drives the robot autonomously until the given command is completed. In the empirical evaluations conducted with human subjects from two different groups, it was shown that the semi-autonomous control can be used as an alternative control method to enable individuals with impaired motor control to more efficiently operate the robot arms by facilitating their fine motion control. The advantage of semi-autonomous control was not so obvious for the simple tasks. But, for the relatively complex real-life tasks, the 3D vision-based semi-autonomous control showed significantly faster performance. Implications for Rehabilitation A 3D vision-based semi-autonomous control interface will improve clinical practice by providing an alternative control method that is less demanding physically as well cognitively. A 3D vision-based semi-autonomous control provides the user with task specific intelligent semiautonomous manipulation assistances. A 3D vision-based semi-autonomous control gives the user the feeling that he or she is still in control at any moment. A 3D vision-based semi-autonomous control is compatible with different types of new and existing manual control methods for ARMs.

  19. Hemolysis of human red blood cells induced by the combination of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and divalent metals: modulation by anaerobiosis, certain antioxidants and oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Sadovnic, M; Varani, J; Tirosh, O; Kohen, R

    1999-08-01

    The objective of the present communication is to describe the role played by combinations between diethydithiocarbamate (DDC) and divalent metals in hemolysis of human RBC. RBC which had been treated with DDC (10-50 microM) were moderately hemolyzed (about 50%) upon the addition of subtoxic amounts of Cu2+ (50 microM). However, a much stronger and a faster hemolysis occurred either if mixtures of RBC-DDC were immediately treated either by Co2+ (50 microM) or by a premixture of Cu2+ and Co2+ (Cu:Co) (50 microM). While Fe2+ and Ni2+, at 50 microM, initiated 30-50% hemolysis when combined with DDC (50 microM), on a molar basis, Cd2+ was at least 50 fold more efficient than any of the other metals in the initiation of hemolysis by DDC. On the other hand, neither Mn2+ nor Zn2+, had any hemolysis-initiating effects. Co2+ was the only metal which totally blocked hemolysis if added to DDC prior to the addition of the other metals. Hemolysis by mixtures of DDC + (Cu:Co) was strongly inhibited by anaerobiosis (flushing with nitrogen gas), by the reducing agents glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine, mercaptosuccinate, ascorbate, TEMPO, and alpha-tocopherol, by the PLA2 inhibitorbromophenacylbromide (BrPACBr), by tetracycline as well as by phosphatidyl choline, cholesterol and by trypan blue. However, TEMPO, BrPACBr and PC were the only agents which inhibited hemolysis induced by DDC: Cd2+ complexes. On the other hand, none of the classical scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) employed e.g dimethylthiourea, catalase, histidine, mannitol, sodium benzoate, nor the metal chelators desferal and phenanthroline, had any appreciable inhibitory effects on hemolysis induced by DDC + (Cu:Co). DDC oxidized by H2O2 lost its capacity to act in concert either with Cu2+ or with Cd2+ to hemolyze RBC. While either heating RBC to temperatures greater than 37 degrees C or exposure of the cells to glucose-oxidase-generated peroxide diminished their susceptibility to hemolysis, exposure to the

  20. Growth Modulation in Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Philip K; Kilinc, Eray; Birch, John G

    2017-09-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia with a rate of nearly 1/10,000. The development of lower extremity deformity is well documented, and various modes of correction have been reported. There are no reports on the use of growth modulation to correct angular deformity in achondroplasia. Medical Records from 1985 to 2015 were reviewed for the diagnosis of achondroplasia and growth modulation procedures. Patients who had been treated for angular deformity of the legs by growth modulation were identified. A detailed analysis of their medical record and preoperative and final lower extremity radiographs was completed. Four patients underwent growth modulation procedures, all to correct existing varus deformity of the legs. Three of the 4 patients underwent bilateral distal femoral and proximal tibial growth modulation. The remaining patient underwent tibial correction only. Two of the 4 patients had a combined proximal fibular epiphysiodesis. All limbs had some improvement of alignment; however, 1 patient went on to bilateral osteotomies. Only 1 limb corrected to a neutral axis with growth modulation alone at last follow-up, initial implantation was done before 5 years of age. Growth modulation is an effective means for deformity correction in the setting of achondroplasia. However implantation may need to be done earlier than would be typical for patients without achondroplasia. Osteotomy may still be required after growth modulation for incomplete correction.