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Sample records for autonomic dysfunction presenting

  1. Autonomic Dysfunction Presenting as Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Khalil Kanjwal, Beverly Karabin, Yousuf Kanjwal, Blair P Grubb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction is common in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS and orthostatic dizziness occurs in almost 50% of these patients. However, there have been no reports on postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS in patients suffering from MS. Methods: The patients were included for analysis in this study if they had POTS with either a prior history of MS or having developed MS while being followed for POTS. Postural orthostatic tachycardia (POTS is defined as symptoms of orthostatic intolerance(>6months accompanied by a heart rate increase of at least 30 beats/min (or a rate that exceeds 120 beats/min that occurs in the first 10 minutes of upright posture or head up tilt test (HUTT occurring in the absence of other chronic debilitating disorders. We identified nine patients with POTS who were suffering from MS as well. Each of these patients had been referred from various other centers for second opinions. Results: The mean age at the time of diagnosis of POTS was 49±9 years and eight of the 9 patients were women. Five patients (55% had hyperlipidemia, 3 (33% migraine and 2 (22% patients had coronary artery disease and diabetes each. Fatigue and palpitations (on assuming upright posture were the most common finding in our patients (9/9. All patients also had orthostatic dizziness. Syncope was seen in 5/9(55% of patients. Four patients (44%, who did not have clear syncope, were having episodes of near syncope. The presence of POTS in our study population resulted in substantial limitation of daily activities. Following recognition and treatment of POTS, 6/9(66%, patients were able to resume daily activities of living. Their symptoms (especially fatigue and orthostatic intolerance improved. The frequency and severity of syncope also improved. Three (33% patients failed to show a good response to treatment. Conclusion: Patients suffering from MS may manifest autonomic dysfunction by developing POTS. Early

  2. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

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    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases...

  3. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

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    Zesiewicz, Theresa A.; Baker, Matthew J.; Wahba, Mervat; Hauser, Robert A.

    2003-03-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), affects 70% to 80% of patients, and causes significant morbidity and discomfort. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction symptoms in PD include sexual dysfunction, swallowing and gastrointestinal disorders, bowel and bladder abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and derangements of cardiovascular regulation, particularly, orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PD may be caused by an underlying degenerative process that affects the autonomic ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and hypothalamic nuclei. Anti-parkinsonian medications can cause or worsen symptoms of ANS dysfunction. The care of a PD patient with ANS dysfunction relies on its recognition and directed treatment, including coordinated care between the neurologist and appropriate subspecialist. Pharmacotherapy may be useful to treat orthostasis, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dysfunction.

  4. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

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    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Reichmann, Heinz

    2010-02-15

    Symptoms of cardiovascular dysautonomia are a common occurrence in Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition to this dysautonomia as part of PD itself, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can be triggered as a side-effect of drug treatment interacting with the ANS or - if prominent and early - an indication of a different disease such as multiple system atrophy (MSA). Various diagnostic tests are available to demonstrate autonomic failure. While autonomic function tests can differentiate parasympathetic from sympathetic dysfunction, cardiac imaging can define the pathophysiologically involved site of a lesion. Standard tests such as 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements can identify significant autonomic failure which needs treatment. The most frequent and disturbing symptom of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is orthostatic hypotension. Symptoms include generalized weakness, light-headiness, mental "clouding" up to syncope. Factors like heat, food, alcohol, exercise, activities which increase intrathoraric pressure (e.g. defecation, coughing) and certain drugs (e.g. vasodilators) can worsen a probably asymptomatic orthostatic hypotension. Non-medical and medical therapies can help the patient to cope with a disabling symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. Supine hypertension is often associated with orthostatic hypotension. The prognostic role of cardiovagal and baroreflex dysfunction is still not yet known.

  5. Diastolic and autonomic dysfunction in early cirrhosis

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    Dahl, Emilie Kristine; Møller, Søren; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    cirrhosis during maximal β-adrenergic drive. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Nineteen patients with Child A (n = 12) and Child B cirrhosis (n = 7) and seven matched controls were studied during cardiac stress induced by increasing dosages of dobutamine and atropine. RESULTS. Pharmacological responsiveness was similar...... indicate that patients with early stage cirrhosis exhibit early diastolic and autonomic dysfunction as well as elevated pro-ANP. However, the cardiac chronotropic and inotropic responses to dobutamine stress were normal. The dynamics of ventricular repolarization appears normal in patients with early stage...

  6. Autonomic thermoregulatory dysfunction in neurofibromatosis type 1

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    Luciana G Madeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 causes neural and cutaneous disorders and reduced exercise capacity. Exercise/heat exposure increasing internal temperature must be compensated by eccrine sweat function and warmed skin vasodilation. We suspected NF1 could adversely affect eccrine sweat function and/or vascular thermoregulatory responses (VTR. Methods The eccrine sweat function and VTR of 25 NF1 volunteers (14 males, 11 females; 16–57 years old were compared with 23 non-NF1 controls matched by sex, age, height and weight (CG. Sweating was induced by 1 pilocarpine 1% iontophoresis (PILO; and 2 by passive heating (HEAT via the lower third of the legs being immersed in 42°C water for one hour. Previously established eccrine sweat function and VTR protocols were used. Results The NF1 group showed: a lower sweat rate than the CG group during PILO; b a smaller diastolic pressure decrease; and c higher tympanic temperatures than controls during HEAT (p < 0.05. Conclusion Reduced sweating and vascular thermoregulatory responses suggest autonomic dysfunction in NF1 individuals.

  7. Autonomic dysfunction in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: studies of heart rate variability

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    Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Mehlsen, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of autonomic dysfunction in HIV patients is largely unknown. Early studies found autonomic dysfunction in patients with AIDS. Introduction of highly active antiretroviral combination therapy (ART) has dramatically changed the course of the disease and improved prognosis...... and decreased morbidity. At present it is not known whether introduction of ART also has decreased autonomic dysfunction. AIM: To evaluate whether autonomic dysfunction is present in an ART-treated HIV population. METHODS: HIV patients receiving ART for at least 3 years (n = 16) and an age-matched control group...... guidelines and data reported as median (interquartile range). RESULTS: The resting heart rate was higher in HIV patients compared with controls [69 (62-74) versus 57 (52-60); PHIV group compared with the controls...

  8. Autonomic dysfunction in childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome.

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    Dimario, Francis J; Edwards, Carrie

    2012-05-01

    This investigation correlated incidence and degree of autonomic dysfunction with the degree of motor impairment in children hospitalized with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Motor weakness varies, as does the effect on autonomic function including heart rate, vasomotor stability, sweating, continence, and blood pressure. After Institutional Review Board approval, hospitalized patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome syndrome.

  9. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION IN ASTHMATIC PATIENTS AND DETERMINE ITS CORRELATION WITH SEVERITY

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    Virendra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways affecting people of all ages. It is manifested physiologically by a wide spread narrowing of the air passages , which may be relieved spontaneously or as a result of therapy and clinically by paroxysms of dyspnea , cough and wheezing. Airways are richly innervated by autonomic nervous system which plays a part in the control and their secretion. They regulate many aspects of airw ays’ physiology such as smooth muscle , mucus secretions , blood flow , micro vascular permeability and the migration and release of inflammatory cells. These effects are due to the release of neurotransmitters from autonomic nerves. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present work was undertaken in 50 cases of bronchial asthma attending medical OPD and indoor and they were randomly selected without any bias of age and sex. Criteria for grading of severity of asthma were determined by clinical & Peak expiratory Flow Rat e [PEFR]. A complete general and systemic examination was carried out and they were specifically examined in detail for signs of autonomic dysfunction employing the standard “Ewing - Clarke” battery of five tests for cardiovascular autonomic functions. Three tests were used for parasympathetic function - 1.Heart rate response to Valsalva maneuver 2. Heart rate variation during deep breathing 3. Immediate Heart rate response to standing . And two tests were used for sympathetic function - 1. Blood pressure respon se to standing 2.Blood pressure response to sustained handgrip . OBSERVATIONS: In the present study , 32 patients (64% were tested positive for autonomic dysfunction out of 50 cases. Maximum number of cases 17(94.44% out of 18 with autonomic dysfunction had severe asthma. 15(46.87% out of 32 cases with autonomic dysfunction had mild - moderate asthma. Thus there was an increase in autonomic dysfunction with increased severity of asthma (p<0.001 highly significant. CONCLUSION

  10. [Autonomic dysfunction syndrome and diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in children with diabetes mellitus type I. The correction method].

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    Manukian, V Iu; Bolotova, N V; Aver'ianov, A P; Filina, N Iu; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the state of the autonomic nervous system in 90 children with diabetes mellitus type I. The autonomic dysfunction syndrome was found in 58,9% and diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in 28,9% of patients. We revealed the high risk of the development of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in children with diabetes mellitus type I in the presence of the autonomic dysfunction syndrome. It has been shown that the early treatment of functional disturbances of the autonomic nervous system using transcranial magnetic stimulation is necessary to prevent the manifestation of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy.

  11. The Anticonvulsant Effect of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation is Associated with Balancing the Autonomic Dysfunction in Rats

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    Wei He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aims to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation is associated with balancing the autonomic dysfunction in rats.

  12. Autonomic Dysfunction in Early Breast Cancer: Incidence, Clinical Importance, and Underlying Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will rev...

  13. Autonomic dysfunction in SCN9A-associated primary erythromelalgia.

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    Kim, Min-Kyeong; Yuk, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Park, Ki-Jong; Kim, Dae-Seong

    2013-04-01

    Primary erythromelalgia (EM) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of SCN9A. It is clinically characterized by reddish discoloration and episodic burning sensation of distal extremities triggered by warmth. We report a 49-year-old male with primary EM caused by SCN9A mutation (p.F216S), in whom an autonomic reflex screening test revealed a mild sudomotor dysfunction.

  14. The Riley-Day syndrome. Familial dysautonomy, central autonomic dysfunction.

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    François, J

    1977-01-01

    The Riley-Day syndrome is characterized by a dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system, sensory disturbances, neurological disorders, psychical anomalies and important ophthalmological symptoms, such as absence of tears, corneal anaesthesia, keratinized conjunctiva and cornea; myosis after instillation of methacholine. The diagnosis is based on the absence of fungiform papillae of the tongue and the absence of reaction after intradermic injection of histamine. The inheritance is autosomal recessive. The disease results probably from an enzymatic insufficiency.

  15. Autonomic and sensory nerve dysfunction in primary biliary cirrhosis

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    Katalin Keresztes; Ildikó Istenes; Aniko Folhoffer; Peter L Lakatos; Andrea Horvath; Timea Csak; Peter Varga; Peter Kempler; Ferenc Szalay

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Cardiovascular autonomic and peripheral sensory neuropathy is a known complication of chronic alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors for peripheral sensory nerve and autonomic dysfunction using sensitive methods in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).METHODS: Twenty-four AMA M2 positive female patients with clinical, biochemical and histological evidence of PBC and 20 age matched healthy female subjects were studied.Five standard cardiovascular reflex tests and 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) analysis were performed to define autonomic function. Peripheral sensory nerve function on median and peroneal nerves was characterized by current perception threshold (CPT), measured by a neuroselective diagnostic stimulator (Neurotron, Baltimore, MD).RESULTS: Fourteen of 24 patients (58%) had at least one abnormal cardiovascular reflex test and thirteen (54%)had peripheral sensory neuropathy. Lower heart rate response to deep breathing (P = 0.001), standing (P = 0.03)and Valsalva manoeuvre (P = 0.01), and more profound decrease of blood pressure after standing (P = 0.03) was found in PBC patients than in controls. As a novel finding we proved that both time domain and frequency domain parameters of 24-h HRV were significantly reduced in PBC patients compared to controls. Each patient had at least one abnormal parameter of HRV. Lower CPT values indicated hyperaesthesia as a characteristic feature at peroneal nerve testing at three frequencies (2000 Hz: P = 0.005;250 Hz: P = 0.002; 5 Hz: P = 0.004) in PBC compared to controls. Correlation of autonomic dysfunction with the severity and duration of the disease was observed. Lower total power of HRV correlated with lower CPT values at median nerve testing at 250 Hz (P = 0.0001) and at 5 Hz (P = 0.002), as well as with those at peroneal nerve testing at 2000 Hz (P = 0.01).CONCLUSION: Autonomic and sensory nerve dysfunctions are frequent in PBC. Twenty

  16. Impact of autonomic dysfunctions on the quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients.

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    Tomic, Svetlana; Rajkovaca, Ines; Pekic, Vlasta; Salha, Tamer; Misevic, Sanja

    2017-03-01

    Autonomic dysfunctions are part of a spectrum of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of autonomic dysfunctions and their influence on the quality of life (QoL) in PD patients, adjusted for age, sex, disease duration and motor symptoms. Patients were evaluated for motor function (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, UPDRS part III), disease stage (Hoehn and Yahr scale, H&Y scale), autonomic dysfunction (Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease, Autonomic, SCOPA-AUT) and QoL (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39, PDQ-39). Urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual autonomic dysfunctions were most frequently reported, while the most severe symptoms were reported for sexual and urinary systems. Age and motor symptoms did not correlate with autonomic dysfunction, while disease duration correlated with cardiovascular dysfunction. There were sex differences on the thermoregulation subscale. All types of autonomic dysfunction influenced QoL, mostly gastrointestinal and thermoregulatory dysfunctions, except for sexual one. Many aspects of QoL (activity of daily living, emotion, cognitive functions, communication and social support) except for stigma and mobility were affected by autonomic dysfunctions. Age, disease duration, sex and motor symptoms were not found to affect global QoL scores, but had detrimental effects on different PDQ-39 dimensions. Autonomic dysfunctions influence QoL in more aspects than motor symptoms, age, disease duration and sex. Patients tend to be more stigmatized with motor than non-motor symptoms.

  17. Measures of Autonomic Dysfunction in Diabetic and Idiopathic Gastroparesis

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    Mohammad, Mohammad Khalid; Pepper, Dominique J.; Kedar, Archana; Bhaijee, Feriyl; Familoni, Babajide; Rashed, Hani; Cutts, Teresa; Abell, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroparesis is a condition classically characterized by delayed gastric emptying and is associated with considerable morbidity. While the etiology of gastroparesis remains elusive, autonomic dysfunction may play an important role, especially as many patients with gastroparesis also have diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether measures of autonomic function differ between adults with diabetic gastroparesis (DG) and adults with idiopathic gastroparesis (IG). Methods Tests of systemic autonomic function were performed among 20 adults with GD (six men and 14 women, mean age: 42 years) and 21 adults with IG (seven men and 14 women, mean age: 37 years). Measures included vagal cholinergics by R-R interval percentage variation (RRI-PV) and sympathetic adrenergics by vasoconstriction to cold (VC) and postural adjustment ratio (PAR). The two groups were compared using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and linear regression analysis (STATA 10.0). Results In univariate analysis, the following autonomic measures differed significantly between DG and IG: VC (P = 0.004), PAR (P = 0.045), VC + PAR (P = 0.002) and RRI-PV (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis (P = 0.002, R2 = 0.55), only RRI-PV (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01 - 1.03) differed significantly between DG and IG patients. Conclusions Vagal cholinergics are affected to a greater degree in DG compared to IG, suggesting that impaired vagal tone is not a universal mechanism for gastroparesis. PMID:27785328

  18. Autonomic dysfunction and impaired cerebral autoregulation in cirrhosis

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    Frøkjaer, Vibe G; Mehlsen, Jesper; Knudsen, Gitte M;

    2006-01-01

    by norepinephrine infusion (NE). The severity of liver disease was assessed using the Child-Pugh scale (class A, mild; class B, moderate; class C, severe liver dysfunction).NE increased blood pressure similarly in the controls (27 (24-32) mmHg) and patients with the most severe liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh C, 31 (26.......0+/-2.0 bpm) compared to the controls (21.7+/-2.2 bpm, p=0.001, Tukey' test). Systolic blood pressure fell during head-up tilt only in patients with severe cirrhosis. Our results imply that cerebral autoregulation was impaired in the most severe cases of liver cirrhosis, and that those with impaired cerebral......Cerebral blood flow autoregulation is lost in patients with severe liver cirrhosis. The cause of this is unknown. We determined whether autonomic dysfunction was related to impaired cerebral autoregulation in patients with cirrhosis. Fourteen patients with liver cirrhosis and 11 healthy volunteers...

  19. Heart Rate Variability for Quantification of Autonomic Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia

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    Kang, Jin Ho; Hong, Seok Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyun; Choi, Byoong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify autonomic dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls using heart rate variability (HRV). Methods Sixteen patients with fibromyalgia and 16 healthy controls were recruited in this case control study. HRV was measured using the time-domain method incorporating the following parameters: total heartbeats, the mean of intervals between consecutive heartbeats (R-R intervals), the standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN), the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (RMSSD), ratio of SDNN to RMSSD (SDNN/RMSSD), and difference between the longest and shortest R-R interval under different three conditions including normal quiet breathing, rate controlled breathing, and Valsalva maneuver. The severity of autonomic symptoms in the group of patients with fibromyalgia was measured by Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale 31 (COMPASS 31). Then we analyzed the difference between the fibromyalgia and control groups and the correlation between the COMPASS 31 and aforementioned HRV parameters in the study groups. Results Patients with fibromyalgia had significantly higher SDNN/RMSSD values under both normal quiet breathing and rate controlled breathing compared to controls. Differences between the longest and shortest R-R interval under Valsalva maneuver were also significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in controls. COMPASS 31 score was negatively correlated with SDNN/RMSSD values under rate controlled breathing. Conclusion SDNN/RMSSD is a valuable parameter for autonomic nervous system function and can be used to quantify subjective autonomic symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:27152281

  20. Autonomic dysfunction in early breast cancer: Incidence, clinical importance, and underlying mechanisms.

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    Lakoski, Susan G; Jones, Lee W; Krone, Ronald J; Stein, Phyllis K; Scott, Jessica M

    2015-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease, and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will review the effects of antineoplastic therapy on autonomic function, as well as discuss secondary exposures, such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, weight gain/metabolic derangements, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness, which may negatively impact autonomic function in breast cancer patients. Lastly, we review potential strategies to improve autonomic function in this population. The perspective can help guide new therapeutic interventions to promote longevity and cardiovascular health among breast cancer survivors.

  1. Plasma DNA Mediate Autonomic Dysfunctions and White Matter Injuries in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

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    Chen, Pei-Chin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Chao, Yi-Ping; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is well known in Parkinson's disease (PD) presentation and it produces hypoperfusion of vital organs. The association between cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and oxidative stress was examined in previous animal models. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation were thought to have roles in PD pathogenesis. Owing to the relative low intrinsic antioxidative properties, brain white matter (WM) is vulnerable to the oxidative stress. This study is conducted to examine possible relationships by using a hypothesis-driven mediation model. Methods. Twenty-nine patients with PD and 26 healthy controls participated in this study, with complete examinations of cardiac autonomic parameters, plasma DNA level, and WM integrity. A single-level three-variable mediation model was used to investigate the possible relationships. Results. The elevated serum oxidative stress biomarkers include plasma nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA, and poorer cardiac autonomic parameters and multiple regional microstructural WM changes are demonstrated. Further mediation analysis shows that plasma nuclear DNA served as the mediators between poorer baroreflex sensitivity and mean diffusivity changes in cingulum. Conclusions. These results provide a possible pathophysiology for how the poor baroreflex sensitivity and higher oxidative stress adversely impacted the WM integrity. This model could provide us with a piece of the puzzle of the entire PD pathogenesis. PMID:28232858

  2. Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Morbid Obesity

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    Sant Anna Junior, Maurício de [Programa de Tratamento Multidisciplinar da Obesidade do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Fisioterapia do Centro Universitário Anhanguera Niterói - UNIAN, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Programa de pós-graduação em Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal Fluminense - UFF, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, João Regis Ivar; Carvalhal, Renata Ferreira [Programa de Tratamento Multidisciplinar da Obesidade do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Torres, Diego de Faria Magalhães [Programa de Tratamento Multidisciplinar da Obesidade do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cruz, Gustavo Gavina da; Quaresma, José Carlos do Vale [Programa de Tratamento Multidisciplinar da Obesidade do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo [Divisão de Nefrologia - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal Fluminense - UFF, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Fernando Silva, E-mail: fguimaraes_pg@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Programa de pós-graduação em Ciências da Reabilitação - Centro Universitário Augusto Motta, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    Morbid obesity is directly related to deterioration in cardiorespiratory capacity, including changes in cardiovascular autonomic modulation. This study aimed to assess the cardiovascular autonomic function in morbidly obese individuals. Cross-sectional study, including two groups of participants: Group I, composed by 50 morbidly obese subjects, and Group II, composed by 30 nonobese subjects. The autonomic function was assessed by heart rate variability in the time domain (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals [SDNN]; standard deviation of the normal R-R intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals [RMSSD]; and the percentage of interval differences of successive R-R intervals greater than 50 milliseconds [pNN50] than the adjacent interval), and in the frequency domain (high frequency [HF]; low frequency [LF]: integration of power spectral density function in high frequency and low frequency ranges respectively). Between-group comparisons were performed by the Student’s t-test, with a level of significance of 5%. Obese subjects had lower values of SDNN (40.0 ± 18.0 ms vs. 70.0 ± 27.8 ms; p = 0.0004), RMSSD (23.7 ± 13.0 ms vs. 40.3 ± 22.4 ms; p = 0.0030), pNN50 (14.8 ± 10.4 % vs. 25.9 ± 7.2%; p = 0.0061) and HF (30.0 ± 17.5 Hz vs. 51.7 ± 25.5 Hz; p = 0.0023) than controls. Mean LF/HF ratio was higher in Group I (5.0 ± 2.8 vs. 1.0 ± 0.9; p = 0.0189), indicating changes in the sympathovagal balance. No statistical difference in LF was observed between Group I and Group II (50.1 ± 30.2 Hz vs. 40.9 ± 23.9 Hz; p = 0.9013). morbidly obese individuals have increased sympathetic activity and reduced parasympathetic activity, featuring cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction.

  3. Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Morbid Obesity

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    Maurício de Sant Anna Junior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Morbid obesity is directly related to deterioration in cardiorespiratory capacity, including changes in cardiovascular autonomic modulation.Objective:This study aimed to assess the cardiovascular autonomic function in morbidly obese individuals.Methods:Cross-sectional study, including two groups of participants: Group I, composed by 50 morbidly obese subjects, and Group II, composed by 30 nonobese subjects. The autonomic function was assessed by heart rate variability in the time domain (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals [SDNN]; standard deviation of the normal R-R intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals [RMSSD]; and the percentage of interval differences of successive R-R intervals greater than 50 milliseconds [pNN50] than the adjacent interval, and in the frequency domain (high frequency [HF]; low frequency [LF]: integration of power spectral density function in high frequency and low frequency ranges respectively. Between-group comparisons were performed by the Student’s t-test, with a level of significance of 5%.Results:Obese subjects had lower values of SDNN (40.0 ± 18.0 ms vs. 70.0 ± 27.8 ms; p = 0.0004, RMSSD (23.7 ± 13.0 ms vs. 40.3 ± 22.4 ms; p = 0.0030, pNN50 (14.8 ± 10.4 % vs. 25.9 ± 7.2%; p = 0.0061 and HF (30.0 ± 17.5 Hz vs. 51.7 ± 25.5 Hz; p = 0.0023 than controls. Mean LF/HF ratio was higher in Group I (5.0 ± 2.8 vs. 1.0 ± 0.9; p = 0.0189, indicating changes in the sympathovagal balance. No statistical difference in LF was observed between Group I and Group II (50.1 ± 30.2 Hz vs. 40.9 ± 23.9 Hz; p = 0.9013.Conclusion:morbidly obese individuals have increased sympathetic activity and reduced parasympathetic activity, featuring cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction.

  4. Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Morbid Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sant Anna Junior, Maurício; Carneiro, João Regis Ivar; Carvalhal, Renata Ferreira; Torres, Diego de Faria Magalhães; da Cruz, Gustavo Gavina; Quaresma, José Carlos do Vale; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background Morbid obesity is directly related to deterioration in cardiorespiratory capacity, including changes in cardiovascular autonomic modulation. Objective This study aimed to assess the cardiovascular autonomic function in morbidly obese individuals. Methods Cross-sectional study, including two groups of participants: Group I, composed by 50 morbidly obese subjects, and Group II, composed by 30 nonobese subjects. The autonomic function was assessed by heart rate variability in the time domain (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals [SDNN]; standard deviation of the normal R-R intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals [RMSSD]; and the percentage of interval differences of successive R-R intervals greater than 50 milliseconds [pNN50] than the adjacent interval), and in the frequency domain (high frequency [HF]; low frequency [LF]: integration of power spectral density function in high frequency and low frequency ranges respectively). Between-group comparisons were performed by the Student’s t-test, with a level of significance of 5%. Results Obese subjects had lower values of SDNN (40.0 ± 18.0 ms vs. 70.0 ± 27.8 ms; p = 0.0004), RMSSD (23.7 ± 13.0 ms vs. 40.3 ± 22.4 ms; p = 0.0030), pNN50 (14.8 ± 10.4 % vs. 25.9 ± 7.2%; p = 0.0061) and HF (30.0 ± 17.5 Hz vs. 51.7 ± 25.5 Hz; p = 0.0023) than controls. Mean LF/HF ratio was higher in Group I (5.0 ± 2.8 vs. 1.0 ± 0.9; p = 0.0189), indicating changes in the sympathovagal balance. No statistical difference in LF was observed between Group I and Group II (50.1 ± 30.2 Hz vs. 40.9 ± 23.9 Hz; p = 0.9013). Conclusion morbidly obese individuals have increased sympathetic activity and reduced parasympathetic activity, featuring cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. PMID:26536979

  5. Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

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    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Staehelin Jensen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autonomic function has received little attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology has an impact on brain regions which are important for central autonomic control, but it is unclear if AD is associated with disturbance of autonomic function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autonomic...

  6. Autonomic dysfunction in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A paraneoplastic syndrome?

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    Franca Bilora

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We wanted to determine whether autonomic dysfunction in patients with lymphoma is related to chemotherapy or represent a paraneoplastic syndrome. 40 patients with current or cured Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 40 healthy controls, matched for age, gender, hypertension and diabetes mellitus underwent autonomic evaluation (Deep Breath, Valsalva Maneuver, Hand Grip, Lying to Standing, Tilt Test. Current patients also suffering from diabetes or hypertension, or still on chemotherapy revealed autonomic changes, while cured or healthy subjects did not. Autonomic dysfunction in lymphoma is a transient manifestation of a paraneoplastic syndrome.

  7. Pupillary Light Reflexes are Associated with Autonomic Dysfunction in Bolivian Diabetics But Not Chagas Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Anthony; Pajuelo, Monica; Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Vu, Nancy; Carnero, Andrés M; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Camacho, Marilyn; Justiniano, Juan; Colanzi, Rony; Bowman, Natalie M; Morris, Tiffany; MacDougall, Hamish; Bern, Caryn; Moore, Steven T; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-06-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is common in Chagas disease and diabetes. Patients with either condition complicated by cardiac autonomic dysfunction face increased mortality, but no clinical predictors of autonomic dysfunction exist. Pupillary light reflexes (PLRs) may identify such patients early, allowing for intensified treatment. To evaluate the significance of PLRs, adults were recruited from the outpatient endocrine, cardiology, and surgical clinics at a Bolivian teaching hospital. After testing for Chagas disease and diabetes, participants completed conventional autonomic testing (CAT) evaluating their cardiovascular responses to Valsalva, deep breathing, and orthostatic changes. PLRs were measured using specially designed goggles, then CAT and PLRs were compared as measures of autonomic dysfunction. This study analyzed 163 adults, including 96 with Chagas disease, 35 patients with diabetes, and 32 controls. PLRs were not significantly different between Chagas disease patients and controls. Patients with diabetes had longer latency to onset of pupil constriction, slower maximum constriction velocities, and smaller orthostatic ratios than nonpatients with diabetes. PLRs correlated poorly with CAT results. A PLR-based clinical risk score demonstrated a 2.27-fold increased likelihood of diabetes complicated by autonomic dysfunction compared with the combination of blood tests, CAT, and PLRs (sensitivity 87.9%, specificity 61.3%). PLRs represent a promising tool for evaluating subclinical neuropathy in patients with diabetes without symptomatic autonomic dysfunction. Pupillometry does not have a role in the evaluation of Chagas disease patients.

  8. The nature of the autonomic dysfunction in multiple system atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Samir M.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David

    2002-01-01

    The concept that multiple system atrophy (MSA, Shy-Drager syndrome) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system is several decades old. While there has been renewed interest in the movement disorder associated with MSA, two recent consensus statements confirm the centrality of the autonomic disorder to the diagnosis. Here, we reexamine the autonomic pathophysiology in MSA. Whereas MSA is often thought of as "autonomic failure", new evidence indicates substantial persistence of functioning sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves even in clinically advanced disease. These findings help explain some of the previously poorly understood features of MSA. Recognition that MSA entails persistent, constitutive autonomic tone requires a significant revision of our concepts of its diagnosis and therapy. We will review recent evidence bearing on autonomic tone in MSA and discuss their therapeutic implications, particularly in terms of the possible development of a bionic baroreflex for better control of blood pressure.

  9. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in obese normotensive children and adolescents

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    Isabelle Magalhães G. Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that obese normotensive children and adolescents present impaired cardiac autonomic control compared to non-obese normotensive ones.METHODS:For this cross-sectional study, 66 children and adolescents were divided into the following groups: Obese (n=31, 12±3 years old and Non-Obese (n=35, 13±3 years old. Obesity was defined as body mass index greater than the 95thpercentile for age and gender. Blood pressure was measured by oscillometric method after 15 minutes of rest in supine position. The heart rate was continuously registered during ten minutes in the supine position with spontaneous breathing. The cardiac autonomic control was assessed by heart rate variability, which was calculated from the five-minute minor variance of the signal. The derivations were the index that indicates the proportion of the number of times in which normal adjacent R-R intervals present differences >50 miliseconds (pNN50, for the time domain, and, for the spectral analysis, low (LF and high frequency (HF bands, besides the low and high frequencies ratio (LF/HF. The results were expressed as mean±standard deviation and compared by Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney's U-test.RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (116±14 versus 114±13mmHg, p=0.693 and diastolic blood pressure (59±8 versus 60±11mmHg, p=0.458 were similar between the Obese and Non-Obese groups. The pNN50 index (29±21 versus 43±23, p=0.015 and HF band (54±20 versus 64±14 normalized units - n.u., p=0.023 were lower in the Obese Group. The LF band (46±20 versus 36±14 n.u., p=0.023 and LF/HF ratio (1.3±1.6 versus 0.7±0.4, p=0.044 were higher in Obese Group.CONCLUSIONS: Obese normotensive children and adolescents present impairment of cardiac autonomic control.

  10. Autonomic dysfunction in diabetes : a consequence of cardiovascular damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, J D; Smit, A J; Zeebregts, C J; Gans, R O B; Hoogenberg, K H

    2010-01-01

    In 1976, D.J. Ewing showed a clear survival disadvantage for diabetic patients that had 'diabetic autonomic neuropathy', as assessed by heart rate and blood pressure variations during a battery of bedside tests. However, these variations do not solely depend on autonomic nervous system function, but

  11. Anxiety sensitivity in adolescents with somatoform autonomic dysfunction and adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

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    Pisarić Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety sensitivity is defined as a belief that anxiety or fear may cause illness, embarrassment, or additional anxiety. The main purpose of this study was to find out if there were differences among adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, adolescents with somatoform autonomic dysfunction and their healthy peers in different aspects of psychological functioning and anxiety sensitivity. The sample consisted of 93 subjects, aged 12 to 16. Hamburg Neuroticism and Extraversion Scale, Child Behaviour Checklist and Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index were administrated. The adolescents with somatoform autonomic dysfunction had significantly higher scores on neuroticism scale, different Child Behaviour Checklist subscales, and on anxiety sensitivity. Both groups with diagnosed illness had lower scores on extraversion scale compared to healthy peers. This study has shown that the adolescents with somatoform autonomic dysfunction are more prone to fears regarding bodily functioning, and that they are at a higher risk of developing an anxiety disorder.

  12. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction predicts poor prognosis in patients with mild to moderate tetanus

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    Shamsi Rohmah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction is present in up to one third of patients with tetanus. The prognostic value of ANS dysfunction is known in severe tetanus but its value is not well established in mild to moderate tetanus. Methods Medical records of all patients admitted with tetanus at two academic tertiary care centers in Karachi, Pakistan were reviewed. The demographic, clinical and laboratory data was recorded and analyzed. ANS dysfunction was defined as presence of labile or persistent hypertension or hypotension and sinus tachycardia, tachyarrythmia or bradycardia on EKG. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence of ANS dysfunction (ANS group and non ANS group. Tetanus severity was classified on the basis of Ablett criteria. Results Ninety six (64 males; 32 females patients were admitted with the diagnosis over a period of 10 years. ANS group had 31 (32% patients while non ANS group comprised of 65 (68% patients. Both groups matched for age, gender, symptom severity, use of tetanus immunoglobulin and antibiotics. Twelve patients in ANS group had mild to moderate tetanus (Ablett I and II and 19 patients had severe/very severe tetanus (Ablett III and IV. Fifteen (50% patients in ANS group required ventilation as compared to 28 (45% in non-ANS group (p = 0.09. Fourteen (47% patients died in ANS group as compared to 10 (15% in non ANS group (p= 0.002. Out of those 14 patients died in ANS group, six patients had mild to moderate tetanus and eight patients had severe/ very severe tetanus. Major cause of death was cardiac arrhythmias (13/14; 93% in ANS group and respiratory arrest (7/10; 70% in non ANS group. Ten (33% patients had complete recovery in ANS group while in non ANS group 35(48% patients had complete recovery (p= 0.05. Conclusions ANS dysfunction was present in one third of our tetanus population. 40% patients with ANS dysfunction had only mild to moderate tetanus. ANS dysfunction

  13. Evaluation of Autonomic Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

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    Ahmet Turan Evlice

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system, which controls the body's internal organs is called Autonomic Nervous System. Parkinson's disease, vascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and Guilllain-Barre syndrome cause to disotonomia. Recent studies has been shown, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome cause to disotonomia too. To investigate disotonomia in in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome , should be preferred the methods like analysis of heart rate variability and sympathetic skin response which have low cost and easy applicability. Thus, it will be possible to prevent morbidity and mortality due to autonomic dysfuncion. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 109-121

  14. Autonomic dysfunction and risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection among children in Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Natalie M; Kawai, Vivian; Gilman, Robert H; Bocangel, Cesar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Cabrera, Lilia; Levy, Michael Z; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Delgado, Freddy; Rosenthal, Lauren; Pinedo-Cancino, Vivian V; Steurer, Francis; Seitz, Amy E; Maguire, James H; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease affects an estimated 8 million people in Latin America. Infected individuals have 20-30% lifetime risk of developing cardiomyopathy, but more subtle changes in autonomic responses may be more frequent. We conducted a matched case-control study of children in Arequipa, Peru, where triatomine infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection are emerging problems. We collected data on home environment, history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and autonomic testing. Signs of triatomine infestation and/or animals sleeping in the child's room and household members with Chagas disease were associated with increased infection risk. Electrocardiogram findings did not differ between cases and controls. However, compared with control children, infected children had blunted autonomic responses by three different measures, the Valsalva maneuver, the cold pressor test, and the orthostatic test. T. cruzi-infected children show autonomic dysfunction, although the prognostic value of this finding is not clear. Sustained vector control programs are essential to decreasing future T. cruzi infections.

