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Sample records for autonomic function part

  1. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    the method by applying standardized methods to measure the autonomic function based on heart rate variability (HRV) measures. 3) Based on the results, assess the validity of autonomic dysfunction as an early marker of a neurodegenerative disease. 4) Evaluate the influence of hypocretin loss in narcolepsy...... areas, which is consistent with the Braak hypothesis. In the narcolepsy patients, it was shown that a reduced HRR to arousals was primarily predicted by hypocretin deficiency in both rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep, independent of cataplexy and other factors. The results confirm...... that hypocretin deficiency affects the autonomic nervous system of patients with narcolepsy and that the hypocretin system is important for proper heart rate modulation at rest.Furthermore, it was shown that hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake and REM sleep...

  2. Autonomous functioning of the goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.

    1994-01-01

    The article summarizes the status of knowledge on functional autonomy of the thyroid gland from the standpoint of definition, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment. (orig.) [de

  3. Radioiodine therapy of functional autonomy using the functional autonomous volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, T.; Emrich, D.; Sandrock, D.

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the effective radiation dose to be delivered by 131 I in functional autonomy we have used the functional autonomous volume calculated from the global 99m Tc thyroid uptake under exogenous or endogenous suppression before and 3 to 7 months after treatment. The radiation dose to the autonomous volume was calculated retrospectively in 131 patients with unifocal, multifocal and disseminated autonomy (75 hyperthyroid, 56 euthyroid) who received 131 I treatment of 200-300 Gy to the total volume of the gland. It could be shown that at least 350 Gy to the autonomous volume are required to reach the desired effect of treatment which was dependent only on the radiation dose delivered to the functional autonomous volume. (orig.) [de

  4. Autonomic nervous system function in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, J; Schmitz, T; Saft, C; Postert, T; Kraus, P; Epplen, J T; Przuntek, H; Agelink, M W

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether Huntington's disease (HD) affects autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning. Twenty patients with HD who had positive genetic test results underwent standardised ANS function tests including sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) of the hands and feet, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), both during five minutes of resting and deep respiration, and an orthostatic blood pressure test. Patients were classified according to the motor subscale of the unified Huntington's disease rating scale (UHDRS; mean (SD) score 26.4 (13.6)) and divided into two subgroups: UHDRS or =25 points (mid stages, M-HD). Autonomic indices were compared with those obtained for a group of well matched healthy controls (n=60). Overall, patients showed lower HRV indices than controls. Multivariate analysis with the independent factor of "group" (controls, E-HD, M-HD) showed a significant group effect on both the high frequency power (F=4.32, p=0.017) and the coefficient of variation (F=4.23, p=0.018), indicating a significant reduction in vagal modulation in the M-HD group. There was a shift in autonomic neurocardiac balance towards sympathetic predominance in the M-HD group compared with controls (F=2.89, p=0.062). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between the severity of clinical HD symptoms (assessed by the UHDRS) and the modulation of cardiovagal activity (p=0.028). Vagal dysregulation was present in two patients; one of them also showed a pathological blood pressure test and a latency prolongation in the SSRs of the hands. Two other patients had pathologically reduced SSR amplitudes. Only patients of the M-HD group were affected. Autonomic dysfunction is present even in the middle stages of HD and affects both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branch of the ANS.

  5. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, W.W.; Angle, C.R.; Willcockson, N.K.; Padula, M.A. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Korn, T.

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a frog shop for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6--10 years before and 1.2--3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} in 29% and 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR{prime} interval) and the rates of change at low frequency and high frequency. MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used.

  6. Clinical Assessment of Cardiovascular and Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Benitez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-invasive virtual medical instrument for the clinical assessment of cardiovascular and autonomic function. The virtual instrument was developed with the aim of analysing and understanding the physiological changes that occurs in the heart and circulation during vasovagal blackout attacks. The automated virtual instrument allows impedance cardiography analysis, time and frequency heart rate and blood pressure variability analysis, invasive and non-invasive baroreflex sensitivity assessment and forearm blood flow measurements. Using this virtual instrument five control subjects (3 male, mean age 30.6 ± 5.4 and five vasovagal syncope suffers (2 male, mean age 38.6 ± 6.3 were used in a study to try to identify the differences between the two groups to tilt induced syncope. The results obtained suggest that there are fundamental differences in the physiological responses to orthostatic stress between vasovagal patients and controls, which are evident before the onset of major haemodynamic changes.

  7. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  8. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with

  9. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including...... the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), which documents the neurological examination of individuals with SCI. The Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is recommended to be completed during the evaluation of individuals with SCI, but is not a part of the ISNCSCI. A web-based training course (Autonomic Standards...

  10. Safety analysis of autonomous excavator functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, D.; Pace, C.; Morrey, R.; Sommerville, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an account of carrying out a hazard analysis to define the safety requirements for an autonomous robotic excavator. The work is also relevant to the growing generic class of heavy automated mobile machinery. An overview of the excavator design is provided and the concept of a safety manager is introduced. The safety manager is an autonomous module responsible for all aspects of system operational safety, and is central to the control system's architecture. Each stage of the hazard analysis is described, i.e. system model creation, hazard definition and hazard analysis. Analysis at an early stage of the design process, and on a system that interfaces directly to an unstructured environment, exposes certain issues relevant to the application of current hazard analysis methods. The approach taken in the analysis is described. Finally, it is explained how the results of the hazard analysis have influenced system design, in particular, safety manager specifications. Conclusions are then drawn about the applicability of hazard analysis of requirements in general, and suggestions are made as to how the approach can be taken further

  11. Validation of a questionnaire measuring the regulation of autonomic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthes H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To broaden the range of outcomes that we can measure for patients undergoing treatment for oncological and other chronic conditions, we aimed to validate a questionnaire measuring self-reported autonomic regulation (aR, i.e. to characterise a subject's autonomic functioning by questions on sleeping and waking, vertigo, morningness-eveningness, thermoregulation, perspiration, bowel movements and digestion. Methods We administered the questionnaire to 440 participants (♀: N = 316, ♂: N = 124: 95 patients with breast cancer, 49 with colorectal cancer, 60 with diabetes mellitus, 39 with coronary heart disease, 28 with rheumatological conditions, 32 with Hashimoto's disease, 22 with multiple morbidities and 115 healthy people. We administered the questionnaire a second time to 50.2% of the participants. External convergence criteria included the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D, a short questionnaire on morningness-eveningness, the Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire (HLQ and a short version questionnaire on self-regulation. Results A principal component analysis yielded a three dimensional 18-item inventory of aR. The subscales orthostatic-circulatory, rest/activity and digestive regulation had internal consistency (Cronbach-α: rα = 0.65 – 0.75 and test-retest reliability (rrt = 0.70 – 85. AR was negatively associated with anxiety, depression, and dysmenorrhoea but positively correlated to HLQ, self-regulation and in part to morningness (except digestive aR (0.49 – 0.13, all p Conclusion An internal validation of the long-version scale of aR yielded consistent relationships with health versus illness, quality of life and personality. Further studies are required to clarify the issues of external validity, clinical and physiological relevance.

  12. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Basiago

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS into a well-established therapy for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target.

  13. Determination of the autonomously functioning volume of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Erlenmaier, U.; Pohl, M.; Luig, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the autonomously functioning volume in euthyroid and hyperthyroid goitres for prognostic and therapeutic pruposes. To this end, various groups of patients were selected: Individuals without evidence of thyroid disease, euthyroid patients with diffuse goitre of normal structure and function, euthyroid patients with evidence of autonomy and patients with hyperthyroidism due to autonomy. In all of them the thyroid uptake of Technetium-99m was determined under exogeneous suppression (TcU s ) in the euthyroid state and under endogenous suppression (TcU) in the hyperthyroid state. It was demonstrated that: 1. In patients with unifocal autonomy the TcU s and TcU correlated linearly with the autonomous volume delineated and measured by sonography. 2. A nearly identical result was obtained if the mean autonomous volume in individuals without thyroid disease of 2.2±1.1 ml calculated by TcU s /TcU x total thyroid volume was used as a basis. 3. The critical autonomous volume, i.e. the volume at which hyperthryroidism will occur, was found to be 16 ml at a cumulated sensitivity and specificity of >0.9. The method can be used to select patients for definitive treatment before hyperthryroidism occurs and to measure the autonomously functioning volume independent of its distribution within the thyroid for treatment with radioiodine. The method is easy to perform and is also an example of how a relative parameter of a function can be converted into an absolute parameter of a functioning volume. (orig.)

  14. A history of the autonomic nervous system: part II: from Reil to the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Peter C; Fisahn, Christian; Iwanaga, Joe; DiLorenzo, Daniel; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-12-01

    The history of the study of the autonomic nervous system is rich. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists were beginning to more firmly grasp the reality of this part of the human nervous system. The evolution of our understanding of the autonomic nervous system has a rich history. Our current understanding is based on centuries of research and trial and error.

  15. Directed Autonomic Flow : Functional Motility Fluidics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, Philipp T.; de Miranda, Barbara Santos; van Rijn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Unidirectional coherent motion of a self-moving droplet is achieved and combined in a functional motility fluidic chip for chemical reactions via a novel and straightforward approach. The droplet shows both increased movement speeds and displacement distances without any input of energy.

  16. Morphology of subcortical brain nuclei is associated with autonomic function in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffle, James K; Coen, Steven J; Giampietro, Vincent; Williams, Steven C R; Apkarian, A Vania; Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

    2018-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a brain body interface which serves to maintain homeostasis by influencing a plethora of physiological processes, including metabolism, cardiorespiratory regulation and nociception. Accumulating evidence suggests that ANS function is disturbed in numerous prevalent clinical disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. While the brain is a central hub for regulating autonomic function, the association between resting autonomic activity and subcortical morphology has not been comprehensively studied and thus was our aim. In 27 healthy subjects [14 male and 13 female; mean age 30 years (range 22-53 years)], we quantified resting ANS function using validated indices of cardiac sympathetic index (CSI) and parasympathetic cardiac vagal tone (CVT). High resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired, and differences in subcortical nuclei shape, that is, 'deformation', contingent on resting ANS activity were investigated. CSI positively correlated with outward deformation of the brainstem, right nucleus accumbens, right amygdala and bilateral pallidum (all thresholded to corrected P brain differences in various disorders may partly be attributable to perturbation in autonomic function. Further work is warranted to investigate these findings in clinical populations. Hum Brain Mapp 39:381-392, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis; Oliveira, Jose; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Rebelo, Antonio; Brito, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22) and a control group (CG; n = 25). The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results: The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05). However, the FG performed better (P football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest. PMID:26448848

  18. Adiponectin, biomarkers of inflammation and changes in cardiac autonomic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Stevns; Vistisen, Dorte; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2017-01-01

    changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. METHODS: Data are based on up to 25,050 person-examinations for 8469 study participants of the Whitehall II cohort study. Measures of CAN included HR and several HRV indices. Associations between baseline......BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of inflammation and adiponectin are associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data are scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of biomarkers of subclinical inflammation and adiponectin with subsequent......: Higher IL-1Ra levels appeared as novel risk marker for increases in HR. Higher adiponectin levels were associated with a more favourable development of cardiovascular autonomic function in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of multiple confounders....

  19. Autonomic neuropathy in Fabry disease: a prospective study using the Autonomic Symptom Profile and cardiovascular autonomic function tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegstraaten, Marieke; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Wieling, Wouter; Wijburg, Frits A.; Hollak, Carla E. M.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fabry patients have symptoms and signs compatible with autonomic dysfunction. These symptoms and signs are considered to be due to impairment of the peripheral nervous system, but findings indicative of autonomic neuropathy in other diseases, such as orthostatic intolerance and

  20. Evaluation of cardiac autonomic function in overweight males: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Debasish Das; Himel Mondal

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Cardiovascular autonomic function tests (CAFTs) are non-invasive tests that can assess both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. Autonomic dysfunction may be considered as a risk factor for obesity and vice versa. For measurement of obesity, body mass index (BMI) is a simple, valid and inexpensive method. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of obesity based on BMI criteria on autonomic nervous system based on CAFT in young adult males. Met...

  1. Complexity of autonomic nervous system function in individuals with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Manata Vanzella

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate autonomic modulation in individuals with COPD, compared with healthy controls, via recurrence plots (RPs and linear heart rate variability (HRV indices. Methods: We analyzed data on 74 volunteers, who were divided into two groups: COPD (n = 43 and control (n = 31. For calculation of HRV indices, heart rate was measured beat-by-beat during 30 min of supine rest using a heart-rate meter. We analyzed linear indices in the time and frequency domains, as well as indices derived from the RPs. Results: In comparison with the control group, the COPD group showed significant increases in the indices derived from the RPs, as well as significant reductions in the linear indices in the time and frequency domains. No significant differences were observed in the linear indices in the frequency domains expressed in normalized units or in the low frequency/high frequency ratio. Conclusions: Individuals with COPD show a reduction in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, associated with decreased complexity of autonomic nervous system function, as identified by RPs, which provide important complementary information in the detection of autonomic changes in this population.

  2. Accessing Autonomic Function Can Early Screen Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meng; Li, Mian; Yang, Zhi; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Liu, Jianmin; Ning, Guang; Bi, Yufang

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. Methodology and Principal Findings The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend metabolic syndrome components (p for trend metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.64) for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. Conclusions and Significance In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome. PMID:22916265

  3. Accessing autonomic function can early screen metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is time-consuming and invasive. Convenient instruments that do not require laboratory or physical investigation would be useful in early screening individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Examination of the autonomic function can be taken as a directly reference and screening indicator for predicting metabolic syndrome. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The EZSCAN test, as an efficient and noninvasive technology, can access autonomic function through measuring electrochemical skin conductance. In this study, we used EZSCAN value to evaluate autonomic function and to detect metabolic syndrome in 5,887 participants aged 40 years or older. The EZSCAN test diagnostic accuracy was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Among the 5,815 participants in the final analysis, 2,541 were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome and the overall prevalence was 43.7%. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the elevated EZSCAN risk level (p for trend <0.0001. Moreover, EZSCAN value was associated with an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components (p for trend <0.0001. Compared with the no risk group (EZSCAN value 0-24, participants at the high risk group (EZSCAN value: 50-100 had a 2.35 fold increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome after the multiple adjustments. The area under the curve of the EZSCAN test was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.64 for predicting metabolic syndrome. The optimal operating point for the EZSCAN value to detect a high risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome was 30 in this study, while the sensitivity and specificity were 71.2% and 46.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, although less sensitive and accurate when compared with the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome, we found that the EZSCAN test is a good and simple screening technique for early predicting metabolic syndrome.

  4. Fitness, Fatness, Physical Activity, and Autonomic Function in Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Antti M; Perkiömäki, Nelli; Auvinen, Juha; Niemelä, Maisa; Tammelin, Tuija; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Tulppo, Mikko P; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jämsä, Timo; Huikuri, Heikki V; Korpelainen, Raija

    2017-12-01

    Although low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical inactivity, and obesity are associated with impaired autonomic function, they are also extensively interrelated. The present study aimed to assess the extent to which they contribute to autonomic function independently of each other. At the age of 46 yr, 1383 men and 1761 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes underwent assessments of vagally mediated heart rate (HR) variability (root mean square of successive differences in R-R interval (rMMSD)), peak HR during a submaximal step test (CRF), and 60-s HR recovery (HRR). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ≥3.5 METs, 2 wk) was measured by wrist-worn accelerometer and body fat percentage (Fat%) by bioimpedance. In men, CRF and Fat% were significantly associated with higher rMSSD (standardized β = 0.31 and -0.16) and HRR (β = 0.19 and -0.18), whereas higher MVPA was linked with higher HRR (β = 0.13) when including CRF, MVPA, and Fat% in the initial regression. After adjustments for other lifestyle and cardiometabolic factors, CRF remained significantly associated with rMMSD (β = 0.24) and HRR (β = 0.14), as did MVPA with HRR (β = 0.11). In women, CRF was associated with rMSSD (β = 0.23) and HRR (β = 0.15), and MVPA (β = 0.17) and Fat% (β = -0.07) with HRR, when CRF, MVPA, and Fat% were adjusted for each other. After further adjustments, CRF remained a significant determinant of rMSSD (β = 0.20) and HRR (β = 0.13), as did MVPA with HRR (β = 0.15). The final models explained 23% and 21% of variation in rMSSD and HRR in men, and 10% and 12% in women, respectively. CRF was a more important determinant of cardiac autonomic function than MVPA and body fat. Furthermore, MVPA but not body fat was independently associated with cardiac autonomic function in both men and women.

  5. Study on a control system for autonomous distributed cooperative function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    Developments of an autonomous plant simulator, a plant function model and an indicating function for plant conditions were further progressed in the second stage of this project based on the concept of autonomous plant. And integration of the results from the research of operation control system by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. and the research of maintenance system by Institute of Physical and Chemical Research was attempted in this stage. Developments of system techniques which can provide transparent informations on the cooperation among the artificial intelligent units distributed in various sites and the process and results of judgement were conducted focusing on a monitoring system for plant operation. And it became possible to express the plant conditions such as temperature, pressure and flow rate at nearly real time using three-dimensional color graphics. Automatic classification method for clustering the plant conditions was investigated using COBWEB and 14 kinds of conditions were defined using 6 factors. The functional certification of them is undertaken. (M.N.)

  6. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In this study, on a base of result of a nuclear substrate cross-over study on 'Artificial intelligence for nuclear plant' promoted by 5 years plan since 1989 fiscal year, further developed studies are conducted. The studies are promoted by next 5 years plan on following 6 items: (1) Study on stratified expression technique of autonomous function. (2) Study on expression technique of motion state in decentralized-cooperative function. (3) Study on expression technique of decision making process. (4) Integration to operation control system. (5) Integration to maintenance system. And, (6) Comprehensive evaluation experiment. In 1996 fiscal year, improvement and investigation on automatic classification function of plant state were executed. And, preparation of development environment for expression of robot group motion state was conducted. Furthermore, communication experiment using network to realize integration to operation control and maintenance systems and periodical meetings with other institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  7. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanba, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a study further advanced on a base of results of study on artificial intelligence for nuclear power', one of nuclear basis crossover studies, conducted at five years planning from 1989 fiscal year was executed. Here was conducted on study on a system technology for supplying cooperation, judgement process, judgement results, and so forth between decentralized artificial intelligent elements (agents) to operation managers (supervisors) by focussing a system for monitoring if autonomous decentralized system containing plant operation and robot group action functioned appropriately. In 1997 fiscal year, by mainly conducting development for displaying working state of robot group, some investigations on integrated management of each function already development and maintained were executed. Furthermore, some periodical meetings on realization of its integration with operation control system and maintenance system with other research institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  8. Role of the functional status of the autonomic nervous system in the clinical course of purulent meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zadiraka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purulent meningitis is defined by high indices of sickness and lethality rates, a great risk of cerebral and extracerebral complications development, steady residual consequences formation. During neuroinfections, the state of adaptation mechanisms, which is characterized by exhaustion of regulatory systems with the development of decompensation, plays a crucial part. Heart rate variability clearly reflects the degree of regulatory system tension caused by the influence of both physiological and pathological factors. Research aim: to increase the autonomic dysfunction diagnostics efficiency for patients suffering from purulent meningitis in the disease dynamics based on the complex of clinical evidence and functional status of autonomic nervous system. Materials and methods. There were 60 patients with purulent meningitis under medical observation. Wein’s questionnaire was used for the detection of clinical presentations of autonomic dysfunction. Functional status of autonomic nervous system was diagnosed using the method of computer-based cardiointervalometry. The screening group was formed of 20 healthy individuals. Research findings and theirs discussion. Cerebral meningeal symptom was dominant among the patients suffering from purulent meningitis at the peak of the disease. At hospitalization every fifth person (23,3% had the objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction in the form of a postural tremor of upper limbs and eyelids. The analysis of autonomic nervous system parameters functional status among the patients suffering from purulent meningitis at the peak of disease showed heart rate variability decrease in the main branches of autonomic regulation and the presence of autonomic imbalance towards vagotonia. Since the second week, clinical signs of autonomic dysfunction prevailed in the dynamics of patients suffering from purulent meningitis in the course of standard treatment, which was proved by Wein’s survey of the patients. The

  9. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal...

  10. Human skin hypoxia modulates cerebrovascular and autonomic functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Pucci

    Full Text Available Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen or skin normoxia (with air. The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor.

  11. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, Cristiano [Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA), São Luís, MA (Brazil); Figueroa, Diego Mendrot [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelis, Kátia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.rodrigues@incor.usp.br [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  12. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Figueiredo Grans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week. At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results: The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32% and trained infarcted (+46% in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%, myocardial performance index (-39% and systolic blood pressure (+6% improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%, as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46% in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  13. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats. PMID:25014059

  14. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats

  15. Resistance training after myocardial infarction in rats: its role on cardiac and autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  16. Multi-Functional Distributed Secondary Control for Autonomous Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad

    or connected to the main grid. Apart from the obvious benefits of MGs, their introduction into the traditional distribution network raises many new challenges, thus, a hierarchical control concept has been introduced for these systems. While the decentralized primary control of this hierarchy ensures...... power exchange with external grid or/and with other MGs and includes functions related to efficiency and economic enhancement. This thesis is focused on development of distributed control strategies for secondary control of autonomous ac and dc MGs to avoid a central controller and complex communication...... to proportionally share the load power even at the presence of different control parameters and initial values. This thesis also proposes a distributed hierarchical control framework for dc MG clusters to ensure smooth connection and reliable operation of these systems. A decentralize adaptive droop method...

  17. Function Concepts for Machine Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The majority of resources, like time and costs, consumed in industrial product development can be related to detailed design, i.e. the materialisation of machine parts (German Maschinenteile). Existing design theories based on a systems approach, e.g. Haberfellner [5] all have function, i...... to be identification of a purposeful behaviour concept, i.e. function for a machine part. The contribution is based on the theory of technical systems, Hubka and the domain theory, Andreasen........e. transformation from input to output or ability to deliver purposeful effects as the core concept. The units in a product which posses functions are the organs (German: Funktionsträgern). Because individual parts do not posses functions, one could argue that the design theories based on a systems approach...

  18. Gender differences in autonomic functional status in response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahera Shabnam S, Gopathy Sridevi, Prema Sembulingam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Men and women are similar in their cognitive appraisal of a stress. But their behavior is different when exposed to stress. As stress responses and cognitive abilities are closely associated with autonomic nervous system, an attempt had been made to evaluate the behavioral pattern of autonomic functional status in males and females under stressed conditions. Methodology: 30 normal young male and female students (15 each participated in this study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, heart rate (HR and heart rate variation (HRV were recorded before and after postural change, Valsalva maneuver and cold exposure. Results: SBP and DBP decreased and HR increased after standing from lying posture (p < 0.000 in both the genders. But the changes were less in males than in females (SBP and HR – non significant, DBP p < 0.008, 30:15 ratio was higher in males (p < 0.001 upon standing. After Valsalva maneuver, SBP decreased (p < 0.05 and DBP increased (p < 0.000 with a higher Valsalva ratio (p < 0.002 in females than in males. After exposure to cold, males showed more decrease in SBP and DBP and less increase in HR (non-significant than females. Discussion: Results reveal more sympathetic activity in males than in females when exposed to stress. This may be because of the altered baroreceptor mechanism, male-female type of fat distribution, difference in vascular bed resistance, influence of cortisol and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Conclusion: The fact that females have less tolerance to stress may help us in understanding the sex linked pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and developing a different approach in treating the similar cardiovascular disease in men and women.

  19. Neurotechnology for monitoring and restoring sensory, motor, and autonomic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pae C.; Knaack, Gretchen; Weber, Douglas J.

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and exponential advances in micro- and nanotechnologies over the last decade have enabled devices that communicate directly with the nervous system to measure and influence neural activity. Many of the earliest implementations focused on restoration of sensory and motor function, but as knowledge of physiology advances and technology continues to improve in accuracy, precision, and safety, new modes of engaging with the autonomic system herald an era of health restoration that may augment or replace many conventional pharmacotherapies. DARPA's Biological Technologies Office is continuing to advance neurotechnology by investing in neural interface technologies that are effective, reliable, and safe for long-term use in humans. DARPA's Hand Proprioception and Touch Interfaces (HAPTIX) program is creating a fully implantable system that interfaces with peripheral nerves in amputees to enable natural control and sensation for prosthetic limbs. Beyond standard electrode implementations, the Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx) program is investing in innovative approaches to minimally or non-invasively interface with the peripheral nervous system using novel magnetic, optogenetic, and ultrasound-based technologies. These new mechanisms of interrogating and stimulating the peripheral nervous system are driving towards unparalleled spatiotemporal resolution, specificity and targeting, and noninvasiveness to enable chronic, human-use applications in closed-loop neuromodulation for the treatment of disease.

  20. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in childhood and adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, R.D. III; Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Reddick, R.L.; Tawil, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) in children and adolescents (under age 18) are unusual but are not as rare as earlier reports suggested. These lesions have a significantly different biologic potential than similar lesions in older patients. In the younger age group there is a more rapid progression toward toxicity and a higher incidence of thyroid carcinoma. Our experience with 12 patients is combined with those previously reported for identification of a total of 61 children and adolescents with AFTNs, of whom 53 have undergone operation. Hyperthyroidism was present in 15 patients (24.6%), and in six patients (11.3%) the AFTN was due to a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgical treatment is advisable for all children and adolescents with AFTNs because of the risks of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. Surgical excision (lobectomy is preferred) results in rapid restoration of a euthyroid state for the toxic AFTN and allows histopathologic diagnosis. Therapy with radioiodine is not advisable for treatment of AFTNs in this age group. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression should be used for all patients with a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma

  1. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Bodner, D

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experts opinions consensus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI). BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use...... of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of SCI. These standards document the remaining motor and sensory function that a person may have; however, they do not provide information about the status of a person's autonomic function. METHODS: Based on this deficiency, the American Spinal Injury...... Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) commissioned a group of international experts to develop a common strategy to document the remaining autonomic neurologic function. RESULTS: Four subgroups were commissioned: bladder, bowel, sexual function and general autonomic function. On...

  2. Analysis of Autonomic Nervous System Functional Age and Heart Rate Variability in Mine Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicko T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy working conditions and many unpropitious factors influencing workers health participate in development of various health disorders, among other autonomic cardiovascular regulation malfunction. The aim of this study is to draw a comparison of autonomic nervous system functional age and heart rate variability changes between workers with and without mining occupational exposure.

  3. Autonomic Function Impairment and Brain Perfusion Deficit in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAutonomic disorders have been recognized as important Parkinson’s disease (PD components. Some vulnerable structures are related to the central autonomic network and have also been linked to autonomic function alterations. The aims of the study are to evaluate the severity of the autonomic dysfunction and the cortical hypoperfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL MRI. And then, possible relationships of significant between-group differences in perfusion pattern to clinical variables and autonomic functions were examined to determine the pharmaceutical effects of dopaminergic treatment on cerebral blood flow (CBF in patients with PD.MethodsBrain ASL MRI was carried out in 20 patients with PD (6 men and 14 women, mean age: 63.3 ± 6.4 years and 22 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers to assess whole-brain CBF and the effects of dopaminergic therapy on perfusion. All subjects underwent a standardized evaluation of cardiovagal and adrenergic function including a deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and 5-min head-up tilt test. Perfusion MRI data were acquired on a 3.0 T scanner with a pulsed continuous ASL technique. The CBF, autonomic parameters, and clinical data were analyzed after adjusting for age and sex.ResultsPatients exhibited a decline in autonomic function (rapid heart rate in response to deep breathing, low baroreflex sensitivity, high systolic and diastolic pressure, and altered tilting test response, widespread low CBF, and robust response to dopaminergic therapy. Lower perfusion in the middle frontal gyrus was associated with increased clinical disease severity (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale I score, P < 0.001. Lower perfusion in autonomic control areas, such as the frontal lobe and insula, were significantly associated with autonomic impairment (P < 0.001.ConclusionsOur study indicates that PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that changes the perfusion of central nervous system

  4. The course of autonomic neural function in chronic uraemic patients during haemodialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, G; Savica, V; Puglisi, R M; Marabello, L; Bellinghieri, G; Messina, C

    1992-01-01

    Autonomic function was followed in 19 patients with uraemia on chronic haemodialysis treatment over a period of 18 months. A smaller group of 12 patients were studied over 56 months. The battery of cardiovascular reflex tests included R-R interval variation test, deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to standing and sustained handgrip. Two indices of autonomic function were measured: the autonomic score, and the confidence level on Bayesian analysis. There was great variability in the course of autonomic function over the period studied, with improvement occurring in some subjects and deterioration in others. In addition some patients did not develop any abnormality. Among those patients with uraemia and normal autonomic function at the start of the study, a deterioration occurred in 33-36% in the 18-month follow-up but in 62.5% in the 56-month follow-up. As a group there was no significant change in autonomic function during follow-up, although a clear trend to deterioration was found despite chronic haemodialysis treatment.

  5. Therapeutic options in the management of autonomously functioning thyroid adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.A.; Ong, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules or adenomas (AFTN or AFTA) was established as a clinical entity in 1918 by Goetsch correlating cellular mitochondrial content with nodular function and showing the inverse correlation between AFTN function and extra nodular tissue function. They are almost always benign and degeneration, which is common in AFTN, can result in the development of hyperthyroidism. It is therefore important to know the function of these nodules by requesting for the thyroid function tests namely T3, T4, and TSH. They are diagnosed by thyroid scans using I-131 or Tc 99m as a hot solitary nodule in one lobe with the other lobe not appearing on scan or suppressed. The frequency of AFTA worldwide is quite variable depending on geography. It ranges from 1% in North America to 10 % in some areas in Europe and Asia or in areas of iodine deficiency. The traditional methods of treatment of these nodules have been surgery and radioactive iodine ablation. Surgical treatment as a rule is indicated in young patients with nodules larger than 3 cm and those with local compressive symptoms. RAI is used in elderly patients and those who are poor surgical risks. The usual dose ranges from 20 to 30 mCi and is definitely larger that when treating Graves' disease. Others have resorted to PEI or percutaneous ethanol injection with reported success. There has been no definite management of these AFTA due to the variable natural history and some would only recommend observation for asymptomatic small adenomas, which are euthyroid. Therefore this paper studied the results of treatment using RAI ablation, surgery or plain observation for AFTA. Percutaneous ethanol injection is not being done in our center. In the local setting, where thyroid disease is still endemic, the incidence of AFTA is not so high. Graves' disease is still the predominating cause of hyperthyroidism followed by multinodular goiter. Toxic AFTA occurs in 3% of the total hyperthyroid

  6. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin levels in type 2 diabetes and their association with cardiovascular autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Raelene E; Lenhard, M James; Pohlig, Ryan T; Balagopal, P Babu

    2016-04-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are bone metabolism biomarkers potentially associated with nerve function. We evaluated the association of cardiovascular autonomic nerve function, OPN, and OPG in 50 individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RR-variation during deep breathing (i.e., mean circular resultant (MCR) and expiration/inspiration (E/I) ratio) was used to assess parasympathetic nerve function. Participants' demographics, HbA1c, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), BMI, HOMA-IR, calcium, parathyroid hormone, creatinine, OPN, and OPG were determined. Using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with MCR or E/I ratio as the dependent variable, OPN was independently associated with reduced autonomic function. A previous report showed a significant association of cardiovascular autonomic function with age, 25(OH)D insufficiency, and the interaction of age×25(OH)D insufficiency. Here we report a novel association for OPN and its interaction with age indicating that for those who are younger, elevated OPN levels are related to a greater loss of autonomic function (MCR model R2=0.598, p<0.001; E/I model R2=0.594, p<0.001). Our results suggest that OPN is associated with reduced parasympathetic function, particularly in younger individuals with T2DM. Further studies are needed to determine if OPN is neuroprotective, involved in the pathogenesis of autonomic dysfunction, or a bystander. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diminished autonomic neurocardiac function in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyungwook Kim,1 Seul Lee,2 Jong-Hoon Kim1–3 1Gachon University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, 3Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder that is characterized by a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate variability (HRV, measuring autonomic regulation, and to evaluate the relationship between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety, in medication-free patients with GAD. Methods: Assessments of linear and nonlinear complexity measures of HRV were performed in 42 medication-free patients with GAD and 50 healthy control subjects. In addition, the severity of anxiety symptoms was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The values of the HRV measures of the groups were compared, and the correlations between the HRV measures and the severity of anxiety symptoms were assessed. Results: The GAD group showed significantly lower standard deviation of RR intervals and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal sinus intervals values compared to the control group (P<0.01. The approximate entropy value, which is a nonlinear complexity indicator, was also significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01. In correlation analysis, there were no significant correlations between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion: The present study indicates that GAD is significantly associated with reduced HRV, suggesting that autonomic neurocardiac integrity is substantially impaired in patients with GAD. Future prospective studies are required to investigate the effects of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment on

  8. Cardioprotection afforded by exercise training prior to myocardial infarction is associated with autonomic function improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Barboza, Catarina Andrade; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego; Souza, Gabriel Inacio Honorato; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-07-14

    It has been suggested that exercise training (ET) protects against the pathological remodeling and ventricular dysfunction induced by myocardial infarction (MI). However, it remains unclear whether the positive adjustments on baroreflex and cardiac autonomic modulations promoted by ET may afford a cardioprotective mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic ET, prior to MI, on cardiac remodeling and function, as well as on baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary rats submitted to Sham surgery (C); trained rats submitted to Sham surgery (TC); sedentary rats submitted to MI (I), trained rats submitted to MI (TI). Sham and MI were performed after ET period. After surgeries, echocardiographic, hemodynamic and autonomic (baroreflex sensitivity, cardiovascular autonomic modulation) evaluations were conducted. Prior ET prevented an additional decline in exercise capacity in TI group in comparison with I. MI area was not modified by previous ET. ET was able to increase the survival and prevent additional left ventricle dysfunction in TI rats. Although changes in hemodynamic evaluations were not observed, ET prevented the decrease of baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic dysfunction in TI animals when compared with I animals. Importantly, cardiac improvement was associated with the prevention of cardiac autonomic impairment in studied groups. Prior ET was effective in changing aerobic capacity, left ventricular morphology and function in rats undergoing MI. Furthermore, these cardioprotective effects were associated with attenuated cardiac autonomic dysfunction observed in trained rats. Although these cause-effect relationships can only be inferred, rather than confirmed, our study suggests that positive adaptations of autonomic function by ET can play a vital role in preventing changes associated with cardiovascular disease, particularly in relation to MI.

  9. Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka P Jyotsna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to observe the effect comprehensive yogic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga [SKY] and Pranayam had on cardiac autonomic functions in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 64 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program. Standard therapy included dietary advice, brisk walking for 45 min daily, and administration of oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was introduced to the participants through a course of 12 h spread over 3 days. It was an interactive session in which SKY, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam is taught under the guidance of a certified teacher. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and after 6 months of intervention. Results: In the intervention group, after practicing the breathing techniques for 6 months, the improvement in sympathetic functions was statistically significant (P 0.04. The change in sympathetic functions in the standard therapy group was not significant (P 0.75.Parasympathetic functions did not show any significant change in either group. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P 0.06. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P 0.99. Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic functions improved in patients with diabetes on standard treatment who followed the comprehensive yogic breathing program compared to patients who were on standard therapy alone.

  10. Insights into the clinical and functional significance of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Junqueira Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exclusive or associated lesions in various structures of the autonomic nervous system occur in the chronic forms of Chagas disease. In the indeterminate form, the lesions are absent or mild, whereas in the exclusive or combined heart and digestive disease forms, they are often more pronounced. Depending on their severity these lesions can result mainly in cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction but also in sympathetic dysfunction of variable degrees. Despite the key autonomic effect on cardiovascular functioning, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease remains unknown. METHODS: Review of data on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease and their potential consequences, and considerations supporting the possible relationship between this disturbance and general or cardiovascular clinical and functional adverse outcomes. RESULTS: We hypothesise that possible consequences that cardiac dysautonomia might variably occasion or predispose in Chagas disease include: transient or sustained arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, adverse overall and cardiovascular prognosis with enhanced morbidity and mortality, an inability of the cardiovascular system to adjust to functional demands and/or respond to internal or external stimuli by adjusting heart rate and other hemodynamic variables, and immunomodulatory and cognitive disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired cardiac autonomic modulation in Chagas disease might not be a mere epiphenomenon without significance. Indirect evidences point for a likely important role of this alteration as a primary predisposing or triggering cause or mediator favouring the development of subtle or evident secondary cardiovascular functional disturbances and clinical consequences, and influencing adverse outcomes.

  11. Exercise training and cardiac autonomic function in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Pooja; Shenoy, Shweta; Hussain, M Ejaz

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been found to independently predict all cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. It remains unclear whether exercise training could improve autonomic control in T2DM patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effects of exercise training on cardiac autonomic function in T2DM patients. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PEDro, Scopus and Web of science) were systematically searched to retrieve relevant evidence. Clinical trials administering exercise training for at least 4 weeks and examining either heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate recovery (HRR) as outcome measures were eligible. Eighteen articles were found to be relevant and were then assessed for characteristics and quality. Fifteen studies out of 18 found that exercise training leads to positive improvements in autonomic function of T2DM patients. Exercise participation enhances cardiac autonomic function of type 2 diabetics and therefore should be implemented in their management programs. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of autonomic function after acute spinal cord injury using heart rate variability analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Bartholdy, Kim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in severe dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. C1-C8 SCI affects the supraspinal control to the heart, T1-T5 SCI affects the spinal sympathetic outflow to the heart, and T6-T12 SCI leaves sympathetic control to the heart intact. Heart rate....... CONCLUSIONS: The rise in SDANN in the incomplete C1-T5 patients could be due to spontaneous functional recovery caused by synaptic plasticity or remodelling of damaged axons. That the autonomic nervous system function differs between C1-C8, T1-T5 and T6-T12 patients suggest that the sympathovagal balance...

  13. Origin of Heart Rate Variability and Turbulence: An Appraisal of Autonomic Modulation of Cardiovascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Federico; Stein, Phyllis K.

    2011-01-01

    Heart period constantly changes on a beat to beat basis, due to autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, and changes can be quantified as heart rate variability (HRV). In addition, after a premature ventricular beat, there are reproducible variations in RR interval, also due to baroreflex mediated autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, that can be measured as heart rate turbulence (HRT). Impaired autonomic function as measured by HRV and HRT has proven to predict adverse outcomes in clinical settings. The ability of reduced HRV and HRT to predict adverse outcomes has been explained by their dependency on vagal mechanisms that could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node, thus favoring cardiac electrical instability. Analysis of non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilized to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective in identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Despite the clinical validity of these measures, it has also been evident that the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness is extremely complex and variable in different clinical conditions. Thus, abnormal HRV or HRT on a clinical Holter recordings may reflect non-neural as well as autonomic mechanisms, and this also needs to be taken into account when interpreting any findings. However, under controlled conditions, the computation of the low and high frequency components of HRV and of their normalized powers or ratio seems capable of providing valid information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects, as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function. Thus, analysis of HRV does provide a unique tool to specifically assess autonomic control mechanisms in association with various perturbations. In conclusion, HRV measures are of substantial utility to identify patients with an increased cardiac mortality and to evaluate autonomic control mechanisms, but

  14. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  15. Effect of 48?h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    OpenAIRE

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Art?ras; Terentjevien?, Asta; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48?h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48?h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated befor...

  16. A STUDY ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS IN CAREGIVERS OF STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouse Mubarak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke (cerebrovascular accident is an important cause of disability in countries like India and longterm care of these bedridden patients is usually undertaken by the family members. A caregiver is a person who takes responsibility for those who cannot completely care for themselves. Taking care of a chronically ill member in the family usually causes stress to the caregiver causing disturbances in the autonomic function. Thus, the present study is undertaken to find out the effect of longterm caregiving on cardiovascular autonomic functions in a caregiver. MATERIALS AND METHODS 57 caregivers of post-stroke bedridden patients, both male and female, were included in this longitudinal study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during Valsalva manoeuvre. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip. RESULTS The results of the present study showed statistically significant decrease in Valsalva ratio, decrease in the heart rate following deep breathing and statistically significant increase in systolic blood pressure in response to immediate standing suggestive of autonomic imbalance. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that longterm caregiving is accompanied by dysfunction of the cardiac autonomic nervous system, and these individuals are more prone to autonomic neuropathy.

  17. Effect of partition board color on mood and autonomic nervous function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Sokichi; Sugiyama, Yoshiki

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the presence or absence (control) of a partition board and its color (red, yellow, blue) on subjective mood ratings and changes in autonomic nervous system indicators induced by a video game task. The increase in the mean Profile of Mood States (POMS) Fatigue score and mean Oppressive feeling rating after the task was lowest with the blue partition board. Multiple-regression analysis identified oppressive feeling and error scores on the second half of the task as statistically significant contributors to Fatigue. While explanatory variables were limited to the physiological indices, multiple-regression analysis identified a significant contribution of autonomic reactivity (assessed by heart rate variability) to Fatigue. These results suggest that a blue partition board would reduce task-induced subjective fatigue, in part by lowering the oppressive feeling of being enclosed during the task, possibly by increasing autonomic reactivity.

  18. Monitoring fetal maturation-objectives, techniques and indices of autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Żebrowski, Jan; Cysarz, Dirk; Gonçalves, Hernâni; Pytlik, Adelina; Amorim-Costa, Célia; Bernardes, João; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Witte, Otto W; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Stroux, Lisa; Redman, Christopher; Georgieva, Antoniya; Payne, Stephen; Clifford, Gari; Signorini, Maria G; Magenes, Giovanni; Andreotti, Fernando; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Lakhno, Igor; Schneider, Uwe

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring the fetal behavior does not only have implications for acute care but also for identifying developmental disturbances that burden the entire later life. The concept, of 'fetal programming', also known as 'developmental origins of adult disease hypothesis', e.g. applies for cardiovascular, metabolic, hyperkinetic, cognitive disorders. Since the autonomic nervous system is involved in all of those systems, cardiac autonomic control may provide relevant functional diagnostic and prognostic information. The fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) are one of the few functional signals in the prenatal period that relate to autonomic control and, therefore, is predestinated for its evaluation. The development of sensitive markers of fetal maturation and its disturbances requires the consideration of physiological fundamentals, recording technology and HRP parameters of autonomic control. Based on the ESGCO2016 special session on monitoring the fetal maturation we herein report the most recent results on: (i) functional fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS), Recurrence Quantitative Analysis and Binary Symbolic Dynamics of complex HRP resolve specific maturation periods, (ii) magnetocardiography (MCG) based fABAS was validated for cardiotocography (CTG), (iii) 30 min recordings are sufficient for obtaining episodes of high variability, important for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) detection in handheld Doppler, (iv) novel parameters from PRSA to identify Intra IUGR fetuses, (v) evaluation of fetal electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings, (vi) correlation between maternal and fetal HRV is disturbed in pre-eclampsia. The reported novel developments significantly extend the possibilities for the established CTG methodology. Novel HRP indices improve the accuracy of assessment due to their more appropriate consideration of complex autonomic processes across the recording technologies (CTG, handheld Doppler, MCG, ECG). The ultimate objective is their dissemination

  19. Temperamental activation and inhibition associated with autonomic function in preadolescents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, Andrea; Riese, Harriette; van Roon, Arie M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Neeleman, Jan; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    We investigated the temperamental traits high-intensity pleasure (temperamental activation) and shyness (temperamental inhibition) in relation to autonomic function as measured by heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in 938 10-13-year-old

  20. 12-month efficacy of a single radiofrequency ablation on autonomously functioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Stacul, Fulvio; Michelli, Andrea; Giudici, Fabiola; Zuolo, Giulia; de Manzini, Nicolò; Dobrinja, Chiara; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Fabris, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has been advocated as an alternative to radioiodine and/or surgery for the treatment of autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. However, only a few studies have measured radiofrequency ablation efficacy on autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. The aim of this work was to evaluate the 12-month efficacy of a single session of radiofrequency ablation (performed with the moving shot technique) on solitary autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Thirty patients with a single, benign autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules, who were either unwilling or ineligible to undergo surgery and radioiodine, were treated with radiofrequency ablation between April 2012 and May 2015. All the patients underwent a single radiofrequency ablation, performed with the 18-gauge needle and the moving shot technique. Clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound evaluations were scheduled at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months from the procedure. A single radiofrequency ablation reduced thyroid nodule volume by 51, 63, 69, and 75 % after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. This was associated with a significant improvement of local cervical discomfort and cosmetic score. As for thyroid function, 33 % of the patients went into remission after 3 months, 43 % after 6 months, and 50 % after 12 months from the procedure. This study demonstrates that a single radiofrequency ablation allowed us to withdraw anti-thyroid medication in 50 % of the patients, who remained euthyroid afterwards. This study shows that a single radiofrequency ablation was effective in 50 % of patients with autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Patients responded gradually to the treatment. It is possible that longer follow-up studies might show greater response rates.

  1. Cardiovascular control, autonomic function, and elite endurance performance in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C R; Gee, C M; Voss, C; Hubli, M; Currie, K D; Schmid, J; Krassioukov, A V

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between level of injury, completeness of injury, resting as well as exercise hemodynamics, and endurance performance in athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-three elite male paracycling athletes (C3-T8) were assessed for neurological level/completeness of injury, autonomic completeness of injury, resting cardiovascular function, and time to complete a 17.3-km World Championship time-trial test. A subset were also fitted with heart rate (HR) monitors and their cycles were fitted with a global positioning systems device (n = 15). Thoracic SCI exhibited higher seated systolic blood pressure along with superior time-trial performance compared with cervical SCI (all P athletes with cervical autonomic incomplete SCI exhibited a faster time-trial time and a higher average speed compared with cervical autonomic complete SCI (all P speed between thoracic autonomic complete vs incomplete SCI. In conclusion, autonomic completeness of injury and the consequent ability of the cardiovascular system to respond to exercise appear to be a critical determinant of endurance performance in elite athletes with cervical SCI. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Diverse autonomic regulation of pupillary function and the cardiovascular system during alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Thomas; Hoyme, Johannes; Schulz, Steffen; Weißenfels, Markus; Voss, Andreas; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Previous research indicated the complexity of autonomic dysfunction during acute alcohol withdrawal. This study aimed to investigate the pupillary light reflex as an indicator of midbrain and brainstem regulatory systems in relation to cardiovascular autonomic function. Thirty male patients were included in the study. They were investigated during acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome and 24h later during clomethiazole treatment and compared to healthy controls. Parameters of pupillary light reflex of both eyes as well as heart rate variability, blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were studied. We observed significantly reduced sympathetic (small diameter, e.g., left eye: 5.00 in patients vs. 5.91 mm in controls) and vagal modulation (e.g., prolonged latencies, left eye: 0.28 vs. 0.26 ms) regarding both pupils during acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Cardiovascular parameters showed reduced vagal modulation (e.g., b-slope of BRS: 7. 57 vs. 13.59 ms/mm Hg) and mixed results for sympathetic influence. After 24h, autonomic dysfunction improved significantly, both for the pupils (e.g., left diameter: 5.38 mm) and the heart (e.g., b-slope of BRS: 9.34 ms/mm Hg). While parameters obtained from the pupil correlated with cardiac autonomic function (e.g, BRS and left diameter: r=0.564) in healthy controls, no such pattern was observed in patients. Results obtained from the pupil during acute alcohol withdrawal do not simply mirror autonomic dysfunction regarding the heart. Pupillary and cardiovascular changes after 24h indicate state dependencies of the results. The findings are discussed with respect to autonomic mechanisms and potentially involved brain regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impaired Neural Structure and Function Contributing to Autonomic Symptoms in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Harper

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS patients show major autonomic alterations in addition to their better-known breathing deficiencies. The processes underlying CCHS, mutations in the PHOX2B gene, target autonomic neuronal development, with frame shift extent contributing to symptom severity. Many autonomic characteristics, such as impaired pupillary constriction and poor temperature regulation, reflect parasympathetic alterations, and can include disturbed alimentary processes, with malabsorption and intestinal motility dyscontrol. The sympathetic nervous system changes can exert life-threatening outcomes, with dysregulation of sympathetic outflow leading to high blood pressure, time-altered and dampened heart rate and breathing responses to challenges, cardiac arrhythmia, profuse sweating, and poor fluid regulation. The central mechanisms contributing to failed autonomic processes are readily apparent from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, which reveal substantial cortical thinning, tissue injury, and disrupted functional responses in hypothalamic, hippocampal, posterior thalamic, and basal ganglia sites and their descending projections, as well as insular, cingulate, and medial frontal cortices, which influence subcortical autonomic structures. Midbrain structures are also compromised, including the raphe system and its projections to cerebellar and medullary sites, the locus coeruleus, and medullary reflex integrating sites, including the dorsal and ventrolateral medullary nuclei. The damage to rostral autonomic sites overlaps metabolic, affective and cognitive regulatory regions, leading to hormonal disruption, anxiety, depression, behavioral control, and sudden death concerns. The injuries suggest that interventions for mitigating hypoxic exposure and nutrient loss may provide cellular protection, in the same fashion as interventions in other conditions with similar malabsorption, fluid turnover

  4. Evidence for vestibular regulation of autonomic functions in a mouse genetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Dean M.; Erkman, Linda; Hermanson, Ola; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Fuller, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Physiological responses to changes in the gravitational field and body position, as well as symptoms of patients with anxiety-related disorders, have indicated an interrelationship between vestibular function and stress responses. However, the relative significance of cochlear and vestibular information in autonomic regulation remains unresolved because of the difficulties in distinguishing the relative contributions of other proprioceptive and interoceptive inputs, including vagal and somatic information. To investigate the role of cochlear and vestibular function in central and physiological responses, we have examined the effects of increased gravity in wild-type mice and mice lacking the POU homeodomain transcription factor Brn-3.1 (Brn-3bPou4f3). The only known phenotype of the Brn-3.1(-/-) mouse is related to hearing and balance functions, owing to the failure of cochlear and vestibular hair cells to differentiate properly. Here, we show that normal physiological responses to increased gravity (2G exposure), such as a dramatic drop in body temperature and concomitant circadian adjustment, were completely absent in Brn-3.1(-/-) mice. In line with the lack of autonomic responses, the massive increase in neuronal activity after 2G exposure normally detected in wild-type mice was virtually abolished in Brn-3.1(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that cochlear and vestibular hair cells are the primary regulators of autonomic responses to altered gravity and provide genetic evidence that these cells are sufficient to alter neural activity in regions involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine control.