  15. Autonomic Dysfunction and Risk Factors Associated with Trypanosoma cruzi Infection among Children in Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Gilman, Robert H.; Bocangel, Cesar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Cabrera, Lilia; Levy, Michael Z.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Delgado, Freddy; Rosenthal, Lauren; Pinedo-Cancino, Vivian V.; Steurer, Francis; Seitz, Amy E.; Maguire, James H.; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease affects an estimated 8 million people in Latin America. Infected individuals have 20–30% lifetime risk of developing cardiomyopathy, but more subtle changes in autonomic responses may be more frequent. We conducted a matched case-control study of children in Arequipa, Peru, where triatomine infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection are emerging problems. We collected data on home environment, history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and autonomic testing. Signs of triatomine infestation and/or animals sleeping in the child's room and household members with Chagas disease were associated with increased infection risk. Electrocardiogram findings did not differ between cases and controls. However, compared with control children, infected children had blunted autonomic responses by three different measures, the Valsalva maneuver, the cold pressor test, and the orthostatic test. T. cruzi-infected children show autonomic dysfunction, although the prognostic value of this finding is not clear. Sustained vector control programs are essential to decreasing future T. cruzi infections. PMID:21212207

  16. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic dysfunction in patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

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    Huang Chi-Ren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX is a rare lipid-storage disease. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic system (ANS dysfuction in CTX are rarely examined in large-scale studies in the literature. We studied the peripheral nervous system, myopathology, and autonomic system of four CTX patients and performed a literature review of the reported CTX patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods Four biochemically and genetically confirmed CTX patients, belonging to two families, were included for study and all received nerve conduction study (NCS, muscle biopsy for histopathologic and ultrastructural study, skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fiber (INEF density measurement, autonomic testings including sympathetic skin response, R-R interval variation and head-up tilt test using an automated tilt table to record the changes of blood pressure and heart rate in different postures. The Q-Sweat test was also applied for the detection of sweat amount and onset time of response. The clinical characteristics, study methods and results of 13 studies of peripheral neuropathy in CTX patients in the literature were also recorded for analysis. Results The results of NCS study showed axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy in three CTX cases and mixed axonal and demyelinating sensor-motor polyneuropathy in one. The myopathological and histopathologic studies revealed mild denervation characteristics, but the ultrastructural study revealed changes of mitochondria and the membranous system, and increased amounts of glycogen, lipofuscin and lipid deposition. The ANS study revealed different degrees of abnormalities in the applied tests and the INEF density measurement showed small fiber neuropathy in three of the four CTX patients. The literature review of peripheral neuropathy in CTX revealed different types of peripheral neuropathy, of which axonal peripheral neuropathy was the most common. Conclusions Peripheral neuropathy, especially the

  17. Role of exercise training in cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and mortality in diabetic ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Silvia B C; Flues, Karin; Paulini, Janaina; Mostarda, Cristiano; Rodrigues, Bruno; Souza, Leandro E; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2007-10-01

    Diabetes and menopause markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and on total mortality in diabetic female rats undergoing ovarian hormone deprivation. Female Wistar rats were divided into ovariectomized groups: sedentary and trained controls and sedentary and trained diabetic rats (streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg IV). Trained groups were submitted to an exercise training protocol on a treadmill (8 weeks). The baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated by heart rate responses to arterial pressure changes. Heart rate variability was determined using the SD of the basal heart rate. Vagal and sympathetic tonus were evaluated by pharmacological blockade. Diabetes impaired baroreflex sensitivity ( approximately 55%), vagal tonus ( approximately 68%), and heart rate variability ( approximately 38%). Exercise training improved baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability in control and diabetic groups in relation to their sedentary groups. Trained control rats presented increased vagal tonus compared with that of sedentary ones. The sympathetic tonus was reduced in the trained diabetic group as compared with that of other studied groups. Significant correlations were obtained between heart rate variability and vagal tonus with baroreflex sensitivity. Mortality, assessed during the training period, was reduced in trained diabetic (25%) rats compared with mortality in sedentary diabetic rats (60%). Together, these findings suggest that decreases in baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability may be related to increased mortality in female diabetic subjects and that improved autonomic regulation induced by exercise training may contribute to decreased mortality in this population.

  18. Role of interleukin-6 levels in cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Shinohara, Tetsuji; Takahashi, Naohiko; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Hara, Masahide; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu [Oita University, Department of Internal Medicine 1, Faculty of Medicine, Yuhu, Oita (Japan); Yufu, Kunio; Anan, Futoshi; Nakagawa, Mikiko; Saikawa, Tetsunori [Oita University, Department of Cardiovascular Science, Oita (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    Increased serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is associated with high mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. However, the relationship between IL-6 levels and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum IL-6 levels are associated with cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty type 2 diabetic patients who did not have organic heart disease were categorized into a high IL-6 group (>2.5 pg/ml, n= 0, age 59{+-}12 years) or a non-high IL-6 group (<2.5 pg/ml, n=40, 61{+-}12 years). Cardiac autonomic function was assessed by baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, plasma norepinephrine concentrations and {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. The body mass index values (BMI), fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment index values were higher in the high IL-6 group than in the non-high IL-6 group (p<0.01). Early and delayed {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial uptake values were lower (p<0.01), and the percent washout rate of {sup 123}I-MIBG was higher (p<0.05) in the high IL-6 group than in the non-high IL-6 group. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that the IL-6 level was independently predicted by the BMI and the myocardial uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG during the delayed phase. The results indicate that elevated IL-6 levels are associated with depressed cardiovascular autonomic function and obesity in type 2 diabetic patients. (orig.)

  19. Autologous Adipose Stem Cell Therapy for Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Two Young Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Ankur; Young, Jane; Butler, Ian. J.

    2017-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and neurocardiogenic syncope are clinical manifestations of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (dysautonomia) that can lead to impaired daily functions. We report two young patients presenting with dysautonomia and autoimmune disease who both received autologous adipose stem cells (ASCs) infusions. This report is the first description of ASCs therapy for patients with combined dysautonomia and autoimmune disease. Case 1: A 21-year-old female presented at 12 years of age with escalating severe dysautonomia with weight loss and gastrointestinal symptoms. She had elevated autoantibodies and cytokines and received multiple immune modulation therapies. Her dysautonomia was treated by volume expanders, vasoconstrictors, and beta blockers with mild improvement. She received ASCs about 2 years before this report with dramatic improvement in her dysautonomia and autoimmune symptoms with a 10 kg weight gain. Case 2: A 7-year-old boy presented at 2 years of age with polyarthritis. At 5 years of age, he manifested orthostatic intolerance. He received immune modulatory therapies with mild improvement. He received ASCs and showed marked improvement of his dysautonomia and immune symptoms. Dysautonomia symptoms of these two patients improved significantly after modulation of autoimmune components by ASC therapy. Favorable clinical responses of these two cases warrant further case–control studies. PMID:27959743

  20. Autonomic dysfunction: A comparative study of patients with Alzheimer's and frontotemporal dementia – A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Gupta, Neelesh; Rukmani, Malligurki Raghurama; Deepika, S.; Sathyaprabha, T. N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), central autonomic structures get affected early. An insight into autonomic functions in these patients is likely to be of diagnostic importance and thus help in prognosticating and also probably explain unexplained sudden death in some of these patients. Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify autonomic dysfunction prevailing in patients. Then, if there is dysfunction, is the pattern same or different in these two conditions. And if different it will serve as an additional biomarker for specific diagnosis. Patients and Methods: There were 25 patients and 25 controls and six patients and three controls in AD and FTD groups, respectively. The participants who were recruited were assessed for heart rate variability and conventional cardiac autonomic function testing. The parameters were analyzed using LabChart version 7 software and compared with control population using appropriate statistical methods using SPSS version 22 software. Results: The mean overall total power was low in the FTD group (P yoga. The presence of parasympathetic suppression in AD in addition helps differentiate these two conditions. PMID:28149088

  1. Modulation of Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Ischemic Stroke following Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaideep, Sriranjini Sitaram; Nagaraja, Dindagur; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Sudhakara, D; Talakad, Sathyaprabha N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in stroke has implications on morbidity and mortality. Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine) describes stroke as pakshaghata. We intended to study the effect of Ayurveda therapies on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Methods. Fifty patients of ischemic stroke (middle cerebral artery territory) (mean age 39.26 ± 9.88 years; male 43, female 7) were recruited within one month of ictus. All patients received standard allopathic medications as advised by neurologist. In addition, patients were randomized to receive physiotherapy (Group I) or Ayurveda treatment (Group II) for 14 days. Continuous electrocardiogram and finger arterial pressure were recorded for 15 min before and after treatments and analyzed offline to obtain heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Results were analysed by RMANOVA. Results. Patients in Group II showed statistically significant improvement in cardiac autonomic parameters. The standard deviation of normal to normal intervals,and total and low frequency powers were significantly enhanced (F = 8.16, P = 0.007, F = 9.73, P = 0.004, F = 13.51, and P = 0.001, resp.). The BRS too increased following the treatment period (F = 10.129, P = 0.004). Conclusions. The current study is the first to report a positive modulation of cardiac autonomic activity after adjuvant Ayurveda treatment in ischemic stroke. Further long term studies are warranted.

  2. Modulation of Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Ischemic Stroke following Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine Treatment

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    Sriranjini Sitaram Jaideep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in stroke has implications on morbidity and mortality. Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine describes stroke as pakshaghata. We intended to study the effect of Ayurveda therapies on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Methods. Fifty patients of ischemic stroke (middle cerebral artery territory (mean age 39.26 ± 9.88 years; male 43, female 7 were recruited within one month of ictus. All patients received standard allopathic medications as advised by neurologist. In addition, patients were randomized to receive physiotherapy (Group I or Ayurveda treatment (Group II for 14 days. Continuous electrocardiogram and finger arterial pressure were recorded for 15 min before and after treatments and analyzed offline to obtain heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS. Results were analysed by RMANOVA. Results. Patients in Group II showed statistically significant improvement in cardiac autonomic parameters. The standard deviation of normal to normal intervals,and total and low frequency powers were significantly enhanced (F=8.16, P=0.007, F=9.73, P=0.004, F=13.51, and P=0.001, resp.. The BRS too increased following the treatment period (F=10.129, P=0.004. Conclusions. The current study is the first to report a positive modulation of cardiac autonomic activity after adjuvant Ayurveda treatment in ischemic stroke. Further long term studies are warranted.

  3. Evidence of defective cardiovascular regulation in insulin-dependent diabetic patients without clinical autonomic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, P J; James, M A; Panerai, R B; McNally, P G; Potter, J F; Thurston, H

    1998-12-01

    (1) Autonomic dysfunction is a well recognised complication of diabetes mellitus and early detection may allow therapeutic manoeuvres to reduce the associated mortality and morbidity. We sought to identify early cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy using spectral analysis of heart rate and systolic blood pressure variability. (2) Thirty patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (DM) and 30 matched control subjects were studied. In addition to standard tests of autonomic function, heart rate and systolic blood pressure variability were assessed using power spectral analysis. From the frequency domain analysis of systolic blood pressure and R-R interval, the overall gain of baroreflex mechanisms was assessed. (3) Standard tests of autonomic function were normal in both groups. Total spectral power of R-R interval was reduced in the Type 1 DM group for low-frequency (473 +/- 63 vs. 747 +/- 78 ms2, mean +/- S.E.M., P = 0.002) and high-frequency bands (125 +/- 13 vs. 459+/-90 ms2, P standing (2.9+/-0.9 vs. 7.18+/-1.9 ms/mmHg, P < 0.001). (4) Spectral analysis of cardiovascular variability detects autonomic dysfunction more frequently in Type 1 DM patients than conventional tests, and is suggestive of an abnormality of parasympathetic function. The abnormality of baroreceptor-cardiac reflex sensitivity could be explained by this impairment of parasympathetic function and this may predispose to the development of hypertension and increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. Using spectral analysis methods may allow detection of early diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy and allow therapeutic intervention to slow the progression.

  4. Management of infertility in a patient presenting with ovarian dysfunction and McCune-Albright syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S.E. Laven (Joop); S. Lumbroso; C. Sultan; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPersistent autonomous ovarian dysfunction in McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) patients is associated with the development of multiple dominant follicles, premature luteinization, cyst formation, and anovulatory infertility. Due to the mosaic distribution of the mutation,

  5. Control of nausea and autonomic dysfunction with terfenadine, a peripherally acting antihistamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Randall L.; Calkins, Dick S.; Robinson, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Terfenadine (Seldane) was admisistered to 14 male subjects in a randomized, double-blinded, and cross-over design to assess the efficacy of this peripherally active antihistamine as an antimotion sickness drug. Terfenadine possesses practically no central side effects. A staircase profile test was administered 4 h following placebo or a single oral dose of terfenadine (300 mg). The study revealed a statistically significant therapeutic effect from terfenadine (p less than 0.05). This led to a conclusion that, because the drug does not or only poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, a selective peripheral antihistamine action may be sufficient in the control of motion sickness induced through cross-coupled accelerative semicircular canal stimulation using a rotating chair. This finding implies that other peripherally acting agents might be found that possess even greater antimotion sickness efficacy. The present research raises additional questions regarding current theories on the etiology of motion sickness, its associated autonomic system dysfunction, and the validity of assumptions that effective pharmacological agents must act centrally.

  6. The Anticonvulsant Effect of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation is Associated with Balancing the Autonomic Dysfunction in Rats

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    Wei He; Xiao-Yu Wang; Hong Shi; Yang-Shuai Su; Xiang-Hong Jing; Bing Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation is associated with balancing the autonomic dysfunction in rats. Methods: Healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of 10%urethane. Seizures were evoked by intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 60 mg/kg). Femoral vein catheterization was performed for injection of sympathetic agonist and antagonists. Bipolar globe silver electrodes were utilized for epidural EEG recording. Three needles were inserted separately in subcutaneous muscles of left anterior limb, right anterior limb, and left hind limb to record ECG signals. ta-VNS was performed at auricular concha. Results: In comparison with preictal state, the mean heart rate (HR) increased slightly during epileptic seizures (P<0.05). In comparison with ictal state, the mean HR decreased a little at postictal state (P<0.05). When continuous epileptic seizures in EEG traces occurred (in ictal state), vein injection of propranolol hydrochloride (sympathetic antagonist) suppressed the epileptic seizures. When epileptic seizures occurred rarely (in postictal state), vein injection of adrenaline hydrochloride (sympathetic agonist) exacerbated the epileptic seizures. In comparison with pre-stimulation, the integral of EEG traces after ta-VNS decreased (P<0.05), the mean HR decreased (P<0.05), and the high power (HF) of HRV increased (P<0.05) after ta-VNS. Conclusion: The results showed that autonomic dysfunction occurred in epileptic rats characterized by enhanced sympathetic nerve activity. Epileptic seizures in EEG traces decreased, HR decreased and HF increased after ta-VNS, which indicated that ta-VNS may suppress epileptic seizures via balancing the autonomic dysfunction.

  7. Model-based studies of autonomic and metabolic dysfunction in sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Michael C K

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are highly prevalent in subjects diagnosed with sleep apnea. One factor common to obesity, sleep and insulin resistance is autonomic nervous system dysfunction, in particular, sympathetic overactivity. Although the causal links among these factors are not well understood, it is likely that the vicious cycle of interplay among these factors predisposes to the emergence of "metabolic syndrome", a convergence of obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia that is appearing in epidemic proportions in the United States and other countries. This chapter provides an overview of the ongoing experimental and modeling studies in my laboratory aimed at elucidating and quantifying the relationships among autonomic dysfunction, insulin resistance and severity of sleep apnea in overweight subjects. These studies employ a "minimal modeling" approach to extract information characterizing autonomic function from noninvasive cardiorespiratory measurements. We subsequently determine the relationship of these model parameters to the parameters estimated from the Bergman minimal insulin-glucose model using data obtained from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test performed on the same individuals.

  8. The Influence of Autonomic Dysfunction Associated with Aging and Type 2 Diabetes on Daily Life Activities

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    Jerrold Petrofsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D and ageing have well documented effects on every organ in the body. In T2D the autonomic nervous system is impaired due to damage to neurons, sensory receptors, synapses and the blood vessels. This paper will concentrate on how autonomic impairment alters normal daily activities. Impairments include the response of the blood vessels to heat, sweating, heat transfer, whole body heating, orthostatic intolerance, balance, and gait. Because diabetes is more prevalent in older individuals, the effects of ageing will be examined. Beginning with endothelial dysfunction, blood vessels have impairment in their ability to vasodilate. With this and synaptic damage, the autonomic nervous system cannot compensate for effectors such as pressure on and heating of the skin. This and reduced ability of the heart to respond to stress, reduces autonomic orthostatic compensation. Diminished sweating causes the skin and core temperature to be high during whole body heating. Impaired orthostatic tolerance, impaired vision and vestibular sensing, causes poor balance and impaired gait. Overall, people with T2D must be made aware and counseled relative to the potential consequence of these impairments.

  9. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes – Effect of Hyperglycemia and Disease Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika P. Tarvainen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is reduced in diabetes mellitus (DM patients, suggesting dysfunction of cardiac autonomic regulation and an increased risk for cardiac events. The aim of this paper was to examine the associations of blood glucose level (BGL, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and duration of diabetes with cardiac autonomic regulation assessed by HRV analysis. Resting electrocardiogram (ECG, recorded over 20 minutes in supine position, and clinical measurements of 189 healthy controls and 93 type 2 DM (T2DM patients were analyzed. HRV was assessed using several time-domain, frequency-domain and nonlinear methods. HRV parameters showed a clear difference between healthy controls and T2DM patients. Hyperglycemia was associated with increase in mean heart rate and decrease in HRV, indicated by negative correlations of BGL and HbA1c with mean RR interval and most of the HRV parameters. Duration of diabetes was strongly associated with decrease in HRV, the most significant decrease in HRV was found within the first 5-10 years of the disease. In conclusion, elevated blood glucose levels have an unfavorable effect on cardiac autonomic function and this effect is pronounced in long-term T2DM patients. The most significant decrease in HRV related to diabetes and thus presence of autonomic neuropathy was observed within the first 5-10 years of disease progression.

  10. Absence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and vagal pancreatic impairment in idiopathic achalasia of the oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, B; Ascaso, J F; Mora, F; Costa, A J; Sanchiz, V; Minguez, M; Benages, A

    2007-08-01

    Extra-oesophageal autonomic dysfunction in idiopathic achalasia is not well documented, due to contradictory results reported. We aimed to study the cardiovascular and pancreatic autonomic function in patients with idiopathic achalasia. Thirty patients with idiopathic achalasia (16M/14F; 34.5 +/- 10.8 years) and 30 healthy volunteers (13M/17F; 34.8 +/- 10.7 years) were prospectively studied. Age >60 years and conditions affecting results of autonomic evaluation were excluded. Both groups underwent the sham feeding test and plasmatic levels of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were determined by radioimmunoassay (basal, at 5, 10, 20 and 30 min). Cardiovascular parasympathetic (deep breathing, standing, Valsalva) and sympathetic function (postural decrease of systolic blood pressure, Handgrip test) were assessed. Statistical comparison of basal and increase levels of PP and parasympathetic/sympathetic cardiovascular parameters was performed between groups. Basal levels of PP were similar in controls and patients and maximum increase of PP during sham feeding test. A similar rate of abnormal cardiovascular tests was found between groups (P > 0.05). E/I ratio was the mostly impaired parameter (patients: 36.7% vs controls: 20%, P = 0.15, chi-squared test). Autonomic cardiovascular tests and pancreatic response to vagal stimulus are not impaired in patients with primary achalasia of the oesophagus.

  11. Cardiovascular autonomous dysfunction in diabetics: The influence of disease duration, glycoregulation degree and diabetes type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Vladan

    2008-01-01

    exists regarding the ratio of damage of the sympathetic part of the autonomous nervous system and the value of HbA1c, as well as the ratio of CAN, that is, the total score and HbA1c. Almost two- fold, a bigger coefficient of correlation between the sympathetic score and HbA1c in relation to the coefficient of correlation of the parasympathetic score and HbA1c, points to bigger sensitivity of the sympathetic part of the autonomous nervous system to subacute deterioration of glycoregulation. The correlation between the values of autonomous scores and diabetes type has not been noted. CONCLUSION Our results show that besides disease duration, the subacute deterioration of glycoregulation also leads to the appearance of cardiovascular autonomous dysfunction in diabetes. The sympathetic nervous tissue is functionally more sensitive than the parasympathetic one to metabolic disorders in diabetes. The cardiovascular autonomous dysfunction will occur independently of the type of diabetes.

  12. Relationship between diabetic autonomic dysfunction and heart rate variability assessed by recurrence plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestivier, D; Chau, N P; Chanudet, X; Bauduceau, B; Larroque, P

    1997-03-01

    Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were measured by the Finapres system in 44 healthy and 64 diabetic subjects in the at-rest condition. Autonomic control in diabetic subjects was assessed by the Ewing test. HR variability was explored by both linear and nonlinear methods. Linear methods used HR standard deviation and power spectrum. The percentage of the spectrum in the low frequencies was used to assess the sympathetic tone of the autonomic control. The nonlinear method used the "recurrence plot." This method explored long parallel subsequences in the HR time series. These sequences characterize the dependence of the HR dynamics on initial values. The HR standard deviation was reduced in the diabetic subjects compared with the healthy subjects (2.80 +/- 1.17 vs. 3.64 +/- 1.45 beats/min; P 0.10). In contrast, the longest length index was very strongly correlated to the Ewing score (r = -0.60; P < 0.0001). The results suggest that nonlinear methods might be powerful to explore the autonomic dysfunction in diabetic subjects.

  13. Early progression of the autonomic dysfunction observed in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Daniela; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Malacarne, Mara; Scaramuzza, Andrea; Riboni, Sara; Palombo, Carlo; Pagani, Massimo

    2009-11-01

    To focus on early cardiac and vascular autonomic dysfunction that might complicate type 1 diabetes mellitus in children, we planned an observational, cross-sectional study in a population of 93 young patients, under insulin treatment, subdivided in 2 age subgroups (children: 11.5+/-0.4 years; adolescents: 19.3+/-0.2 years). Time and frequency domain analysis of RR interval and systolic arterial pressure variability provided quantitative indices of the sympatho-vagal balance regulating the heart period, of the gain of cardiac baroreflex, and of the sympathetic vasomotor control. Sixty-eight children of comparable age served as a reference group. At rest, systolic arterial pressure and the power of its low-frequency component were greater in patients than in controls, particularly in children (14.0+/-2.3 versus 3.1+/-0.3 mm Hg2). Moreover, baroreflex gain was significantly reduced in both subgroups of patients. Standing induced similar changes in the autonomic profiles of controls and patients. A repeat study after 1 year showed a progression in low-frequency oscillations of arterial pressure and a shift toward low frequency in RR variability. Data in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus show a significant increase in arterial pressure, a reduced gain of the baroreflex regulation of the heart period, and an increase of the low-frequency component of systolic arterial pressure variability, suggestive of simultaneous impairment of vagal cardiac control and increases of sympathetic vasomotor regulation. A repeat study after 1 year shows a further increase of sympathetic cardiac and vascular modulation, suggesting early progression of the autonomic dysfunction.

  14. Leriche Syndrome Presenting as Depression with Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S; Gautam, Priyanka; Saha, Rashmita

    2016-03-01

    Leriche syndrome results from thrombotic occlusion of the abdominal aorta immediately above the site of its bifurcation. Impotence in leriche syndrome is caused due to proximal obstruction, commonly involving isolated common iliac, internal iliac, internal pudendal or dorsalis penis artery. The symptoms of Leriche syndrome include intermittent and bilateral claudication, pallor, coldness and fatigue in lower extremities. Data regarding psychiatric morbidity in Leriche syndrome is unavailable. We hereby report the case of Leriche syndrome, presenting to psychiatry outpatient department with depressive disorder and erectile dysfunction (ED) with focus on dilemmas faced in the diagnosis and management in psychiatry.

  15. ANALYSIS OF A DIFFERENTIATED APPROACH TO THE APPOINTMENT OF DICK METHODS IN BIOFEEDBACK CORRECTION AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Polyakova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of research: analysis of the effectiveness of Biofeedback therapy is differentiated depending on the clinical forms of autonomic dysfunction. Exchange rate control efficacy of biofeedback hardware was conducted on the dynamics of clinical andl aboratory data, surveys and assessment of the functional State of the SNC using heart rate variability, vegetative resonance test, Kerdo index definition, as well as èlektrokardiografiče applications and questionnaires, characterizing the State of psychoemotional sphere (Spilbergera–Hanina, test, Luscher. Laboratory tests include a complete blood count with evaluation of Adaptive reactions of the organism. The results of the rehabilitation complex of the patients with the use of biofeedback have confirmed its effectiveness.

  16. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction and their relationship with disease severity in children with atopic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, Ozkaya; Esra, Gursoy; Aysegül, Demir; Ufuk, Erenberk; Ayhan, Sogut; Rusen, Dundaroz M

    2012-09-30

    The involvement of autonomic imbalance has been reported in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the clinical severity of childhood asthma with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and to define whether the severity of asthma correlates with ANS activity. In this case-control study, we evaluated the ANS activity by testing heart rate variability (HRV) and sympathetic skin response (SRR) in 77 asthmatic children, age 7-12 yrs, who had no co-morbidity and compared them with 40 gender- and age-matched control subjects. According to the severity of their asthma, study subjects were further divided into three groups: I (mild asthmatics), II (moderate asthmatics), and III (severe asthmatics). Inter-group ANS scale scores differed significantly (p<0.01) between Groups I and III and between Groups II and III. Combined use of HRV and SSR provides a higher degree of sensitivity for assessing disease severity in cases of pediatric asthma.

  17. Transient autonomic dysfunction precedes ST-segment depression in patients with syndrome X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikowski, P; Rosano, G M; Amadi, A A; Collins, P; Coats, A J; Poole-Wilson, P A; Kaski, J C

    1996-05-01

    Increased sympathetic drive has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of syndrome X (angina pectoris, positive exercise testing, and angiographically normal coronary arteries). Heart rate variability (HRV) studies have shown that patients with syndrome X have an imbalance in autonomic nervous system activity (sympathetic predominance). However, it is not known if transient ST-segment depression which occurs in syndrome X during daily activities is related to this autonomic nervous system dysfunction. This study investigates the relation between the response of the autonomic nervous system, as assessed by HRV analysis, and the occurrence of transient ST-segment depression during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring in 23 patients (4 men and 19 women, mean age 55 +/- 6 years) with syndrome X. The frequency-domain variables of HRV low-frequency (0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) power were measured at 6-minute intervals during the 30 minutes preceding the onset of transient ST-segment depression. Fourteen patients (61%) had > or = 1 episode of ST-segment depression in the 24 hours, whereas the remaining 9 patients (39%) had no significant ST-segment change. HRV measures differed according to whether or not ST-segment depression was associated with increased heart rate. Episodes of ST-segment depression associated with increased heart rate were preceded by a reduction of high-frequency power and an increase in the low-frequency--high-frequency ratio, whereas episodes of ST-segment depression not associated with increased heart rate showed no significant HRV changes. Low-frequency power remained unchanged irrespective of heart rate. Thus, in patients with syndrome X, a sympathovagal imbalance (sympathetic predominance due to vagal tone withdrawal) precedes episodes of ST-segment depression that are associated with an increased heart rate.

  18. Effect of a 1-Year Obesity Intervention (KLAKS Program) on Preexisting Autonomic Nervous Dysfunction in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Susann; Petroff, David; Keller, Alexandra; Wagner, Antje; Classen, Joseph; Baum, Petra

    2015-08-01

    Childhood obesity may involve autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Whether it improves following weight loss remains unclear. Thirty-one obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores 2.33 ± 0.47; age 11.2 ± 2.0) completed a 1-year lifestyle intervention (KLAKS: Concept Leipzig: Adiposity Therapy for School-Aged Children). Anthropometric/biochemical parameters and autonomic nervous system function (heart rate variability, quantitative pupillography) were assessed at baseline and follow-up. A multivariate model for changes in body mass index standard deviation scores considered age, gender, and changes in autonomic nervous system function. Weight status (Δ body mass index standard deviation scores: 0.16 [0.05, 0.29], P = .008), glycemic control, and free fatty acids (all P nervous system dysfunction in childhood obesity.

  19. Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Presenting with Acute Cognitive Dysfunction and Convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo-Hyuk; Na, Ju-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-12-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by acute or subacute encephalopathy related to increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's encephalopathy may include stroke-like episodes, altered consciousness, psychosis, myoclonus, abnormal movements, seizures, and cognitive dysfunction. Acute cognitive dysfunction with convulsion as initial clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's encephalopathy is very rare. We report a 65-year-old man who developed acute onset of cognitive decline and convulsion due to Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

  20. Perivascular nerve fiber α-synuclein regulates contractility of mouse aorta: a link to autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrachelli, Vannina G; Miranda, Francisco J; Alabadí, José A; Milán, Miguel; Cano-Jaimez, Marifé; Kirstein, Martina; Alborch, Enrique; Fariñas, Isabel; Pérez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2010-07-01

    Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders associated to changes in alpha-synuclein often result in autonomic dysfunction, most of the time accompanied by abundant expression of this synaptic protein in peripheral autonomic neurons. Given that expression of alpha-synuclein in vascular elements has been previously reported, the present study was undertaken to determine whether alpha-synuclein directly participates in the regulation of vascular responsiveness. We detected by immunohistochemistry perivascular nerve fibers containing alpha-synuclein in the aorta of mice while aortic endothelial cells and muscular fibers themselves did not exhibit detectable levels of this protein. To assess the effect of alpha-synuclein on vascular reactivity, aortic ring preparations obtained from alpha-synuclein-deficient knockout mice and from transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type alpha-synuclein under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase-promoter were mounted and equilibrated in organ baths for isometric tension recording. Lack of alpha-synuclein did not modify the relaxant responses to the endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) vasodilators, but resulted in a greater than normal norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction along with a lowered response to dopamine, suggesting potential presynaptic changes in dopamine and norepinephrine releases in knockout mice. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein in TH-positive fibers resulted in complex abnormal responses, characterized by lowered acetylcholine-induced relaxation and lowered norepinephrin-induced contraction. Taken together, our data show for the first time that alpha-synuclein is present in sympathetic fibers supplying the murine aorta and provide evidence that changes in alpha-synuclein levels in perivascular fibers play a physiological role in the regulation of vascular function.

  1. The impact of autonomic dysfunction on survival in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajsa Stubendorff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Autonomic dysfunction is a well-known feature in neurodegenerative dementias, especially common in α-synucleinopathies like dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia. The most common symptoms are orthostatic hypotension, incontinence and constipation, but its relevance in clinical practice is poorly understood. There are no earlier studies addressing the influence of autonomic dysfunction on clinical course and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the three most common features of autonomic dysfunction and analyze how it affects survival. METHODS: Thirty patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia were included in this prospective, longitudinal follow-up study. Presence of incontinence and constipation was recorded at baseline. Blood pressure was measured at baseline, after 3 months and after 6 months according to standardized procedures, with 5 measurements during 10 minutes after rising. Orthostatic hypotension was defined using consensus definitions and persistent orthostatic hypotension was defined as 5 or more measurements with orthostatic hypotension. Difference in survival was analyzed 36 months after baseline. RESULTS: There was a high frequency of persistent orthostatic blood pressure (50%, constipation (30% and incontinence (30%. Patients with persistent orthostatic hypotension had a significantly shorter survival compared to those with no or non-persistent orthostatic hypotension (Log rank x(2 = 4.47, p = 0.034. Patients with constipation and/or urinary incontinence, in addition to persistent orthostatic hypotension, had a poorer prognosis compared to those with isolated persistent orthostatic hypotension or no orthostatic hypotension (Log rank x(2 = 6.370, p = 0.041. DISCUSSION: According to our findings, the identification of autonomic dysfunction seems to be of great importance in clinical practice, not only to

  2. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in obesity and Prader-Willi syndrome: current evidence and implications for future obesity therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq, A M; DeLorey, D S; Sharma, A M; Freemark, M; Kreier, F; Mackenzie, M L; Richer, L P

    2011-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls essential functions like breathing, heart rate, digestion, body temperature and hormone levels. Evidence suggests that ANS dysfunction is associated with adult and childhood obesity and plays a role in the distribution of total body fat and the development of obesity-related complications in humans. This review summarizes our current understanding of ANS involvement in the pathogenesis of obesity and Prader-Willi syndrome. Available evidence of ANS dysfunction in the control of energy balance is limited and, in some cases, contradictory. Further investigation in this area is warranted in order to better understand the important contributions of the ANS to regulation of body fat, development of obesity and its comorbidities. Results from these studies will guide the development of novel obesity therapeutics targeting specific ANS dysfunction.

  3. Assessment of the autonomic nervous system is an appropriate biological marker for the well-being in erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tolga Dogru; Orhan Murat Kocak; Nurper Erberk-Ozen; Murat Basar

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the autonomic nervous system (ANS) components are suitable biological markers for representing well-being in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: The present study included 74 male patients who had applied for check-ups in the cardiology outpatient clinic at Kirikkale University (Kirikkale, Turkey) and who had been diagnosed as having hyperlipidemia. Of these patients, 26 had an additional diagnosis of ED and made up the patient group. The remaining 48 patients formed the control group. Well-being was assessed with short- form 36 (SF-36). The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was used as a measure of libido and erectile function. Quantitative assessment of the ANS was made based on the analysis of heart rate variability by means of 24-h holter monitorization. Results: Comparisons between the ED and control groups showed significant differences only in energy scale of SF-36. The ED group also had significantly higher values of sympathetic activity. Except for the general health score of SF-36, which was found to be correlated with parasympathetic activity only in ED group, there were similar correlation patterns within the groups. Although well-being and sympathetic activity were corre- lated negatively, parasympathetic activity and well-being were correlated positively. Conclusion: Quantitative as- sessment of the ANS by heart rate variability analysis might be a suitable marker for well-being of patients with ED. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 643-650)

  4. Pain and autonomic dysfunction in patients with sarcoidosis and small fibre neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bakkers (Mayienne); C.G. Faber (Carin); M. Drent (Marjolein); M.C.E. Hermans; S.I. van Nes (Sonja); G. Lauria (Giuseppe); M.H. de Baets (Marc); I.S.J. Merkies (Ingemar)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSmall fibre neuropathy (SFN) has been demonstrated in sarcoidosis. However, a systematic analysis of neuropathic pain and autonomic symptoms, key features of SFN, has not been performed. Clinimetric evaluation of pain and autonomic symptoms using the neuropathic pain scale (NPS) and the

  5. Sexual dysfunction among Ghanaian men presenting with various medical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaye Lawrence

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several medical conditions can affect and disrupt human sexuality. The alteration of sexuality in these medical conditions often hinder effective communication and empathy between the patients and their sexual partners because of cultural attitudes, social norms and negative feelings such as anxiety and guilt. Validated and standardized sexual inventories might therefore help resolve this problem. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to obtain data on the prevalence of male sexual dysfunction (SD among Ghanaians with various medical conditions residing in Kumasi. Methods The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS was administered to 150 Ghanaian men with various medical conditions between 19 and 66 years old (mean ± standard deviation: 40.01 ± 12.32 years domiciled in the Kumasi metropolis. Results Out of the total 150 questionnaires administered, 105 (70.0% men returned the questionnaires. Questionnaires from 3 men were incomplete, leaving 102 complete and evaluable questionnaires, indicating a 68.0% response rate. Of the remaining 102 men, 88.2% were married, 70.6% had attained higher education, 88.2% were non-smokers. Whereas 54.9% were engaged in exercise, 61.8% indulged in alcoholic beverages. The prevalence of the various medical conditions include: diabetes (18%, hypertension (24.5%, migraine (11.8%, ulcer (7.8%, surgery (6.9%, STD (3.9 and others (26.5%. The prevalence of SD among the respondents in the study was 59.8%. The highest prevalence of SD was seen among ulcer patients (100%, followed by patients who have undergone surgery (75%, diabetes (70%, hypertension (50%, STD (50% and the lowest was seen among migraine patients (41.7%. Conclusions SD rate is high among Ghanaian men with medical conditions (about 60% and vary according to the condition and age.

  6. Autonomic Dysfunction and Risk Factors Associated with Trypanosoma cruzi Infection among Children in Arequipa, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Gilman, Robert H.; Bocangel, Cesar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Cabrera, Lilia; Levy, Michael Z.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Delgado, Freddy; Rosenthal, Lauren; Pinedo-Cancino, Vivian V.; Steurer, Francis; Seitz, Amy E.; Maguire, James H.; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease affects an estimated 8 million people in Latin America. Infected individuals have 20–30% lifetime risk of developing cardiomyopathy, but more subtle changes in autonomic responses may be more frequent. We conducted a matched case-control study of children in Arequipa, Peru, where triatomine infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection are emerging problems. We collected data on home environment, history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and autonomic testing. Signs of tr...

  7. Dysfunction of pre- and post-operative cardiac autonomic nervous system in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junlong; Tu, Weifeng; Dai, Jianqiang; Lv, Qing; Yang, Xiaoqi

    2011-01-01

    The pre- and post-operative cardiac autonomic nervous functions were compared in elderly, non-cardiac surgery patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and without diabetes mellitus (NDM). A group of 30 unpremedicated elderly patients scheduled to undergo elective non-cardiac surgery were studied, including 15 DM patients and 15 NDM patients. Each component of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in the frequency domain was monitored with Holter during the nights of the day before and on 1st and 2nd day after operation. After surgery, total power (TP), high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF) and very low frequency (VLF) significantly decreased as compared to the baseline values before operation in both groups (p<0.05). The LF/HF ratio was significantly changed in DM group but did not change in NDM group. On the 2nd postoperative day, TP, HF, LF and VLF in DM group were further decreased as compared to those on the 1st postoperative day and were significantly lower than those in NDM group (p<0.01 or 0.05), but these indices in NDM group did not show significant decreases. Surgery induced the cardiac autonomic nervous dysfunction in elderly patients not only with DM but also without diabetes. On the 2nd postoperative day, the disturbances of cardiac autonomic nervous activity were more sever in DM patients, compared to the 1st postoperative day, but was not significantly more sever than in the NDM patients.

  8. [Respiratory function impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease--a consideration on the possible pathogenetic relation to autonomic dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Murahashi, M; Takahashi, H; Kai, K; Shibuya, S; Jimi, T; Wakayama, Y; Yamada, M

    2000-02-01

    To investigate the characteristics and clinical significance of respiratory function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we studied 38 patients (male, 19; female, 19: mean age, 65.5 years: mean duration of disease, 6.7 years) who had no history of respiratory disease and smoking. Fifty three non-respiratory disease subjects (male, 26; female, 27: mean age, 67.6 years) were served as age-matched control. We measured spirometry and maximal expiratory flow-volume curve in all patients, and analyzed the relations between respiratory function variables and clinical profiles. The clinical disability of PD was indicated by Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) scale. The number of PD patients was 15 in H-Y 2, 18 in H-Y 3 and 5 in H-Y 4, respectively. The values of % VC, %FEV 1, FEV 1/FVC, %PEFR, % V50 in H-Y 4 group were significantly smaller than those in H-Y 2 and 3 groups. Small airway dysfunction (SAD) was represented by abnormality of % V25, % V50/V25. The prevalence of impairment in % V25 and % V50/V25 was detected in 13 patients (34.2%) and 15 patients (39.5%), respectively, this was significantly higher than age-matched controls. However, the mean value and prevalence of impairment in % V25, % V50/V25 were not affected by H-Y scale and duration of disease or ideal body weight (%predicted value). Twenty seven patients showed normal ventilatory function based on % VC over 80% and FEV 1/FVC over 70%. The prevalence of impairment in % V25, % V50/V25 was detected in 8 patients (29.6%), 9 patients (33.3%), respectively, among 27 patients with normal ventilatory function. These results suggest that ventilatory dysfunction is concerned with clinical disability but SAD which is independent of clinical disability seen prevalently in patients with PD. It is widely accepted that patients with PD frequently have cardiac or bowel dysfunction based on the visceral autonomic dysfunction. We hypothesize that SAD may also be caused by possible autonomic dysfunction in patients with PD.

  9. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Presents Higher Sympathetic Cardiac Autonomic Modulation that is not altered by Strength Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, VICTOR B.; KOGURE, GISLAINE S.; REIS, ROSANA M.; GASTALDI, ADA C.; DE ARAÚJO, JOÃO E.; MAZON, JOSÉ H.; BORGHI, AUDREY; SOUZA, HUGO C.D.

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may present important comorbidities, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which are often preceded by changes in cardiac autonomic modulation. Different types of physical exercises are frequently indicated for the prevention and treatment of PCOS. However, little is known about the effects of strength training on the metabolic, hormonal, and cardiac autonomic parameters. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of strength training on the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV) and its relation to endocrine-metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. Fifty-three women were divided into two groups: CONTROL (n=26) and PCOS (n=27). The strength training lasted 4 months, which was divided into mesocycles of 4 weeks each. The training load started with 70% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Blood samples were collected before and after intervention for analysis of fasting insulin and glucose, HOMA-IR, testosterone, androstenedione and testosterone/androstenedione (T/A) ratio. Spectral analysis of HRV was performed to assess cardiac autonomic modulation indexes. The PCOS group presented higher insulin and testosterone levels, T/A ratio, along with increased sympathetic cardiac autonomic modulation before intervention. The training protocol used did not cause any change of endocrine-metabolic parameters in the CONTROL group. Interestingly, in the PCOS group, reduced testosterone levels and T/A ratio. Additionally, strength training did not have an effect on the spectral parameter values of HRV obtained in both groups. Strength training was not able to alter HRV autonomic modulation in women with PCOS, however may reduce testosterone levels and T/A ratio. PMID:27990221

  10. Shigella sonnei Bacteremia Presenting with Profound Hepatic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, Andrew; Shaikh, Bilal; Abdulkareem, Abdullateef

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, Shigellosis is a significant public health issue, associated with nearly one million deaths annually. About half a million cases of Shigella infection are reported annually in the United States. Shigella bacteremia is uncommon and generally seen in children and immunocompromised adults. We present a case of a Shigella sonnei bacteremia with marked hepatic derangement in a 27-year-old previously healthy homosexual male with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who presented to the emergency room with a 4-day history of loose watery stool, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, and yellow skin of 2-day duration. He reports similar diarrhea illness in two close contacts in preceding days. On examination, he was fully oriented but dehydrated, icteric, and febrile. Laboratory data revealed WBC of 2200/μL, elevated AST and ALT (201 IU/L, 73 IU/L resp.), normal alkaline phosphatase, elevated total and direct bilirubin of 8.2 mg/dL and 4.4 mg/dL, albumin of 3.2 g/dL, INR of 2.9, prothrombin time of 31.7, and platelet of 96,000/μL. Workup for infectious, autoimmune and medication-induced hepatitis, Wilson's disease, and hemochromatosis was negative. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen showed hepatic steatosis and right-sided colitis. Stool and blood cultures were positive for Shigella sonnei. He was treated with ciprofloxacin with improvement in liver function. Follow-up blood test 4 months later was within normal limits. PMID:28326205

  11. [Autonomic neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, T; Penzlin, A I; Illigens, B M W

    2013-07-01

    Autonomic neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases that involve damage of small peripheral autonomic Aδ- and C-fibers. Causes of autonomic nerve fiber damage are disorders such as diabetes mellitus and HIV-infection. Predominant symptoms of autonomic neuropathy are orthostatic hypotension, gastro-intestinal problems, urogenital dysfunction, and cardiac arrhythmia, which can severely impair the quality of life in affected patients. Furthermore, autonomic neuropathies can be induced by autoimmune diseases such as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, hereditary disorders such as the lysosomal storage disorder Fabry disease and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies, as well as certain toxins and drugs.

  12. 植物神经功能紊乱与炎症性肠病%Autonomic dysfunction and inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雳; 白爱平

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic immune-mediated intestinal disorder, and its etiology and pathogenesis are not well clarified. The pathogenesis of IBD is multifactorial, and the nerve system may participate in the development of IBD by modulating immune responses. Recently, autonomic dysfunction in IBD patients has been intensively studied. It has been reported that IBD patients suffer from autonomic dysfunction, and the severity of autonomic dysfunction correlates with disease activity of IBD, suggesting that autonomic dysfunction is a potential marker for IBD disease activity and also a potential target for IBD treatment. In this paper, we review the recent advances in understanding the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and IBD.%炎症性肠病(inflammatory bowel disease,IBD)主要包括溃疡性结肠炎(ulcerative colitis,UC)和克罗恩病(Crohn's disease,CD)是一种慢性、复发性的肠道炎症疾病,其明确病因目前仍不清楚.IBD的发病是多因素共同作用的结果.有研究表明,植物神经系统通过调节免疫系统功能,参与IBD发病.近年来关于植物神经系统在IBD发病中的作用越来越受到关注.IBD患者存在植物神经功能障碍,并且植物神经功能的紊乱程度与IBD病情程度密切相关,植物神经功能检查有可能成为IBD病情的重要的监测指标.本文对植物神经功能与IBD的关系及其应用进行阐述.

  13. Subclavian steal syndrome presenting as recurrent pulmonary oedema associated with acute left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Ballo, Piercarlo; Michelagnoli, Stefano; Ercolini, Leonardo; Barbanti, Enrico; Passuello, Franco; Abbondanti, Alessandro; Consoli, Lorenzo; Chechi, Tania; Fibbi, Veronica; Nannini, Marco; Chiodi, Leandro; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Subclavian steal syndrome typically presents as angina in patients with internal mammary artery grafts. Atypical clinical presentations have been rarely described. We report an unusual case of subclavian steal syndrome presenting as pulmonary oedema with acute left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction in a patient with internal mammary artery graft and severe stenosis of the proximal left subclavian artery. After successful angioplasty and stenting of subclavian artery, the patient remained asymptomatic for six months, but then experienced acute diastolic dysfunction and recurrent pulmonary oedema associated with critical subclavian in-stent restenosis with stent deformation. This report points out that, in patients with internal mammary-to-LAD grafts, subclavian steal syndrome may present as acute left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary oedema even in the presence of normal ejection fraction.

  14. An Endotoxin Tolerance Signature Predicts Sepsis and Organ Dysfunction at Initial Clinical Presentation

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    Olga M. Pena

    2014-11-01

    Interpretation: Our data support an updated model of sepsis pathogenesis in which endotoxin tolerance-mediated immune dysfunction (cellular reprogramming is present throughout the clinical course of disease and related to disease severity. Thus endotoxin tolerance might offer new insights guiding the development of new therapies and diagnostics for early sepsis.

  15. Sleep disturbances and autonomic dysfunction in patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMallien

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (PoTS suffer from fatigue, daytime sleepiness and sleeping disturbances. The objective of this study was to compare subjective and objective sleep quality of PoTS patients with a group of healthy controls. All Patients completed a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The patients sleep architecture, heart rate and heart rate variability measurements were taken during one night at the sleep laboratorium. All Data was collected at the Sleep Unit, at Helios Klinikum Wuppertal. 38 patients diagnosed with PoTS were compared to 31 healthy controls, matched in age and gender. Patients with PoTS reached significantly higher scores in sleep questionnaires, which means that they were more sleepy and had a lower sleep qualitiy. Polysomnography showed a significantly higher proportion of stage 2 sleep. The results of heart rate variability analysis in different sleep stages confirmed changes in autonomic activity in both groups. PoTS patients, however, showed a diminished variability of the LF band, HF band and LF/HF ratio in different sleep stages. It can therefore be gathererd that PoTS could be considered as potential differential diagnosis for sleep disturbances since PoTS patients had a subjective diminished sleep quality, reached higher levels of daytime sleepiness and showed a higher proportion of stage 2 sleep. PoTS patients showed furthermore a reduction of LF/HF ratio variability in different sleep stages.

  16. Asymptomatic ST-depression during exercise testing in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and autonomic dysfunction

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    Dmitry Nikitich Laptev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiac autonomic function as assessed by ST dynamics during and post-exercise in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Materials and methods. The study included 71 young patients with T1DM. The patients were aged 9–18 years and had no history of macrovascular disease or renal disease, including microalbuminuria. Cardiac autonomic function was assessed using cardiovascular tests and 24-h ECG monitoring with automatic calculation of QT interval and heart rate variability parameters. Each patient underwent the physical working capacity 170 test.Results. The prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN was 30.9%. The frequency of asymptomatic ST-segment depression increased during exercise in 10 (45.5% patients with CAN (CAN+ compared with 9 (18.4% patients without CAN (CAN-; p=0.042. During the recovery period, asymptomatic ST-segment depression was present in the first minute in 8 (36.4% CAN+ patients compared with 1 (2% CAN- patient (p=0.0003 and in the second minute in 5 (22.7% CAN+ patients compared with 1 (2% CAN- patient (p=0.0095.Conclusion. Children and adolescents with T1DM and impaired autonomic function have increased prevalence of asymptomatic ST-segment depression during and post-exercise. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with T1DM and CAN may contribute to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality during adulthood in patients with T1DM.

  17. Autonomic Dysfunction Predicts Early Cardiac Affection in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

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    Khaled M. Othman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the early preclinical alterations in cardiac autonomic control as well as altered cardiac function in systemic sclerosis (SSc patients and their relevance to the clinical features of the disease using noninvasive methods. Methods: 30 SSc patients and 15 healthy controls matched for age and sex underwent clinical examination, serological analysis, and echocardiographic assessment including Doppler flow imaging to evaluate cardiac function, and 24-hour Holter monitoring analyzed for arrhythmia and heart rate variability (HRV in the time and frequency domains. Results: The trans-mitral Doppler of early to atrial wave (E/A ratio was reversed in five patients (16.6% and the tricuspid E/A ratio was reversed in 10 patients (33.3%. Holter analysis for SSc patients revealed an increased prevalence of premature ventricular contractions (PVC $ 10/h (P = 0.02, supra-ventricular tachycardias (SVTs (P = 0.2, and total PVC count (P = 0.0000. Highly significant (P = 0.000 impairment in all HRV parameters was demonstrated in the SSc patients. Total skin thickness score (TSS, Raynaud’s phenomenon and anti-scleroderma 70 (anti-SCL70 showed significant positive correlations with all arrhythmia parameters, while showing a significant negative correlation with the impaired ventricular diastolic function and various HRV parameters. No correlation was found between arrhythmia and HRV parameters and disease duration, disease type, or presence of anti-centromere antibodies. Conclusion: Low heart rate variability, increased TSS and the presence of anti-SCL70 are correlated with preclinical cardiac involvement in SSc patients and may predict the likelihood of malignant arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Therefore, noninvasive HRV evaluation before clinical cardiac involvement in these patients might be beneficial when added to the clinical and laboratory assessments in detecting high-risk patients, and may allow for implementation of preventive

  18. Changes in oral cavity during period of intensive vomiting in patient with somatoform autonomic dysfunction – description of the case.

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    Elżbieta Maria Paszyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The most important endogenous causes of erosion are eating disorders, gastro-oesophageal reflux (GERD, alcoholism and syndromes involving lowered saliva secretion. Aim. The aim of this work is to study a patient with symptoms of somatoform autonomic dysfunction, in which significant erosive loss occurred through chemical influence of gastric acid on oral cavity. Methods. Seventeen years old girl was sent to Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry due to persistent nausea and vomiting, which occurred over a period of about 10 months. Because of this she was repeatedly admitted to a paediatric hospital. Nausea and vomiting led to fear of going out of the house and of being in public places. In addition dental clinical examination was performed. Results. Somatoform Disorders, during which there has been intense vomiting, can be seen as an unusual example of purging-type eating disorders. Erosion of enamel was the most common. In examination of oral mucosa, keratinisation, tongue covered with removable coating and exfoliative cheilitis associated with drying and cracking of lips, were detected. Conclusions. Observed erosion of teeth and changes in macroscopic construction of oral mucosa seem to be symptoms caused mainly by induced intense and prolonged vomiting. Those changes may be a serious problem not only for the patient’s health but also their aesthetics. The described case of patient with intense and long-term vomiting indicates the need of multidisciplinary medical care, including systematic dental assessment.

  19. Lymphoma Presenting as Severe Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma involving the heart is rare. This is a case report on non-Hodgkin lymphoma where the patient presented for the first time with heart failure and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction due to lymphoma infiltrating the heart muscle and had simultaneous bilateral involvement of kidneys. This type of presentation has never been described in world literature and is the first reported case.

  20. Alternating hemidystonia following traumatic brain injury as an unusual presentation of paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerger, Kelly J; Salazar, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented to the neurotrauma intensive care unit following blunt head injury. MRI revealed subarachnoid haemorrhage and multiple intraparenchymal haemorrhages suggesting severe brain injury. During recovery, the patient displayed intermittent episodes of alternating hemibody spasms with decerebrate/decorticate dystonic posturing. Episodes presented with autonomic dysregulation including hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tachypnoea, tachycardia and hypertension. Concern for seizure activity prompted simultaneous video monitoring and EEG testing. Results were without epileptiform activity suggesting against seizure as cause for alternating hemibody spasms. Paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia (PAID) was considered despite the unusual presentation. Intravenous hydromorphone was used for treatment, which relieved symptoms of autonomic dysregulation and dystonic posturing. PAID syndrome was diagnosed based on presentation with intermittent episodes of dystonia, autonomic dysregulation, absence of epileptiform activity and rapid response to opioid treatment. This case illustrates the clinical variability of this uncommon syndrome because alternating hemidystonia as main manifestation has not been previously described.

  1. Unusual fatal petrositis presenting as myofascial pain and dysfunction of the temporal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretan, Stefan; Duvoisin, Bernard; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2011-05-01

    Petrositis is a rare and severe complication of acute otitis media and mastoiditis. Although the extension of the inflammatory process from the petrous apex to the adjacent Meckel cave can lead to trigeminal pain, an irritation of the trigeminal nerve roots resulting in acute or chronic hyperactivity of masticatory muscles has never been reported. We report here the unusual case of an 86-year-old man who presented with a handicapping myofascial pain and dysfunction syndrome of the right temporal muscle as a heralding manifestation of an unusual form of petrositis. The patient progressively developed a retropharyngeal abscess, a right sphenoid sinusitis, and fatal meningitis. This case demonstrated that (1) myofascial pain and dysfunction syndrome that does not respond to conventional treatments may suggest an unusual etiology and warrant further medical investigations and a detailed medical history and that (2) petrositis can manifest itself with atypical clinical symptoms and radiologic signs.

  2. Syringomyelia as a presenting feature of shunt dysfunction: Implications for the pathogenesis of syringomyelia

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    Natarajan Muthukumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of syringomyelia continues to be an enigma. The patency of the central canal and its role in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia continues to elicit controversy. The case reported here provides an opportunity to retest some of the hypotheses of syringomyelia. A 33 year old female presented with sensory disturbances over the left upper extremity and trunk and was diagnosed to have panventriculomegaly with communicating syringomyelia. She was initially treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. As there was no change in her neurological status following shunt, this was followed by foramen magnum decompression with excision of an arachnoid veil covering the fourth ventricular outlet. She had clinical and radiological improvement after foramen magnum decompression. Five months later she had reappearance of the symptoms of syringomyelia and was found to have shunt dysfunction and holocord syrinx. She improved following shunt revision. This case is being reported to highlight the following points: 1. In patients with communicating syringomyelia and hydrocephalus, shunt dysfunction can present with symptoms of syringomyelia without the classical clinical features of shunt dysfunction, 2. In patients with communicating syringomyelia, the central canal of the spinal cord acts as an "exhaust valve" for the ventricular system, and, 3. studies about the patency of the central canal are reviewed in the context of this case and the role of the central canal in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia is reviewed.

  3. [Sacroiliac joint dysfunction presented with acute low back pain: three case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamauchi, Shuji; Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Sugawara, Atsushi; Kim, Kyongsong; Shimoda, Yusuke; Motegi, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori

    2010-07-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) can cause low back pain when its joint capsule and ligamentous tissue are damaged. We report our experience in treating three SIJ dysfunction patients presenting with acute low back pain (a 38 year-old male, a 24 year-old male, and a 32 year-old female). SIJ dysfunction was diagnosed using the one-finger test, the modified Newton test, and SIJ injection. In all three patients, lumbar MRI demonstrated slightly degenerated lumbar lesions (lumbar canal stenosis, lumbar disc hernia). Two patients had paresthesia or pain in the leg and all three patients showed iliac muscle tenderness in the groin, which was thought to be a referred symptom because of improvement after SIJ injection. The two male patients returned to work and the problems have not recurred. Although our female patient resumed daily life as a housewife, her condition recurred at intervals of 2-3 months and she required regular SIJ injections. The prevalence of SIJ dysfunction of low back pain is about 10%, so it should be considered as a differential diagnosis when treating low back pain and designing treatment for lumbar spinal disorders.

  4. [Investigation of the effects of cytoflavin on symptoms of depression and autonomic dysfunction in patients with organic depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkova, A N; Osinovskaia, N A; Polunina, A G; Gekht, A B

    2013-01-01

    The present observational study addressed effects of cytoflavin as an adjunctive nootropic therapy in patients with organic depressive disorder (F06.36). 54 female and 46 male in-patients were included into the study. All patients received standard antidepressant therapy (controls) and 48 patients additionally received 2 pills of cytoflavin twice per day. Age, gender distribution, education and severity of depression were equal in cytoflavin and control groups. The follow-up assessment at discharge showed a significantly more pronounced decline in the severity of depression symptoms in patients receiving cytoflavin in comparison with the controls. Importantly, the effect of cytoflavin on the depression symptoms was prominent only in females. Moreover, women receiving cytoflavin demonstrated the more pronounced normalization of autonomic regulation in comparison with control women. The present results allow to recommend cytoflavin in dose 4 pills daily as an adjunctive therapy in female patients with organic depressive disorder.

  5. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  6. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia as a presenting feature of Neuromyelitis Optica: "A rare combination of two uncommon disorders".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Thomas; Nadimpally, Uday Shanker; Sarma, G R K; Nadig, Raghunandan

    2016-03-01

    Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) can have atypical presentations like hiccups, vomiting, etc. which is classically described as the area postrema syndrome. Here we report a case of a 39 year old male patient who presented with features of Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia (TAC). MRI spine showed long segment myelitis. Diagnosis of NMO was confirmed by a positive Anti aquaporin 4 antibody assay. TACs are a rare group of headache disorders characterized by severe unilateral headache in the V1 distribution of the trigeminal nerve and autonomic symptoms. This presentation in NMO is hitherto unreported in literature.

  7. Dysautonomia (Autonomic Dysfunction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It can be acute and reversible, as in Guillain-Barre syndrome, or chronic and progressive. Several common conditions ... It can be acute and reversible, as in Guillain-Barre syndrome, or chronic and progressive. Several common conditions ...

  8. Autonomic dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment: evidence from power spectral analysis of heart rate variability in a cross-sectional case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Nicolini

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is set to become a major health problem with the exponential ageing of the world's population. The association between MCI and autonomic dysfunction, supported by indirect evidence and rich with clinical implications in terms of progression to dementia and increased risk of mortality and falls, has never been specifically demonstrated.To conduct a comprehensive assessment of autonomic function in subjects with MCI by means of power spectral analysis (PSA of heart rate variability (HRV at rest and during provocative manoeuvres.This cross-sectional study involved 80 older outpatients (aged ≥ 65 consecutively referred to a geriatric unit and diagnosed with MCI or normal cognition (controls based on neuropsychological testing. PSA was performed on 5-minute electrocardiographic recordings under three conditions--supine rest with free breathing (baseline, supine rest with paced breathing at 12 breaths/minute (parasympathetic stimulation, and active standing (orthosympathetic stimulation--with particular focus on the changes from baseline to stimulation of indices of sympathovagal balance: normalized low frequency (LFn and high frequency (HFn powers and the LF/HF ratio. Blood pressure (BP was measured at baseline and during standing. Given its exploratory nature in a clinical population the study included subjects on medications with a potential to affect HRV.There were no significant differences in HRV indices between the two groups at baseline. MCI subjects exhibited smaller physiological changes in all three HRV indices during active standing, consistently with a dysfunction of the orthosympathetic system. Systolic BP after 10 minutes of standing was lower in MCI subjects, suggesting dysautonomia-related orthostatic BP dysregulation.Our study is novel in providing evidence of autonomic dysfunction in MCI. This is associated with orthostatic BP dysregulation and the ongoing follow-up of the study population will

  9. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of an autonomic neuropathy in the developed world. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy causes a constellation of symptoms and signs affecting cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, thermoregulatory, and sudomotor systems. Several discrete syndromes associated with diabetes cause autonomic dysfunction. The most prevalent of these are: generalized diabetic autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy associated with the prediabetic state, treatment-induced painful and autonomic neuropathy, and transient hypoglycemia-associated autonomic neuropathy. These autonomic manifestations of diabetes are responsible for the most troublesome and disabling features of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and result in a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease.

  10. Present Conditions and Strategies of Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection in Sichuan Ethnic Autonomous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yunxia

    2013-01-01

    The intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities is the most typical cultural re-source with ethnic characteristics . Its scientific protection and effective usage can not only help to transmit and develop the intangible cultural herit-age of ethnic minorities , but also can transform the ethnic minorities ’ cultural resources into advanta-geous resources , thus, promoting economic devel-opment in ethnic minority autonomous areas .For a long time, the ethnic minority autonomous areas have paid considerable attention to the protection of ethnic intangible cultural heritage ; explored vari-ous effective protective measures; and built up an effective model for protecting ethnic intangible cul-tural heritage guaranteed by the ethnic autonomous law.

  11. Multiple system atrophy and cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-yang LANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the survival of patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA is prolonged, patients may present cognitive dysfunction or even dementia in addition to autonomic dysfunction, damage of extrapyramidal system and cerebellar ataxia. This article made a brief summary on the research progress of MSA combined with cognitive dysfunction reported at home and abroad. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.06.003

  12. Autonomic dysfunction and new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction: a CARISMA substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøns, Christian; Raatikainen, Pekka; Gang, Uffe J;

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases morbidity and mortality in patients with previous myocardial infarction and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to identify patients with a high risk for new-onset AF in this population using invasive and noninvasive...

  13. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the physiological significance of autonomic neuropathy in juvenile diabetics, cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic functions have been investigated in three groups of juvenile diabetics: One group had no signs of neuropathy, one group had presumably slight autonomic...... neuropathy (reduced beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation) and one group had clinically severe autonomic neuropathy, defined by presence of orthostatic hypotension. In all three experimental situations we found sympathetic dysfunction causing cardiovascular and/or hormonal...... maladjustments in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Regarding metabolic functions we found normal responses to graded exercise and insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with autonomic neuropathy in spite of blunted catecholamine responses, suggesting increased sensitivity of glycogen stores and adipose...

  14. The somatosensory link: S1 functional connectivity is altered by sustained pain and associated with clinical/autonomic dysfunction in fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L.; Cahalan, Christine M.; Harris, Richard E.; Beissner, Florian; Garcia, Ronald G.; Kim, Hyungjun; Wasan, Ajay D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic functional pain syndrome characterized by widespread pain, significant pain catastrophizing, sympathovagal dysfunction, and amplified temporal summation for evoked pain. While several studies have found altered resting brain connectivity in FM, studies have not specifically probed the somatosensory system, and its role in both somatic and non-somatic FM symptomatology. Our objective was to evaluate resting primary somatosensory cortex (S1) connectivity, and explore how sustained, evoked deep-tissue pain modulates this connectivity. Methods We acquired fMRI and electrocardiography data from FM patients and healthy controls (HC) during rest (REST) and sustained mechanical pressure pain (PAIN) over the lower leg. Functional connectivity associated with different S1 subregions was calculated, while S1leg (leg representation) connectivity was contrast between REST and PAIN, and correlated with clinically-relevant measures in FM. Results At REST, FM showed decreased connectivity between multiple ipsilateral and cross-hemispheric S1 subregions, which was correlated with clinical pain severity. PAIN, compared to REST, produced increased S1legconnectivity to bilateral anterior insula in FM, but not in HC. Moreover, in FM, sustained pain-altered S1legconnectivity to anterior insula was correlated with clinical/behavioral pain measures and autonomic responses. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that both somatic and non-somatic dysfunction in FM, including clinical pain, pain catastrophizing, autonomic dysfunction, and amplified temporal summation, are all closely linked with the degree to which evoked deep-tissue pain alters S1 connectivity to salience/affective pain processing regions. Additionally, diminished connectivity between S1 subregions at REST in FM may result from ongoing widespread clinical pain. PMID:25622796

  15. Psychosocial profile of male patients presenting with sexual dysfunction in a psychiatric outpatient department in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Kamath, Ravindra; Subramanyam, Alka; Shah, Henal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual dysfunction can occur due to biological problems, relationship problems, lack of proper sexual knowledge or a combination of these. India is often known as the land of Kamasutra. But as far as sexuality research is concerned, there is a paucity of relevant data from India. In view of this, we conducted a study to assess the psychosocial profile of males presenting with sexual dysfunction to psychiatry out-patient department of a tertiary medical hospital. Materials and Me...

  16. Xanthogranuloma of the intrasellar region presenting in pituitary dysfunction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiuchi Takamasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Differentiation of cystic mass lesions of the sellar and parasellar regions may pose a diagnostic dilemma for physicians, neurosurgeons, radiologists and pathologists involved in treating patients with these entities. A considerable number of tumors previously identified as craniopharyngiomas may, in fact, have been xanthogranulomas. We report a case of pituitary dysfunction caused by xanthogranuloma of the intrasellar region. Case presentation A 47-year-old man of Japanese descent presented to our institution with a tumor located exclusively in the intrasellar region which manifested as severe hypopituitarism. MRI revealed a clearly defined intrasellar mass that was heterogeneously hyperintense on T1-weighted images and markedly hypointense on T2-weighted images. We preoperatively diagnosed the patient with Rathke's cleft cyst or non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Although the tumor was completely removed using a transsphenoidal approach, the improvement of the patient's endocrine function was marginal, and continued endocrine replacement therapy was needed. Postoperatively, a histological examination revealed the tumor to be a xanthogranuloma of the intrasellar region. His visual field defects and headache improved. Conclusion Because diagnosis depends on surgical intervention and xanthogranulomas of the intrasellar region are very rare, the natural history of xanthogranuloma is still unknown. Therefore, this entity is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. We suggest that xanthogranuloma should be included in the differential diagnosis, even in the case of sellar lesions, to formulate appropriate postoperative management and improve endocrine outcomes.

  17. Autonomic Impairment in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David; Hajcak, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotional dysfunction in psychiatric disorders can be reflected in autonomic abnormalities. The present study examines sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system activity in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) before, during, and following a social stressor task. Data were obtained…

  18. Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Presenting with Acute Cognitive Dysfunction and Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Woo-Hyuk; Na, Ju-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by acute or subacute encephalopathy related to increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Clinical manifestations of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy may include stroke-like episodes, altered consciousness, psychosis, myoclonus, abnormal movements, seizures, and cognitive dysfunction. Acute cognitive dysfunction with convulsion as initial clinical manifestations of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is very rare. We report a 65-year-old man wh...

  19. Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy and anaesthesia - a case report

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    Nandini Dave

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are a rare group of disorders characterized by progressive loss of function that predominantly affects the peripheral sensory nerves. Autonomic dysfunction is present to a variable degree and can have several implications for anaesthesia. We report the case of a patient with Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy who was posted for a below knee amputation and discuss the anaesthesia management.

  20. 眩晕与自主神经功能障碍的关系%The relationship between vertigo and autonomic nervous dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱淑娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective Analysis of the relationship between peripheral vertigo and autonomic nervous dysfunction.Methods From April 2014 to April 2015,48 patients with peripheral vertigo were selected,and their autonomic nervous function was examined when the vertigo was re-lieved or disappeared.Results The abnormal rate of parasympathetic nerve was 14.58% to 27.08% and the critical 2.708% to 45.83%,the ab-normal rate of parasympathetic nerve was higher than that of the sympathetic nerve,the dif erence is statistical y significant (P <0.05)of autonomic nerve function tests.Conclusion Autonomic nerve disorder have close relations with vertigo,the autonomic nervous system can ef ectively reduce the incidence of dizziness.%目的:分析周围性眩晕与自主神经功能障碍间的关系。方法选取2014年4月至2015年4月收治的48例周围性眩晕患者,在其眩晕明显缓解或消失时,对其的自主神经功能进行检查。结果进行自主神经功能检测其异常率为14.58%~27.08%,其临界为27.08%~45.83%,副交感神经异常率为副交感神经的异常率高于交感神经,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论自主神经障碍是与眩晕有着密切的关系,对自主神经进行调节可以有效减轻眩晕发病率。

  1. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Presenting with Predominant Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction: Efficacy of Bromocriptine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piercarlo Ballo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is still a major clinical problem, as only half of them or slightly more show complete recovery of left ventricular (LV function despite conventional evidence-based treatment for heart failure. Recent observations suggested that bromocriptine might favor recovery of LV systolic function in patients with PPCM. However, no evidence exists regarding its effect on LV diastolic dysfunction, which is commonly observed in these patients. Tissue Doppler (TD is an echocardiographic technique that provides unique information on LV diastolic performance. We report the case of a 37-year-old white woman with heart failure (NYHA class II, moderate LV systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction 35%, and severe LV diastolic dysfunction secondary to PPCM, who showed no improvement after 2 weeks of treatment with ramipril, bisoprolol, and furosemide. At 6-week followup after addition of bromocriptine, despite persistence of LV systolic dysfunction, normalization of LV diastolic function was shown by TD, together with improvement in functional status (NYHA I. At 18-month followup, the improvement in LV diastolic function was maintained, and normalization of systolic function was observed. This paper might support the clinical utility of bromocriptine in patients with PPCM by suggesting a potential benefit on LV diastolic dysfunction.

  2. Peripartum cardiomyopathy presenting with predominant left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: efficacy of bromocriptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Betti, Irene; Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Chiodi, Leandro; Rapisardi, Gherardo; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Management of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is still a major clinical problem, as only half of them or slightly more show complete recovery of left ventricular (LV) function despite conventional evidence-based treatment for heart failure. Recent observations suggested that bromocriptine might favor recovery of LV systolic function in patients with PPCM. However, no evidence exists regarding its effect on LV diastolic dysfunction, which is commonly observed in these patients. Tissue Doppler (TD) is an echocardiographic technique that provides unique information on LV diastolic performance. We report the case of a 37-year-old white woman with heart failure (NYHA class II), moderate LV systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction 35%), and severe LV diastolic dysfunction secondary to PPCM, who showed no improvement after 2 weeks of treatment with ramipril, bisoprolol, and furosemide. At 6-week followup after addition of bromocriptine, despite persistence of LV systolic dysfunction, normalization of LV diastolic function was shown by TD, together with improvement in functional status (NYHA I). At 18-month followup, the improvement in LV diastolic function was maintained, and normalization of systolic function was observed. This paper might support the clinical utility of bromocriptine in patients with PPCM by suggesting a potential benefit on LV diastolic dysfunction.

  3. Microvascular Coronary Artery Spasm Presents Distinctive Clinical Features With Endothelial Dysfunction as Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sumida, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Sugamura, Koichi; Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Morihisa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Kunihiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Background Angina without significant stenosis, or nonobstructive coronary artery disease, attracts clinical attention. Microvascular coronary artery spasm (microvascular CAS) can cause nonobstructive coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical features of microvascular CAS and the therapeutic efficacy of calcium channel blockers. Methods and Results Three hundred seventy consecutive, stable patients with suspected angina presenting nonobstructive coronary arteries (<50% diameter) in coronary angiography were investigated with the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test, with simultaneous measurements of transcardiac lactate production and of changes in the quantitative coronary blood flow. We diagnosed microvascular CAS according to lactate production and a decrease in coronary blood flow without epicardial vasospasm during the acetylcholine provocation test. We prospectively followed up the patients with calcium channel blockers for microvascular coronary artery disease. We identified 50 patients with microvascular CAS who demonstrated significant impairment of the endothelium-dependent vascular response, which was assessed by coronary blood flow during the acetylcholine provocation test. Administration of isosorbide dinitrate normalized the abnormal coronary flow pattern in the patients with microvascular CAS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that female sex, a lower body mass index, minor–borderline ischemic electrocardiogram findings at rest, limited–baseline diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio, and attenuated adenosine triphosphate–induced coronary flow reserve were independently correlated with the presence of microvascular CAS. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that the aforementioned 5-variable model showed good correlation with the presence of microvascular CAS (area under the curve: 0.820). No patients with microvascular CAS treated with calcium channel blockers developed cardiovascular

  4. Research progress on sepsis-induced cardiac autonomic nervous system dysfunction%脓毒症心脏自主神经功能障碍研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海洋; 俞凤

    2011-01-01

    脓毒症是诱发脓毒性休克,多器官功能障碍综合征的重要原因,病死率高,目前仍是危重病领域关注的问题之一.脓毒症合并心功能不全非常常见,其机制尚未完全阐明.目前认为脓毒症患者自主神经系统功能障碍是脓毒症并发心血管功能障碍的机制之一.该文以心血管自主神经调控为切入点,对脓毒症心脏自主神经系统功能障碍的表现、引起心脏自主神经系统功能障碍的机制及相关干预措施进行综述,以期为脓毒症的研究和防治提供理论依据.%Sepsis with its high mortality,was an important etiology of septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. It remainsone of the research focuses in critical care areas. Cardiac dysfunction is common in patients with sepsis, and its pathogenesis remains incompletely clear. Nowadays, autonomic nervous system dysfunction is considered one of the mechanisms of sepsis-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. In this review.we will expatiate on the cardiovascular autonomic control mechanism. the manifestation and pathogenesis of sepsis-induced cardiac autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Furthermore. some intervention measures in sepsis-induced cardiac autonomic nervous system dysfunction was introduced. We hope to provide theory basis in the prevention and treatment of sepsis.

  5. Sinus Node Dysfunction Presenting as Syncope in Acute Rheumatic Fever - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Singh Sidhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic fever may be associated with a variety of cardiac conduction and rhythm disturbances. First-degree heart block is a common occurrence in acute rheumatic fever and is included in Jones’ criteria. Other electrocardiographic changes such as sinus tachycardia, bundle branch blocks, nonspeci c ST-T wave changes, atrial and ventricular premature complexes have been reported with variable frequency. Rarely, complete heart block may be a manifestation of acute rheumatic fever. Sinus node dysfunction has been reported as an exceptionally rare manifestation of acute rheumatic fever. We report a case of 33 year old female who developed syncope due to sinus node dysfunction during an episode of acute rheumatic carditis.

  6. Joint keynote presentation – “Erectile dysfunction in Neurological Disorders”

    OpenAIRE

    Treacy, C.L.; Steggall, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and severity of a man’s neurological condition may have a profound effect on erectile function and this warrants careful consideration in relation to providing supportive treatment options that are effective, safe and acceptable for the individual and his partner. Neurological disorders contribute to erectile dysfunction (ED) in a number of different ways and may occur as a direct result of impairment in the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, or a combination of...

  7. Interferon-alpha induced thyroid dysfunction: three clinical presentations and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, L K; Greenspan, F S; Yeo, P P

    1997-12-01

    Three patients who developed symptomatic, autoimmune-mediated thyroid dysfunction during treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) for chronic active hepatitis C with liver cirrhosis, age-related macular degeneration with foveal involvement, and chronic myelogenous leukemia, respectively, are described. The first two patients developed autoimmune hypothyroidism that required thyroxine replacement, and the third developed autoimmune thyroiditis with transient thyrotoxicosis. The clinical manifestations were protean, and required a high index of suspicion for diagnosis, the failure of which led to significant morbidity. A literature review revealed that the mean incidence of IFN-alpha induced thyroid dysfunction was 6%. Spontaneous resolution occurred in more than half with discontinuation of IFN-alpha treatment. Hypothyroidism was induced more frequently than hyperthyroidism. At least one positive thyroid autoantibody titer was found in 17% of patients receiving IFN-alpha. Risk factors for developing thyroid dysfunction with IFN-alpha treatment were female sex, underlying malignancy or hepatitis C, higher doses of IFN-alpha for longer durations, combination immunotherapy (especially with interleukin-2), and the presence of thyroid autoantibodies prior to or during treatment.

  8. An unusual presentation of autonomic dysreflexia in a patient with cold abscess of cervical spine for anterolateral decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Susmita; Taneja, Dipali; Saxena, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    A young female having complaints of quadriparesis along with bladder and bowel involvement, diagnosed to have osseous destruction of C4, C6, C7, T2 vertebral bodies with pre- and para-vertebral abscess, was taken up for anterolateral decompression and fusion of cervical spine. She presented with anxiety, agitation, sweating and headache and was in hypertensive crisis which was refractory to antihypertensives, anxiolytics and analgesics but showed a reasonable response to intravenous dexmedetomidine and finally responded dramatically to rectal evacuation. Autonomic dysreflexia was suspected with stimulus arising from distended rectum as all other causes of hypertension were ruled out. PMID:28003699

  9. An unusual presentation of autonomic dysreflexia in a patient with cold abscess of cervical spine for anterolateral decompression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Sarangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A young female having complaints of quadriparesis along with bladder and bowel involvement, diagnosed to have osseous destruction of C 4 , C 6 , C 7 , T 2 vertebral bodies with pre- and para-vertebral abscess, was taken up for anterolateral decompression and fusion of cervical spine. She presented with anxiety, agitation, sweating and headache and was in hypertensive crisis which was refractory to antihypertensives, anxiolytics and analgesics but showed a reasonable response to intravenous dexmedetomidine and finally responded dramatically to rectal evacuation. Autonomic dysreflexia was suspected with stimulus arising from distended rectum as all other causes of hypertension were ruled out.