  5. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  6. Association between Birth Characteristics and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function at Mid-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkiömäki, Nelli; Auvinen, Juha; Tulppo, Mikko P; Hautala, Arto J; Perkiömäki, Juha; Karhunen, Ville; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Huikuri, Heikki V; Kiviniemi, Antti M

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects. At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD) from R-R intervals (RRi) and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965-1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking) and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status) potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function. In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014) and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, pmid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth weight in males may contribute to less favourable cardiovascular autonomic regulation and potentially to an elevated cardiovascular risk in later life.

  7. The relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid levels and cardiac autonomic function in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Gulgun; Kursat, Fidanci Muzaffer; Ahmet, Tas; Alparslan, Genc Fatih; Omer, Gunes; Sertoglu, Erdem; Erkan, Sarı; Ediz, Yesilkaya; Turker, Turker; Ayhan, Kılıc

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide health concern. Studies have shown autonomic dysfunction in obese children. The exact mechanism of this dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) levels and cardiac autonomic function in obese children using heart rate variability (HRV). A total of 48 obese and 32 healthy children were included in this case-control study. Anthropometric and biochemical data, HRV indices, and EMFA levels in both groups were compared statistically. HRV parameters including standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (NN), root mean square of successive differences, the number of pairs of successive NNs that differ by >50 ms (NN50), the proportion of NN50 divided by the total number of NNs, high-frequency power, and low-frequency power were lower in obese children compared to controls, implying parasympathetic impairment. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels were lower in the obese group (p<0.001 and p=0.012, respectively). In correlation analysis, in the obese group, body mass index standard deviation and linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein levels showed a linear correlation with one or more HRV parameter, and age, eicosapentaenoic acid, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure correlated with mean heart rate. In linear regression analysis, age, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, body mass index standard deviation, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were related to HRV parameters, implying an effect on cardiac autonomic function. There is impairment of cardiac autonomic function in obese children. It appears that levels of EMFAs such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid play a role in the regulation of cardiac autonomic function in obese children. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa

  8. THE EFFECTS OF NON-FUNCTIONAL OVERREACHING AND OVERTRAINING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION IN HIGHLY TRAINED ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaia, T; Maskhulia, L; Chelidze, K; Akhalkatsi, V; Kakhabrishvili, Z

    2017-03-01

    Aim of the study was to compare the ANS functioning, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), in athletes with non-functional overreaching (NFO) and overtraining syndrome (OTS) and in athletes without NFO/OTS. In 43 athletes with NFO/OTS, 40 athletes without NFO/OTS, as well as in 35 sedentary subjects the ANS function was evaluated with the Autonomic Balance Test, based on the HRV analysis of resting heart rate recordings. Results of the study show lower HRV and lower vagal influence along with increased sympathetic cardiovascular control in athletes with non-functional overreaching and particularly in athletes with overtraining, than in highly trained athletes without NFO/OTS. "Stress Response" in athletes with NFO, as well as in some athletes with OTS, showing sympathetic dominance, considered as a sign of physical or mental fatigue and chronic stress, whereas "Total Autonomic Dystonia" in most of the athletes with OTS (67%) reflects more advanced stage of maladaptation associated with depressed regulatory function of the ANS, both sympathetic, as well as vagal influences. Most frequently NFO and OTS were seen in wrestling, which needs further investigation and regular medical monitoring. Thus, results of the study show progression of autonomic imbalance and depression of regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system in athletes with OTS. The cardiac autonomic imbalance observed in overtrained athletes implies changes in HRV and therefore would consider that heart rate variability may provide useful information in detection of overtraining in athletes and can be a valuable adjacent tool for optimising athlete's training program as well as for timely diagnosis and prevention of progression of NFO/OTS.

  9. Quantitative indices of baroreflex-sympathoneural function: application to patients with chronic autonomic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Faisal; Goldstein, David S

    2014-06-01

    Chronic autonomic failure syndromes such as Parkinson disease with orthostatic hypotension (PD + OH), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and pure autonomic failure (PAF) typically feature arterial baroreflex failure. Identifying baroreflex-sympathoneural failure from hemodynamic responses to the maneuver usually has been qualitative. We report quantitative methods for evaluating baroreflex-sympathoneural function, based on beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (BPs) responses to the Valsalva maneuver. Using the trapezoid rule, we calculated the area under the curve (baroreflex area, BRA) between baseline systolic blood pressure (BPs) and the BPs for each beat in Phase II (BRA-II) and Phase IV (BRA-IV) in 136 autonomic failure patients and 171 controls. The sum of the areas was defined as total BRA (BRA-T). We compared individual values by the BRA approach with those by other measures. Mean values for log BRA-II, BRA-IV, and BRA-T were higher in PD + OH, PAF, and MSA than in controls (p baroreflex-cardiovagal slope (r = -0.40, p baroreflex-sympathoneural function. Chronic autonomic failure syndromes entail deficiencies of both the cardiovagal and sympathoneural limbs of the arterial baroreflex.

  10. Low intensity resistance training improves systolic function and cardiovascular autonomic control in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostarda, Cristiano T; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Moraes-Silva, Ivana C; Arruda, Paula Barros Olinto; Cardoso, Ruymar; Scapini, Katia Bilhar; Dos Santos, Fernando; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of low intensity resistance training (RT) on left ventricular (LV) function, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and cardiovascular autonomic control of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into (n=8 each group): sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD), and trained diabetic (TD). Trained groups underwent low intensity RT (40%-50% 1 repetition maximum) for 10 weeks. Echocardiographic evaluation, arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), BRS, and autonomic measurements were performed. Diabetes induced an increase in glycemia and a reduction in body weight in diabetics when compared with control animals. Diabetic rats displayed cardiac dysfunction, reduced systolic AP and HR, impaired BRS and autonomic derangement when compared to control rats. RT improved ejection fraction (SD: 68%±1.3% vs. TD: 75%±3.0%) and velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (SD: 0.32±0.02 vs. TD: 0.40±0.01 circ/seg.10(-4)). Trained diabetic rats presented increased AP (+10.2%), HR (+10.4%), and BRS after RT protocol. Low intensity RT induced an increase in systolic function in diabetic rats. This may be due to positive LV remodeling and BRS improvement, which may have played an important role in the attenuation of hemodynamic impairment and cardiac autonomic neuropathy in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated Control Strategies Supporting Autonomous Functionalities in Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Sights

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available High-level intelligence allows a mobile robot to create and interpret complex world models, but without a precise control system, the accuracy of the world model and the robot's ability to interact with its surroundings are greatly diminished. This problem is amplified when the environment is hostile, such as in a battlefield situation where an error in movement or a slow response may lead to destruction of the robot. As the presence of robots on the battlefield continues to escalate and the trend toward relieving the human of the low-level control burden advances, the ability to combine the functionalities of several critical control systems on a single platform becomes imperative.

  12. Evaluation of cardiac autonomic function in overweight males: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cardiovascular autonomic function tests (CAFTs are non-invasive tests that can assess both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. Autonomic dysfunction may be considered as a risk factor for obesity and vice versa. For measurement of obesity, body mass index (BMI is a simple, valid and inexpensive method. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of obesity based on BMI criteria on autonomic nervous system based on CAFT in young adult males. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 43 young adult males in the age group of 18–25 years with an age-matched control (n = 43 group. After initial screening, anthropometric measurements were recorded. CAFTs were performed and recorded by the Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Analysis System (CANWin. Unpaired t- test was done to compare the parameters of study and control groups in Microsoft Excel® 2010. Results: Parasympathetic test parameters of study and control groups when expressed in mean ± standard deviation were not found statistically significant (P > 0.05. The fall in systolic blood pressure (BP in orthostatic test of study group (12.19 ± 4.8 mmHg was significantly (P = 0.0001 higher than that of control group (7.33 ± 5.16 mmHg. Increase in diastolic BP in isometric handgrip exercise test of study group (11.84 ± 5.39 mmHg was significantly less (P = 0.004 than that of control group (16.39 ± 8.71 mmHg. Conclusion: Overweight young males have altered sympathetic activity but parasympathetic activity did not show any significant difference when compared to normal weight males.

  13. Association between Birth Characteristics and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function at Mid-Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Perkiömäki

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects.At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD from R-R intervals (RRi and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965-1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function.In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014 and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, p<0.001, as well as with standing BRS (r = -0.092, p = 0.006. These observations were verified using relevant birth weight categories (<2,500 g; 2,500-3,999 g; ≥4,000 g. In women, birth weight was positively correlated with seated BRS (r = 0.081, p = 0.010, but none of the other measures of cardiovascular autonomic function. These correlations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.05 for all.In men, higher birth weight was independently associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function at mid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth weight in males may contribute to less

  14. Motion planning for autonomous vehicle based on radial basis function neural network in unstructured environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Zhao, Pan; Liang, Huawei; Mei, Tao

    2014-09-18

    The autonomous vehicle is an automated system equipped with features like environment perception, decision-making, motion planning, and control and execution technology. Navigating in an unstructured and complex environment is a huge challenge for autonomous vehicles, due to the irregular shape of road, the requirement of real-time planning, and the nonholonomic constraints of vehicle. This paper presents a motion planning method, based on the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network, to guide the autonomous vehicle in unstructured environments. The proposed algorithm extracts the drivable region from the perception grid map based on the global path, which is available in the road network. The sample points are randomly selected in the drivable region, and a gradient descent method is used to train the RBF network. The parameters of the motion-planning algorithm are verified through the simulation and experiment. It is observed that the proposed approach produces a flexible, smooth, and safe path that can fit any road shape. The method is implemented on autonomous vehicle and verified against many outdoor scenes; furthermore, a comparison of proposed method with the existing well-known Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) method is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is highly effective in planning the vehicle path and offers better motion quality.

  15. Cardiovascular autonomic function tests in type 2 diabetes mellitus with micro albuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhavana S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in type2 diabetes (DM. Microalbuminuria (MAis strongly associated with cardiovascular complications in type2 diabetes. Impaired cardiovascular autonomicfunction and increased albumin excretion are related in patients with diabetes. So this study is designed toinvestigate the relationship between cardiovascular autonomic function and microalbuminuria in type2 diabetes.Methods: The study comprised of 180 subjects of age group>50 years, classified into 3 groups of 60 subjects each.DM without MA, DM with MA and controls. The tests performed were 1 Heart rate response to deep breathing,valsalva maneuver and standing; 2 Blood pressure response to standing and to sustained handgrip. Individual testswere given score of 0, 1, or 2 and an overall autonomic test score of 0-10 was obtained.Results: Mean autonomic score in control, DM without MA and DM with MA are 1.97 ± 0.81, 5.73 ± 1.26 and 7.00± 1.80 respectively. The Coefficient of variation (% of control, DM without MA, DM with MA is 41.1, 21.9 and25.7 respectively. A significant difference in autonomic score was observed in the DM without MA (P<0.01 andDM with MA (P<0.01 when compared to controls.Conclusion: In conclusion type2 diabetic individuals should be diagnosed early to prevent disease progression tomicroalbuminuria and thus minimize complications.

  16. Alterations in autonomic function and cerebral hemodynamics to orthostatic challenge following a mountain marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Carissa; Wilson, Luke; Cotter, James D; Lucas, Samuel; Ogoh, Shigehiko; George, Keith; Ainslie, Philip N

    2007-07-01

    We examined potential mechanisms (autonomic function, hypotension, and cerebral hypoperfusion) responsible for orthostatic intolerance following prolonged exercise. Autonomic function and cerebral hemodynamics were monitored in seven athletes pre-, post- (marathon [42.2 km; cumulative gain approximately 1,000 m; approximately 15 degrees C; completion time, 261 +/- 27 (SD) min]. In each condition, middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and cardiac output (Modelflow) were measured continuously before and during a 6-min stand. Measurements of HR and BP variability and time-domain analysis were used as an index of sympathovagal balance and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Cerebral autoregulation was assessed using transfer-function gain and phase shift in BP and MCAv. Hypotension was evident following the marathon during supine rest and on standing despite increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic control, and elevations in HR and cardiac output. On standing, following the marathon, there was less elevation in normalized low-frequency HR variability (P marathon. These findings indicate that following prolonged exercise, hypotension and postural reductions in autonomic function or baroreflex control, or both, rather than a compromise in cerebral autoregulation, may place the brain at risk of hypoperfusion. Such changes may be critical factors in collapse following prolonged exercise.

  17. Executive Cognitive Functioning and Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation in a Population-Based sample of Working Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ulrika Dagsdotter Stenfors

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulationThe aim was thus to study the associations between multiple measures of CV autonomic regulation and measures of different executive cognitive processes. Method: Participants were 119 healthy working adults (79% women, from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Electrocardiogram was sampled for analysis of heart rate variability measures, including the Standard Deviation of NN, here heart beats (SDNN, root of the mean squares of successive differences (RMSSD, high frequency (HF power band from spectral analyses, and QT variability index (QTVI, a measure of myocardial repolarization patterns. Executive cognitive functioning was measured by 7 neuropsychological tests. The relationships between CV autonomic regulation measures and executive cognitive measures were tested with bivariate and partial correlational analyses, controlling for demographic variables and mental health symptoms.Results: Higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower QTVI were significantly associated with better performance on cognitive tests tapping inhibition, updating, shifting and psychomotor speed. After adjustments for demographic factors however (age being the greatest confounder, only QTVI was clearly associated with these executive tests. No such associations were seen for working memory capacity. Conclusion: Poorer cardiovascular autonomic regulation in terms of lower SDNN & RMSSD and higher QTVI was associated with poorer

  18. Navigation of autonomous mobile robot using different activation functions of wavelet neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Pratap Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous mobile robot is a robot which can move and act autonomously without the help of human assistance. Navigation problem of mobile robot in unknown environment is an interesting research area. This is a problem of deducing a path for the robot from its initial position to a given goal position without collision with the obstacles. Different methods such as fuzzy logic, neural networks etc. are used to find collision free path for mobile robot. This paper examines behavior of path planning of mobile robot using three activation functions of wavelet neural network i.e. Mexican Hat, Gaussian and Morlet wavelet functions by MATLAB. The simulation result shows that WNN has faster learning speed with respect to traditional artificial neural network.

  19. Effects of body position on autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function in young, healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polus Barbara I

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of rhythmic patterns embedded within beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (heart rate variability is a tool used to assess the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and may be predictive for prognosis of some medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been used to evaluate the impact of manipulative therapeutics and body position on autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system. However, few have compared cardiac autonomic activity in supine and prone positions, postures commonly assumed by patients in manual therapy. We intend to redress this deficiency. Methods Heart rate, heart rate variability, and beat-to-beat blood pressure were measured in young, healthy non-smokers, during prone, supine, and sitting postures and with breathing paced at 0.25 Hz. Data were recorded for 5 minutes in each posture: Day 1 – prone and supine; Day 2 – prone and sitting. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to evaluate posture-related differences in blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability. Results Prone versus supine: blood pressure and heart rate were significantly higher in the prone posture (p p Conclusion Cardiac autonomic activity was not measurably different in prone and supine postures, but heart rate and blood pressure were. Although heart rate variability parameters indicated sympathetic dominance during sitting (supporting work of others, blood pressure was higher in the prone posture. These differences should be considered when autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function is studied in different postures.

  20. Smart variations: Functional substructures for part compatibility

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-05-01

    As collections of 3D models continue to grow, reusing model parts allows generation of novel model variations. Naïvely swapping parts across models, however, leads to implausible results, especially when mixing parts across different model families. Hence, the user has to manually ensure that the final model remains functionally valid. We claim that certain symmetric functional arrangements (sFarr-s), which are special arrangements among symmetrically related substructures, bear close relation to object functions. Hence, we propose a purely geometric approach based on such substructures to match, replace, and position triplets of parts to create non-trivial, yet functionally plausible, model variations. We demonstrate that starting even from a small set of models such a simple geometric approach can produce a diverse set of non-trivial and plausible model variations. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. ROLE OF YOGA ON CARDIC AUTONOMIC FUNCTION TESTS AND COGNITION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, Santhakumari Nagothu; Indla, Yogananda Reddy; Archana, R; Rajesh, P

    2015-01-01

    According to International Diabetic Federation, type 2 diabetic population is on the rise globally and cognitive decline is one of the complications seen in type 2 diabetes. The present study is aimed at exploring the role of regular practice of yoga on cognition in type 2 diabetes and also to study the relation between the cognition and functional status of autonomic nervous system by considering the Cardiac Autonomic (CAN) function tests. Ten type 2 diabetic subjects of both the sex, aged between 35-55 years, who practiced yoga for a period of six months at Yogi Vemana Yoga Research Institute were recruited as test group. Age and sex matched ten type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited as control group; both the group subjects are on oral hypoglycemic agents. Glycosylated hemoglobin concentration was estimated with Bio-Rad instrument, cognition was assessed with Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised battery and Cardiac autonomic function tests were also conducted. Unpaired student t test was performed and pyoga in combination with oral hypoglycemic agents has a positive effect on cognition in type 2 diabetes.

  2. Altered Autonomic Functions and Distressed Personality Traits in Male Adolescents with Internet Gaming Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-11-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been associated with many negative health outcomes, especially for youth; however, few studies have examined the physiological parameters and personality features related to this addiction. This study aimed to identify differences in autonomic functions and distressed (type D) personality traits among Korean adolescent males with and without IGA. In a cross-sectional study, 68 adolescent males were recruited in a Korean city using convenience and snowball sampling methods. For each subject, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were measured as autonomic functions and questionnaires were used to identify IGA and type D personality traits. Data were analyzed using descriptive analyses, t tests, χ 2 tests, and Pearson's correlation. Most HRV parameters significantly differed between the IGA and non-IGA groups (all p gaming was related to alterations in autonomic functions and distressed personality traits in male adolescents. These findings provide further understanding of the IGA phenomenon and highlight the need for interventions that address male adolescents with IGA.

  3. Asymptotic behavior of non-autonomous stochastic parabolic equations with nonlinear Laplacian principal part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bixiang Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence and uniqueness of random attractors for the p-Laplace equation driven simultaneously by non-autonomous deterministic and stochastic forcing. The nonlinearity of the equation is allowed to have a polynomial growth rate of any order which may be greater than p. We further establish the upper semicontinuity of random attractors as the intensity of noise approaches zero. In addition, we show the pathwise periodicity of random attractors when all non-autonomous deterministic forcing terms are time periodic.

  4. Autonomic management of multiple non-functional concerns in behavioural skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinucci, Marco; Danelutto, Marco; Kilpatrick, Peter

    We introduce and address the problem of concurrent autonomic management of different non-functional concerns in parallel applications build as a hierarchical composition of behavioural skeletons. We first define the problems arising when multiple concerns are dealt with by independent managers, then we propose a methodology supporting coordinated management, and finally we discuss how autonomic management of multiple concerns may be implemented in a typical use case. Being based on the behavioural skeleton concept proposed in the CoreGRID GCM, it is anticipated that the methodology will be readily integrated into the current reference implementation of GCM based on Java ProActive and running on top of major grid middleware systems.

  5. Psychological traits influence autonomic nervous system recovery following esophageal intubation in health and functional chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A D; Coen, S J; Kano, M; Worthen, S F; Rossiter, H E; Navqi, H; Scott, S M; Furlong, P L; Aziz, Q

    2013-12-01

    Esophageal intubation is a widely utilized technique for a diverse array of physiological studies, activating a complex physiological response mediated, in part, by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In order to determine the optimal time period after intubation when physiological observations should be recorded, it is important to know the duration of, and factors that influence, this ANS response, in both health and disease. Fifty healthy subjects (27 males, median age 31.9 years, range 20-53 years) and 20 patients with Rome III defined functional chest pain (nine male, median age of 38.7 years, range 28-59 years) had personality traits and anxiety measured. Subjects had heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), sympathetic (cardiac sympathetic index, CSI), and parasympathetic nervous system (cardiac vagal tone, CVT) parameters measured at baseline and in response to per nasum intubation with an esophageal catheter. CSI/CVT recovery was measured following esophageal intubation. In all subjects, esophageal intubation caused an elevation in HR, BP, CSI, and skin conductance response (SCR; all p < 0.0001) but concomitant CVT and cardiac sensitivity to the baroreflex (CSB) withdrawal (all p < 0.04). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that longer CVT recovery times were independently associated with higher neuroticism (p < 0.001). Patients had prolonged CSI and CVT recovery times in comparison to healthy subjects (112.5 s vs 46.5 s, p = 0.0001 and 549 s vs 223.5 s, p = 0.0001, respectively). Esophageal intubation activates a flight/flight ANS response. Future studies should allow for at least 10 min of recovery time. Consideration should be given to psychological traits and disease status as these can influence recovery. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Assessment of Autonomic Function by Phase Rectification of RRInterval Histogram Analysis in Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivassé Nasari Junior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In chronic Chagas disease (ChD, impairment of cardiac autonomic function bears prognostic implications. Phase‑rectification of RR-interval series isolates the sympathetic, acceleration phase (AC and parasympathetic, deceleration phase (DC influences on cardiac autonomic modulation. Objective: This study investigated heart rate variability (HRV as a function of RR-interval to assess autonomic function in healthy and ChD subjects. Methods: Control (n = 20 and ChD (n = 20 groups were studied. All underwent 60-min head-up tilt table test under ECG recording. Histogram of RR-interval series was calculated, with 100 ms class, ranging from 600–1100 ms. In each class, mean RR-intervals (MNN and root-mean-squared difference (RMSNN of consecutive normal RR-intervals that suited a particular class were calculated. Average of all RMSNN values in each class was analyzed as function of MNN, in the whole series (RMSNNT, and in AC (RMSNNAC and DC (RMSNNDC phases. Slopes of linear regression lines were compared between groups using Student t-test. Correlation coefficients were tested before comparisons. RMSNN was log-transformed. (α < 0.05. Results: Correlation coefficient was significant in all regressions (p < 0.05. In the control group, RMSNNT, RMSNNAC, and RMSNNDC significantly increased linearly with MNN (p < 0.05. In ChD, only RMSNNAC showed significant increase as a function of MNN, whereas RMSNNT and RMSNNDC did not. Conclusion: HRV increases in proportion with the RR-interval in healthy subjects. This behavior is lost in ChD, particularly in the DC phase, indicating cardiac vagal incompetence.

  7. Autonomic nervous system function, child behavior, and maternal sensitivity in three-year-old children with surgically corrected transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tondi M

    2013-01-01

    Explore relationships among autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, child behavior, and maternal sensitivity in three-year-old children with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and in children healthy at birth. Children surviving complex congenital heart defects are at risk for behavior problems. ANS function is associated with behavior and with maternal sensitivity. Child ANS function (heart rate variability) and maternal sensitivity (Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment) were measured during a challenging task. Mother completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were analyzed descriptively and graphically. Children with TGA had less responsive autonomic function and more behavior problems than healthy children. Autonomic function improved with more maternal sensitivity. Alterations in ANS function may continue years after surgical correction in children with TGA, potentially impacting behavioral regulation. Maternal sensitivity may be associated with ANS function in this population. Continued research on relationships among ANS function, child behavior, and maternal sensitivity is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sominsky, Luba; Fuller, Erin A; Bondarenko, Evgeny; Ong, Lin Kooi; Averell, Lee; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Dunkley, Peter R; Dickson, Phillip W; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs) 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli). Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of physiological processes.

  9. Early deprivation and autonomic nervous system functioning in post-institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisa A; Koss, Kalsea J; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The relations between early deprivation and the development of the neuroendocrine and central components of the mammalian stress response have been examined frequently. However, little is known about the impact of early deprivation on the developmental trajectories of autonomic function. Children adopted between 15-36 months from institutional care were examined during their first 16 months post-adoption (N = 60). Comparison groups included same-aged peers reared in their birth families (N = 50) and children adopted internationally from overseas foster care (N = 46). The present study examined trajectories of baseline autonomic nervous system function longitudinally following entry into adopted families. Post-institutionalized children had higher sympathetic tone, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP). Individual differences in PEP soon after adoption served as a mediator between early deprivation and parent-reported behavioral problems 2 years post-adoption. There were no group differences in parasympathetic function, indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. All three groups showed similar trajectories of ANS function across the 16 month period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Functional Based Adaptive and Fuzzy Sliding Controller for Non-Autonomous Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiuh-Jer; Chen, Hung-Yi

    In this paper, an adaptive sliding controller is developed for controlling a vehicle active suspension system. The functional approximation technique is employed to substitute the unknown non-autonomous functions of the suspension system and release the model-based requirement of sliding mode control algorithm. In order to improve the control performance and reduce the implementation problem, a fuzzy strategy with online learning ability is added to compensate the functional approximation error. The update laws of the functional approximation coefficients and the fuzzy tuning parameters are derived from the Lyapunov theorem to guarantee the system stability. The proposed controller is implemented on a quarter-car hydraulic actuating active suspension system test-rig. The experimental results show that the proposed controller suppresses the oscillation amplitude of the suspension system effectively.

  11. Partly occupied Wannier functions: Construction and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Hansen, Lars Bruno; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a practical scheme to construct partly occupied, maximally localized Wannier functions (WFs) for a wide range of systems. We explain and demonstrate how the inclusion of selected unoccupied states in the definition of the WFs can improve both their localization and symmetry...

  12. Evidence for cell autonomous AP1 function in regulation of Drosophila motor-neuron plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consoulas Christos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor AP1 mediates long-term plasticity in vertebrate and invertebrate central nervous systems. Recent studies of activity-induced synaptic change indicate that AP1 can function upstream of CREB to regulate both CREB-dependent enhancement of synaptic strength as well as CREB-independent increase in bouton number at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ. However, it is not clear from this study if AP1 functions autonomously in motor neurons to directly modulate plasticity. Results Here, we show that Fos and Jun, the two components of AP1, are abundantly expressed in motor neurons. We further combine immunohistochemical and electrophysiological analyses with use of a collection of enhancers that tightly restrict AP1 transgene expression within the nervous system to show that AP1 induction or inhibition in, but not outside of, motor neurons is necessary and sufficient for its modulation of NMJ size and strength. Conclusion By arguing against the possibility that AP1 effects at the NMJ occur via a polysynaptic mechanism, these observations support a model in which AP1 directly modulates NMJ plasticity processes through a cell autonomous pathway in the motor neuron. The approach described here may serve as a useful experimental paradigm for analyzing cell autonomy of genes found to influence structure and function of Drosophila motor neurons.

  13. Prospective randomized controlled intervention trial: Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Improves Cardiac autonomic functions and Quality of life in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Program on glycemic control, quality of life, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Material and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 120 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes (n = 56 and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program (n = 64. Standard therapy included advice on diet, walk, and oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was an interactive session in which Sudarshan kriya yoga, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam was taught under guidance of a certified teacher. Change in fasting, post prandial blood sugars, glycated hemoglobin, and quality of life were assessed. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and six months after intervention. Results: There was significant improvement in psychological (P = 0.006 and social domains (P = 0.04 and total quality of life (P = 0.02 in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing program as compared to the group following standard therapy alone. In the group following breathing program, the improvement in sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions was statistically significant (P = 0.01, while the change in the standard group was not significant (P = 0.17. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P = 0.07. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P = 0.76. The parameters of glycemic control were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: There was significant improvement in quality of life and cardiac autonomic functions in the diabetes patients practicing comprehensive yogic breathing

  14. Effect of Mild Hyperglycemia on Autonomic Function in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Amanda C.; Bagai, Kanika; Artibee, Kay; Diedrich, André; Garland, Emily; Elasy, Thomas; Shi, Yaping; Wang, Lily; Feldman, Eva L.; Robertson, David; Malow, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been hypothesized to cause a hypersympathetic state, which may be the mechanism for the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in OSA. However, there is a high prevalence of hyperglycemia in OSA patients which may also contribute to autonomic dysfunction. Thirty-five patients with OSA and eleven controls with average body-mass index (BMI) of 32.0 ± 4.6 underwent polysomnography, glucose tolerance testing, autonomic function tests, lying and standing catecholamines, overnight urine collection, and baseline ECG and continuous blood pressure measurements for spectral analysis. A linear regression model adjusting for age and BMI was used to analyze spectral data, other outcome measures were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test. Twenty-three OSA patients and two control patients had hyperglycemia (based on 2001 American Diabetes Association criteria). AHI correlated with total power and low frequency (LF) power (r=0.138, 0.177, p=0.031; and r= 0.013) but not with the LF/high frequency (HF) ratio (p=0.589). Glucose negatively correlated with LF systolic power (r=-0.171, p=0.038) but not AHI (p=0.586) and was marginally associated with pnn50, total power, LF, and HF power (p ranged from 0.07 to 0.08). These data suggest that patients with OSA and mild hyperglycemia have a trend towards lower heart rate variability and sympathetic tone. Hyperglycemia is an important confounder and should be evaluated in studies of OSA and autonomic function. PMID:21796355

  15. Children's sleep and autonomic function: low sleep quality has an impact on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Clays, Els; De Buyzere, Marc; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality in children have been associated with concentration, problem behavior, and emotional instability, but recently also with disrupted autonomic nervous function, which predicts cardiovascular health. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as noninvasive indicator of autonomic function to examine the influence of sleep. Cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study on the effect of sleep on HRV. Belgian children (5-11 years) of the ChiBS study in 2010 (N = 334) and 2011 (N = 293). N/A. Sleep duration was reported and in a subgroup sleep quality (efficiency, latency, awakenings) was measured with accelerometry. High-frequency (HF) power and autonomic balance (LF/HF) were calculated on supine 5-minute HRV measurements. Stress was measured by emotion and problem behavior questionnaires. Sleep duration and quality were used as HRV predictors in corrected cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions. Stress was tested as mediator (intermediate pathway) or moderator (interaction) in sleep-HRV associations. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, long sleep latency could predict lower HF (parasympathetic activity), while nocturnal awakenings, sleep latency, low sleep efficiency, and low corrected sleep duration were related to higher LF/HF (sympathetic/parasympathetic balance). Parental reported sleep duration was not associated with HRV. The significances remained after correction for stress. Stress was not a mediator, but a moderator (enhancer) in the relationship between sleep quality and HRV. Low sleep quality but not parent-reported low sleep duration leads to an unhealthier heart rate variability pattern (sympathetic over parasympathetic dominance). This stresses the importance of good sleep quality for cardiovascular health in children.

  16. A randomized controlled trial of exercise training on cardiovascular and autonomic function among renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidi, Evangelia; Vergoulas, George; Anifanti, Maria; Deligiannis, Asterios

    2013-05-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the effects of renal transplantation (RT) on uraemic autonomic dysfunction. Moreover, no study has examined the impact of physical training on the cardiac autonomic function in RT patients. Thus, we studied the effects of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), which are sensitive markers of cardiac autonomic outflow, in RT recipients. Eleven patients (Exercise group-aged 52.1 ± 5.6 years) were studied before and after 6 months of exercise training. Twelve age- and sex- matched RT patients (Sedentary) and 12 healthy sedentary individuals (Healthy), who remained untrained, served as controls. At baseline and follow-up, all the subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing for the evaluation of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), a tilt test for the evaluation of BRS and baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) and an ambulatory 24-h Holter monitoring for time- and frequency-domain measures of HRV. In the exercise group, VO2peak increased by 15.8% (P training. Specifically, the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (SDNN) significantly increased by 92.5%, the root-mean-square of the differences between consecutive NN intervals by 45.4%, the percentage value of NN50 count by 58.2%, the high-frequency by 74.8% and low-frequency spectral power by 41.6%, BRS by 43.7% and BEI by 57.3%. None of the variables studied was altered over time in either control group. The increased cardiorespiratory fitness by exercise training was associated with an improved BRS function and a modification of the sympathovagal control of HRV towards a persistent increase in parasympathetic tone. These alterations may lead to a better cardiovascular prognosis in RT recipients.

  17. Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system function and aerobic capacity in type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet eHägglund

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS function has been reported in type 1 diabetes patients. ANS function, evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, has been linked to aerobic capacity (VO2peak in healthy subjects, but relationship is unknown in type 1 diabetes. We examined cardiovascular ANS function at rest and during function tests, and its relations to VO2peak in type 1 diabetes individuals. Ten type 1 diabetes patients (T1D (34 ± 7 years and 11 healthy control (CON (31 ± 6 years age and leisure-time physical activity-matched men were studied. Autonomic nervous system function was recorded at rest and during active standing and handgrip. Determination of VO2peak was obtained with graded cycle ergometer test. During ANS recordings SBPV, BRS, and resting HRV did not differ between groups, but alpha1 responses to manoeuvres in detrended fluctuation analyses were smaller in T1D (active standing; 32%, handgrip; 20%, medians than in CON (active standing; 71%, handgrip; 54%, p < 0.05. VO2peak was lower in T1D (36 ± 4 ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1 than in CON (45 ± 9 ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1, p < 0.05. Resting HRV measures, RMSSD, HF and SD1 correlated with VO2peak in CON (p < 0.05 and when analysing groups together. These results suggest that T1D had lower VO2peak, weaker HRV response to manoeuvres, but not impaired cardiovascular ANS function at rest compared with CON. Resting parasympathetic cardiac activity correlated with VO2peak in CON but not in T1D. Detrended fluctuation analysis could be a sensitive detector of changes in cardiac ANS function in type 1 diabetes.

  18. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  19. Concept for practical exercises for studying autonomous flying robots in a university environment: part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gageik, Nils; Dilger, Erik; Montenegro, Sergio; Schön, Stefan; Wildenhein, Rico; Creutzburg, Reiner; Fischer, Arno

    2015-03-01

    The present paper demonstrates the application of quadcopters as educational material for students in aerospace computer science, as it is already in usage today. The work with quadrotors teaches students theoretical and practical knowledge in the fields of robotics, control theory, aerospace and electrical engineering as well as embedded programming and computer science. For this the material, concept, realization and future view of such a course is discussed in this paper. Besides that, the paper gives a brief overview of student research projects following the course, which are related to the research and development of fully autonomous quadrotors.

  20. The relation of autonomic function to physical fitness in patients suffering from alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbsleb, Marco; Schulz, Steffen; Ostermann, Stephanie; Donath, Lars; Eisenträger, Daniela; Puta, Christian; Voss, Andreas; Gabriel, Holger W; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Reduced cardio-vascular health has been found in patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Low cardio-respiratory fitness is an independent predictor of cardio-vascular disease. We investigated physical fitness in 22 alcohol-dependent patients 10 days after acute alcohol withdrawal and compared results with matched controls. The standardized 6-min walk test (6 MWT) was used to analyze the relationship of autonomic dysfunction and physical fitness. Ventilatory indices and gas exchanges were assessed using a portable spiroergometric system while heart rate recordings were obtained separately. We calculated walking distance, indices of heart rate variability and efficiency parameters of heart rate and breathing. In addition, levels of exhaled carbon monoxide were measured in all participants to account for differences in smoking behaviour. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were performed to investigate differences between patients and controls with regard to autonomic and efficiency parameters. Patients walked a significantly shorter distance in comparison to healthy subjects during the 6 MWT. Significantly decreased heart rate variability was observed before and after the test in patients when compared to controls, while no such difference was observed during exercise. The efficiency parameters indicated significantly reduced efficiency in physiological regulation when the obtained parameters were normalized to the distance. The 6 MWT is an easily applied instrument to measure physical fitness in alcohol dependent patients. It can also be used during exercise interventions. Reduced physical fitness, as observed in our study, might partly be caused by autonomic dysfunction, leading to less efficient regulation of physiological processes during exercise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Psycho-autonomic aspects in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and functional esophageal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogromov, A P; Diukova, G M; Rykova, S M; Bein, A M

    2005-01-01

    The subjects of the study were 79 patients (35 with functional esophageal disorders (FED), 24 with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), and 20 with erosive reflux disease (ERD), who were selected on the basis of clinical complaints, 24-hour ph-study, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. All the subjects were evaluated by means of clinical questionnaires and psychological tests: Beck depression test, Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety inventory (STAI), and Toronto alexithymia test (TAS). In FED and NERD patients vs. ERD patients the following abnormalities were observed more frequently: autonomic and functional somatic symptoms (apart from gastrointestinal tract (GIT) complaints) (p eating behavior disorders (DEBQ) (p < 0.05), maternal overprotection in childhood (p < 0.05), psychophysioligical GIT reaction in childhood (p < 0.05), higher levels of state and trait anxiety (p < 0.05), and hypochondria (p < 0.05). The clinical symptom index (CSI) (the sum of stomach and bowel complaints to the sum of esophageal complaints ratio) was calculated. CSI in FED and NERD patients was 1.8, while CSI in ERD patients--0.1 (p < 0). Thus, compared to ERD patients, patients with FED and NERD were characterized by more pronounced emotional, motivational, and autonomic disorders. Besides, CSI demonstrated that the character of gastrointestinal dysfunction was more diffuse in NERD and FED and more local--in ERD patients.

  2. Physiology of school burnout in medical students: Hemodynamic and autonomic functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross W. May

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between burnout and hemodynamic and autonomic functioning in both medical students (N = 55 and premedical undergraduate students (N = 77. Questionnaires screened for health related issues and assessed school burnout and negative affect symptomatology (anxiety and depression. Continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP through finger plethysmography and electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring was conducted during conditions of baseline and cardiac stress induced via the cold pressor task to produce hemodynamic, heart rate variability, and blood pressure variability indices. Independent sample t-tests demonstrated that medical students had significantly higher school burnout scores compared to their undergraduate counterparts. Controlling for age, BMI, anxiety and depressive symptoms, multiple regression analyses indicated that school burnout was a stronger predictor of elevated hemodynamics (blood pressure, decreased heart rate variability, decreased markers of vagal activity and increased markers of sympathetic tone at baseline for medical students than for undergraduates. Analyses of physiological values collected during the cold pressor task indicated greater cardiac hyperactivity for medical students than for undergraduates. The present study supports previous research linking medical school burnout to hemodynamic and autonomic functioning, suggests biomarkers for medical school burnout, and provides evidence that burnout may be implicated as a physiological risk factor in medical students. Study limitations and potential intervention avenues are discussed.

  3. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signorá Peres Konrad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. METHOD: The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10 and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13 groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. RESULTS: Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%, an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%, and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times, bradycardic responses (>4 times, and vagal (~38% and sympathetic effects (~36% were reduced as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  4. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Signorá Peres; Farah, Vera; Rodrigues, Bruno; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Lopes, Heno Ferreira; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10) and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13) groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%), an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%), and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times), bradycardic responses (>4 times), and vagal (~38%) and sympathetic effects (~36%) were reduced as compared to the control group. Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  5. Impaired autonomic function predicts dizziness at onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, MP; Hassink, RJ; Tuinenburg, AE; Lefrandt, JD; de Kam, PJ; Crijns, HJGM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is associated with various symptoms, including dizziness, which presumably reflects hemodynamic deterioration. Given the importance of the autonomic nervous system in mitigating the hemodynamic effect of atrial fibrillation, we hypothesized that autonomic

  6. Effects of inspiratory muscle exercise in the pulmonary function, autonomic modulation, and hemodynamic variables in older women with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Coelho, Hélio José; Scapini, Kátia Bilhar; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Mostarda, Cristiano; Ruberti, Olivia Moraes; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters, cardiac autonomic modulation and respiratory function of older women with metabolic syndrome (MS). For this, sixteen older women with MS and 12 aged-matched controls participated of the present study. Two days before and 2 days after the main experiment, fasting blood samples (i.e., total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose), cardiac autonomic modulation (i.e., heart rate variability), and respiratory muscle function were obtained and evaluated. The sessions of physical exercise was based on a IME, which was performed during 7 days. Each session of IME was performed during 20 min, at 30% of maximal static inspiratory pressure. In the results, MS group presented higher levels of triglycerides, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure when compared to control group. IME was not able to change these variables. However, although MS group showed impaired respiratory muscle strength and function, as well as cardiac autonomic modulation, IME was able to improve these parameters. Thus, the data showed that seven days of IME are capable to improve respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation of older women with MS. These results indicate that IME can be a profitable therapy to counteracting the clinical markers of MS, once repeated sessions of acute IME can cause chronical alterations on respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation. PMID:28503537

  7. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p Fasting decreased (p Fasting also increased (p fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it. PMID:28025637

  8. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras; Terentjevienė, Asta; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased ( p anger, whereas other mood states were not affected by it. Conclusions. 48 h fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it.

  9. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M U Sujan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head in migraine patients. Methods: Forty chronic migraine patients fulfilling the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria were recruited from the neurology outpatient clinic. Patients were randomized to receive either hydrotherapy plus conventional pharmacological care (n = 20 or conventional medication only (n = 20. Hydrotherapy group received treatment with hot arm and foot bath (103°F to 110°F and ice massage to head daily for 20 min for 45 days. Patients were assessed using headache impact test (HIT, visual analog scale for pain and cardiac autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV before and after intervention period. Results: There was a significant decrease in HIT score, frequency, and intensity of headaches following treatment in both the groups. However, it was more evident in add on hydrotherapy group compared to pharmacological treatment alone group. There was also significant improvement in the HRV parameters. In particular, there was a significant decrease in heart rate (P = 0.017, increase in high frequency (HF (P = 0.014 and decrease in low frequency/HF ratio (P = 0.004 in add on hydrotherapy group. Conclusion: Our study shows that add on hydrotherapy enhanced the vagal tone in addition to reducing the frequency and intensity of headaches in migraine patients.

  10. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLombardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of autonomic modulation of sinus node by non-invasive techniques has provided relevant clinical information in patients with several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases and has facilitated the appraisal of neural regulatory mechanisms in normal and diseased subjects. The finding that even during resting conditions the heart period changes on a beat to beat basis and that after a premature ventricular beat there are small variations in RR interval whose measurements may be utilised to evaluate the autonomic modulation of sinus node, has provided unprecedented clinical and pathophysiological information. Heart rate variability (HRV and Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT have been extensively utilised in the clinical setting. To explain the negative predictive value of a reduced HRV it was determined that overall HRV was largely dependent on vagal mechanisms and that a reduction in HRV could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node; i.e. an autonomic alteration favouring cardiac electrical instability. This initial interpretation was challenged by several findings indicating a greater complexity of the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness as well as the possible interference with non-neural mechanisms.Under controlled conditions, however, the computation of low and high frequency components and of their ratio seems capable of providing adequate information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function, thus providing a unique tool to investigate neural control mechanisms. Analysis on non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilised to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective to identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. A reduction on HRT parameters reflecting reduced baroreflex sensitivity as a likely result of a reduced vagal and of an increased sympathetic

  11. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, M U; Rao, M Raghavendra; Kisan, Ravikiran; Abhishekh, Hulegar A; Nalini, Atchayaram; Raju, Trichur R; Sathyaprabha, T N

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head) in migraine patients. Forty chronic migraine patients fulfilling the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria were recruited from the neurology outpatient clinic. Patients were randomized to receive either hydrotherapy plus conventional pharmacological care (n = 20) or conventional medication only (n = 20). Hydrotherapy group received treatment with hot arm and foot bath (103°F to 110°F) and ice massage to head daily for 20 min for 45 days. Patients were assessed using headache impact test (HIT), visual analog scale for pain and cardiac autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV) before and after intervention period. There was a significant decrease in HIT score, frequency, and intensity of headaches following treatment in both the groups. However, it was more evident in add on hydrotherapy group compared to pharmacological treatment alone group. There was also significant improvement in the HRV parameters. In particular, there was a significant decrease in heart rate (P = 0.017), increase in high frequency (HF) (P = 0.014) and decrease in low frequency/HF ratio (P = 0.004) in add on hydrotherapy group. Our study shows that add on hydrotherapy enhanced the vagal tone in addition to reducing the frequency and intensity of headaches in migraine patients.

  12. A comparative study of lipid profile and autonomic functions in vegetarian and non-vegetarian postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dyslipedaemia, autonomic dysfunction leading to cardiovascular diseases, increases with menopause and an ageing population. Autonomic dysfunction as measured by lower heart rate variability is an established risk factor for cardiac death. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases and are also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: To compare lipid profile and autonomic functions of postmenopausal women on vegetarian and non- vegetarian diet. Materials and Methods: 120 Postmenopausal women (menopausal duration and age-matched without any gross systemic disease from an Industrial population were selected. Sixty women were on vegetarian diet and 60 on non-vegetarian diet. BMI and waist/hip ratios were calculated, lipid profile was analyzed, and autonomic function tests were carried out. A comparison was done between the two groups using Students t test. Pearson′s correlation coefficient was calculated between the independent variable (lipid profile parameters and the dependent variables (deep breath test, valsalva ratio, 30:15 ratio, OTT, IHG, CPT to understand the effect of lipid profile on autonomic control of heart. Results : Significant increases in total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, cholesterol/HDL ratio were noticed in women on non-vegetarian diet. Results of autonomic function tests, i.e. valsalva ratio, deep breath test, 30: 15R-R intervals ratio, isometric hand grip test, cold pressor test, and orthostatic tolerance test were significantly worsened in postmenopausal women on non-vegetarian diet. Conclusion: Dietary factors may be an important cause of alteration of lipid metabolism. Increased cholesterol decreases heart rate variability and increased LDL cholesterol decreases baroreceptor sensitivity thereby worsening autonomic functions in postmenopausal women.

  13. Radioiodine therapy of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guhlmann, C.A.; Rendl, J.; Boerner, W.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effects of radioiodine therapy (RIT) for autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) and Graves' disease on thyroid function and size up to one year after RIT. In 230 patients with AFTNs, a dose of 300 Gy was effective in about 90% of the cases 6 months after RIT. Out of 65 patients suffering from Graves' disease, 5 patients (8%) had persisting hyperthyroidism 6 months after RIT with a dose of 150 Gy. This group consisted exclusively of patients with manifest hyperthyroidism at the time of RIT. As determined by ultrasonography 6 months after RIT, a reduction of thyroid size by about 40% and 60% was observed in patients with AFTNs and Graves' disease, respectively. (orig.) [de

  14. Assessment of the peripheral, central, and autonomic nervous system function in styrene workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, K.; Araki, S.; Yokoyama, K. (Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the effects of styrene exposure on peripheral, central, and autonomic nervous system functions in man, we measured the distribution of nerve conduction velocities (DCV), short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), and variability in electrocardiographic R-R interval (CVRR) as well as conventional sensory and motor median nerve conduction velocities (SCV and MCV) in eleven styrene-exposed workers. The styrene workers' urinary phenylglyoxylic acid levels ranged from 31 to 419 (mean 169) mg/g creatinine at the end of the work shift on the examination day (estimated exposure to styrene of 22 ppm in air). Control subjects, matched to each styrene worker by sex and age, were selected from healthy adults without cardiovascular, neurologic and other potentially confounding disorders. In the styrene workers, we found that the V80 velocity of the DCV, below which 80% of active nerve fibers lie, and the SCV were both significantly slowed; the CVRR was also significantly reduced. There were no significant differences in SSEP latencies, MCV, or heart rate between the exposed workers and controls. These data, despite the small sample size, suggest that styrene affects the faster myelinated fibers of the peripheral sensory nerves, and that it also affects autonomic nervous activity.

  15. Zebrafish heart as a model to study the integrative autonomic control of pacemaker function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyek, Matthew R.; Quinn, T. Alexander; Croll, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac pacemaker sets the heart's primary rate, with pacemaker discharge controlled by the autonomic nervous system through intracardiac ganglia. A fundamental issue in understanding the relationship between neural activity and cardiac chronotropy is the identification of neuronal populations that control pacemaker cells. To date, most studies of neurocardiac control have been done in mammalian species, where neurons are embedded in and distributed throughout the heart, so they are largely inaccessible for whole-organ, integrative studies. Here, we establish the isolated, innervated zebrafish heart as a novel alternative model for studies of autonomic control of heart rate. Stimulation of individual cardiac vagosympathetic nerve trunks evoked bradycardia (parasympathetic activation) and tachycardia (sympathetic activation). Simultaneous stimulation of both vagosympathetic nerve trunks evoked a summative effect. Effects of nerve stimulation were mimicked by direct application of cholinergic and adrenergic agents. Optical mapping of electrical activity confirmed the sinoatrial region as the site of origin of normal pacemaker activity and identified a secondary pacemaker in the atrioventricular region. Strong vagosympathetic nerve stimulation resulted in a shift in the origin of initial excitation from the sinoatrial pacemaker to the atrioventricular pacemaker. Putative pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular regions expressed adrenergic β2 and cholinergic muscarinic type 2 receptors. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the zebrafish heart contains the accepted hallmarks of vertebrate cardiac control, establishing this preparation as a viable model for studies of integrative physiological control of cardiac function by intracardiac neurons. PMID:27342878

  16. Real-time elastography in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules: relationship with TSH levels, scintigraphy, and ultrasound patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Paone, Gaetano; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Ceriani, Luca; Giovanella, Luca

    2017-12-01

    Real-time elastography has been proposed to increase the sensitivity of ultrasound and improve the detection of thyroid nodules at risk of malignancy. To date sparse data on real-time elastography assessment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules exist. Here, we investigated the potential role of real-time elastography in autonomously functioning thyroid nodule assessment. Specifically, the correlation between serum hormones and real-time elastography score, as well as other clinical and ultrasound features, was analyzed. Patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule identified by I-123 scintigraphy from September 2015 to July 2016 and undergoing ultrasound, real-time elastography, and thyroid function evaluation were selected. All autonomously functioning thyroid nodule were classified as RTE I (prevalence of red or green color with blue in up to 25% of the nodule area), RTE II (blue in 25-75%), or RTE III (blue in more than 75%). The association between suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone and patient's age, nodule's size, ultrasound presentation, and real-time elastography scoring was analyzed by Odds Ratio in univariate fashion and multivariate model. A number of 47 subjects with single autonomously functioning thyroid nodule were enrolled. Median age of 63 years, median size of 2.0 cm, and suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone levels in 32% of cases were found. Those nodules classified by ultrasound at high risk underwent fine-needle aspiration cytology and cancer was excluded. At real-time elastography evaluation, a 45% of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule had a hard appearance (RTE III) and had thyroid stimulating hormone significantly lower than the other (p < 0.0001). A model of multivariate logistic regression including nodule's size, ultrasound characteristics, and elastographic presentation showed that only RTE III was significantly associated with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (Odds Ratio of 50). Autonomously

  17. La resolución de conflictos en el aula como parte del proceso de autonomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, María

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la autonomía emocional y la resolución de conflictos son objetivos prioritarios para la convivencia y el crecimiento personal. A través de una observación sistemática y un modelo log-linear, este estudio muestra el bajo nivel de autonomía en los primeros ciclos de la etapa de Educación Primaria, una gran dificultad por parte de los niños para resolver conflictos y una enorme dependencia emocional y cognitiva respecto al adulto. Esto puede continuar en etapas posteriores, por eso es fundamental que, desde pequeños, los alumnos se acostumbren a enfrentarse a situaciones conflictivas, ya que éstas ayudan al proceso de diferenciación de cada individuo y al desarrollo de habilidades sociales básicas para los distintos aprendizajes y para la convivencia. Además, es necesario favorecer que los alumnos sean responsables de su proceso de aprendizaje, impulsando la capacidad de confrontación, de discusión, de pensar diferente y de valorar los acuerdos.