  10. Relationship between vitamin D and cardiac autonomic dysfunction%维生素D与心脏自主神经功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成; 罗雪梅; 李介民

    2015-01-01

    The automatic nervous system(ANS) has 2 main branches:the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.The ANS controls mainly automatic bodily functions that are engaged in homeostasis.Autonomic dysfunction lead to many diseases,for example,orthostatic intolerance etc.The relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease has becomes the focus of study gradually in recent years.1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D participates in the regulation of renin-angiotensin axis,vascular effects.Vitamin D deficiency triggers secondary hyperparathyroidism,promotes the development of hypertension,diabetes,dyslipidemia which can influence the incidence and prognosis of cardiovascular disease as well.The study confirmed that vitamin D deficiency is one of the risk factors of cardiac autonomic dysfunction diseases such as orthostatic intolerance.The mechanism is still not very clear.Supplement of vitamin D can offer an effective method to decrease cardiovascular disease risk in populations with low vitamin D status.%自主神经系统包括交感神经系统及副交感神经(迷走神经)系统,其对维持人体稳态极为重要.自主神经功能紊乱可引起许多疾病,如直立不耐受等.近年关于维生素D与心血管疾病的关联性研究已逐渐引起重视.1,25-(OH)2D参与肾素-血管紧张素系统的调节,发挥血管效应,其不足时可导致继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进、高血压、糖尿病、血脂异常,进一步影响心血管疾患的发生及预后.研究证实维生素D不足容易出现心脏自主神经功能紊乱,是直立性低血压等自主神经功能紊乱疾病的危险因素之一,但机制尚不完全明确.补充维生素D可降低维生素D缺乏人群的心血管疾病风险.

  11. ANA-Negative Lupus Presenting with Heart Failure and Severe Valvular Dysfunction: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Vu; Addison, Daniel; Lakkis, Nasser; Tabbaa, Rashed

    2015-01-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) negative lupus is an important subset of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease spectrum. Since the introduction of human cell line for ANA assay, the occurrence of true ANA-negative SLE has been a rare clinical phenomenon. The nature of cardiac involvement in ANA-negative SLE is not well understood, although any cardiac involvement, including valvular dysfunction, should be considered as a presenting manifestation of SLE irrespective of serology status. Early recognition and intervention appears to be associated with decreased morbidity. The following report describes our first case of ANA-negative SLE with an initial presentation of severe cardiac valvular dysfunction and heart failure. It also characterizes the spectrum of disease severity in ANA-negative SLE and demonstrates how aggressive SLE therapy can improve cardiac disease.

  12. Differential Patterns and Determinants of Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Dysfunction during Endotoxemia and Oral Fat Load in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ziegler

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system (ANS plays an important role in regulating the metabolic homeostasis and controlling immune function. ANS alterations can be detected by reduced heart rate variability (HRV in conditions like diabetes and sepsis. We determined the effects of experimental conditions mimicking inflammation and hyperlipidemia on HRV and heart rate (HR in relation to the immune, metabolic, and hormonal responses resulting from these interventions. Sixteen lean healthy subjects received intravenous (i.v. low-dose endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], i.v. fat, oral fat, and i.v. glycerol (control for 6 hours, during which immune, metabolic, hormonal, and five HRV parameters (pNN50, RMSSD, low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF power, and LF/HF ratio were monitored and energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity (M-value were assessed. LPS infusion induced an increase (AUC in HR and LF/HF ratio and decline in pNN50 and RMSSD, while oral fat resulted in elevated HR and a transient (hours 1-2 decrease in pNN50, RMSSD, and HF power. During LPS infusion, ΔIL-1ra levels and ΔIL-1ra and ΔIL-1ß gene expression correlated positively with ΔLF/HF ratio and inversely with ΔRMSSD. During oral fat intake, ΔGLP-1 tended to correlate positively with ΔHR and inversely with ΔpNN50 and ΔRMSSD. Following LPS infusion, lipid oxidation correlated positively with HR and inversely with pNN50 and RMSSD, whereas HRV was not related to M-value. In conclusion, suppression of vagal tone and sympathetic predominance during endotoxemia are linked to anti-inflammatory processes and lipid oxidation but not to insulin resistance, while weaker HRV changes in relation to the GLP-1 response are noted during oral fat load.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01054989.

  13. Differential Patterns and Determinants of Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Dysfunction during Endotoxemia and Oral Fat Load in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Dan; Strom, Alexander; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina; Zahiragic, Lejla; Nowotny, Peter J.; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Herder, Christian; Szendroedi, Julia; Roden, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in regulating the metabolic homeostasis and controlling immune function. ANS alterations can be detected by reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in conditions like diabetes and sepsis. We determined the effects of experimental conditions mimicking inflammation and hyperlipidemia on HRV and heart rate (HR) in relation to the immune, metabolic, and hormonal responses resulting from these interventions. Sixteen lean healthy subjects received intravenous (i.v.) low-dose endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), i.v. fat, oral fat, and i.v. glycerol (control) for 6 hours, during which immune, metabolic, hormonal, and five HRV parameters (pNN50, RMSSD, low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) power, and LF/HF ratio) were monitored and energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity (M-value) were assessed. LPS infusion induced an increase (AUC) in HR and LF/HF ratio and decline in pNN50 and RMSSD, while oral fat resulted in elevated HR and a transient (hours 1-2) decrease in pNN50, RMSSD, and HF power. During LPS infusion, ΔIL-1ra levels and ΔIL-1ra and ΔIL-1ß gene expression correlated positively with ΔLF/HF ratio and inversely with ΔRMSSD. During oral fat intake, ΔGLP-1 tended to correlate positively with ΔHR and inversely with ΔpNN50 and ΔRMSSD. Following LPS infusion, lipid oxidation correlated positively with HR and inversely with pNN50 and RMSSD, whereas HRV was not related to M-value. In conclusion, suppression of vagal tone and sympathetic predominance during endotoxemia are linked to anti-inflammatory processes and lipid oxidation but not to insulin resistance, while weaker HRV changes in relation to the GLP-1 response are noted during oral fat load. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01054989 PMID:25893426

  14. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    Autonomic neuropathy is a common complication in long-term diabetes, about 30% of the patients showing measurable signs of autonomic dysfunction after 10 years duration of disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to establish because clinical symptoms generally occur late in the course...

  15. Autonomic dysfunction in patients with mild heart failure and coronary artery disease and the effects of add-on beta-blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, BM; van Wijk, LM; Brouwer, J; Tio, RA; Crijns, HJGM; van Veldhuisen, DJ

    2001-01-01

    Aim: Autonomic impairment is related to the incidence of sudden death in chronic heart failure (CHF). Our objective was to study autonomic profiles in patients with mild CHF due to coronary artery disease, and to investigate the value of add-on P-blockade. Methods and results: Measures of autonomic

  16. Autonomic dysfunction: a possible pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity in children at-risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Poirier, Paul; Quality Cohort Collaborative Group

    2015-02-01

    While mounting evidence suggests that sleep plays an important role in the etiology of obesity, the underlying pathogenic pathways are complex and unresolved. Experimental sleep deprivation studies demonstrate sympathovagal imbalance, indicative of diminished parasympathetic activity and/or heightened sympathetic activity, is consequent to poor sleep. Further, obese children exhibit sympathovagal imbalance, particularly during the night, compared to non-obese children. The question remains whether sympathovagal imbalance is one potential pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sympathovagal imbalance contributed to the association between sleep and obesity in children. Participants included 564 children aged 10 to 12 years (M = 11.67, SD = 0.95; 43.5% girls) from the QUALITY Cohort, a longitudinal study of children at-risk for the development of obesity. While children were at-risk due to confirmed parental obesity status, 57.7% of children were of normal body mass index (5-85th percentile). Sleep duration, sleep timing, and sleep disturbances were based on child- and parent-report. Anthropometrics were measured for central adiposity (waist circumference) and body composition (body mass index, fat mass index). Sympathovagal imbalance was derived from heart rate variability spectral analyses. Estimated path coefficients revealed that sympathovagal imbalance partially contributed to the association between poor sleep (later bedtimes, sleep-disordered breathing) and obesity. These findings highlight the importance of better understanding sympathovagal imbalance and its role in the etiology and maintenance of obesity. Future research should consider investigating nocturnal sympathovagal balance in youth.

  17. The clinical presentation and diagnosis of ketamine-associated urinary tract dysfunction in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Jacklyn; Sundaram, Palaniappan; Aydin, Hakan; Kuo, Tricia; Ng, Lay Guat

    2015-12-01

    Ketamine is a short-acting anaesthetic agent that has gained popularity as a 'club drug' due to its hallucinogenic effects. Substance abuse should be considered in young adult patients who present with severe debilitating symptoms such as lower urinary tract symptoms, even though the use of controlled substances is rare in Singapore. Although the natural history of disease varies from person to person, a relationship between symptom severity and frequency/dosage of abuse has been established. It is important to be aware of this condition and have a high degree of clinical suspicion to enable early diagnosis and immediate initiation of multidisciplinary and holistic treatment. A delayed diagnosis can lead to irreversible pathological changes and increased morbidity among ketamine abusers.

  18. Diagnostic yield of MRI for audiovestibular dysfunction using contemporary referral criteria: correlation with presenting symptoms and impact on clinical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandervelde, C. [Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clivevandervelde@gmail.com; Connor, S.E.J. [Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Department of Neuroradiology, King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Aim: To investigate the diagnostic yield of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening for vestibular schwannoma and other relevant conditions in the setting of audiovestibular symptoms, given the more liberal contemporary referral criteria. To determine whether presenting clinical symptoms correlate with imaging outcome in order to guide future protocols for MRI referral. Materials and methods: Eight hundred and eighty-one consecutive MRI examinations performed in patients with audiovestibular dysfunction were reviewed. Clinical indications and findings were recorded. Case notes were reviewed in patients with positive imaging findings. Two-way, cross-tabulation, Chi-square analysis was performed to assess the relationship between presenting symptoms and imaging outcome. Results: Twelve of the 881 (1.4%) were positive for vestibular schwannoma. A further four of 881 (0.4%) revealed other relevant conditions. Incidental conditions, felt to be irrelevant to the presenting symptoms, were noted in 12 of the 881 (1.4%). In all 12 cases that were positive for vestibular schwannoma, either tinnitus or hearing loss was present. Conclusion: The yield for T2-weighted MRI to diagnose vestibular schwannoma and other relevant retrocochlear conditions was lower than for previous studies, which is likely to reflect trends in referral criteria. No single audiovestibular symptom or combination of symptoms is a statistically significant predictor of imaging outcome.

  19. Cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction in female rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, P V; Neelambikai, N; Mahesh, Arjun; Govindarajan, K

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic dysfunction has been reported in patients with (rheumatoid arthritis) RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) like connective tissue disorders and it may be due to the vasculitis of vasa nervorum and secondary amyloidosis. The pathogenesis may also have an immune component that affects autonomic functions. In the present study, three standard cardiovascular parasympathetic function tests were performed in 207 RA patients and in 106 healthy controls. 14.45% patients were presented with symptoms related to cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Heart rate variation to deep breathing (DBD), standing (30:15 ratio), Valsalva ratio (VR) were found to be significantly reduced in RA patients and was weakly associated with female RA patients (r = 0.165, p = 0.018) and was not correlated to disease duration, RF positivity & severity of the disease. In conclusion, this study has confirmed the presence of significant subclinical cardiovascular parasympathetic nervous dysfunction in RA patients and its positive association with female gender. Hence, inclusion of cardiovascular autonomic function tests in the routine clinical examination may be helpful in the early detection of autonomic dysfunction in RA.

  20. Women with metabolic syndrome present different autonomic modulation and blood pressure response to an acute resistance exercise session compared with women without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibana, Ramires A; Boullosa, Daniel A; Leicht, Anthony S; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors in individuals with high risk of diabetes and heart disease. Resistance training (RT) has been proposed to be a safe, effective and worthwhile method for the prevention and treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, no study has analysed the acute response of blood pressure (BP) and autonomic control of heart rate (HR) after a RT session in female patients with MetS. The aim of the present study was to analyse the response of laboratory assessed and ambulatory BP and cardiac autonomic modulation after a RT session in women with MetS. Nine women without MetS (35.0 ± 6.7 years) and 10 women with MetS (34.1 ± 9.4 years) completed one experimental exercise session and a control session. Laboratory BP, heart rate variability (HRV) and ambulatory BP of each subject were measured at rest, over 60 min, and for 24 h after the end of the sessions, respectively. There was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP), night time diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean blood pressure (MBP) only for women with MetS, for all periods after the RT session when compared with the control session (Pwomen with MetS (Pwomen with MetS that may offer a cardio-protective effect. Women with MetS exhibited an impaired autonomic modulation at rest and a lower acute autonomic responsiveness to a RT session. The dissociation between BP and HRV responses suggests that other factors than autonomic control could be involved in the hypotensive effect of a RT session in MetS patients.

  1. [Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, M Yu; Piradov, M A; Suanova, E T; Sineva, N A

    2015-01-01

    Review of literature on the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are presented. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are primary headaches with phenotype consisting of trigeminal pain with autonomic sign including lacrimation, rhinorrhea and miosis. Discussed are issues of classification, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of this headache. Special attention is paid to cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hemicrania continua.

  2. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    , and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic......Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...

  3. Short-term effects of self-massage combined with home exercise on pain, daily activity, and autonomic function in patients with myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Chi; Wang, Tzyy-Jiuan; Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Lin, Shiou-Ping; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present was to investigate the short-term effects of a program combining self-massage and home exercise for patients with myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS). [Subjects and Methods] In this retrospective study, 63 patients were allocated to the experimental (n = 32) and control (n = 31) groups. Both groups received 6 sessions of treatment with physical modalities over the course of two weeks. The experimental group completed an additional program with a combination of self-massage and home exercise. The outcome measurements included a pain scale, pressure pain threshold (PPT), neck disability index (NDI), patient-specific functional scales (PSFS), and heart rate variability (HRV). The interactions between the groups and over time were analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA. [Results] Only the experimental group demonstrated significant improvements in the pain scale with varying conditions. The PPTs of the trigger points increased significantly in the experimental group, and significant functional improvements in NDI and PSFS were observed in the same group. There were significant increases in high-frequency HRV and high-frequency % in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Treatment with physical modalities plus combination of self-massage and home exercise is more effective than the physical modalities treatment alone.

  4. Is There an Association Between Markers of Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction at Discharge From Rehabilitation and Participation 1 and 5 Years Later in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravensbergen, H. J. (Rianne); de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W.; Bongers-Janssen, Helma M.; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Claydon, Victoria E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether physical activity and participation 1 and 5 years after discharge are associated with measures of cardiovascular autonomic function: prevalence of hypotension and reduced peak heart rate at discharge from initial inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Des

  5. Functional profiles of SCN9A variants in dorsal root ganglion neurons and superior cervical ganglion neurons correlate with autonomic symptoms in small fibre neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, C.; Hoeijmakers, J.G.; Liu, S.; Gerrits, M.M.; te Morsche, R.H.; Lauria, G.; Dib-Hajj, S.D.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Faber, C.G.; Merkies, I.S.; Waxman, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with small fibre neuropathy typically manifest pain in distal extremities and severe autonomic dysfunction. However, occasionally patients present with minimal autonomic symptoms. The basis for this phenotypic difference is not understood. Sodium channel Na(v)1.7, encoded by the SCN9A gene,

  6. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  7. 盆底功能障碍性疾病的基础研究现状%Basic research present situation of pelvic floor dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志红; 胡小玲

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a kind of common gynecological diseases because of the pelvic floor support structure damage,defect and dysfunction,which is the result of joint action of many factors.In this paper,the basic research present situation of pelvic floor dysfunction is elaborated.%盆底功能障碍性疾病是由盆底支持结构损伤、缺陷与功能障碍造成的一种常见妇科疾病,系多种因素共同作用的结果。本文对盆底功能障碍性疾病的基础研究现状进行阐述。

  8. Effects of nutritional supplementation on fatigue, and autonomic and immune dysfunction in patients with end-stage renal disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Fukuda

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD undergoing hemodialysis treatment. We hypothesized that multinutritional support would improve quality of life, fatigue symptoms, and potential quantitative measures including endocrine, immune and autonomic functions in patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis.Two hundred and two hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to receive active treatment (containing vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin C, carnitine, coenzyme Q10, naïve galacto-oligosaccharide, and zinc or placebo after each dialysis session for 12 weeks. The patients and attending physicians were blinded to the treatment, and 172 patients (86 in each group completed the study. Fatigue was evaluated via fatigue questionnaire at 0, 4, and 12 weeks. To assess human herpes virus (HHV 6 and 7 reactivation, numbers of viral DNA copies were determined in saliva by polymerase chain reaction at weeks 0 and 12. Autonomic function was determined via measurement of beat-to-beat variation by using acceleration plethysmography.Clinical characteristics, changes in fatigue, quality of life score, endocrine functions, and laboratory data did not differ significantly between the two groups. Several parameters of heart rate variability significantly increased after nutritional treatment compared to placebo. Nutritional drink for 12 weeks significantly suppressed HHV7 DNA copy numbers. Similarly, HHV6 DNA copy numbers tended to be decreased by treatment but without reaching statistical significance.Nutritional supplementation may modulate immune and autonomic dysfunction in ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  9. Inherited autonomic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Hilz, Max J

    2003-12-01

    Inherited autonomic neuropathies are a rare group of disorders associated with sensory dysfunction. As a group they are termed the "hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies" (HSAN). Classification of the various autonomic and sensory disorders is ongoing. In addition to the numerical classification of four distinct forms proposed by Dyck and Ohta (1975), additional entities have been described. The best known and most intensively studied of the HSANs are familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN type III) and congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (HSAN type IV). Diagnosis of the HSANs depends primarily on clinical examinations and specific sensory and autonomic assessments. Pathologic examinations are helpful in confirming the diagnosis and in differentiating between the different disorders. In recent years identification of specific genetic mutations for some disorders has aided diagnosis. Replacement or definitive therapies are not available for any of the disorders so that treatment remains supportive and directed toward specific symptoms.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTION IN ASYMPTOMATIC OBESE YOUNG ADULTS - PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE

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    P Vijetha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Obesity is emerging global epidemic in young adults who form the productive group of the society. This has been called as new world syndrome and is a massive reflection of social, economic and cultural problems currently faced by the developing and developed countries. As cardiac autonomic dysfunction often coexists with obesity, early detection of autonomic impairment by simple investigations of autonomic function, can be potentially important to prevent future complications. Objective: To identify cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in asymptomatic obese young adults. Study design: This study was conducted in the department of Physiology at Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, A.P, 30 apparently healthy obese subjects of both sex with BMI > 25 kg/sqm were taken as study group. Age and sex matched 30 normal weight subjects (BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/ sqm taken as control group. Methods: Ewing’s battery of 5 noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests were done for assessing autonomic function. These autonomic function parameters were correlated with BMI, Unpaired Student‘t’ test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean values of all cardiovascular reflex tests were significantly lower in the study group. Conclusion: The results indicate that cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present in otherwise healthy obese young adults.

  11. Autonomic neuropathy-in its many guises-as the initial manifestation of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Jill R

    2017-01-24

    Autonomic disorders have previously been described in association with the antiphospholipid syndrome. The present study aimed to determine the clinical phenotype of patients in whom autonomic dysfunction was the initial manifestation of the antiphospholipid syndrome and to evaluate for autonomic neuropathy in these patients. This was a retrospective study of 22 patients evaluated at the University of Colorado who were found to have a disorder of the autonomic nervous system as the initial manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome. All patients had persistent antiphospholipid antibody positivity and all patients who underwent skin biopsy were found to have reduced sweat gland nerve fiber density suggestive of an autonomic neuropathy. All patients underwent an extensive evaluation to rule out other causes for their autonomic dysfunction. Patients presented with multiple different autonomic disorders, including postural tachycardia syndrome, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and complex regional pain syndrome. Despite most having low-titer IgM antiphospholipid antibodies, 13 of the 22 patients (59%) suffered one or more thrombotic event, but pregnancy morbidity was minimal. Prothrombin-associated antibodies were helpful in confirming the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. We conclude that autonomic neuropathy may occur in association with antiphospholipid antibodies and may be the initial manifestation of the syndrome. Increased awareness of this association is important, because it is associated with a significant thrombotic risk and a high degree of disability. In addition, anecdotal experience has suggested that antithrombotic therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy may result in significant clinical improvement in these patients.

  12. Modelling progressive autonomic failure in MSA: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemberger, Sylvia; Wenning, Gregor K

    2011-05-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal late-onset α-synucleinopathy that presents with features of ataxia, Parkinsonism, and pyramidal dysfunction in any combination. Over the last decade, efforts have been made to develop preclinical MSA testbeds for novel interventional strategies. The main focus has been on murine analogues of MSA-linked motor features and their underlying brainstem, cerebellar and basal ganglia pathology. Although progressive autonomic failure (AF) is a prominent clinical feature of patients with MSA, reflecting a disruption of both central and peripheral autonomic networks controlling cardiovascular, respiratory, urogenital, gastrointestinal and sudomotor functions, attempts of modelling this aspect of the human disease have been limited. However, emerging evidence suggests that AF-like features may occur in transgenic MSA models reflecting α-synucleinopathy lesions in distributed autonomic networks. Further research is needed to fully characterize both autonomic and motor features in optimized preclinical MSA models.

  13. Autonomic disturbances in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazzi, Giuseppe; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Maggi, Leonardo Serra; Donadio, Vincenzo; Vetrugno, Roberto; Liguori, Rocco; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Poli, Francesca; Pizza, Fabio; Pagotto, Uberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Narcolepsy is a clinical condition characterized mainly by excessive sleepiness and cataplexy. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis complete the narcoleptic tetrad; disrupted night sleep, automatic behaviors and weight gain are also usual complaints. Different studies focus on autonomic changes or dysfunctions among narcoleptic patients, such as pupillary abnormalities, fainting spells, erectile dysfunction, night sweats, gastric problems, low body temperature, systemic hypotension, dry mouth, heart palpitations, headache and extremities dysthermia. Even if many studies lack sufficient standardization or their results have not been replicated, a non-secondary involvement of the autonomic nervous system in narcolepsy is strongly suggested, mainly by metabolic and cardiovascular findings. Furthermore, the recent discovery of a high risk for overweight and for metabolic syndrome in narcoleptic patients represents an important warning for clinicians in order to monitor and follow them up for their autonomic functions. We review here studies on autonomic functions and clinical disturbances in narcoleptic patients, trying to shed light on the possible contribute of alterations of the hypocretin system in autonomic pathophysiology.

  14. Presentation

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    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  15. Autonomic disorders in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensch, E; Jost, W H

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on history taking and clinical examination. Individual diagnosis and treatment is a secondary feature. Impairments of the autonomic nervous systems in multiple sclerosis are frequently overlooked.

  16. Autonomic Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lensch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on history taking and clinical examination. Individual diagnosis and treatment is a secondary feature. Impairments of the autonomic nervous systems in multiple sclerosis are frequently overlooked.

  17. Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction Is Present without Histopathology in a Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy-2F and Is Prevented after Claudin-5 Virotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Schultz, Eric J.; Slabaugh, Jessica L.; Janssen, Paul M. L.; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in several members of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex lead to skeletal and cardiomyopathies. Cardiac care for these muscular dystrophies consists of management of symptoms with standard heart medications after detection of reduced whole heart function. Recent evidence from both Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and animal models suggests that myocardial dysfunction is present before myocardial damage or deficiencies in whole heart function, and that treatment prior to heart failure symptoms may be beneficial. To determine whether this same early myocardial dysfunction is present in other muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathies, we conducted a physiological assessment of cardiac function at the tissue level in the δ-sarcoglycan null mouse model (Sgcd−/−) of Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F. Baseline cardiac contractile force measurements using ex vivo intact linear muscle preparations, were severely depressed in these mice without the presence of histopathology. Virotherapy withclaudin-5 prevents the onset of cardiomyopathy in another muscular dystrophy model. After virotherapy with claudin-5, the cardiac contractile force deficits in Sgcd−/− mice are no longer significant. These studies suggest that screening Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy patients using methods that detect earlier functional changes may provide a longer therapeutic window for cardiac care. PMID:27999547

  18. Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction is Present Without Histopathology in a Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy-2F and is Prevented after Claudin-5 Virotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Milani-Nejad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMutations in several members of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex lead to skeletal and cardiomyopathies. Cardiac care for these muscular dystrophies consists of management of symptoms with standard heart medications after detection of reduced whole heart function. Recent evidence from both Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and animal models suggests that myocardial dysfunction is present before myocardial damage or deficiencies in whole heart function, and that treatment prior to heart failure symptoms may be beneficial. To determine whether this same early myocardial dysfunction is present in other muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathies, we conducted a physiological assessment of cardiac function at the tissue level in the δ-sarcoglycan null mouse model (Sgcd-/- of Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F. Baseline cardiac contractile force measurements using ex vivo intact linear muscle preparations, were severely depressed in these mice without the presence of histopathology. Virotherapy with claudin-5 prevents the onset of cardiomyopathy in another muscular dystrophy model. After virotherapy with claudin-5, the cardiac contractile force deficits in Sgcd-/- mice are no longer significant. These studies suggest that screening Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy patients using methods that detect earlier functional changes may provide a longer therapeutic window for cardiac care.

  19. The Relationship between Vascular Function and the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are both risk factors for atherosclerosis. There is evidence demonstrating that there is a close interrelationship between these two systems. In hypertension, endothelial dysfunction affects the pathologic process through autonomic nervous pathways, and the pathophysiological process of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is closely related with vascular function. However, detailed mechanisms of this interrelationship have not been clearly explained. In this review, we summarize findings concerning the interrelationship between vascular function and the autonomic nervous system from both experimental and clinical studies. The clarification of this interrelationship may provide more comprehensive risk stratification and a new effective therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis.

  20. Early Hepatic Dysfunction Is Associated with a Worse Outcome in Patients Presenting with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Post-Hoc Analysis of the ACURASYS and PROSEVA Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizier, Stéphanie; Forel, Jean-Marie; Ayzac, Louis; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Hraiech, Sami; Lehingue, Samuel; Loundou, Anderson; Roch, Antoine; Guerin, Claude; Papazian, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bilirubin is well-recognized marker of hepatic dysfunction in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Multiple organ failure often complicates acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) evolution and is associated with high mortality. The effect of early hepatic dysfunction on ARDS mortality has been poorly investigated. We evaluated the incidence and the prognostic significance of increased serum bilirubin levels in the initial phase of ARDS. Methods The data of 805 patients with ARDS were retrospectively analysed. This population was extracted from two recent multicenter, prospective and randomised trials. Patients presenting with ARDS with a ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen < 150 mmHg measured with a PEEP ≥ 5 cm of water were included. The total serum bilirubin was measured at inclusion and at days 2, 4, 7 and 14. The primary objective was to analyse the bilirubin at inclusion according to the 90-day mortality rate. Results The 90-day mortality rate was 33.8% (n = 272). The non-survivors were older, had higher Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and were more likely to have a medical diagnosis on admission than the survivors. At inclusion, the SOFA score without the liver score (10.3±2.9 vs. 9.0±3.0, p<0.0001) and the serum bilirubin levels (36.1±57.0 vs. 20.5±31.5 μmol/L, p<0.0001) were significantly higher in the non-survivors than in the survivors. Age, the hepatic SOFA score, the coagulation SOFA score, the arterial pH level, and the plateau pressure were independently associated with 90-day mortality in patients with ARDS. Conclusion Bilirubin used as a surrogate marker of hepatic dysfunction and measured early in the course of ARDS was associated with the 90-day mortality rate. PMID:26636318

  1. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  2. STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS IN CONGENITALLY DEAF CHILDREN

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    Veena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Majority of congenitally deaf children are at risk of cardiac abnormalities in the form of long QT syndrome which could be due to an intracardiac abnormality or autonomic dysfunction. Altered sympathetic/parasympathetic balance as a result of the absence of auditory stimuli on the autonomic nervous system results in lower mean heart rate in congenitally deaf children. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the cardiovascular autonomic functions are altered in congenitally deaf children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 30 congenitally deaf children aged between 14 - 18 yrs and 30 age matched controls were included for the study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during valsalva maneuver. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip. RESULTS: The results of the present study showed statistically significant decrease in the systolic blood pressure in response to immediate standing among congenitally deaf children suggestive of sympathetic imbalance and an early stage of autonomic dysfunction.

  3. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy is often difficult to establish, since clinical symptoms generally appear late in the course of the disease, and may be non-specific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on th...

  4. Presentation

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    Paulo Henrique Freire Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This dossier focuses on one of the essential debate topics today about the territorial dimension of the new development strategies concerned with the worsening of the global socioecological crisis, that is: the challenges related to the activation and integration in networks of localized agri-food systems. For its composition, some contributions presented and debated during the VI International Conference on Localized Agri-food System - The LAFS facing the opportunities and challenges of the new global context have been gathered. The event took place in the city of Florianópolis, from May 21th to 25th of 2013. The event was promoted by the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC and by the Center for the International Cooperation on Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD. Besides UFSC and CIRAD, EPAGRI, State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC, as well as research institutes and universities from other states (UFMG, IEA/SP, UFS, UFRGS and Mexican and Argentinian partners from the RED SIAL Latino Americana also participated in the organization of lectures, discussion tables and workshops.

  5. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinsonism: A narrative review

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    Mehri Salari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, gastrointestinal (GI dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease (PD are well-recognized problems and are known to be the initial symptoms in the pathological process that eventually results in PD. Many types of PD-associated GI dysfunctions have been identified, including weight loss, nausea, hypersalivation, dysphagia, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, constipation, defecatory dysfunction, and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. These symptoms can influence on other PD symptoms and are the second most significant predictor of the quality of life of these patients. Recognition of GI symptoms requires vigilance on the part of clinicians. Health-care providers should routinely ask direct questions about GI symptoms during office visits so that efforts can be directed at appropriate management of these distressing manifestations. Multiple system atrophy (MSA and progressive supranuclear palsy are two forms of neurodegenerative Parkinsonism. Symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions such as GI dysfunction are common in patients with parkinsonian disorders. Despite recent progress in the recognition of GI dysfunctions, there are a few reviews on the management of GI dysfunction and GI symptoms in idiopathic Parkinsonism. In this review, the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment of each GI symptom in PD, MSA, and prostate-specific antigen will be discussed.

  6. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    , which includes the cardiac centre and controls autonomic functions, and therefore autonomic dysfunction may be experienced early in the disease course. Sleep disturbances are also common non-motor complications of PD, and therefore PD patients undergo polysomnography at the Danish Center for Sleep......Neurodegenerative diseases are highly debilitating and often lead to severe morbidity and even death. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease. According to the Braak staging study, the progressionof PD starts in the medulla oblongata...... Medicine to assess the sleep disturbances. The aim of this PhD dissertation was to: 1) Develop a method to investigate autonomic changes during sleep in neurodegenerative diseases, and apply this method on PD, iRBD and narcolepsy patients to evaluate the autonomic function in these diseases. 2) Validate...

  7. Presentation

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    Helmut Renders

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present to our esteemed readers the second edition of our journal for 2008. We have chosen the theme “The life and work of Prof. Dr. Jürgen Moltmann” as its special emphasis. It is our way to pay homage to J. Moltmann in the year the Universidade Metodista de São Paulo awards him an honorary Doctor Honoris Causa degree. Sincethe seventies, Moltmann and Latin America have been in dialog. In his emblematic work “A Theology of Liberation”, Gustavo Gutiérrez, the Catholic, discussed with Moltmann, the Reformed, the relationship between eschatology and history (GUTIÉRREZ, Gustavo.Teologia da Libertação. 5ª edição. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 1985, p. 27, 137-139. A dialog held in the premises of IMS, which nowadays is called UMESP, has produced the little book “Passion for life” (MOLTMANN, Jürgen. Paixão pela vida. São Paulo, SP: ASTE - Associaçãode Seminários Teológicos Evangélicos, 1978.In the following years, the wide theological work of J. Moltmann went all the way from debates to congresses and has conquered the classrooms. Most probably, J. Moltmann is nowadays the most widely read European author in Brazilian theological seminaries. Thisrecognition can only be held in unison and the wide response to our request for articles confirms the huge repercussion that Moltmann’s work has been having up to today in Brazil. The ecumenical theologian J. Moltmann is ecumenically read. We believe that thisway we may be better equipped to answer to anyone who asks us for the reason there is hope in us. We have organized the articles on J. Moltmann’s theology according to the original publication date of the books dealt with in each essay. We also communicate that some articles which were originally requested for this edition of the journal will be published in the journal Estudos de Regilião in May 2009.As it is usual with the journal Caminhando, we have, besides this thematic emphasis, yet other contributions in the areas of

  8. Presentation

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    Nicanor Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Journal Caminhando debuts with a new editorial format: eachmagazine will have a Dossier.In 2010 Christianity celebrated the centenary of Edinburgh. TheWorld Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 is regarded by manyas missiological watershed in the missionary and ecumenical movement.So the Faculty of Theology of the Methodist Church (FATEO decidedto organize a Wesleyan Week discussing the issue of mission. For anevent of this magnitude FATEO invited the Rev. Dr. Wesley Ariarajah,Methodist pastor and teacher of Sri Lanka with extensive experience inpastoral ministry in local churches and professor of History of Religionsand the New Testament at the Theological College of Lanka, maintainedby the Protestant Churches in Sri Lanka. In 1981 he was invited to jointhe World Council of Churches, where he presided for over ten years theCouncil of Interreligious Dialogue. From 1992 he served as Deputy GeneralSecretary of the WCC.The following texts are not the speeches of the Rev. Dr. WesleyAriarajah, for they will be published separately. Nevertheless, the journaldialogs with the celebrations of the centenary of Edinburgh, parting formthe intriguing theme: "Mission in the 21st century in Brazil". After all, howis it that mission takes place among us in personal, church, and communityactivities?Within the Dossier, as common to the journal, the textos are organizedas follows: Bible, Theology / History and Pastoral Care. Other items thatdo not fit within the Dossier, but, do articulate mission, can be found inthe section Declarations and Documents and Book Reviews.The authors of the Dossier have important considerations in buildinga contemporary missiological concept considering Brazilian reality.Anderson de Oliveira, in the Bible-Section, presents a significantexegeses of Matthew 26.6-13. What does it mean when Jesus is quotedwith the words: "For the poor always ye have with you, but me ye havenot always." Is this declaration challenging the gospels

  9. Impact of yoga in a case of vocal cord dysfunction with dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwania, Rozina

    2017-01-01

    A 23-year-old female with a past medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with shortness of breath induced by exercise and certain odors. She reported the symptoms of autonomic dysfunction including fatigue, chest pain, lightheadedness, headaches, numbness/tingling in the arms and legs, and exercise intolerance. Vital signs were significant for orthostatic intolerance. Volume flow loop in the pulmonary function tests showed a flattening of the inspiratory portion characteristic of vocal cord dysfunction. Laryngoscopy showed dyskinesia of the left vocal cord, especially after exercise. Multifactorial approach was used including increased fluid intake and breathing exercises. After 6 weeks of breathing and isometric exercises, the patient reported improvement in dyspnea after exercise. This case report demonstrates the therapeutic role of breathing and isometric exercises in the management of vocal cord and autonomic dysfunction. PMID:28149069

  10. Hemicrania continua. Unquestionably a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Maurice B

    2013-05-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a well-known primary headache. The present version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders lists HC in the "other primary headaches" group. However, evidence has emerged demonstrating that HC is a phenotype that belongs to the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias together with cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), and short-lasting, unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing. This is supported by a common general clinical picture - paroxysmal, fluctuating, unilateral, side-locked headaches located to the ocular, frontal, and/or temporal regions, accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic dysfunctions including for example, tearing and conjunctival injection. Apart from the remarkable clinical similarities, the absolute and incomparable effect of indomethacin in HC parallels the effect of this drug in PH, suggesting a shared core pathogenesis. Finally, neuroimage findings demonstrate a posterior hypothalamic activation in HC similarly to cluster headache, PH, and short-lasting, unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing. Taken together, data indicate that HC is certainly a type of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia that should no longer be placed in a group of miscellaneous primary headache disorders.

  11. Oral sildenafil (Viagra™ in male erectile dysfunction: use, efficacy and safety profile in an unselected cohort presenting to a British district general hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boustead Gregory

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sildenafil (Viagra® is one of the drugs used in the first line therapy of male erectile dysfunction (MED. We have recorded outcomes, adverse events and acceptability of Sildenafil (Viagra therapy in an unselected group of men presenting with ED to a British district general hospital. Methods In this prospective observational study, 147 men with ED were seen since Oct 1999. Study patients were reviewed at 4, 12 and 52 weeks. All the patients filled the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF questionnaire and were asked about their willingness to pay (WTP for treatment. Results All suitable men accepted Viagra as first line therapy. 91% of our patients found sildenafil treatment successful. 80% of these patients were willing to continue with sildenafil therapy. Side effect profile of sildenafil was different in this study with much higher incidence of headache, dyspepsia, flushing and abnormal vision. 92% of men with ED expect to be treated by the NHS. Of those men eligible for treatment in the NHS, 30% qualify under the clinical categories and 18% under the 'distress' category. Only 55% of those with cardiovascular risk factors qualify for NHS treatment. Conclusions Sildenafil is widely accepted as first line therapy among British men with ED and has a success rate of 91%. Nearly half of men with ED qualify for NHS treatment. Nearly half of those with vascular risk factors do not qualify for NHS treatment. Most men with ED could possibly be managed in primary care.