  18. Vagus nerve stimulation: state of the art of stimulation and recording strategies to address autonomic function neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Bonnet, Stéphane; Carrault, Guy; Couderc, Pascal; Hagège, Albert; Henry, Christine; Hernandez, Alfredo; Karam, Nicole; Le Rolle, Virginie; Mabo, Philippe; Maciejasz, Paweł; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Marijon, Eloi; Maubert, Sandrine; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Bonnet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Neural signals along the vagus nerve (VN) drive many somatic and autonomic functions. The clinical interest of VN stimulation (VNS) is thus potentially huge and has already been demonstrated in epilepsy. However, side effects are often elicited, in addition to the targeted neuromodulation. Approach. This review examines the state of the art of VNS applied to two emerging modulations of autonomic function: heart failure and obesity, especially morbid obesity. Main results. We report that VNS may benefit from improved stimulation delivery using very advanced technologies. However, most of the results from fundamental animal studies still need to be demonstrated in humans.

  19. The relationship between nature-based tourism and autonomic nervous system function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has recently become a topic of interest in health research. This study was aimed at examining relationships among nature-based tourism, stress, and the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Three hundred and twenty-two older adults living in Taichung City, Taiwan, were selected as participants. Data were collected by a face-to-face survey that included measures of the frequency of participation in domestic and international nature-based tourism and the stress and ANS function of these participants. The data were analyzed using a path analysis. The results demonstrated that the frequency of participation in domestic nature-based tourism directly contributed to ANS function and that it also indirectly contributed to ANS function through stress reduction. Domestic nature-based tourism can directly and indirectly contribute to ANS function among older adults. Increasing the frequency of participation in domestic nature-based tourism should be considered a critical element of health programs for older adults. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  20. Emotional and autonomic consequences of spinal cord injury explored using functional brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Alessia; Critchley, Hugo D; Mathias, Christopher J; Dolan, Raymond J

    2006-03-01

    In health, emotions are integrated with autonomic bodily responses. Emotional stimuli elicit changes in somatic (including autonomic) bodily states, which feedback to influence the expression of emotional feelings. In patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), this integration of emotion and bodily arousal is partially disrupted, impairing both efferent generation of sympathetic responses and afferent sensory feedback of visceral state via the spinal cord. A number of theoretical accounts of emotion predict emotional deficits in SCI patients, particularly at the level of emotional feelings, yet evidence for such a deficit is equivocal. We used functional MRI (fMRI) and a basic emotional learning paradigm to investigate the expression of emotion-related brain activity consequent upon SCI. We scanned seven SCI patients and seven healthy controls during an aversive fear conditioning task. Subjects viewed randomized presentations of four angry faces. One of the faces (CS + arm) was associated with delivery of electrical shock to the upper arm on 50% of trials. This shock was painful to all subjects. A face of the same gender acted as a 'safe' control stimulus (CS - arm). In both control subjects and SCI patients, painful cutaneous stimulation of the arm evoked enhanced activity within components of a central pain matrix, including dorsal anterior cingulate, right insula and medial temporal lobe. However, SCI patients differed from controls in conditioning-related brain activity. SCI patients showed a relative enhancement of activity within dorsal anterior cingulate, periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) and superior temporal gyrus. Conversely, SCI patients showed relative attenuation of activity in subgenual cingulate, ventromedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices to threat of painful arm stimulation (CS + arm > CS - arm). Our findings provide evidence for differences in emotion-related brain activity in SCI patients. We suggest that the observed functional

  1. Association between pressure pain sensitivity and autonomic function as assessed by a tilt table test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Bergmann, Natasha; Karpatschof, Benny

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that pressure sensitivity of the sternum (PPS) is associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) function as assessed by tilt table test (TTT). in patients with stable ischemic heart disease. OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate an association between PPS and systolic...... blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) responses to TTT; and (2) to test the hypothesis that a reduction of resting PPS raises the PPS, SBP and HR responses to TTT response and lowers risk factors for ANS dysfunction (ANSD). METHODS: Cross-sectional study: In 361 patients with stable ischemic heart...... disease we measured PPS, SBP, and HR during TTT. Intervention study: We reassessed subjects with persistent stress who concluded a stress intervention trial by a second TTT. RESULTS: Cross-sectional study: Resting PPS and the PPS response to TTT were correlated (r = - 0.37). The PPS response to TTT...

  2. Baroreflex Sensitivity And Autonomic Nervous System Function In Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Theibel, Ann Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Syncope in the elderly may be caused by an apparent hypersensitivity in the high pressure baroreflex control of heart rate and blood pressure - carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Previous studies have found ambiguous results regarding the baroreceptor sensitivity in patients with carotid sinus...... hypersensitivity ranging from reduced to increased sensitivity compared to controls. We wanted to establish whether measures of baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic function differed between patients diagnosed with carotid sinus hypersensitivity and age matched controls. We included 36 patients (12 women; 74 +/-10...... and deep breathing at 0.1 Hz. From these measurements we derived indices of baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability. We found differences between groups with respect to the tachycardia ratio (p = 0.037) reflecting vagal withdrawal during the Valsalva maneuver and the adrenergic baroreflex...

  3. Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium: Association with autonomic cardiovascular function in normotensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2017-12-01

    Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium vary widely person-to-person. Salt sensitive rodent models display altered autonomic function, a trait thought to contribute to poor cardiovascular health. Thus, we hypothesized that increased salt sensitivity (SS) in normotensive humans would be associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Healthy normotensive men and women completed 1week of high (300mmol·day -1 ) and 1week of low (20mmol·day -1 ) dietary sodium (random order) with 24h mean arterial pressure (MAP) assessed on the last day of each diet to assess SS. Participants returned to the lab under habitual sodium conditions for testing. Forty-two participants are presented in this analysis, 19 of which successful MSNA recordings were obtained (n=42: age 39±2yrs., BMI 24.3±0.5kg·(m 2 ) -1 , MAP 83±1mmHg, habitual urine sodium 93±7mmol·24h -1 ; n=19: MSNA burst frequency 20±2 bursts·min -1 ). The variables of interest were linearly regressed over the magnitude of SS. Higher SS was associated with increased MSNA (burst frequency: r=0.469, p=0.041), decreased HF-HRV (r=-0.349, p=0.046), and increased LF/HF-HRV (r=0.363, p=0.034). SS was not associated with sympathetic or cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (p>0.05). Multiple regression analysis accounting for age found that age, not SS, independently predicted HF-HRV (age adjusted no longer significant; p=0.369) and LF/HF-HRV (age adjusted p=0.273). These data suggest that age-related salt sensitivity of blood pressure in response to dietary sodium is associated with altered resting autonomic cardiovascular function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of body position on autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function in young, healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Polus Barbara I; Reece John; Watanabe Nobuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Analysis of rhythmic patterns embedded within beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (heart rate variability) is a tool used to assess the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and may be predictive for prognosis of some medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction. It has also been used to evaluate the impact of manipulative therapeutics and body position on autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system. However, few have compared cardiac autonomic activit...

  5. Affect during incremental exercise: The role of inhibitory cognition, autonomic cardiac function, and cerebral oxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslley Quirino Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available Pleasure is a key factor for physical activity behavior in sedentary individuals. Inhibitory cognitive control may play an important role in pleasure perception while exercising, especially at high intensities. In addition, separate work suggests that autonomic regulation and cerebral hemodynamics influence the affective and cognitive responses during exercise.We investigated the effects of exercise intensity on affect, inhibitory control, cardiac autonomic function, and prefrontal cortex (PFC oxygenation.Thirty-seven sedentary young adults performed two experimental conditions (exercise and control in separate sessions in a repeated-measures design. In the exercise condition, participants performed a maximum graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer as we continuously measured oxygen consumption, heart rate variability (HRV, and PFC oxygenation. At each of 8 intensity levels we also measured inhibitory control (Stroop test, associative and dissociative thoughts (ADT, and affective/pleasure ratings. In the control condition, participants sat motionless on a cycle ergometer without active pedaling, and we collected the same measures at the same points in time as the exercise condition. We evaluated the main effects and interactions of exercise condition and intensity level for each measure using two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between affect and inhibitory control, ADT, HRV, and PFC oxygenation using Pearson's correlation coefficients.For exercise intensities below and at the ventilatory threshold (VT, participants reported feeling neutral, with preservation of inhibitory control, while intensities above the VT were associated with displeasure (p<0.001, decreased inhibitory control and HRV (p<0.001, and increased PFC oxygenation (p<0.001. At the highest exercise intensity, pleasure was correlated with the low-frequency index of HRV (r = -0.34; p<0.05 and the low-frequency/high-frequency HRV ratio (r

  6. Validation of functional fetal autonomic brain age score fABAS in 5 min short recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Kowalski, Eva-Maria; Schmidt, Alexander; Witte, Otto W; Schneider, Uwe; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Hatzmann, Wolfgang; Grönemeyer, Dietrich HW; Van Leeuwen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the functional maturation age and developmental disturbances we have previously introduced the fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) using 30 min fetal magnetocardiographic recordings (fMCG, Jena). The score is based on heart rate pattern indices that are related to universal principles of developmental biology. The present work aims at the validation of the fABAS methodology on 5 min recordings from an independent database (fMCG, Bochum).We found high agreement of fABAS obtained from Jena normal fetuses (5 min subsets, n  =  364) and Bochum recordings (n  =  322, normal fetuses). fABAS of 48 recordings from fetuses with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR, Bochum) was reduced in most of the cases, a result consistent with IUGR fetuses from Jena previously reported. fABAS calculated from 5 min snapshots only partly covers the accuracy when compared to fABAS from 30 min recordings. More precise diagnosis requires longer recordings.fABAS obtained from fMCG recordings is a strong candidate for standardized assessment of functional maturation age and developmental disturbances. Even 5 min recordings seem to be valuable for screening for maturation problems. (paper)

  7. Are Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Perceived Stress Related to Functional Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Riese, Harriëtte; van Roon, Arie M.; Hunfeld, Joke A. M.; Groot, Paul F. C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Stressors have been related to medically insufficiently explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSS). However, the underlying mechanism of this association is largely unclear. In the current study, we examined whether FSS are associated with different perceived stress and cardiac autonomic nervous

  8. The effects of dihydropyridine and phenylalkylamine calcium antagonist classes on autonomic function in hypertension : The VAMPHYRE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, JD; Heitmann, J; Sevre, K; Castellano, M; Hausberg, M; Fallon, M; Fluckiger, L; Urbigkeit, A; Rostrup, M; Agabiti-Rosei, E; Rahn, KH; Murphy, M; Zannad, F; de Kam, PJ; van Roon, AM; Smit, AJ

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a long-acting dihydropyridine (amlodipine) and a nondihydropyridine. (verapamil) on autonomic function in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. A total of 145 patients with a diastolic blood pressure (BP) between 95 and 110 mm Hg

  9. Evaluation of Autonomic Nervous System, Saliva Cortisol Levels, and Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukonthar Ngampramuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS and cognitive impairment. Heart rate variability (HRV and Pulse pressure (PP parameters reflect influences of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Cortisol exerts its greatest effect on the hippocampus, a brain area closely related to cognitive function. This study aims to examine the effect of HRV, PPG, salivary cortisol levels, and cognitive function in MDD patients by using noninvasive techniques. We have recruited MDD patients, diagnosed based on DSM-V-TR criteria compared with healthy control subjects. Their HRV and PP were measured by electrocardiogram (ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG. Salivary cortisol levels were collected and measured on the same day. MDD patients exhibited elevated values of mean HR, standard deviation of HR (SDHR, low frequency (LF power, low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF ratio, mean PP, standard deviation of pulse pressure (SDPP, and salivary cortisol levels. Simultaneously, they displayed lower values of mean of R-R intervals (mean NN, standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN, high frequency (HF power, and WCST scores. Results have shown that the ANS of MDD patients were dominated by the sympathetic activity and that they have cognitive deficits especially in the domain of executive functioning.

  10. Autonomous gathering of livestock using a multi-functional sensor network platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we develop algorithms and hardware for the autonomous gathering of cattle. We present a comparison of three different autonomous gathering algorithms that employ sound and/or electric stimuli to guide the cattle. We evaluate these algorithms in simulation by extending previous behavior...

  11. Burnout versus work engagement in their effects on 24-hour ambulatory monitored cardiac autonomic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.P. van Doornen (Lorenz); J.H. Houtveen (Jan); S. Langelaan (Saar); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); W. van Rhenen (Willem); W.B. Schaufeli (Wilmar)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBurnout has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This relationship may be mediated by a stress-related disruption in cardiac autonomic activity. The aim of the present study was to assess cardiac autonomic activity (sympathetic and parasympathetic) during a

  12. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1993-01-01

    disturbed in 22 patients with functional abdominal pain (functional group) as compared with 14 healthy controls (healthy group) and 26 patients with organic abdominal pain (organic group) due to duodenal ulcer (DU), gallstones, or urinary tract calculi. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and serum......Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...... and serum cortisol did not increase at all in any of the groups. As a measure of parasympathetic neural activity, independent of sympathetic neural activity, the beat-to-beat variation of the heart rate was calculated. The functional patients had a significantly higher beat-to-beat variation expressed...

  13. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-01

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.

  14. Assesment of Autonomic Function in Metabolic Syndrome using Combination Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Aydın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is described as a group of various abnormal metabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, increased plasma glucose levels, prothrombotic condition and proinflammatory state. These parameters are related to decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic activity. We aimed to evaluate autonomic function using a combination with heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate turbulence (HRT in metabolic syndrome to compare non-metabolic syndrome(non-MetS. METHODS: We selected consecutive 50 patients with MetS and 50 patients with healthy non-MetS individuals. All patients underwent 24 hours holter monitoring to evaluate HRT and HRV parameters. RESULTS: Age of patients was not different in two groups. Mean age of MetS patients was 57,50±12,13 and 54,6±10,25 in non- MetS individuals. Sex of patients was non different in MetS compared to non-MetS (37 female and 13 male vs. 22 female, 28 male p<0,05 respectively. SDNN and RMSSD was lower in MetS compared to those without MetS (131,96±49,12 vs 179,59±85,83 p=0,03 and 78,64±35,22 vs 112,73±81,24 p=0,08 respectively. SDANN, pNN50,Mean RR, mean heart rate, count of ventricular premature complex(VPC were not different between two groups. Turbulence Slope(TS was not different in two groups. Turbulence Onset(TO was higher in MetS compared to non-MetS (2,01±15,29 and -6,21±13,5 p=0,005. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We showed that autonomic function in MetS was impaired using a combination with HRT and HRV. These patients should be followed closely for adverse cardiovascular outcome especially including cardiac arrhythmia.

  15. Poor autonomic nervous system functioning during sleep in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Baker, Fiona C.; Sugarbaker, David S.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcoholism is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) function is a major indicator of cardiovascular health. Sleep is a suitable model to investigate ANS activity free from wake-related confounders. We investigated night-time ANS functioning, and the relationship between ANS activity and severity of alcohol dependence in chronic alcoholism. Methods Fourteen recently abstaining alcoholics (Age: 42.0±9.0y, 7 women) and sixteen age- and sex-matched controls (Age: 45.2±9.1y, 8 women) underwent a night of standard clinical polysomnography, including electrocardiographic recording. Time- and frequency-domain spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was performed across hours of the night and during artifact-free epochs of stable sleep and wakefulness (pre-sleep wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep). Results Alcoholics had a poorer subjective and objective sleep quality compared to controls. Across the night, alcoholic men and women had elevated heart rate, reduced total HRV, i.e. lower standard deviation of normal-to-normal inter-beat-intervals, and reduced high frequency activity (assessed by the high frequency power and by the square root of the mean squared of successive heart period differences). This ANS pattern was most apparent at the beginning of the night. None of the ANS measures was associated with lifetime alcohol consumption or duration of alcohol dependence. Conclusions Our results show that ANS functioning is disrupted during the night, even in undisturbed sleep periods, indicating poor cardiovascular functioning in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent men and women. PMID:24575956

  16. Effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic and endocrine functions throughout the day and on exercise tolerance in the evening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Endo, Naoya; Numao, Shigeharu; Takagi, Shun; Miyashita, Masashi; Midorikawa, Taishi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic and endocrine functions during the day and on exercise tolerance in the evening. Ten healthy young males completed two, 2-day control and sleep deprivation trials. For the control trial, participants were allowed normal sleep from 23:00 to 07:00 h. For the sleep deprivation trial, participants did not sleep for 34 h. Autonomic activity was measured from 19:00 h on day 1 to 16:00 h on day 2 by frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability. Endocrine function was examined by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol from venous blood samples collected on day 2 at 09:00, 13:00, and 17:00 h and immediately after an exercise tolerance testing. Autonomic regulation, particularly parasympathetic regulation estimated from the high-frequency component of heart rate variability analysis, was significantly higher in the sleep deprivation trial than in the control trial in the morning and afternoon of day 2. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations were significantly higher at 09:00 and 13:00 h of day 2 under sleep deprivation. Heart rate during exercise was significantly lower following sleep deprivation. Therefore, the effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic regulation depend on the time of the day.

  17. Impact of exercise training associated to pyridostigmine treatment on autonomic function and inflammatory profile after myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J; Souza, Gabriel I H; Carrozzi, Nicolle M; Mostarda, Cristiano; Dourado, Paulo M M; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; De Angelis, Kátia; Moreno, Heitor; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2017-01-15

    The effects of exercise training (ET) associated with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on inflammatory profile after myocardial infarction (MI), are unclear. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: control (C); sedentary+infarcted (I); sedentary+infarcted treated with PYR (IP); infarcted submitted to aerobic exercise training (IT); and infarcted submitted to treatment with PYR and aerobic exercise training (ITP). After 12weeks of ET (50-70% maximal running speed; 1h a day, 5days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14mg/mL on drink water), hemodynamic, autonomic and cytokines expression were performed. We observed that both aerobic ET, associated or not with PYR treatment in MI animals, were able to: reduced MI area, improved systolic and diastolic function, baroreflex sensitivity, cardiovascular autonomic modulation, and tonic activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Also, they led to a reduction of inflammatory profile measured at plasma, left ventricle and soleus skeletal muscle. However, additional effects were observed when ET and PYR were associated, such as an increase in vagal tonus and modulation, reduction of MI area, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as an increase of interleukin-10/TNF-α ratio on left ventricle. These data suggest that associating ET and PYR promotes some additional benefits on cardiovascular autonomic modulation and inflammatory profile in infarcted rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1993-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...

  19. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1993-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...... cortisol measurements were included, to assess the pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and plasma adrenaline increased significantly in all groups in response to a stress test (mental arithmetic). Plasma noradrenaline increased in the DU patients only, and plasma ACTH...... response as indicated by a lesser stress-induced increment in heart rate, was seen in both patient groups (functional, 13 +/- 2 beats/min; organic, 10 +/- 2 beats/min) as compared with the healthy group (19 +/- 2 beats/min; P = 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  20. [The effect of arotinolol on the thyroid function and the autonomic nerve systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, N; Iitaka, M; Kitahama, S; Miura, S; Sakurai, S; Kawakami, Y; Ishii, J

    1993-01-20

    beta-blockers have been accepted as a reasonable adjunct therapy for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. They lessen the sympathetic symptoms such as tachycardia and finger tremor. On the other hand, many studies have demonstrated a decrease in 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3) during treatment with beta-blockers (especially propranolol). The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of arotinolol (alpha 1, beta-blocker) on the thyroid functions and autonomic nerve systems (ANS) of patients with Graves' disease. Arotinolol 20mg a day p.o. was given to untreated patients with Graves' disease (n = 16) for 2 weeks. Blood sampling and the ANS function-tests were done before and after the treatment. In addition, the in vitro effects of arotinolol on the cAMP production and the radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) using rat thyroid cell line FRTL5 were evaluated to examine the direct influence on thyroid cells. Arotinolol improved hyperthyroid symptoms including tachycardia, but had no effect on ANS function-tests. It is of interest that not only T3 but also T4 decreased after the arotinolol treatment. We therefore suspected the direct suppressive effects of arotinolol on the thyroid. There were, however, no in vitro inhibitory effects on the cAMP production and the RAIU in TSH-stimulated FRTL5 cells. The reason why serum T4 levels in patients with untreated Graves' disease have decreased after the treatment of arotinolol could not be clarified. In conclusion, arotinolol is a very useful drug for the initial therapy of patients with Graves' disease to reduce the serum thyroid hormone levels and symptoms of hyperthyroidism when combined with antithyroid drugs.

  1. Autonomous houses. Autonomous house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    Self-sufficiency type houses are outlined. On condition that people gain a certain amount of income in relation with the society, they self-suffice under the given environment, allowing themselves to accept a minimum of industrial products with small environmental load. Ordinary supply from outside of fossil energy and materials which depend on it is minimized. Types are classified into three: energy, energy materials and perfect self-sufficiency. A study project for environment symbiotic houses is progressing which is planned by the Ministry of Construction and Institute of Building Energy Conservation and is invested by a private company. Its target is making a house for halving an environmental load by CO{sub 2}, for the purpose of creating the environment symbiotic house which is nice to and in harmony with the global environment and human beings. As a part of the studies on energy-saving and resource conservation on houses, introduced is a plan of an autonomous house at Izu-Atagawa. The passive method and high thermal-insulation are used for air conditioning, and hot spring water for hot water supply. Electric power is generated by hydroelectric power generation using mountain streams and by solar cells. Staple food is purchased, while subsidiary food is sufficed. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Using the Initial Systolic Time Interval to assess cardiac autonomic function in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Meijer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI has been defined as the time difference between the peak electrical and peak mechanical activity of the heart. ISTI is obtained from the electro-cardiogram and the impedance cardiogram. The response of ISTI while breathing at rest and to a deep breathing stimulus was studied in a group of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD and a group of healthy control subjects. ISTI showed substantial variability during these manoeuvres. The tests showed that the variability of RR and ISTI was substantially different between PD patients and controls. It is hypothesized that in PD patients the sympathetic system compensates for the loss of regulatory control function of the blood-pressure by the parasympathetic system. It is concluded that ISTI is a practical, additional and independent parameter that can be used to assist other tests in evaluating autonomic control of the heart in PD patients.doi:10.5617/jeb.216 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 98-101, 2011

  3. Prevalence of normal TSH value among patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Giorgio; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Verburg, Frederik A; Luster, Markus; Giovanella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    International guidelines significantly diverge on the effectiveness of thyroid scintigraphy (TS) in the initial work-up of thyroid nodules. In particular, the role of TS to detect or exclude the presence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) in patients with normal serum thyrotropin (TSH) is still a matter to debate. Here, we aimed to review the literature on the prevalence of normal TSH value among patients with AFTN and meta-analyse data of the retrieved eligible papers. A comprehensive literature search of studies published from January 2000 to December 2014 on AFTN detected by TS was performed. Records reporting serum TSH values in AFTN were selected. Pooled prevalence of AFTN with normal TSH values was calculated on a per-patient analysis including 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Eight records including 2761 AFTN were selected for the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence of AFTN with normal TSH detected by TS was 50% (95% CI: 32-68%). Selection bias in the included studies and heterogeneity among studies were potential limitations of the meta-analysis. Present meta-analysis shows that about one in two patients with AFTN demonstrated by TS has a TSH value within normal references. As a consequence, TSH measurement may not be considered as effective as a single tool to detect or exclude AFTN, and TS remains mandatory. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  4. Race Differences in Age-Trends of Autonomic Nervous System Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Williams, David R.; Love, Gayle D.; McKinley, Paula S.; Sloan, Richard P.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to consider race differences in age-trends of autonomic nervous system functioning, using a national dataset with a broad age range. Methods Measures of baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and HRV reactivity were derived from electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings taken at rest and during cognitive stress tasks. Age-trends in HRV and HRV reactivity were compared among 204 African Americans and 833 Whites ages 34 to 83 years (M=53.7, SD=11.4), before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Results For HRV-reactivity, age-trends were steeper among African Americans and lower-SES participants than Whites and higher-SES participants. For baseline HRV, age-trends varied by SES but not race. Discussion Results relating to HRV-reactivity (but not baseline HRV) were consistent with hypotheses suggesting that African Americans are exposed to higher levels of stress and experience accelerated declines in health across the life span. The relevance of the findings to research on social stress and health disparities is discussed. PMID:23781017

  5. [An analysis of cardiac autonomic nerve function in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lan-Fen; Wen, Hong-Xia; Qiu, Mei; Cao, Xiao-Xiao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the cardiac autonomic nerve function in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). A total of 66 girls with ICPP were enrolled, among whom 36 were obese and 30 were not obese. A total of 68 age-matched healthy girls (normal controls) and 51 girls with simple obesity were enrolled as controls. All the subjects underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, and deceleration capacity of heart rate (DC), acceleration capacity of heart rate (AC), and heart rate variability (HRV), and body mass index (BMI) were compared between groups. Compared with the normal control group, the ICPP group had significantly lower DC, standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals (SDANN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), and high-frequency power (HF) and significantly higher AC and BMI. The ICPP group had significantly lower RMSSD and BMI than the simple obesity group (Pobesity, those with obesity had significantly lower DC, RMSSD, and HF and significantly higher AC and BMI (Pobesity, mainly presenting with reduced vagal tone.

  6. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients

    OpenAIRE

    M U Sujan; M Raghavendra Rao; Ravikiran Kisan; Hulegar A Abhishekh; Atchayaram Nalini; Trichur R Raju; T N Sathyaprabha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head) in migraine pati...

  7. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Qian-Qian Li; Guang-Xia Shi; Qian Xu; Jing Wang; Cun-Zhi Liu; Lin-Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temp...

  8. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Solianik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p<0.05 weight, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure, whereas no changes were evident regarding any of the measured heart rate variability indices. Fasting decreased (p<0.05 the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin and improved (p<0.05 mental flexibility and shifting set, whereas no changes were observed in working memory, visuospatial discrimination, and spatial orientation ability. Fasting also increased (p<0.05 anger, whereas other mood states were not affected by it. Conclusions. 48 h fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it.

  9. Cerebral Hemispheric Lateralization Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis May Affect Interictal Cardiovascular Autonomic Functions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokia Ghchime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is linked to the autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Seizures alter the function of different systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible factors which may be involved in interictal cardiovascular autonomic function in temporal lobe epilepsy with complex partial seizures, and with particular attention to hippocampal sclerosis. The study was conducted in 30 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (19 with left hippocampal sclerosis, 11 with right hippocampal sclerosis. All subjects underwent four tests of cardiac autonomic function: heart rate changes in response to deep breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure variations throughout resting activity and during hand grip, mental stress, and orthostatic tests. Our results show that the right cerebral hemisphere predominantly modulates sympathetic activity, while the left cerebral hemisphere mainly modulates parasympathetic activity, which mediated tachycardia and excessive bradycardia counterregulation, both of which might be involved as a mechanism of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP.

  10. Correlation between vestibular and autonomous function after 6 months of spaceflight: Data of the SPIN and GAZE-SPIN experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Floris; Clement, Gilles; Naumov, Ivan; Kornilova, Ludmila; Glukhikh, Dmitriy; Hallgren, Emma; MacDougall, Hamish; Migeotte, Pierre-Francois; Delière, Quentin; Weerts, Aurelie; Moore, Steven; Diedrich, Andre

    In 13 cosmonauts, the vestibulo-autonomic reflex was investigated before and after 6 months duration spaceflight. Cosmonauts were rotated on the mini-centrifuge VVIS, which is installed in Star City. Initially, this mini-centrifuge flew on board of the Neurolab mission (STS-90), and served to generate intermittent artificial gravity during that mission, with apparent very positive effects on the preservation of the orthostatic tolerance upon return to earth in the 4 crew members that were subjected to the rotations in space. The current experiments SPIN and GAZE-SPIN are control experiments to test the hypothesis that intermittent artificial gravity in space can serve as a counter measure against several deleterious effects of microgravity. Additionally, the effect of microgravity on the gaze holding system is studied as well. Cosmonauts from a long duration stay in the International Space Station were tested on the VVIS (1 g centripetal interaural acceleration; consecutive right-ear-out anti-clockwise and left-ear-out clockwise measurement) on 5 different days. Two measurements were scheduled about one month and a half prior to launch and the remaining three immediately after their return from space (typically on R+2, R+4, R+9; R = return day from space). The ocular counter roll (OCR) as a measure of otolith function was measured on before, during and after the rotation in the mini centrifuge, using infrared video goggles. The perception of verticality was monitored using an ultrasound system. Gaze holding was tested before, during and after rotation. After the centrifugation part, the crew was installed on a tilt table, and instrumented with several cardiovascular recording equipment (ECG, continuous blood pressure monitoring, respiratory monitoring), as well as with impedance measurement devices to investigate fluid redistribution throughout the operational tilt test. To measure heart rate variability parameters, imposed breathing periods were included in the

  11. A Submaximal Running Test With Postexercise Cardiac Autonomic and Neuromuscular Function in Monitoring Endurance Training Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari; Laine, Tanja; Hynynen, Esa; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-01-01

    Vesterinen, V, Nummela, A, Laine, T, Hynynen, E, Mikkola, J, and Häkkinen, K. A submaximal running test with postexercise cardiac autonomic and neuromuscular function in monitoring endurance training adaptation. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 233-243, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate whether a submaximal running test (SRT) with postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR), heart rate variability (HRV), and countermovement jump (CMJ) measurements could be used to monitor endurance training adaptation. Thirty-five endurance-trained men and women completed an 18-week endurance training. Maximal endurance performance and maximal oxygen uptake were measured every 8 weeks. In addition, SRTs with postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ measurements were carried out every 4 weeks. Submaximal running test consisted of two 6-minute stages at 70 and 80% of maximum heart rate (HRmax) and a 3-minute stage at 90% HRmax, followed by a 2-minute recovery stage for measuring postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ test. The highest responders according to the change of maximal endurance performance showed a significant improvement in running speeds during stages 2 and 3 in SRT, whereas no changes were observed in the lowest responders. The strongest correlation was found between the change of maximal endurance performance and running speed during stage 3, whereas no significant relationships were found between the change of maximal endurance performance and the changes of postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ. Running speed at 90% HRmax intensity was the most sensitive variable to monitor adaptation to endurance training. The present submaximal test showed potential to monitor endurance training adaptation. Furthermore, it may serve as a practical tool for athletes and coaches to evaluate weekly the effectiveness of training program without interfering in the normal training habits.

  12. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (ptraining*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Autonomous nodule of the thyroid: correlation of patient age, nodule size, and functional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, M.; Shenkman, L.; Hollander, C.S.

    1975-01-01

    In light of new techniques for measuring circulating thyroid hormones and for studying the thyroid gland, we present our experience with 35 patients with solitary autonomous nodules of the thyroid to define more precisely the clinical course of patients with this disorder. The patients ranged in age from 19 to 80 years and 31 of the 35 were female. Younger patients were generally euthyroid and sought attention because of a thyroid mass; virtually all older patients were hyperthyroid. Eighteen had obvious clinical features of hyperthyroidism and 5 over age 70 had apathetic hyperthyroidism; all 5 of the elderly and 13 of the 18 under age 70 had elevated thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels. Isolated elevation of T 3 and elevated basal metabolic rate were observed in 5 previously untreated clinically hyperthyroid young patients. In each of these, thyroid uptake of 131 I was not suppressible with exogenous T 3 and BMR was elevated in those tested. Two elderly patients, who had previously been treated for conventional hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine, had T 3 toxicosis when hyperthyroidism recurred. There was a strong positive correlation between the age of the patient, the size of the nodule and the thyroid functional state. The mean area of the nodules projected on 131 I rectilinear scan for euthyroid patients was 5.1 cm 2 . The mean area of the nodules in hyperthyroid subjects was significantly higher, 13.4 cm 2 in patients with T 3 toxicosis and 19.3 cm 2 in subjects with conventional hyperthyroidism. Progression from a euthyroid state to hyperthyroidism was observed in four patients. One of these became thyrotoxic within days after an injection of iodinated contrast medium. Spontaneous resolution of nodules occurred in two patients

  14. Evaluation of autonomic nervous system function in children with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Gursoy, Azize Esra; Goknar, Nilufer; Uzuner, Selcuk; Ozkaya, Emin; Erenberk, Ufuk; Vehapoglu, Aysel; Dundaroz, Mehmet Rusen; Oktem, Faruk

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the autonomic nervous system activity in children with overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. Included in the study were 40 children with overactive bladder and 28 healthy controls. Autonomic tests were performed on all participants, including heart rate interval variation (RRIV), heart rate response to valsalva maneuver, and sympathetic skin response (SSR). Mean valsalva rates in the overactive bladder and control groups were 1.53 ± 0.29 and 1.30 ± 0.18, respectively, a statistically significant difference (P  0.05). This study demonstrated a parasympathetic hyperactivity in children with OAB, results suggesting a dysfunction in their autonomic nervous systems. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:673-676, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effect of relaxation therapy on autonomic functioning, symptoms and daily functioning, in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo; Vanderheiden, Tanja; Baert, Isabel; Descheemaeker, Filip; Struyf, Filip

    2015-03-01

    To establish the effects of relaxation therapy on autonomic function, pain, fatigue and daily functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. A systematic literature study was performed. Using specific keywords related to fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome and relaxation therapy, the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science were searched. Included articles were assessed for their risk of bias and relevant information regarding relaxation was extracted. The review was conducted and reported according to the PRISMA-statement. Thirteen randomized clinical trials of sufficient quality were included, resulting in a total of 650 fibromyalgia patients (11 studies) and 88 chronic fatigue syndrome patients (3 studies). None of the studies reported effects on autonomic function. Six studies reported the effect of guided imagery on pain and daily functioning in fibromyalgia. The acute effect of a single session of guided imagery was studied in two studies and seems beneficial for pain relief. For other relaxation techniques (eg. muscle relaxation, autogenic training) no conclusive evidence was found for the effect on pain and functioning in fibromyalgia patients comparison to multimodal treatment programs. For fatigue a multimodal approach seemed better than relaxation, as shown in the sole three studies on chronic fatigue syndrome patients. There is moderate evidence for the acute effect of guided imagery on pain, although the content of the visualization is a matter of debate. Other relaxation formats and the effects on functionality and autonomic function require further study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Measuring quality of sleep and autonomic nervous function in healthy Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miki Sato,1 Yuko Yasuhara,2 Tetsuya Tanioka,2 Yukie Iwasa,2 Masafumi Miyake,3 Toshiyuki Yasui,2 Masahito Tomotake,2 Haruo Kobayashi,4 Rozzano C Locsin51Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Shikoku University, 2Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3Tokushima Prefectural Minami Health Care Center, Tokushima, 4Faculty of Medical Welfare, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan; 5Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of sleep and autonomic nervous functioning in healthy adult Japanese women using three measures, namely, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI for subjective assessment of sleep quality, actigraphy for objective assessment of sleep, and heart rate variability using high frequency and low frequency domains. Participants were 31 healthy women in their 20s to 40s who met the selection criteria, including having normal monthly menstrual periods. Participants were categorized as good or poor sleepers according to their PSQI score. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency were −0.62 (range −0.43 to −0.84 for good sleepers and −0.45 (range 0.003 to −0.64 for poor sleepers. Good sleepers showed a significantly higher correlation of activity count and high frequency (Z=−2.11, P<0.05. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and low frequency/high frequency were 0.54 (range 0.29–0.73 for good sleepers and 0.41 (range 0.11–0.63 for poor sleepers. The PSQI, actigraphy data, and heart rate variability results showed positive correlations between sleep time as measured by PSQI and duration of inactivity as measured by actigraphy (r=0.446, P<0.05 and sleep time as measured by actigraphy (r=0.377, P<0.05, and a negative correlation between sleep time as measured by PSQI and the

  17. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    of the disease, and may be nonspecific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on the physiological basis of the tests and on practical applicability. Finally, diagnostic criteria, based on autonomic nerve function tests...

  18. The transcription factor Foxg1 regulates telencephalic progenitor proliferation cell autonomously, in part by controlling Pax6 expression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Jane C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor Foxg1 is an important regulator of telencephalic cell cycles. Its inactivation causes premature lengthening of telencephalic progenitor cell cycles and increased neurogenic divisions, leading to severe hypoplasia of the telencephalon. These proliferation defects could be a secondary consequence of the loss of Foxg1 caused by the abnormal expression of several morphogens (Fibroblast growth factor 8, bone morphogenetic proteins in the telencephalon of Foxg1 null mutants. Here we investigated whether Foxg1 has a cell autonomous role in the regulation of telencephalic progenitor proliferation. We analysed Foxg1+/+↔Foxg1-/- chimeras, in which mutant telencephalic cells have the potential to interact with, and to have any cell non-autonomous defects rescued by, normal wild-type cells. Results Our analysis showed that the Foxg1-/- cells are under-represented in the chimeric telencephalon and the proportion of them in S-phase is significantly smaller than that of their wild-type neighbours, indicating that their under-representation is caused by a cell autonomous reduction in their proliferation. We then analysed the expression of the cell-cycle regulator Pax6 and found that it is cell-autonomously downregulated in Foxg1-/- dorsal telencephalic cells. We went on to show that the introduction into Foxg1-/- embryos of a transgene designed to reverse Pax6 expression defects resulted in a partial rescue of the telencephalic progenitor proliferation defects. Conclusions We conclude that Foxg1 exerts control over telencephalic progenitor proliferation by cell autonomous mechanisms that include the regulation of Pax6, which itself is known to regulate proliferation cell autonomously in a regional manner.

  19. Selective Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Khare, Bishun

    2010-01-01

    An alternative method of low-temperature plasma functionalization of carbon nanotubes provides for the simultaneous attachment of molecular groups of multiple (typically two or three) different species or different mixtures of species to carbon nanotubes at different locations within the same apparatus. This method is based on similar principles, and involves the use of mostly the same basic apparatus, as those of the methods described in "Low-Temperature Plasma Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes" (ARC-14661-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 45. The figure schematically depicts the basic apparatus used in the aforementioned method, with emphasis on features that distinguish the present alternative method from the other. In this method, one exploits the fact that the composition of the deposition plasma changes as the plasma flows from its source in the precursor chamber toward the nanotubes in the target chamber. As a result, carbon nanotubes mounted in the target chamber at different flow distances (d1, d2, d3 . . .) from the precursor chamber become functionalized with different species or different mixtures of species. In one series of experiments to demonstrate this method, N2 was used as the precursor gas. After the functionalization process, the carbon nanotubes from three different positions in the target chamber were examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the molecular groups that had become attached. On carbon nanotubes from d1 = 1 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-N and C=N. On carbon nanotubes from d2 = 2.5 cm, the attached molecular groups were found to be predominantly C-(NH)2 and/or C=NH2. (The H2 was believed to originate as residual hydrogen present in the nanotubes.) On carbon nanotubes from d3 = 7 cm no functionalization could be detected - perhaps, it was conjectured, because this distance is downstream of the plasma source, all of the free ions and free radicals of

  20. A Chinese Decoction, Kuan-Sin-Yin, Improves Autonomic Function and Cancer-Related Symptoms of Metastatic Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsai-Ju; Liu, Chia-Yu; Ko, Pin-Hao; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Kuan-Sin-Yin (KSY) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction, which has been shown to have cytostatic effects on cancer cells and involved in the TCM theory of promoting yin-yang balance.Sonce many cancer patients suffer from autonomic dysfunction (AD), which correspond to yin-yang imbalance in TCM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible effect of KSY in metastatic colon cancer (mCRC) patients with AD. We conducted a single-group experiment. Total 52 qualified patients were enrolled. Participants took the KSY daily for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was KSY efficacy as reflected in the heart rate variability (HRV) and electrical conductivity (µA) over 12 meridian points. Autonomic function was examined before and after the KSY intervention. The vagal and sympathetic tone were recorded by HRV; 12 meridian energies were measured using a meridian energy analysis device. Secondary outcomes were cancer-related symptoms and patient quality of life (QoL). The results showed that the KSY intervention improved AD via increasing the vagal tone (HF: P = .041), but not the sympathetic tone (LF: P = .154); total autonomic activity was significantly enhanced (HRV activity: P = .013). Intriguingly, energy increased more over the yin meridian (P = .010) than over the yang meridian (P = .015). Cancer-related symptoms and QoL were significantly improved (P yin-yang concept of energy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. The mind body problem, part three: ascension of sexual function to cerebral level

    OpenAIRE

    Ion G. Motofei; David L. Rowland

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically, the somatic nervous system intervenes in external interaction between the body and environment, while autonomic nervous system ensures the functioning of internal organs. We present in this paper a psycho-physiological perspective suggesting that mental function (somatic in nature, because coordinates environmental interaction) is closer to and more aligned with the physiologic functioning of autonomic nervous system (due to autonomy, duality, etc.). At opposite end, sexual f...

  2. Preparing an autonomous, low-cost GNSS positioning and timing function on board a GEO telecom mission: a study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, A.; Scotti, M.; Mangolini, E.; Cappelluti, I.; Fiordiponti, R.; Amalric, J.; Flament, P.; Brouillard, E.; Kowaltschek, S.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a viable solution for a low-cost, autonomous GNSS positioning and timing function integrated in the avionics of a GEO telecomm satellite. This paper is based on a study currently carried out by Thales Alenia Space under an ARTES contract with ESA, funded by the Italian Space Agency. The availability of an autonomous means of positioning in GEO platform is essential in reducing the constraints on the ground control. This is even more true in the case of the transfer to the GEO orbit, where the current trend is to implement the low-thrust electrical propulsion and this phase could have a duration of months: the GNSS function can autonomously feed the on-board trajectory propagator with the spacecraft position fixes, in order to constrain the state estimate of the on-board filter. In order to achieve large availability of position and timing of the hosting platform, the tracking of the GNSS antenna side lobes is a critical feature. Based on the recent experiences of SGR GEO, additional insights on the side-lobe levels were made available to the GNSS community and this allows to better target a receiver architecture whose performance can be more precisely determined for the study case. This paper will show the findings in terms of GNSS function architecture for the GEO application, as well as the integration of this function inside the avionic computer. The focus is on a single frequency receiver, targeting at least GPS L1 and Galileo E1 signals. Optimizations in terms of sharing of HW resources with the on-board computer (oscillator, DC/DC converter) and the overall redundancy strategy are presented. Extension and implications for covering to the GTO case is presented as well. The expected receiver performances (position and timing accuracy, autonomy) are provided through in-orbit simulations, including a realistic receiver model.

  3. Autonomic neuropathy induced by cisplatin and vincristine in rats: functional study, electrophysiological and morphological

    OpenAIRE

    KÃtia VirgÃnia Viana Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chemotherapeutic agents are chemical compounds used for the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of chemotherapy is limited by its side effects such as nephro, neuro, hepato and ototoxicity. Cisplatin and vincristine are chemotherapy drugs and their use is limited by peripheral neuropathy with autonomic, sensory and/or motor involvement. Aims: We evaluated the effect of cisplatin and vincristine on the gastric emptying (GE), gastrointestinal (GI) transit of liquid, baroreflex funct...

  4. Investigating the autonomic nervous system and cognitive functions as potential mediators of an association between cardiovascular disease and driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Jeffrey; Bélanger, Mathieu F; Corriveau, Hélène; Mekary, Said; Hay, Dean; Johnson, Michel J

    2013-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) impacts the autonomic nervous system and cognitive functions related to activities of daily living, including driving an automobile. Although CVD has been linked to unsafe driving, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the role of cognitive functions and the autonomic nervous system as potential mediators of driving performance. Nineteen individuals having recently suffered a cardiac event and 16 individuals with no history of CVD completed a simulated drive using a STISIM simulator to assess driving performance. Heart rate was recorded throughout testing using a Polar RS800CX heart rate monitor, and measures of executive, orienting, and alerting functions were obtained through the Attention Network Test. We used the Baron and Kenny analysis method to assess potential mediating effects of the relationship between CVD and driving performance. Executive function was the only potential mediator investigated to be associated with driving (p driving and that further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  5. Method to measure autonomic control of cardiac function using time interval parameters from impedance cardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, Jan H; Boesveldt, Sanne; Elbertse, Eskeline; Berendse, H W

    2008-01-01

    The time difference between the electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram can be considered as a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activities of the heart. This time interval, characterized by the pre-ejection period (PEP), is related to the sympathetic autonomous nervous control of cardiac activity. PEP, however, is difficult to measure in practice. Therefore, a novel parameter, the initial systolic time interval (ISTI), is introduced to provide a more practical measure. The use of ISTI instead of PEP was evaluated in three groups: young healthy subjects, patients with Parkinson's disease, and a group of elderly, healthy subjects of comparable age. PEP and ISTI were studied under two conditions: at rest and after an exercise stimulus. Under both conditions, PEP and ISTI behaved largely similarly in the three groups and were significantly correlated. It is concluded that ISTI can be used as a substitute for PEP and, therefore, to evaluate autonomic neuropathy both in clinical and extramural settings. Measurement of ISTI can also be used to non-invasively monitor the electromechanical cardiac time interval, and the associated autonomic activity, under physiological circumstances

  6. Hyperhidrosis associated with subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: Insights into central autonomic functional anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Smith, Heather; Youn, Youngwon; Durphy, Jennifer; Shin, Damian S; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-07-15

    There is limited evidence regarding the precise location and connections of thermoregulatory centers in humans. We present two patients managed with subthalamic nucleus (STN) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for motor fluctuations in PD that developed reproducible hyperhidrosis with high frequency DBS. To describe the clinical features and analyze the location of the electrodes leading to autonomic activation in both patients. We retrospectively assessed the anatomical localization, electrode programming settings and effects of unilateral STN DBS leading to hyperhidrosis. Unilateral stimulation of anterior and medially located contacts within the STN and zona incerta (Zi) caused bilateral, consistent, reproducible, and reversible sweating in our patients. Adequate control of motor symptoms without autonomic side effects was accomplished with alternative programming settings. Stimulation of the medial Zi and medial and anterior STN causes hyperhidrosis in a pattern similar to that described in primates and rats. We speculate that central autonomic fibers originating in the lateral hypothalamic area project laterally to the ventral/medial Zi and then to brainstem nuclei following an medial and posterior trajectory in relationship to STN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Autonomic nervous system functions in children with breath-holding spells and effects of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkiran, Abdülkerim; Tutar, Ercan; Atalay, Semra; Deda, Gülhis; Cin, Sükrü

    2005-09-01

    To analyse the activity of the autonomic nervous system during breath-holding spells, we assessed the ECG changes, including ventricular repolarization parameters before and during the spell. We also analysed the effects of iron deficiency on these ECG parameters. The study group consisted of 37 children with breath-holding spells (30 cyanotic, 7 pallid) (mean age+/-SD: 12.9+/-10.8 mo). Twenty-six healthy children (mean age+/-SD: 14.4+/-8.6 mo) served as a control group. All patients and controls had standard 12-lead simultaneous surface ECG. All patients had ECG recordings during at least one severe breath-holding spell obtained by "event recorder". Traces obtained by "event recorder" were analysed in terms of mean heart rate and the frequency and duration of asystole during the spell. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia on standard ECGs and asystole frequency during spells were higher in patients with pallid breath-holding spells. Patients with iron deficiency had a lower frequency of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and prolonged asystole time during the spell. There was no difference in terms of ventricular repolarization parameters (QT/QTc intervals and QT/QTc dispersions) between patients and controls and between patient subgroups (cyanotic versus pallid). These results confirmed the presence of autonomic dysregulation in children with breath-holding spells. Iron deficiency may have an impact on this autonomic dysregulation. Ventricular repolarization was unaffected in patients with breath-holding spells.

  8. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  9. Acupuncture effect and central autonomic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Xu, Qian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Wang, Lin-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  10. The role of autonomic testing in syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pearl K; Gibbons, Christopher H

    2014-09-01

    Syncope is a common presenting complaint in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. The main goals in the clinical evaluation of syncope are to identify an underlying etiology, to stratify risk and to guide plans for therapeutic intervention. Testing begins with an initial electrocardiogram to screen for any cardiac rhythm abnormalities. Heart rate variability to paced breathing provides a standard measure of cardiac parasympathetic function and offers clues towards an autonomic cause of syncope. A Valsalva maneuver is used to evaluate for parasympathetic dysfunction through the Valsalva ratio. In addition, sympathetic adrenergic function is assessed through evaluation of blood pressure response during the Valsalva maneuver. Abnormalities to the Valsalva maneuver can suggest clues towards an autonomic cause of syncope. Head-up tilt table testing is an important part of the autonomic evaluation of patients with syncope, and can be diagnostic for many disorders that result in syncope including orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope, postural tachycardia syndrome or delayed orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic function testing provides a safe and controlled environment for evaluation of patients, and plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of syncope, particularly in challenging cases. While the initial clinical evaluation of syncope involves a detailed history and physical examination; in situations where the diagnosis is unknown, the addition of autonomic testing is complementary and can lead to identification of autonomic causes of syncope. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The mind body problem, part three: ascension of sexual function to cerebral level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion G. Motofei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically, the somatic nervous system intervenes in external interaction between the body and environment, while autonomic nervous system ensures the functioning of internal organs. We present in this paper a psycho-physiological perspective suggesting that mental function (somatic in nature, because coordinates environmental interaction is closer to and more aligned with the physiologic functioning of autonomic nervous system (due to autonomy, duality, etc.. At opposite end, sexual function (autonomic in nature, erection for example being a parasympathetic vasodilatory reflex seems to be compatible and even dependent by a somatic participation (erectile response is rather induced by environmental stimuli than internal visceral stimuli. The perspective presented here is that the mind and sexuality are two distinct relational processes which, being related to the same environmental stimuli/ peripheral afferents, should be supported by a common (somatic-autonomic neurobiological substrate.

  12. Gpr126/Adgrg6 Has Schwann Cell Autonomous and Nonautonomous Functions in Peripheral Nerve Injury and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogha, Amit; Harty, Breanne L; Carlin, Dan; Joseph, Jessica; Sanchez, Nicholas E; Suter, Ueli; Piao, Xianhua; Cavalli, Valeria; Monk, Kelly R

    2016-12-07

    Schwann cells (SCs) are essential for proper peripheral nerve development and repair, although the mechanisms regulating these processes are incompletely understood. We previously showed that the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor Gpr126/Adgrg6 is essential for SC development and myelination. Interestingly, the expression of Gpr126 is maintained in adult SCs, suggestive of a function in the mature nerve. We therefore investigated the role of Gpr126 in nerve repair by studying an inducible SC-specific Gpr126 knock-out mouse model. Here, we show that remyelination is severely delayed after nerve-crush injury. Moreover, we also observe noncell-autonomous defects in macrophage recruitment and axon regeneration in injured nerves following loss of Gpr126 in SCs. This work demonstrates that Gpr126 has critical SC-autonomous and SC-nonautonomous functions in remyelination and peripheral nerve repair. Lack of robust remyelination represents one of the major barriers to recovery of neurological functions in disease or following injury in many disorders of the nervous system. Here we show that the adhesion class G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr126/Adgrg6 is required for remyelination, macrophage recruitment, and axon regeneration following nerve injury. At least 30% of all approved drugs target GPCRs; thus, Gpr126 represents an attractive potential target to stimulate repair in myelin disease or following nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612351-17$15.00/0.