  12. [Autonomic nervous system in diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, M

    2001-08-01

    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia have a primary role in determining the early functional and later anatomic changes at the level of the autonomic pathways controlling the circulation, and besides in directly influencing cardiac and vascular cellular targets and feed-back baroreceptor system sensitivity to neurohumoral modulation in patients with diabetes mellitus. The basic mechanisms of dysfunction and damage, and the clinical and prognostic value of diabetic cardiovascular dysautonomia are discussed together with the diagnostic apparatus and the possible therapeutic approaches.

  13. FB-NOF is a non-autonomous transposable element, expressed in Drosophila melanogaster and present only in the melanogaster group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal, Martí; Xamena, Noel; Cabré, Oriol

    2013-09-10

    Most foldback elements are defective due to the lack of coding sequences but some are associated with coding sequences and may represent the entire element. This is the case of the NOF sequences found in the FB of Drosophila melanogaster, formerly considered as an autonomous TE and currently proposed as part of the so-called FB-NOF element, the transposon that would be complete and fully functional. NOF is always associated with FB and never seen apart from the FB inverted repeats (IR). This is the reason why the FB-NOF composite element can be considered the complete element. At least one of its ORFs encodes a protein that has always been considered its transposase, but no detailed studies have been carried out to verify this. In this work we test the hypothesis that FB-NOF is an active transposon nowadays. We search for its expression product, obtaining its cDNA, and propose the ORF and the sequence of its potential protein. We found that the NOF protein is not a transposase as it lacks any of the motifs of known transposases and also shows structural homology with hydrolases, therefore FB-NOF cannot belong to the superfamily MuDR/foldback, as up to now it has been classified, and can be considered as a non-autonomous transposable element. The alignment with the published genomes of 12 Drosophila species shows that NOF presence is restricted only to the 6 Drosophila species belonging to the melanogaster group.

  14. Atypical MR presentation of Wilson disease: a possible consequence of paramagnetic effect of copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugieres, P.; Combes, C.; Ricolfi, F.; Gaston, A. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Henri Mondor Hospital, Creteil (France)); Degos, J.D. (Dept. of Neurology, Henri Mondor Hospital, Creteil (France)); Poirier, J. (Dept. of Pathology, Henri Mondor Hospital, Creteil (France))

    1992-06-01

    A 53-year-old patient with Wilsons's disease and without autonomic dysfunction presented on T2-weighted MR study an atypical decreased signal intensity of the putamina and the caudate nuclei. Possible explanations of such a signal abnormalities are discussed. (orig.).

  15. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    OpenAIRE

    Axelrod Felicia B; Gold-von Simson Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that iden...

  16. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Niño Mantilla

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is a serious problem in diabetic patients. The cardiovacular autonomic neuropathy is the most important autonomic dysfuntion for it´s implication in the increasesof the mortality rate in diabetis patients. tis ethiopatogenesis is the result of a multifactorial process caused by chronic hyperglycemia, ending up in damage of the autonomic fibers thet innervate the heart and blood vessels, leading to dysfuntional hearth rate control and abnormal vascular dynamics. the associated clinical manifestations include orthotatic hypotension, excecise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular liability and silent myocardial ischemia. Being important its recognition, quantitative test to evaluate the cardiovascular funtion, to value its evolution and the effects of the treatment ahould be done, being the most used, the hearth rate response to standing test, and teh valsalva maneuver. the handling of this entity is done improving control of glucose blood levels its the most effective way to prevent the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

  17. Autonomous Evolutionary Information Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional information systems are passive, i.e., data orknowledge is created , retrieved, modified, updated, and deleted only in response to operations issued by users or application programs, and the systems only can execute queries or t ransactions explicitly submitted by users or application programs but have no ab ility to do something actively by themselves. Unlike a traditional information system serving just as a storehouse of data or knowledge and working passively a ccording to queries or transactions explicitly issued by users and application p rograms, an autonomous evolutionary information system serves as an autonomous a nd evolutionary partner of its users that discovers new knowledge from its datab ase or knowledge-base autonomously, cooperates with its users in solving proble m s actively by providing the users with advices, and has a certain mechanism to i mprove its own state of “knowing” and ability of “working”. This paper semi nall y defines what is an autonomous evolutionary information system, explain why aut onomous evolutionary information systems are needed, and presents some new issue s, fundamental considerations, and research directions in design and development of autonomous evolutionary information systems.

  18. Research on the Present Situation and Cultivation of In-dependent College Students' Ability of Autonomous ;Learning%独立学院大学生自主学习能力的现状与培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴菲菲

    2015-01-01

    This article uses investigations and interviews to ex-plore the present situation of independent college students' au-tonomous learning ability. The research results show that inde-pendent college students' autonomous learning ability is at a level below average, and the development of various dimensions of au-tonomous learning ability is not balanced. The learning plan, learning summary and learning help-seeking are all at a relative-ly low level, but the learning anxiety is in a high-level operation.%本文采用调查和访谈探查了独立学院大学生的自主学习能力的现状。研究结果表明,独立学院的大学生自主学习能力处于中等偏下水平,自主学习能力各维度发展也不平衡,其中学习计划、学习总结和学习求助处于相对较低水平,而学习焦虑却在高位运作。

  19. Probable hereditary multiple system atrophy-autonomic (MSA-A) in a family in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohler, A D; Singh, V J

    2012-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy-autonomic (MSA-A) is a typically spontaneous neurological disorder. The disease, distinguished by a "hot cross bun" sign on MRI, causes a series of autonomic dysfunctions including orthostatic hypotension and genitourinary and gastrointestinal problems. We present an 84 year-old woman with MSA-A symptoms who was positive for a "hot cross bun" sign. Genetic testing was used to rule out other possible ataxias. Importantly, the patient's two sisters also presented with similar symptoms indicating a possible autosomal dominant linkage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hereditary MSA-A in the USA.

  20. Does stress induce bowel dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Kao, John Y

    2014-08-01

    Psychological stress is known to induce somatic symptoms. Classically, many gut physiological responses to stress are mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is, however, a growing body of evidence of stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) release causing bowel dysfunction through multiple pathways, either through the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous systems, or directly on the bowel itself. In addition, recent findings of CRF influencing the composition of gut microbiota lend support for the use of probiotics, antibiotics, and other microbiota-altering agents as potential therapeutic measures in stress-induced bowel dysfunction.

  1. Simple Autonomous Chaotic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Jessica; Sprott, J.

    2010-03-01

    Over the last several decades, numerous electronic circuits exhibiting chaos have been proposed. Non-autonomous circuits with as few as two components have been developed. However, the operation of such circuits relies on the non-ideal behavior of the devices used, and therefore the circuit equations can be quite complex. In this paper, we present two simple autonomous chaotic circuits using only opamps and linear passive components. The circuits each use one opamp as a comparator, to provide a signum nonlinearity. The chaotic behavior is robust, and independent of nonlinearities in the passive components. Moreover, the circuit equations are among the algebraically simplest chaotic systems yet constructed.

  2. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  3. Autonomic nervous system function in type 2 diabetes using conventional clinical autonomic tests, heart rate and blood pressure variability measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sucharita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are currently approximately 40.9 million patients with diabetes mellitus in India and this number is expected to rise to about 69.9 million by the year 2025. This high burden of diabetes is likely to be associated with an increase in associated complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 (15 male and 8 female patients with type 2 diabetes of 10-15 years duration and their age and gender matched controls (n=23 were recruited. All subjects underwent detailed clinical proforma, questionnaire related to autonomic symptoms, anthropometry, peripheral neural examination and tests of autonomic nervous system including both conventional and newer methods (heart rate and blood pressure variability. Results: Conventional tests of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared to the controls (P<0.05. The diabetic patients group had significantly lower high frequency and low-frequency HRV when expressed in absolute units (P<0.05 and total power (P<0.01 compared to the controls. Conclusion: Data from the current study demonstrated that diabetics had both cardiac sympathetic and cardiac parasympathetic nervous system involvement. The presence of symptoms and involvement of both components of the autonomic nervous system suggest that dysfunction has been present for a while in these diabetics. There is a strong need for earlier and regular evaluation of autonomic nervous system in type 2 diabetics to prevent further complications.

  4. Laryngeal Dysfunction: Assessment and Management for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke; Gibson, Peter G; Fowler, Stephen J

    2016-11-01

    The larynx is one of the most highly innervated organs in humans and serves a number of vitally important, complex, and highly evolved biological functions. On a day-to-day basis, the larynx functions autonomously, addressing several roles including airway protection, swallowing, and phonation. In some situations the larynx appears to adopt a functional state that could be considered maladaptive or "dysfunctional." This laryngeal dysfunction can underpin and account for a number of respiratory symptoms that otherwise appear incongruous with a clinical disease state and/or contribute to the development of symptoms that appear "refractory" to treatment. These include conditions associated with a heightened tendency for inappropriate laryngeal closure (e.g., inducible laryngeal obstruction), voice disturbance, and chronic cough. Recognition of laryngeal dysfunction is important to deliver targeted treatment and failure to recognize the condition can lead to repeated use of inappropriate treatment. Diagnosis is not straightforward, however, and many patients appear to present with symptoms attributable to laryngeal dysfunction, but in whom the diagnosis has been overlooked in clinical work-up for some time. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in the field of laryngeal dysfunction, with a focus on pragmatic clinical assessment and management.

  5. TO FIND THE PREVALENCE OF AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH NON ALCOHOLIC HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTARCT: Autonomic neuropathy has been reported in patients wit h alcoholic liver disease but information on its occurrence in patients with n on-alcoholic liver disease is contradictory. To make the things more clear the present study was conducted to assess autonomic functions in patients with non-alcoholic liver disease and its relationships with the severity of liver damage. Autonomic function using five standard test s was examined in 50 cirrhotics. The extent of autonomic dysfunction was determined in the patie nts and a comparison between the characteristics of patients with and without autonom ic neuropathy was made. Out of 50 patients 35 (70% were found to have autonomic neuro pathy The alteration of the parasympathetic function [20 out of 35(57%] was sign ificantly more frequent than that of sympathetic function [15(43%]. The prevalence of aut onomic neuropathy was more (80% in patients with Child-Pugh grade C cirrhosis as compare d to those having Child-Pugh grade B cirrhosis (54%. The results were clinically signif icant but statistically insignificant (p>0.05. It was seen that out of total 50 cases of non alcoholi c cirrhosis, the majority (68% were due to hepatitis C infection. A high prevalence of abnormali ties in both sympathetic and parasympathetic function tests, and a poor relationshi p with liver function parameters, has been found in patients with non-alcoholic chronic l iver disease.

  6. Recent advances in orthostatic hypotension presenting orthostatic dizziness or vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH), a proxy for sympathetic adrenergic failure, is the most incapacitating sign of autonomic failure. Orthostatic dizziness (OD) is known to be the most common symptom of OH. However, recent studies have demonstrated that 30-39 % of patients with OH experienced rotatory vertigo during upright posture (i.e., orthostatic vertigo, OV), which challenges the dogma that OH induces dizziness and not vertigo. A recent population-based study on spontaneously occurring OD across a wide age range showed that the one-year and lifetime prevalence of OD was 10.9 and 12.5 %, respectively. Approximately 83 % of patients with OD had at least one abnormal autonomic function test result. So far, 11 subtypes of OD have been proposed according to the pattern of autonomic dysfunction, and generalized autonomic failure of sympathetic adrenergic and parasympathetic cardiovagal functions was the most common type. Four different patterns of OH, such as classic, delayed, early, and transient type have been found in patients with OD. The head-up tilt test and Valsalva maneuver should be performed for a comprehensive evaluation of sympathetic adrenergic failure in patients with OD/OV. This review summarizes current advances in OH presenting OD/OV, with a particular focus on the autonomic dysfunction associated with OD.

  7. Cognitive, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of mind wandering and perseverative cognition in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eOttaviani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic dysregulation has been hypothesized to play a role in the relationships between psychopathology and cardiovascular risk. An important transdiagnostic factor that has been associated with autonomic dysfunction is perseverative cognition (PC, mainly present in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD in the form of rumination. As the ability to adaptively let our mind wander (MW without ruminating is critical to mental health, this study aimed to examine the autonomic concomitants of functional versus dysfunctional intrusive thoughts in MDD.Ambulatory heart rate (HR and variability (HRV of 18 MDD subjects and 18 healthy controls were recorded for 24 hours. Approximately every 30 minutes during waking hours subjects reported their ongoing thoughts and moods using electronic diaries. Random regression models were performed. Compared to controls, MDD subjects were more often caught during episodes of PC. In both groups, PC required more effort to be inhibited and interfered more with ongoing activities compared to MW (ps < .0001. This cognitive rigidity was mirrored by autonomic inflexibility, as PC was characterized by lower HRV (p < .0001 compared to MW. A worse mood was reported by MDD patients compared to controls, independently of their ongoing cognitive process. Controls, however, showed the highest mood worsening during PC compared to being on task and MW. HRV during rumination correlated with self reported somatic symptoms on the same day and several dispositional traits. MDD subjects showed lower HRV during sleep, which correlated with hopelessness rumination. Results show that PC is associated with autonomic dysfunctions in both healthy and MDD subjects. Understanding when spontaneous thought is adaptive and when it is not may clarify its role in the etiology of mood disorders, shedding light on the still unexplained association between psychopathology, chronic stress, and risk for health.

  8. 肠易激综合征亚型患者具有肠道和躯体高敏感,自主心血管功能紊乱以及肠道低浓度炎症%Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in a subset of irritable bowel syndrome patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang LIU; Bei-ni LIU; Shuo CHEN; Miao WANG; Yang LIU; Yan-li ZHANG; Shu-kun YAO

    2014-01-01

    研究目的:明确腹泻型肠易激综合征患者是否具有肠道和躯体高敏感、自主心血管功能紊乱以及肠道低浓度炎症。  创新要点:发现腹泻型肠易激综合征患者具有自主心血管功能紊乱和肠道低浓度炎症(这两方面在之前研究中尚存争议)。此外,发现腹泻型肠易激综合征患者的肠道高敏感和躯体高敏感、肠道高敏感和自主心血管功能紊乱、躯体高敏感和自主心血管紊乱之间存在相关性,为患者的治疗提供参考。  研究方法:2013年9月至2014年5月,62名腹泻型肠易激综合征患者和20名健康志愿者参与到了本研究。所有受试者接受并顺利完成了相关检查和问卷填写。利用恒压器(渐至极限法)检查我们发现腹泻型肠易激综合征患者具有肠道高敏感。同时,采用冷水刺激法和缺血刺激法探明腹泻型肠易激综合征患者具有躯体高敏感。  重要结论:腹泻型肠易激综合征患者具有肠道和躯体高敏感、自主心血管功能紊乱以及肠道低浓度炎症。肠道高敏感和躯体高敏感、肠道高敏感和自主心血管功能紊乱、躯体高敏感和自主心血管紊乱之间存在相关性。%The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is complex and not ful y understood, so the aim of this study was to evaluate whether visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation of the gut wal are associated with diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS). Sixty-two patients with D-IBS and 20 control subjects participated in the study. Using the ascending method of limits (AML) protocol, we demonstrated that D-IBS patients had significantly lower sensory thresholds compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). Using diverse methods, especial y the ischemic sensitivity test, for the first time in China, we confirmed that D-IBS patients have somatic hypersensitivity. They

  9. Autonomous Search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Decades of innovations in combinatorial problem solving have produced better and more complex algorithms. These new methods are better since they can solve larger problems and address new application domains. They are also more complex which means that they are hard to reproduce and often harder to fine-tune to the peculiarities of a given problem. This last point has created a paradox where efficient tools are out of reach of practitioners. Autonomous search (AS) represents a new research field defined to precisely address the above challenge. Its major strength and originality consist in the

  10. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation presenting with steroid-responsive higher brain dysfunction: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeda Yasushi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 56-year-old man noticed discomfort in his left lower limb, followed by convulsion and numbness in the same area. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed white matter lesions in the right parietal lobe accompanied by leptomeningeal or leptomeningeal and cortical post-contrast enhancement along the parietal sulci. The patient also exhibited higher brain dysfunction corresponding with the lesions on MRI. Histological pathology disclosed β-amyloid in the blood vessels and perivascular inflammation, which highlights the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA-related inflammation. Pulse steroid therapy was so effective that clinical and radiological findings immediately improved. CAA-related inflammation is a rare disease, defined by the deposition of amyloid proteins within the leptomeningeal and cortical arteries associated with vasculitis or perivasculitis. Here we report a patient with CAA-related inflammation who showed higher brain dysfunction that improved with steroid therapy. In cases with atypical radiological lesions like our case, cerebral biopsy with histological confirmation remains necessary for an accurate diagnosis.

  11. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messina Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  12. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management.

  13. Erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Kevan

    2008-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common problem affecting sexual function in men. Approximately one in 10 men over the age of 40 is affected by this condition and the incidence is age related. Erectile dysfunction is a sentinel marker for several reversible conditions including peripheral and coronary vascular disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Endothelial dysfunction is a common factor between the disease states. Concurrent conditions such as depression, late-onset hypogonadism, Peyronie's disease and lower urinary tract symptoms may significantly worsen erectile function, other sexual and relationship issues and penis dysmorphophobia. A focused physical examination and baseline laboratory investigations are mandatory. Management consists of initiating modifiable lifestyle changes, psychological and psychosexual/couples interventions and pharmacological and other interventions. In combination and with treatment of concurrent comorbid states, these interventions will often bring about successful resolution of symptoms and avoid the need for surgical interventions.

  14. Autonomous robotic sweeper

    OpenAIRE

    Kržišnik, Domen

    2015-01-01

    There is already a wide range of personal/domestic robots on the market capable of performing various tasks. We haven't however been able to find any commercially available robots designed for effectively performing the task of backyard sweeping. This thesis presents the process and end result of planning, assembly and programming of an autonomous robot, capable of performing the above mentioned task. We first analyze robots with similar functions, including robotic vacuum cleaners and lawn m...

  15. The Natural History of Pure Autonomic Failure: a U.S. Prospective Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Horacio; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Biaggioni, Italo; Low, Phillip A.; Singer, Wolfgang; Goldstein, David S.; Peltier, Amanda C.; Shibao, Cyndia A.; Gibbons, Christopher H.; Freeman, Roy; Robertson, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective To define the clinical features and biomarkers that predict which patients with pure autonomic failure will develop Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, or multiple system atrophy. Methods One hundred patients who presented with pure autonomic failure were recruited at 5 medical centers in the U.S. Seventy-four patients agreed to be followed prospectively. Patients underwent clinical evaluations including neurological rating scales, sleep questionnaires, smell test, and sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiovascular autonomic function tests. Results At enrollment, patients were 68(12) years old [(median (interquartile range)] and had had autonomic failure for 5(7) years. Within 4-years of follow-up, 25 of 74 subjects (34%) developed dementia with Lewy bodies (in 13), Parkinson disease (in 6), or multiple system atrophy (in 6). The presence of probable REM sleep behavior disorder was strongly associated with the development of a manifest CNS synucleinopathy (odds ratio=7.1). Patients who phenoconverted to multiple system atrophy had younger age at onset of autonomic failure, severe bladder/bowel dysfunction, preserved olfaction, and a cardiac chronotrophic response upon tilt >10 beats per minute. Those who phenoconverted to Parkinson disease or dementia with Lewy bodies had decreased olfaction, a lesser chronotrophic response to tilt, and a longer duration of illness. The small group of patients retaining the pure autonomic failure phenotype had very low plasma norepinephrine levels, slow resting heart rate, no REM sleep behavior disorder, and preserved smell. Interpretation Patients presenting with pure autonomic failure are at high risk of phenoconverting to a manifest CNS synucleinopathy. Specific clinical features predict future diagnosis. PMID:28093795

  16. Guillain–Barré syndrome presenting with Raynaud’s phenomenon: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Guillain–Barré syndrome is an immune mediated acute inflammatory polyradiculo-neuropathy involving the peripheral nervous system. Commonest presentation is acute or subacute flaccid ascending paralysis of limbs. Rarely autonomic dysfunction can be the presenting feature of Guillain–Barré syndrome. Raynaud’s phenomenon, although had been described in relation to many disease conditions, has not been described in association with Guillain–Barré syndrome up to date. Case presentation ...

  17. Functional profiles of SCN9A variants in dorsal root ganglion neurons and superior cervical ganglion neurons correlate with autonomic symptoms in small fibre neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chongyang; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Liu, Shujun; Gerrits, Monique M; te Morsche, Rene H M; Lauria, Giuseppe; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Drenth, Joost P H; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G

    2012-09-01

    Patients with small fibre neuropathy typically manifest pain in distal extremities and severe autonomic dysfunction. However, occasionally patients present with minimal autonomic symptoms. The basis for this phenotypic difference is not understood. Sodium channel Na(v)1.7, encoded by the SCN9A gene, is preferentially expressed in the peripheral nervous system within sensory dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons and their small diameter peripheral axons. We recently reported missense substitutions in SCN9A that encode functional Na(v)1.7 variants in 28% of patients with biopsy-confirmed small fibre neuropathy. Two patients with biopsy-confirmed small fibre neuropathy manifested minimal autonomic dysfunction unlike the other six patients in this series, and both of these patients carry the Na(v)1.7/R185H variant, presenting the opportunity to compare variants associated with extreme ends of a spectrum from minimal to severe autonomic dysfunction. Herein, we show by voltage-clamp that R185H variant channels enhance resurgent currents within dorsal root ganglion neurons and show by current-clamp that R185H renders dorsal root ganglion neurons hyperexcitable. We also show that in contrast, R185H variant channels do not produce detectable changes when studied by voltage-clamp within sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion, and have no effect on the excitability of these cells. As a comparator, we studied the Na(v)1.7 variant I739V, identified in three patients with small fibre neuropathy characterized by severe autonomic dysfunction as well as neuropathic pain, and show that this variant impairs channel slow inactivation within both dorsal root ganglion and superior cervical ganglion neurons, and renders dorsal root ganglion neurons hyperexcitable and superior cervical ganglion neurons hypoexcitable. Thus, we show that R185H, from patients with minimal autonomic dysfunction, does not produce detectable changes in the properties of

  18. Diabetic bladder dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiming Liu; Firouz Daneshgari

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review studies on diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD),a common and bothersome complication of diabetes mellitus.Data sources We performed a search of the English literature through PubMed.The key words used were "diabetes" and "bladder dysfunction" or "cystopathy".Our own data and perspective are included in the discussion.Study selection Studies containing data relevant to DBD were selected.Because of the limited length of this article,we also referenced reviews that contain comprehensive amalgamations of relevant literature.Results The classic symptoms of DBD are decreased bladder sensation,increased bladder capacity,and impaired bladder emptying with resultant elevated post-void residual urine.However,recent clinical and experimental evidence indicate a strong presence of storage problems such as urge incontinence in diabetes.Recent studies of DBD in animal models of type 1 diabetes have revealed temporal effects of diabetes,causing an early phase of compensatory bladder function and a later phase of decompensated bladder function.The pathophysiology of DBD is multifactorial,including disturbances of the detrusor,urothelium,autonomic nerves,and urethra.Polyuria and hyperglycemia play important but distinctive roles in induction of bladder dysfunction in type 1 diabetes.Polyuria causes significant bladder hypertrophy in the early stage of diabetes,whereas oxidative stress in the bladder caused by chronic hyperglycemia may play an important role in the late stage failure of bladder function.Conclusions DBD includes time-dependent and mixed manifestations.The pathological alterations include muscle,nerve,and urothelium.Polyuria and hyperglycemia independently contribute to the pathogenesis of DBD.Treatments for DBD are limited.Future clinical studies on DBD in type 1 and type 2 diabetes should be investigated separately.Animal studies of DBD in type 2 diabetes are needed,from the natural history to mechanisms.Further understanding of the molecular

  19. Na+/K+-ATPase is present in scrapie-associated fibrils, modulates PrP misfolding in vitro and links PrP function and dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Graham

    a key link between PrP function, dysfunction and misfolding.

  20. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  1. [Autonomic peripheral neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David; Cauquil, Cecile; Lozeron, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms of dysautonomic disturbances are varied and mostly acquired. They can result from lesions of sympathetic or parasympathetic vegetative fibers located in the peripheral contingent, or in the somatic contingent by demyelination or axonal loss; or more rarely by cellular bodies in the sympathetic or parasympathetic ganglia. Several chronic peripheral neuropathies can be associated with dysautonomia. Only some causes need to be known because they can be clinically significant. Dysautonomia may be seen during chronic acquired neuropathies but also acute or subacute ones. The most frequent cause in the world is the dysautonomia of the diabetes; it affects all the systems; the cardiovascular dysfunction has an impact on the prognosis for survival when it is severe. Hereditary autonomic neuropathies are rare; they can declare themselves very early during the Riley-Day syndrome or very late during amyloid polyneuropathies due to transthyretin gene mutation. The diagnosis can be confirmed by molecular biology. The dysautonomia is frequent and often severe. These neuropathies justify symptomatic treatment to improve quality of life. For some of them, a specific treatment can be proposed to treat the causal affection to try to stop the progression of the disease.

  2. Alternative Quantitative Tools in the Assessment of Diabetic Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinik, A I; Casellini, C; Névoret, M-L

    2016-01-01

    Here we review some seldom-discussed presentations of diabetic neuropathy, including large fiber dysfunction and peripheral autonomic dysfunction, emphasizing the impact of sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and contributes additional risks in the aging adult. Loss of sensory perception, loss of muscle strength, and ataxia or incoordination lead to a risk of falling that is 17-fold greater in the older diabetic compared to their young nondiabetic counterparts. A fall is accompanied by lacerations, tears, fractures, and worst of all, traumatic brain injury, from which more than 60% do not recover. Autonomic neuropathy has been hailed as the "Prophet of Doom" for good reason. It is conducive to increased risk of myocardial infarction and sudden death. An imbalance in the autonomic nervous system occurs early in the evolution of diabetes, at a stage when active intervention can abrogate the otherwise relentless progression. In addition to hypotension, many newly recognized syndromes can be attributed to cardiac autonomic neuropathy such as orthostatic tachycardia and bradycardia. Ultimately, this constellation of features of neuropathy conspire to impede activities of daily living, especially in the patient with pain, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. The resulting reduction in quality of life may worsen prognosis and should be routinely evaluated and addressed. Early neuropathy detection can only be achieved by assessment of both large and small- nerve fibers. New noninvasive sudomotor function technologies may play an increasing role in identifying early peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, allowing rapid intervention and potentially reversal of small-fiber loss.

  3. Autonomous underwater riser inspection tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, Claudio; Marnet, Robson [Petrobras SA, (Brazil); Freitas, Miguel; Von der Weid, Jean Pierre [CPTI/PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil); Artigas Lander, Ricardo [EngeMOVI, Curitiba, (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The detection of damage on the riser is a serious concern for pipeline companies. Visual examinations by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) are presently carried out to detect the defects but this process has limitations and is expensive. This paper presents the development of a new tool to ensure autonomous underwater riser inspection (AURI) that uses the riser itself for guidance. The AURI, which is autonomous in terms of control and power supply, is equipped with several cameras that perform a complete visual inspection of the riser with 100 % coverage of the external surface of the riser. The paper presents the detailed characteristics of the first AURI prototype, describes its launching procedure and provides the preliminary test results from pool testing. The results showed that the AURI is a viable system for autonomous riser inspection. Offshore tests on riser pipelines are scheduled to be performed shortly.

  4. Design of a Miniature Autonomous Surveillance Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chang-e; HUANG Qiang; HUANG Yuan-can

    2009-01-01

    The small size of miniature robots poses great challenges for the mechanical and deetrieal design and the implementation of autonomous capabilities.In this paper,the mechanical and electrical design for a twowheeled cylindrical miniature autonomous robot ("BMS-1",BIT MicroScout-1) is presented and some autonomous capabilities are implemented by multiple sensors and some arithmetic models.Several experimental results show that BMS-1 is useful for surveillance in confined spaces and suitable for large-scale surveillance due to some autonomous capabilities.

  5. Autoimmune autonomic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeon, Andrew; Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility. Historically, these disorders were poorly recognized, and thought to be neurodegenerative. Over the last 20 years a number of autoantibody biomarkers have been discovered that have enabled the identification of certain patients as having an autoimmune basis for either autonomic failure or hyperactivity. Peripheral autoimmune autonomic disorders include autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy, and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. AAG manifests with acute or subacute onset of generalized or selective autonomic failure. Antibody targeting the α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α3gAChR) is detected in approximately 50% of cases of AAG. Some other disorders are characterized immunologically by paraneoplastic antibodies with a high positive predictive value for cancer, such as antineuronal nuclear antibody, type 1 (ANNA-1: anti-Hu); others still are seronegative. Recognition of an autoimmune basis for autonomic disorders is important, as their manifestations are disabling, may reflect an underlying neoplasm, and have the potential to improve with a combination of symptomatic and immune therapies.

  6. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  7. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli – Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors, or tactile stimuli. Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel. Ratings ...

  8. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses toward disgusting stimuli—Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Croy, Ilona; Laqua, Kerstin; Süß, Frank; Joraschky, Peter; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors, or tactile stimuli. Therefore, disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared. A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory channel. Ratings ...

  9. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  10. A study on autonomic efficiency in diabetic females of more than ten years duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekambaramnanadesigan, BC Vastrad, Nafees, Anand P , Gnanagurudasan, Balumahendran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting various organs of the body. In many patients with diabetes mellitus, diabetes related complications may be present by the time it is clinically diagnosed. One such diabetic complication which remains subclinical is diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Aim: The present investigation aims at assessing the autonomic nervous system efficiency in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus of more than 10 years duration in rural areas of Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: Autonomic nervous system efficiency was assessed by using three parasympathetic functions to test namely heart rate response to deep breathing, standing from a lying position, Valsalva maneuver. And two sympathetic function test namely blood pressure response to standing from a lying position, and sustained handgrip. Results: It was observed that there is a statistically significant decrease in parasympathetic activity and increase in sympathetic activity in type 2 diabetic females.Conclusion: We found that the females suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years duration exhibit autonomic dysfunctions in Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

  11. Clinical observation on curative effect of Buyiganshen soup in treatment of Parkinson’ s disease with autonomic dysfunction%补益肝肾汤治疗帕金森病患者自主神经功能障碍疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩娟; 袁坤; 韩雪娟; 靳丽丽; 李红霞; 朱小静; 周贵福

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the curative effect of Buyiganshen soup in treatment of Parkinson’ s disease with au-tonomic dysfunction.Methods 105 cases of Parkinson's disease with autonomic dysfunction were randomly divided into obser-vation group (53 cases) and control group (52 cases), the patients were treated with evodopa tablets in control group, and plus Buyiganshen soup on the basis of the control group in observation group;the treatment course were six consecutive months in both groups.The scores of SPOCA-AUT, UPDRS, PDSS, HAMA of two groups before treatment and treatment for 3 and 6 months were analyzed.Results After treatment for 6 months, the score of Urination, thermoregulation, sexual function and its total score in SPOCA-AUT of the observation group were significantly better than before the treatment and those of the con-trol group (all P0.05).There was no severe adverse reactions in both groups during treatment.Conclusion On the basic treatement of western medicine, Buyiganshen soup can delay the develop-ment process of Parkinson’ s patients autonomic dysfunction, adjust the autonomic nerve dysfunction of patients, and improve sleep disorders, relieve patients’anxiety, it is safe and feasible and worth clinical recommendations.%目的:观察自拟补益肝肾汤治疗帕金森病患者自主神经功能障碍的疗效。方法将105例帕金森病自主神经功能障碍患者随机分为观察组( n=53例)及对照组( n=52例),对照组给予左旋多巴治疗,观察组在对照组治疗基础上给予自拟补益肝肾汤治疗,2组均连续治疗6个月。观察2组治疗前及治疗3,6个月的帕金森病自主神经症状量表( SPOCA-AUT)、统一帕金森病评分量表( UPDRS)、帕金森病睡眠量表评分( PDSS)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表( HAMA)评分情况。结果观察组治疗6个月的SPOCA-AUT评分项目中排尿、体温调节、性功能及其总分较治疗前及

  12. Strengthening Exercises Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life but Do Not Change Autonomic Modulation in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira Gavi; Dalton Valentin Vassalo; Fabian Tadeu Amaral; Danielle Constância Felício Macedo; Pablo Lúcio Gava; Eduardo Miranda Dantas; Valéria Valim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM). Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE) on autonomic modu...

  13. Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    2015 Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems: Workshop on Goal Reasoning Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member Kellen...20375 USA Abstract Autonomous agents are beginning to play larger roles within team-oriented tasks and missions in various domains. Many reasoning ...present a goal reasoning system for this agent that integrates natural language processing, explanation generation, and plan recognition components

  14. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface...

  15. Energy homeostasis, autonomic activity and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Balkan, B; Nyakas, C; vanDijk, G; Steffens, AB; Bohus, B

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by alterations in both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The present paper summarizes the results of a number of studies designed to investigate autonomic functioning in normal, genetically, and experimentally obese rats, Particular emphasis is given t

  16. The psychological profile of women presenting to a multidisciplinary clinic for chronic pelvic pain: high levels of psychological dysfunction and implications for practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Christina; Cockburn, Rebecca; Plante, Anne-Florence; Chia, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is widely acknowledged as a common problem with significant consequences for those diagnosed with this condition. There is a lack of studies with good sample size that provide a comprehensive psychological profile of women presenting to specialist chronic pain clinics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the psychological profile of a representative sample of women presenting with CPP at a tertiary referral center. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Women were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing symptoms of anxiety and depression, pain severity and interference, pain self-efficacy and catastrophizing beliefs, and sexual functioning. Methods One-hundred and seventy-five women with CPP were recruited when they attended their initial assessment at a specialist CPP clinic of the Royal Women’s Hospital, a public hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Results Over 75% of the participants had experienced pain for longer than 2 years. Fifty-three percent of women experienced either moderate or severe anxiety, and 26.7% experienced moderate-to-severe depression. There were strong correlations between depressive symptoms and pain interference, pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy beliefs. Conclusion Our findings confirm previous evidence for high levels of psychological distress and functional impairment associated with this condition, and extend these findings by including measures that are highly relevant to treatment planning, such as thinking styles and pain self-efficacy. Therefore, treatment of this complex condition needs to be holistic, and a multidisciplinary approach is likely to be the best way to achieve this. PMID:27895510

  17. The psychological profile of women presenting to a multidisciplinary clinic for chronic pelvic pain: high levels of psychological dysfunction and implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Christina Bryant,1,2 Rebecca Cockburn,1 Anne-Florence Plante,3 Angela Chia4 1Centre for Women’s Mental Health, Royal Women’s Hospital, Parkville, 2Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, 3Department of Physiotherapy, 4Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Women’s Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia Objective: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is widely acknowledged as a common problem with significant consequences for those diagnosed with this condition. There is a lack of studies with good sample size that provide a comprehensive psychological profile of women presenting to specialist chronic pain clinics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the psychological profile of a representative sample of women presenting with CPP at a tertiary referral center. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Women were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing symptoms of anxiety and depression, pain severity and interference, pain self-efficacy and catastrophizing beliefs, and sexual functioning. Methods: One-hundred and seventy-five women with CPP were recruited when they attended their initial assessment at a specialist CPP clinic of the Royal Women’s Hospital, a public ­hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Results: Over 75% of the participants had experienced pain for longer than 2 years. Fifty-three percent of women experienced either moderate or severe anxiety, and 26.7% experienced moderate-to-severe depression. There were strong correlations between depressive symptoms and pain interference, pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy beliefs. Conclusion: Our findings confirm previous evidence for high levels of psychological distress and functional impairment associated with this condition, and extend these findings by including measures that are highly relevant to treatment planning, such as thinking styles and pain self-efficacy. Therefore, treatment of this complex condition needs to be holistic, and a multi

  18. Cardiac autonomic profile in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, M; Yazisiz, V; Basarici, I; Avci, A B; Erbasan, F; Belgi, A; Terzioglu, E

    2010-03-01

    Neurological involvement is a well-documented issue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, little is known about the involvement of the autonomic nervous system. This study was conducted to investigate autonomic nervous system dysfunction in patients with RA and SLE. Twenty-six RA patients, 38 SLE patients and 40 healthy controls were recruited from our in- and out-patient departments. Heart rate variability (HRV) parameters (the power of the high- [HF] and low-frequency [LF] band of haemodynamic time series, the ratio between low- and high-frequency components [LF/HF ratio], the power spectral density), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and beat-to-beat blood pressures were assessed by a novel non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring tool (Task Force Monitor [TFM], CNSystems Medizintechnik GmbH, Graz, Austria). Autonomic nervous system dysfunction was determined according to classical Ewing autonomic test battery. Furthermore, we implemented a secondary autonomic test score by modifying the Ewing test battery with additional criteria. Both the classical and modified Ewing test batteries have revealed that the frequencies of autonomic neuropathy were significantly higher in patient groups compared with controls (p disease duration, disease activity and autoantibody positivity. Consequently, we believe that further large-scale studies investigating cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in rheumatic diseases should be carried out to verify our findings and manifest clinical consequences beyond these results.

  19. Reversible diencephalic dysfunction as presentation of deep cerebral venous thrombosis due to hyperhomocysteinemia and protein S deficiency: Documentation of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaukab Maqbool Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with global headache, vomiting and abnormal behavior after cross-country run at high altitude. There was no seizure, loss of consciousness, fever or head injury. He was conscious, abulic and uncooperative with normal vitals. There was no focal neurological deficit. Non contrast computed tomography scan of head was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed venous infarct in bilateral thalami, left basal ganglia and periventricular white matter. Magnetic resonance venography revealed thrombosis involving internal cerebral veins, septal veins, thalamostriate veins, vein of Galen and proximal portion of straight sinus. His condition steadily improved on low molecular weight heparin bridged with oral anticoagulation for one year. At two months, serum homocysteine was 31.51 μmol/l (5.46-16.2 μmol/l and protein S was 49.00% (77-143.00%. He received methylcobalamin, pyridoxine and folic acid. After 16 months, he was asymptomatic with partially recanalized deep cerebral veins and serum homocysteine falling to 16.50 μmol/l (5.46-16.2 μmol/l.

  20. Neuronal autoantibodies in epilepsy patients with peri-ictal autonomic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal-Kirac, Leyla; Tuzun, Erdem; Erdag, Ece; Ulusoy, Canan; Vanli-Yavuz, Ebru Nur; Ekizoglu, Esme; Peach, Sian; Sezgin, Mine; Bebek, Nerses; Gurses, Candan; Gokyigit, Aysen; Vincent, Angela; Baykan, Betul

    2016-03-01

    Autonomic dysfunction has frequently been reported in autoimmune encephalitis associated with seizures and there is growing evidence that epilepsy patients may display neuronal autoantibodies (NAAb). The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of NAAb in epilepsy patients with peri-ictal autonomic findings. Fifty-eight patients (37 women/21 men; average age of 34.2 ± 9.9 years and epilepsy duration of 19.1 ± 9.6 years) who had at least one video-EEG recorded focal or secondary generalized seizure with clear-cut documented peri-ictal autonomic findings, or consistently reported seizures with autonomic semiology, were included. NAAb were tested by RIA or cell based assays. NAAb were present in 17 of 58 (29.3%) patients. Among seropositive patients, antibodies were directed against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in 5 (29%), contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) in 5 (29%), uncharacterized voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antigens in 3 (18%), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in 2 (12%), glycine receptor (GLYR) in one (6%) and type A gamma aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) in one patient (6%). Peri-ictal gastrointestinal manifestations, piloerection, ictal fever, urinary urge, and cough occurred more commonly in the seropositive group. The prevalences of psychotic attacks and status epilepticus were significantly increased in the seropositive group. Seropositivity prevalence in our patient group with peri-ictal autonomic findings is higher than other previously reported epilepsy cohorts. In our study, ictal fever-VGKC-complex antibody and pilomotor seizure-GABAAR antibody associations were documented for the first time. Chronic epilepsy patients with peri-ictal autonomic semiology, history of status epilepticus and psychotic disorder may benefit from autoantibody screening.

  1. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  2. The autonomic laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  3. The role of autonomic function on sport performance in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; West, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    Devastating paralysis, autonomic dysfunction, and abnormal cardiovascular control present significant hemodynamic challenges to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially during exercise. In general, resting arterial pressure after SCI is lower than with able-bodied individuals and is commonly associated with persistent orthostatic intolerance along with transient episodes of life-threatening hypertension, known as "autonomic dysreflexia." During exercise, the loss of central and reflexive cardiovascular control attenuates maximal heart rate and impairs blood pressure regulation and blood redistribution, which ultimately reduces venous return, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Thermoregulation also is severely compromised in high-lesion SCI, a problem that is compounded when competing in hot and humid conditions. There is some evidence that enhancing venous return via lower body positive pressure or abdominal binding improves exercise performance, as do cooling strategies. Athletes with SCI also have been documented to self-induce autonomic dysreflexia before competition with a view of increasing blood pressure and improving their performance, a technique known as "boosting." For health safety reasons, boosting is officially banned by the International Paralympics Committee. This article addresses the complex issue of how the autonomic nervous system affects sports performance in athletes with SCI, with a specific focus on the potential debilitating effects of deranged cardiovascular control.

  4. 24-Hour motor activity and autonomic cardiac functioning in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Volkers (Anita)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe studies of this thesis concern the spontaneous pattern of motor activity and autonomic cardiac functioning in major depressive disorder. The main purpose of the studies was to obtain insight in the psychomotor and autonomic cardiac dysfunction in depression by investigating the 24-ho

  5. 帕金森病患者伴发自主神经功能障碍与运动症状和非运动症状相关性的研究%Study on the correlation of autonomic dysfunction with motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹辰杰; 张巍; 余舒扬; 左丽君; 陈泽颉; 孙莉; 黄曦妍; 刘卓; 扈杨; 王方

    2013-01-01

    ,SCOPA-AUT评分与FS-14评分呈显著正相关(r=0.423,P=0.000)。(8)ADL评分为(35.3±13.6)分,与 SCOPA-AUT 评分呈显著正相关(r=0.391,P=0.000);PDQL-39评分为(134.1±26.6)分,与SCOPA-AUT评分呈显著负相关(r=-0.649,P=0.000)。结论帕金森病患者自主神经功能障碍发生率高,症状多样,与起病年龄、病程、运动症状及认知、焦虑、抑郁、睡眠障碍及疲劳等非运动症状密切相关,严重影响患者的日常生活能力和生活质量。%Objective To explore the correlation of autonomic dysfunction with motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods 243 PD patients were recruited in the department of neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital from June 2010 to June 2012 and evaluated by the Scale For Outcomes in PD For Autonomic Symptoms (SCOPA-AUT), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)Ⅲ, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) Staging, Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA),Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Fatigue Scale-14 (FS-14), Activity of Daily Living (ADL) and 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire(PDQL-39), and correlations of SCOPA-AUT score with above scales scores were performed. Results (1) SCOPA-AUT score of PD patients was 36.6±8.0(23-67)points; SCOPA-AUT score was positively correlated with the age of onset, average of (59.8±10.1) years, and disease duration,average of (3.8±4.0)years(r=0.248, P=0.000;r=0.234, P=0.000);(2)Autonomic symptoms with the highest incidence was gastrointestinal dysfunction(83.5%), among which, constipation was the most frequent(56.4%), which was followed by urinary dysfunction(79.0%), sexual dysfunction(78.6%), cardiovascular dysfunction(48.6%)and thermoregulatory dysfunction(47.3%); (3)SCOPA-AUT score was positively correlated with H-Y Stage (2.0±0.8) and UPDRSⅢ score, (25.9±13.2)points (r=0.390, P

  6. Cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jung-Ick; Lee, Soon-Tae; Moon, Jangsup; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Shin, Jung-Won; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Lim, Jung-Ah; Shin, Yong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Keon-Joo; Park, Kyung-Il; Jung, Ki-Young; Lee, Sang Kun; Chu, Kon

    2015-12-01

    Patients with anti-NMDA receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis frequently suffer from autonomic dysfunctions, which can cause substantial morbidity. This study assessed cardiac autonomic functions in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. This was a retrospective single-center case-control study. Eleven patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were included in this study. To ensure that autonomic dysfunction does not occur in any encephalitis, we additionally analyzed HRV of 9 patients with herpes encephalitis (HSE) and compared with that of NMDAR encephalitis patients and controls. Five minute resting stationary electrocardiogram was collected from each subject, and HRV was analyzed. Total power and low frequency (LF) power were lower in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients than those in controls (p=0.005, 0.001 respectively), indicating cardiac autonomic dysfunction especially in sympathetic system. Patients with HSE showed no significant difference in HRV parameters compared with that of controls. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction was associated with 3 month functional outcome in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients.

  7. Mechanisms of disease: Mitochondrial dysfunction in sensory neuropathy and other complications in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernyhough, Paul; McGavock, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a major complication of diabetes that involves the sensory and autonomic nervous systems and leads to significant morbidity and impact on quality of life of patients. Mitochondrial stress has been proposed as a major mediator of insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes and a trigger of diabetic complications such as nephropathy and cardiomyopathy in humans and animal models. Recent studies in the peripheral nervous system in type 1 and type 2 diabetic animal models suggest a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegeneration in diabetes. This chapter focuses on the nature of sensory nerve dysfunction in diabetes and presents these findings in the context of diabetes-induced nerve degeneration mediated by alterations in mitochondrial physiology. Diabetes-induced dysfunction in calcium homeostasis is discussed and causative associations with suboptimal mitochondrial physiology are developed. Comparisons are made with mitochondrial-dependent dysfunction in muscle and cardiac tissue in diabetes. It is clear that across a range of complications of diabetes mitochondrial physiology is impaired; in general, a reduction in respiratory chain capability is apparent. Where appropriate, we provide clinical evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of complications in patients with diabetes. This abnormal activity may predispose mitochondria to generate elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), although experimental proof remains lacking, but more importantly will deleteriously alter the bioenergetic status of neurons.

  8. Autonomic dysreflexia: a medical emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bycroft, J; Shergill, I; Choong, E; Arya, N; Shah, P

    2005-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia is an important clinical diagnosis that requires prompt treatment to avoid devastating complications. The condition may present itself to all members of medical and surgical specialties, who may not be accustomed to treating it. It is the clinician's responsibility to have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition and the simple steps required to treat it. PMID:15811886

  9. Atypicality in presentation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome caused by olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Biswaranjan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is the most serious of acute neurological side effects produced by antipsychotic medication, characterized by hyperthermia, rigidity, altered consciousness and autonomic dysfunction, the prevalence of which varies from 0.4-1.4%. NMS is usually seen in treatment with high potency typical antipsychotics and very rarely with atypical antipsychotics. However, NMS cases have been reported with risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine. The presentations of NMS have often varied, and we report another atypicality in presentation of NMS due to olanzapine use.

  10. Male Gender Role Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Daig, Isolde

    2010-01-01

    Background: Men have a higher alcohol and cigarette consumption than women, they use more drugs, they have twice as high a suicide rate and only a minority of men attend on preventive medical checkups. Hypotheses: The central questions of the present study pertained to the identification of dysfunctional aspects of a male self concept and the possible correlations with risk behaviour of men in different age stages. One possible explanation for this high risk behaviour may be higher mascul...

  11. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  12. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolinson, P Gunnar; Kozar, Albert J; Cibor, Greg

    2003-02-01

    The sacroiliac (SI) joint is a common source of low back pain in the general population. Because it is the link between the lower extremities and the spine, it sustains even higher loads during athletic activity, predisposing athletes to a greater probability of joint dysfunction and pain. The diagnosis and treatment of SI joint dysfunction remains controversial, due to complex anatomy and biomechanics, and a lack of universally accepted nomenclature and terminology, consistently reliable clinical tests and imaging studies, and consistently effective treatments. This article clarifies these issues by presenting a model of SI joint anatomy and function, a systematic approach to the diagnosis of dysfunction, and a comprehensive treatment plan.

  13. Intelligent autonomous systems 12. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukhan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of). College of Information and Communication Engineering; Yoon, Kwang-Joon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyungsuck [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangmyung (eds.) [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Recent research in Intelligent and Autonomous Systems. Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, jeju Island, Korea. Written by leading experts in the field. Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of ''Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security and space applications, and intelligent autonomous systems for manufacturing and healthcare. This volume 2 includes contributions devoted to Service Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction and Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems and Life Engineering.

  14. Pulmonary function, cholinergic bronchomotor tone, and cardiac autonomic abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study analyzed the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in pulmonary and cardiac function by evaluating cardiovascular reflex and its correlation with pulmonary function abnormalities of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (N = 17 and healthy subjects (N = 17 were evaluated by 1 pulmonary function tests including spirometry, He-dilution method, N2 washout test, and specific airway conductance (SGaw determined by plethysmography before and after aerosol administration of atropine sulfate, and 2 autonomic cardiovascular activity by the passive tilting test and the magnitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA. Basal heart rate was higher in the diabetic group (87.8 ± 11.2 bpm; mean ± SD than in the control group (72.9 ± 7.8 bpm, P<0.05. The increase of heart rate at 5 s of tilting was 11.8 ± 6.5 bpm in diabetic patients and 17.6 ± 6.2 bpm in the control group (P<0.05. Systemic arterial pressure and RSA analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups. Diabetes intragroup analysis revealed two behaviors: 10 patients with close to normal findings and 7 with significant abnormalities in terms of RSA, with the latter subgroup presenting one or more abnormalities in other tests and clear evidence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. End-expiratory flows were significantly lower in diabetic patients than in the control group (P<0.05. Pulmonary function tests before and after atropine administration demonstrated comparable responses by both groups. Type 2 diabetic patients have cardiac autonomic dysfunction that is not associated with bronchomotor tone alterations, probably reflecting a less severe impairment than that of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Yet, a reduction of end-expiratory flow was detected.

  15. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta, E-mail: aneta@lancaster.ac.uk

    2014-09-30

    the Poincaré oscillator with quasi-periodic forcing. In this way we not only discuss and review each method, but also present properties which help to clearly distinguish the three classes of systems when analysed in an inverse approach—from measured, or numerically generated data. In particular, this review provides a framework to tackle inverse problems in these areas and clearly distinguish non-autonomous dynamics from chaos or stochasticity.

  16. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Poincaré oscillator with quasi-periodic forcing. In this way we not only discuss and review each method, but also present properties which help to clearly distinguish the three classes of systems when analysed in an inverse approach-from measured, or numerically generated data. In particular, this review provides a framework to tackle inverse problems in these areas and clearly distinguish non-autonomous dynamics from chaos or stochasticity.

  17. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury, myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard A Awad

    2011-01-01

    Exciting new features have been described concerning neurogenic bowel dysfunction, including interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, axonal injury, neuronal loss, neurotransmission of noxious and non-noxious stimuli, and the fields of gastroenterology and neurology. Patients with spinal cord injury, myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease present with serious upper and lower bowel dysfunctions characterized by constipation, incontinence, gastrointestinal motor dysfunction and altered visceral sensitivity. Spinal cord injury is associated with severe autonomic dysfunction, and bowel dysfunction is a major physical and psychological burden for these patients. An adult myelomeningocele patient commonly has multiple problems reflecting the multisystemic nature of the disease. Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder in which axonal injury, neuronal loss, and atrophy of the central nervous system can lead to permanent neurological damage and clinical disability. Parkinson's disease is a multisystem disorder involving dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic systems, characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Parkinson's disease affects several neuronal structures outside the substantia nigra, among which is the enteric nervous system. Recent reports have shown that the lesions in the enteric nervous system occur in very early stages of the disease, even before the involvement of the central nervous system. This has led to the postulation that the enteric nervous system could be critical in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, as it could represent the point of entry for a putative environmental factor to initiate the pathological process. This review covers the data related to the etiology, epidemiology, clinical expression, pathophysiology, genetic aspects, gastrointestinal motor dysfunction, visceral sensitivity, management, prevention and prognosis of neurogenic bowel

  18. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Basiago

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS into a well-established therapy for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target.

  19. Impairment on cardiovascular and autonomic adjustments to maximal isometric exercise tests in offspring of hypertensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francica, Juliana V; Heeren, Marcelo V; Tubaldini, Márcio; Sartori, Michelle; Mostarda, Cristiano; Araujo, Rubens C; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare cardiovascular and autonomic responses to a mental stress test and to a maximal isometric exercise test between offspring of normotensive (ON, n = 10) and hypertensive parents (OH, n = 10). Subjects underwent a 3-min Stroop Color Word Test and a maximal isometric exercise test performed in an isokinetic dynamometer with continuous RR interval monitoring. At rest, arterial pressure and heart rate were similar between groups, but there was a significant reduction in total RR interval variance (ON: 5933 ± 493 vs. OH: 2967 ± 390 ms(2)) and an increase in low-high frequency components ratio of heart rate variability (ON: 2.3 ± 0.4 vs. OH: 4.6 ± 0.8) in OH group. In the first minute of the mental stress test and after both tests, the OH group presented increased heart rate as compared with the ON group. After both tests, only the ON group presented an increase in sympathetic component, thus reaching resting values similar to those of the OH group. Our data demonstrated increased resting cardiac sympathetic modulation in offspring of hypertensive parents at similar levels to that observed in offspring of normotensive parents after a mental stress test or a maximal isometric exercise test. Additionally, the exacerbated heart rate responses to these physiological tests in OH subjects may be associated with resting autonomic dysfunction, thus reinforcing these evaluations as important tools for detecting early dysfunctions in this genetically predisposed population.

  20. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Robert R; Murray, Claire E; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian L; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W M; Dickey, John

    2014-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21cm absorption spectra from the 21cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the HI line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the up...

  1. HRVanalysis: A Free Software for Analyzing Cardiac Autonomic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichot, Vincent; Roche, Frédéric; Celle, Sébastien; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Chouchou, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Since the pioneering studies of the 1960s, heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly used non-invasive tool for examining cardiac autonomic functions and dysfunctions in various populations and conditions. Many calculation methods have been developed to address these issues, each with their strengths and weaknesses. Although, its interpretation may remain difficult, this technique provides, from a non-invasive approach, reliable physiological information that was previously inaccessible, in many fields including death and health prediction, training and overtraining, cardiac and respiratory rehabilitation, sleep-disordered breathing, large cohort follow-ups, children's autonomic status, anesthesia, or neurophysiological studies. In this context, we developed HRVanalysis, a software to analyse HRV, used and improved for over 20 years and, thus, designed to meet laboratory requirements. The main strength of HRVanalysis is its wide application scope. In addition to standard analysis over short and long periods of RR intervals, the software allows time-frequency analysis using wavelet transform as well as analysis of autonomic nervous system status on surrounding scored events and on preselected labeled areas. Moreover, the interface is designed for easy study of large cohorts, including batch mode signal processing to avoid running repetitive operations. Results are displayed as figures or saved in TXT files directly employable in statistical softwares. Recordings can arise from RR or EKG files of different types such as cardiofrequencemeters, holters EKG, polygraphs, and data acquisition systems. HRVanalysis can be downloaded freely from the Web page at: https://anslabtools.univ-st-etienne.fr HRVanalysis is meticulously maintained and developed for in-house laboratory use. In this article, after a brief description of the context, we present an overall view of HRV analysis and we describe the methodological approach of the different techniques provided

  2. Cardiac autonomic testing and treating heart disease. 'A clinical perspective'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L. DePace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major health concern, affecting nearly half the middle-age population and responsible for nearly one-third of all deaths. Clinicians have several major responsibilities beyond diagnosing CHD, such as risk stratification of patients for major adverse cardiac events (MACE and treating risks, as well as the patient. This second of a two-part review series discusses treating risk factors, including autonomic dysfunction, and expected outcomes. Methods Therapies for treating cardiac mortality risks including cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN, are discussed. Results While risk factors effectively target high-risk patients, a large number of individuals who will develop complications from heart disease are not identified by current scoring systems. Many patients with heart conditions, who appear to be well-managed by traditional therapies, experience MACE. Parasympathetic and Sympathetic (P&S function testing provides more information and has the potential to further aid doctors in individualizing and titrating therapy to minimize risk. Advanced autonomic dysfunction (AAD and its more severe form cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy have been strongly associated with an elevated risk of cardiac mortality and are diagnosable through autonomic testing. This additional information includes patient-specific physiologic measures, such as sympathovagal balance (SB. Studies have shown that establishing and maintaining proper SB minimizes morbidity and mortality risk. Conclusions P&S testing promotes primary prevention, treating subclinical disease states, as well as secondary prevention, thereby improving patient outcomes through (1 maintaining wellness, (2 preventing symptoms and disorder and (3 treating subclinical manifestations (autonomic dysfunction, as well as (4 disease and symptoms (autonomic neuropathy.

  3. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision The Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  4. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — VisionThe Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  5. Enhanced mission performance from autonomous instrument guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Betto, Maurizio;

    2006-01-01

    examples of such autonomous space instrumentation. With its full autonomy, this star tracker is capable of providing, in real-time, the absolute orientation with respect to the celestial reference frame with an accuracy of a few arc seconds. This high accuracy along with the robust operations, low weight...... acquisition and pointing (PROBA). Here three applications of the mu ASC as an autonomous onboard precision guide for precision vector instrumentation are presented. These are autonomous onboard antenna guidance, telescope guidance and tracking and high accuracy and wide range laser rangers....

  6. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  7. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves.

  8. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  9. Intelligent control system of autonomous objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Engel, N. E.; Brezitskaya, V. V.; Prohorovich, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control system of autonomous objects as framework. The intelligent control framework includes two different layers: a reflexive layer and a reactive layer. The proposed multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet combines low-level reaction with high-level reasoning in an intelligent control framework. The formed as the multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet the intelligent control system on the base of autonomous object’s state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations.

  10. Autonomic dysfunction and impaired cerebral autoregulation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer, Vibe G; Strauss, Gitte I; Mehlsen, Jesper;

    2006-01-01

    .0+/-2.0 bpm) compared to the controls (21.7+/-2.2 bpm, p=0.001, Tukey' test). Systolic blood pressure fell during head-up tilt only in patients with severe cirrhosis. Our results imply that cerebral autoregulation was impaired in the most severe cases of liver cirrhosis, and that those with impaired cerebral...

  11. An overview of the effect of weight loss on cardiovascular autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Raelene E; Lenhard, M James

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising to epidemic proportions in many countries worldwide. Obesity seriously increases an individual's risk of developing many health problems including diabetes. Diabetes, like obesity, is also in epidemic proportions with 300 million adults predicted to have the disease by 2025. Investigating strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes is vitally important. Autonomic dysfunction is evident in both obesity and diabetes. In persons with diabetes, impaired cardiovascular autonomic activity is characterized by a reduction in parasympathetic tone with a relative increase in sympathetic activity and is specifically associated with a number of clinically significant manifestations including exercise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular lability, orthostatic hypotension, silent myocardial ischemia, and increased risk of mortality. In obesity, parasympathetic function is decreased while regional heterogeneity of increased sympathetic activity may occur. Autonomic dysfunction increases cardiovascular workload, hemodynamic stress, serious dysrhythmias, and significant cardiac pathology. Thus, cardiac autonomic imbalance may also be an important link between obesity and increased morbidity and mortality. Beyond the obese and diabetic state, multiple variables associated with these conditions such as insulin, glucose, leptin, adiponectin and free fatty acids have an affect on the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic disturbances, however, appear to be reversible with weight reduction. Since autonomic imbalance is a marker of adverse risk, improvement obtained from weight loss should be beneficial for the health of individuals with obesity and diabetes. This overview will examine the relationship of the autonomic nervous system in obesity and diabetes and explore the effect of weight loss on autonomic function.

  12. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance.

  13. Vascular dysfunctions following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Constantin; Popa, Florian; Grigorean, Valentin Titus; Onose, Gelu; Sandu, Aurelia Mihaela; Popescu, Mihai; Burnei, Gheorghe; Strambu, Victor; Sinescu, Crina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the vascular dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Vascular dysfunctions are common complications of SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. Neuroanatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, is reviewed. SCI implies disruption of descendent pathways from central centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating in intermediolateral nuclei of T1-L2 cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant vascular dysfunction. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and it is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe arterial hypotension and bradycardia. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life-threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5-T6). Arterial hypotension with orthostatic hypotension occurs in both acute and chronic phases. The etiology is multifactorial. We described a few factors influencing the orthostatic hypotension occurrence in SCI: sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, low plasma catecholamine levels, rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity, peripheral alpha-adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness, impaired function of baroreceptors, hyponatremia and low plasmatic volume, cardiovascular deconditioning, morphologic changes in sympathetic neurons, plasticity within spinal circuits, and motor deficit leading to loss of skeletal muscle pumping activity. Additional associated cardiovascular concerns in SCI, such as deep vein

  14. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Page ( 1 ) Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It occurs when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the ...

  15. THE USE OF GENETIC ALGORITHM IN DIMENSIONING HYBRID AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUS T.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the working principle of genetic algorithms used to dimension autonomous hybrid systems. It is presented a study case in which is dimensioned and optimized an autonomous hybrid system for a residential house located in Cluj-Napoca. After the autonomous hybrid system optimization is performed, it is achieved a reduction of the total cost of system investment, a reduction of energy produced in excess and a reduction of CO2 emissions.

  16. Assessment of autonomic function in untreated adult coeliac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gian Marco Giorgetti; Antonio Tursi; Cesare Iani; Flavio Arciprete; Giovanni Brandimarte; Ambrogio Capria; Luigi Fontana

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Some recent studies showed that alteration of upper-gut motility in coeliac disease may be related to dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. The aim of our study was to investigate whether autonomic nervous system was altered in untreated and unselected coeliac disease patients.METHODS: We studied 8 untreated and consecutive coeliac disease patients (2 males and 6 females, age range 37±14.5 years). Histological evaluation of duodenal mucosa, anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA), antiendomysial antibodies (EMA) and anti-tTG antibodies and sorbitol H2 breath test were performed in all patients. Extrinsic autonomic neuropathy was assessed by the standardized measurement of cardiovascular reflexes (lying-to-standing, Valsalva manoeuvre, deep breathing, sustained handgrip). The results obtained were compared with a healthy, asymptomatic control group (6 males and 7females, age range 42.3±13.5 years). RESULTS: Coeliac patients exhibited a lower increase of PAS as a response to isometric effort, a reduction of spectral power LF as a response to clinostatic position, but without statistical significance. Also they showed a lower tolerance to orthostatic position, associated with a latent disequilibrium of sympathetic-vagal balance, a relative prevalence of parasympathetic component of the autonomic function. However, these results were not statistically significant when compared with control group (P = n.s.). And they were unchanged after 6 and 12 mo of gluten-free diet.CONCLUSION: This study failed to confirm a significant correlation between autonomic dysfunction and coeliac disease, yet we could not exclude a role of autonomic dysfunction in the genesis of systemic symptoms in some coeliacs.

  17. The Degree of Autonomic Modulation Is Associated With the Severity of Microvascular Complications in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Jesper; Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Jakobsen, Poul Erik;

    2015-01-01

    to outpatient clinics at 4 Danish hospitals. The degree of autonomic modulations was quantified by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) during passive spectral analysis and active tests (valsalva ratio [VT], response to standing [RT], and deep breathing [E:I]). To describe possible associations between...... severity of microvascular complications and measures of autonomic modulation, multivariate analysis was performed. RESULTS: After adjusting for diabetes duration, sex, age, pulse pressure, heart rate, and smoking, autonomic dysfunction remained significantly correlated with severity of retinopathy...

  18. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Isabelle

    2009-05-01

    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  19. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent.

  20. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  1. Exercise prevents development of autonomic dysregulation and hyperalgesia in a mouse model of chronic muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Rasna; Rasmussen, Lynn; Sluka, Kathleen A; Chapleau, Mark W

    2016-02-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) conditions, like fibromyalgia, are associated with widespread pain and alterations in autonomic functions. Regular physical activity prevents the development of CMP and can reduce autonomic dysfunction. We tested if there were alterations in autonomic function of sedentary mice with CMP, and whether exercise reduced the autonomic dysfunction and pain induced by CMP. Chronic musculoskeletal pain was induced by 2 intramuscular injections of pH 5.0 in combination with a single fatiguing exercise task. A running wheel was placed into cages so that the mouse had free access to it for either 5 days or 8 weeks (exercise groups) and these animals were compared to sedentary mice without running wheels. Autonomic function and nociceptive withdrawal thresholds of the paw and muscle were assessed before and after induction of CMP in exercised and sedentary mice. In sedentary mice, we show decreased baroreflex sensitivity, increased blood pressure variability, decreased heart rate variability, and decreased withdrawal thresholds of the paw and muscle 24 hours after induction of CMP. There were no sex differences after induction of the CMP in any outcome measure. We further show that both 5 days and 8 weeks of physical activity prevent the development of autonomic dysfunction and decreases in withdrawal threshold induced by CMP. Thus, this study uniquely shows the development of autonomic dysfunction in animals with chronic muscle hyperalgesia, which can be prevented with as little as 5 days of physical activity, and suggest that physical activity may prevent the development of pain and autonomic dysfunction in people with CMP.

  2. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  3. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  4. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targe...

  5. An Electerophisioligic Study Of Autonomic Nervous System In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorolahi Moghaddam H

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in diabetics can occur apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and sometimes leads to complaints which may be diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Moreover glycemic control of these patients may prevent such a complications."nMaterials and Methods: 30 diabetic patients were compared to the same number of age and sex-matched controls regarding to electrophysiologic findings of autonomic nervous system. Symptoms referable to autonomic disorder including nightly diarrhea, dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, nausea, and mouth dryness were recorded in all diabetic patients. Palmar and plantar SSR and expiration to inspiration ratio (E: I and Valsalva ratio were recorded in all diabetics and control individuals by electromyography device. In addition NCS was performed on two sensory and two motor nerves in diabetic patients."nResults: There was no relation between age of diabetics and abnormal D: I ratio, Valsalva ratio and degree of electrophysiologic autonomic impairment. Also no relation between peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment was found. Plantar SSR was absent in 80% of diabetics with orthostatic hypotension (p~ 0.019. Palmar and plantar SSR were absent in many diabetics in comparison to control group (for palmar SSR p~ 0.00 and for plantar SSR p< 0.015. There was no relation between diabetes duration since diagnosis and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment."nConclusion: According to the above mentioned findings diabetic autonomic neuropathy develops apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and probably with different mechanisms. Remarkable absence of palmar SSR in diabetics with orthostatic hypotension can be due to its sympathetic origin. Absence of any relation between diabetes duration and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment can be due to late diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or no pathophysiologic relation between chronic

  6. When do the symptoms of autonomic nervous system malfunction appear in patients with Parkinson’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Luka Silvio R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Dysautonomia appears in almost all patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD in a certain stage of their condition. The aim of our study was to detect the development and type of autonomic disorders, find out the factors affecting their manifestation by analyzing the potential association with demographic variables related to clinical presentation, as well as the symptoms of the disease in a PD patient cohort. Methods. The patients with PD treated at the Clinic of Neurology in Belgrade during a 2-year period, divided into 3 groups were studied: 25 de novo patients, 25 patients already treated and had no long-term levodopa therapy-related complications and 22 patients treated with levodopa who manifested levodopa-induced motor complications. Simultaneously, 35 healthy control subjects, matched by age and sex, were also analyzed. Results. Autonomic nervous system malfunction was defined by Ewing diagnostic criteria. The tests, indicators of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, were significantly different in the PD patients as compared with the controls, suggesting the failure of both systems. However, it was shown, in the selected groups of patients, that the malfunction of both systems was present in two treated groups of PD patients, while de novo group manifested only sympathetic dysfunction. For this reason, the complete autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed only in the treated PD patients, while de novo patients were defined as those with the isolated sympathetic dysfunction. The patients with the complete autonomic neuropathy differed from the subjects without such neuropathy in higher cumulative and motor unified Parkinson’s disease rating score (UPDRS (p < 0.01, activities of daily living scores (p < 0.05, Schwab-England scale (p < 0.001 and Hoehn-Yahr scale. There was no difference between the patients in other clinical-demographic characteristics (sex, age at the time of diagnosis, actual age, duration of

  7. SIRTF autonomous star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bezooijen, Roelof W. H.

    2003-03-01

    Two redundant AST-301 autonomous star trackers (AST) serve as the primary attitude sensors for JPL's space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF). These units, which employ a 1553B interface to output their attitude quaternions and uncertainty at a 2 Hz rate, provide a 1 σaccuracy of better than 0.18, 0.18, and 5.1 arcsec about their X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. This is a factor 5.5 better than the accuracy of the flight-proven AST-201 from which the trackers were derived. To obtain this improvement, the field of view (FOV) was reduced to 5 by 5 degrees, the accurate Tycho-1 and ACT catalogs were used for selecting the 71,830 guide stars, star image centroiding was improved to better than 1/50th of a pixel, and optimal attitude estimation was implemented. In addition, the apparent direction to each guide star in the FOV is compensated for proper motion, parallax, velocity aberration, and optical distortion. The AST-301 employs autonomous time-delayed integration (TDI) to achieve image motion compensation (IMC) about its X axis that prevents accuracy degradation, even at rates of 2.1 deg/s, making it actually suitable for use on spinning spacecraft. About the Y axis, a software function called "image motion accommodation" (IMA) processes smeared images to maximize the signal to noise ratio of the resulting synthetic images, which enables robust and accurate tracking at rates tested up to 0.42 deg/s. The AST-301 is capable of acquiring its attitude anywhere in the sky in less than 3 seconds with a 99.98% probability of success, without requiring any a priori attitude knowledge. Following a description of the 7.1 kg AST-301, its operation and IMA, the methodology for translating the night sky test data into performance numbers is presented, while, in addition, the results of tests used to measure alignment stability over temperature are included.

  8. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: rlindner@astro.wisc.edu [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  9. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  10. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  11. The artificial somato-autonomic reflex arch does not improve bowel function in subjects with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Krogh, Klaus; Clemmensen, Dorte;

    2015-01-01

    Study design: Prospective cohort study. Objective: Although introduced for neurogenic bladder dysfunction, it has been suggested that the artificial somato-autonomic reflex arch alleviates neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). We aimed at evaluating the effects of the reflex arch on NBD. Setting...

  12. [sup 123]I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients. Association with autonomic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Nakatsuru, Kuninobu; Toshimori, Toshitaka; Matsukura, Shigeru (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1994-09-01

    [sup 123]I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 20 diabetic patients (NIDDM) and 8 control subjects to investigate the association between clinical autonomic nerve dysfunction and myocardial accumulation of MIBG. We used coefficient variance of R-R interval (CV[sub R-R]) as a index of the autonomic neuropathy and categorized diabetes into two groups (CV[sub R-R][>=]2.0: non-autonomic neuropathy. CV[sub R-R]<2.0: autonomic neuropathy). In planar imaging studies, heart to mediastinum MIBG uptake ratio (H/M) was calculated on both early and delayed images. The washout ratio of [sup 123]I-MIBG in the heart (%WR) was also obtained using myocardial tracer activity on the both images. Mean value of these indices in diabetic group did not reveal any significant difference with the value in the control group. On the SPECT images, low uptake was observed in the posterior-inferior wall with normal uptake of [sup 201]Tl in diabetic patients with non-autonomic neuropathy. These areas extended in patients with autonomic neuropathy. The mean value of count ratio of posterior-interior to anterior wall (posterior-inferior/anterior ratio: PI/A) in the diabetic autonomic neuropathy group was significantly higher than in the control group on the both early and delayed images. And the mean value of regional %WR in the posterior-inferior wall calculated by the both MIBG SPECT images was significantly higher in the non-autonomic neuropathy group than in the control group. In the diabetic patients, retention mechanism of [sup 123]I-MIBG was considered to be involved at an early stage without autonomic nerve dysfunction clinically. As autonomic neuropathy progressed severely, uptake mechanism was also supposed to be involved. Therefore, [sup 123]I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy was useful for early detection of cardiac sympathetic nervous dysfunction in diabetic patients. (author).

  13. Thyroid Dysfunction and its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Agnihotri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present review article is on thyroid dysfunctions which can be hypo or hyper thyroidism. Along with the ongoing allopathic treatment options, one can go for the alternative therapies or natural cures. Various nutritional supplements including iodine, botanicals like guggul and many more play an effective role in the management of thyroid dysfunction apart from the pharmaceuticals like synthetic T3 and T4 hormones and procaine thyroid. Along with these, homeopathy and yoga are equally important. The discussion suggests and emphasizes the importance of improving the lifestyle and nutritional diet; and further providing spiritual support along with natural thyroid medication.

  14. Behavior-Based Power Management in Autonomous Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-27

    Behavior-Based Power Management In Autonomous Mobile Robots THESIS Charles A. Fetzek, First Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GCE/ENG/08-05 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GCE/ENG/08-05 Behavior-Based Power Management In Autonomous Mobile Robots THESIS Presented to the...Management In Autonomous Mobile Robots Charles A. Fetzek, B.S.C.E. First Lieutenant, USAF Approved: /signed/ 4 Mar 2008 Dr. Gilbert L. Peterson (Chairman

  15. Obesity and pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Kalaivani; Monga, Ash

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of pelvic floor disorders. Patients with obesity present with a range of urinary, bowel and sexual dysfunction problems as well as uterovaginal prolapse. Urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are more prevalent in patients with obesity. Uterovaginal prolapse is also more common than in the non-obese population. Weight loss by surgical and non-surgical methods plays a major role in the improvement of these symptoms in such patients. The treatment of symptoms leads to an improvement in their quality of life. However, surgical treatment of these symptoms may be accompanied by an increased risk of complications in obese patients. A better understanding of the mechanism of obesity-associated pelvic floor dysfunction is essential.