  13. Cardiac autonomic functions and the emergence of violence in a highly realistic model of social conflict in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozsef eHaller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the multitude of factors that can transform human social interactions into violent conflicts, biological features received much attention in recent years as correlates of decision making and aggressiveness especially in critical situations. We present here a highly realistic new model of human aggression and violence, where genuine acts of aggression are readily performed and which at the same time allows the parallel recording of biological concomitants. Particularly, we studied police officers trained at the International Training Centre (Budapest, Hungary, who are prepared to perform operations under extreme conditions of stress. We found that aggressive arousal can transform a basically peaceful social encounter into a violent conflict. Autonomic recordings show that this change is accompanied by increased heart rates, which was associated earlier with reduced cognitive complexity of perceptions (attentional myopia and promotes a bias towards hostile attributions and aggression. We also observed reduced heart rate variability in violent subjects, which is believed to signal a poor functioning of prefrontal-subcortical inhibitory circuits and reduces self-control. Importantly, these autonomic particularities were observed already at the beginning of social encounters i.e. before aggressive acts were initiated, suggesting that individual characteristics of the stress-response define the way in which social pressure affects social behavior, particularly the way in which this develops into violence. Taken together, these findings suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are valuable external symptoms of internal motivational states and decision making processes, and raise the possibility that behavior under social pressure can be predicted by the individual characteristics of stress responsiveness.

  14. CLOCK 3111T/C genetic variant influences the daily rhythm of autonomic nervous function: relevance to body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M-T; Bandin, C; Yang, H-W; Scheer, F A J L; Hu, K; Garaulet, M

    2018-02-01

    Humans carrying the genetic risk variant C at the circadian CLOCK (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) 3111T/C have been shown to have more difficulties to achieve desired weight loss than TT carriers. We tested the hypothesis that the daily rhythm of autonomic nervous function differs in CLOCK 3111C carriers, leading to reduced effectiveness in weight control. We recruited 40 overweight/obese Caucasian women (body mass index>25), 20 carrying CLOCK 3111C (CC and TC) and 20 non-carriers with matched age and body mass index who participated in a dietary obesity treatment program of up to 30 weeks. Following the treatment, ambulatory electrocardiography was continuously monitored for up to 3.5 days when subjects underwent their normal daily activities. To assess autonomic function, heart rate variability analysis (HRV) was performed hourly to obtain mean inter-beat interval between two consecutive R waves (mean RR) and s.d. of normal-to-normal heartbeat intervals (SDNN), and two parasympathetic measures, namely, proportion of differences between adjacent NN intervals that are >50 ms (pNN50), and high-frequency (HF: 0.15-0.4 Hz) power. In the TT carriers, all tested HRV indices showed significant daily rhythms (all P-values CLOCK variation on body weight control.

  15. Testing an exercise intervention to improve aerobic conditioning and autonomic function after an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Glenny, Robb W; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Malinick, Todd E; Flo, Gayle L

    2010-08-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are an increasingly common treatment for survivors of sudden cardiac arrest or others with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Health-care providers are often reluctant to prescribe exercise for this group because of the belief that it will provoke ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest; patients are often afraid to exercise because of concern over receiving an ICD shock. A social cognitive theory-driven exercise intervention aimed at stabilizing cardiac arrhythmias and reducing ICD shocks by increasing parasympathetic autonomic nervous system control is described. The exercise intervention has two phases that include an 8-week aerobic conditioning component followed by a 16-week exercise maintenance component. The aerobic exercise intervention is expected to have significant impact on cardiopulmonary function, ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac autonomic function, and self-efficacy in persons who have an ICD. The exercise intervention is currently being tested using a randomized clinical trial format, the results of which will be available in 2012. The exercise after ICD trial is one of the first clinical trials to test the effects of aerobic exercise on cardiopulmonary outcomes after receiving an ICD for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest.

  16. Venous and autonomic function in formerly pre-eclamptic women and BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, Wieteke M; van Drongelen, Joris; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Scholten, Ralph R

    2018-03-25

    Pre-pregnancy reduced plasma volume increases the risk on subsequent pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Reduced plasma volume is thought to reflect venous reserve capacity, especially when venous vasculature is constricted and sympathetic tone is elevated. As obesity might affect these variables and also relates to pre-eclampsia, increased body weight may underlie these observations. We hypothesized that the relationship between reduced venous reserve and preeclampsia is independent of body mass index (BMI). We compared the non-pregnant venous reserve capacity in 30 formerly pre-eclamptic women, equally divided in 3 BMI-classes (BMI 19.5-24.9, BMI 25-29.9, BMI ≥30) to 30 controls. Cases and controls were matched for BMI, age and parity. The venous reserve capacity was quantified by assessing plasma volume and venous compliance. The autonomic nervous system regulating the venous capacitance was evaluated with heart rate variability analysis in resting supine position and during positive head-up tilt (HUT). Formerly pre-eclamptic women had in supine position lower plasma volume than controls (1339 ± 79 vs 1547 ± 139 ml/m 2 (pBMI-matched controls, reduced venous reserve capacity. This is reflected by lower plasma volume and venous compliance, the autonomic balance is shifted towards sympathetic dominance and lower baroreceptor sensitivity. This suggests that not BMI, but underlying reduced venous reserve relates to pre-eclampsia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. ACE2-mediated reduction of oxidative stress in the central nervous system is associated with improvement of autonomic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Xia

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in the central nervous system mediates the increase in sympathetic tone that precedes the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that by transforming Angiotensin-II (AngII into Ang-(1-7, ACE2 might reduce AngII-mediated oxidative stress in the brain and prevent autonomic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, a relationship between ACE2 and oxidative stress was first confirmed in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro2A cells treated with AngII and infected with Ad-hACE2. ACE2 overexpression resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. In vivo, ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/y mice and non-transgenic (NT littermates were infused with AngII (10 days and infected with Ad-hACE2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Baseline blood pressure (BP, AngII and brain ROS levels were not different between young mice (12 weeks. However, cardiac sympathetic tone, brain NADPH oxidase and SOD activities were significantly increased in ACE2(-/y. Post infusion, plasma and brain AngII levels were also significantly higher in ACE2(-/y, although BP was similarly increased in both genotypes. ROS formation in the PVN and RVLM was significantly higher in ACE2(-/y mice following AngII infusion. Similar phenotypes, i.e. increased oxidative stress, exacerbated dysautonomia and hypertension, were also observed on baseline in mature ACE2(-/y mice (48 weeks. ACE2 gene therapy to the PVN reduced AngII-mediated increase in NADPH oxidase activity and normalized cardiac dysautonomia in ACE2(-/y mice. Altogether, these data indicate that ACE2 gene deletion promotes age-dependent oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction and hypertension, while PVN-targeted ACE2 gene therapy decreases ROS formation via NADPH oxidase inhibition and improves autonomic function. Accordingly, ACE2 could represent a new target for the treatment of hypertension-associated dysautonomia and oxidative stress.

  18. Counting master integrals. Integration by parts vs. functional equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Tarasov, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    We illustrate the usefulness of functional equations in establishing relationships between master integrals under the integration-by-parts reduction procedure by considering a certain two-loop propagator-type diagram as an example.

  19. Chemical roots of biological evolution: the origins of life as a process of development of autonomous functional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Briones, Carlos; de la Escosura, Andrés

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, an extension of the Darwinian framework is being considered for the study of prebiotic chemical evolution, shifting the attention from homogeneous populations of naked molecular species to populations of heterogeneous, compartmentalized and functionally integrated assemblies of molecules. Several implications of this shift of perspective are analysed in this critical review, both in terms of the individual units, which require an adequate characterization as self-maintaining systems with an internal organization, and also in relation to their collective and long-term evolutionary dynamics, based on competition, collaboration and selection processes among those complex individuals. On these lines, a concrete proposal for the set of molecular control mechanisms that must be coupled to bring about autonomous functional systems, at the interface between chemistry and biology, is provided. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Sleep disordered breathing and autonomic function in overweight and obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Van Eyck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA, common in children with obesity, is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Autonomic dysfunction has been suggested to be a key player in the development of these complications. We investigated the relationship between obesity, OSA and sympathetic activity in children. 191 children with obesity were included and distributed into two groups: 131 controls and 60 with OSA. Beat-to-beat RR interval data were extracted from polysomnography for heart rate variability analysis. Urinary free cortisol levels were determined. Urinary free cortisol did not differ between groups and was not associated with OSA, independent of the level of obesity. Differences in heart rate variability measures were found: mean RR interval decreased with OSA, while low/high-frequency band ratio and mean heart rate increased with OSA. Heart rate variability measures correlated with OSA, independent of obesity parameters and age: oxygen desaturation index correlated with mean heart rate (r=0.19, p=0.009 and mean RR interval (r= −0.18, p=0.02, while high-frequency bands and low/high-frequency band ratio correlated with arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2 (r= −0.20, p=0.008 and r= −0.16, p=0.04 and SpO2 nadir (r=0.23, p=0.003 and r= −0.19, p=0.02. These results suggest that sympathetic heart activity is increased in children with obesity and OSA. Measures of hypoxia were related to increased sympathetic tone, suggesting that intermittent hypoxia is involved in autonomic dysfunction.

  1. Patterns of Sensitivity to Emotion in Children with Williams Syndrome and Autism: Relations between Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Grichanik, Mark; Arnold, Andrew J.; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with atypical social-emotional functioning. Affective visual stimuli were used to assess autonomic reactivity and emotion identification, and the social responsiveness scale was used to determine the level social functioning in children with WS and ASD contrasted with typical…

  2. "Brain over body"-A study on the willful regulation of autonomic function during cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Otto; Reilly, Kaice T; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2018-02-10

    The defense of body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is a core objective of homeostatic regulation governed by the autonomic nervous system. Autonomous mechanisms of thermoregulation are only weakly affected by top-down modulation, allowing only transient tolerance for extreme cold. There is however, anecdotal evidence of a unique set of individuals known for extreme cold tolerance. Here we present a case study of a 57-year old Dutch national, Wim Hof, the so-called "Iceman", with the ability to withstand frequent prolonged periods of extreme cold exposure based on the practice of a self-developed technique involving a combination of forced breathing, cold exposure and meditation (collectively referred to as the Wim Hof Method, henceforth "WHM"). The relative contributions of the brain and the periphery that endow the Iceman with these capabilities is unknown. To investigate this, we conducted multi-modal imaging assessments of the brain and the periphery using a combination of fMRI and PET/CT imaging. Thermoregulatory defense was evoked by subjecting the Iceman (and a cohort of typical controls) to a fMRI paradigm designed to generate periods of mild hypothermia interspersed by periods of return to basal core body temperature. fMRI was acquired in two separate sessions: in a typical (passive) state and following the practice of WHM. In addition, the Iceman also underwent a whole body PET/CT imaging session using the tracers C11-hydroxyephedrine (HED) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) during both thermoneutral and prolonged mild cold conditions. This acquisition allowed us to determine changes in sympathetic innervation (HED) and glucose consumption (FDG) in muscle and fat tissues in the absence of the WHM. fMRI analyses indicated that the WHM activates primary control centers for descending pain/cold stimuli modulation in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), possibly initiating a stress-induced analgesic response. In addition, the WHM also engages

  3. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Richard; Rasmussen, Robert; Man, Guy; Patel, Keyur

    1998-01-01

    Researchers and technology developers from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other government agencies, academia, and industry recently met in Pasadena, California, to take stock of past and current work and future challenges in the application of AI to highly autonomous systems. The meeting was catalyzed by new opportunities in developing autonomous spacecraft for NASA and was in part a celebration of the fictional birth year of the HAL-9000 computer.

  4. Association between Depression, Pressure Pain Sensitivity, Stress and Autonomous Nervous System Function in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Bergmann, Natasha; Karpatschof, Benny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Depression and ischemic heart disease (IHD) are associated with persistent stress and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The former can be measured by pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) of the sternum, and the latter by the PPS and systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to a tilt...... table test (TTT). Beta-blocker treatment reduces the efferent beta-adrenergic ANS function, and thus, the physiological stress response. Objective: To test the effect of beta-blockers on changes in depression score in patients with IHD, as well as the influence on persistent stress and ANS dysfunction....... Methods: Three months of non-pharmacological intervention aiming at reducing PPS and depression score in patients with stable IHD. Beta-blocker users (N = 102) were compared with non-users (N = 75), with respect to signs of depression measured by the Major Depressive Inventory questionnaire (MDI), resting...

  5. Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Psoriatic Arthritis – Inflammation and Cardiac Autonomic and Hemodynamic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Salome

    with either 3 g of marine n-3 PUFA (6 capsules of fish oil) or 3 g of olive oil daily for 24 weeks. A total of 133 patients (92%) completed the study. The difference in the outcomes between baseline and 24 weeks was analysed within and between the two supplemented groups. In Study II, the effects of n-3 PUFA...... in the n-3 PUFA group compared with controls. The results indicate a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on joint inflammation and pain. In Study III, the aim was to investigate the effect of marine n-3 PUFA on cardiac autonomic function assessed by heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), pulse wave...

  6. Progressive dysregulation of autonomic and HPA axis functions in HIV-1 clade C infection in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittiprol, Seetharamaiah; Kumar, Adarsh M; Satishchandra, P; Taranath Shetty, K; Bhimasena Rao, R S; Subbakrishna, D K; Philip, Mariyamma; Satish, K S; Ravi Kumar, H; Kumar, Mahendra

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes a wide spectrum of abnormalities in neurological, neuropsychological, and neuroendocrinological functions. Several studies report disturbance in autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in HIV-1B infected individuals. However, no such investigations on the effect of HIV-1 clade C infection, particularly during the initial phase of the disease progression, have been reported. The present investigations were carried out longitudinally over a 2-year period at 12 monthly intervals in clinically asymptomatic HIV-1 clade C seropositive patients (n=120) and seronegative control subjects (n=29). We determined both the basal levels and the dynamic changes in plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT). Studies were also extended longitudinally (at three separate yearly visits of each participant), to evaluate the response of autonomic and HPA axis to mirror star tracing challenge test (MSTCT) and the values were determined as area under the curve (AUC, corrected for baseline levels of NE, E, ACTH, and CORT). The findings show that the values of basal plasma NE levels, as well as NE response to MSTCT (AUC) at the first visit of HIV-1 seropositive individuals did not differ from those found in the control subjects (NE, pg/ml, HIV-1C=313.5+/-12.7 vs. controls=353.0+/-21.3; p=NS; AUC, HIV-1C=225+/-14.75 vs. controls=232.7+/-19.34; p=NS, respectively). At the subsequent two visits of HIV-1 positive patients however, NE response to MSTCT challenge was progressively attenuated (AUC=235+/-19.5 and 162.7+/-13.6; p<0.01 and 0.05, respectively) compared to that found at the first visit. On the other hand, plasma levels of E as well as E response to MSTCT at the first visit were significantly lower in HIV-1C seropositive individuals compared to those in the control subjects (pg/ml, HIV-1C=77.30+/-5.7 vs. controls

  7. Evaluation of standard haemodynamic tests of autonomic function and HbA1c as predictors of delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A

    2012-02-03

    We examined the relation between chronic glycaemic control (using glycosylated haemoglobin), haemodynamic autonomic function and rate of gastric emptying in 16 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Gastric emptying was measured using a paracetamol absorption technique. Parameters of gastric emptying include area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Patients were classified as diabetic autonomic neuropathy positive or negative using five standardized haemodynamic reflex tests. Area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve in the neuropathy positive (10.36 (4.5) mmol.-1. min) and negative (9.84 (3.0) mmol.-1. min) groups were similar (.P.=0.42) using unpaired Student\\'s.t. -tests. Glycosylated haemoglobin concentration and area under the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve (.n.=16) demonstrated a Pearson\\'s correlation co-efficient of 0.24. Neither tests of haemodynamic autonomic function, nor concentration of glycosylated haemoglobin, are predictive of diabetic gastroparesis.

  8. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  9. Enhancing the Mechanical Durability of Icephobic Surfaces by Introducing Autonomous Self-Healing Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yizhi; Håkonsen, Verner; He, Zhiwei; Xiao, Senbo; He, Jianying; Zhang, Zhiliang

    2018-03-27

    Ice accretion presents a severe risk for human safety. Although great efforts have been made for developing icephobic surfaces (the surface with an ice adhesion strength below 100 kPa), expanding the lifetime of state-of-the-art icephobic surfaces still remains a critical unsolved issue. Herein, a novel icephobic material is designed by integrating an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) into an autonomous self-healing elastomer, which is applied in anti-icing for enhancing the mechanical durability. The molecular structure, surface morphology, mechanical properties, and durable icephobicity of the material were studied. The creep behaviors of the new icephobic material, which were absent in most relevant studies on self-healing materials, were also investigated in this work. Significantly, the material showed great potentials for anti-icing applications with an ultralow ice adhesion strength of 6.0 ± 0.9 kPa, outperforming many other icephobic surfaces. The material also exhibited an extraordinary durability, showing a very low long-term ice adhesion strength of ∼12.2 kPa after 50 icing/deicing cycles. Most importantly, the material was able to exhibit a self-healing property from mechanical damages in a sufficiently short time, which shed light on the longevity of icephobic surfaces in practical applications.

  10. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  11. Autonomic neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

  12. Energy homeostasis, autonomic activity and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Balkan, B; Nyakas, C; vanDijk, G; Steffens, AB; Bohus, B

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by alterations in both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The present paper summarizes the results of a number of studies designed to investigate autonomic functioning in normal, genetically, and experimentally obese rats, Particular emphasis is given

  13. Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Shephard, Roy J

    2011-01-01

    from exercise studies. In this position statement, a panel of world-leading experts provides a consensus of current knowledge, briefly covering the background, explaining what we think we know with some degree of certainty, exploring continued controversies, and pointing to likely directions for future...... research. Part one of this position statement focuses on 'immune function and exercise' and part two on 'maintaining immune health'. Part one provides a brief introduction and history (Roy Shephard) followed by sections on: respiratory infections and exercise (Maree Gleeson); cellular innate immune...

  14. Autonomic Functions Associated with Blood Pressure Regulation and Orthostatic Performance in Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor

    1997-01-01

    Functions of baroreflex control of heart rate and vascular resistance, adrenoreceptor responsiveness, indices of baseline vagal and sympathetic tone, plasma volume, and venous compliance were compared...

  15. Restricted and disrupted sleep: effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerlo, Peter; Sgoifo, Andrea; Suchecki, Deborah

    2008-06-01

    Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our modern around-the-clock society. In this context, it is an important question how sleep loss affects the stress systems in our bodies since these systems enable us to deal with everyday challenges. Altered activity and reactivity of these systems following insufficient sleep might have serious repercussions for health and well-being. Studies on both humans and rodents have shown that sleep deprivation and sleep restriction are conditions often associated with mild, temporary increases in the activity of the major neuroendocrine stress systems, i.e., the autonomic sympatho-adrenal system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Sleep deprivation may not only have a direct activating effect by itself but, in the long run, it may also affect the reactivity of these systems to other stressors and challenges. Although the first signs of alterations in the way people deal with challenges under conditions of restricted sleep appear to be on the level of emotional perception, chronic sleep restriction may ultimately change the fundamental properties of neuroendocrine stress systems as well. Understandably, few controlled studies in humans have been devoted to this topic. Yet, experimental studies in rodents show that chronic sleep restriction may gradually alter neuroendocrine stress responses as well as the central mechanisms involved in the regulation of these responses. Importantly, the available data from studies in laboratory animals suggest that sleep restriction may gradually change certain brain systems and neuroendocrine systems in a manner that is similar to what is seen in stress-related disorders such as depression (e.g., reduced serotonin receptor sensitivity and altered regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis). Such data support the view that insufficient sleep, by acting on stress systems, may sensitize individuals to stress-related disorders. Indeed

  16. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Gwendolyn C; Huizink, Anja C; Tulen, Joke H M; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Creemers, Hanneke E; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary diagnoses of clinical anxiety disorders (AD) from each other, and from a general population reference group (GP). The study sample consisted of 152 AD children (comparing separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and specific phobia), aged 8- to 12-years, and 200 same-aged reference children. HPA-axis functioning was measured by a diurnal cortisol profile. ANS functioning was measured by continuous measures of skin conductance level in rest and during a mental arithmetic task and high frequency heart rate variability in rest. PA was assessed by a questionnaire. The AD sample showed lower high frequency heart rate variability during rest, heightened anticipatory PA, higher basal and reactive skin conductance levels and lower basal HPA-axis functioning compared to the GP sample. The existence of three or more clinical disorders, i.e. a high clinical 'load', was associated with lower basal HPA-axis functioning, higher skin conductance level and lower posttest PA. Specific phobia could be discerned from social phobia and separation anxiety disorder on higher skin conductance level. Our findings indicated that children with AD have specific psychophysiological characteristics, which resemble the psychophysiological characteristics of chronic stress. A high clinical 'load' is associated with an altered ANS and HPA-axis functioning. Overall, ANS and HPA-axis functioning relate to AD in general, accept for specific phobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perioperative implications of the patient with autonomic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Stuart; Atria, Nicklaus P; Barwise, John A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system functions to control heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, gastrointestinal motility, hormone release, and body temperature on a second-to-second basis. Here we summarize some of the latest literature on autonomic dysfunction, focusing primarily on the perioperative implications. The variety of autonomic dysfunction now extends to a large number of clinical conditions in which the cause or effect of the autonomic component is blurred. Methods for detecting dysautonomia can be as simple as performing a history and physical examination that includes orthostatic vital signs measured in both recumbent and vertical positions; however, specialized laboratories are required for definitive diagnosis. Heart rate variability monitoring is becoming more commonplace in the assessment and understanding of autonomic instability. Degenerative diseases of the autonomic nervous system include Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, with the most serious manifestations being postural hypotension and paradoxical supine hypertension. Other conditions occur in which the autonomic dysfunction is only part of a larger disease process, such as diabetic autonomic neuropathy, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Patients with dysautonomia often have unpredictable and paradoxical physiological responses to various perioperative stimuli. Knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology of their condition is required in order to reduce symptom exacerbation and limit morbidity and mortality during the perioperative period.

  18. Stochastic integration by parts and functional Itô calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vives, Josep

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes from the courses given by Vlad Bally and Rama Cont at the Barcelona Summer School on Stochastic Analysis (July 2012). The notes of the course by Vlad Bally, co-authored with Lucia Caramellino, develop integration by parts formulas in an abstract setting, extending Malliavin's work on abstract Wiener spaces. The results are applied to prove absolute continuity and regularity results of the density for a broad class of random processes. Rama Cont's notes provide an introduction to the Functional Itô Calculus, a non-anticipative functional calculus that extends the classical Itô calculus to path-dependent functionals of stochastic processes. This calculus leads to a new class of path-dependent partial differential equations, termed Functional Kolmogorov Equations, which arise in the study of martingales and forward-backward stochastic differential equations. This book will appeal to both young and senior researchers in probability and stochastic processes, as well as to pract...

  19. Autonomous search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous combinatorial search (AS) represents a new field in combinatorial problem solving. Its major standpoint and originality is that it considers that problem solvers must be capable of self-improvement operations. This is the first book dedicated to AS.

  20. Acute effects of sildenafil on flow mediated dilatation and cardiovascular autonomic nerve function in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirban, Alin; Laude, Dominique; Elghozi, Jean-Luc; Sander, Denise; Agelink, Marcus W; Hilz, Max J; Ziegler, Dan

    2009-02-01

    Sildenafil, frequently used as on demand medication for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), has been suggested to improve endothelial function but also to alter blood pressure (BP) and induce sympathetic activation. In people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a high-risk population, the safety profile and the effects on endothelial function of a maximal sildenafil dose (100 mg) have not been investigated and therefore constituted the aim of our study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial using a single dose of 100 mg sildenafil or placebo has been conducted in 40 subjects with T2DM without known CVD. Haemodynamic parameters, flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in brachial artery, cardiovascular autonomic function tests and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were measured. Sixty minutes after administration of sildenafil but not placebo, a fall of supine systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-5.41 +/- 1.87 vs. + 0.54 +/- 1.71 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (-4.46 +/- 1.13 vs. + 0.89 +/- 0.94 mmHg), as well as orthostatic SBP (-7.41 +/- 2.35 vs. + 0.94 +/- 2.06 mmHg) and DBP (-5.65 +/- 1.45 vs. + 1.76 +/- 1.00 mmHg) during standing occurred, accompanied by an increase in heart rate (+1.98 +/- 0.69 vs. - 2.42 +/- 0.59 beats/min) (all p < 0.01 vs. placebo). Changes in BP to standing up, FMD, time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV) and BRS were comparable between sildenafil and placebo. Sildenafil administered at a maximum single dose to T2DM men results in a mild increase in heart rate and decrease in BP, but it induces neither an acute improvement of FMD nor any adverse effects on orthostatic BP regulation, HRV and BRS. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  2. Autonomic nervous system function, activity patterns, and sleep after physical or cognitive challenge in people with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvejic, Erin; Sandler, Carolina X; Keech, Andrew; Barry, Benjamin K; Lloyd, Andrew R; Vollmer-Conna, Uté

    2017-12-01

    To explore changes in autonomic functioning, sleep, and physical activity during a post-exertional symptom exacerbation induced by physical or cognitive challenge in participants with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Thirty-five participants with CFS reported fatigue levels 24-h before, immediately before, immediately after, and 24-h after the completion of previously characterised physical (stationary cycling) or cognitive (simulated driving) challenges. Participants also provided ratings of their sleep quality and sleep duration for the night before, and after, the challenge. Continuous ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) and physical activity was recorded from 24-h prior, until 24-h after, the challenge. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV, as high frequency power in normalized units) was derived from the ECG trace for periods of wake and sleep. Both physical and cognitive challenges induced an immediate exacerbation of the fatigue state (psleep quality or sleep duration. Although the normal changes in HR and HRV during the transition from wakefulness to sleep were evident, the magnitude of the increase in HRV was significantly lower after completing the challenge (p=0.016). Preliminary evidence of reduced nocturnal parasympathetic activity, and increased periods of inactivity, were found during post-exertional fatigue in a well-defined group of participants with CFS. Larger studies employing challenge paradigms are warranted to further explore the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of post-exertional fatigue in CFS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relation between preoperative autonomic function and blood pressure change after tourniquet deflation during total knee replacement arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In Young; Kim, Dae-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Soo Jin; Cho, Young Woo; Park, Soon Eun

    2012-02-01

    Tourniquets are used to provide a bloodless surgical field for extremities. Hypotension due to vasodilation and bleeding after tourniquet deflation is a common event. Hemodynamic stability is modulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a sensitive method for detecting individuals who may be at risk of hemodynamic instability during general anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate ANS function to predict hypotension after tourniquet deflation. Eighty-six patients who underwent total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA) were studied. HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were analyzed. We assigned two groups depending on the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP) or mean BP (MBP) after tourniquet release (Group H; SBP 80 mmHg and MBP > 60 mmHg). Fifteen patients developed severe hypotension and ten patients were treated with ephedrine. Of the parameters of HRV, SBPV, and BRS, only BRS(SEQ) was significant being low in Group H. BRS and high-frequency SBPV were correlated with the degree of MBP change after tourniquet deflation. Preoperative low BRS is associated with hypotension after tourniquet deflation, suggesting the importance of baroreflex regulation for intraoperative hemodynamic stability.

  4. Carotid body denervation improves autonomic and cardiac function and attenuates disordered breathing in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Noah J; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Evan P; Xia, Xiao-Hong; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-01-15

    In congestive heart failure (CHF), carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity is enhanced and is associated with oscillatory (Cheyne-Stokes) breathing patterns, increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and increased arrhythmia incidence. We hypothesized that denervation of the CB (CBD) chemoreceptors would reduce SNA, reduce apnoea and arrhythmia incidence and improve ventricular function in pacing-induced CHF rabbits. Resting breathing, renal SNA (RSNA) and arrhythmia incidence were measured in three groups of animals: (1) sham CHF/sham-CBD (sham-sham); (2) CHF/sham-CBD (CHF-sham); and (3) CHF/CBD (CHF-CBD). Chemoreflex sensitivity was measured as the RSNA and minute ventilatory (VE) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Respiratory pattern was measured by plethysmography and quantified by an apnoea-hypopnoea index, respiratory rate variability index and the coefficient of variation of tidal volume. Sympatho-respiratory coupling (SRC) was assessed using power spectral analysis and the magnitude of the peak coherence function between tidal volume and RSNA frequency spectra. Arrhythmia incidence and low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability were assessed using ECG and blood pressure waveforms, respectively. RSNA and VE responses to hypoxia were augmented in CHF-sham and abolished in CHF-CBD animals. Resting RSNA was greater in CHF-sham compared to sham-sham animals (43 ± 5% max vs. 23 ± 2% max, P patterns of changes were observed longitudinally within the CHF-CBD group before and after CBD. In conclusion, CBD is effective in reducing RSNA, SRC and arrhythmia incidence, while improving breathing stability and cardiac function in pacing-induced CHF rabbits.

  5. [Idiopathic autonomic neuropathy (pandysautonomia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowicz, E; Drozdowski, W; Pogumirski, J

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of current literature, clinical and neuropathologic features of idiopathic autonomic neuropathy is presented. Idiopathic autonomic neuropathy is a disease characterized by acute or subacute onset, monophasic course over a period of several years, it is often preceded by an infection. The spectrum of autonomic changes ranges from cholinergic or adrenergic dysfunction to pandysautonomia, leading to heterogeneity of its clinical features. Possible sympathetic system abnormalities found in autonomic neuropathy are: poor pupillary response to light in darkness, orthostatic hypotension leading to syncope, hypotension without compensatory tachycardia, ejaculation disturbances and vasomotor instability. Possible parasympathetic dysfunctions are: salivation and lacrimation disturbances, absent pupillary constriction to light and near gaze, gastrointestinal tract immobility and impairment of gastrointestinal function, atonic bladder with large residual volume, erectile impotence. Pandysautonomia is thought to result from an immune mediated mechanism and responds well to plasmaferesis and intravenous immunoglobin therapy leading to gradual, sometimes not full, recovery. Moreover in this article we pay attention to the clinical value of many tests like cardiovascular or pharmacological studies in the diagnosis of pandysautonomia and in differentiation of pre- and postganglionic changes. In order to diagnose idiopathic autonomic neuropathy one has to rule out a large number of diseases with autonomic dysfunction e.g.: diabetes, malignant neoplasms, acute intermittent porphyria, Shy-Drager syndrome, Riley-Day's dysautonomia, Parkinson's disease, amyloidosis and others.

  6. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part II: The Wearable Device).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieralisi, Marco; Di Mattia, Valentina; Petrini, Valerio; De Leo, Alfredo; Manfredi, Giovanni; Russo, Paola; Scalise, Lorenzo; Cerri, Graziano

    2017-02-16

    Currently, the availability of technology developed to increase the autonomy of visually impaired athletes during sports is limited. The research proposed in this paper (Part I and Part II) focuses on the realization of an electromagnetic system that can guide a blind runner along a race track without the need for a sighted guide. In general, the system is composed of a transmitting unit (widely described in Part I) and a receiving unit, whose components and main features are described in this paper. Special attention is paid to the definition of an electromagnetic model able to faithfully represent the physical mechanisms of interaction between the two units, as well as between the receiving magnetic sensor and the body of the user wearing the device. This theoretical approach allows for an estimation of the signals to be detected, and guides the design of a suitable signal processing board. This technology has been realized, patented, and tested with a blind volunteer with successful results and this paper presents interesting suggestions for further improvements.

  7. High-frequency transformation of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, with autonomously replicating plasmids which are also functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y; Goh, T K; Tani, Y

    1993-06-01

    We have developed a transformation system which uses autonomous replicating plasmids for a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii. Two autonomous replication sequences, CARS1 and CARS2, were newly cloned from the genome of C. boidinii. Plasmids having both a CARS fragment and the C. boidinii URA3 gene transformed C. boidinii ura3 cells to Ura+ phenotype at frequencies of up to 10(4) CFU/micrograms of DNA. From Southern blot analysis, CARS plasmids seemed to exist in polymeric forms as well as in monomeric forms in C. boidinii cells. The C. boidinii URA3 gene was overexpressed in C. boidinii on these CARS vectors. CARS1 and CARS2 were found to function as an autonomous replicating element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well. Different portions of the CARS1 sequence were needed for autonomous replicating activity in C. boidinii and S. cerevisiae. C. boidinii could also be transformed with vectors harboring a CARS fragment and the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene.

  8. Effects of Escitalopram on Autonomic Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram; Selvaraj, Vithyalakshmi; Driscoll, David; Madabushi, Jayakrishna S; Bhatia, Subhash C; Yeragani, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a chronic, debilitating condition that has become a growing concern among combat veterans. Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder disrupts normal autonomic responding and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Measures of heart rate variability and QT interval variability have been used extensively to characterize sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on heart rate in a variety of psychiatric populations. The objective of this study was to better understand the effects of pharmacological treatment on autonomic reactivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. A 12-week, Phase IV, prospective, open-label trial of escitalopram in veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. An outpatient mental health clinic at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Eleven male veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Autonomic reactivity was measured by examining heart rate variability and QT interval variability. Treatment safety and efficacy were also evaluated pre- and post-treatment. We observed a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms from pre- to post-treatment, and escitalopram was generally well tolerated in our sample. In addition, we observed a decrease in high frequency heart rate variability and an increase in QT variability, indicating a reduction in cardiac vagal function and heightened sympathetic activation. These findings suggest that escitalopram treatment in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression can trigger changes in autonomic reactivity that may adversely impact cardiovascular health.

  9. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  10. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  11. The relationship between maternal responsivity, socioeconomic status, and resting autonomic nervous system functioning in Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan; Deardorff, Julianna; Davis, Elizabeth L; Martinez, William; Eskenazi, Brenda; Alkon, Abbey

    2017-06-01

    Adversity, such as living in poor socioeconomic conditions during early childhood, can become embedded in children's physiology and deleteriously affect their health later in life. On the other hand, maternal responsivity may have adaptive effects on physiology during early childhood development. The current study tested both the additive and interactive effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal responsivity measured at 1year of age on resting autonomic nervous system (ANS) function and trajectory during the first 5years of life. Participants came from a birth cohort comprised of Mexican-origin families living in California. Children's resting ANS functioning (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA; pre-ejection period; PEP; and heart rate; HR) was collected at 1, 3.5, and 5years of age (N=336) and modeled across time using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Consistent with hypotheses, results showed that low SES predicted flatter trajectories of resting HR and PEP over early childhood (i.e., patterns of consistently higher heart rate; shorter PEP), whereas children who experienced positive maternal responsivity had steeper trajectories in RSA and PEP over time (i.e., increasing parasympathetic activation; decreasing sympathetic activation). The interaction between SES and maternal responsivity significantly predicted RSA intercept at age 5, such that among children living in low SES environments, high maternal responsivity mitigated the negative effect of poverty and predicted higher resting RSA at 5years of age. Results are consistent with the early life programming theory that suggests that environmental influences become biologically embedded in the physiology of children living in socially disadvantaged contexts, and identify increased maternal responsivity as a developmental mechanism that could offset the deleterious effects of low SES. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M; Handrakis, John P; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Jensen, A Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n=20; TETRA: C4-C8), high paraplegia (n=10; HP: T2-T5), low paraplegia (n=9; LP: T7-T12), and non-SCI controls (n=10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R-R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (Pcontrol groups (Pcontrol groups (P<0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P<0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P<0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated.

  13. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  14. A Basic Architecture of an Autonomous Adaptive System With Conscious-Like Function for a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kinouchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In developing a humanoid robot, there are two major objectives. One is developing a physical robot having body, hands, and feet resembling those of human beings and being able to similarly control them. The other is to develop a control system that works similarly to our brain, to feel, think, act, and learn like ours. In this article, an architecture of a control system with a brain-oriented logical structure for the second objective is proposed. The proposed system autonomously adapts to the environment and implements a clearly defined “consciousness” function, through which both habitual behavior and goal-directed behavior are realized. Consciousness is regarded as a function for effective adaptation at the system-level, based on matching and organizing the individual results of the underlying parallel-processing units. This consciousness is assumed to correspond to how our mind is “aware” when making our moment to moment decisions in our daily life. The binding problem and the basic causes of delay in Libet’s experiment are also explained by capturing awareness in this manner. The goal is set as an image in the system, and efficient actions toward achieving this goal are selected in the goal-directed behavior process. The system is designed as an artificial neural network and aims at achieving consistent and efficient system behavior, through the interaction of highly independent neural nodes. The proposed architecture is based on a two-level design. The first level, which we call the “basic-system,” is an artificial neural network system that realizes consciousness, habitual behavior and explains the binding problem. The second level, which we call the “extended-system,” is an artificial neural network system that realizes goal-directed behavior.

  15. Epigenetic programming of autonomic functions in an experimental model of apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri Nanduri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH is a hallmark manifestation of recurrent apneas, which is a major clinical problem in infants born preterm. Carotid body (CB chemoreflex and catecholamine (CA secretion from adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AMCs are two major mechanisms contributing to the maintenance of cardiorespiratory homeostasis during hypoxia. The purpose of this article is to highlight recent studies showing how neonates experiencing IH affect the CB and AMC function and their consequences in adult life. To simulate apneas, rat pups were treated with IH consisting of alternating cycles of hypoxia (1.5% O2 for 15 s and room air for 5 min, 8 h/day from ages P0–P10. Rats treated neonatal IH displayed augmented CB response to hypoxia and augmented CA secretion from AMC. Rats treated for 10 days of IH in the neonatal period were allowed to grow into adulthood. Remarkably, the effects of neonatal IH on CB and AMC persisted in the adulthood. Moreover, adult rats that were exposed to IH in neonatal period exhibited hypertension, increased incidence apnea. Analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed re-programming of the redox state by epigenetic mechanisms involving suppression of transcription of antioxidant enzyme genes by DNA hypermethylation. DNA hypomethylating agents might offer a novel therapeutic intervention to prevent early onset of cardiorespiratory morbidities caused by neonatal IH.

  16. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André; Vervoort, Wiek

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is

  17. A quarter of a century of function assignment agreements with the autonomous communities. The; Los acuerdos de encomienda con las comunidades autonomas cumplen un cuarto de siglo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Sanchez, M. A.; Rodriguez Marti, M.; Urbano Pollato, I.; Zamora Martin, F.

    2010-07-01

    The CN has the power to commission certain radioactive facility surveillance and inspection functions to the autonomous communities through an agreement between the Council and the regional government in question. The first of these agreements was signed in 1985 with the Regional Government of Catalonia, and during the 25 years that have passed since then similar agreements have been signed with eight other communities: Asturias, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Galicia, Murcia, Navarra, the Basque Country and the Community of Valencia. (Author)

  18. The Role of Autonomic Function in Exercise-induced Endogenous Analgesia: A Case-control Study in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Healthy People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijck, Jessica Van; Marusic, Uros; De Wandele, Inge; Paul, Lorna; Meeus, Mira; Moorkens, Greta; Lambrecht, Luc; Danneels, Lieven; Nijs, Jo

    2017-03-01

    Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are unable to activate brain-orchestrated endogenous analgesia (or descending inhibition) in response to exercise. This physiological impairment is currently regarded as one factor explaining post-exertional malaise in these patients. Autonomic dysfunction is also a feature of ME/CFS. This study aims to examine the role of the autonomic nervous system in exercise-induced analgesia in healthy people and those with ME/CFS, by studying the recovery of autonomic parameters following aerobic exercise and the relation to changes in self-reported pain intensity. A controlled experimental study. The study was conducted at the Human Physiology lab of a University. Twenty women with ME/CFS- and 20 healthy, sedentary controls performed a submaximal bicycle exercise test known as the Aerobic Power Index with continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring. Before and after the exercise, measures of autonomic function (i.e., heart rate variability, blood pressure, and respiration rate) were performed continuously for 10 minutes and self-reported pain levels were registered. The relation between autonomous parameters and self-reported pain parameters was examined using correlation analysis. Some relationships of moderate strength between autonomic and pain measures were found. The change (post-exercise minus pre-exercise score) in pain severity was correlated (r = .580, P = .007) with the change in diastolic blood pressure in the healthy group. In the ME/CFS group, positive correlations between the changes in pain severity and low frequency (r = .552, P = .014), and between the changes in bodily pain and diastolic blood pressure (r = .472, P = .036), were seen. In addition, in ME/CHFS the change in headache severity was inversely correlated (r = -.480, P = .038) with the change in high frequency heart rate variability. Based on the cross-sectional design of the study, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the

  19. Effect of respiratory rehabilitation techniques on the autonomic function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Jibril; Da Silva, Hellen; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Calders, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show several extrapulmonary abnormalities such as impairment in the autonomic function (AF). Similarly, the use of respiratory training techniques such as controlled breathing techniques, noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV), and oxygen supplementation for AF modulation in patients with COPD is popular in existing literature. However, the evidence to support their use is nonexistent. A systematic search of studies reporting on the effect of controlled breathing techniques, NIMV, and/or oxygen supplementation techniques on AF outcome parameters was conducted in three online databases: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, relevant studies were retained and qualitatively analyzed for evidence synthesis. The methodological quality in these studies was evaluated using the evidence based guideline development (EBRO) checklists per designs provided by the Dutch Cochrane Centre. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria of the review and were included and discussed. The evidence synthesis revealed that a strong and moderate level evidence supported oxygen supplementation and slow breathing techniques, respectively, in significantly enhancing the baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) values in patients with COPD. The effect of the examined techniques on the heart rate variability and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was of a limited or inconsistent evidence. The findings from this review suggest that oxygen supplementation and controlled breathing techniques have profound positive influence on the BRS in patients with COPD. However, it is not fully clear whether these influence translates to any therapeutic benefit on the general AF of patients with COPD in the long term.

  20. Treatment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules at a single institution. Radioiodine therapy, surgery, and ethanol injection therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Sugino, Kiminori; Akaishi, Junko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of radioiodine (RI) therapy in Japanese patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs). We performed a retrospective analysis to assess the management of AFTN patients. Thyroid lobectomy was performed to treat toxic adenoma (TA) patients, and total thyroidectomy to treat toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) patients. RI therapy was administered in the form of a single dose (500 MBq) of isotope in the outpatient clinic. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) was performed under ultrasound guidance. Of the total 205 patients, consisting of 159 TA and 46 TMNG patients, 99 underwent surgery, 50 received RI therapy, and 56 received PEIT. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was achieved in all of the patients who were treated surgically. Hypothyroidism was documented in six of the 72 patients who were treated surgically other than by total thyroidectomy. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was observed in 43 of the 50 patients who were treated by RI therapy. Nine TA patients developed hypothyroidism during the follow-up period after RI therapy. Several PEIT sessions were required to achieve a remission of thyrotoxicosis. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was achieved in 29 of the 56 patients treated by PEIT, and thyrotoxicosis recurred in 17 these 56 patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice for large nodules and nodules that are resistant to other treatments, because it allows prompt control of thyrotoxicosis. RI therapy is a safe and effective means of controlling thyrotoxicosis in AFTN patients. We conclude that RI therapy is the treatment of choice for definitive treatment of AFTN patients who do not have local compression symptoms. (author)

  1. CFTR Influences Beta Cell Function and Insulin Secretion Through Non-Cell Autonomous Exocrine-Derived Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingshen; Yi, Yaling; Xie, Weiliang; Liang, Bo; Winter, Michael C; He, Nan; Liu, Xiaoming; Luo, Meihui; Yang, Yu; Ode, Katie Larson; Uc, Aliye; Norris, Andrew W; Engelhardt, John F

    2017-10-01

    Although β-cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to diabetes, the mechanism by which the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel influences islet insulin secretion remains debated. We investigated the CFTR-dependent islet-autonomous mechanisms affecting insulin secretion by using islets isolated from CFTR knockout ferrets. Total insulin content was lower in CF as compared with wild-type (WT) islets. Furthermore, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was impaired in perifused neonatal CF islets, with reduced first, second, and amplifying phase secretion. Interestingly, CF islets compensated for reduced insulin content under static low-glucose conditions by secreting a larger fraction of islet insulin than WT islets, probably because of elevated SLC2A1 transcripts, increased basal inhibition of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATP), and elevated basal intracellular Ca2+. Interleukin (IL)-6 secretion by CF islets was higher relative to WT, and IL-6 treatment of WT ferret islets produced a CF-like phenotype with reduced islet insulin content and elevated percentage insulin secretion in low glucose. CF islets exhibited altered expression of INS, CELA3B, and several β-cell maturation and proliferation genes. Pharmacologic inhibition of CFTR reduced GSIS by WT ferret and human islets but similarly reduced insulin secretion and intracellular Ca2+ in CFTR knockout ferret islets, indicating that the mechanism of action is not through CFTR. Single-molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization, on isolated ferret and human islets and ferret pancreas, demonstrated that CFTR RNA colocalized within KRT7+ ductal cells but not endocrine cells. These results suggest that CFTR affects β-cell function via a paracrine mechanism involving proinflammatory factors secreted from islet-associated exocrine-derived cell types. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  2. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part I: The Fixed Infrastructure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieralisi, Marco; Di Mattia, Valentina; Petrini, Valerio; De Leo, Alfredo; Manfredi, Giovanni; Russo, Paola; Scalise, Lorenzo; Cerri, Graziano

    2017-02-14

    Sport is one of the best ways to promote the social integration of people affected by physical disability, because it helps them to increase their self-esteem by facing difficulties and overcoming their disabilities. Nowadays, a large number of sports can be easily played by visually impaired and blind athletes without any special supports, but, there are some disciplines that require the presence of a sighted guide. In this work, the attention will be focused on marathons, during which athletes with visual disorders have to be linked to the sighted guide by means of a non-stretchable elbow tether, with an evident reduction of their performance and autonomy. In this context, this paper presents a fixed electromagnetic infrastructure to equip a standard running racetrack in order to help a blind athlete to safely run without the presence of a sighted guide. The athlete runs inside an invisible hallway, just wearing a light and a comfortable sensor unit. The patented system has been homemade, designed, realized and finally tested by a blind Paralympic marathon champion with encouraging results and interesting suggestions for technical improvements. In this paper (Part I), the transmitting unit, whose main task is to generate the two magnetic fields that delimit the safe hallway, is presented and discussed.

  3. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part I: The Fixed Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pieralisi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sport is one of the best ways to promote the social integration of people affected by physical disability, because it helps them to increase their self-esteem by facing difficulties and overcoming their disabilities. Nowadays, a large number of sports can be easily played by visually impaired and blind athletes without any special supports, but, there are some disciplines that require the presence of a sighted guide. In this work, the attention will be focused on marathons, during which athletes with visual disorders have to be linked to the sighted guide by means of a non-stretchable elbow tether, with an evident reduction of their performance and autonomy. In this context, this paper presents a fixed electromagnetic infrastructure to equip a standard running racetrack in order to help a blind athlete to safely run without the presence of a sighted guide. The athlete runs inside an invisible hallway, just wearing a light and a comfortable sensor unit. The patented system has been homemade, designed, realized and finally tested by a blind Paralympic marathon champion with encouraging results and interesting suggestions for technical improvements. In this paper (Part I, the transmitting unit, whose main task is to generate the two magnetic fields that delimit the safe hallway, is presented and discussed.

  4. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisé, Kenneth N; Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Dey, Adwitia; Jiang, Mao; Lacefield, James C; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2016-01-01

    Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV) autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary T1DM (D), control exercise (CX), or T1DM exercise (DX). Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9-17 mM) through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY), and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY), including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM.

  5. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Grisé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C, sedentary T1DM (D, control exercise (CX, or T1DM exercise (DX. Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9–17 mM through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY, and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY, including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM.

  6. Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Staehelin Jensen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autonomic function has received little attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology has an impact on brain regions which are important for central autonomic control, but it is unclear if AD is associated with disturbance of autonomic function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autonomic...

  7. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: Implications for cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M.; Handrakis, John P.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Jensen, A. Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A.; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n = 20; TETRA: C4–C8), high paraplegia (n = 10; HP: T2–T5), low paraplegia (n = 9; LP: T7–T12), and non-SCI controls (n = 10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R–R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R–R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.05); daytime HR was higher in both paraplegic groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01) and nighttime HR was significantly elevated in the LP group compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P < 0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated. PMID:21903013

  8. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder versus resilience on nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity as functions of sleep stage and time of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Bell, Kimberly; Mellman, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with sleep disturbances including alterations in sleep stages and recently, elevated nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal (i.e., dominance of the sympathetic nervous system over the parasympathetic nervous system). Data suggest that sleep contributes to the regulation of ANS activity. In our previous ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring study, strong relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity in resilient participants (i.e., individuals who had never had PTSD despite exposure to high-impact trauma) were not seen with PTSD. In this study, we examined the impact of PTSD vs. resilience on ANS activity as a function of sleep stage and time of sleep. Participants (age 18-35) with current PTSD (n=38) and resilience (n=33) completed two overnight polysomnography recordings in a lab setting. The second night electrocardiogram was analyzed for frequency domain HRV parameters and heart rate within rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Results indicated that ANS arousal indexed by HRV was greater during REM compared with NREM sleep and that the REM-NREM difference was greater in the PTSD than in the resilient participants. This effect of PTSD was reduced to non-significance when analyses controlled for REM sleep percentage, which was lower with PTSD. Exploratory analyses revealed that the REM-NREM difference in HRV was correlated with REM sleep percentage in resilient participants, but not with PTSD. In contrast with our data from home settings, the present study did not find increased overall nocturnal ANS arousal with PTSD. Analyses did reveal higher heart rate during initial NREM sleep with more rapid decline over the course of NREM sleep with PTSD compared with resilience. Findings suggest that elevated ANS arousal indexed by heart rate with PTSD is specific to the early part of sleep and possible impairment in regulating ANS activity with PTSD related to

  9. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, G.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Creemers, H.E.; van der Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different

  10. Alterations in HPA-axis and autonomic nervous system functioning in childhood anxiety disorders point to a chronic stress hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Gwendolyn C.; Huizink, Anja C.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Creemers, Hanneke E.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    It is of debate whether or not childhood anxiety disorders (AD) can be captured by one taxonomic construct. This study examined whether perceived arousal (PA), autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures can distinguish children with different primary

  11. Evaluation of the autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture using the impulse response function; Impulse oto kansu wo mochiita shisei henkan katoki ni okeru jiritsu shinkei kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Toyota College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    Autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture has been evaluated by applying transient response function of the system to the blood regulation system. The impulse response function was determined from the change in heart rate before postural change to the upright posture, and was compared with the transient change immediately after a change to the upright posture. The time series of R-R interval of electrocardiogram was used as the time series of the change in heart rate. To determine the impulse response function, an autoregressive model was applied to the R-R interval time series. The impulse response function at the steady state is a transient reaction at the impulse stimulation added to the blood regulation system. The R-R interval decreases rapidly by the autonomic neuropathy reaction in which the blood is rapidly transferred into the legs immediately after a change to upright posture. There is a close correlation between the initial temporary decrease in R-R interval and the impulse response function derived from the change in heart rate immediately after a change to the upright posture. Accordingly, the blood regulation and autonomic neuropathy functions can be evaluated by the impulse response function without actual standing test and load of tested persons. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. In vivo functional connectome of human brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, autonomic, and motor systems by high spatial resolution 7-Tesla fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Eichner, Cornelius; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Setsompop, Kawin; Brown, Emery N; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Rosen, Bruce R; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to map the in vivo human functional connectivity of several brainstem nuclei with the rest of the brain by using seed-based correlation of ultra-high magnetic field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We used the recently developed template of 11 brainstem nuclei derived from multi-contrast structural MRI at 7 Tesla as seed regions to determine their connectivity to the rest of the brain. To achieve this, we used the increased contrast-to-noise ratio of 7-Tesla fMRI compared with 3 Tesla and time-efficient simultaneous multi-slice imaging to cover the brain with high spatial resolution (1.1-mm isotropic nominal resolution) while maintaining a short repetition time (2.5 s). The delineated Pearson's correlation-based functional connectivity diagrams (connectomes) of 11 brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, motor, and autonomic systems from 12 controls are presented and discussed in the context of existing histology and animal work. Considering that the investigated brainstem nuclei play a crucial role in several vital functions, the delineated preliminary connectomes might prove useful for future in vivo research and clinical studies of human brainstem function and pathology, including disorders of consciousness, sleep disorders, autonomic disorders, Parkinson's disease, and other motor disorders.

  13. In vivo functional connectome of human brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, autonomic and motor systems by high spatial resolution 7 Tesla fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Eichner, Cornelius; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Setsompop, Kawin; Brown, Emery N.; Hamalainen, Matti S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Object To map the in vivo human functional connectivity of several brainstem nuclei with the rest of the brain by using seed-based correlation of ultra-high magnetic field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Materials and Methods We used the recently developed template of 11 brainstem nuclei derived from multi-contrast structural MRI at 7 Tesla as seed regions to determine their connectivity to the rest of the brain. To achieve this, we utilized the increased contrast-to-noise ratio of 7 Tesla fMRI compared to 3 Tesla and the time efficient simultaneous multi-slice imaging to cover the brain with high spatial resolution (1.1 mm-isotropic nominal resolution) while maintaining a short repetition time (2.5 s). Results The delineated Pearson’s correlation-based functional connectivity diagrams (connectomes) of 11 brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, motor and autonomic systems from 12 controls are presented and discussed in the context of existing histology and animal work. Conclusion Considering that the investigated brainstem nuclei play a crucial role in several vital functions, the delineated preliminary connectomes might prove useful for future in vivo research and clinical studies of human brainstem function and pathology, including disorders of consciousness, sleep disorders, autonomic disorders, Parkinson’s disease and other motor disorders. PMID:27126248

  14. Autonomic epileptic seizures, autonomic effects of seizures, and SUDEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Brian; Bateman, Lisa; Millichap, John J; Wirrell, Elaine; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P

    2013-03-01

    Many generalized tonic-clonic seizures are accompanied by profound autonomic changes. However, autonomic seizures and autonomic status epilepticus can also be seen with specific electroclinical syndromes (Panayiotopoulos syndrome), etiologies, and localizations. Such autonomic symptoms may impact cardiorespiratory function. While it is likely that several factors contribute to SUDEP, further study of both ictal respiratory and cardiac changes and underlying neuroanatomical mechanisms involved in autonomic seizure semiology are likely to provide important data to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of this devastating condition. This paper will review the association between autonomic symptoms and epileptic seizures and will highlight the work of three young investigators. Drs. Lisa Bateman and Brian Moseley will review their work on cardiorespiratory effects of recorded seizures and how this assists in our understanding of SUDEP. Dr. John Millichap will review autonomic seizures and autonomic dysfunctions related to childhood epilepsy and will discuss the importance of expanded research efforts in this field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DYNAMICS OF CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE HEPATITIS B WITH CHRONIC ALCOHOL USE IN HEPATOTOXIC DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Furyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of hepatitis B due to the high incidence complexity of pathogenesis, ineffective treatment, severe consequences of the disease. Among combined lesions of the liver, special attention is paid to viral-alcoholic type. One of the mechanisms of chronic hepatitis of different etiology is violation of the functional activity of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of this work- to determine the dynamics of spectral indices of heart rate variability in patients with acute hepatitis B from chronic use of alcohol in hepatotoxic doses. Materials and methods. 133 patients with acute hepatitis B were under observation. Patients were divided into groups taking account the presence or absence of chronic use of alcohol in hepatotoxic doses and using the classification of alcohol consumption based on the frequency and dose of consumed alcohol. I group comprised 52 patients with chronic use of alcohol in the hepatotoxic doses, II group consisted of 81 patient without this factor. Heart rate variability was diagnosed using computer cardiointervalometry performed by electrocardiographic diagnostic system CardioLab-2000. 20 healthy individuals were in the control group. Results and discussion. Prodromal period in patients of the I group was longer (p0,05. However, only patients in group I had marked hemorrhagic manifestations (5,8 % and itching (7.7%. Average serum total bilirubin level was higher (p<0,05 in patients from the I group than in patients from II group. Functional state of autonomic nervous system in patients of both groups were decreased in acute period (vagotonia. Period of convalescence in patients from the I group was accompanied by more severe autonomic dysfunction in 33,6 % (p<0,05. Conclusions. 1. Acute hepatitis B in patients with chronic alcohol use in hepatotoxic doses is characterized by longer (p<0,05 prodrome, cholestatic (7,7% and hemorrhagic manifestations (5,8%, higher levels of hyperbilirubinemia (p<0,05, and during

  16. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  17. Changes in Autonomic Nervous System Activity are Associated with Changes in Sexual Function in Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney K; Harte, Christopher B; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-07-01

    Women with histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have higher rates of sexual difficulties, as well as high sympathetic nervous system response to sexual stimuli. The study aims to examine whether treatment-related changes in autonomic balance, as indexed by heart rate variability (HRV), were associated with changes in sexual arousal and orgasm function. In study 1, we measured HRV while writing a sexual essay in 42 healthy, sexually functional women without any history of sexual trauma. These data, along with demographics, were used to develop HRV norms equations. In study 2, 136 women with a history of CSA were randomized to one of three active expressive writing treatments that focused on their trauma, sexuality, or daily life (control condition). We recorded HRV while writing a sexual essay at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 2-week, and 1- and 6-month follow-ups; we also calculated the expected HRV for each participant based on the norms equations from study 1. The main outcome measures used were HRV, Female Sexual Function Index, Sexual Satisfaction Scale--Women. The difference between expected and observed HRV decreased over time, indicating that, posttreatment, CSA survivors displayed HRV closer to the expected HRV of a demographics-matched woman with no history of sexual trauma. Also, over time, participants whose HRV became less dysregulated showed the biggest gains in sexual arousal and orgasm function. These effects were consistent across condition. Treatments that reduce autonomic imbalance may improve sexual well-being among CSA populations. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Age-related changes in cardiovascular system, autonomic functions, and levels of BDNF of healthy active males: role of yogic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rameswar; Singh, Som Nath; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Saha, Mantu

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in cardiovascular, autonomic function, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Reports are scanty regarding whether yoga can improve age-related degenerative changes in healthy active men. This study is designed to appraise the role of yoga in improving age-related degenerative changes in cardiometabolic risk profile, autonomic function, stress, and BDNF. Healthy active males of three age groups (20-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years) were randomly assigned to practice yoga daily 1 h for 3 months. Significantly higher values of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), load in heart (DoP), myocardial oxygen consumption (RPP), and total cholesterol (TC) were noted in senior age group. HR, BP, DoP, RPP, and TC decreased significantly following yogic practice. High frequency (HF), total power (TP), all time domain variables of heart rate variability (HRV), and skin conductance (SC) were significantly decreased with advancement of age. HF, TP, and time domain parameters of HRV and SC increased significantly following yogic practice. Higher levels of catecholamines and low frequency (LF) power of HRV was noted with advancement of age. Levels of catecholamines and LF significantly decreased following yogic practice. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level raised in senior age group. BDNF, serotonin, and dopamine were low in higher age group. Significant decrement of cortisol; ACTH; and increment in serotonin, dopamine, and BDNF was noted following yogic practice. This study revealed that yogic practices might help in the prevention of age-related degeneration by changing cardiometabolic risk factors, autonomic function, and BDNF in healthy male.

  19. Application of Autonomous Smart Inverter Volt-VAR Function for Voltage Reduction Energy Savings and Power Quality in Electric Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Baggu, Murali; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Nguyen, Andu; Walinga, Sarah; McCarty, Michael; Bell, Frances

    2017-05-01

    This paper evaluated the impact of smart inverter Volt-VAR function on voltage reduction energy saving and power quality in electric power distribution systems. A methodology to implement the voltage reduction optimization was developed by controlling the substation LTC and capacitor banks, and having smart inverters participate through their autonomous Volt-VAR control. In addition, a power quality scoring methodology was proposed and utilized to quantify the effect on power distribution system power quality. All of these methodologies were applied to a utility distribution system model to evaluate the voltage reduction energy saving and power quality under various PV penetrations and smart inverter densities.

  20. Relations between social-perceptual ability in multi- and unisensory contexts, autonomic reactivity, and social functioning in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Arnold, Andrew J; Woo-VonHoogenstyn, Nicholas; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    Compromised social-perceptual ability has been proposed to contribute to social dysfunction in neurodevelopmental disorders. While such impairments have been identified in Williams syndrome (WS), little is known about emotion processing in auditory and multisensory contexts. Employing a multidimensional approach, individuals with WS and typical development (TD) were tested for emotion identification across fearful, happy, and angry multisensory and unisensory face and voice stimuli. Autonomic responses were monitored in response to unimodal emotion. The WS group was administered an inventory of social functioning. Behaviorally, individuals with WS relative to TD demonstrated impaired processing of unimodal vocalizations and emotionally incongruent audiovisual compounds, reflecting a generalized deficit in social-auditory processing in WS. The TD group outperformed their counterparts with WS in identifying negative (fearful and angry) emotion, with similar between-group performance with happy stimuli. Mirroring this pattern, electrodermal activity (EDA) responses to the emotional content of the stimuli indicated that whereas those with WS showed the highest arousal to happy, and lowest arousal to fearful stimuli, the TD participants demonstrated the contrasting pattern. In WS, more normal social functioning was related to higher autonomic arousal to facial expressions. Implications for underlying neural architecture and emotional functions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of aging on cardiac function in a female rat model of menopause: role of autonomic control, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Jacqueline Freire; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Freitas, Sarah Cristina; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; da Silva, Maikon Barbosa; Cruz, Paula Lázara; Mostarda, Cristiano; Salemi, Vera M C; Morris, Mariana; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters after ovarian hormone deprivation (OVX). Methods Female Wistar rats (3 or 22 months old) were divided into: young controls, young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized (bilateral ovaries removal). After a 9-week follow-up, physical capacity, metabolic parameters, and morphometric and cardiac functions were assessed. Subsequently, arterial pressure was recorded and cardiac autonomic control was evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured on the cardiac tissue, while inflammatory profile was assessed in the plasma. Results Aging or OVX caused an increase in body and fat weight and triglyceride concentration and a decrease in both insulin sensitivity and aerobic exercise capacity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased cardiac overload (myocardial performance index) were reported in old groups when compared with young groups. Aging and OVX led to an increased sympathetic tonus, and vagal tonus was lower only for the old groups. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were increased in old groups when compared with young groups. Glutathione redox balance (GSH/GSSG) was reduced in young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized groups when compared with young controls, indicating an increased oxidative stress. A negative correlation was found between GSH/GSSG and tumor necrosis factor-α (r=−0.6, P<0.003). Correlations were found between interleukin-6 with adipose tissue (r=0.5, P<0.009) and vagal tonus (r=−0.7, P<0.0002); and among myocardial performance index with interleukin-6 (r=0.65, P<0.0002), sympathetic tonus (r=0.55, P<0.006), and physical capacity (r=−0.55, P<0.003). The findings in this trial showed that ovariectomy aggravated the impairment of cardiac and functional effects of aging in female rats, probably associated with exacerbated autonomic dysfunction

  2. Autonomic dysfunction in primary Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszewicz, M; Gosk-Bierska, I; Bilińska, M; Podemski, R; Budrewicz, S; Adamiec, R; Słotwiński, K

    2009-04-01

    The pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon is still unclear. Neural and intravascular mechanisms are thought to be involved in the pathological process. The role of the autonomic nervous system is continually discussed, with particular attention to over-reactivity of the sympathetic part. The aim of this study was the clinical and electrophysiological analysis of autonomic nervous system function in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Thirty four patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and 31 sex and age-matched controls were examined. Neurological examination, modified Low's Questionnaire, orthostatic and sustained handgrip tests, conduction velocity study in three nerves, sympathetic skin response (SSR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during deep breathing and at rest with the fast Fourier transform were performed. In the clinical examinations, 35.3% of the primary Raynaud's patients presented sensory neuropathy, but this was not confirmed in the standard conduction velocity tests. The modified Low's Questionnaire revealed dysautonomy in 82% of the patients. Autonomic regulation during the orthostatic and handgrip tests were within the normal limits. HRV at rest and the E/I ratio were significantly lower in the patient group than in the controls, while HRV spectrum analysis revealed the predominance of the low-frequency band in the patients. These results indicate the presence of sympathetic dysregulation and impairment of parasympathetic modulation of heart function in primary Raynaud's patients. The different cardiovascular and sudomotor functions are not affected to the same degree. These observations might support the theory of a central impairment of autonomic function in primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Peripheral nerve lesion as a coexisting cause of the observed dysautonomy remains uncertain.

  3. Planar polarity pathway and Nance-Horan syndrome-like 1b have essential cell-autonomous functions in neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory S; Grant, Paul K; Morgan, John A; Moens, Cecilia B

    2011-07-01

    Components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway are required for the caudal tangential migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons, but how PCP signaling regulates this migration is not understood. In a forward genetic screen, we identified a new gene, nhsl1b, required for FBM neuron migration. nhsl1b encodes a WAVE-homology domain-containing protein related to human Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) protein and Drosophila GUK-holder (Gukh), which have been shown to interact with components of the WAVE regulatory complex that controls cytoskeletal dynamics and with the polarity protein Scribble, respectively. Nhsl1b localizes to FBM neuron membrane protrusions and interacts physically and genetically with Scrib to control FBM neuron migration. Using chimeric analysis, we show that FBM neurons have two modes of migration: one involving interactions between the neurons and their planar-polarized environment, and an alternative, collective mode involving interactions between the neurons themselves. We demonstrate that the first mode of migration requires the cell-autonomous functions of Nhsl1b and the PCP components Scrib and Vangl2 in addition to the non-autonomous functions of Scrib and Vangl2, which serve to polarize the epithelial cells in the environment of the migrating neurons. These results define a role for Nhsl1b as a neuronal effector of PCP signaling and indicate that proper FBM neuron migration is directly controlled by PCP signaling between the epithelium and the migrating neurons.

  4. Impact of cancer and chemotherapy on autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular reactivity in young adults with cancer: a case-controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; Schondorf, Ronald; Benoit, Julie; Kilgour, Robert D

    2015-05-18

    Preliminary evidence suggests cancer- and chemotherapy-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction may contribute to the increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity- and mortality-risks in cancer survivors. However, the reliability of these findings may have been jeopardized by inconsistent participant screening and assessment methods. Therefore, good laboratory practices must be established before the presence and nature of cancer-related autonomic dysfunction can be characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting concurrent ANS and cardiovascular evaluations in young adult cancer patients, according to the following criteria: i) identifying methodological pitfalls and proposing good laboratory practice criteria for ANS testing in cancer, and ii) providing initial physiologic evidence of autonomic perturbations in cancer patients using the composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS). Thirteen patients (mixed diagnoses) were assessed immediately before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Their results were compared to 12 sex- and age-matched controls. ANS function was assessed using standardized tests of resting CV (tilt-table, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva maneuver) and sudomotor (quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test) reactivity. Cardiovascular reactivity during exercise was assessed using a modified Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer protocol. Our feasibility criteria addressed: i) recruitment potential, ii) retention rates, iii) pre-chemotherapy assessment potential, iv) test performance/tolerability, and v) identification and minimizing the influence of potentially confounding medication. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess between- and within-group differences at baseline and follow-up. The overall success rate in achieving our feasibility criteria was 98.4 %. According to the CASS, there was evidence of ANS impairment at baseline in 30.8 % of patients, which persisted in 18.2 % of patients

  5. Impact of cancer and chemotherapy on autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular reactivity in young adults with cancer: a case-controlled feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott C.; Schondorf, Ronald; Benoit, Julie; Kilgour, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests cancer- and chemotherapy-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction may contribute to the increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity- and mortality-risks in cancer survivors. However, the reliability of these findings may have been jeopardized by inconsistent participant screening and assessment methods. Therefore, good laboratory practices must be established before the presence and nature of cancer-related autonomic dysfunction can be characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting concurrent ANS and cardiovascular evaluations in young adult cancer patients, according to the following criteria: i) identifying methodological pitfalls and proposing good laboratory practice criteria for ANS testing in cancer, and ii) providing initial physiologic evidence of autonomic perturbations in cancer patients using the composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS). Thirteen patients (mixed diagnoses) were assessed immediately before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Their results were compared to 12 sex- and age-matched controls. ANS function was assessed using standardized tests of resting CV (tilt-table, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva maneuver) and sudomotor (quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test) reactivity. Cardiovascular reactivity during exercise was assessed using a modified Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer protocol. Our feasibility criteria addressed: i) recruitment potential, ii) retention rates, iii) pre-chemotherapy assessment potential, iv) test performance/tolerability, and v) identification and minimizing the influence of potentially confounding medication. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess between- and within-group differences at baseline and follow-up. The overall success rate in achieving our feasibility criteria was 98.4 %. According to the CASS, there was evidence of ANS impairment at baseline in 30.8 % of patients, which persisted in 18.2 % of patients

  6. Insights into the background of autonomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Geraldes, Vera; Oliveira, Mário; Rocha, Isabel

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the physiology underlying the autonomic nervous system is pivotal for understanding autonomic dysfunction in clinical practice. Autonomic dysfunction may result from primary modifications of the autonomic nervous system or be secondary to a wide range of diseases that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Together with a detailed history and physical examination, laboratory assessment of autonomic function is essential for the analysis of various clinical conditions and the establishment of effective, personalized and precise therapeutic schemes. This review summarizes the main aspects of autonomic medicine that constitute the background of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Detecting necessary and sufficient parts for assembling a functional weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Solomon, Divya; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Adkins, Tracy; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2017-05-01

    Continuing our previous research to visually extract and visually and conceptually match weapons, this study develops a method to determine whether a set of weapon parts visually extracted from images taken from different scenes can be assembled as a firing weapon. This new approach identifies potential weapons in the ontology via tracing detected necessary and sufficient parts through their meronymic relation to the whole weapon. A fast algorithm for identifying potential weapons that can be assembled from a given set of detected parts is presented.

  8. DARTS: Deceiving Autonomous Cars with Toxic Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Sitawarin, Chawin; Bhagoji, Arjun Nitin; Mosenia, Arsalan; Chiang, Mung; Mittal, Prateek

    2018-01-01

    Sign recognition is an integral part of autonomous cars. Any misclassification of traffic signs can potentially lead to a multitude of disastrous consequences, ranging from a life-threatening accident to a large-scale interruption of transportation services relying on autonomous cars. In this paper, we propose and examine realistic security attacks against sign recognition systems for Deceiving Autonomous caRs with Toxic Signs (we call the proposed attacks DARTS). Leveraging the concept of ad...

  9. Effect of tDCS with an extracephalic reference electrode on cardio-respiratory and autonomic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamart Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is used in human physiological studies and for therapeutic trials in patients with abnormalities of cortical excitability. Its safety profile places tDCS in the pole-position for translating in real-world therapeutic application. However, an episode of transient respiratory depression in a subject receiving tDCS with an extracephalic electrode led to the suggestion that such an electrode montage could modulate the brainstem autonomic centres. We investigated whether tDCS applied over the midline frontal cortex in 30 healthy volunteers (sham n = 10, cathodal n = 10, anodal n = 10 with an extracephalic reference electrode would modulate brainstem activity as reflected by the monitoring and stringent analysis of vital parameters: heart rate (variability, respiratory rate, blood pressure and sympatho-vagal balance. We reasoned that this study could lead to two opposite but equally interesting outcomes: 1 If tDCS with an extracephalic electrode modulated vital parameters, it could be used as a new tool to explore the autonomic nervous system and, even, to modulate its activity for therapeutic purposes. 2 On the opposite, if applying tDCS with an extracephalic electrode had no effect, it could thus be used safely in healthy human subjects. This outcome would significantly impact the field of non-invasive brain stimulation with tDCS. Indeed, on the one hand, using an extracephalic electrode as a genuine neutral reference (as opposed to the classical "bi-cephalic" tDCS montages which deliver bi-polar stimulation of the brain would help to comfort the conclusions of several modern studies regarding the spatial location and polarity of tDCS. On the other hand, using an extracephalic reference electrode may impact differently on a given cortical target due to the change of direct current flow direction; this may enlarge the potential interventions with tDCS. Results Whereas the respiratory

  10. Cardiac autonomic function and baroreflex changes following 4 weeks of resistance versus aerobic training in individuals with pre-hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S R; Kanaley, J A; Carhart, R; Frechette, V; Tobin, M M; Bennett, N; Luckenbaugh, A N; Fernhall, B

    2009-03-01

    Cardiac autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) are altered in individuals with hypertension. Aerobic exercise (AE) training has been shown to improve both measures, yet little is known about the effects of resistance exercise (RE). The purpose of this study was to examine the heart rate variability (HRV) and BRS following 4 weeks of resistance or aerobic training in a population with borderline high blood pressure (BP). Twenty-nine mild hypertensives were recruited and randomly assigned to 4 weeks of RE or AE training. Before and after training, resting measures of HRV frequencies and BRS were obtained. There was a significant decrease in resting systolic BP for both exercise training modes (RE 136 +/- 3.0 pre- to 132 +/- 3.4 post-training vs. AE 142 +/- 4.0 pre- to 137 +/- 3.6 mmHg post-training, P = 0.019). Diastolic BP decreased significantly following both exercise training modes (RE 78 +/- 1.31 pre to 74 +/- 1.1 post vs. AE 80 +/- 1.7 pre to 77 +/- 1.6 mmHg post, P = 0.002). A significant time by training mode interaction for low frequency : high frequency (HF) ratio (P = 0.017) with AE decreasing the ratio (275.21 +/- 67.28 to 161.26 +/- 61.49) and RE increasing this ratio (143.73 +/- 65.00 to 227.83 +/- 59.41). Natural log-transformed (ln) HRV values showed a time-by-training mode interaction for ln HF (P = 0.05) as ln HF increased (4.7 +/- 0.38 to 5.4 +/- 0.35 ms(2)) following AE and decreased (5.98 +/- 0.37 to 5.76 +/- 0.42 ms(2)) following RE. BRS increased following aerobic training and decreased after resistance training (6.74 +/- 1.2 to 7.94 +/- 1.3 and 10.44 +/- 1.2 to 9.1 +/- 1.2 ms mmHg(-1) respectively, P = 0.021). Aerobic exercise improved the autonomic nervous system (increasing vagal tone, reducing sympathovagal balance while increasing BRS) while RE showed no improvements in cardiac autonomic tone and decreased BRS.

  11. mGluR5 Exerts Cell-Autonomous Influences on the Functional and Anatomical Development of Layer IV Cortical Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Rosado, Carlos J; Sun, Hao; Huang, Jui-Yen; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2016-08-24

    Glutamate neurotransmission refines synaptic connections to establish the precise neural circuits underlying sensory processing. Deleting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in mice perturbs cortical somatosensory map formation in the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex at both functional and anatomical levels. To examine the cell-autonomous influences of mGluR5 signaling in the morphological and functional development of layer IV spiny stellate glutamatergic neurons receiving sensory input, mGluR5 genetic mosaic mice were generated through in utero electroporation. In the S1 cortex of these mosaic brains, we found that most wild-type neurons were located in barrel rings encircling thalamocortical axon (TCA) clusters while mGluR5 knock-out (KO) neurons were placed in the septal area, the cell-sparse region separating barrels. These KO neurons often displayed a symmetrical dendritic morphology with increased dendritic complexity, in contrast to the polarized pattern of wild-type neurons. The dendritic spine density of mGluR5 KO spiny stellate neurons was significantly higher than in wild-type neurons. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings detected a significant increase in the frequencies of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic events in mGluR5 KO neurons compared with neighboring wild-type neurons. Our mosaic analysis provides strong evidence supporting the cell-autonomous influence of mGluR5 signaling on the functional and anatomical development of cortical glutamatergic neurons. Specifically, mGluR5 is required in cortical glutamatergic neurons for the following processes: (1) the placement of cortical glutamatergic neurons close to TCA clusters; (2) the regulation of dendritic complexity and outgrowth toward TCA clusters; (3) spinogenesis; and (4) tuning of excitatory inputs. Glutamatergic transmission plays a critical role in cortical circuit formation. Its dysfunction has been proposed as a core factor in the etiology of many

  12. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  13. Exercise reveals the interrelation of physical fitness, inflammatory response, psychopathology, and autonomic function in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Stefanie; Herbsleb, Marco; Schulz, Steffen; Donath, Lars; Berger, Sandy; Eisenträger, Daniela; Siebert, Tobias; Müller, Hans-Josef; Puta, Christian; Voss, Andreas; Gabriel, Holger W; Koch, Kathrin; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining and improving fitness are associated with a lower risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease. Patients with schizophrenia are known to exercise less and have poorer health behaviors than average. Physical fitness and physiological regulation during exercise tasks have not been investigated to date among patients with schizophrenia. We studied autonomic modulation in a stepwise exhaustion protocol in 23 patients with schizophrenia and in matched controls, using spirometry and lactate diagnostics. Parameters of physical capacity were determined at the aerobic, anaerobic, and vagal thresholds (VT), as well as for peak output. VT was correlated with psychopathology, as assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, with the inflammatory markers IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and with peak output. The MANOVA for heart and breathing rates, as well as for vagal modulation and complexity behavior of heart rate, indicated a profound lack of vagal modulation at all intensity levels, even after the covariate carbon monoxide concentration was introduced as a measure of smoking behavior. Significantly decreased physical capacity was demonstrated at the aerobic, anaerobic, and VT in patients. After the exercise task, reduced vagal modulation in patients correlated negatively with positive symptoms and with levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. This study shows decreased physical capacity in patients with schizophrenia. Upcoming intervention studies need to take into account the autonomic imbalance, which might predispose patients to arrhythmias during exercise. Results of inflammatory parameters are suggestive of a reduced activity of the anti-inflammatory cholinergic pathway in patients, leading to a pro-inflammatory state.

  14. N-Acetylmannosamine improves sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice: relevance to autonomic nervous function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Ito, Koichi; Hayakawa, Koji; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a variety of physiological changes originating peripherally and centrally, including within the autonomic nervous system. Sleep-wake disturbances constitute reliable hallmarks of aging in several animal species and humans. Recent studies have been interested in N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) a potential therapeutic agent for improving quality of life, as well as preventing age-related cognitive decline. In this study, ManNAc (5.0 mg/ml) was administered in the drinking water of middle-aged male C57BL/6J mice (55 weeks old) for 7 days. Mice were housed under a 12:12 h light:dark cycle at 23-24 °C. We evaluated bio-behavioral activity using electrocardiogram, body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by an implanted telemetry transmitter. To estimate sleep-wake profile, surface electroencephalogram and electromyogram leads connected to a telemetry transmitter were also implanted in mice. Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. ManNAc-treated mice spent more time in a wakeful state and less time in slow wave sleep during the dark phase. Parasympathetic nervous activity was increased following ManNAc treatment, then the sympatho-vagal balance was shifted predominance of parasympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, improvement in sleep-wake pattern was associated with increased parasympathetic nervous activity. These results suggest that ManNAc treatment can improve bio-behavioral activity and sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice. This may have implications for improving sleep patterns in elderly humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Methadone-Mediated Autonomic Functioning of Male Patients with Heroin Dependence: The Influence of Borderline Personality Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Lieh; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Chang, Li-Ren; Chen, Ying-Zai; Yang, Cheryl C. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background We hypothesize that the population with borderline personality shows different autonomic response to methadone compared to individuals with other personalities. This study applies heart rate variability (HRV) measurements and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) to examine this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-four male patients with heroin dependence were recruited from a methadone maintenance treatment program. Eight personality patterns were classified according to the TPQ norm used in Taiwan. The borderline pattern (BP, composed of high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance and low reward dependence) and the other personality patterns (OP) were separated into two groups. We compared the HRV profiles between the BP and OP groups. Correlation and regression analysis were performed to clarify relationship between HRV differences and the borderline index (BI, a new concept defined by us, which is calculated as novelty seeking + harm avoidance – reward dependence). The HRV targets investigated included low frequency (LF) power, high frequency (HF) power, total power (TP), normalized LF (LF%), and LF/HF. No baseline HRV parameters showed any inter-group difference. The BP group had a significantly lower ΔHF and a higher ΔLF/HF than the OP group. The personality dimension, reward dependence, showed a negative correlation with ΔLF/HF and ΔLF%. BI was negatively correlated with ΔHF and positively correlated with ΔLF/HF and ΔLF%. Conclusions/Significance Borderline personality individuals show increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic activity compared to other personalities after taking methadone. The results support the hypothesis that there is an interaction between borderline personality and autonomic modulation. PMID:22629400

  16. Basic and clinical pharmacology of autonomic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Autonomic drugs are used clinically to either imitate or inhibit the normal functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. A large number of additional drug classes also interact with these systems to produce a stunning number of possible side effects. This article reviews the basic function of the autonomic nervous system and the various drug classes that act within these neural synapses.

  17. Esperanto parts of speech in functional discourse grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Esperanto is a constructed or planned language which is actively used by a multifaceted speech community all over the world. For more than a century, the nature of the parts-of-speech (PoS) system of Esperanto has been an item of controversy among its grammarians. Based on a study of the language as

  18. The somatosensory link in fibromyalgia: functional connectivity of the primary somatosensory cortex is altered by sustained pain and is associated with clinical/autonomic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L; Cahalan, Christine M; Harris, Richard E; Beissner, Florian; Garcia, Ronald G; Kim, Hyungjun; Wasan, Ajay D; Edwards, Robert R; Napadow, Vitaly

    2015-05-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic functional pain syndrome characterized by widespread pain, significant pain catastrophizing, sympathovagal dysfunction, and amplified temporal summation for evoked pain. While several studies have demonstrated altered resting brain connectivity in FM, studies have not specifically probed the somatosensory system and its role in both somatic and nonsomatic FM symptoms. Our objective was to evaluate resting primary somatosensory cortex (S1) connectivity and to explore how sustained, evoked deep tissue pain modulates this connectivity. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrocardiography data on FM patients and healthy controls during rest (the rest phase) and during sustained mechanical pressure-induced pain over the lower leg (the pain phase). Functional connectivity associated with different S1 subregions was calculated, while S1(leg) connectivity (representation of the leg in the primary somatosensory cortex) was contrasted between the rest phase and the pain phase and was correlated with clinically relevant measures in FM. During the rest phase, FM patients showed decreased connectivity between multiple ipsilateral and cross-hemispheric S1 subregions, which was correlated with clinical pain severity. Compared to the rest phase, the pain phase produced increased S1(leg) connectivity to the bilateral anterior insula in FM patients, but not in healthy controls. Moreover, in FM patients, sustained pain-altered S1(leg) connectivity to the anterior insula was correlated with clinical/behavioral pain measures and autonomic responses. Our study demonstrates that both somatic and nonsomatic dysfunction in FM, including clinical pain, pain catastrophizing, autonomic dysfunction, and amplified temporal summation, are closely linked with the degree to which evoked deep tissue pain alters S1 connectivity to salience/affective pain-processing regions. Additionally, diminished connectivity between S1 subregions during the rest

  19. Early atherosclerosis and cardiac autonomic responses to mental stress: a population-based study of the moderating influence of impaired endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juonala Markus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute mental stress may contribute to the cardiovascular disease progression via autonomic nervous system controlled negative effects on the endothelium. The joint effects of stress-induced sympathetic or parasympathetic activity and endothelial function on atherosclerosis development have not been investigated. The present study aims to examine the interactive effect of acute mental stress-induced cardiac reactivity/recovery and endothelial function on the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis. Methods Participants were 81 healthy young adults aged 24-39 years. Preclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT and endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD using ultrasound techniques. We also measured heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, and pre-ejection period (PEP in response to the mental arithmetic and speech tasks. Results We found a significant interaction of FMD and cardiac RSA recovery for IMT (p = 0.037, and a significant interaction of FMD and PEP recovery for IMT (p = 0.006. Among participants with low FMD, slower PEP recovery was related to higher IMT. Among individuals with high FMD, slow RSA recovery predicted higher IMT. No significant interactions of FMD and cardiac reactivity for IMT were found. Conclusions Cardiac recovery plays a role in atherosclerosis development in persons with high and low FMD. The role of sympathetically mediated cardiac activity seems to be more important in those with impaired FMD, and parasympathetically mediated in those with relatively high FMD. The development of endothelial dysfunction may be one possible mechanism linking slow cardiac recovery and atherosclerosis via autonomic nervous system mediated effect.

  20. Early atherosclerosis and cardiac autonomic responses to mental stress: a population-based study of the moderating influence of impaired endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumaeva, Nadja; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Ravaja, Niklas; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2010-03-29

    Acute mental stress may contribute to the cardiovascular disease progression via autonomic nervous system controlled negative effects on the endothelium. The joint effects of stress-induced sympathetic or parasympathetic activity and endothelial function on atherosclerosis development have not been investigated. The present study aims to examine the interactive effect of acute mental stress-induced cardiac reactivity/recovery and endothelial function on the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis. Participants were 81 healthy young adults aged 24-39 years. Preclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) using ultrasound techniques. We also measured heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and pre-ejection period (PEP) in response to the mental arithmetic and speech tasks. We found a significant interaction of FMD and cardiac RSA recovery for IMT (p = 0.037), and a significant interaction of FMD and PEP recovery for IMT (p = 0.006). Among participants with low FMD, slower PEP recovery was related to higher IMT. Among individuals with high FMD, slow RSA recovery predicted higher IMT. No significant interactions of FMD and cardiac reactivity for IMT were found. Cardiac recovery plays a role in atherosclerosis development in persons with high and low FMD. The role of sympathetically mediated cardiac activity seems to be more important in those with impaired FMD, and parasympathetically mediated in those with relatively high FMD. The development of endothelial dysfunction may be one possible mechanism linking slow cardiac recovery and atherosclerosis via autonomic nervous system mediated effect.

  1. Modulation of immune functions by oestrogens. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek R. Wilczyński

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important functions of oestrogens is modulation of the immune system. By interactionswith specific oestrogen receptors ERα and ERβ these sex steroid hormones are capable of regulating manyaspects of both natural and adaptive immunity. Aging and the hypoestrogenic state can therefore influenceimmunological functions. Use of drugs belonging to SERM or isoflavons could also modify immune response inpost-menopausal women. All those phenomena might influence the risk of cancer initiation and the naturalcourse of tumour growth.

  2. Cardiac autonomic testing and treating heart disease. 'A clinical perspective'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L. DePace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major health concern, affecting nearly half the middle-age population and responsible for nearly one-third of all deaths. Clinicians have several major responsibilities beyond diagnosing CHD, such as risk stratification of patients for major adverse cardiac events (MACE and treating risks, as well as the patient. This second of a two-part review series discusses treating risk factors, including autonomic dysfunction, and expected outcomes. Methods Therapies for treating cardiac mortality risks including cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN, are discussed. Results While risk factors effectively target high-risk patients, a large number of individuals who will develop complications from heart disease are not identified by current scoring systems. Many patients with heart conditions, who appear to be well-managed by traditional therapies, experience MACE. Parasympathetic and Sympathetic (P&S function testing provides more information and has the potential to further aid doctors in individualizing and titrating therapy to minimize risk. Advanced autonomic dysfunction (AAD and its more severe form cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy have been strongly associated with an elevated risk of cardiac mortality and are diagnosable through autonomic testing. This additional information includes patient-specific physiologic measures, such as sympathovagal balance (SB. Studies have shown that establishing and maintaining proper SB minimizes morbidity and mortality risk. Conclusions P&S testing promotes primary prevention, treating subclinical disease states, as well as secondary prevention, thereby improving patient outcomes through (1 maintaining wellness, (2 preventing symptoms and disorder and (3 treating subclinical manifestations (autonomic dysfunction, as well as (4 disease and symptoms (autonomic neuropathy.

  3. The Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    part of our training and practice is spent acquiring skills in averting or utilizing the autonomic nervous system effects of anaesthetic drugs or surgical procedures under a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Moreover, many of these pathophysiological condi- tions may be associated with impaired preoperative autonomic ...

  4. The somatosensory link: S1 functional connectivity is altered by sustained pain and associated with clinical/autonomic dysfunction in fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L.; Cahalan, Christine M.; Harris, Richard E.; Beissner, Florian; Garcia, Ronald G.; Kim, Hyungjun; Wasan, Ajay D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic functional pain syndrome characterized by widespread pain, significant pain catastrophizing, sympathovagal dysfunction, and amplified temporal summation for evoked pain. While several studies have found altered resting brain connectivity in FM, studies have not specifically probed the somatosensory system, and its role in both somatic and non-somatic FM symptomatology. Our objective was to evaluate resting primary somatosensory cortex (S1) connectivity, and explore how sustained, evoked deep-tissue pain modulates this connectivity. Methods We acquired fMRI and electrocardiography data from FM patients and healthy controls (HC) during rest (REST) and sustained mechanical pressure pain (PAIN) over the lower leg. Functional connectivity associated with different S1 subregions was calculated, while S1leg (leg representation) connectivity was contrast between REST and PAIN, and correlated with clinically-relevant measures in FM. Results At REST, FM showed decreased connectivity between multiple ipsilateral and cross-hemispheric S1 subregions, which was correlated with clinical pain severity. PAIN, compared to REST, produced increased S1legconnectivity to bilateral anterior insula in FM, but not in HC. Moreover, in FM, sustained pain-altered S1legconnectivity to anterior insula was correlated with clinical/behavioral pain measures and autonomic responses. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that both somatic and non-somatic dysfunction in FM, including clinical pain, pain catastrophizing, autonomic dysfunction, and amplified temporal summation, are all closely linked with the degree to which evoked deep-tissue pain alters S1 connectivity to salience/affective pain processing regions. Additionally, diminished connectivity between S1 subregions at REST in FM may result from ongoing widespread clinical pain. PMID:25622796

  5. Walking training at the heart rate of pain threshold improves cardiovascular function and autonomic regulation in intermittent claudication: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehuen, Marcel; Cucato, Gabriel G; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo F; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Wolosker, Nelson; Leicht, Anthony S; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia M

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of walking training (WT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic regulation in patents with intermittent claudication (IC). Randomized controlled trial. Forty-two male patients with IC (≥50years) were randomly allocated into two groups: control (CG, n=20, 30min of stretching exercises) and WT (WTG, n=22, 15 bouts of 2min of walking interpolated by 2min of upright rest-walking intensity was set at the heart rate of pain threshold). Both interventions were performed twice/week for 12 weeks. Walking capacity (maximal treadmill test), blood pressure (auscultatory), cardiac output (CO 2 rebreathing), heart rate (ECG), stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, forearm and calf vascular resistance (plethysmography), and low (LF) and high frequency (HF) components of heart rate variability and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of the study. WT increased total walking distance (+302±85m, p=0.001) and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (+2.13±1.07ms/mmHg, p=0.02). Additionally, at rest, WT decreased systolic and mean blood pressures (-10±3 and -5±2mmHg, p=0.001 and p=0.01, respectively), cardiac output (-0.37±0.24l/min, p=0.03), heart rate (-4±2bpm, p=0.001), forearm vascular resistance (-8.5±2.8U, p=0.02) and LF/HF (-1.24±0.99, p=0.001). No change was observed in the CG. In addition to increasing walking capacity, WT improved cardiovascular function and autonomic regulation in patients with IC. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of Functional Plastic Parts Using Nanostructured Steel Mold Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Blondiaux

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of sub-micro and nanostructured steel mold inserts for the replication of nanostructured immunoassay biochips. Planar and microstructured stainless steel inserts were textured at the sub-micron and nanoscale by combining nanosphere lithography and electrochemical etching. This allowed the fabrication of structures with lateral dimensions of hundreds of nanometers and aspect ratios of up to 1:2. Nanostructured plastic parts were produced by means of hot embossing and injection molding. Surface nanostructuring was used to control wettability and increase the sensitivity of an immunoassay.

  7. Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Shephard, Roy J

    2011-01-01

    purpose such as improvement of physical condition or competition. Extreme physical activity of any type may have implications for the immune system. However, because of its emotive component, exercise is likely to have a larger effect, and to date the great majority of our knowledge on this subject comes....... It is widely accepted that acute and chronic exercise alter the number and function of circulating cells of the innate immune system (e.g. neutrophils, monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells). A limited number of animal studies has helped us determine the extent to which these changes alter susceptibility...... in acquired immunity with acute exercise and training remains unknown. The production of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is the major effector function of the mucosal immune system providing the 'first line of defence' against pathogens. To date, the majority of exercise studies have assessed saliva SIg...

  8. The artificial somato-autonomic reflex arch does not improve bowel function in subjects with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Krogh, Klaus; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    : Denmark. Methods: Ten subjects with supraconal spinal cord injury (SCI) (nine males, median age 46 years) had an anastomosis created between the ventral part of the fifth lumbar or first sacral nerve root and the ventral part of the second sacral nerve root. Standardized assessment of segmental colorectal...

  9. Binary analysis: 1. part: definitions and treatment of binary functions; 2. part: applications and functions of trans-coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, R.L.

    1968-01-01

    The study of binary groups under their mathematical aspects constitutes the matter of binary analysis, the purpose of which consists in developing altogether simple, rigorous and practical methods needed by the technicians, the engineers and all those who may be mainly concerned by digital processing. This subject, fast extending if not determining, however tends actually to play a main part in nuclear electronics as well as in several other research areas. (authors) [fr

  10. The use of transmission line modelling to test the effectiveness of I-kaz as autonomous selection of intrinsic mode function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Hanafi M.; Ghazali, M. F.; Yusof, M. F. M.; PiRemli, M. A.; Karollah, B.; Rusman

    2017-10-01

    Pressure transient signal occurred due to sudden changes in fluid propagation filled in pipelines system, which is caused by rapid pressure and flow fluctuation in a system, such as closing and opening valve rapidly. The application of Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) as the method to analyse the pressure transient signal utilised in this research. However, this method has the difficulty in selecting the suitable IMF for the further post-processing, which is Hilbert Transform (HT). This paper proposed the implementation of Integrated Kurtosis-based Algorithm for z-filter Technique (I-kaz) to kurtosis ratio (I-kaz-Kurtosis) for that allows automatic selection of intrinsic mode function (IMF) that’s should be used. This work demonstrated the synthetic pressure transient signal generates using transmission line modelling (TLM) in order to test the effectiveness of I-kaz as the autonomous selection of intrinsic mode function (IMF). A straight fluid network was designed using TLM fixing with higher resistance at some point act as a leak and connecting to the pipe feature (junction, pipefitting or blockage). The analysis results using I-kaz-kurtosis ratio revealed that the method can be utilised as an automatic selection of intrinsic mode function (IMF) although the noise level ratio of the signal is lower. I-kaz-kurtosis ratio is recommended and advised to be implemented as automatic selection of intrinsic mode function (IMF) through HHT analysis.

  11. Responses of Six-Weeks Aquatic Exercise on the Autonomic Nervous System, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and Lung Functions in Young Adults with Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Kunbootsri, Narupon; Arayawichanon, Preeda; Chainansamit, Seksun; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic respiratory disease. Sympathetic hypofunction is identified in all of the allergic rhinitis patients. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and impaired lung functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of six-week of aquatic exercise on the autonomic nervous system function, PNIF and lung functions in allergic rhinitis patients. Twenty-six allergic rhinitis patients, 12 males and 14 females were recruited in this study. Subjects were diagnosed by a physician based on history, physical examination, and positive reaction to a skin prick test. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The control allergic rhinitis group received education and maintained normal life. The aquatic group performed aquatic exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. Heart rate variability, PNIF and lung functions were measured at the beginning, after three weeks and six weeks. There were statistically significant increased low frequency normal units (LF n.u.), PNIF and showed decreased high frequency normal units (HF n.u.) at six weeks after aquatic exercise compared with the control group. Six weeks of aquatic exercise could increase sympathetic activity and PNIF in allergic rhinitis patients.

  12. Calculation of hadronic part of photon structure function in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskij, A.S.; Ioffe, B.L.; Oganesyan, A.G.; Khodzhamiryan, A.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    The photon structure function in QCD in the intermediate region of the Bjorken variable 0.2 2 /2pq, where q 2 is the hard photon virtuality, p is the soft photon momentum) is calculated. It is shown that without introduction of fitting parameters the experimental data can be described in the range 3GeV 2 ≤Q 2 2 /Q 2 =-q 2 /not taking account for the leading logarithmic corrections. It is demonstrated that the corrections proportional to μ ν 2 > to the hard photon scattering amplitude on the longitudinal soft photon and to the Callan-Gross relation vanish. 16 refs.; 6 figs

  13. Effects of Tibetan Music on Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Functions in Patients Waiting for Surgery: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cotoia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of listening to Tibetan music on anxiety and endocrine, autonomic, cognitive responses in patients waiting for urologic surgery. Methods. Sixty patients waiting for surgery were enrolled to the study. They were randomized in music (M and control (C groups. The M group listened to a low-frequency Tibetan music for 30 min (T0–T30 through headphones, and the C group wore headphones with no sound. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory Questionnaire (STAI Y-1 was administered at T0 and T30. Normalized low (LFnu and high frequencies (HFnu of heart rate variability, LF/HF ratio, and galvanic skin response (GRS data were analyzed at T0, T10, T20, T30, and T35. The salivary α-amylase (sAA samples were collected at T0, T35, and T45. Results. In the M group, the STAI Y-1 score decreased at T30 versus baseline p<0.001, sAA levels decreased at T35 versus T0p=0.004, and GSR remained unchanged. In the C group, the STAI Y-1 score remained unchanged, sAA level increased at T35 versus T0p<0.001, and GSR slightly increased at T35 versus baseline p=0.359. LFnu was lower, and HFnu was significantly higher (T10–T30 in M versus C group. Mean LF/HF ratio slightly reduced in the M group. Conclusions. Our results suggest that preoperative listening to relaxing Tibetan music might be a useful strategy to manage preoperative anxiety.

  14. Impact of aging on cardiac function in a female rat model of menopause: role of autonomic control, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machi JF

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline Freire Machi,1,2 Danielle da Silva Dias,3 Sarah Cristina Freitas,3 Oscar Albuquerque de Moraes,1 Maikon Barbosa da Silva,1 Paula Lázara Cruz,1 Cristiano Mostarda,4 Vera M C Salemi,1 Mariana Morris,2 Kátia De Angelis,3 Maria-Cláudia Irigoyen1 1Hypertension Unit, Heart Institute (InCor, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Institute of Neuro-Immune Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA; 3Laboratory of Translational Physiology, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, 4Health Adult and Child, Federal University of Maranhao (UFMA, São Luiz, Maranhão, Brazil Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters after ovarian hormone deprivation (OVX. Methods: Female Wistar rats (3 or 22 months old were divided into: young controls, young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized (bilateral ovaries removal. After a 9-week follow-up, physical capacity, metabolic parameters, and morphometric and cardiac functions were assessed. Subsequently, arterial pressure was recorded and cardiac autonomic control was evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured on the cardiac tissue, while inflammatory profile was assessed in the plasma. Results: Aging or OVX caused an increase in body and fat weight and triglyceride concentration and a decrease in both insulin sensitivity and aerobic exercise capacity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased cardiac overload (myocardial performance index were reported in old groups when compared with young groups. Aging and OVX led to an increased sympathetic tonus, and vagal tonus was lower only for the old groups. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were increased in old groups when compared with young groups. Glutathione redox balance (GSH/GSSG was reduced in young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized

  15. Diagnosis of the functioning of an interposed part of the colon substituting part of the oesophagus after oesophageal resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brassow, F.; Crone-Muenzebrock, W.; Vogel, H.; Werner, B.

    1981-11-01

    In 6 patients with carcinoma of the oesophagus, resection of the oesophagus was performed, followed by substitution of part of the oesophagus by part of the colon. The functioning of this interposed part was examined by both magnetic tape recording and conventional fluoroscopy. The following findings and special aspects were noted: 1. Formation of a 'pocket' in the area of the upper anastomosis. 2. 'Watering-can' phenomenon in case of great length of the interposed part. 3. Pronounced reflux from the stomach to the interposed part in horizontal position of the patient and in headdown position. 4. Loss of peristalsis of the interposed part of the colon while preserving the natural sacculation and width of lumen. The findings correlated clearly with the signs and symptoms reported by the patients, such as heartburn, belching and retrosternal pain. Comparison of findings via roentgenography and via fluoroscopy with those determined via magnetic tape recording showed the advantages of the magnetic tape recording in checking on the function of the restored oesophageal tract.