  16. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  17. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Eilers, J.G.; Waltimo, T.; Bots, C.P.; Michelet, M.; Sollecito, T.P.; Rouleau, T.S.; Sewnaik, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Fliedner, M.C.; Silverman, S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools, prevalen

  18. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, W W; Angle, C R; Willcockson, N K; Padula, M A; Korn, T

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a "frog shop" for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6-10 years before and 1.2-3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m3 in 29% and 0.2 mg/m3 in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR' interval) and the rates of change at low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.40 Hz). MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used. The five frog shop workers had abnormal sympathovagal balance with decreased high frequency variability (increased ln LF/ln HF). Seven of the eight workers had symptoms of autonomic dysfunction and significantly decreased heart rate variability (rMSSD) but these did not distinguish the relative exposure. Mood or affect was disturbed in all with associated changes in short-term memory and attention in four of the subjects. There were no significant correlations with serum or urine manganese. Power spectrum analysis of 24-h ambulatory ECG indicating a decrease in parasympathetic high frequency activation of heart rate variability may provide a sensitive index of central autonomic dysfunction reflecting increased exposure to manganese, although the contribution of exposures to solvents and other metals cannot be excluded. Neurotoxicity due to the gouging

  19. Subtle Cardiovascular Dysfunction in the Unilateral 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Slack

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease produces autonomic deficits. Autonomic parameters were assessed by implanting a small radiofrequency telemetry device which measured heart rate variability (HRV, diurnal rhythms of heart rate (HR, core body temperature (cBT and locomotor activity (LA. Rats then received 6-OHDA lesion or sham surgery. 6-OHDA lesioned rats exhibited head and body axis biases, defective sensorimotor function (“disengage” test, and prominent apomorphine rotation (all P<.05 versus controls. Diurnal rhythm of HR was lower for 6-OHDA lesioned rats (n=8 versus controls (n=6; P<.05. Whilst HR decreased similarly in both groups during the day, there was a greater decrease in HR for the 6-OHDA lesioned rats at night (by 38 b.p.m. relative to 17 b.p.m. for controls. LA and cBT did not differ between surgery groups. This study indicates the unilateral 6-OHDA model of PD shows subtle signs of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction.

  20. Lack of awareness of erectile dysfunction in many men with risk factors for erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magee Michelle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men with erectile dysfunction often have concurrent medical conditions. Conversely, men with these conditions may also have underlying erectile dysfunction. The prevalence of unrecognized erectile dysfunction in men with comorbidities commonly associated with erectile dysfunction was determined in men invited to participate in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sildenafil citrate. Methods Men ≥30 years old presenting with ≥1 erectile dysfunction risk factor (controlled hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes, depression, lower urinary tract symptoms, obesity [body mass index ≥30 kg/m2] or waist circumference ≥40 inches, and not previously diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were evaluated. The screening question, "Do you have erectile dysfunction?," with responses of "no," "yes," and "unsure," and the Erectile Function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF were administered. Results Of 1084 men screened, 1053 answered the screening question and also had IIEF-EF scores. IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction occurred in 71% (744/1053, of whom 54% (399/744 had moderate or severe erectile dysfunction. Of 139 answering "yes," 526 answering "unsure," and 388 answering "no," 96%, 90%, and 36%, respectively, had some degree of erectile dysfunction. The mean±SD (range number of risk factors was 2.9 ± 1.7 (3-8 in the "yes" group, 3.2 ± 1.7 (3-9 in the "unsure" group, and 2.6 ± 1.5 (2-8 in the "no" group. Conclusion Although awareness of having erectile dysfunction was low, most men with risk factors had IIEF-EF scores indicating erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction should be suspected and assessed in men with risk factors, regardless of their apparent level of awareness of erectile dysfunction. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00343200.

  1. Using dynamic pupillometry as a simple screening tool to detect autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Fábio K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomic neuropathy is a common and serious complication of diabetes. Early detection is essential to enable appropriate interventional therapy and management. Dynamic pupillometry has been proposed as a simpler and more sensitive tool to detect subclinical autonomic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate pupil responsiveness in diabetic subjects with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN using dynamic pupillometry in two sets of experiments. Methods During the first experiment, one flash was administered and the pupil response was recorded for 3 s. In the second experiment, 25 flashes at 1-s interval were administered and the pupil response was recorded for 30 s. Several time and pupil-iris radius-related parameters were computed from the acquired data. A total of 24 diabetic subjects (16 without and 8 with CAN and 16 healthy volunteers took part in the study. Results Our results show that diabetic subjects with and without CAN have sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction, evidenced by diminished amplitude reflexes and significant smaller pupil radius. It suggests that pupillary autonomic dysfunction occurs before a more generalized involvement of the autonomic nervous system, and this could be used to detect early autonomic dysfunction. Conclusions Dynamic pupillometry provides a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive tool to screen high-risk diabetic patients for diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

  2. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after con...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools.......This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...

  3. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  4. Diabetes and sexual dysfunction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorino MI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Ida Maiorino,1 Giuseppe Bellastella,1 Katherine Esposito2 1Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic and Geriatric Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in nearly all countries. It has been associated with sexual dysfunction, both in males and in females. Diabetes is an established risk factor for sexual dysfunction in men, as a threefold increased risk of erectile dysfunction was documented in diabetic men, as compared with nondiabetic men. Among women, evidence regarding the association between diabetes and sexual dysfunction are less conclusive, although most studies have reported a higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in diabetic women as compared with nondiabetic women. Female sexual function appears to be more related to social and psychological components than to the physiological consequence of diabetes. Hyperglycemia, which is a main determinant of vascular and microvascular diabetic complications, may participate in the pathogenetic mechanisms of sexual dysfunction in diabetes. Moreover, diabetic people may present several clinical conditions, including hypertension, overweight and obesity, metabolic syndrome, cigarette smoking, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, which are themselves risk factors for sexual dysfunction, both in men and in women. The adoption of healthy lifestyles may reduce insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress – all of which are desirable achievements in diabetic patients. Improved well-being may further contribute to reduce and prevent sexual dysfunction in both sexes. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetes complications, erectile dysfunction, female sexual dysfunction, lifestyle changes

  5. The correlation of autonomic dysfunction and intra-dialyttc hypotension in maintenance hemodialysis patients%维持性血液透析患者自主神经功能异常与透析中低血压的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 程叙扬; 金其庄; 曹立云; 刘莉; 左力

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and intra-dialytic hypotension (IDH) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients by analyzing the heart rate variability (HRV). Methods Blood pressure changes were recorded and dynamic electrocardiography (Holter) was conducted in 60 MHD patients during a hemodialysis session. Patients were assigned into IDH group or control group. The difference in power spectra of HRV between the two groups was analyzed. The normalized low-frequency (LFn) component of HRV was assumed to be the index of sympathetic activity, and the normalized high-frequency (HFn) component to be the index of parasympathetic activity. The LF/HF ratio then indirectly represents the balance level between sympathetic and vagal activities. A logistic regression model was set up to analyze the value of LFn for the prediction of IDH, using IDH as the outcome variable, and parameters including sex, age, hemodialysis age, diabetes as the primary disease, cardiac index, central blood volume/body weigh ratio, ultrafiltration volume/body weight ratio and LFn before hemodialysis as the prediction variables. Results In control group, LFn and LF/HF ratio elevated continually and gradually in a dialysis session (The median of LFn was 65.47nu at the beginning of hemodialysis, 73.79nu after 210 minutes, P=0.001; The median of LF/HF ratio was 2.17 at the beginning, and 3.98 after 210 minutes, P < 0.001), whereas HFn reduced gradually (The median of HFn was 30.06nu at the beginning and 19.43nu after 210 minutes, P=0.002). In IDH group, however, the above indexes changed inconsistently, and LFn was lower than that of control group in the entire hemodialysis session. Logistic regression model showed that LFn was a predictor for IDH (OR= 0.943,95%C/=0.894~0.966) after adjustment by the above demographic characteristics and basic clinical situations. Conclusion In MHD patients, the presence of IDH may relate to the incapability of

  6. Effects of Weekly Low-Frequency rTMS on Autonomic Measures in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Casanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. ASD may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS on autonomic function in children with ASD by recording electrocardiogram (EKG and electrodermal activity pre-, post- and during each rTMS session. The autonomic measures of interest in this study were R-R cardiointervals in EKG (R-R, time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV and skin conductance level (SCL. HRV measures such as R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, pNN50 (percentage of cardiointervals>50 ms different from preceding interval, power of high frequency (HF and low frequency (LF components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio, were then derived from the recorded EKG. We expected that the course of 18 weekly inhibitory low-frequency rTMS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would enhance autonomic balance by facilitating frontal inhibition of limbic activity thus resulting in decreased overall heart rate, increased HRV (in a form of increased HF power, decreased LF power (resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio, and decreased SCL. Behavioral evaluations post-18 TMS showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings while autonomic measures indicated a significant increase in cardiac interval variability and a decrease of tonic SCL. The results suggest that 18 sessions of low frequency rTMS in ASD results in increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal.

  7. Effects of weekly low-frequency rTMS on autonomic measures in children with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Manuel Fernando; Hensley, Marie K.; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Wang, Yao; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency (LF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on autonomic function in children with ASD by recording electrocardiogram (ECG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) pre- post- and during each rTMS session. The autonomic measures of interest in this study were R-R cardiointervals in EKG (R-R), time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and skin conductance level (SCL). Heart rate variability measures such as R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, pNN50 (percentage of cardiointervals >50 ms different from preceding interval), power of high frequency (HF) and LF components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio, were then derived from the recorded EKG. We expected that the course of 18 weekly inhibitory LF rTMS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would enhance autonomic balance by facilitating frontal inhibition of limbic activity thus resulting in decreased overall heart rate (HR), increased HRV (in a form of increased HF power), decreased LF power (resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio), and decreased SCL. Behavioral evaluations post-18 TMS showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings while autonomic measures indicated a significant increase in cardiac interval variability and a decrease of tonic SCL. The results suggest that 18 sessions of LF rTMS in ASD results in increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal. PMID:25374530

  8. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-02-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts).

  9. Autonomous Hexapod Spider Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Nisha; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2017-01-01

    of a hexapod robot. It is controlled through Arduino-unoR3 based SSC servo control module. Servos of torque 2.5kg-cm are used in robot to show different working movements including back and forth movement and sitting posture. Another trending technology i.e. Bluetooth is used to control autonomous feature...

  10. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  11. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  12. Learner Behaviors and Perceptions of Autonomous Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekleyen, Nilüfer; Selimoglu, Figen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the learners' behaviors and perceptions about autonomous language learning at the university level in Turkey. It attempts to reveal what type of perceptions learners held regarding teachers' and their own responsibilities in the language learning process. Their autonomous language learning…

  13. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose...

  14. Experimental and numerical study of an autonomous flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.; Navalkar, S.T.; Sodja, J.; De Breuker, R.; Karpel, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental and numerical study of an autonomous load alleviation concept using trailing edge flaps. The flaps are autonomous units, which for instance can be used for gust load alleviation. The unit is self-powered and self-actuated through trailing edge tabs which are moun

  15. Pathophysiology of Motor Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease as the Rationale for Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrinelli, Francesca; Picelli, Alessandro; Tocco, Pierluigi; Federico, Angela; Roncari, Laura; Smania, Nicola; Zanette, Giampietro; Tamburin, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD) include bradykinesia, rest tremor, and rigidity, which appear in the early stages of the disease and largely depend on dopaminergic nigrostriatal denervation. Intermediate and advanced PD stages are characterized by motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, which depend on complex mechanisms secondary to severe nigrostriatal loss and to the problems related to oral levodopa absorption, and motor and nonmotor symptoms and signs that are secondary to marked dopaminergic loss and multisystem neurodegeneration with damage to nondopaminergic pathways. Nondopaminergic dysfunction results in motor problems, including posture, balance and gait disturbances, and fatigue, and nonmotor problems, encompassing depression, apathy, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbances, pain, and autonomic dysfunction. There are a number of symptomatic drugs for PD motor signs, but the pharmacological resources for nonmotor signs and symptoms are limited, and rehabilitation may contribute to their treatment. The present review will focus on classical notions and recent insights into the neuropathology, neuropharmacology, and neurophysiology of motor dysfunction of PD. These pieces of information represent the basis for the pharmacological, neurosurgical, and rehabilitative approaches to PD.

  16. Assessing mitochondrial dysfunction in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Martin D; Nicholls, David G

    2011-04-15

    Assessing mitochondrial dysfunction requires definition of the dysfunction to be investigated. Usually, it is the ability of the mitochondria to make ATP appropriately in response to energy demands. Where other functions are of interest, tailored solutions are required. Dysfunction can be assessed in isolated mitochondria, in cells or in vivo, with different balances between precise experimental control and physiological relevance. There are many methods to measure mitochondrial function and dysfunction in these systems. Generally, measurements of fluxes give more information about the ability to make ATP than do measurements of intermediates and potentials. For isolated mitochondria, the best assay is mitochondrial respiratory control: the increase in respiration rate in response to ADP. For intact cells, the best assay is the equivalent measurement of cell respiratory control, which reports the rate of ATP production, the proton leak rate, the coupling efficiency, the maximum respiratory rate, the respiratory control ratio and the spare respiratory capacity. Measurements of membrane potential provide useful additional information. Measurement of both respiration and potential during appropriate titrations enables the identification of the primary sites of effectors and the distribution of control, allowing deeper quantitative analyses. Many other measurements in current use can be more problematic, as discussed in the present review.

  17. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), which documents the neurological examination of individuals with SCI. The Autonomic Standards Assessment Form is recommended to be completed during the evaluation of individuals with SCI, but is not a part of the ISNCSCI. A web-based training course (Autonomic Standards......This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including...... Training E Program (ASTeP)) is available to assist clinicians with understanding autonomic dysfunctions following SCI and with completion of the Autonomic Standards Assessment Form (www.ASIAlearningcenter.com)....

  18. Physiotherapy of chronic prostatitis complicated with erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kolmatsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodality physiotherapy of chronic prostatitis complicated with erectile dysfunction, consisting of: EHF-puncture, sine-wave -pelotherapy of the penis zone, remedial gymnastics, iodic-bromine baths, and digital prostate massage was developed. Administration of the medical technology leaded up to reduction of inflammation in pelvic minor organs, improvement in penis microcirculation, and improvement in autonomic nervous systems state, enhancement of erectile function and improvement of quality of life of men.

  19. Physiotherapy of chronic prostatitis complicated with erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Multimodality physiotherapy of chronic prostatitis complicated with erectile dysfunction, consisting of: EHF-puncture, sine-wave -pelotherapy of the penis zone, remedial gymnastics, iodic-bromine baths, and digital prostate massage was developed. Administration of the medical technology leaded up to reduction of inflammation in pelvic minor organs, improvement in penis microcirculation, and improvement in autonomic nervous systems state, enhancement of erectile function and improvement of qua...

  20. Autonomous forward inference via DNA computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yan; Li Gen; Li Yin; Meng Dazhi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies direct the researchers into building DNA computing machines with intelligence, which is measured by three main points: autonomous, programmable and able to learn and adapt. Logical inference plays an important role in programmable information processing or computing. Here we present a new method to perform autonomous molecular forward inference for expert system.A novel repetitive recognition site (RRS) technique is invented to design rule-molecules in knowledge base. The inference engine runs autonomously by digesting the rule-molecule, using a Class ⅡB restriction enzyme PpiⅠ. Concentration model has been built to show the feasibility of the inference process under ideal chemical reaction conditions. Moreover, we extend to implement a triggering communication between molecular automata, as a further application of the RRS technique in our model.

  1. An Autonomous Reference Frame for Relativistic GNSS

    CERN Document Server

    Kostić, Uroš; Carloni, Sante; Delva, Pacôme; Gomboc, Andreja

    2014-01-01

    Current GNSS systems rely on global reference frames which are fixed to the Earth (via the ground stations) so their precision and stability in time are limited by our knowledge of the Earth dynamics. These drawbacks could be avoided by giving to the constellation of satellites the possibility of constituting by itself a primary and autonomous positioning system, without any a priori realization of a terrestrial reference frame. Our work shows that it is possible to construct such a system, an Autonomous Basis of Coordinates, via emission coordinates. Here we present the idea of the Autonomous Basis of Coordinates and its implementation in the perturbed space-time of Earth, where the motion of satellites, light propagation, and gravitational perturbations are treated in the formalism of general relativity.

  2. Evolutionary strategy for achieving autonomous navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1999-01-01

    An approach is presented for the evolutionary development of supervised autonomous navigation capabilities for small 'backpackable' ground robots, in the context of a DARPA- sponsored program to provide robotic support to small units of dismounted warfighters. This development approach relies on the implementation of a baseline visual serving navigation capability, including tools to support operator oversight and override, which is then enhanced with semantically referenced commands and a mission scripting structure. As current and future machine perception techniques are able to automatically designate visual serving goal points, this approach should provide a natural evolutionary pathway to higher levels of autonomous operation and reduced requirements for operator intervention.

  3. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  4. Loss of MeCP2 Causes Urological Dysfunction and Contributes to Death by Kidney Failure in Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher S.; Huang, Teng-Wei; Herrera, José A.; Samaco, Rodney C.; Pitcher, Meagan R.; Herron, Alan; Skinner, Steven A.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Percy, Alan K.; Neul, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills during development, autonomic dysfunction, and an increased risk for premature lethality. Clinical experience identified a subset of individuals with RTT that present with urological dysfunction including individuals with frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urine retention requiring frequent catheterization for bladder voiding. To determine if urologic dysfunction is a feature of RTT, we queried the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study, a repository of clinical data from over 1000 individuals with RTT and found multiple instances of urological dysfunction. We then evaluated urological function in a mouse model of RTT and found an abnormal pattern of micturition. Both male and female mice possessing Mecp2 mutations show a decrease in urine output per micturition event. Furthermore, we identified signs of kidney failure secondary to urethral obstruction. Although genetic strain background significantly affects both survival and penetrance of the urethral obstruction phenotype, survival and penetrance of urethral obstruction do not directly correlate. We have identified an additional phenotype caused by loss of MeCP2, urological dysfunction. Furthermore, we urge caution in the interpretation of survival data as an endpoint in preclinical studies, especially where causes of mortality are poorly characterized. PMID:27828991

  5. Early detection of tubular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1991-11-01

    The determination of low-molecular-weight proteins in urine as a tool for early detection of damage to the proximal tubules is briefly discussed. Beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein and alpha 1-microglobulin are at present the most widely used markers for tubular dysfunction. The determination of beta 2-microglobulin has earlier been the method of choice, but due to its instability at low pH there are certain disadvantages. Available data indicate that alpha 1-microglobulin may replace beta 2-microglobulin for screening purposes. The low-molecular-weight proteins are at present the best markers for early detection of tubular dysfunction; other constituents are not as well suited for this, even if the determination of urine enzymes has its supporters.

  6. Small fiber dysfunction in patients with Wilson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis A. Gondim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients with Wilson’s disease (WD may develop a wide variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, but there are few reports of autonomic dysfunction. Here, we described evidence of small fiber and/or autonomic dysfunction in 4 patients with WD and levodopa-responsive parkinsonism. Method: We reviewed the charts of 4 patients with WD who underwent evaluation for the presence of neuromuscular dysfunction and water-induced skin wrinkling test (SWT. Results: Two men and 2 women (33±3.5 years with WD were evaluated. They all had parkinsonism at some point during their disease course. Parkinsonism on patient 4 almost completely subsided with treatment of WD. Two patients had significant sensory and 2 significant autonomic complaints, including syncopal spells. NCS/EMG was normal in all but SWT was abnormal in half of them (mean 4-digit wrinkling of 0.25 and 1. Discussion: A subset of patients with WD exhibit evidence of abnormal skin wrinkling test (small fiber neuropathy.

  7. Applying energy autonomous robots for dike inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresscher, Douwe; Vries, de Theo J.A.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an exploratory study of an energy-autonomous robot that can be deployed on the Dutch dykes. Based on theory in energy harvesting from sun and wind and the energy-cost of locomotion an analytic expression to determine the feasible daily operational time of such a vehicle is comp

  8. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1985-09-20

    This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

  9. Stochastic self-monitoring of autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A probabilistic method is presented for high level task planning of autonomous, mobile systems under partial observability of states and partial knowledge of transition laws. Partial state observability is addressed by directed Markov fields which support the detection of relationships between pairs of observed variables in competition to other such pairs.

  10. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  11. Hypnotic metaphor and sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L G

    1987-01-01

    Although hypnosis can be very effective in alleviating sexual problems, few sex therapists use hypnotic methods. This paper seeks to encourage a greater use of hypnosis among clinicians by presenting: a description of the new hypnosis exemplified in the work of Milton H. Erickson; an explanation of one of Erickson's most important and innovative methods, the use of multiple embedded metaphors; and case histories illustrating the application of hypnotic approaches to sexual dysfunction.

  12. Autonomous Undersea Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    less expensive sensor systems for a variety of applications, including measurement of physical characteristics of the ocean, threat detection, and...multiple autonomous environmental sensors within an acoustic modem-based infrastructure capable of communicating to and from the sensors and to and...networks, and telesonar with high speed platforms. This effort is concentrating on the development and demonstration of the two modem- based sensors . We

  13. Baroreflex deficit blunts exercise training-induced cardiovascular and autonomic adaptations in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Silva, I C; De La Fuente, R N; Mostarda, C; Rosa, K; Flues, K; Damaceno-Rodrigues, N R; Caldini, E G; De Angelis, K; Krieger, E M; Irigoyen, M C

    2010-03-01

    1. Baroreceptors regulate moment-to-moment blood pressure (BP) variations, but their long-term effect on the cardiovascular system remains unclear. Baroreceptor deficit accompanying hypertension contributes to increased BP variability (BPV) and sympathetic activity, whereas exercise training has been associated with an improvement in these baroreflex-mediated changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic, haemodynamic and cardiac morphofunctional effects of long-term sinoaortic baroreceptor denervation (SAD) in trained and sedentary spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). 2. Rats were subjected to SAD or sham surgery and were then further divided into sedentary and trained groups. Exercise training was performed on a treadmill (five times per week, 50-70% maximal running speed). All groups were studied after 10 weeks. 3. Sinoaortic baroreceptor denervation in SHR had no effect on basal heart rate (HR) or BP, but did augment BPV, impairing the cardiac function associated with increased cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition. Exercise training reduced BP and HR, re-established baroreflex sensitivity and improved both HR variability and BPV. However, SAD in trained SHR blunted all these improvements. Moreover, the systolic and diastolic hypertensive dysfunction, reduced left ventricular chamber diameter and increased cardiac collagen deposition seen in SHR were improved after the training protocol. These benefits were attenuated in trained SAD SHR. 4. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that the arterial baroreflex mediates cardiac disturbances associated with hypertension and is crucial for the beneficial cardiovascular morphofunctional and autonomic adaptations induced by chronic exercise in hypertension.

  14. Angiotensin peptides and central autonomic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, Debra I; Arnold, Amy C; Nautiyal, Manisha; Isa, Katsunori; Shaltout, Hossam A; Tallant, E Ann

    2011-04-01

    Aging, hypertension, and fetal-programmed cardiovascular disease are associated with a functional deficiency of angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) in the brain dorsomedial medulla. The resulting unrestrained activity of Ang II in brainstem regions negatively impacts resting mean arterial pressure, sympathovagal balance, and baroreflex sensitivity for control of heart rate. The differential effects of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) may be related to the cellular sources of these peptides as well as different precursor pathways. Long-term alterations of the brain renin-angiotensin system may influence signaling pathways including phosphoinositol-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase and their downstream mediators, and as a consequence may influence metabolic function. Differential regulation of signaling pathways in aging and hypertension by Ang II versus Ang-(1-7) may contribute to the autonomic dysfunction accompanying these states.

  15. Sexual dysfunction within an adult developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, P J; Meyer, J K; Schmidt, C W

    1986-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the adult who has adequately mastered the oedipal stage of psychosexual development and who presents with a sexual dysfunction. Drawing on the developmental sequence of Erik Erikson, the authors suggest that failure to address adequately an adult psychosocial crisis may result in sexual dysfunction. There may be both adult developmental deficits and regression to adolescent and adult stages previously negotiated. Both may be symptomatically represented by sexual dysfunction. The authors urge that the sexual and marital problems be evaluated within an adult developmental framework and that the therapy address the psychosocial issues which are appropriate to the developmental stage of the patient.

  16. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, M; Goadsby, P J

    2016-01-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterised by lateralized symptoms: prominent headache and ipsilateral cranial autonomic features, such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation and rhinorrhea. The TACs are: cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)/short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic features (SUNA) and hemicrania continua (HC). Their diagnostic criteria are outlined in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition-beta (ICHD-IIIb). These conditions are distinguished by their attack duration and frequency, as well as response to treatment. HC is continuous and by definition responsive to indomethacin. The main differential when considering this headache is chronic migraine. Other TACs are remarkable for their short duration and must be distinguished from other short-lasting painful conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache. Cluster headache is characterised by exquisitely painful attacks that occur in discrete episodes lasting 15-180 min a few times a day. In comparison, PH occurs more frequently and is of shorter duration, and like HC is responsive to indomethacin. SUNCT/SUNA is the shortest duration and highest frequency TAC; attacks can occur over a hundred times every day.

  17. Plant Watering Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Now days, due to busy routine life, people forget to water their plants. In this paper, we present a completely autonomous and a cost-effective system for watering indoor potted plants placed on an even surface. The system comprises of a mobile robot and a temperature-humidity sensing module. The system is fully adaptive to any environment and takes into account the watering needs of the plants using the temperature-humidity sensing module. The paper describes the hardware architecture of the fully automated watering system, which uses wireless communication to communicate between the mobile robot and the sensing module. This gardening robot is completely portable and is equipped with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID module, a microcontroller, an on-board water reservoir and an attached water pump. It is capable of sensing the watering needs of the plants, locating them and finally watering them autonomously without any human intervention. Mobilization of the robot to the potted plant is achieved by using a predefined path. For identification, an RFID tag is attached to each potted plant. The paper also discusses the detailed implementation of the system supported with complete circuitry. Finally, the paper concludes with system performance including the analysis of the water carrying capacity and time requirements to water a set of plants.

  18. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  19. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  20. Are Turkish University Students Autonomous or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büşra Kırtık

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tried to determine Turkish learners’ attitudes, and the Turkish education system’s approach towards learner autonomy with regard to three main points: 1 whether Turkish university students are aware of learner autonomy or not 2 whether Turkish university students have the characteristics of autonomous learners (whether they are autonomous learners or not, and 3 if the Turkish education system is suitable for fostering learner autonomy or not from the viewpoint of the participants. Participants were 50 second grade learners in the English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe University (N=10, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University (N=10, and Uludag University (N=30 who had already taken courses about learner autonomy.  The data were collected by means of a questionnaire which had two Likert-scale sections and an open-ended questions section. The first Likert-scale section contained 15 characteristics of autonomous learners each of which was rated by the participants in a scale from strongly disagree to agree, from 1 to 5. In the second Likert-scale section, the participants were asked to rate the Turkish education system’s five basic elements such as school curriculums, course materials, approaches used by the teachers in classrooms, learning activities, and classroom settings. Additionally, learners’ opinions about their awareness and understanding of learner autonomy were gathered by five open ended questions. The results proposed that the participants were aware of learner autonomy, and had the characteristics of autonomous learners. On the other hand, results showed that the Turkish education system was not suitable for autonomous learners and did not foster learner autonomy. The findings suggested that the Turkish education system should be designed again in such a way to support the autonomous learners and to foster learner autonomy in all sections of the education.

  1. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life.

  2. Mechanical autonomous stochastic heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, Andre; Moleron, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara; . Team

    Stochastic heat engines extract work from the Brownian motion of a set of particles out of equilibrium. So far, experimental demonstrations of stochastic heat engines have required extreme operating conditions or nonautonomous external control systems. In this talk, we will present a simple, purely classical, autonomous stochastic heat engine that uses the well-known tension induced nonlinearity in a string. Our engine operates between two heat baths out of equilibrium, and transfers energy from the hot bath to a work reservoir. This energy transfer occurs even if the work reservoir is at a higher temperature than the hot reservoir. The talk will cover a theoretical investigation and experimental results on a macroscopic setup subject to external noise excitations. This system presents an opportunity for the study of non equilibrium thermodynamics and is an interesting candidate for innovative energy conversion devices.

  3. 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Hyungsuck; Yoon, Kwang-Joon; Lee, Jangmyung

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of “Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security ...

  4. 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-12)

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Kwang-Joon; Lee, Jangmyung; Frontiers of Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    2013-01-01

    This carefully edited volume aims at providing readers with the most recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, with its particular emphasis on intelligent autonomous ground, aerial and underwater vehicles as well as service robots for home and healthcare under the context of the aforementioned convergence. “Frontiers of Intelligent Autonomous Systems” includes thoroughly revised and extended papers selected from the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-12), held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. The editors chose 35 papers out of the 202 papers presented at IAS-12 which are organized into three chapters: Chapter 1 is dedicated to autonomous navigation and mobile manipulation, Chapter 2 to unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles and Chapter 3 to service robots for home and healthcare. To help the readers to easily access this volume, each chapter starts with a chapter summary introduced by one of the editors: Chapter 1 by Sukhan Lee, Chapter 2 by Kwang Joon Yoon and...

  5. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaharu Tabuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked.

  6. Neck pain causes respiratory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapreli, Eleni; Vourazanis, Evangelos; Strimpakos, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a presumptive mechanism for the development of changes in respiratory function due to chronic neck pain. The patient with neck pain presents a number of factors that could constitute a predisposition of leading to a respiratory dysfunction: (a) the decreased strength of deep neck flexors and extensors, (b) the hyperactivity and increased fatigability of superficial neck flexors, (c) the limitation of range of motion, (d) the decrease in proprioception and disturbances in neuromuscular control, (e) the existence of pain and (f) the psychosocial influence of dysfunction. The possible connection of neck pain and respiratory function could have a great impact on various clinical aspects notably patient assessment, rehabilitation and pharmacological prescription.

  7. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites and hepatic dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bo Zhou; Jin-Ming Chen; Qin Du

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal disorder with eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal wall and various gastrointestinal dysfunctions. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders that are associated with peripheral eosinophilia.We report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, which had features of the predominant subserosal type presenting with ascites and hepatic dysfunction, and which responded to a course of low-dose steroid.

  8. Trichotillomania In A Patient With Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswathi Krishna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichotillomania is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by pulling out one's own hair, which results in an obvious loss of hair. Hair pulling was first described in Henri Allopeau in 1889. The term "trichotillomania" comes from the Greek words "thrix" - hair, "tillein" - to pull and "Mania" madness or frenzy. 30 year old man presented with complaints of hairpulling behavior and associated erectile dysfunction. His hairpulling behavior improved on treating his sexual dysfunction.

  9. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction: A Dental Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, Clyde D.

    1985-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is common and often acutely painful. Because of the large and diverse symptom complex created by this disorder, patients frequently first seek relief from their physician rather than their dentist. In this article temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is defined and the presenting signs and symptoms are discussed. Their etiology is described in relation to the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint. Examination techniques can help in the differential di...

  10. [Female sexual dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Mijal

    2009-09-01

    Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.

  11. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity...... of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors...

  12. Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and vagal dysfunction in Chagas disease patients with no apparent cardiac involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silveira Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA and autonomic imbalance are considered as early markers of heart disease in Chagas disease (ChD patients. The objective of the present study was to verify the differences in the occurrence of EIVA and autonomic maneuver indexes between healthy individuals and ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement. METHODS : A total of 75 ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement, aged 44.7 (8.5 years, and 38 healthy individuals, aged 44.0 (9.2 years, were evaluated using echocardiography, symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and autonomic function tests. RESULTS : The occurrence of EIVA was higher in the chagasic group (48% than in the control group (23.7% during both the effort and the recovery phases. Frequent ventricular contractions occurred only in the patient group. Additionally, the respiratory sinus arrhythmia index was significantly lower in the chagasic individuals compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS : ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement had a higher frequency of EIVA as well as more vagal dysfunction by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These results suggest that even when asymptomatic, ChD patients possess important arrhythmogenic substrates and subclinical disease.

  13. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  14. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  15. Part and Parcel of the Cardiac Autonomic Nerve System: Unravelling Its Cellular Building Blocks during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. D. Végh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system (cANS is essential for proper heart function, and complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death are associated with an altered cANS function. A changed innervation state may underlie (part of the atrial and ventricular arrhythmias observed after myocardial infarction. In other cardiac diseases, such as congenital heart disease, autonomic dysfunction may be related to disease outcome. This is also the case after heart transplantation, when the heart is denervated. Interest in the origin of the autonomic nerve system has renewed since the role of autonomic function in disease progression was recognized, and some plasticity in autonomic regeneration is evident. As with many pathological processes, autonomic dysfunction based on pathological innervation may be a partial recapitulation of the early development of innervation. As such, insight into the development of cardiac innervation and an understanding of the cellular background contributing to cardiac innervation during different phases of development is required. This review describes the development of the cANS and focuses on the cellular contributions, either directly by delivering cells or indirectly by secretion of necessary factors or cell-derivatives.

  16. Vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Marko; Montalvo, Enoch

    2007-01-08

    We present two cases of shoulder pain and weakness following influenza and pneumococcal vaccine injections provided high into the deltoid muscle. Based on ultrasound measurements, we hypothesize that vaccine injected into the subdeltoid bursa caused a periarticular inflammatory response, subacromial bursitis, bicipital tendonitis and adhesive capsulitis. Resolution of symptoms followed corticosteroid injections to the subacromial space, bicipital tendon sheath and glenohumeral joint, followed by physical therapy. We conclude that the upper third of the deltoid muscle should not be used for vaccine injections, and the diagnosis of vaccination-related shoulder dysfunction should be considered in patients presenting with shoulder pain following a vaccination.

  17. Voiding dysfunction - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a child who is toilet trained the sudden onset of daytime wetting with frequency or urgency is alarming to the parents. Initially this subject was subdivided into a number of descriptive clinical conditions which led to a lot of confusion in recognition and management. Subsequently, the term elimination dysfunction was coined by Stephen Koff to emphasise the association between recurrent urinary infection, wetting, constipation and bladder overactivity. From a urodynamic point of view, in voiding dysfunction, there is either detrusor overactivity during bladder filling or dyssynergic action between the detrusor and the external sphincter during voiding. Identifying a given condition as a ′filling phase dysfunction′ or ′voiding phase dysfunction′ helps to provide appropriate therapy. Objective clinical criteria should be used to define voiding dysfunction. These include bladder wall thickening, large capacity bladder and infrequent voiding, bladder trabeculation and spinning top deformity of the urethra and a clinically demonstrated Vincent′s curtsy. The recognition and treatment of constipation is central to the adequate treatment of voiding dysfunction. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimuation for the treatment of detrusor overactivity, biofeedback with uroflow EMG to correct dyssynergic voiding, and behavioral therapy all serve to correct voiding dysfunction in its early stages. In established neurogenic bladder disease the use of Botulinum Toxin A injections into the detrusor or the external sphincter may help in restoring continence especially in those refractory to drug therapy. However in those children in whom the upper tracts are threatened, augmentation of the bladder may still be needed.

  18. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP.

  19. Urinary and erectile dysfunction in multiple system atrophy (MSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatsoris, A G; Papapetropoulos, S; Singer, C; Deliveliotis, C

    2008-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease of undetermined etiology that occurs sporadically and manifests itself as a combination of parkinsonian, autonomic, cerebellar, and pyramidal signs. Despite the lack of effective therapies, some of the symptoms may be, at least temporarily, improved with adequate symptomatic therapies. Urinary and erectile dysfunction (ED) symptoms are prominent early features in male MSA patients. Lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this disorder. More than 50% of MSA patients suffer from recurrent lower UTIs and a significant number (approximately 25%) die of complications related to them. Urogenital symptoms in MSA are usually due to a complex mixture of central and peripheral nervous abnormalities, sometimes superimposed on previous local pathological conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and perineal laxity. There have been instances were MSA-related urological symptoms were confused with symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, leading to unnecessary urological surgery. In this review, we present the phenotypic range and therapeutic approaches for common storage and voiding urological symptoms and ED, in patients with MSA.

  20. Blood pressure regulation, autonomic control and sleep disordered breathing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Lauren C; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Walter, Lisa M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-04-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) ranges in severity from primary snoring (PS) to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). In adults, SDB is associated with adverse cardiovascular consequences which are mediated, in part, by autonomic dysfunction. Although SDB is common in children, fewer paediatric studies have investigated these cardiovascular effects. Initial research focused on those with OSA, indeed children with PS were occasionally utilised as the comparison control group. However, it is essential to understand the ramifications of this disorder in all its severities, as currently the milder forms of SDB are often untreated. Methodologies used to assess autonomic function in children with SDB include blood pressure (BP), BP variability, baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, peripheral arterial tonometry and catecholamine assays. The aim of this review was to summarise the findings of paediatric studies to date and explore the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and SDB in children, paying particular attention to the roles of disease severity and/or age. This review found evidence of autonomic dysfunction in children with SDB during both wakefulness and sleep. BP dysregulation, elevated generalised sympathetic activity and impairment of autonomic reflexes occur in school-aged children and adolescents with SDB. The adverse effects of SDB seem somewhat less in young children, although more studies are needed. There is mounting evidence that the cardiovascular and autonomic consequences of SDB are not limited to those with OSA, but are also evident in children with PS. The severity of disease and age of onset of autonomic consequences may be important guides for the treatment of SDB.

  1. Mesenteric hypoperfusion and inflammation induced by brain death are not affected by inhibition of the autonomic storm in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Simas; Ferreira,Sueli G.; Laura Menegat; Zanoni,Fernando L.; Cristiano J. Correia; Silva, Isaac A; Paulina Sannomiya; Moreira,Luiz F.P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Brain death is typically followed by autonomic changes that lead to hemodynamic instability, which is likely associated with microcirculatory dysfunction and inflammation. We evaluated the role of the microcirculation in the hemodynamic and inflammatory events that occur after brain death and the effects of autonomic storm inhibition via thoracic epidural blockade on mesenteric microcirculatory changes and inflammatory responses. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and me...