  16. Diagnosis of the functioning of an interposed part of the colon substituting part of the oesophagus after oesophageal resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassow, F.; Crone-Muenzebrock, W.; Vogel, H.; Werner, B.; Hamburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    In 6 patients with carcinoma of the oesophagus, resection of the oesophagus was performed, followed by substitution of part of the oesophagus by part of the colon. The functioning of this interposed part was examined by both magnetic tape recording and conventional fluoroscopy. The following findings and special aspects were noted: 1. Formation of a 'pocket' in the area of the upper anastomosis. 2. 'Watering-can' phenomenon in case of great length of the interposed part. 3. Pronounced reflux from the stomach to the interposed part in horizontal position of the patient and in headdown position. 4. Loss of peristalsis of the interposed part of the colon while preserving the natural sacculation and width of lumen. The findings correlated clearly with the signs and symptoms reported by the patients, such as heartburn, belching and retrosternal pain. Comparison of findings via roentgenography and via fluoroscopy with those determined via magnetic tape recording showed the advantages of the magnetic tape recording in checking on the function of the restored oesophageal tract. (orig.) [de

  17. Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Shephard, Roy J

    2011-01-01

    ") have been published since the formation of the International Society of Exercise and Immunology (ISEI) in 1989 (ISI Web of Knowledge). We recognise the epidemiological distinction between the generic term "physical activity" and the specific category of "exercise", which implies activity for a specific...... purpose such as improvement of physical condition or competition. Extreme physical activity of any type may have implications for the immune system. However, because of its emotive component, exercise is likely to have a larger effect, and to date the great majority of our knowledge on this subject comes...... function and exercise (Jeffrey Woods); acquired immunity and exercise (Nicolette Bishop); mucosal immunity and exercise (Michael Gleeson and Nicolette Bishop); immunological methods in exercise immunology (Monika Fleshner); anti-inflammatory effects of physical activity (Charlotte Green and Bente Pedersen...

  18. Might dolutegravir be part of a functional cure for HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Mark A; Han, Ying-Shan; Mesplède, Thibault

    2016-05-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly decreased HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, HIV can establish viral reservoirs that evade both the immune system and ART. Dolutegravir (DTG) is a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) related to the first-generation INSTIs raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG). DTG shows a higher genetic barrier to the development of HIV-1 resistance than RAL and EVG. More interestingly, clinical resistance mutations to DTG in treatment-naïve patients have not been observed to date. This review summarizes recent studies on strategies toward a cure for HIV, explores resistance profiles of DTG, and discusses how DTG might help in finding a functional cure for HIV.

  19. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are available to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions

  20. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  1. Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

  2. Data Provisioning Systems for Autonomous Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varaiya, Pravin

    1999-01-01

    This project is part of a portfolio comprising four other projects to investigate the possibility of operating a collection of intelligent autonomous agents so that the collection can undertakes complex missions...

  3. Functional profiles of SCN9A variants in dorsal root ganglion neurons and superior cervical ganglion neurons correlate with autonomic symptoms in small fibre neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, C.; Hoeijmakers, J.G.; Liu, S.; Gerrits, M.M.; te Morsche, R.H.; Lauria, G.; Dib-Hajj, S.D.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Faber, C.G.; Merkies, I.S.; Waxman, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with small fibre neuropathy typically manifest pain in distal extremities and severe autonomic dysfunction. However, occasionally patients present with minimal autonomic symptoms. The basis for this phenotypic difference is not understood. Sodium channel Na(v)1.7, encoded by the SCN9A gene,

  4. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  5. Potential effect of 6 versus 12-weeks of physical training on cardiac autonomic function and exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi-Silva, A; Mendes, R G; Trimer, R; Oliveira, C R; Fregonezi, G A; Resqueti, V R; Arena, R; Sampaio-Jorge, L M; Costa, D

    2015-04-01

    Exercise is an important part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment. However, it is not know about the minimum effective time of physical training that could beneficially modify the cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) and exercise capacity in these patients. To contrast the potential effects of a physical training program (PTP), for 6 versus 12 weeks, on CAM by linear and nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) indices and exercise capacity in COPD patients. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation. Twenty moderate-to-severe COPD patients were randomly assigned to either a training group (N.=10) or a control group (N.=10). HRV at rest and during submaximal test was determined by linear (rMSSD and SDNN) and non-linear indices (SD1, SD2 and sample entropy [SE]). In addition, key responses were obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), the walking distance (WD) during the six minute walking test and submaximal constant speed testing (CST). PTP consisted of 30 minutes of aerobic exercise training on a treadmill, 3 times per week at 70% of CPET peak speed rate. Patients were evaluated on baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Significant improvements in HRV indices, WD, as well as, other physiological responses were observed after 6 weeks of the PTP and maintained until 12 weeks (Pexercise capacity in COPD patients.

  6. The ICH S8 immunotoxicity guidance. Immune function assessment and toxicological pathology: autonomous or synergistic methods to predict immunotoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhaak, Steven

    2006-07-01

    The new ICH S8 guideline on Immunotoxicology Studies for Human Pharmaceuticals indicates that additional, functional testing of pharmaceuticals is not mandatory to screen for unintended immunotoxicity. The usefulness of conventional parameters like clinical pathology, organ weights and histopathology as measured in Standard Toxicity Studies (STS) to screen for potential unintended immunotoxicity was investigated in an ICH survey. Data of this survey appear to support the notion that properly evaluated STS endpoints would be sufficient for the detection of the majority of unintended immunosuppression by investigational pharmaceutical compounds. Thus the ICH S8 guideline was based on a cause for concern approach using a weight of evidence review of various factors like: findings from STS, pharmacological properties of the drug, intended patient population, structural similarities to known immunomodulators, drug disposition and/or clinical information. Overall the S8 guideline allows for more flexible approaches, and requires a weight of evidence review for which there is no given set of rules. For a proper use this asks for a sensible, realistic and above all a responsible approach both from Industry and Regulators. Some examples regarding the use of clinical pathology parameters like immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotyping have been included to illustrate this. In conclusion, to detect and evaluate potential immunotoxic effects of human pharmaceuticals the ICH S8 guideline allows for a more flexible, scientifically sound approach. For a proper evaluation of potential immunotoxic effects integration of data from standard toxicological parameters like clinical pathology, histopathology and functional assays are important.

  7. Autonomous CaMKII Activity as a Drug Target for Histological and Functional Neuroprotection after Resuscitation from Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiying Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a major mediator of physiological glutamate signaling, but its role in pathological glutamate signaling (excitotoxicity remains less clear, with indications for both neuro-toxic and neuro-protective functions. Here, the role of CaMKII in ischemic injury is assessed utilizing our mouse model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR. CaMKII inhibition (with tatCN21 or tatCN19o at clinically relevant time points (30 min after resuscitation greatly reduces neuronal injury. Importantly, CaMKII inhibition also works in combination with mild hypothermia, the current standard of care. The relevant drug target is specifically Ca2+-independent “autonomous” CaMKII activity generated by T286 autophosphorylation, as indicated by substantial reduction in injury in autonomy-incompetent T286A mutant mice. In addition to reducing cell death, tatCN19o also protects the surviving neurons from functional plasticity impairments and prevents behavioral learning deficits, even at extremely low doses (0.01 mg/kg, further highlighting the clinical potential of our findings.

  8. Anesthesia Management in Diabetic Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Karacaer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is frequently observed in patients with diabetes mellitus and encompasses damage to the autonomic nerve fibers, resulting in abnormalities in heart rate control and vascular dynamics. There is an increased mortality and morbidity rate among these patients. A series of cardiovascular reflex tests known as Ewing's battery tests are used for diagnosis cardiac autonomic neuropathy and provide valuable information to the clinical assessment of these patients. As anesthesia has a major influence on perioperative autonomic function, the interplay between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and anesthesia may result in unexpected haemodynamic instability during surgery and postoperative recovery. A comprehensive preoperative assessment and perioperative cautious monitoring are necessary for successful anesthesia management. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 140-151

  9. Methods and Algorithms for Approximating the Gamma Function and Related Functions. A survey. Part I: Asymptotic Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Mortici

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this survey we present our recent results on analysis of gamma function and related functions. The results obtained are in the theory of asymptotic analysis, approximation of gamma and polygamma functions, or in the theory of completely monotonic functions. The motivation of this first part is the work of C. Mortici [Product Approximations via Asymptotic Integration Amer. Math. Monthly 117 (2010 434-441] where a simple strategy for constructing asymptotic series is presented. The classical asymptotic series associated to Stirling, Wallis, Glaisher-Kinkelin are rediscovered. In the second section we discuss some new inequalities related to Landau constants and we establish some asymptotic formulas.

  10. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  11. The impact of an emotional self-management skills course on psychosocial functioning and autonomic recovery to stress in middle school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraty, R; Atkinson, M; Tomasino, D; Goelitz, J; Mayrovitz, H N

    1999-01-01

    Unmanaged emotional reactions to stress not only lead to behavior problems in young people but also create physiological conditions that inhibit learning and potentially increase the risk of disease later in life. For these reasons, the integration of emotional self-management skills training programs has become an increased priority in some schools. In this study, middle school students enrolled in a course in emotional competence skills learned techniques designed to intercept stressful responses during emotionally challenging situations. Behavioral outcomes were assessed using the Achievement Inventory Measure and autonomic function was measured by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during and after a stressful interview. Following the program, students exhibited significant improvements in areas including stress and anger management, risky behavior, work management and focus, and relationships with family, peers and teachers. These improvements were sustained over the following six months. Students using the skills taught in the course to recover from acute emotional stress were also able to positively modulate their physiological stress responses. As compared to a control group, trained students demonstrated significantly increased HRV and more rhythmic, sine wave-like heart rhythm patterns during recovery. This response pattern reflects increased parasympathetic activity, heart rhythm coherence, and entrainment of other biological oscillatory systems to the primary heart rhythm frequency. Increased physiological coherence is associated with improved cognitive performance, emotional balance, mental clarity and health outcomes. These physiological shifts could promote the sustained psychological and behavioral improvements associated with the use of emotional management skills. It is suggested that learning emotional competence skills in childhood establishes healthier physiological response patterns which can benefit learning and long-term health. Results

  12. Autonomous Mission Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Mission Operations project will develop understanding of the impacts of increasing communication time delays on mission operations and develop...

  13. Nutritional Intervention as part of Functional Rehabilitation in Older People with reduced functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Dent, Elsa; Baldwin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    body weight, hand-grip strength or muscle strength. There was no difference between groups in the critical outcomes; balance, cognition, activities of daily living and mortality at long-term follow-up. Nutritional intervention given with functional rehabilitation was associated with an increased...

  14. Autonomous metacommunicative lexicon and its specifics in manipulative discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnezdilova Yaroslava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the study of metacommunicative means, and a unified approach to their classification is implemented. Special attention is drawn to distinguishing the main types of autonomous metacommunicative means and their functioning in manipulative discourse. The results show that the group of autonomous metacommunicative units comprises all those means, which preserve their metacommunicative functions even when other functions dominate.

  15. Real photon spectral weight functions, imaginary part of vacuum polarization and electromagnetic vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, C.; College de France, 75 - Paris. Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)

    1978-02-01

    The concept of a real photon spectral weight function for any cross-section involving charged particles is introduced as a simple approximation taking into account the soft part of photon emission to all orders in perturbation theory. The spectral weight function replaces the energy-momentum conservation delta function in the elastic cross-section. The spectral weight function is computed in closed form in space-time and in the peaking approximation in momentum space. The spectral weight function description is applied to the imaginary part of vacuum polarization ImPI and to electron-proton scattering. A spectral representation for ImPI is derived and its content compared with the known fourth order result, showing in particular the identity of the soft and peaking approximations in lowest order. The virtual photon radiative corrections are discussed in part, with emphasis on the threshold behavior of the vertex functions. A relativistic generalization of the electric non-relativistic vertex function is given, whose asymptotic behavior is approppriate to use in conjuction with the spectral weight function

  16. High-frequency transformation of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, with autonomously replicating plasmids which are also functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Y; Goh, T K; Tani, Y

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a transformation system which uses autonomous replicating plasmids for a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii. Two autonomous replication sequences, CARS1 and CARS2, were newly cloned from the genome of C. boidinii. Plasmids having both a CARS fragment and the C. boidinii URA3 gene transformed C. boidinii ura3 cells to Ura+ phenotype at frequencies of up to 10(4) CFU/micrograms of DNA. From Southern blot analysis, CARS plasmids seemed to exist in polymeric forms as well as...

  17. FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING: THE USE OF FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS AS AN ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONPART 1

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Gray; Burton, Lee; Hoogenboom, Barbara J.; Voight, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To prepare an athlete for the wide variety of activities needed to participate in or return to their sport, the analysis of fundamental movements should be incorporated into screening in order to determine who possesses, or lacks, the ability to perform certain essential movements. In a series of two articles, the background and rationale for the analysis of fundamental movement will be provided. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) will be described, and any evidence related to its use will...

  18. The autonomic control and functional significance of the changes in heart rate associated with air breathing in the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D J; Campbell, H A; Taylor, E W; Micheli, M; Rantin, F T; Abe, A S

    2007-12-01

    The jeju is a teleost fish with bimodal respiration that utilizes a modified swim bladder as an air-breathing organ (ABO). Like all air-breathing fish studied to date, jeju exhibit pronounced changes in heart rate (fH) during air-breathing events, and it is believed that these may facilitate oxygen uptake (MO2) from the ABO. The current study employed power spectral analysis (PSA) of fH patterns, coupled with instantaneous respirometry, to investigate the autonomic control of these phenomena and their functional significance for the efficacy of air breathing. The jeju obtained less than 5% of total MO2 (MtO2) from air breathing in normoxia at 26 degrees C, and PSA of beat-to-beat variability in fH revealed a pattern similar to that of unimodal water-breathing fish. In deep aquatic hypoxia (water PO2)=1 kPa) the jeju increased the frequency of air breathing (fAB) tenfold and maintained MtO2 unchanged from normoxia. This was associated with a significant increase in heart rate variability (HRV), each air breath (AB) being preceded by a brief bradycardia and then followed by a brief tachycardia. These fH changes are qualitatively similar to those associated with breathing in unimodal air-breathing vertebrates. Within 20 heartbeats after the AB, however, a beat-to-beat variability in fH typical of water-breathing fish was re-established. Pharmacological blockade revealed that both adrenergic and cholinergic tone increased simultaneously prior to each AB, and then decreased after it. However, modulation of inhibitory cholinergic tone was responsible for the major proportion of HRV, including the precise beat-to-beat modulation of fH around each AB. Pharmacological blockade of all variations in fH associated with air breathing in deep hypoxia did not, however, have a significant effect upon fAB or the regulation of MtO2. Thus, the functional significance of the profound HRV during air breathing remains a mystery.

  19. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  20. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — VisionThe Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  1. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Katrien; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lagae, Lieven

    2012-12-01

    West syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy. Autonomic changes are increasingly being recognized in patients with epilepsy: cardiac autonomic function is mediated by sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent activity to the heart and can provide information on the functional state of the autonomic nervous system. The goal of the study is to evaluate the effect of an early epileptic encephalopathy on the autonomic nervous system by measuring heart rate variability. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated in 13 patients with West syndrome by measuring heart rate variability during 5 min epochs of ECG in wake, stage 2 and slow wave sleep. In 5 patients who developed subsequently another type of epilepsy, a second evaluation was performed after 3 years of follow-up. Results showed a lower heart rate in stage 2 sleep in patients with West syndrome. Spectral components did not show significant differences compared to age matched controls at the moment of presentation. After follow-up of 3 years we were able to demonstrate higher low frequency (LF), lower high frequency (HF) and a higher LF/HF ratio during slow wave sleep. This study shows a lower heart rate in patients presenting with West syndrome, already at the onset of the syndrome and before ACTH treatment. The epileptic encephalopathy is not sufficient to alter spectral components of heart rate at the moment of presentation. However, already after 3 years of epilepsy, chronic autonomic changes appear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Yong Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

  3. Autonomic dysfunction in different subtypes of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Claudia; Herting, Birgit; Prieur, Silke; Junghanns, Susann; Schweitzer, Katherine; Globas, Christoph; Schöls, Ludger; Reichmann, Heinz; Berg, Daniela; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2008-09-15

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) can clinically be divided into the cerebellar (MSA-C) and the parkinsonian (MSA-P) variant. However, till now, it is unknown whether autonomic dysfunction in these two entities differs regarding severity and profile. We compared the pattern of autonomic dysfunction in 12 patients with MSA-C and 26 with MSA-P in comparison with 27 age- and sex-matched healthy controls using a standard battery of autonomic function tests and a structured anamnesis of the autonomic nervous system. MSA-P patients complained significantly more often about the symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions than MSA-C patients, especially regarding vasomotor, secretomotor, and gastrointestinal subsystems. However, regarding cardiovascular, sudomotor pupil, urogenital, and sleep subsystems, there were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences as analyzed by autonomic anamnesis and testing. Our results suggest that there are only minor differences in the pattern of autonomic dysfunction between the two clinical MSA phenotypes. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Part of the functional imagery in the development of new medicines. Press conference 30 september 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    today the functional imagery plays an increasing part in the discovery and the development of new medicines. This paper is a presentation of the aims of the colloquium and the subjects proposed. It takes stock on the functional imagery methods: positron emission tomography, monophonic emission tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance (imaging and spectroscopy). The research programs of the CEA in this domain and in particular the activities of the Frederic Joliot hospital center are presented. (A.L.B.)

  5. Materials Comparison of Cutting Tools Functional Parts for Cutting of Electrical Engineering Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan ZLÁMALÍK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper concerns the comparison of functional materials parts of cutting tools used for the production of stator and rotor sheets in the electrical industry from point of view of their life. Alternatives and the properties of metal used for the production of stator and rotor components in electrical rotating machines are analysed. The main factors affecting the life of cutting tools of functional parts are analysed, one of the most important is the cutting tool functional parts material itself. Comparison of three variants of the cuttong tool funkcional parts material – 19 436 tool steel (chrome steel according to the Czech State Standard 41 9436, 19 830 high speed steel according to the Czech State Standard 41 9830 and a special powder metallurgy product – ledeburite tool steel Vanadis 10. Useful lifes of the functional components of individual cutting tools performances can be calculated from the theoretical lifes by their multiplying the coefficients of the tool design and the cutting edges shape complexity.

  6. [Opinion and Participation in the Regional Early Breast Cancer Detection Program in 2007 on the part of family physicians from a health district in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Elustondo, Sofía; Sánchez Padilla, Elisabeth; Ramírez Alesón, Victoria; González Hernández, Ma José; González Navarro, Andrés; López Gómez, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Mammogram screening is the most effective method for the early detection of breast cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of knowledge, the opinion and the participation in the early breast cancer detection program on the part of the family physicians of the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The population studied was comprised of family physicians from Madrid Health District Seven. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire comprised of 30 questions grouped into physicians characteristics and opinion concerning the early breast cancer detection programs. A total of 46% of the physicians replied. A total of 94% of the physicians believed that it is their duty to inform their patients concerning preventive activities, including breast cancer screening, and 95% believed their advice to be useful for convincing women to have a mammogram. A total of 72% believed information to be lacking on this program. During the time when mammograms are being taken at their centres, 24% of the physicians surveyed always or almost always ask the women if they have any doubts or would like further information, 43% having set up appointments for them and 95% advising them to have a mammogram taken. The family physicians have a good opinion of the early breast cancer detection program and feel their advice to be effective for improving the participation in the program. They report lack of information and inform women about the program to only a small degree.

  7. Words used by children and their primary caregivers for private body parts and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolnik, Dennis; Atkinson, Victoria; Hadi, Maha; Caulfeild, Jon; Young, Nancy L

    2003-12-09

    Effective patient-physician communication requires the use of words that are clearly understood by both parties. We conducted this study to compile a list of words used by children and caregivers to describe "private" anatomical structures and physiological functions, to document the frequency of such usage and to examine the relation between correct word usage and caregiver's level of education. In a large urban pediatric emergency department, a convenience sample of 156 children at least 3 years old were asked to name the body parts (penis, testes, vagina, buttocks, breasts) pointed to in 4 simple, explicit line drawings of an unclothed boy or girl, and to name the bodily functions (vomiting, defecation, urination) depicted in 3 drawings of children. Eighty-seven patients sufficiently fluent in English were included in the study. Their caregivers were asked separately what words they currently use with their child and with other adults for these body parts and functions and what words they remembered using as children. The children used a mean of 1.2 correct anatomical and physiological terms out of a possible 8 to describe the private parts and functions in the drawings. The mean number of correct words used by the caregivers was 2.3 when talking with their children, 3.6 when talking with their peers and 1.5 when they were children. There was no correlation between the caregiver's level of education and the frequency of correct word usage by their children. We identified slang words used by at least 5% of the respondents; however, some used the same slang words to refer to different body parts. Given the variety of slang words used by children and their caregivers to describe private parts and functions, the meaning of the words should be clarified during history taking.

  8. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder versus resilience on nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity as functions of sleep stage and time of sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Bell, Kimberly; Mellman, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with sleep disturbances including alterations in sleep stages and recently, elevated nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal (i.e., dominance of the sympathetic nervous system over the parasympathetic nervous system). Data suggest that sleep contributes to the regulation of ANS activity. In our previous ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring study, strong relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity in res...

  9. Multidimensional Generalized Functions in Aeroacoustics and Fluid Mechanics. Part 1; Basic Concepts and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Myers, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a three part tutorial on multidimensional generalized functions (GFs) and their applications in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics. The subject is highly fascinating and essential in many areas of science and, in particular, wave propagation problems. In this tutorial, we strive to present rigorously and clearly the basic concepts and the tools that are needed to use GFs in applications effectively and with ease. We give many examples to help the readers in understanding the mathematical ideas presented here. The first part of the tutorial is on the basic concepts of GFs. Here we define GFs, their properties and some common operations on them. We define the important concept of generalized differentiation and then give some interesting elementary and advanced examples on Green's functions and wave propagation problems. Here, the analytic power of GFs in applications is demonstrated with ease and elegance. Part 2 of this tutorial is on the diverse applications of generalized derivatives (GDs). Part 3 is on generalized Fourier transformations and some more advanced topics. One goal of writing this tutorial is to convince readers that, because of their powerful operational properties, GFs are absolutely essential and useful in engineering and physics, particularly in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics.

  10. Fractional parts and their relations to the values of the Riemann zeta function

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2017-09-06

    A well-known result, due to Dirichlet and later generalized by de la Vallée–Poussin, expresses a relationship between the sum of fractional parts and the Euler–Mascheroni constant. In this paper, we prove an asymptotic relationship between the summation of the products of fractional parts with powers of integers on the one hand, and the values of the Riemann zeta function, on the other hand. Dirichlet’s classical result falls as a particular case of this more general theorem.

  11. Control of autonomous robot using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Adam; Volna, Eva

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the article is to design a method of control of an autonomous robot using artificial neural networks. The introductory part describes control issues from the perspective of autonomous robot navigation and the current mobile robots controlled by neural networks. The core of the article is the design of the controlling neural network, and generation and filtration of the training set using ART1 (Adaptive Resonance Theory). The outcome of the practical part is an assembled Lego Mindstorms EV3 robot solving the problem of avoiding obstacles in space. To verify models of an autonomous robot behavior, a set of experiments was created as well as evaluation criteria. The speed of each motor was adjusted by the controlling neural network with respect to the situation in which the robot was found.

  12. Socially intelligent autonomous agents that learn from human reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Guangliang

    2016-01-01

    In the future, autonomous agents will operate in human inhabited environments in many real world applications and become an integral part of human’s daily lives. Therefore, when autonomous agents enter into the real world, they need to adapt to many novel, dynamic and complex situations that cannot

  13. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes

  14. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: rlindner@astro.wisc.edu [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  15. Autonomic reactivity in muscle pain : clinical and experimental assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kalezic, Nebojsa

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous indications of possible involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the genesis of chronic pain. The possibility exists that sympathetic activation is related to motor dysfunction and changes in sensory processing, which have otherwise been implicated in musculoskeletal disorders. The primary aim of the thesis has been to investigate autonomic regulation at rest and in response to laboratory tests of autonomic function in subjects suffering from chronic pain in different...

  16. Autonomous Systems and Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Systems and Operations (ASO) project will develop an understanding of the impacts of increasing communication time delays on mission operations,...

  17. Autonomous Systems: Habitat Automation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Habitat Automation Project Element within the Autonomous Systems Project is developing software to automate the automation of habitats and other spacecraft. This...

  18. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  19. Autonomous Intersection Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    and analyzing my algorithms for correctness and rigor. Third, Tarun Nimmagadda, for creating the first mixed simulation using my simulator. In addition...Agent Systems, 10(2):131–164, March 2005. [Beeson et al., 2008] Patrick Beeson, Jack O’Quin, Bartley Gillan, Tarun Nimma- gadda, Mickey Ristroph, David...autonomous vehicles at intersections. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 13(3):82–86, May 1998. [Nimmagadda, 2009] Tarun Nimmagadda. Building an autonomous ground

  20. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  1. Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Mahboob; Das, Pinaki; Ghosh, Parasar; Zaman, Md Salim Uz; Boro, Madhusmita; Sadhu, Manika; Mazumdar, Ardhendu

    2015-01-01

    Objective is to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in SLE by simple non-invasive tests. A case control study was carried out involving 18-50 yrs old previously diagnosed SLE patients and same number of age and sex-matched controls. Parasympathetic function was assessed by heart rate (HR) response to Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing and standing. Sympathetic function was evaluated by blood pressure response to standing and sustained hand-grip test (HGT). There were 50 female SLE patients. They had significantly higher minimum resting HR and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). HR variation with deep breathing, expiratory inspiratory ratio, 30:15 ratio and DBP change in response to HGT were significantly lower inpatients compared to controls. Thirty patients (60%) had at least one abnormal or two borderline test results indicating autonomic impairment of which 27 had parasympathetic dysfunction and 7 had sympathetic dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction is common in SLE with higher prevalence of parasympathetic impairment.

  2. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  3. To Study Correlation of Body Fat and Blood Lipids with Autonomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the most significant contributor of worsening of autonomic functions in PM females and regular exercise can improve these parameters significantly. KEY WORDS: Autonomic functions, blood lipids, body fat, menopause. INTRODUCTION ..... gradual reduction of overall fluctuation in autonomic input to the heart as well as ...

  4. Eating one's words, part II: The embodied mind and reflective function in anorexia nervosa--theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skårderud, Finn

    2007-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa as a psychiatric disorder presents itself through the concreteness of symptoms. Emotions are experienced as a corporeality here-and-now. In a companion article, Part I, different 'body metaphors' are described and categorised. The human body functions as metaphor, and in anorexia nervosa there is a striking closeness between emotions and different bodily experiences. This is interpreted as impaired 'reflective function', referring to the capacity to make mental representations, and is proposed as a central psychopathological feature. The psychodynamic concepts 'concretised metaphors' and 'psychic equivalence' are discussed as useful tools to better understand such compromised symbolic capacity. Psychotherapy in anorexia nervosa can be described as a relational process where concretised metaphors will be developed into genuine linguistic ones. Part III in this series of articles presents an outline for psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  5. An ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer automation system. Part 1: Functional specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, G. S.; Teuschler, J. M.; Budde, W. L.

    1982-07-01

    The project definition, the functional requirements, and the functional design for a proposed computer automation system for scanning spectrophotometers are presented. The system will be implemented on a Data General computer using the BASIC language. The system is a real-time data acquisition system with 'on-line' data reduction, quality assurance, report generation and plotting. It is designed for operation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data General automation system. Analyses included in the system facilitate the determination of chlorophyll concentrations, the evaluation of color in waters, and a general transmittance/absorbance measurement of any given sample. Quality assurance is provided by the analysis of standard filters. Two related publications are titled, 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part II User's Guide' and 'An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Automation System - Part III Program Documentation.'

  6. Functional MRI analysis of body and body part representations in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John C; Wiggett, Alison J; Downing, Paul E

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the contributions of two previously identified brain regions-the extrastriate and fusiform body areas (EBA and FBA)-to the visual representation of the human form. Specifically we measured in these two areas the magnitude of fMRI response as a function of the amount of the human figure that is visible in the image, in the range from a single finger to the entire body. A second experiment determined the selectivity of these regions for body and body part stimuli relative to closely matched control images. We found a gradual increase in the selectivity of the EBA as a function of the amount of body shown. In contrast, the FBA shows a steplike function, with no significant selectivity for individual fingers or hands. In a third experiment we demonstrate that the response pattern seen in EBA does not extend to adjacent motion-selective human midtemporal area. We propose an interpretation of these results by analogy to nearby face-selective regions occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA). Specifically, we hypothesize that the EBA analyzes bodies at the level of parts (as has been proposed for faces in the OFA), whereas FBA (by analogy to FFA) may have a role in processing the configuration of body parts into wholes.

  7. Certain aspects of ethnoconfessional reality in the Autonomous republic of Crimea

    OpenAIRE

    Bulatov, Ayder

    2008-01-01

    Implementation of the GUAM transnational energy transportation and communication project calls for a discussion of a vast range of issues related not merely to the political-legal, economic, and engineering spheres, which are indispensable for the project's adequate functioning, but also to other problems found far beyond the project's confines. I have in mind political stability, civil peace, and interfaith relations. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is a strategically important part of the...

  8. Requirement analysis for autonomous systems and intelligent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This control architecture is based upon the requirements identified in the first part. We also present development of a software framework to test such flexible control architectures. Keywords: Electric power system, distributed control, autonomous systems, intelligent agents. 1. Introduction. Electric power systems is one of the ...

  9. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  10. Cardiovascular autonomous dysfunction in diabetics: The influence of disease duration, glycoregulation degree and diabetes type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Vladan

    2008-01-01

    exists regarding the ratio of damage of the sympathetic part of the autonomous nervous system and the value of HbA1c, as well as the ratio of CAN, that is, the total score and HbA1c. Almost two- fold, a bigger coefficient of correlation between the sympathetic score and HbA1c in relation to the coefficient of correlation of the parasympathetic score and HbA1c, points to bigger sensitivity of the sympathetic part of the autonomous nervous system to subacute deterioration of glycoregulation. The correlation between the values of autonomous scores and diabetes type has not been noted. CONCLUSION Our results show that besides disease duration, the subacute deterioration of glycoregulation also leads to the appearance of cardiovascular autonomous dysfunction in diabetes. The sympathetic nervous tissue is functionally more sensitive than the parasympathetic one to metabolic disorders in diabetes. The cardiovascular autonomous dysfunction will occur independently of the type of diabetes.

  11. Short-term supervised inpatient physiotherapy exercise protocol improves cardiac autonomic function after coronary artery bypass graft surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; De Souza Melo Costa, Fernando; Pantoni, Camila Bianca Falasco; Di Thommazo, Luciana; Luzzi, Sérgio; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is accompanied by severe impairment of cardiac autonomous regulation (CAR). This study aimed to determine whether a short-term physiotherapy exercise protocol post-CABG, during inpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR), might improve CAR. Seventy-four patients eligible for CABG were recruited and randomised into physiotherapy exercise group (EG) or physiotherapy usual care group (UCG). EG patients underwent a short-term supervised inpatient physiotherapy exercise protocol consisting of an early mobilisation with progressive exercises plus usual care (respiratory exercises). UCG only received respiratory exercises. Forty-seven patients (24 EG and 23 UGC) completed the study. Outcome measures of CAR included linear and non-linear measures of heart rate variability (HRV) assessed before discharge. By hospital discharge, EG presented significantly higher parasympathetic HRV values [rMSSD, high frequency (HF), SD1)], global power (STD RR, SD2), non-linear HRV indexes [detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA)alpha1, DFAalpha2, approximate entropy (ApEn)] and mean RR compared to UCG (pCAR at the time of discharge. Thus, exercise-based inpatient CR might be an effective non-pharmacological tool to improve autonomic cardiac tone in patient's post-CABG.

  12. Autonomic manifestations of epilepsy | Asindi | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: An epileptic fit does not only manifest as bizarre motor activity but can destabilize autonomic functions. Abnormal electrical discharge originating from the cerebral cortex can spreads to involve the autonomic system thus creating a dysfunction of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic which modulate the ...

  13. An Expert System for Autonomous Spacecraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), part of the New Millennium Space Technology 6 Project, is flying onboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission. The ASE software enables EO-1 to autonomously detect and respond to science events such as: volcanic activity, flooding, and water freeze/thaw. ASE uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect chang-e and science events. Detection of these events is then used to trigger follow-up imagery. Onboard mission planning software then develops a response plan that accounts for target visibility and operations constraints. This plan is then executed using a task execution system that can deal with run-time anomalies. In this paper we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations. We will also describe the current experiment status and future plans.

  14. Symmetrization in jellyfish: reorganization to regain function, and not lost parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Michael J; Goentoro, Lea

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Rather than regenerating lost parts, juvenile Aurelia reorganize remaining parts to regain essential body symmetry. This process that we called symmetrization is rapid and frequent, and is not driven by cell proliferation or cell death. Instead, the swimming machinery generates mechanical forces that drive symmetrization. We found evidence for symmetrization across three other species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). We propose reorganization to regain function without recovery of initial morphology as a potentially broad class of self-repair strategy beyond radially symmetrical animals, and discuss the implications of this finding on the evolution of self-repair strategies in animals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  15. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal Design and Freeform Extrusion Fabrication of Functionally Gradient Smart Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Amir

    An extrusion-based additive manufacturing process, called the Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) process, for producing three-dimensional ceramic components with near theoretical density was developed. In this process, an aqueous paste of ceramic particles with a very low binder content (manufacturing of functionally graded materials with an optimum distribution of material composition. As an application of the CODE process, advanced ceramic components with embedded sapphire optical fiber sensors were fabricated and properties of parts and sensors were evaluated using standard test methods.

  17. [Decline in renal function in old age : Part of physiological aging versus age-related disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, F; Brinkkötter, P T

    2016-08-01

    The incidence and prevalence of chronic renal disease (CKD) in elderly patients are continuously increasing worldwide. Loss of renal function is not only considered to be part of the aging process itself but also reflects the multimorbidity of many geriatric patients. Calculating the glomerular filtration rate using specific algorithms validated for the elderly population and measuring the amount of proteinuria allow an estimation of renal function in elderly patients with high accuracy. Chronic renal failure has many clinical consequences and not only results in a delayed excretion of toxins cleared by the kidneys but also affects hematogenesis, water and electrolyte balance as well as mineral bone metabolism. Furthermore, CKD directly leads to and aggravates geriatric syndromes and in particular the onset of frailty. Therapeutic strategies to halt progression of CKD not only comprise treatment of the underlying disease but also efficient blood pressure and diabetic control and the avoidance of nephrotoxic medications.

  18. Autonomic changes in fibromyalgia: Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is one of the suggested pathophysiological mechanisms of fibromyalgia (FM). Its dysfunction may contribute to enhanced pain and other clinical problems associated with FM. Previous studies showed conflicting results regarding ANS function in FM. Some studies ...

  19. Autonomic changes in fibromyalgia: Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha El-Sawy

    2012-03-14

    Mar 14, 2012 ... Fibromyalgia;. Tilt table test;. Standing and supine blood pressure and heart rate;. Sympathetic skin response. Abstract Background: Autonomic nervous ... Depression(HRSD) and 4 – functional status by Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ). ..... may affect the sleep pattern and psychological state of the.

  20. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  1. Valuable nutrients and functional bioactives in different parts of olive (Olea europaea L.)-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1-3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed.

  2. Development of an autonomous power system testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.R.; Adams, T.; Liffring, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A power system testbed has been assembled to advance the development of large autonomous electrical power systems required for the space station, spacecraft, and aircraft. The power system for this effort was designed to simulate single- or dual-bus autonomous power systems, or autonomous systems that reconfigure from a single bus to a dual bus following a severe fault. The approach taken was to provide a flexible power system design with two computer systems for control and management. One computer operates as the control system and performs basic control functions, data and command processing, charge control, and provides status to the second computer. The second computer contains expert system software for mission planning, load management, fault identification and recovery, and sends load and configuration commands to the control system

  3. The personification of animals: coding of human and nonhuman body parts based on posture and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Timothy N; McDougall, Laura; Paulson, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine how humans represent the bodies and limbs of nonhuman mammals based on anatomical and functional properties. To this end, participants completed a series of body-part compatibility tasks in which they responded with a thumb or foot response to the color of a stimulus (red or blue, respectively) presented on different limbs of several animals. Across the studies, this compatibility task was conducted with images of human and nonhuman animals (bears, cows, and monkeys) in bipedal or quadrupedal postures. The results revealed that the coding of the limbs of nonhuman animals is strongly influenced by the posture of the body, but not the functional capacity of the limb. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects were present for both human and nonhuman animals when the figures were in a bipedal posture, but were not present when the animals were in a quadrupedal stance (Experiments 1a-c). Experiments 2a and 2b revealed that the posture-based body-part compatibility effects were not simply a vertical spatial compatibility effect or due to a mismatch between the posture of the body in the image and the participant. These data indicate that nonhuman animals in a bipedal posture are coded with respect to the "human" body representation, whereas nonhuman animals in a quadrupedal posture are not mapped to the human body representation. Overall, these studies provide new insight into the processes through which humans understand, mimic, and learn from the actions of nonhuman animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  5. Towards autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We are moving towards an age of autonomous vehicles. Cycles of innovation initiated in the public and private sectors : have led one into another since the 1990s; and out of these efforts have sprung a variety of Advanced Driver Assistance : Systems ...

  6. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  7. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  8. A decade of imaging surgeons' brain function (part I): Terminology, techniques, and clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Hemel Narendra; Singh, Harsimrat; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Leff, Daniel Richard

    2017-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging has the potential to deepen our understanding of technical and nontechnical skill acquisition in surgeons, particularly as established assessment tools leave unanswered questions about inter-operator differences in ability that seem independent of experience. In this first of a 2-part article, we aim to utilize our experience in neuroimaging surgeons to orientate the nonspecialist reader to the principles of brain imaging. Terminology commonly used in brain imaging research is explained, placing emphasis on the "activation response" to an surgical task and its effect on local cortical hemodynamic parameters (neurovascular coupling). Skills learning and subsequent consolidation and refinement through practice lead to reorganization of the functional architecture of the brain (known as "neuroplasticity"), evidenced by changes in the strength of regional activation as well as alterations in connectivity between brain regions, culminating in more efficient use of neural resources during task performance. Currently available neuroimaging techniques that either directly (ie, measure electrical activity) or indirectly (ie, measure tissue hemodynamics) assess brain function are discussed. Finally, we highlight the important practical considerations when conducting brain imaging research in surgeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  11. Self-Organizing and Autonomous Learning Agents and Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Wei-Min

    2004-01-01

    ...) Autonomous discovery and response to unexpected topology changes; (2) A new distributed functional language called DH2 for programming of self-reconfigurable systems using hormone-inspired computational methods...

  12. Comparative Effects of Acupressure at Local and Distal Acupuncture Points on Pain Conditions and Autonomic Function in Females with Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Matsubara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupressure on local and distal acupuncture points might result in sedation and relaxation, thereby reducing chronic neck pain. The aim was to investigate the effect of acupressure at local (LP and distal acupuncture points (DP in females with chronic neck pain. Thirty-three females were assigned to three groups: the control group did not receive any stimuli, the LP group received acupressure at local acupuncture points, GB 21, SI 14 and SI 15, and the DP group received acupressure at distal acupuncture points, LI 4, LI 10 and LI 11. Verbal rating scale (VRS, Neck Disability Index (NDI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, muscle hardness (MH, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA activity, heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV values and satisfaction due to acupressure were assessed. VRS, NDI, STAI and MH values decreased after acupressure in the LP and the DP group. HR decreased and the power of high frequency (HF component of HRV increased after acupressure in only the LP group. Although acupressure on not only the LP but also the DP significantly improved pain conditions, acupressure on only the LP affected the autonomic nervous system while acupuncture points per se have different physical effects according to location.

  13. Functional role of the core gap in the middle part of tropomyosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyushenko, Alexander M; Shchepkin, Daniil V; Kopylova, Galina V; Bershitsky, Sergey Y; Koubassova, Natalia A; Tsaturyan, Andrey K; Levitsky, Dmitrii I

    2018-03-01

    Tropomyosin (Tpm) is an α-helical coiled-coil actin-binding protein playing an essential role in the regulation of muscle contraction. The middle part of the Tpm molecule has some specific features, such as the presence of noncanonical residues as well as a substantial gap at the interhelical interface, which are believed to destabilize a coiled-coil and impart structural flexibility to this part of the molecule. To study how the gap affects structural and functional properties of α-striated Tpm (the Tpm1.1 isoform that is expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles) we replaced large conserved apolar core residues located at both sides of the gap with smaller ones by mutations M127A/I130A and M141A/Q144A. We found that in contrast with the stabilizing substitutions D137L and G126R studied earlier, these substitutions have no appreciable influence on thermal unfolding and domain structure of the Tpm molecule. They also do not affect actin-binding properties of Tpm. However, they strongly increase sliding velocity of regulated actin filaments in an in vitro motility assay and cause an oversensitivity of the velocity to Ca 2+ similar to the stabilizing substitutions D137L and G126R. Molecular dynamics shows that the substitutions studied here increase bending stiffness of the coiled-coil structure of Tpm, like that of G126R/D137L, probably due to closure of the interhelical gap in the area of the substitutions. Our results clearly indicate that the conserved middle part of Tpm is important for the fine tuning of the Ca 2+ regulation of actin-myosin interaction in muscle. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Current challenges in autonomous driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.

    2017-10-01

    increasing trend in automation of vehicles will radically change the composition of car industry players, as mechatronics will not only be a complementary part of the automobile industry but an indispensable part of it. There is a reasonable expectation that automated cars will perform the same or better in all respects than their conventional counterparts. However, it seems that the current regulations do not keep up with the development of technology and sometimes hinder the development and testing of autonomous technologies.

  15. Autonomous Robot Retrieval System

    OpenAIRE

    Ahern, S.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile robots are increasingly being deployed in environments hazardous to humans. However, many of these robots require remote control operation or are tethered, requiring the human operator to remain within a potentially hazardous radius of the area of operation. To resolve this issue an Autonomous Robot Retrieval System (ARRS) utilising Open RatSLAM based on the Lego NXT 2.0 robotics platform is proposed but could not be implemented due to memory limitations of the hardware. An occupancy g...

  16. Functional reasoning, explanation and analysis: Part 1: a survey on theories, techniques and applied systems. Part 2: qualitative function formation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    Functional Reasoning (FR) enables people to derive the purpose of objects and explain their functions, JAERI's 'Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP)', started from 1987, has the goal of developing programs of the underlying technologies for intelligent robots by imitating the intelligent behavior of humans. FR is considered a useful reasoning method in HASP and applied to understand function of tools and objects in the Toolbox Project. In this report, first, the results of the diverse FR researches within a variety of disciplines are reviewed and the common core and basic problems are identified. Then the qualitative function formation (QFF) technique is introduced. Some novel points are: extending the common qualitative models to include interactions and timing of events by defining temporal and dependency constraints, and binding it with the conventional qualitative simulation. Function concepts are defined as interpretations of either a persistence or an order in the sequence of states, using the trace of the qualitative state vector derived by qualitative simulation on the extended qualitative model. This offers solution to some of the FR problems and leads to a method for generalization and comparison of functions of different objects. (author) 85 refs

  17. Efectos de la terapia de reemplazo hormonal sobre la función autonómica en mujeres postmenopáusicas Effects of estrogen replacement therapy on autonomic function of post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Guzmán

    2007-02-01

    para mejorar los síntomas de la menopausia durante un tiempo corto, principalmente en mujeres postmenopáusicas jóvenes no hipertensas.Background: estrogen deficit during menopause may be related to cardiac autonomic function imbalance, reducing the cardiovagal reflex response that could potentially increase cardiovascular risk. The physiological mechanisms that lead to this alteration in postmenopausal women remain unclear. In this article, the effect of hormonal replacement therapy on autonomic function in women submitted to hysterectomy is discussed. Methods: Fifty women with a previous hysterectomy and amenorrhea for 1 year prior to surgery were enrolled in a prospective randomized crossover double-blind placebo controlled trial. Either oral estrogen replacement therapy (ERT conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg once a day or placebo, were randomly administered in a crossover design during 12 weeks with a 2 week washout period. Cardiovagal autonomic function was assessed by conventional techniques and through venous occlusion plethysmography in order to evaluate vascular autonomic function calculating forearm blood flow (FBF and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR at baseline, and during head-up tilt (HUT and a non-hypotensive stimuli (-10mmHg lower-body negative pressure (LBNP. Results: No differences were found in cardiovagal autonomic function comparing ERT vs. placebo at baseline resting conditions, nor during HUT and LBNP. A significant difference was identified in supine FBF [1.9(0.5 vs. 1.5(0.5, p=0.02] as well as in PVR [53.5(18.2 vs. 68.6(34, p=0.02] comparing ERT vs. placebo interventions. Conclusions: Short term ERT did not improve cardiovascular autonomic reflex responses in postmenopausal women, but increased vascular relaxation primarily by reducing peripheral vascular resistance. Hormone replacement therapy can be used under adequate supervision in order to improve menopausal symptoms during a short period of time, mainly in young non-hypertensive post

  18. Study of cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts with nonlinear output frequency response functions based on NARMAX modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Honglan; Mao, Hanying; Mao, Hanling; Zheng, Weixue; Huang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Xianghong

    2017-12-01

    Cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts plays a key role in the process of remanufacturing engineering and is related to the service safety of the remanufactured parts. In light of the nonlinear properties of used parts caused by cumulative fatigue damage, the based nonlinear output frequency response functions detection approach offers a breakthrough to solve this key problem. First, a modified PSO-adaptive lasso algorithm is introduced to improve the accuracy of the NARMAX model under impulse hammer excitation, and then, an effective new algorithm is derived to estimate the nonlinear output frequency response functions under rectangular pulse excitation, and a based nonlinear output frequency response functions index is introduced to detect the cumulative fatigue damage in used parts. Then, a novel damage detection approach that integrates the NARMAX model and the rectangular pulse is proposed for nonlinear output frequency response functions identification and cumulative fatigue damage detection of used parts. Finally, experimental studies of fatigued plate specimens and used connecting rod parts are conducted to verify the validity of the novel approach. The obtained results reveal that the new approach can detect cumulative fatigue damages of used parts effectively and efficiently and that the various values of the based nonlinear output frequency response functions index can be used to detect the different fatigue damages or working time. Since the proposed new approach can extract nonlinear properties of systems by only a single excitation of the inspected system, it shows great promise for use in remanufacturing engineering applications.

  19. Evaluating the autonomic nervous system in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ju; Shu, Chih-Hung; Chou, Kun-Ta; Wang, Yi-Fen; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Ho, Ching-Yin; Lan, Ming-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) remains unclear. It is linked to but distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has been shown to be related to disturbed autonomic regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether autonomic dysfunction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of LPR. Case-control study. Tertiary care center. Seventeen patients with LPR and 19 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 50 years, were enrolled in the study. The patients were diagnosed with LPR if they had a reflux symptom index (RSI) ≥ 13 and a reflux finding score (RFS) ≥ 7. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic function. Anxiety and depression levels measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were also conducted. In HRV analysis, high frequency (HF) represents the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system, whereas low frequency (LF) represents the total autonomic activity. There were no significant differences in the LF power and HF power between the 2 groups. However, significantly lower HF% (P = .003) and a higher LF/HF ratio (P = .012) were found in patients with LPR, who demonstrated poor autonomic modulation and higher sympathetic activity. Anxiety was also frequently observed in the patient group. The study suggests that autonomic dysfunction seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPR. The potential beneficial effect of autonomic nervous system modulation as a therapeutic modality for LPR merits further investigation.

  20. Menopause and autonomic control of heart

    OpenAIRE

    Arunima Chaudhuri; Nirmala G Borade

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is associated with decreased heart rate variability, which is due to reduced parasympathetic or increased sympathetic outflow to the heart. Acute myocardial infarction may be accompanied by decreased heart rate variability. The causes of autonomic dysfunction in postmenopausal women may be multi-factorial i.e., dyslipidemia, increased body fat percentage, aging and loss of female sex hormones. The cardiac vagotonic and sympatholytic effects of estrogen can explain, at least in part,...

  1. Postnatal Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Control in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Nederend

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect. During childhood, survival is generally good but, in adulthood, late complications are not uncommon. Abnormal autonomic control in children with congenital heart disease may contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of these long term sequelae. This narrative review of 34 studies aims to summarize current knowledge on function of the autonomic nervous system in children with a congenital heart defect. Large scale studies that measure both branches of the nervous system for prolonged periods of time in well-defined patient cohorts in various phases of childhood and adolescence are currently lacking. Pending such studies, there is not yet a good grasp on the extent and direction of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic function in pediatric congenital heart disease. Longitudinal studies in homogenous patient groups linking autonomic nervous system function and clinical outcome are warranted.

  2. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  3. Functional Tests in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Part 1: Clinical Relevance and Links to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Kim-Ly; Nyberg, André; Maltais, François; Saey, Didier

    2017-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and an important cause of disability. A thorough patient-centered outcome assessment, including not only measures of lung function, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life, but also functional capacity and performance in activities of daily life, is imperative for a comprehensive management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This American Thoracic Society Seminar Series is devoted to help clinicians substantiate their choice of functional outcome measures in this population. In Part 1 of this two-part seminar series, we describe the various domains of functional status to elucidate terms and key concepts intertwined with functioning and to demonstrate the clinical relevance of assessing functional capacity in the context of activities of daily living in agreement with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. We hope that a better understanding of the various defining components of functional status will be instrumental to healthcare providers to optimize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease evaluation and management, ultimately leading to improved quality of life of patients afflicted by this condition. This first article also serves as an introduction to Part 2 of this seminar series, in which the main functional tests available to assess upper and lower body functional capacity of these patients are discussed.

  4. A critical spare part inventory control based on hazard function approach: A case study in a garment company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinda, Intan Dewi; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Spare part procurement is a complex issue and requires an accurate analysis. Stock outs of spare part can leads a great impact on production. Therefore, it is necessary to design the inventory control of spare parts that guarantee the availability of spare parts needed for supporting the maintenance activity. This paper studies the inventory policy for sewing machine spare part using hazard function to approximate the demand. Hazard function is the indicator of the effect of ageing on the reliability of the system. It quantifies the risk of failure as the age of the system increases. We use a continuous review policy based on Hadley Within Approach to calculate the optimum inventory level for critical spare parts. There are four spare parts categorized as critical spare parts, which are needle plate, feed dog, rotary and binder attachment. The optimal ordering quantity for needle plate, feed, rotary and binder attachment are 5 units, 17 units, 5 units, and 9 units, respectively and the reorder point are 2 units, 1 unit, 2 units and 1 unit, respectively. Finally, the service level achieved by the proposed policy is in a range of 95.91%-97.93%, which indicates that the inventory level of spare parts can be used to support the required parts in the maintenance activity.

  5. The tensor part of the Skyrme energy density functional. I. Spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesinski, T.; Meyer, J. [Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon (France)]|[Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bender, M. [DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]|[Universite Bordeaux, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR5797, Chemin du Solarium, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Bennaceur, K. [Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon (France)]|[Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)]|[DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Duguet, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    agreement of the single-particle spectra in doubly-magic nuclei is deteriorated, which can be traced back to features of the single-particle spectra that are not related to the tensor terms. We conclude that the currently used central and spin-orbit parts of the Skyrme energy density functional are not flexible enough to allow for the presence of large tensor terms. (authors)

  6. Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

  7. Application of semi-parametric single-index two-part regression and parametric two-part regression in estimation of the cost of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai, Mohadese; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Zayeri, Farid; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of cost modeling, the semi-parametric single-index two-part model was utilized in the paper. Furthermore, as functional gastrointestinal diseases which are well-known as common causes of illness among the society people in terms of both the number of patients and prevalence in a specific time interval, this research estimated the average cost of functional gastrointestinal diseases. Health care policy-makers seek for real and accurate estimations of society's future medical costs. However, data dealt with in hygienic studies have characteristics which make their analysis complicated; distribution of cost data is highly skewed since many patients pay great costs. In addition, medical costs of many persons are zero in a specific time interval. Indeed, medical costs data are often right skewed, including remarkable number of zeros, and may be distributed non-homogeneously. In modeling these costs by the semi-parametric single-index two-part model, parameters were determined by method of least squares; a result of this method was compared with the results yielded from two-part parametric model. Average costs of functional gastrointestinal diseases and their standard deviation in semi-parametric and parametric methods were yielded as $72.69±108.96 (R(2)=0.38) and $75.93±122.29 (R(2)=0.33) respectively. Based on R(2) index, the semi-parametric model is recognized as the best model. Totally, the two-part parametric regression model is a simple and available model which can be easily interpreted; on the other hand, though the single-index two-part semi-parametric model cannot be easily interpreted, it has considerable flexibility. The study goals can be indeed used as the main factor for choosing one of these two models.

  8. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 772 - National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed A Appendix A to Part 772 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Function of Speed EC14OC91.013 ...

  9. The Prevalence and Severity of Autonomic Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasangulapati, Suresh Babu; Murthy, T V; Sivadasan, Ajith; Gideon, L Rynjah; Prabhakar, A T; Sanjith, Aaron; Mathew, Vivek; Alexander, Mathew

    2017-01-01

    In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), emphasis has been on motor disabilities, and autonomic dysfunction in these patients has not been addressed systematically. Autonomic function was prospectively analyzed in 38 patients with CIDP. Quantitative autonomic function testing was done using Finometer ® PRO and severity of adrenergic and cardiovagal dysfunction graded according to composite autonomic severity score and sudomotor dysfunction assessed using sympathetic skin response. Thirty-four (89%) patients had features of autonomic dysfunction. Thirty-three (86%) patients had cardiovagal dysfunction, 21 (55%) had adrenergic dysfunction, and 24 (63%) had sudomotor dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction was mild to moderate in the majority (86%). Autonomic dysfunction in CIDP is underreported and potentially amenable to therapy. Our cohort had a high proportion of adrenergic dysfunction compared to previous studies.

  10. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. I. General part and allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro; Polilov, Alexey

    2014-11-01

    In this first of three articles we show the construction of the articular part of the elytron, the root. The root bears a conspicuous field of campaniform sensilla. This field was studied using light and scanning electron microscopes. The diversity of shape of the field among beetles, types of orientation of elongated sensilla within the field, individual variability of their number among conspecifics are demonstrated. Elongated sensilla point to the junction of the elytron with the second axillary plate. Presumably, they monitor twist movement in this junction, which is possible if the elytron is open. The goal of the whole project is to reveal the effect of both structure and function of the hind wings and elytra on the morphology of this mechanosensory field. Our data on allometric relationships between the animal size and quantitative characteristics of the field in normally flying beetles provide an important background for further functional analysis of this sensory organ. We selected 14 series of several species belonging to the same taxon but differing in size from big to small. It is revealed that the area of the sensory field is directly proportional to the elytral area, whereas the number of sensilla is proportional to the square root of the elytral area. Despite the great range in the elytral area (1500 times) in series of selected species the area of an external pit or cap of a single sensillum varies only 25-fold. The density of sensilla per unit area of the sensory field increases with decrease of the elytral area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Modification of Cardiac Autonomic Function of High-Intensity Interval Training in Collegiate Male Soccer Players with Different Chronotype: A Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Matteo; Agnello, Luca; Galasso, Letizia; Montaruli, Angela; Roveda, Eliana; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Vitale, Jacopo A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the time of the day (8.00 a.m. vs 8.00 p.m.) and chronotype could influence autonomic cardiac control in soccer players in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval training. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire was administered to recruit Morning-type and Evening-type collegiate male soccer players. Therefore, 24 players (12 Morning-types and 12 Evening-types) were randomly assigned, to either morning (n = 12; age 23 ± 3 years; height 1.75 ± 0.07 m; body mass 73 ± 10 kg; weekly training volume 8 2 hours), or evening (n = 12; age 21 ± 3 years; height 1.76 ± 0.05 m; body mass 75 ± 11 kg; weekly training volume 8 ± 3 hours) training. Heart Rate Variability vagal and sympatho/vagal indices were calculated in time, frequency and complexity domains at rest, before, after 12 and 24 hours of high-intensity interval training. Before evening training session, a higher resting heart rate was observed which was determined by a marked parasympathetic withdrawal with a sympathetic predominance. Moreover, Evening-type subjects during morning training session, present a significant higher heart rate that corresponded to significant higher vagal indices with a significant lower parasympathetic tone that returned to the rest values after 24 hours of the cessation of high-intensity interval training exercise. On the contrary, Morning-type subjects did not reveal any significant differences with Evening-Type subjects during evening high-intensity interval training session. Stress response of high-intensity interval training is influenced by both the time of the day and by the chronotype. Understanding the Heart Rate Variability response to high-intensity interval training can be an additional important procedure for evaluating of cardiovascular recovery in soccer players. Moreover, these results suggest that an athlete's chronotype should be taken into account when scheduling a high-intensity interval training

  12. Acute Modification of Cardiac Autonomic Function of High-Intensity Interval Training in Collegiate Male Soccer Players with Different Chronotype: A Cross-Over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bonato, Luca Agnello, Letizia Galasso, Angela Montaruli, Eliana Roveda, Giampiero Merati, Antonio La Torre, Jacopo A. Vitale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the time of the day (8.00 a.m. vs 8.00 p.m. and chronotype could influence autonomic cardiac control in soccer players in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval training. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire was administered to recruit Morning-type and Evening-type collegiate male soccer players. Therefore, 24 players (12 Morning-types and 12 Evening-types were randomly assigned, to either morning (n = 12; age 23 ± 3 years; height 1.75 ± 0.07 m; body mass 73 ± 10 kg; weekly training volume 8 2 hours, or evening (n = 12; age 21 ± 3 years; height 1.76 ± 0.05 m; body mass 75 ± 11 kg; weekly training volume 8 ± 3 hours training. Heart Rate Variability vagal and sympatho/vagal indices were calculated in time, frequency and complexity domains at rest, before, after 12 and 24 hours of high-intensity interval training. Before evening training session, a higher resting heart rate was observed which was determined by a marked parasympathetic withdrawal with a sympathetic predominance. Moreover, Evening-type subjects during morning training session, present a significant higher heart rate that corresponded to significant higher vagal indices with a significant lower parasympathetic tone that returned to the rest values after 24 hours of the cessation of high-intensity interval training exercise. On the contrary, Morning-type subjects did not reveal any significant differences with Evening-Type subjects during evening high-intensity interval training session. Stress response of high-intensity interval training is influenced by both the time of the day and by the chronotype. Understanding the Heart Rate Variability response to high-intensity interval training can be an additional important procedure for evaluating of cardiovascular recovery in soccer players. Moreover, these results suggest that an athlete’s chronotype should be taken into account when scheduling a high

  13. Progression of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in Holmes-Adie syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, P; Mathias, C J

    2011-09-01

    The Holmes-Adie Syndrome (HAS) is a disorder of unknown aetiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonic pupils with near light dissociation and tendon areflexia. Although considered to be benign, troublesome symptoms may result from autonomic disturbances, affecting vasomotor, sudomotor and respiratory function. It is unclear if the autonomic manifestations of the disease remain stable or progress, as longitudinal studies with detailed autonomic assessments have not been described. The authors report four HAS patients studied at intervals over 16, 8, 4 and 2 years with cardiovascular autonomic tests (head-up tilt, isometric exercise, mental arithmetic, cutaneous cold, deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre and standing). In each, there was progression of cardiovascular autonomic deficits with time, accompanied by symptomatic worsening. These observations in HAS, for the first time, indicate progression of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction of clinical significance. This has a number of implications, including those relating to aetiology and prognosis. The authors recommend regular clinical and laboratory follow-up, especially of cardiovascular autonomic function, in patients with HAS.

  14. Polyester textile functionalization through incorporation of pH/thermo-responsive microgels. Part II: polyester functionalization and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Calvimontes, A.; Dutschk, Victoria; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to functionalize the surface of polyester textiles is described in this study. Functionalization was achieved by incorporating pH/temperature-responsive polyelectrolyte microgels into the textile surface layer using UV irradiation. The aim of functionalization was to regulate

  15. A learning-based autonomous driver: emulate human driver's intelligence in low-speed car following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junqing; Dolan, John M.; Litkouhi, Bakhtiar

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, an offline learning mechanism based on the genetic algorithm is proposed for autonomous vehicles to emulate human driver behaviors. The autonomous driving ability is implemented based on a Prediction- and Cost function-Based algorithm (PCB). PCB is designed to emulate a human driver's decision process, which is modeled as traffic scenario prediction and evaluation. This paper focuses on using a learning algorithm to optimize PCB with very limited training data, so that PCB can have the ability to predict and evaluate traffic scenarios similarly to human drivers. 80 seconds of human driving data was collected in low-speed (car-following scenarios. In the low-speed car-following tests, PCB was able to perform more human-like carfollowing after learning. A more general 120 kilometer-long simulation showed that PCB performs robustly even in scenarios that are not part of the training set.

  16. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent ...

  17. An autonomous control framework for advanced reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Wood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Several Generation IV nuclear reactor concepts have goals for optimizing investment recovery through phased introduction of multiple units on a common site with shared facilities and/or reconfigurable energy conversion systems. Additionally, small modular reactors are suitable for remote deployment to support highly localized microgrids in isolated, underdeveloped regions. The long-term economic viability of these advanced reactor plants depends on significant reductions in plant operations and maintenance costs. To accomplish these goals, intelligent control and diagnostic capabilities are needed to provide nearly autonomous operations with anticipatory maintenance. A nearly autonomous control system should enable automatic operation of a nuclear power plant while adapting to equipment faults and other upsets. It needs to have many intelligent capabilities, such as diagnosis, simulation, analysis, planning, reconfigurability, self-validation, and decision. These capabilities have been the subject of research for many years, but an autonomous control system for nuclear power generation remains as-yet an unrealized goal. This article describes a functional framework for intelligent, autonomous control that can facilitate the integration of control, diagnostic, and decision-making capabilities to satisfy the operational and performance goals of power plants based on multimodular advanced reactors.

  18. An autonomous control framework for advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard T.; Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Floyd, Dan C. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Several Generation IV nuclear reactor concepts have goals for optimizing investment recovery through phased introduction of multiple units on a common site with shared facilities and/or reconfigurable energy conversion systems. Additionally, small modular reactors are suitable for remote deployment to support highly localized microgrids in isolated, underdeveloped regions. The long-term economic viability of these advanced reactor plants depends on significant reductions in plant operations and maintenance costs. To accomplish these goals, intelligent control and diagnostic capabilities are needed to provide nearly autonomous operations with anticipatory maintenance. A nearly autonomous control system should enable automatic operation of a nuclear power plant while adapting to equipment faults and other upsets. It needs to have many intelligent capabilities, such as diagnosis, simulation, analysis, planning, reconfigurability, self-validation, and decision. These capabilities have been the subject of research for many years, but an autonomous control system for nuclear power generation remains as-yet an unrealized goal. This article describes a functional framework for intelligent, autonomous control that can facilitate the integration of control, diagnostic, and decision-making capabilities to satisfy the operational and performance goals of power plants based on multimodular advanced reactors.

  19. Autonomous biomorphic robots as platforms for sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilden, M.; Hasslacher, B.; Mainieri, R.; Moses, J.

    1996-01-01

    The idea of building autonomous robots that can carry out complex and nonrepetitive tasks is an old one, so far unrealized in any meaningful hardware. Tilden has shown recently that there are simple, processor-free solutions to building autonomous mobile machines that continuously adapt to unknown and hostile environments, are designed primarily to survive, and are extremely resistant to damage. These devices use smart mechanics and simple (low component count) electronic neuron control structures having the functionality of biological organisms from simple invertebrates to sophisticated members of the insect and crab family. These devices are paradigms for the development of autonomous machines that can carry out directed goals. The machine then becomes a robust survivalist platform that can carry sensors or instruments. These autonomous roving machines, now in an early stage of development (several proof-of-concept prototype walkers have been built), can be developed so that they are inexpensive, robust, and versatile carriers for a variety of instrument packages. Applications are immediate and many, in areas as diverse as prosthetics, medicine, space, construction, nanoscience, defense, remote sensing, environmental cleanup, and biotechnology

  20. Autonomous biomorphic robots as platforms for sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilden, M.; Hasslacher, B.; Mainieri, R.; Moses, J.

    1996-10-01

    The idea of building autonomous robots that can carry out complex and nonrepetitive tasks is an old one, so far unrealized in any meaningful hardware. Tilden has shown recently that there are simple, processor-free solutions to building autonomous mobile machines that continuously adapt to unknown and hostile environments, are designed primarily to survive, and are extremely resistant to damage. These devices use smart mechanics and simple (low component count) electronic neuron control structures having the functionality of biological organisms from simple invertebrates to sophisticated members of the insect and crab family. These devices are paradigms for the development of autonomous machines that can carry out directed goals. The machine then becomes a robust survivalist platform that can carry sensors or instruments. These autonomous roving machines, now in an early stage of development (several proof-of-concept prototype walkers have been built), can be developed so that they are inexpensive, robust, and versatile carriers for a variety of instrument packages. Applications are immediate and many, in areas as diverse as prosthetics, medicine, space, construction, nanoscience, defense, remote sensing, environmental cleanup, and biotechnology.

  1. Safety parameter display system functions are integrated parts of the KWU KONVOI process information system (SPDS functions are parts of the KWU-PRINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Geyer, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The desirability of having flexible overview as well as extended detail information with pictorial and abstraction features and easy and quick access throughout the large-size control rooms in German plants has been recognized. Developments over the last years now make it possible to add on extensive computer driven VDU-systems to the three German KONVOI NPPs (Isar II, Emsland and Neckarwestheim II) thereby creating the Process Information System ''PRINS''. The new system is driven by multiple computers at different locations controlling about 30 full-graphic, high resolution Video Display Units. They are arranged singly and in three ''mxn - Information Panels'' distributed about the control room and present all thinkable kinds of display formats with more than 1000 separate pictures. The display of only single ''Safety Parameters'' or even complete ''Safety Goal Information'' on single or multiple VDUs in parallel is only one aspect of this computerized part of the entire integrated Information System. (orig./HP)

  2. Autonomic Fuselet Specification and Composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Peter H

    2006-01-01

    A framework for autonomic fuselet business logic development was developed, using semantic web services and workflow technologies to specify fuselet information needs, to define an executable workflow...

  3. Morally autonomous practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P A

    1998-12-01

    The structures and contexts within which nurses work results in the moral agency and moral autonomy of the nurse being compromised. This claim results from a confusion of (1) the concept of autonomy with those of freedom and independence; and (2) a confusion of the notion of moral autonomy with that of autonomous professional practice. The drawing of appropriate distinctions allows clarification of the relevant concepts. It also underlines the responsibility of practitioners to recognize the moral dimension of their practice, and the moral implications of their actions, as they attempt to meet the health care needs of their patients and develop practice professionally.

  4. F-18-FDG-PET in autonomous goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, A.R.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Gain-of-function mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene have been invoked as one of the major causes of toxic thyroid adenomas. This study evaluates F-18-FDG-PET in these patients. Methods: Twenty patients with focal autonomous nodules and ten with disseminated autonomy were investigated the day before radioiodine therapy. Twenty patients with cancer of the head or neck and normal thyroid function served as controls. Results: F-18-FDG-Uptake was higher in patients than in controls. Focal autonomous nodules were associated with focally enhanced glucose metabolism. Disseminated autonomous goiters showed various patterns of focal or global hypermetabolism. Conclusion: Autonomous thyroid tissue caused by constitutive mutations of the TSH receptor is characterised by simultaneous increases in glucose and iodine metabolism which are correlated. (orig.) [de

  5. Transactive System: Part I: Theoretical Underpinnings of Payoff Functions, Control Decisions, Information Privacy, and Solution Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-01-17

    new transactive energy system design with demonstrable guarantees on stability and performance. Specifically, the goals are to (1) establish a theoretical basis for evaluating the performance of different transactive systems, (2) devise tools to address canonical problems that exemplify challenges and scenarios of transactive systems, and (3) provide guidelines for design of future transactive systems. This report, Part 1 of a two part series, advances the above-listed research objectives by reviewing existing transactive systems and identifying a theoretical foundation that integrates payoff functions, control decisions, information privacy, and mathematical solution concepts.

  6. A universal projective synchronization of general autonomous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Generalized projective synchronization controller design. Consider a general autonomous system: ˙X = AX + B. (1). Here X = [x1, x1,..., xn]T is the state vector of the drive system, B is a n × 1 constant vector, and A is a n × n square matrix: A = ⎛. ⎜. ⎝ a11(X) ... a1n(X) ... ... ... an1(X) ··· ann(X). ⎞. ⎟. ⎠ . Here, aij (X) is a function ...

  7. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  8. Autonomous Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  9. Knowledge-based and integrated monitoring and diagnosis in autonomous power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, J. A.; Zhang, Z. Z.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique of knowledge-based and integrated monitoring and diagnosis (KBIMD) to deal with abnormalities and incipient or potential failures in autonomous power systems is presented. The KBIMD conception is discussed as a new function of autonomous power system automation. Available diagnostic modelling, system structure, principles and strategies are suggested. In order to verify the feasibility of the KBIMD, a preliminary prototype expert system is designed to simulate the KBIMD function in a main electric network of the autonomous power system.

  10. Fuzzy logic in autonomous orbital operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1991-01-01

    Fuzzy logic can be used advantageously in autonomous orbital operations that require the capability of handling imprecise measurements from sensors. Several applications are underway to investigate fuzzy logic approaches and develop guidance and control algorithms for autonomous orbital operations. Translational as well as rotational control of a spacecraft have been demonstrated using space shuttle simulations. An approach to a camera tracking system has been developed to support proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Pattern recognition and object identification algorithms currently under development will become part of this camera system at an appropriate level in the future. A concept to control environment and life support systems for large Lunar based crew quarters is also under development. Investigations in the area of reinforcement learning, utilizing neural networks, combined with a fuzzy logic controller, are planned as a joint project with the Ames Research Center.

  11. Algorithms for Autonomous GS Orbit Determination and Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Michael C.; Speed, Eden Denton-Trost; Axelrad, Penina; Leitner, Jesse (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This final report for our study of autonomous Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbit determination comprises two sections. The first is the Ph.D. dissertation written by Michael C. Moreau entitled, "GPS Receiver Architecture for Autonomous Navigation in High Earth Orbits." Dr. Moreau's work was conducted under both this project and a NASA GSRP. His dissertation describes the key design features of a receiver specifically designed for autonomous operation in high earth orbits (HEO). He focused on the implementation and testing of these features for the GSFC PiVoT receiver. The second part is a memo describing a robust method for autonomous initialization of the orbit estimate given very little a priori information and sparse measurements. This is a key piece missing in the design of receivers for HEO.

  12. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... process. Autonomic disorders may be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous ... with acetylcholine and placed on the legs and forearm. Then, the volume of sweat is measured to ...

  13. Behavioural domain knowledge transfer for autonomous agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , and Behavior Transfer in Autonomous Robots, AAAI 2014 Fall Symposium Series, 13-15 November 2014 Behavioural Domain Knowledge Transfer for Autonomous Agents Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Modelling and Digital Science Council...

  14. Correlation between arterial wall stiffness, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiac autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Aleksandrovna Serhiyenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess arterial wall stiffness, plasma levels of of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, as well as functional state and structure of the myocardium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN.Materials and Methods. The study involved a total of 65 patients with T2DM. 12 had no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD or CAN, 14 were diagnosed with subclinical stage of CAN, 18 – with functional stage, and 21 – with organic stage. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic augmentation index (AIx, brachial artery AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and plasma levels of NT-proBNP. Clinical examination included ECG, Holter monitoring, ambulatory BP measurement and echocardiography.Results. Patients with isolated T2DM showed a trend for increased vascular wall stiffness. PWV was increased in patients with subclinical stage of CAN. Aortic and brachial AIx, PWV and AASI were elevated in patients with functional stage of CAN, PWV being significantly higher vs. subclinical CAN subgroup. Organic stage was characterized by pathologically increased values of all primary parameters; PWV and AASI were significantly higher compared with other groups. Development and progression of CAN was accompanied by an increase in NT-proBNP plasma levels. Concentration of NT-proBNP was in direct correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM and PWV. PWV and LVM values also directly correlated between themselves.Conclusion. Development and progression of CAN in patients with T2DM is accompanied by an increase in vascular wall stiffness. The elevation of plasma NT-proBNP in patients with T2DM correlates with the development of CAN and is significantly and independently associated with an increase in LVM and PWV. Our data suggests the pathophysiological interconnection between metabolic, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with T2DM and CAN.

  15. Immunosuppression after Sepsis: Systemic Inflammation and Sepsis Induce a Loss of Naïve T-Cells but No Enduring Cell-Autonomous Defects in T-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwart, Robby; Condotta, Stephanie A.; Requardt, Robert P.; Borken, Farina; Schubert, Katja; Weigel, Cynthia; Bauer, Michael; Griffith, Thomas S.; Förster, Martin; Brunkhorst, Frank M.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.; Rubio, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis describes the life-threatening systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) of an organism to an infection and is the leading cause of mortality on intensive care units (ICU) worldwide. An acute episode of sepsis is characterized by the extensive release of cytokines and other mediators resulting in a dysregulated immune response leading to organ damage and/or death. This initial pro-inflammatory burst often transits into a state of immune suppression characterised by loss of immune cells and T-cell dysfunction at later disease stages in sepsis survivors. However, despite these appreciations, the precise nature of the evoked defect in T-cell immunity in post-acute phases of SIRS remains unknown. Here we present an in-depth functional analysis of T-cell function in post-acute SIRS/sepsis. We document that T-cell function is not compromised on a per cell basis in experimental rodent models of infection-free SIRS (LPS or CpG) or septic peritonitis. Transgenic antigen-specific T-cells feature an unaltered cytokine response if challenged in vivo and ex vivo with cognate antigens. Isolated CD4+/CD8+ T-cells from post-acute septic animals do not exhibit defects in T-cell receptor-mediated activation at the the level of receptor-proximal signalling, activation marker upregulation or expansion. However, SIRS/sepsis induced transient lymphopenia and gave rise to an environment of immune attenuation at post acute disease stages. Thus, systemic inflammation has an acute impact on T-cell numbers and adaptive immunity, but does not cause major cell-autonomous enduring functional defects in T-cells. PMID:25541945

  16. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.

    2016-01-01

    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  17. Interleukin-6 blockade Improves Autonomic Dysfunction in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashit Syngle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system (ANS involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is well recognised and contributes to arrhythmia and sudden death. However, there is no study documented the therapeutic efficacy on autonomic neuropathy (AN in RA. This is the first reported observation of improvement in AN with interleukin-6 (IL-6 blockade with tocilizumab in RA. We report a case of 61-year old female with seropositive RA with severe disease activity, investigated for autonomic neuropathy. A battery of non invasive tests was used for accurate assessment of AN function based on assessment of peripheral sympathetic autonomic function and cardiovascular reflex tests. Tocilizumab 8mg/kg intravenous infusion at weeks 0, 4 and 8 was added to her treatment regimen. Cardiovascular autonomic function tests at baseline showed marked abnormalities of parasympathetic cardiovascular reflexes. After the first dose of tocilizumab there was a rapid improvement with normalization of parasympathetic autonomic activity with subsequent doses. IL-6 blockade with tocilizumab seems to have the potential to improve the vagus nerve mediated parasympathetic neuropathy and hence has the potential to restore cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

  18. Correlation between basal serum IGF-1 levels and functional autonomy in elderly women. (Correlación entre los niveles sericos de IGF-1 basal y autonomía funcional en las ancianas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of correlation between basal serum IGF-1 levels and functional autonomy in the performance of activities of daily living (ADL. The sample comprised 11 elderly individuals, disregarding their ADLs (age = 68.18 ± 5.19 years; body mass index (BMI = 28.89 ± 3.44 kg/m2 and not enrolled in physical exercise programs for at least 3 months. The subjects were submitted to a battery of 5 functional autonomy tests from the GDLAM protocol and blood collection to assess serum IGF-1 levels. Using Pearson’s correlation, we found a significant mean correlation coefficient (r between the 10 m walking test (10mW and IGF-1 (r = -0.690; p = 0.009 and mean correlation, but not significant between the putting on and removing a t-shirt test (PRTS and IGF-1 (r = -0.528 and between the general autonomy index (AI and IGF-1 (r = -0.417. The correlation was low in the remaining tests, but inversed. This suggests that the decline in IGF-1 with age may decrease ADL performance in the elderly. Key words: Serum IGF-1; ADL; elderly. Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue comprobar el nivel de la correlación entre los niveles de serum basal de IGF-1 y la autonomía funcional para la realización de las actividades de la vida diaria en personas mayores (edad = 68,18 ± 5,19 años; índice de la masa corporal, IMC = 28,89 ± 3,44 kg/m2, no participantes de los programas de ejercicios físico desde hace un mínimo de 3 meses. Los sujetos fueron sometidos a una batería de 5 tareas de autonomía funcional del protocolo GDLAM y un análisis de sangre para evaluar los niveles de serum de IGF-1. A través de la correlación de Pearson se comprobó la existencia de un coeficiente de la correlación (r medio y significativo entre el examen de la marcha 10m (C10m y el IGF-1 (r = -0,690; p=0,009 y la correlación media, pero no significativa ,entre el test de vestirse y quitarse una camiseta (VTC y el IGF-1 (r= -0

  19. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogacki, John R

    2007-01-01

    ... vehicles, cooperative flight of autonomous aerial vehicles using GPS and vision information, cooperative and sharing of information in search missions involving multiple autonomous agents, multi-scale...

  20. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  1. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  2. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem......Low-power base stations such as e.g. Femto-cells are one of the candidates for high data rate provisioning in local areas, such as residences, apartment complexes, business offices and outdoor hotspot scenarios. Unfortunately, the benefits are not without new challenges in terms of interference...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  3. On the Viability of Using Autonomous Three-Component Nodal Geophones to Calculate Teleseismic Ps Receiver Functions with an Application to the Old Faithful Hydrothermal System and the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Lin, F. C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in seismic data-acquisition technology paired with an increasing interest from the academic passive source seismological community have opened up new scientific targets and imaging possibilities, often referred to as Large-N experiments (large number of instruments). The success of these and other deployments has motivated individual researchers, as well as the larger seismological community, to invest in the next generation of nodal geophones. Although the new instruments have battery life and bandwidth limitations compared to broadband instruments, the relatively low deployment and procurement cost of these new nodal geophones provides an additional novel tool for researchers. Here, we explore the viability of using autonomous three-component nodal geophones to calculate teleseismic Ps receiver functions by comparison of co-located broadband stations and highlight some potential advantages with a dense nodal array deployed around the Upper Geyser basin in Yellowstone National Park. Two key findings from this example include (1) very dense nodal arrays can be used to image small-scale features in the shallow crust that typical broadband station spacing would alias, and (2) nodal arrays with a larger footprint could be used to image deeper features with greater or equal detail as typical broadband deployments but at a reduced deployment cost. The success of the previous example has motivated a larger 2-D line across the Cascadia subduction zone. In the summer of 2017, we deployed 174 nodal geophones with an average site spacing of 750 m. Synthetic tests with dense station spacing ( 1 km) reveal subtler features of the system that is consistent with our preliminary receiver function results from our Cascadia deployment. With the increasing availability of nodal geophones to individual researchers and the successful demonstration that nodal geophones are a viable instrument for receiver function studies, numerous scientific targets can be investigated

  4. Mobile Robot Designed with Autonomous Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feng; Chen, Qiang; Zha, Yanfang; Tao, Wenyin

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of robot technology, robots appear more and more in all aspects of life and social production, people also ask more requirements for the robot, one is that robot capable of autonomous navigation, can recognize the road. Take the common household sweeping robot as an example, which could avoid obstacles, clean the ground and automatically find the charging place; Another example is AGV tracking car, which can following the route and reach the destination successfully. This paper introduces a new type of robot navigation scheme: SLAM, which can build the environment map in a totally strange environment, and at the same time, locate its own position, so as to achieve autonomous navigation function.

  5. Wavefront Propagation and Fuzzy Based Autonomous Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Al-Jumaily

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Path planning and obstacle avoidance are the two major issues in any navigation system. Wavefront propagation algorithm, as a good path planner, can be used to determine an optimal path. Obstacle avoidance can be achieved using possibility theory. Combining these two functions enable a robot to autonomously navigate to its destination. This paper presents the approach and results in implementing an autonomous navigation system for an indoor mobile robot. The system developed is based on a laser sensor used to retrieve data to update a two dimensional world model of therobot environment. Waypoints in the path are incorporated into the obstacle avoidance. Features such as ageing of objects and smooth motion planning are implemented to enhance efficiency and also to cater for dynamic environments.

  6. Novel functions of plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, ICK1/KRP1, can act non-cell-autonomously and inhibit entry into mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinl, Christina; Marquardt, Sebastian; Kuijt, Suzanne J H

    2005-01-01

    numbers of cells consistent with a function of CKIs in blocking the G1-S cell cycle transition. Here, we demonstrate that at least one inhibitor from Arabidopsis, ICK1/KRP1, can also block entry into mitosis but allows S-phase progression causing endoreplication. Our data suggest that plant CKIs act...... independently from ICK1/KRP1-induced endoreplication. Strikingly, we found that endoreplicated cells were able to reenter mitosis, emphasizing the high degree of flexibility of plant cells during development. Moreover, we show that in contrast with animal CDK inhibitors, ICK1/KRP1 can move between cells...

  7. Assessment of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal autonomic complications of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Christina; Brock, Birgitte; Pedersen, Anne Grave

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing; arguably as a consequence of changes in diet, lifestyle and the trend towards urbanization. Unsurprisingly, the incidence of both micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes mirrors this increasing prevalence. Amongst the complications...... with the highest symptom burden, yet frequently under-diagnosed and sub-optimally treated, is diabetic autonomic neuropathy, itself potentially resulting in cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal (GI) tract dysmotility. The aims of this review are fourfold. Firstly to provide an overview...... of the pathophysiological processes that cause diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Secondly, to discuss both the established and emerging cardiometric methods for evaluating autonomic nervous system function in vivo. Thirdly, to examine the tools for assessing pan-GI and segmental motility and finally, we will provide...

  8. Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

  9. Symmetrization in jellyfish: reorganization to regain function, and not lost parts

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Michael J.; Goentoro, Lea

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Rather than regenerating lost parts, juvenile Aurelia reorganize remaining parts to regain essential body symmetry. This process that we called symmetrization is rapid and frequent, and is not driven by cell proliferation or cell death. Instead, the swimming machinery generates mechanical forces that drive symmetrization. We found evidence for symmetrization across three other species ...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 5 to Part 742 - Checklist on Encryption and Other “Information Security” Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checklist on Encryption and Other âInformation Securityâ Functions No. Supplement No. 5 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  11. Structural and resting state functional connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus: identification of motor STN parts and the hyperdirect pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen J L Brunenberg

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS for Parkinson's disease often alleviates the motor symptoms, but causes cognitive and emotional side effects in a substantial number of cases. Identification of the motor part of the subthalamic nucleus (STN as part of the presurgical workup could minimize these adverse effects. In this study, we assessed the STN's connectivity to motor, associative, and limbic brain areas, based on structural and functional connectivity analysis of volunteer data. For the structural connectivity, we used streamline counts derived from HARDI fiber tracking. The resulting tracks supported the existence of the so-called "hyperdirect" pathway in humans. Furthermore, we determined the connectivity of each STN voxel with the motor cortical areas. Functional connectivity was calculated based on functional MRI, as the correlation of the signal within a given brain voxel with the signal in the STN. Also, the signal per STN voxel was explained in terms of the correlation with motor or limbic brain seed ROI areas. Both right and left STN ROIs appeared to be structurally and functionally connected to brain areas that are part of the motor, associative, and limbic circuit. Furthermore, this study enabled us to assess the level of segregation of the STN motor part, which is relevant for the planning of STN DBS procedures.

  12. Autonomic Dysfunction in Children with Acute Community-Acquired Pneumonia and the Ways of Drug Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Nyankovsky

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the features of clinical course, intensity of toxic, asthenic syndromes, autonomic functioning in children of 7 years old with signs of community-acquired pneumonia based on instrumental autonomic testing and EEG findings. The probiotic Enterol and metabolic medication Stimol included into the treatment scheme fasten normalization of clinical, instrumental and functional parameters, reduce autonomic dysfunction, improve physical condition, adaptive opportunities, stress resistance, reduce imbalance between humoral-metabolic and central ergotropic influence, normalize responsiveness of parasympathetic nervous system and balance of autonomic modulation of cardiac rhythm, improve EEG findings.

  13. Foxa2 mediates critical functions of prechordal plate in patterning and morphogenesis and is cell autonomously required for early ventral endoderm morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Zachary; Kaestner, Klaus H; Evans, Sylvia M

    2012-03-15

    Axial mesendoderm is comprised of prechordal plate and notochord. Lack of a suitable Cre driver has hampered the ability to genetically dissect the requirement for each of these components, or genes expressed within them, to anterior patterning. Here, we have utilized Isl1-Cre to investigate roles of the winged helix transcription factor Foxa2 specifically in prechordal plate and ventral endoderm. Foxa2(loxP/loxP); Isl1-Cre mutants died at 13.5 dpc, exhibiting aberrations in anterior neural tube and forebrain patterning, and in ventral foregut morphogenesis and cardiac fusion. Molecular analysis of Foxa2(loxP/loxP); Isl1-Cre mutants indicated that Foxa2 is required in Isl1 lineages for expression of notochord and dorsal foregut endoderm markers, Shh. Brachyury, and Hlxb9. Our results support a requirement for Foxa2 in prechordal plate for notochord morphogenesis, axial patterning, and patterning of dorsal foregut endoderm. Loss of Foxa2 in ventral endoderm resulted in reduced expression of Sox17, Gata4, and ZO proteins, accounting at least in part for observed lack of foregut fusion, cardia bifida, and increased apoptosis of ventral endoderm.

  14. Foxa2 mediates critical functions of prechordal plate in patterning and morphogenesis and is cell autonomously required for early ventral endoderm morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Harrelson

    2012-01-01

    Axial mesendoderm is comprised of prechordal plate and notochord. Lack of a suitable Cre driver has hampered the ability to genetically dissect the requirement for each of these components, or genes expressed within them, to anterior patterning. Here, we have utilized Isl1-Cre to investigate roles of the winged helix transcription factor Foxa2 specifically in prechordal plate and ventral endoderm. Foxa2loxP/loxP; Isl1-Cre mutants died at 13.5 dpc, exhibiting aberrations in anterior neural tube and forebrain patterning, and in ventral foregut morphogenesis and cardiac fusion. Molecular analysis of Foxa2loxP/loxP; Isl1-Cre mutants indicated that Foxa2 is required in Isl1 lineages for expression of notochord and dorsal foregut endoderm markers, Shh. Brachyury, and Hlxb9. Our results support a requirement for Foxa2 in prechordal plate for notochord morphogenesis, axial patterning, and patterning of dorsal foregut endoderm. Loss of Foxa2 in ventral endoderm resulted in reduced expression of Sox17, Gata4, and ZO proteins, accounting at least in part for observed lack of foregut fusion, cardia bifida, and increased apoptosis of ventral endoderm.

  15. Alterations in cardiac autonomic control in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Liu, Nan; Malmqvist, Lasse; Wecht, Jill Maria; Krassioukov, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    A spinal cord injury (SCI) interferes with the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect on the cardiovascular system will depend on the extent of damage to the spinal/central component of ANS. The cardiac changes are caused by loss of supraspinal sympathetic control and relatively increased parasympathetic cardiac control. Decreases in sympathetic activity result in heart rate and the arterial blood pressure changes, and may cause arrhythmias, in particular bradycardia, with the risk of cardiac arrest in those with cervical or high thoracic injuries. The objective of this review is to give an update of the current knowledge related to the alterations in cardiac autonomic control following SCI. With this purpose the review includes the following subheadings: 2. Neuro-anatomical plasticity and cardiac control 2.1 Autonomic nervous system and the heart 2.2 Alteration in autonomic control of the heart following spinal cord injury 3. Spinal shock and neurogenic shock 3.1 Pathophysiology of spinal shock 3.2 Pathophysiology of neurogenic shock 4. Autonomic dysreflexia 4.1 Pathophysiology of autonomic dysreflexia 4.2 Diagnosis of autonomic dysreflexia 5. Heart rate/electrocardiography following spinal cord injury 5.1 Acute phase 5.2 Chronic phase 6. Heart rate variability 6.1 Time domain analysis 6.2 Frequency domain analysis 6.3 QT-variability index 6.4 Nonlinear (fractal) indexes 7. Echocardiography 7.1 Changes in cardiac structure following spinal cord injury 7.2 Changes in cardiac function following spinal cord injury 8. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular basic data set and international standards to document the remaining autonomic function in spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of various Prāṇāyāma on cardiovascular and autonomic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nivethitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular functions are controlled by neural factors, temperature, hormones, etc., Of these, neural factors primarily concern the autonomic nervous system, which plays a major role in maintaining and regulating cardiac functions, e.g., blood pressure and heart rate. Prāṇāyāma is one of the most important yogic practices. There are various review articles on Yoga and its effects but, though Prāṇāyāma is a part of yoga, there is lack of review articles. To the best of our knowledge there is no known review article on effect of various Prāṇāyāma on cardiovascular and autonomic variables. To provide a general overview about the effect of various prāṇāyāma (breathing techniques on cardiovascular and autonomic variables. A narrative review was performed based on the available scientific literature. An electronic data search was performed in Medline/PubMed database to review relevant articles, using keywords such as “Prāṇāyāma, Yogic breathing techniques, Unilateral nostril breathing, Alternate nostril breathing, Kapalbhati, Bhastrika and Bhramari Pranayama”. All the relevant articles published from 1988 to 06-04-2016 were included in this review. Slow type of yogic breathing technique was reported to produce beneficial effect on cardiovascular and autonomic variables while fast breathing techniques do not produce such effects. There is lack of consistency in the results of specific nostril yogic breathing techniques and the mechanisms behind the effects of various prāṇāyāma. This review suggests that different types of Prāṇāyāma techniques produce different effects and the mechanisms behind these effects are not fully understood.

  17. Developments and challenges for autonomous unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will have a transformational impact on military forces and will play a key role in many future force structures. As a result, many tasks have already been identified that unmanned systems could undertake more readily than humans. However, for this to occur, such systems will need to be agile, versatile, persistent, reliable, survivable and lethal. This will require many of the vehicles 'cognitive' or higher order functions to be more fully developed, whereas to date only the 'component' or physical functions have been successfully automated and

  18. Functional food monitoring as part of the new Dutch dietary monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg CJM; Jager M; Bakker MI; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Ocke MC; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Good data on functional food consumption necessary for an adequate Dutch nutrition policy are lacking. This lack may be overcome in future by including functional food monitoring in the new dietary monitoring system in the Netherlands. One specific form of monitoring could be an Internet-based

  19. The comparative and functional analysis of myth and ritual as constituent parts of a mythoritual religious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Davydov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The author treats the problem of ritual studies as relevant to the study of religion. Mytho-ritual is a relatively new concept, unfamiliar to many specialists. The author tries to define this concept, trace its origin and essential characteristics, and finally, on the basis of all this, posit a link uniting myth and ritual. Importance is given to the functional analysis of ritual, highlighting the essential role of ritual and rite. The theories of the Bielefeld and Moscow schools, the theory of V. N. Toporov regarding religious ritual, and those regarding ritual and rite proposed by A. K. Baiburin and K. S. Saringulyan are examined. The author then proceeds to an analysis of the functions of myth and examines the theories of M. Eliade and the Cambridge School. Finally the author compares the various functions of myth and ritual and fi nds that the number of actual functions of myth proposed by Russian and foreign experts, sociologists, ethnologists and folklorists, is rather small and closer in number to that of the functions of religion rather than of ritual. The author enumerates 36 functions of ritual as compared to only 12 functions of myth and 24 functions of religion

  20. Physics Simulation Software for Autonomous Propellant Loading and Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado Reyes, Bjorn Constant

    2015-01-01

    1. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a mobile launching system with autonomous propellant loading capabilities for liquid-fueled rockets. An autonomous system will be responsible for monitoring and controlling the storage, loading and transferring of cryogenic propellants. The Physics Simulation Software will reproduce the sensor data seen during the delivery of cryogenic fluids including valve positions, pressures, temperatures and flow rates. The simulator will provide insight into the functionality of the propellant systems and demonstrate the effects of potential faults. This will provide verification of the communications protocols and the autonomous system control. 2. The High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) stores and distributes hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and high pressure air. The hydrogen and nitrogen are stored in cryogenic liquid state. The cryogenic fluids pose several hazards to operators and the storage and transfer equipment. Constant monitoring of pressures, temperatures and flow rates are required in order to maintain the safety of personnel and equipment during the handling and storage of these commodities. The Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring software will be responsible for constantly observing and recording sensor data, identifying and predicting faults and relaying hazard and operational information to the operators.

  1. 78 FR 46295 - Special Conditions: Eclipse, EA500, Certification of Autothrottle Functions Under Part 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...-4090. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite interested people to take part in this... switching of the flight guidance system, a mode, or a sensor may not cause the autothrust system to effect a... is not consistent with response to flightcrew inputs or environmental conditions. (1) A minor...

  2. Clinical biomechanic correlates for cervical function: Part III. Intermittent secondary movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorro, J; Johnston, W L; Hubbard, R P

    1991-02-01

    Parts I and II of this study compared kinematic and myoelectric data for two groups of asymptomatic subjects classified as having symmetric or asymmetric motor response to a palpatory test for cervical sidebending. Kinematic data revealed that asymmetric subjects had limited mobility for primary and secondary motions. Myoelectric activity was slow to be initiated in the asymmetric subjects, and reduced in time and strength of contraction. Part III addresses additional specific kinematic data concerning three-dimensional orientations of the head; however, these data were accumulated throughout the paths of movement, not just at their end points as in our previous work. Although asymmetric subjects had demonstrated significantly reduced range of motion, paths of the more minor secondary axes did not differ significantly between groups. As with previous data (Part I and II), active and passive movements were undifferentiated; this degree of likeness in even minor aspects of the motor performance continues to indicate the remarkable similarities that can exist between primary movements directed and guided by trained physicians and those actively controlled by patients themselves. Part III completes a study of cervical motor behavior in which a passive gross motion test distinguished an asymmetric group with subclinical motor behavior that has measurable kinematic and myoelectric correlates.

  3. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  4. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors...

  5. Asymmetric and Non–Positive Definite Distance Functions Part II: Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sánchez–Larios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally the distance functions involved in problems of Operations Research have been modeled using positive linear combinations of metrics Lp. Thus, the resulting distance functions are symmetric, uniforms and positive definite. Starting from a new definition of arc length, we propose a method formo deling generalized distance functions, that we call premetrics, which can be asymmetric, non uniform, and non positive definite. We show that every distance function satisfying the triangle inequality and having a continuous one–sided directional derivative can be modeled as a problem of calculus of variations. The "length" of a d–geodesic arc C(a,b from a to b with respect to the premetric d (the d–length can be negative, and therefore the d–distance from a to b may represent the minimum energy needed to move a mobile object from a to b. We illustrate our method with two examples.

  6. Menopause and autonomic control of heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is associated with decreased heart rate variability, which is due to reduced parasympathetic or increased sympathetic outflow to the heart. Acute myocardial infarction may be accompanied by decreased heart rate variability. The causes of autonomic dysfunction in postmenopausal women may be multi-factorial i.e., dyslipidemia, increased body fat percentage, aging and loss of female sex hormones. The cardiac vagotonic and sympatholytic effects of estrogen can explain, at least in part, why premenopausal women compared with postmenopausal women have a lower coronary heart disease incidence and mortality rate.

  7. [Dirofilariasis in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V A; Romashova, M F

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents data on the prevalence of dirofilariasis in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea during 5 years from 1999 to 2003. The nematode Dirofilaria repens is a causative agent of the disease. Sporadic cases of helminthiasis are annually registered in some urban and rural areas on the plain of the peninsula. The disease is absent on the foothills and Black sea coast of the southern and eastern parts of Crimea. The localization of the parasite is typical of this helminthiasis. Dirofilariasis in Crimea may be regarded as a transmissible helminthiasis with natural focal trends.

  8. Auckland Stroke Outcomes Study. Part 1: Gender, stroke types, ethnicity, and functional outcomes 5 years poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, V L; Barker-Collo, S; Parag, V; Senior, H; Lawes, C M M; Ratnasabapathy, Y; Glen, E

    2010-11-02

    Studying long-term stroke outcomes including body functioning (neurologic and neuropsychological impairments) and activity limitations and participation is essential for long-term evidence-based rehabilitation and service planning, resource allocation, and improving health outcomes in stroke. However, reliable data to address these issues is lacking. This study (February 2007-December 2008) sourced its participants from the population-based incidence study conducted in Auckland in 2002-2003. Participants completed structured self-administered questionnaires, and a face-to-face interview including a battery of neuropsychological tests. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze associations between and within functional outcomes and their potential predictors. Of 418 5-year stroke survivors, two-thirds had good functional outcome in terms of neurologic impairment and disability (defined as modified Rankin Score <3), 22.5% had cognitive impairment indicative of dementia, 20% had experienced a recurrent stroke, almost 15% were institutionalized, and 29.6% had symptoms suggesting depression. Highly significant correlations were found between and within various measurements of body functioning (especially neuropsychological impairments), activity, and participation. Age, dependency, and depression were independently associated with most outcomes analyzed. The strong associations between neuropsychological impairment and other functional outcomes and across various measurements of body functioning, activity, and participation justify utilizing a multidisciplinary approach to studying and managing long-term stroke outcomes. Observed gender and ethnic differences in some important stroke outcomes warrant further investigations.

  9. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  10. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  11. [Autonomic peripheral neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David; Cauquil, Cecile; Lozeron, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms of dysautonomic disturbances are varied and mostly acquired. They can result from lesions of sympathetic or parasympathetic vegetative fibers located in the peripheral contingent, or in the somatic contingent by demyelination or axonal loss; or more rarely by cellular bodies in the sympathetic or parasympathetic ganglia. Several chronic peripheral neuropathies can be associated with dysautonomia. Only some causes need to be known because they can be clinically significant. Dysautonomia may be seen during chronic acquired neuropathies but also acute or subacute ones. The most frequent cause in the world is the dysautonomia of the diabetes; it affects all the systems; the cardiovascular dysfunction has an impact on the prognosis for survival when it is severe. Hereditary autonomic neuropathies are rare; they can declare themselves very early during the Riley-Day syndrome or very late during amyloid polyneuropathies due to transthyretin gene mutation. The diagnosis can be confirmed by molecular biology. The dysautonomia is frequent and often severe. These neuropathies justify symptomatic treatment to improve quality of life. For some of them, a specific treatment can be proposed to treat the causal affection to try to stop the progression of the disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Measuring Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Activity in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; van Lien, René; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Geus, Eco J.

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls mainly automatic bodily functions that are engaged in homeostasis, like heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration and renal function. The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the human body for action

  13. Autonomous power system: Integrated scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis, isolation, and recovery (FDIR), the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space-based power system. Faults can be introduced into the Brassboard and in turn, be diagnosed and corrected by APEX and AIPS. The Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler controls the execution of loads attached to the Brassboard. Each load must be executed in a manner that efficiently utilizes available power and satisfies all load, resource, and temporal constraints. In the case of a fault situation on the Brassboard, AIPS dynamically modifies the existing schedule in order to resume efficient operation conditions. A database is kept of the power demand, temporal modifiers, priority of each load, and the power level of each source. AIPS uses a set of heuristic rules to assign start times and resources to each load based on load and resource constraints. A simple improvement engine based upon these heuristics is also available to improve the schedule efficiency. This paper describes the operation of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler as a single entity, as well as its integration with APEX and the Brassboard. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler.

  14. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: Are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Backus, Sherry I.; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Hypothesis Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Methods Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n = 12), rectus (n = 27) and planus (n = 22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Results Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10–37% of the model variance (adjusted R2) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R2 increased to 45–77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7–47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16–64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (p Foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. PMID:23107624

  15. The non-protein coding breast cancer susceptibility locus Mcs5a acts in a non-mammary cell-autonomous fashion through the immune system and modulates T-cell homeostasis and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Bart M G; Sharma, Deepak; Samuelson, David J; Woditschka, Stephan; Mau, Bob; Haag, Jill D; Gould, Michael N

    2011-08-16

    Mechanisms underlying low-penetrance, common, non-protein coding variants in breast cancer risk loci are largely undefined. We showed previously that the non-protein coding mammary carcinoma susceptibility locus Mcs5a/MCS5A modulates breast cancer risk in rats and women. The Mcs5a allele from the Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rat strain consists of two genetically interacting elements that have to be present on the same chromosome to confer mammary carcinoma resistance. We also found that the two interacting elements of the resistant allele are required for the downregulation of transcript levels of the Fbxo10 gene specifically in T-cells. Here we describe mechanisms through which Mcs5a may reduce mammary carcinoma susceptibility. We performed mammary carcinoma multiplicity studies with three mammary carcinoma-inducing treatments, namely 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) carcinogenesis, and mammary ductal infusion of retrovirus expressing the activated HER2/neu oncogene. We used mammary gland and bone marrow transplantation assays to assess the target tissue of Mcs5a activity. We used immunophenotyping assays on well-defined congenic rat lines carrying susceptible and resistant Mcs5a alleles to identify changes in T-cell homeostasis and function associated with resistance. We show that Mcs5a acts beyond the initial step of mammary epithelial cell transformation, during early cancer progression. We show that Mcs5a controls susceptibility in a non-mammary cell-autonomous manner through the immune system. The resistant Mcs5a allele was found to be associated with an overabundance of gd T-cell receptor (TCR)+ T-cells as well as a CD62L (L-selectin)-high population of all T-cell classes. In contrast to in mammary carcinoma, gdTCR+ T-cells are the predominant T-cell type in the mammary gland and were found to be overabundant in the mammary epithelium of Mcs5a resistant congenic rats. Most of them simultaneously expressed the CD4, CD8, and CD161

  16. Treatment of solitary, autonomously-functioning, non-toxic thyroid nodules with I131 Adenema tiroideo autónomo no tóxico tratamiento con I131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Uribe Londoño

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Fifteen euthyroid patients (14 women and 1man with solitary autonomously functioning non-toxic thyroid nodules (AFTN were treated with high doses of I131 (mean 19.2 mCi. Diagnosis was made by I131 thyroid scan and triiodothyronine suppression test. The size of the nodule was determined by thyroid ecography both before and after treatment. Evaluation of thyroid function was performed clinically and by T3 T4 and TSH determinations before therapy and during follow.up. AII patients had complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Two cases of hypothyroidism were found in the first two years of follow-up. We have no explanation for this fact since extranodular thyroid tissue was suppressed and the patients were receiving oral triiodothyronine during radioidine treatment. The nodules decreasedin size In 9 of 13 patients followed (average decrease 45% and disappeared in other 2. our findings suggest that solitary non-toxic AFTN should be treated with I131 particularly if complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid tissue is found. If complete disappearance of the nodule is considered desirable surgical removal must be performed.

    Se trataron 14 mujeres y un hombre, con adenomas tiroideos solitarios funcionalmente autónomos, no tóxicos, con I131 a una dosis promedio de 19.2 mCi. La gamagrafía tiroidea demostró hipercaptación del nódulo con supresión total del resto de la glándula. El tamaño del nódulo se determinó por medio de ecografía tiroidea antes y después del tratamiento, y su autonomía por la prueba de supresión con triyodotironina. El estado tiroideo se puso de presente clínicamente y por la medición de T3, T 4 y TSH en el plasma, antes de la terapia con el radiofármaco y durante la evolución postratamiento. En dos

  17. Foot type biomechanics part 1: structure and function of the asymptomatic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Howard J; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B; Chow, Betty Shingpui; Deland, Jonathan T

    2013-03-01

    Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMat II gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pair wise comparisons. Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 1: Structure and Function of the Asymptomatic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Howard J.; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B.; PT, Betty (Shingpui) Chow; Deland, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? Aim To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Methods Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMatII gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pairwise comparisons. Results Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Conclusions Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. PMID:23107625

  19. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process for Exploring Prioritization of Functional Strategies in Auto Parts Manufacturing SMEs of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to find prioritization of functional strategies (manufacturing, marketing, human resource, and financial management by small and medium enterprises (SMEs operating in auto parts manufacturing sector of Pakistan. SMEs are major part of the industrial structure and have significant contribution toward generating jobs in Pakistan. These enterprises are generally family-owned businesses, and this study provides concrete insights into the mind-set of owners toward different functional strategies. The AHP implementation steps are performed using commercially available software “Expert Choice®.” Marketing strategy is considered to be the most important strategy, while manufacturing management strategy is the second most important strategy. There is little emphasis on the financial and human resource management which is a serious cause of concern. The study would help policy makers to understand the business behaviors of this sector and consequently formulate policies to enhance their performance.

  20. Renal Function and Diuretic Therapy in Infants and Children. Part i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggie, Jennifer M. H.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Included in the review are a description of the anatomic and functional development of the human kidney, a comparison of the renal physiology of the infant and adult, and a discussion of the pediatric clinical pharmacology of the most commonly used diuretic agents. (DB)

  1. Disintegration of power grid as part of the task of increasing functionality of electric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatov Bekzhan

    2017-01-01

    operation is inevitable with reduced reliability or, otherwise, with incomplete functionality where functionality is the set of functions provided by the power system and the quality of their performance. With the mass input of distributed small generation in grids of almost all voltage classes it is necessary to solve the problem of ensuring stability in previously passive distribution networks. The traditional approach based on the “struggle” to maintain synchronism between power plants in the distribution networks is associated with a number of difficulties, which causes to apply another approach to control modes in distribution networks. Complication of the power grid, automatic devices, increase in possible variations of modes, and tendency to maximize the use of production assets lead to an increase in the complexity of tasks solved by dispatch centers. In this regard, it is important to note that availability of cascade failures in power systems speaks of the urgency of the task of ensuring the survivability of energy supply systems both globally and locally. The paper shows how disintegration of the power grid can solve the task of ensuring the functionality of traditional power systems and help to create favorable conditions for distributed small generation integration into the integrated electric power system.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 851 - Worker Safety and Health Functional Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Institutes of Health (NIH), World Health Organization (WHO), and other international, Federal, State, and... and environment, safety, and health protection organizations. (1) Contractors must provide the... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Worker Safety and Health Functional Areas A Appendix A to...

  3. Detecting spatial patterns with the cumulant functionPart 1: The theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naveau

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In climate studies, detecting spatial patterns that largely deviate from the sample mean still remains a statistical challenge. Although a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, or equivalently a Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition, is often applied for this purpose, it provides meaningful results only if the underlying multivariate distribution is Gaussian. Indeed, PCA is based on optimizing second order moments, and the covariance matrix captures the full dependence structure of multivariate Gaussian vectors. Whenever the application at hand can not satisfy this normality hypothesis (e.g. precipitation data, alternatives and/or improvements to PCA have to be developed and studied. To go beyond this second order statistics constraint, that limits the applicability of the PCA, we take advantage of the cumulant function that can produce higher order moments information. The cumulant function, well-known in the statistical literature, allows us to propose a new, simple and fast procedure to identify spatial patterns for non-Gaussian data. Our algorithm consists in maximizing the cumulant function. Three families of multivariate random vectors, for which explicit computations are obtained, are implemented to illustrate our approach. In addition, we show that our algorithm corresponds to selecting the directions along which projected data display the largest spread over the marginal probability density tails.

  4. AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development

    OpenAIRE

    Krizek, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) is an important regulator of Arabidopsis flower development that has overlapping functions with the related AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6) gene in floral organ initiation, identity specification, growth, and patterning. Two other AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE (AIL) genes, AIL5 and AIL7, are expressed in developing flowers in spatial domains that partly overlap with those of ANT. Here, it is shown that AIL5 and AIL7 also act in a partially redundant manner with ANT. The results demonstrate t...

  5. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Backus, Sherry I; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2013-03-01

    Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n=12), rectus (n=27) and planus (n=22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10-37% of the model variance (adjusted R(2)) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R(2) increased to 45-77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7-47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16-64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (p<0.05), supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Pre-Participation Screening: The Use of Fundamental Movements as an Assessment of FunctionPart 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Lee; Hoogenboom, Barb

    2006-01-01

    To prepare an athlete for the wide variety of activities needed to participate in their sport, the analysis of fundamental movements should be incorporated into pre-participation screening in order to determine who possesses, or lacks, the ability to perform certain essential movements. In a series of two articles, the background and rationale for the analysis of fundamental movement will be provided. In addition, one such evaluation tool that attempts to assess the fundamental movement patterns performed by an individual, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS™), will be described. Three of the seven fundamental movement patterns that comprise the FMS™ are described in detail in Part I: deep squat, hurdle step, and in-line lunge. Part II of this series, which will be published in the August issue of NAJSPT, will provide a brief review of the analysis of fundamental movements, as well a detailed description of the four additional patterns that complement those presented in Part I (to complete the total of seven fundamental movement patterns which comprise the FMS™): shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. The intent of this two part series is to introduce the concept of the evaluation of fundamental movements, whether it is the FMS™ system or a different system devised by another clinician. Such a functional assessment should be incorporated into pre-participation screening in order to determine whether the athlete has the essential movements needed to participate in sports activities with a decreased risk of injury. PMID:21522216

  7. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  8. TERESA: a socially intelligent semi-autonomous telepresence system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiarlis, Kyriacos; Messias, Joao; van Someren, Maarten; Whiteson, Shimon; Kim, Jaebok; Vroon, Jered Hendrik; Englebienne, Gwenn; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Pérez-Higueras, Noé; Pérez-Hurtado, Ignacio; Ramon-Vigo, Rafael; Caballero, Fernando; Merino, Luis; Shen, Jie; Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja; Hedman, Lasse; Scherlund, Marten; Koster, Raphaël; Michel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    TERESA is a socially intelligent semi-autonomous telepresence system that is currently being developed as part of an FP7-STREP project funded by the European Union. The ultimate goal of the project is to deploy this system in an elderly day centre to allow elderly people to participate in social

  9. MART: an overview of the Mobile Autonomous Robot Twente project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, H.G.; de Graaf, A.J.; Koster, M.P.; Nauta, J.M.; Oelen, W.; Schipper, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    At the University of Twente a mobile autonomous robot system is built that is designed to operate in a 'factory of the future'. Multiple robots, consisting of a manipulator on top of a vehicle, will drive through an assembly hall to collect components at part supply stations and to assemble

  10. Estimation of electron temperature and density by de convolving the absorption part of the plasma dispersion function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez D, H.; Cabral P, A.; Melendez L, L.; Lopez C, R.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Cruz J, S.; Gaytan G, E.; Chavez A, E

    1992-04-15

    In this work a method to estimate the temperature and density of the electron (T{sub e}, n{sub e}), based on the deconvolution of the part of absorption of the dispersion function of the plasma is suggested. The absorptive part of this function, is proportional to the convolution of a Gauss distribution with a Lorentz function. The Gaussian represents to the Maxwell function of velocities distribution of the electrons of the plasma. The Lorentzian represents to the form of it lines of an linearized electrostatic wave that spreads with reduction in the plasma. The complex variable z of the plasma dispersion function is written as: z = u + ia, where u = 2 (w-w{sub 0}) {radical} Ln 2 /{gamma}{sub G} is the dimensionless frequency variable, a = {gamma}{sub L} {radical} Ln 2 /{gamma}{sub G} is the Posener parameter, {gamma}{sub G} = k {gamma}{sup '}{sub G} where k is the wave number of the oscillatory phenomenon, {gamma}{sup '}{sub G} is the FWHM of the Gaussian and {gamma}{sub L} = 2 {alpha}, {alpha} being the damping constant; i.e the imaginary part of the frequency {omega}. In this method, it will be assumed that a wave of frequency , and of amplitude small enough to avoid non-linear effects, propagates in the plasma and decays in such a way {alpha} is the Landau damping. With this assumption, the method is only valid in the interval k < < k{sub D}, where k{sub D} is the Debye wave number. Deconvolution of the detected absorption frequency spectrum of the signal, gives the values of {gamma}{sub G} and {gamma}{sub L} from which the values of n{sub e} and T{sub e} can be deduced. (Author)

  11. Compact autonomous navigation system (CANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. C.; Ying, L.; Xiong, K.; Cheng, H. Y.; Qiao, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous navigation of Satellite and constellation has series of benefits, such as to reduce operation cost and ground station workload, to avoid the event of crises of war and natural disaster, to increase spacecraft autonomy, and so on. Autonomous navigation satellite is independent of ground station support. Many systems are developed for autonomous navigation of satellite in the past 20 years. Along them American MANS (Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System) [1] of Microcosm Inc. and ERADS [2] [3] (Earth Reference Attitude Determination System) of Honeywell Inc. are well known. The systems anticipate a series of good features of autonomous navigation and aim low cost, integrated structure, low power consumption and compact layout. The ERADS is an integrated small 3-axis attitude sensor system with low cost and small volume. It has the Earth center measurement accuracy higher than the common IR sensor because the detected ultraviolet radiation zone of the atmosphere has a brightness gradient larger than that of the IR zone. But the ERADS is still a complex system because it has to eliminate many problems such as making of the sapphire sphere lens, birefringence effect of sapphire, high precision image transfer optical fiber flattener, ultraviolet intensifier noise, and so on. The marginal sphere FOV of the sphere lens of the ERADS is used to star imaging that may be bring some disadvantages., i.e. , the image energy and attitude measurements accuracy may be reduced due to the tilt image acceptance end of the fiber flattener in the FOV. Besides Japan, Germany and Russia developed visible earth sensor for GEO [4] [5]. Do we have a way to develop a cheaper/easier and more accurate autonomous navigation system that can be used to all LEO spacecraft, especially, to LEO small and micro satellites? To return this problem we provide a new type of the system—CANS (Compact Autonomous Navigation System) [6].

  12. Impaired cardiac uptake of meta-[123I]iodobenzylguanidine in Parkinson's disease with autonomic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braune, S.; Luecking, C.H.; Reinhardt, M.; Bathmann, J.; Krause, T.; Lehmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To selectively investigate postganglionic sympathetic cardiac neurons in patients with Parkinson's disease and autonomic failure. Material and methods - Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is a pharmacologically inactive analogue of noradrenaline, which is similarly metabolized in noradrenergic neurons. Therefore the uptake of radiolabelled MIBG represents not only the localization of postganglionic sympathetic neurons but also their functional integrity. Ten patients with Parkinson's disease and autonomic failure underwent standardized autonomic testing, assessment of catecholamine plasma levels and scintigraphy with [ 123 I]MIGB. Results - The cardiac uptake of MIBG, as demonstrated by the heart/mediastinum ratio, was significantly lower in patients in comparison with controls. Scintigraphy with MIBG allowed the selective in-vivo investigation of postganglionic sympathetic cardiac efferent in patients with autonomic failure, a procedure which was previously confined to post-mortem examination. Conclusion - These findings point to a relevant postganglionic pattern of involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in Parkinson's disease and autonomic failure. (au)

  13. Checking Equity: Why Differential Item Functioning Analysis Should Be a Routine Part of Developing Conceptual Assessments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Patrícia; Drabinová, Adéla; Liaw, Y.L.; Sanders, E.A.; McFarland, J.L.; Price, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2017), č. článku rm2. ISSN 1931-7913 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-15856Y Grant - others:NSF(US) DUE-1043443 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : differential item functioning * fairness * conceptual assessments * concept inventory * undergraduate education * bias Subject RIV: AM - Education OBOR OECD: Education, special (to gifted persons, those with learning disabilities) Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  14. Development and realization of energy management system in process industry, Part II: Advanced functions

    OpenAIRE

    Kulic, Filip; Jankovic, Veroslav; Oros, Djura; Vasic, Veran

    2009-01-01

    One of the specific functions of the energy management system is the prediction of energy consumption for the purpose of the timely reaction to and prevention of undesirable situations. Moreover, the energy consumption prediction enables better planning of the energy production and contributes to the reduction of all production costs. This paper shows a new original algorithm for energy consumption forecasting based on support vector machines. The developed energy management system is realize...

  15. [Syncope: electrocardiogram and autonomic function tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, William; Baranchuk, Adrián; Botero, Federico

    2016-12-23

    Syncope represents one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in the emergency department. A proper identification will allow a precise etiologic approach and the optimization of delivery of health resources.
Once knowing the classification of syncope; it is the clinical interrogatory what enables to discriminate which of these patients present with a neurogenic mediated syncope or a cardiac mediated syncope. The use of diagnostic methods such as the tilt test, will clarify what type of neurally mediated syncope predominates in the patient.
The electrocardiogram is the cornerstone in the identification of those patients who had a true episode of self-limited or aborted sudden death as the first manifestation of their syncope, a fact which provides prognostic and therapeutic information that will impact the morbidity and mortality.

  16. Syncope: electrocardiogram and autonomic function tests

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Baranchuk; Federico Botero

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El Síncope representa uno de los principales motivos de consulta en los servicios de urgencias. Su adecuada identificación permitirá además de la optimización de los recursos en la salud, un diagnóstico acertado de la causa o posibles causas del mismo. Teniendo clara su clasificación, será la historia clínica, basada en un adecuado interrogatorio, la que permitirá establecer cuáles de esos pacientes presentan un síncope neuralmente mediado y cuales un síncope de origen cardiaco. El...

  17. Improvement of Functional Properties by Sever Plastic Deformation on Parts of Titanium Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czán, Andrej; Babík, Ondrej; Daniš, Igor; Martikáň, Pavol; Czánová, Tatiana

    2017-12-01

    Main task of materials for invasive implantology is their biocompatibility with the tissue but also requirements for improving the functional properties of given materials are increasing constantly. One of problems of materials biocompatibility is the impossibility to improve of functional properties by change the percentage of the chemical elements and so it is necessary to find other innovative methods of improving of functional properties such as mechanical action in the form of high deformation process. This paper is focused on various methods of high deformation process such as Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) when rods with record strength properties were obtained.The actual studies of the deformation process properties as tri-axial compress stress acting on workpiece with high speed of deformation shows effects similar to results obtained using the other methods, but in lower levels of stress. Hydrostatic extrusion (HE) is applying for the purpose of refining the structure of the commercially pure titanium up to nano-scale. Experiments showed the ability to reduce the grain size below 100 nm. Due to the significant change in the performance of the titanium materials by severe plastic deformation is required to identify the processability of materials with respect to the identification of created surfaces and monitoring the surface integrity, where the experimental results show ability of SPD technologies application on biomaterials.

  18. Family resources study: part 1: family resources, family function and caregiver strain in childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe illness can disrupt family life, cause family dysfunction, strain resources, and cause caregiver burden. The family's ability to cope with crises depends on their resources. This study sought to assess families of children with cancer in terms of family function-dysfunction, family caregiver strain and the adequacy of family resources using a new family resources assessment instrument. Methods This is a cross-sectional study involving 90 Filipino family caregivers of children undergoing cancer treatment. This used a self-administered questionnaire composed of a new 12-item family resources questionnaire (SCREEM-RES) based on the SCREEM method of analysis, Family APGAR to assess family function-dysfunction; and Modified Caregiver Strain Index to assess strain in caring for the patient. Results More than half of families were either moderately or severely dysfunctional. Close to half of caregivers were either predisposed to strain or experienced severe strain, majority disclosed that their families have inadequate economic resources; many also report inaccessibility to medical help in the community and insufficient educational resources to understand and care for their patients. Resources most often reported as adequate were: family's faith and religion; help from within the family and from health providers. SCREEM-RES showed to be reliable with Cronbach's alpha of 0.80. There is good inter-item correlation between items in each domain: 0.24-0.70. Internal consistency reliability for each domain was also good: 0.40-0.92. Using 2-point scoring system, Cronbach's alpha were slightly lower: full scale (0.70) and for each domain 0.26-.82. Results showed evidence of association between family resources and family function based on the family APGAR but none between family resources and caregiver strain and between family function and caregiver strain. Conclusion Many Filipino families of children with cancer have inadequate resources, especially economic

  19. Functional neurological evaluation of the brainstem. Part I: the blink reflex Evaluación neurofuncional del tallo cerebral. Parte I: Reflejo del parpadeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bedoya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The blink reflex is the neural response elicited in the orbicular oculi muscle after single or paired supraorbital nerve stimulation, by either electrical, mechanical, acoustic, thermal, chemical or magnetic stimulation. It is made up of three responses called R1, R2 and R3. R1 is an early response that follows A beta fibers, and does not habituate. R2 is a middle-latency response that follows A beta and A delta fibers, tends to habituate and is modulated by sensorimotor suprasegmental structures.

    R3 is a long-latency response, generated by stimulation of a multisynaptic chain of neurons that involve type C fibers belonging to a complex pontothalamic-amigdalo-cerebellar pathway. It is also possible to record three silent periods if the blink reflex is obtained while the subject makes a voluntary facial muscle effort.

    The functional study of this reflex allows to define with certainty whether the lesion is in afferent or efferent pathways or if it involves an abnormal sensorimotor integration due to disorders of the central, autonomic or peripheral nervous systems. A correct execution of these studies, and their appropriate interpretation, based on the underlying mechanisms of neural plasticity, will guide toward better neurorehabilitation protocols.

    ROBERT autonomous navigation robot with artificial vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipollini, A.; Meo, G.B.; Nanni, V.; Rossi, L.; Taraglio, S.; Ferjancic, C.

    1993-01-01

    This work, a joint research between ENEA (the Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) and DIGlTAL, presents the layout of the ROBERT project, ROBot with Environmental Recognizing Tools, under development in ENEA laboratories. This project aims at the development of an autonomous mobile vehicle able to navigate in a known indoor environment through the use of artificial vision. The general architecture of the robot is shown together with the data and control flow among the various subsystems. Also the inner structure of the latter complete with the functionalities are given in detail

  1. A study on advanced man-machine interface system for autonomous nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Fukuto, Junji; Sugasawa, Shinobu; Miyazaki, Keiko; Someya, Minoru; Haraki, Nobuo

    1994-01-01

    A man-machine interface(MMI) system of an autonomous nuclear power plant has an advanced function compared with that of the present nuclear power plants. The MMI has a function model of a plant state, and updates and revises this function model by itself. This paper describes the concept of autonomous nuclear power plants, a plant simulator of an autonomous power plant, a contracted function model of a plant state, three-dimensional color graphic display of a plant state, and an event-tree like expression for plant states. (author)

  2. Anatomic and functional leg-length inequality: A review and recommendation for clinical decision-making. Part II, the functional or unloaded leg-length asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutson Gary A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Part II of this review examines the functional "short leg" or unloaded leg length alignment asymmetry, including the relationship between an anatomic and functional leg-length inequality. Based on the reviewed evidence, an outline for clinical decision making regarding functional and anatomic leg-length inequality will be provided. Methods Online databases: Medline, CINAHL and Mantis. Plus library searches for the time frame of 1970–2005 were done using the term "leg-length inequality". Results and Discussion The evidence suggests that an unloaded leg-length asymmetry is a different phenomenon than an anatomic leg-length inequality, and may be due to suprapelvic muscle hypertonicity. Anatomic leg-length inequality and unloaded functional or leg-length alignment asymmetry may interact in a loaded (standing posture, but not in an unloaded (prone/supine posture. Conclusion The unloaded, functional leg-length alignment asymmetry is a likely phenomenon, although more research regarding reliability of the measurement procedure and validity relative to spinal dysfunction is needed. Functional leg-length alignment asymmetry should be eliminated before any necessary treatment of anatomic LLI.

  3. Topical antihistamines display potent anti-inflammatory activity linked in part to enhanced permeability barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Man, Mao-Qiang; Santiago, Juan-Luis; Park, Kyungho; Roelandt, Truus; Oda, Yuko; Hupe, Melanie; Crumrine, Debra; Lee, Hae-Jin; Gschwandtner, Maria; Thyssen, Jacob P; Trullas, Carles; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M

    2013-02-01

    Systemic antagonists of the histamine type 1 and 2 receptors (H1/2r) are widely used as anti-pruritics and central sedatives, but demonstrate only modest anti-inflammatory activity. Because many inflammatory dermatoses result from defects in cutaneous barrier function, and because keratinocytes express both Hr1 and Hr2, we hypothesized that H1/2r antagonists might be more effective if they were used topically to treat inflammatory dermatoses. Topical H1/2r antagonists additively enhanced permeability barrier homeostasis in normal mouse skin by the following mechanisms: (i) stimulation of epidermal differentiation, leading to thickened cornified envelopes; and (ii) enhanced epidermal lipid synthesis and secretion. As barrier homeostasis was enhanced to a comparable extent in mast cell-deficient mice, with no further improvement following application of topical H1/2r antagonists, H1/2r antagonists likely oppose mast cell-derived histamines. In four immunologically diverse, murine disease models, characterized by either inflammation alone (acute irritant contact dermatitis, acute allergic contact dermatitis) or by prominent barrier abnormalities (subacute allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis), topical H1/2r agonists aggravated, whereas H1/2r antagonists improved, inflammation and/or barrier function. The apparent ability of topical H1r/2r antagonists to target epidermal H1/2r could translate into increased efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, likely due to decreased inflammation and enhanced barrier function. These results could shift current paradigms of antihistamine utilization from a predominantly systemic to a topical approach.

  4. Neurons the decision makers, Part I: The firing function of a single neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaty, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with understanding synthesis of electric signals in the neural system based on making pairwise comparisons. Fundamentally, every person and every animal are born with the talent to compare stimuli from things that share properties in space or over time. Comparisons always need experience to distinguish among things. Pairwise comparisons are numerically reciprocal. If a value is assigned to the larger of two elements that have a given property when compared with the smaller one, then the smaller has the reciprocal of that value when compared with the larger. Because making comparisons requires the reciprocal property, we need mathematics that can cope with division. There are four division algebras that would allow us to use our reciprocals arising from comparisons: The real numbers, the complex numbers, the non-commutative quaternions and the non-associative octonions. Rather than inferring function as from electric flow in a network, in this paper we infer the flow from function. Neurons fire in response to stimuli and their firings vary relative to the intensities of the stimuli. We believe neurons use some kind of pairwise comparison mechanism to determine when to fire based on the stimuli they receive. The ideas we develop here about flows are used to deduce how a system based on this kind of firing determination works and can be described. Furthermore the firing of neurons requires continuous comparisons. To develop a formula describing the output of these pairwise comparisons requires solving Fredholm's equation of the second kind which is satisfied if and only if a simple functional equation has solutions. The Fourier transform of the real solution of this equation leads to inverse square laws like those that are common in physics. The Fourier transform applied to a complex valued solution leads to Dirac type of firings. Such firings are dense in the very general fields of functions known as Sobolev spaces and thus can be used to

  5. A local control strategy for power systems in transient emergency state; Part 1: functional design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyu, U.; El-Abiad, A.H.

    1982-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the investigation of a systematic corrective control approach for the transient emergency state problem of the power system. The proposed new control framework involves distributing the task of system transient stability margin improvement among several local facilities dedicated to the various subsystems comprising the power system. The functional design of the various local controllers to undertake local information processing and provide appropriate closed-loop stabilizing control action during severe transient disturbance is presented. An illustrative example is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed local control framework.

  6. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  7. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate,

  8. Associations between xerostomia, histopathological alterations, and autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands in men in late midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Reibel, Jesper; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Osler, Merete; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2014-09-01

    One aim of the present study was to investigate whether symptoms of oral dryness (xerostomia) during daytime, assessed in a study group of middle-aged male positive and negative outliers in cognition scores, were associated with age-related degenerative changes in human labial salivary glands and with quantitative measures of the glandular autonomic innervation. Another aim was to study the relation between the autonomic innervation and loss of secretory acinar cells in these glands. Labial salivary gland biopsies were taken from the lower lip from 190 men, born in 1953 and members of the Danish Metropolit birth cohort, who were examined for age-related changes in cognitive function and dental health as part of the Copenhagen University Center for Healthy Aging clinical neuroscience project. The glands were routinely processed and semi-quantitatively analyzed for inflammation, acinar atrophy, fibrosis, and adipocyte infiltration. Sections of labial salivary gland tissue were stained with the panneuronal marker PGP 9.5. In a subsample of 51 participants, the autonomic innervation of the glands was analyzed quantitatively by use of stereology. Labial salivary gland tissue samples from 33% of all participants displayed moderate to severe acinar atrophy and fibrosis (31%). Xerostomia was not significantly associated with structural changes of labial salivary glands, but in the subsample it was inversely related to the total nerve length in the glandular connective tissue. Acinar atrophy and fibrosis were negatively correlated with the parenchymal innervation and positively related to diffuse inflammation. The results from the present study indicate that aspects of the autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands may play a role in the occurrence of xerostomia which in the present study group was not significantly associated with degenerative changes in these glands. The findings further indicate that the integrity of labial salivary gland acini is related to the

  9. Is there anything "autonomous" in the nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia-Filho, Alberto A

    2006-03-01

    The terms "autonomous" or "vegetative" are currently used to identify one part of the nervous system composed of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions. However, the concepts that are under the literal meaning of these words can lead to misconceptions about the actual nervous organization. Some clear-cut examples indicate that no element shows "autonomy" in an integrated body. Nor are they solely "passive" or generated "without mental elaboration." In addition, to be "not consciously controlled" is not a unique attribute of these components. Another term that could be proposed is "homeostatic nervous system" for providing conditions to the execution of behaviors and maintenance of the internal milieu within normal ranges. But, not all homeostatic conditions are under the direct influence of these groups of neurons, and some situations clearly impose different ranges for some variables that are adaptative (or hazardous) in the tentative of successfully coping with challenging situations. Finally, the name "nervous system for visceral control" emerges as another possibility. Unfortunately, it is not only "viscera" that represent end targets for this specific innervation. Therefore, it is commented that no quite adequate term for the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions has already been coined. The basic condition for a new term is that it should clearly imply the whole integrated and collaborative functions that the components have in an indivisible organism, including the neuroendocrine, immunological, and respiratory systems. Until that, we can call these parts simply by their own names and avoid terms that are more "convenient" than appropriate.

  10. Bioactivity of Nonedible Parts of Punica granatum L.: A Potential Source of Functional Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummun, Nawraj; Somanah, Jhoti; Ramsaha, Srishti; Bahorun, Theeshan; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S

    2013-01-01

    Punica granatum L. has a long standing culinary and medicinal traditional use in Mauritius. This prompted a comparative study to determine the bioefficacy of the flower, peel, leaf, stem, and seed extracts of the Mauritian P. granatum. The flower and peel extracts resulting from organic solvent extraction exhibited strong antioxidant activities which correlated with the high levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The peel extract had the most potent scavenging capacity reflected by high Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value (5206.01 ± 578.48 μmol/g air dry weight), very low IC50 values for hypochlorous acid (0.004 ± 0.001 mg air dry weight/mL), and hydroxyl radicals scavenging (0.111 ± 0.001 mg air dry weight/mL). Peel extracts also significantly inhibited S. mutans (P L. acidophilus (P < 0.05) growth compared to ciprofloxacin. The flower extract exhibited high ferric reducing, nitric oxide scavenging, and iron (II) ions chelation and significantly inhibited microsomal lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, it showed a dose-dependent inhibition of xanthine oxidase with an IC50 value of 0.058 ± 0.011 mg air dry weight/mL. This study showed that nonedible parts of cultivated pomegranates, that are generally discarded, are bioactive in multiassay systems thereby suggesting their potential use as natural prophylactics and in food applications.

  11. Functional properties of neurones in the posterior part of area 7 in awake monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, L

    1980-03-01

    The posterolateral part of the parietal association cortex (area 7 of Brodmann) was investigated in three awake, behaving macaque monkeys using transdural microelectrode recording technique. Only one of the 114 cells isolated remained unidentified. Of the cells 79% responded to somesthetic (39%) or visual (23%) or both somesthetic and visual (17%) stimulation. The somesthetic receptive fields were large, covering, for instance, the whole arm or hand. Most receptive fields were on the upper extremities. Half of the somesthetically drivable cells had bilateral receptive fields. The visually drivable cells responded only to stimuli moving in a certain direction. The effective stimuli for most of the cells responding both to visual and somatosensory stimulation were: touching of the skin and visual stimuli moving towards the cutaneous receptive field. Of the cells 20% were active only during the monkey's own movements, most often during grasping and manipultion with fingers. The results indicate that the area studied is specialized in the control of hand movements, e. g. grasping, grooming and somesthetic recognition of the forms of objects.

  12. Characterization and selection of suitable grades of lactose as functional fillers for capsule filling: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Vikas; Augsburger, Larry L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor; Langridge, John; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize thermal, physical and mechanical properties of different grades of lactose and better understand the relationships between these properties and capsule filling performance. Eight grades of commercially available lactose were evaluated: Pharmatose 110 M, 125 M, 150 M, 200 M, 350 M (α-lactose monohydrate), AL (anhydrous lactose containing ∼80% β-AL), DCL11 (spray dried α-lactose monohydrate containing ∼15% amorphous lactose) and DCL15 (granulated α-lactose monohydrate containing ∼12% β-AL). In this study, different lactose grades were characterized by thermal, solid state, physical and mechanical properties and later evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the inter-relationships among some of these properties. The lactose grades were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), moisture sorption/desorption isotherms, particle size distribution; the flow was characterized by Carr Index (CI), critical orifice diameter (COD) and angle of friction. Plug mechanical strength was estimated from its diametric crushing strength. The first and second principal components (PC) captured 47.6% and 27.4% of variation in the physical and mechanical property data, respectively. The PCA plot grouped together 110 M, AL, DCL11 and DCL15 on the one side of plot which possessed superior properties for capsule formulation and these grades were selected for future formulation development studies (part II of this work).

  13. Bioactivity of Nonedible Parts of Punica granatum L.: A Potential Source of Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawraj Rummun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Punica granatum L. has a long standing culinary and medicinal traditional use in Mauritius. This prompted a comparative study to determine the bioefficacy of the flower, peel, leaf, stem, and seed extracts of the Mauritian P. granatum. The flower and peel extracts resulting from organic solvent extraction exhibited strong antioxidant activities which correlated with the high levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The peel extract had the most potent scavenging capacity reflected by high Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value ( μmol/g air dry weight, very low IC50 values for hypochlorous acid ( mg air dry weight/mL, and hydroxyl radicals scavenging ( mg air dry weight/mL. Peel extracts also significantly inhibited S. mutans (, S. mitis (, and L. acidophilus ( growth compared to ciprofloxacin. The flower extract exhibited high ferric reducing, nitric oxide scavenging, and iron (II ions chelation and significantly inhibited microsomal lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, it showed a dose-dependent inhibition of xanthine oxidase with an IC50 value of  mg air dry weight/mL. This study showed that nonedible parts of cultivated pomegranates, that are generally discarded, are bioactive in multiassay systems thereby suggesting their potential use as natural prophylactics and in food applications.

  14. Bioactivity of Nonedible Parts of Punica granatum L.: A Potential Source of Functional Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanah, Jhoti; Ramsaha, Srishti; Bahorun, Theeshan; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.

    2013-01-01

    Punica granatum L. has a long standing culinary and medicinal traditional use in Mauritius. This prompted a comparative study to determine the bioefficacy of the flower, peel, leaf, stem, and seed extracts of the Mauritian P. granatum. The flower and peel extracts resulting from organic solvent extraction exhibited strong antioxidant activities which correlated with the high levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The peel extract had the most potent scavenging capacity reflected by high Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value (5206.01 ± 578.48 μmol/g air dry weight), very low IC50 values for hypochlorous acid (0.004 ± 0.001 mg air dry weight/mL), and hydroxyl radicals scavenging (0.111 ± 0.001 mg air dry weight/mL). Peel extracts also significantly inhibited S. mutans (P < 0.001), S. mitis (P < 0.001), and L. acidophilus (P < 0.05) growth compared to ciprofloxacin. The flower extract exhibited high ferric reducing, nitric oxide scavenging, and iron (II) ions chelation and significantly inhibited microsomal lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, it showed a dose-dependent inhibition of xanthine oxidase with an IC50 value of 0.058 ± 0.011 mg air dry weight/mL. This study showed that nonedible parts of cultivated pomegranates, that are generally discarded, are bioactive in multiassay systems thereby suggesting their potential use as natural prophylactics and in food applications. PMID:26904607

  15. Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS): A Demonstration of Autonomic Principles at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassari, James D.; Kopec, Christopher L.; Leshay, Eric S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Finkel, David

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications, while simultaneously affording the ability to. increase that capability simply by adding more (inexpensive) processors. However, the task of manually managing and con.guring a cluster quickly becomes impossible as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing is a relatively new approach to managing complex systems that can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Automatic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management.

  16. La autonomía personal y la perspectiva comunitarista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez, Silvina

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El presente artículo analiza el planteamiento que algunos autores comunitaristas han hecho de la noción de autonomía personal. En primer lugar centraré la atención en la formulación kantiana de la autonomía y en las posteriores reformulaciones que se han hecho de la propuesta original. En la segunda parte expondré algunos aspectos generales de la teoría comunitarista para luego desarrollar la propuesta de Charles Taylor, específicamente la ética de la autenticidad. En el análisis se destacan los problemas que surgen de entender la autonomía desde la perspectiva de una ética comprehensiva que concibe al sujeto como continuador de una tradición moral colectiva.

  17. Topical antihistamines display potent anti-inflammatory activity linked in part to enhanced permeability barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Man, Mao-Qiang; Santiago, Juan-Luis

    2013-01-01

    antagonists likely oppose mast cell-derived histamines. In four immunologically diverse, murine disease models, characterized by either inflammation alone (acute irritant contact dermatitis, acute allergic contact dermatitis) or by prominent barrier abnormalities (subacute allergic contact dermatitis, atopic...... of epidermal differentiation, leading to thickened cornified envelopes; and (ii) enhanced epidermal lipid synthesis and secretion. As barrier homeostasis was enhanced to a comparable extent in mast cell-deficient mice, with no further improvement following application of topical H1/2r antagonists, H1/2r...... dermatitis), topical H1/2r agonists aggravated, whereas H1/2r antagonists improved, inflammation and/or barrier function. The apparent ability of topical H1r/2r antagonists to target epidermal H1/2r could translate into increased efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, likely due to decreased...

  18. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part IV: perturbation theory applied to dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick; Okumura, Teppei; Baldauf, Tobias

    2012-11-01

    We develop a perturbative approach to redshift space distortions (RSD) using the phase space distribution function approach and apply it to the dark matter redshift space power spectrum and its moments. RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moments correlators, with the lowest order being density, momentum density and stress energy density. We use standard and extended perturbation theory (PT) to determine their auto and cross correlators, comparing them to N-body simulations. We show which of the terms can be modeled well with the standard PT and which need additional terms that include higher order corrections which cannot be modeled in PT. Most of these additional terms are related to the small scale velocity dispersion effects, the so called finger of god (FoG) effects, which affect some, but not all, of the terms in this expansion, and which can be approximately modeled using a simple physically motivated ansatz such as the halo model. We point out that there are several velocity dispersions that enter into the detailed RSD analysis with very different amplitudes, which can be approximately predicted by the halo model. In contrast to previous models our approach systematically includes all of the terms at a given order in PT and provides a physical interpretation for the small scale dispersion values. We investigate RSD power spectrum as a function of μ, the cosine of the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, focusing on the lowest order powers of μ and multipole moments which dominate the observable RSD power spectrum. Overall we find considerable success in modeling many, but not all, of the terms in this expansion. This is similar to the situation in real space, but predicting power spectrum in redshift space is more difficult because of the explicit influence of small scale dispersion type effects in RSD, which extend to very large scales.

  19. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  20. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Collects underwater acoustic data and oceanographic data. Data are recorded onboard an ocean buoy and can be telemetered to a remote ship or shore station...

  1. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  2. Political accountability and autonomous weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Igoe Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous weapons would have the capacity to select and attack targets without direct human input. One important objection to the introduction of such weapons is that they will make it more difficult to identify and hold accountable those responsible for undesirable outcomes such as mission failures and civilian casualties. I hypothesize that individuals can modify their attribution of responsibility in predicable ways to accommodate this new technology. The results of a survey experiment are consistent with this; subjects continue to find responsible and hold accountable political and military leaders when autonomous weapons are used, but also attribute responsibility to the designers and programmers of such weapons.

  3. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for structural discrimination to be woven into the fabric of autonomous vehicle developments, which remain underexplored and undiscussed. The prospect for structural discrimination arises as a result of the coordinated modes of autonomous vehicle behaviour...... discrimination looms with the possibility of crash optimisation impulses in which a protective shield is cast over those individuals in which society may have a vested interest in prioritising or safeguarding. A stark dystopian scenario is introduced to sketch the contours whereby personal beacons signal...

  4. Maritime Training Serbian Autonomous Vessel Protection Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Svetislav D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.

  5. Lichen Biosynthetic Gene Clusters Part II: Homology Mapping Suggests a Functional Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Robert L; Abdel-Hameed, Mona; Sorensen, John L

    2018-02-27

    Lichens are renowned for their diverse natural products though little is known of the genetic programming dictating lichen natural product biosynthesis. We sequenced the genome of Cladonia uncialis and profiled its secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. Through a homology searching approach, we can now propose specific functions for gene products as well as the biosynthetic pathways that are encoded in several of these gene clusters. This analysis revealed that the lichen genome encodes the required enzymes for patulin and betaenones A-C biosynthesis, fungal toxins not known to be produced by lichens. Within several gene clusters, some (but not all) genes are genetically similar to genes devoted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Fungi. These lichen clusters also contain accessory tailoring genes without such genetic similarity, suggesting that the encoded tailoring enzymes perform distinct chemical transformations. We hypothesize that C. uncialis gene clusters have evolved by shuffling components of ancestral fungal clusters to create new series of chemical steps, leading to the production of hitherto undiscovered derivatives of fungal secondary metabolites.

  6. Introduction. Antarctic ecology: from genes to ecosystems. Part 2. Evolution, diversity and functional ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alex D; Murphy, Eugene J; Johnston, Nadine M; Clarke, Andrew

    2007-12-29

    The Antarctic biota has evolved over the last 100 million years in increasingly isolated and cold conditions. As a result, Antarctic species, from micro-organisms to vertebrates, have adapted to life at extremely low temperatures, including changes in the genome, physiology and ecological traits such as life history. Coupled with cycles of glaciation that have promoted speciation in the Antarctic, this has led to a unique biota in terms of biogeography, patterns of species distribution and endemism. Specialization in the Antarctic biota has led to trade-offs in many ecologically important functions and Antarctic species may have a limited capacity to adapt to present climate change. These include the direct effects of changes in environmental parameters and indirect effects of increased competition and predation resulting from altered life histories of Antarctic species and the impacts of invasive species. Ultimately, climate change may alter the responses of Antarctic ecosystems to harvesting from humans. The unique adaptations of Antarctic species mean that they provide unique models of molecular evolution in natural populations. The simplicity of Antarctic communities, especially from terrestrial systems, makes them ideal to investigate the ecological implications of climate change, which are difficult to identify in more complex systems.

  7. Linear and Nonlinear Analyses of the Cardiac Autonomic Control in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Cavalcante Neto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and children at risk for DCD (r-DCD present motor impairments interfering in their school, leisure and daily activities. In addition, these children may have abnormalities in their cardiac autonomic control, which together with their motor impairments, restrict their health and functionality. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the cardiac autonomic control, by linear and nonlinear analysis, at supine and during an orthostatic stimulus in DCD, r-DCD and typically developed children. Thirteen DCD children (11 boys and 2 girls, aged 8.08 ± 0.79 years, 19 children at risk for DCD (13 boys and 6 girls, aged 8.10 ± 0.96 years and 18 typically developed children, who constituted the control group (CG (10 boys and 8 girls, aged 8.50 ± 0.96 years underwent a heart rate variability (HRV examination. R-R intervals were recorded in order to assess the cardiac autonomic control using a validated HR monitor. HRV was analyzed by linear and nonlinear methods and compared between r-DCD, DCD, and CG. The DCD group presented blunted cardiac autonomic adjustment to the orthostatic stimulus, which was not observed in r-DCD and CG. Regarding nonlinear analysis of HRV, the DCD group presented lower parasympathetic modulation in the supine position compared to the r-DCD and CG groups. In the within group analysis, only the DCD group did not increase HR from supine to standing posture. Symbolic analysis revealed a significant decrease in 2LV (p < 0.0001 and 2UV (p < 0.0001 indices from supine to orthostatic posture only in the CG. In conclusion, r-DCD and DCD children present cardiac autonomic dysfunction characterized by higher sympathetic, lower parasympathetic and lower complexity of cardiac autonomic control in the supine position, as well as a blunted autonomic adjustment to the orthostatic stimulus. Therefore, cardiovascular health improvement should be part of DCD children's management, even in cases of

  8. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is a destructive process that often causes failure in metallic components and structures. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of other existing microcapsules designs, the corrosion controlled release function that allows the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand only when and where they are needed. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into the microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection efficacy.

  9. Mapping autonomously replicating sequence elements in a 73-kb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) elements are the genetic determinants of replication origin function in yeasts. They can be easily identified as the plasmids containing them transform yeast cells at a high frequency. As the first step towards identifying all potential replication origins in a 73-kb region of the long arm ...

  10. Autonomous vision in space, based on Advanced Stellar Compass platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The Ørsted Star Imager, comprises the functionality of an Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). I.e. it is able to, autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, as well as determine the attitude with high precision in the matter of seconds. The autonomy makes for a high capability for error...

  11. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in non-diabetic Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five standard cardiovascular reflex (CVR) tests namely: heart rate response to deep breathing, Valsalva manoevre and posture, as well as blood pressure response to hand grip and posture were used to evaluate the cardiac autonomic functions. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered, with neurological examination ...

  12. Connected and autonomous vehicles 2040 vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) commissioned a one-year project, Connected and Autonomous : Vehicles 2040 Vision, with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to assess the implications of connected and : autonomous ve...

  13. Improvement to microphysical schemes in WRF Model based on observed data, part I: size distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Y.; Eric, W.; Gao, L.; Zhao, T.; Yin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the performance of size distribution functions (SDF) with 2- and 3-moments in fitting the observed size distribution of rain droplets at three different heights. The goal is to improve the microphysics schemes in meso-scale models, such as Weather Research and Forecast (WRF). Rain droplets were observed during eight periods of different rain types at three stations on the Yellow Mountain in East China. The SDF in this study were M-P distribution with a fixed shape parameter in Gamma SDF(FSP). Where the Gamma SDFs were obtained with three diagnosis methods with the shape parameters based on Milbrandt (2010; denoted DSPM10), Milbrandt (2005; denoted DSPM05) and Seifert (2008; denoted DSPS08) for solving the shape parameter(SSP) and Lognormal SDF. Based on the preliminary experiments, three ensemble methods deciding Gamma SDF was also developed and assessed. The magnitude of average relative error caused by applying a FSP was 10-2 for fitting 0-order moment of the observed rain droplet distribution, and the magnitude of average relative error changed to 10-1 and 100 respectively for 1-4 order moments and 5-6 order moments. To different extent, DSPM10, DSPM05, DSPS08, SSP and ensemble methods could improve fitting accuracies for 0-6 order moments, especially the one coupling SSP and DSPS08 methods, which provided a average relative error 6.46% for 1-4 order moments and 11.90% for 5-6 order moments, respectively. The relative error of fitting three moments using the Lognormal SDF was much larger than that of Gamma SDF. The threshold value of shape parameter ranged from 0 to 8, because values beyond this range could cause overflow in the calculation. When average diameter of rain droplets was less than 2mm, the possibility of unavailable shape parameter value(USPV) increased with a decreasing droplet size. There was strong sensitivity of moment group in fitting accuracy. When ensemble method coupling SSP and DSPS08 was used, a better fit

  14. Maladaptive autonomic regulation in PTSD accelerates physiological aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B Williamson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A core manifestation of posttraumatic stress disorder is a disconnection between physiological state and psychological and behavior processes necessary to adequately respond to environmental demands. Patients with PTSD experience oscillations in autonomic states that support either fight and flight behaviors or withdrawal, immobilization, and dissociation without an intervening calm state that would provide opportunities for positive social interactions. This defensive autonomic disposition is adaptive in dangerous and life threatening situations, but in the context of every-day life may lead to significant psychosocial distress and deteriorating social relationships. The perpetuation of these maladaptive autonomic responses, may contribute to the development of comorbid mental health issues such as depression, loneliness, and hostility that further modify the nature of cardiovascular behavior in the context of internal and external stressors. Over time, changes in autonomic, endocrine, and immune function contribute to deteriorating health, which is potently expressed in brain dysfunction and cardiovascular health. In this theoretical review paper, we review the literature on the chronic health effects of post-traumatic stress disorder. We discuss the brain networks underlying post-traumatic stress disorder in the context of autonomic efferent and afferent contributions and how disruption of these networks leads to poor health outcomes. Finally, we discuss treatments based on our theoretical model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  15. QFD-based conceptual design of an autonomous underwater robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thip Pasawang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater robots in the past few years have been designed according to the individual concepts and experiences of the researchers. To design a robot, which meets all the requirements of potential users, is an advanced work. Hence, a systematic design method that could include users’ preferences and requirements is needed. This paper presents the quality function deployment (QFD technique to design an autonomous underwater robot focusing on the Thai Navy military mission. Important user requirements extracted from the QFD method are the ability to record videos, operating at depth up to 10 meters, the ability to operate remotely with cable and safety concerns related to water leakages. Less important user requirements include beauty, using renewable energy, operating remotely with radio and ability to work during night time. The important design parameters derived from the user requirements are a low cost-controller, an autonomous control algorithm, a compass sensor and vertical gyroscope, and a depth sensor. Of low-importance ranked design parameters include the module design, use clean energy, a low noise electric motor, remote surveillance design, a pressure hull, and a beautiful hull form design. The study results show the feasibility of using QFD techniques to systematically design the autonomous underwater robot to meet user requirements. Mapping between the design and expected parameters and a conceptual drafting design of an autonomous underwater robot are also presented.

  16. Improving Human/Autonomous System Teaming Through Linguistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    An area of increasing interest for the next generation of aircraft is autonomy and the integration of increasingly autonomous systems into the national airspace. Such integration requires humans to work closely with autonomous systems, forming human and autonomous agent teams. The intention behind such teaming is that a team composed of both humans and autonomous agents will operate better than homogenous teams. Procedures exist for licensing pilots to operate in the national airspace system and current work is being done to define methods for validating the function of autonomous systems, however there is no method in place for assessing the interaction of these two disparate systems. Moreover, currently these systems are operated primarily by subject matter experts, limiting their use and the benefits of such teams. Providing additional information about the ongoing mission to the operator can lead to increased usability and allow for operation by non-experts. Linguistic analysis of the context of verbal communication provides insight into the intended meaning of commonly heard phrases such as "What's it doing now?" Analyzing the semantic sphere surrounding these common phrases enables the prediction of the operator's intent and allows the interface to supply the operator's desired information.

  17. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  18. Gastroparesis is associated with oxytocin deficiency, oesophageal dysmotility with hyperCCKemia, and autonomic neuropathy with hypergastrinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Julia; Melander, Olle; Johansson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility and autonomic neuropathy are common problems among diabetics with largely unknown aetiology. Many peptides are involved in the autonomic nervous system regulating the GI tract. The aim of this study was to examine if concentrations of oxytocin...... was increased in patients with oesophageal dysmotility, and gastrin secretion was increased in patients with autonomic neuropathy. The findings suggest that disturbed peptide secretion may be part of the pathophysiology of digestive complications in diabetics....

  19. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  20. Autonomic evaluation of hepatitis C virus infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mattos Coutinho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies reporting the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and disautonomia. We have evaluated the autonomic cardiovascular function in 12 patients with sensory small-fiber polyneuropathy infected by HCV. The mean age was 49±13 years old. The mean infection time was 9.6 years in six (50% patients. Thermal and pinprick hypoesthesia was observed in distal legs in all patients. Autonomic symptoms were referred by eight (66.7% patients. Among patients with abnormal autonomic cardiovascular test, five (41.7% showed abnormal results in two or more tests. Valsalva maneuver was abnormal in seven (58.3% patients. We can consider that there is an association of both parasympathetic and sympathetic efferent cardiovascular dysfunction in this group of patients.