  2. Effect Of Haemodialysis On Intra Dialytic Calcium, Phosphorus,Magnesium, Levels In Relation To AutonomicNervous System Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Hosny, Sahar Shawky, Ahmed Ramadan , Hany Refaat

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common in uremia and in patients under hemodialysis. Changes in serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesuim always occur during hemodialysis. The relation between these changes and autonomic nervous system activity during hemodialysis has not been fully studied. This study was carried out on 30 patients with chronic renal failure on regular hemo-dialysis with nearly similar age group. We measured serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesi...

  3. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  4. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  5. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  6. Proportionality and Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Given the swift technologic development, it may be expected that the availability of the first truly autonomous weapons systems is fast approaching. Once they are deployed, these weapons will use artificial intelligence to select and attack targets without further human intervention. Autonomous weap

  7. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.

    2016-01-01

    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  8. Central- and autonomic nervous system coupling in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Steffen; Bolz, Mathias; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Voss, Andreas

    2016-05-13

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been well described in schizophrenia (SZ), a severe mental disorder. Nevertheless, the coupling between the ANS and central brain activity has been not addressed until now in SZ. The interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and ANS need to be considered as a feedback-feed-forward system that supports flexible and adaptive responses to specific demands. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, this study investigates central-autonomic couplings (CAC) studying heart rate, blood pressure and electroencephalogram in paranoid schizophrenic patients, comparing them with age-gender-matched healthy subjects (CO). The emphasis is to determine how these couplings are composed by the different regulatory aspects of the CNS-ANS. We found that CAC were bidirectional, and that the causal influence of central activity towards systolic blood pressure was more strongly pronounced than such causal influence towards heart rate in paranoid schizophrenic patients when compared with CO. In paranoid schizophrenic patients, the central activity was a much stronger variable, being more random and having fewer rhythmic oscillatory components. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of the interplay of neuronal and autonomic regulatory processes in SZ and most likely greater insights into the complex relationship between psychotic stages and autonomic activity.

  9. [Trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias. Report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Adam; Rzeski, Maciej

    2003-01-01

    Trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias (TAC) constitute a rare group of primary headache conditions associated with unilateral fluctuating head pain and autonomic symptoms. These syndromes, including cluster headache, hemicrania continua, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT, are much less prevalent than migraine and tension-type headache. The pathogenesis of TAC is unknown. Similar neuropeptide changes seen in all TAC syndromes suggest a shared underlying pathophysiology in these headaches. Some of them respond to the treatment with indomethacin and sumatriptan. Two patients suffering from one of the trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias are presented in the paper.

  10. Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Wood, Robert J

    2015-05-28

    We are witnessing the advent of a new era of robots - drones - that can autonomously fly in natural and man-made environments. These robots, often associated with defence applications, could have a major impact on civilian tasks, including transportation, communication, agriculture, disaster mitigation and environment preservation. Autonomous flight in confined spaces presents great scientific and technical challenges owing to the energetic cost of staying airborne and to the perceptual intelligence required to negotiate complex environments. We identify scientific and technological advances that are expected to translate, within appropriate regulatory frameworks, into pervasive use of autonomous drones for civilian applications.

  11. Mapping a Path to Autonomous Flight in the National Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodding, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of autonomous flight, whether military, commercial, or civilian, into the National Airspace System (NAS) will present significant challenges. Minimizing the impact and preventing the changes from becoming disruptive, rather than an enhancing technology will not be without difficulty. From obstacle detection and avoidance to real-time verification and validation of system behavior, there are significant problems which must be solved prior to the general acceptance of autonomous systems. This paper examines some of the key challenges and the multi-disciplinary collaboration which must occur for autonomous systems to be accepted as equal partners in the NAS.

  12. Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Wood, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    We are witnessing the advent of a new era of robots -- drones -- that can autonomously fly in natural and man-made environments. These robots, often associated with defence applications, could have a major impact on civilian tasks, including transportation, communication, agriculture, disaster mitigation and environment preservation. Autonomous flight in confined spaces presents great scientific and technical challenges owing to the energetic cost of staying airborne and to the perceptual intelligence required to negotiate complex environments. We identify scientific and technological advances that are expected to translate, within appropriate regulatory frameworks, into pervasive use of autonomous drones for civilian applications.

  13. Limitaciones a la autonomía de la voluntad

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El aumento de las restricciones al principio de autonomía privada ha provocado un profundo debate doctrinario. Para dar cuenta del problema expuesto se analizan las opiniones doctrinarias, las normas que limitan la autonomía de la voluntad así como la jurisprudencia, a fin de determinar cuáles fueron los grados de autonomía presentes en el período 1983/2011. El tema se presenta primero desde un punto de vista teórico y luego se analizan los fallos dictados en el período analizado, ...

  14. A 41-year-old man with polyarthritis and severe autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Bourcier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Matthew E Bourcier, Aaron I VinikEastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USAAbstract: Orthostasis due to autonomic neuropathy can cause severe debilitation and prove refractory to treatment. This report describes a case of severe sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic dysfunction as a consequence of acetylcholine receptor antibodies and Sjogren’s syndrome. Symptomatic management, plasma fluid expanders, and IVIG therapy failed to offer a salutary response to the condition. Etanercept therapy provided improvement of the orthostasis and autonomic function measured as high and low frequency respiratory effects on heart rate variability as well as enhancement of skin blood flow using Laser Doppler. It would be of considerable interest to determine the effectiveness of etanercept in other autoimmune neuropathies.Keywords: autonomic neuropathy, etanercept, IntraEpidermal Nerve Fibers (IENF, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, laser doppler skin blood flow, orthostasis

  15. Activities of autonomic neurotransmitters in meibomian gland tissues are associated with menopausal dry eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianxiang Li; Dongling Jin; Jinsheng Gao; Liguang Wang; Xianjun Liu; Jingzhang Wang; Zhongxin Xu

    2012-01-01

    The secretory activities of meibomian glands are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. The change in density and activity of autonomic nerves in meibomian glands during menopause play an important role in the pathogenesis of dry eye. In view of this, we established a dry eye rat model by removing the bilateral ovaries. We used neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as markers of autonomic neurotransmitters. Our results showed that the concentration of estradiol in serum significantly decreased, the density of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in nerve fibers significantly increased, the density of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in nerve fibers significantly decreased, and the ratio of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/neuropeptide Y positive staining significantly decreased. These results suggest that a decrease in ovary activity may lead to autonomic nervous system dysfunction, thereby affecting the secretory activity of the meibomian gland, which participates in sexual hormone imbalance-induced dry eye.

  16. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  17. Autonomic nervous system and immune system interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M J; Ganta, C K

    2014-07-01

    The present review assesses the current state of literature defining integrative autonomic-immune physiological processing, focusing on studies that have employed electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological, and central nervous system experimental approaches. Central autonomic neural networks are informed of peripheral immune status via numerous communicating pathways, including neural and non-neural. Cytokines and other immune factors affect the level of activity and responsivity of discharges in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervating diverse targets. Multiple levels of the neuraxis contribute to cytokine-induced changes in efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve outflows, leading to modulation of peripheral immune responses. The functionality of local sympathoimmune interactions depends on the microenvironment created by diverse signaling mechanisms involving integration between sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; specific adrenergic receptors; and the presence or absence of immune cells, cytokines, and bacteria. Functional mechanisms contributing to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway likely involve novel cholinergic-adrenergic interactions at peripheral sites, including autonomic ganglion and lymphoid targets. Immune cells express adrenergic and nicotinic receptors. Neurotransmitters released by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve endings bind to their respective receptors located on the surface of immune cells and initiate immune-modulatory responses. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system are instrumental in orchestrating neuroimmune processes, although additional studies are required to understand dynamic and complex adrenergic-cholinergic interactions. Further understanding of regulatory mechanisms linking the sympathetic nervous, parasympathetic nervous, and immune systems is critical for understanding relationships between chronic disease

  18. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-10-03

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  19. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Felicia B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating. Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III, which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  20. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Boland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic understanding of how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell growth and tumorigenesis is emerging beyond Warburg as an area of research that is under-explored in terms of its significance for clinical management of cancer. Work discussed in this review focuses less on the Warburg effect and more on mitochondria and how dysfunctional mitochondria modulate cell cycle, gene expression, metabolism, cell viability and other more conventional aspects of cell growth and stress responses. There is increasing evidence that key oncogenes and tumor suppressors modulate mitochondrial dynamics through important signaling pathways and that mitochondrial mass and function vary between tumors and individuals but the sigificance of these events for cancer are not fully appreciated. We explore the interplay between key molecules involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion and in apoptosis, as well as in mitophagy, biogenesis and spatial dynamics and consider how these distinct mechanisms are coordinated in response to physiological stresses such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Importantly, we examine how deregulation of these processes in cancer has knockon effects for cell proliferation and growth. Scientifically, there is also scope for defining what mitochondria dysfunction is and here we address the extent to which the functional consequences of such dysfunction can be determined and exploited for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiese, Signe; Halgreen, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    between DD and the severity of liver dysfunction and the presence of ascites. After liver transplantation, DD worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of graft rejection, but DD improves after few months. Insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt increases left ventricular diastolic...

  2. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  3. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  4. Inflammatory bowel diseases: a dysfunction of brain-gut interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaz, B

    2013-09-01

    The gut has the capacity to function as an autonomous organ. However, in normal conditions, the gut and the central nervous system talk to each other through the autonomic nervous system (ANS), represented by the sympathetic (i.e. the splanchnic nerves) and the parasympathetic nervous system (i.e. the vagus nerve and the sacral parasympathetic pelvic nerves). The brain is able to integrate inputs coming from the digestive tract inside a central autonomic network organized around the hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex and in return to modify the ANS and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis). An abnormal functioning of these brain-gut interactions has been described in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) classically considered as a biopsychosocial model where stress plays a promoting role. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) result from an inappropriate inflammatory response to intestinal microbes in a genetically susceptible host. In this article we review the current knowledge on the possible involvement of a dysfunction of brain-gut interactions in the pathogeny of IBD as represented by a dysfunction of the ANS, an abnormal HPA axis and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a deleterious effect of stress and depression as well as an abnormal coupling of the prefrontal cortex-amygdala complex and an abnormal relation between the microbiota and the brain as pro-inflammatory factors. Therapeutic approaches with the aim to restore an equilibrium of these brain-gut interactions are of interest.

  5. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra R. Raol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i perception and reasoning, (ii mobility and navigation,(iii haptics and teleoperation, (iv image fusion/computervision, (v modelling of manipulators, (vi hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii vehicle-robot path and motionplanning/control, (viii human-machine interfaces for interaction between humans and robots, and (ix application of artificial neural networks (ANNs, fuzzy logic/systems (FLS,probabilistic/approximate reasoning (PAR, Bayesian networks(BN and genetic algorithms (GA to the above-mentioned problems. Also, multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF playsvery crucial role at many levels of the data fusion process:(i kinematic fusion (position/bearing tracking, (ii imagefusion (for scene recognition, (iii information fusion (forbuilding world models, and (iv decision fusion (for tracking,control actions. The MIAS as a technology is useful for automation of complex tasks, surveillance in a hazardousand hostile environment, human-assistance in very difficultmanual works, medical robotics, hospital systems, autodiagnosticsystems, and many other related civil and military systems. Also, other important research areas for MIAScomprise sensor/actuator modelling, failure management/reconfiguration, scene understanding, knowledge representation, learning and decision-making. Examples ofdynamic systems considered within the MIAS would be:autonomous systems (unmanned ground vehicles, unmannedaerial vehicles, micro/mini air vehicles, and autonomousunder water vehicles, mobile/fixed robotic systems, dexterousmanipulator robots, mining robots, surveillance systems,and networked/multi-robot systems, to name a few.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.3-4,

  6. 腹腔镜与开腹保留盆腔自主神经全直肠系膜切除术对老年男性直肠癌患者排尿功能和性功能障碍的影响研究%A comparative study of laparoscopic and open surgery for colorectal cancer pelvic autonomic nerve preser-vation radical surgery on the urinary function and sexual dysfunction in elderly male patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬祖立; 叶文

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To observe the effect of laparoscopic and open radical pelvic autonomic nerve pres-ervation colorectal cancer surgery on the urinary function and male sexual function of elderly patients.Methods:A total of 90 elderly male patients with colorectal cancer in our hospital from January 2010 to June 2013 were selected, and divided according to the different surgeries,39 cases using open surgery and 51 cases using laparoscopic surger-y.Patients in both groups received Mesangial full rectal excision surgery and pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (TME +PANP).The postoperative catheter removal time,urine output of after 2 weeks and after three months, maximum flow rate,residual urine volume,and the erection and ejaculation function of two groups of patients,be-fore and 3 months after operation were recorded and comparatively analyzed.Results:For patients in the open sur-gery group,the incidence of voiding dysfunction two weeks after was higher than that in the laparoscopic surgery group,with statistically significant difference (open surgery group of 30.7%,laparoscopic surgery group of 9.8%;t =8.69,P =0.015).The differences between the two groups in terms of urine output after two weeks was of no statistical significance (open surgery group of 326 ±33.1mL,laparoscopic surgery group of 323 ±32.9mL;t =1.31,P =0.814).The catheter pull out of time,maximum flow rate,residual urine of the laparoscopic group were 2.6 ±0.8d,29.8 ±3.2mL/s,and 15.8 ±3.6mL respectively,better than the open surgery group,which were 5.1 ±0.9d,22.2 ±3.1mL/s and 23.1 ±3.8mL.The difference was statistically significant (catheter pull out of time:t =8.69,P =0.015;maximum flow rate:t =5.67,P =0.042;residual urine:t =5.93,P =0.038).3 months after surgery,the incidence of voiding dysfunction,urine output,maximum flow rate and residual urine of the lapa-roscopic group were 5.9%,324 ±32.6mL,29.0 ±3.2mL/s and 16.1 ±3.3mL,better than the open surgery group of 5.1%,321 ±32.2mL,26.2 ±3.4m

  7. Relationship between cardiovascular dysfunction and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaan B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats is characterized by cardiovascular dysfunction beginning 5 days after STZ injection, which may reflect functional or structural autonomic nervous system damage. We investigated cardiovascular and autonomic function, in rats weighing 166 ± 4 g, 5-7, 14, 30, 45, and 90 days after STZ injection (N = 24, 33, 27, 14, and 13, respectively. Arterial pressure (AP, mean AP (MAP variability (standard deviation of the mean of MAP, SDMMAP, heart rate (HR, HR variability (standard deviation of the normal pulse intervals, SDNN, and root mean square of successive difference of pulse intervals (RMSSD were measured. STZ induced increased glycemia in diabetic rats vs control rats. Diabetes reduced resting HR from 363 ± 12 to 332 ± 5 bpm (P < 0.05 5 to 7 days after STZ and reduced MAP from 121 ± 2 to 104 ± 5 mmHg (P = 0.007 14 days after STZ. HR and MAP variability were lower in diabetic vs control rats 30-45 days after STZ injection (RMSSD decreased from 5.6 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.4 ms, P = 0.04 and SDMMAP from 6.6 ± 0.6 to 4.2 ± 0.6 mmHg, P = 0.005. Glycemia was negatively correlated with resting AP and HR (r = -0.41 and -0.40, P < 0.001 and with SDNN and SDMMAP indices (r = -0.34 and -0.49, P < 0.01. Even though STZ-diabetic rats presented bradycardia and hypotension early in the course of diabetes, their autonomic function was reduced only 30-45 days after STZ injection and these changes were negatively correlated with plasma glucose, suggesting a metabolic origin.

  8. Cholinergic Signaling Exerts Protective Effects in Models of Sympathetic Hyperactivity-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavioli, Mariana; Lara, Aline; Almeida, Pedro W. M.; Lima, Augusto Martins; Damasceno, Denis D.; Rocha-Resende, Cibele; Ladeira, Marina; Resende, Rodrigo R.; Martinelli, Patricia M.; Melo, Marcos Barrouin; Brum, Patricia C.; Fontes, Marco Antonio Peliky; Souza Santos, Robson A.; Prado, Marco A. M.; Guatimosim, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic control of the heart is exerted by two distinct branches; the autonomic component represented by the parasympathetic nervous system, and the recently described non-neuronal cardiomyocyte cholinergic machinery. Previous evidence has shown that reduced cholinergic function leads to deleterious effects on the myocardium. Yet, whether conditions of increased cholinergic signaling can offset the pathological remodeling induced by sympathetic hyperactivity, and its consequences for these two cholinergic axes are unknown. Here, we investigated two models of sympathetic hyperactivity: i) the chronic beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation evoked by isoproterenol (ISO), and ii) the α2A/α2C-adrenergic receptor knockout (KO) mice that lack pre-synaptic adrenergic receptors. In both models, cholinergic signaling was increased by administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine. First, we observed that isoproterenol produces an autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tone. Under this condition transcripts for cholinergic proteins were upregulated in ventricular myocytes, indicating that non-neuronal cholinergic machinery is activated during adrenergic overdrive. Pyridostigmine treatment prevented the effects of ISO on autonomic function and on the ventricular cholinergic machinery, and inhibited cardiac remodeling. α2A/α2C-KO mice presented reduced ventricular contraction when compared to wild-type mice, and this dysfunction was also reversed by cholinesterase inhibition. Thus, the cardiac parasympathetic system and non-neuronal cardiomyocyte cholinergic machinery are modulated in opposite directions under conditions of increased sympathetic drive or ACh availability. Moreover, our data support the idea that pyridostigmine by restoring ACh availability is beneficial in heart disease. PMID:24992197

  9. Cholinergic signaling exerts protective effects in models of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gavioli

    Full Text Available Cholinergic control of the heart is exerted by two distinct branches; the autonomic component represented by the parasympathetic nervous system, and the recently described non-neuronal cardiomyocyte cholinergic machinery. Previous evidence has shown that reduced cholinergic function leads to deleterious effects on the myocardium. Yet, whether conditions of increased cholinergic signaling can offset the pathological remodeling induced by sympathetic hyperactivity, and its consequences for these two cholinergic axes are unknown. Here, we investigated two models of sympathetic hyperactivity: i the chronic beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation evoked by isoproterenol (ISO, and ii the α2A/α2C-adrenergic receptor knockout (KO mice that lack pre-synaptic adrenergic receptors. In both models, cholinergic signaling was increased by administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine. First, we observed that isoproterenol produces an autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tone. Under this condition transcripts for cholinergic proteins were upregulated in ventricular myocytes, indicating that non-neuronal cholinergic machinery is activated during adrenergic overdrive. Pyridostigmine treatment prevented the effects of ISO on autonomic function and on the ventricular cholinergic machinery, and inhibited cardiac remodeling. α2A/α2C-KO mice presented reduced ventricular contraction when compared to wild-type mice, and this dysfunction was also reversed by cholinesterase inhibition. Thus, the cardiac parasympathetic system and non-neuronal cardiomyocyte cholinergic machinery are modulated in opposite directions under conditions of increased sympathetic drive or ACh availability. Moreover, our data support the idea that pyridostigmine by restoring ACh availability is beneficial in heart disease.

  10. Precise laser gyroscope for autonomous inertial navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A G; Molchanov, A V; Izmailov, E A [Joint Stock Company ' Moscow Institute of Electromechanics and Automatics' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Chirkin, M V [Ryazan State Radio Engineering University (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-31

    Requirements to gyroscopes of strapdown inertial navigation systems for aircraft application are formulated. The construction of a ring helium – neon laser designed for autonomous navigation is described. The processes that determine the laser service life and the relation between the random error of the angular velocity measurement and the surface relief features of the cavity mirrors are analysed. The results of modelling one of the promising approaches to processing the laser gyroscope signals are presented. (laser gyroscopes)

  11. Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the presentation submitted at the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) Conference. It contains three volumes: ARD hardware technology; ARD software technology; and ARD operations. The purpose of this conference is to identify the technologies required for an on orbit demonstration of the ARD, assess the maturity of these technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of the programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

  12. Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the presentation submitted at the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) Conference. The document contains three volumes: ARD hardware technology; ARD software technology; and ARD operations. The purpose of this conference is to identify the technologies required for an on orbit demonstration of ARD, assess the maturity of these technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

  13. Software framework for off-road autonomous robot navigation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Er-yong; ZHOU Wen-hui; ZHANG Li; DAI Guo-jun

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a software framework for off-road autonomous robot navigation system. With the requirements of accurate terrain perception and instantaneous obstacles detection, one navigation software framework was advanced based on the principles of "three layer architecture" of intelligence system. Utilized the technologies of distributed system, machine learning and multiple sensor fusion, individual functional module was discussed. This paper aims to provide a framework reference for autonomous robot navigation system design.

  14. Autonomous Ornithopter Flight with Sensor-Based Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the design of autonomous flight control algorithms for a flapping-wing aerial robot with onboard sensing and computational resources. We use a 13 gram ornithopter with biologically inspired clap-and-fling mechanism. For autonomous flight control, we have developed 1.0 gram control electronics integrated with a microcontroller, inertial and visual sensors, communication electronics, and motor drivers. We have also developed a simplified aerodynamic model of ornithopter fli...

  15. Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones

    OpenAIRE

    Floreano, Dario; Wood, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing the advent of a new era of robots — drones — that can autonomously fly in natural and man-made environments. These robots, often associated with defence applications, could have a major impact on civilian tasks, including transportation, communication, agriculture, disaster mitigation and environment preservation. Autonomous flight in confined spaces presents great scientific and technical challenges owing to the energetic cost of staying airborne and to the perceptual intel...

  16. TIGRE - An autonomous ground robot for outdoor exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Alfredo; Amaral, Guilherme; Dias, André; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, José; Silva, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    13th International Conference on Autonomous Robot Systems (Robotica), 2013 In this paper we present an autonomous ground robot developed for outdoor applications in unstructured scenarios. The robot was developed as a versatile robotics platform for development, test and validation of research in navigation, control, perception and multiple robot coordination on all terrain scenarios. The hybrid systems approach to the control architecture is discussed in the context of multiple robot coor...

  17. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  18. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol...

  19. Endocrine dysfunction in sepsis: a beneficial or deleterious host response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiţă, Valeriu; Barbu, Alina Elena; Gheorghiu, Monica Livia; Căruntu, Florin Alexandru

    2015-03-01

    Sepsis is a systemic, deleterious inflammatory host response triggered by an infective agent leading to severe sepsis, septic shock and multi-organ failure. The host response to infection involves a complex, organized and coherent interaction between immune, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral systems. Recent data have confirmed that disturbances of the autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine systems could contribute to sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Through this review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the endocrine dysfunction as response to sepsis, specifically addressed to vasopressin, copeptin, cortisol, insulin and leptin. We searched the following readily accessible, clinically relevant databases: PubMed, UpToDate, BioMed Central. The immune system could be regarded as a "diffuse sensory organ" that signals the presence of pathogens to the brain through different pathways, such as the vagus nerve, endothelial activation/dysfunction, cytokines and neurotoxic mediators and the circumventricular organs, especially the neurohypophysis. The hormonal profile changes substantially as a consequence of inflammatory mediators and microorganism products leading to inappropriately low levels of vasopressin, sick euthyroid syndrome, reduced adrenal responsiveness to ACTH, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia as well as hyperleptinemia. In conclusion, clinical diagnosis of this "pan-endocrine illness" is frequently challenging due to the many limiting factors. The most important benefits of endocrine markers in the management of sepsis may be reflected by their potential to be used as biomarkers in different scoring systems to estimate the severity of the disease and the risk of death.

  20. Autonomous software: Myth or magic?

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Alasdair; Saunders, Eric S

    2008-01-01

    We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

  1. Simulating autonomous driving styles: Accelerations for three road profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjanto Juffrizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new experimental approach to simulate projected autonomous driving styles based on the accelerations at three road profiles. This study was focused on the determination of ranges of accelerations in triaxial direction to simulate the autonomous driving experience. A special device, known as the Automatic Acceleration and Data controller (AUTOAccD, has been developed to guide the designated driver to accomplish the selected accelerations based on the road profiles and the intended driving styles namely assertive, defensive and light rail transit (LRT. Experimental investigations have been carried out at three different road profiles (junction, speed hump, and corner with two designated drivers with five trials on each condition. A driving style with the accelerations of LRT has also been included in this study as it is significant to the present methodology because the autonomous car is predicted to accelerate like an LRT, in such a way that it enables the users to conduct activities such as working on a laptop, using personal devices or eating and drinking while travelling. The results demonstrated that 92 out of 110 trials of the intended accelerations for autonomous driving styles could be achieved and simulated on the real road by the designated drivers. The differences between the two designated drivers were negligible, and the rates of succeeding in realizing the intended accelerations were high. The present approach in simulating autonomous driving styles focusing on accelerations can be used as a tool for experimental setup involving autonomous driving experience and acceptance.

  2. Lesson Nine Sinus node dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 吴文烈

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinus node dysfunction most often is found in the elderly as an isolated phenomenon. Although interruption of the blood supply to the sinus node may produce dysfunction, the correlation between obstruction of the sinus node artery and clinical evidence of sinus node dysfunction is poor.

  3. What Is a Dysfunctional School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not a school is dysfunctional depends largely on how dysfunctionality in schools is defined and measured. Dysfunctionality, as any construct, is subject to definition and interpretation, and it is thus always marked by perspectivism. But regardless of the definition games occasionally played by academics, some form of reality takes…

  4. Autonomous assistance navigation for robotic wheelchairs in confined spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheein, Fernando Auat; Carelli, Ricardo; De la Cruz, Celso; Muller, Sandra; Bastos Filho, Teodiano F

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a visual interface for the assistance of a robotic wheelchair's navigation is presented. The visual interface is developed for the navigation in confined spaces such as narrows corridors or corridor-ends. The interface performs two navigation modus: non-autonomous and autonomous. The non-autonomous driving of the robotic wheelchair is made by means of a hand-joystick. The joystick directs the motion of the vehicle within the environment. The autonomous driving is performed when the user of the wheelchair has to turn (90, 90 or 180 degrees) within the environment. The turning strategy is performed by a maneuverability algorithm compatible with the kinematics of the wheelchair and by the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm. The SLAM algorithm provides the interface with the information concerning the environment disposition and the pose -position and orientation-of the wheelchair within the environment. Experimental and statistical results of the interface are also shown in this work.

  5. Forced synchronization of autonomous dynamical Boolean networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Durón, R R; Campos-Cantón, E; Campos-Cantón, I; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    We present the design of an autonomous time-delay Boolean network realized with readily available electronic components. Through simulations and experiments that account for the detailed nonlinear response of each circuit element, we demonstrate that a network with five Boolean nodes displays complex behavior. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of two identical networks display near-instantaneous synchronization to a periodic state when forced by a common periodic Boolean signal. A theoretical analysis of the network reveals the conditions under which complex behavior is expected in an individual network and the occurrence of synchronization in the forced networks. This research will enable future experiments on autonomous time-delay networks using readily available electronic components with dynamics on a slow enough time-scale so that inexpensive data collection systems can faithfully record the dynamics.

  6. Autonomous reinforcement learning with experience replay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyński, Paweł; Tanwani, Ajay Kumar

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers the issues of efficiency and autonomy that are required to make reinforcement learning suitable for real-life control tasks. A real-time reinforcement learning algorithm is presented that repeatedly adjusts the control policy with the use of previously collected samples, and autonomously estimates the appropriate step-sizes for the learning updates. The algorithm is based on the actor-critic with experience replay whose step-sizes are determined on-line by an enhanced fixed point algorithm for on-line neural network training. An experimental study with simulated octopus arm and half-cheetah demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to solve difficult learning control problems in an autonomous way within reasonably short time.

  7. 13th International Conference Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Nathan; Berns, Karsten; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the latest research accomplishments, innovations, and visions in the field of robotics as presented at the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS), held in Padua in July 2014, by leading researchers, engineers, and practitioners from across the world. The contents amply confirm that robots, machines, and systems are rapidly achieving intelligence and autonomy, mastering more and more capabilities such as mobility and manipulation, sensing and perception, reasoning, and decision making. A wide range of research results and applications are covered, and particular attention is paid to the emerging role of autonomous robots and intelligent systems in industrial production, which reflects their maturity and robustness. The contributions have been selected through a rigorous peer-review process and contain many exciting and visionary ideas that will further galvanize the research community, spurring novel research directions. The series of biennial IAS conferences ...

  8. Forced synchronization of autonomous dynamical Boolean networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Durón, R. R., E-mail: roberto.rivera@ipicyt.edu.mx; Campos-Cantón, E., E-mail: eric.campos@ipicyt.edu.mx [División de Matemáticas Aplicadas, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A. C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4 Sección, C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Campos-Cantón, I. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, C.P. 78000, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Duke University, Box 90305, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present the design of an autonomous time-delay Boolean network realized with readily available electronic components. Through simulations and experiments that account for the detailed nonlinear response of each circuit element, we demonstrate that a network with five Boolean nodes displays complex behavior. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of two identical networks display near-instantaneous synchronization to a periodic state when forced by a common periodic Boolean signal. A theoretical analysis of the network reveals the conditions under which complex behavior is expected in an individual network and the occurrence of synchronization in the forced networks. This research will enable future experiments on autonomous time-delay networks using readily available electronic components with dynamics on a slow enough time-scale so that inexpensive data collection systems can faithfully record the dynamics.

  9. Autonomous vehicle platforms from modular robotic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonlau, William J.

    2004-09-01

    A brief survey of current autonomous vehicle (AV) projects is presented with intent to find common infrastructure or subsystems that can be configured from commercially available modular robotic components, thereby providing developers with greatly reduced timelines and costs and encouraging focus on the selected problem domain. The Modular Manipulator System (MMS) robotic system, based on single degree of freedom rotary and linear modules, is introduced and some approaches to autonomous vehicle configuration and deployment are examined. The modules may be configured to provide articulated suspensions for very rugged terrain and fall recovery, articulated sensors and tooling plus a limited capacity for self repair and self reconfiguration. The MMS on-board visually programmed control software (Model Manager) supports experimentation with novel physical configurations and behavior algorithms via real-time 3D graphics for operations simulation and provides useful subsystems for vision, learning and planning to host intelligent behavior.

  10. Temporomandibular Dysfunction and Oral Parafunctions in Late Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liset María Frías Figueredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Temporomandibular dysfunction is a pathological entity related to functional problems that affect the temporomandibular joint and / or the masticatory muscles and associated structures. Its frequency tends to increase during puberty. Objective: To determine the frequency of temporomandibular dysfunction and its association with the presence of oral parafunctional in students from 16 to 18 years old. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted including 86 students from 16 to 18 years old who were studying at Robert Labrada Águila high school from September to November 2010. Helkimo index was applied in order to determine temporomandibular dysfunction frequency. Sociodemographic variables were also assessed and the presence of oral parafunctional habits as detected during physical examination. Results: 69.8% of respondents presented some level of temporomandibular dysfunction. Bruxism was the parafunction that mostly related to the initiation and development of temporomandibular dysfunction. Conclusions: There was a high frequency of temporomandibular dysfunction in this population.

  11. Cardiac autonomic testing and diagnosing heart disease. 'A clinical perspective'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L. DePace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major health concern, affecting nearly half the middle-age population and responsible for nearly one-third of all deaths. Clinicians have responsibilities beyond diagnosing CHD, including risk stratification of patients for major adverse cardiac events (MACE, modifying the risks and treating the patient. In this first of a two-part review, identifying risk factors is reviewed, including more potential benefit from autonomic testing. Methods Traditional and non-traditional, and modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for MACE where compared, including newer risk factors, such as inflammation, carotid intimal thickening, ankle-brachial index, CT calcium scoring, and autonomic function testing, specifically independent measurement of parasympathetic and sympathetic (P&S activity. Results The Framingham Heart Study, and others, have identified traditional risk factors for the development of CHD. These factors effectively target high-risk patients, but a large number of individuals who will develop CHD and MACE are not identified. Many patients with CHD who appear to be well-managed by traditional therapies still experience MACE. In order to identify these patients, other possible risk factors have been explored. Advanced autonomic dysfunction, and its more severe form, cardiac autonomic neuropathy, have been strongly associated with an elevated risk of cardiac mortality and are diagnosable through P&S testing. Conclusions Independent measures of P&S activity, provides additional information and has the potential to incrementally add to risk assessment. This additional information enables physicians to (1 specifically target more high-risk patients and (2 titrate therapies, with autonomic testing guidance, in order to minimize risk of cardiac mortality and morbidity.

  12. Review of Static Compensation of Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarnath Banerji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deregulation of the electric power energy market has thrown open opportunities for tapping the large number of small pockets of renewable energy sources with the asynchronous generators. Whether the power is supplied by asynchronous generator or by the grid at the remote location, its quality has become an important aspect for consumers of electricity. Efforts have been made to improve the power quality using passive filters, active filters and the new concept of Custom Power. Use of Custom power devices ensures that a load do not pollute the power supply of the other loads. One such custom power device is the DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Compensator which is connected in shunt at the load end. The heart of the DSTATCOM is an inverter. The focus on the autonomous generation has increased in the recent years. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the DSTATCOM used for autonomous generation. It is aimed at providing a broad perspective on the status of DSTATCOM, used with Asynchronous generators, vis-à-vis its working principle, topology, solid state switching devices and technology, supply system, control methodologies and approaches, technical and economic considerations, etc. to researchers and application engineers dealing with power quality aspects of Autonomous Systems. Classified manner in which the references are presented in this paper will serve them as quick and useful reference.

  13. Framework for Autonomous Optimization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration and MIT propose to create a novel autonomous optimization tool and application programming interface (API). The API will demonstrate the ability...

  14. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  15. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    MN, Anil Kumar; Pai, NB; Rao, S; Rao, TSS; Goyal, N.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic di...

  16. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is defined as abnormal uterine bleeding that results from an ovarian endocrinopathy. It may be associated with ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. The diagnosis of DUB depends on a thorough history and physical examination to exclude organic disorders. In older women, endometrial biopsy should be done before starting therapy. The treatment depends on an understanding of the menstrual cycle. In less urgent cases, anovulatory cycles are managed using progester...

  17. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.

  18. Apraxia and motor dysfunction in corticobasal syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Burrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS is characterized by multifaceted motor system dysfunction and cognitive disturbance; distinctive clinical features include limb apraxia and visuospatial dysfunction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to study motor system dysfunction in CBS, but the relationship of TMS parameters to clinical features has not been studied. The present study explored several hypotheses; firstly, that limb apraxia may be partly due to visuospatial impairment in CBS. Secondly, that motor system dysfunction can be demonstrated in CBS, using threshold-tracking TMS, and is linked to limb apraxia. Finally, that atrophy of the primary motor cortex, studied using voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM, is associated with motor system dysfunction and limb apraxia in CBS. METHODS: Imitation of meaningful and meaningless hand gestures was graded to assess limb apraxia, while cognitive performance was assessed using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R, with particular emphasis placed on the visuospatial subtask. Patients underwent TMS, to assess cortical function, and VBM. RESULTS: In total, 17 patients with CBS (7 male, 10 female; mean age 64.4+/- 6.6 years were studied and compared to 17 matched control subjects. Of the CBS patients, 23.5% had a relatively inexcitable motor cortex, with evidence of cortical dysfunction in the remaining 76.5% patients. Reduced resting motor threshold, and visuospatial performance, correlated with limb apraxia. Patients with a resting motor threshold <50% performed significantly worse on the visuospatial sub-task of the ACE-R than other CBS patients. Cortical function correlated with atrophy of the primary and pre-motor cortices, and the thalamus, while apraxia correlated with atrophy of the pre-motor and parietal cortices. CONCLUSIONS: Cortical dysfunction appears to underlie the core clinical features of CBS, and is associated with atrophy of the primary motor and

  19. Simvastatin-induced cardiac autonomic control improvement in fructose-fed female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Juliana da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because autonomic dysfunction has been found to lead to cardiometabolic disorders and because studies have reported that simvastatin treatment has neuroprotective effects, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in fructose-fed female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls (n=8, fructose (n=8, and fructose+ simvastatin (n=8. Fructose overload was induced by supplementing the drinking water with fructose (100 mg/L, 18 wks. Simvastatin treatment (5 mg/kg/day for 2 wks was performed by gavage. The arterial pressure was recorded using a data acquisition system. Autonomic control was evaluated by pharmacological blockade. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced an increase in the fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels and insulin resistance. The constant rate of glucose disappearance during the insulin intolerance test was reduced in the fructose group (3.4+ 0.32%/min relative to that in the control group (4.4+ 0.29%/min. Fructose+simvastatin rats exhibited increased insulin sensitivity (5.4+0.66%/min. The fructose and fructose+simvastatin groups demonstrated an increase in the mean arterial pressure compared with controls rats (fructose: 124+2 mmHg and fructose+simvastatin: 126 + 3 mmHg vs. controls: 112 + 2 mmHg. The sympathetic effect was enhanced in the fructose group (73 + 7 bpm compared with that in the control (48 + 7 bpm and fructose+simvastatin groups (31+8 bpm. The vagal effect was increased in fructose+simvastatin animals (84 + 7 bpm compared with that in control (49 + 9 bpm and fructose animals (46+5 bpm. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin treatment improved insulin sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in female rats. These effects were independent of the improvements in the classical plasma lipid profile and of reductions in arterial pressure. These results

  20. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and subclinical cardiovascular disease in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulrik Madvig; Jensen, Tonny; Køber, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with increased mortality in diabetes. Since CAN often develops in parallel with diabetic nephropathy as a confounder, we aimed to investigate the isolated impact of CAN on cardiovascular disease in normoalbuminuric patients. Fifty......-six normoalbuminuric, type 1 diabetic patients were divided into 26 with (+) and 30 without (-) CAN according to tests of their autonomic nerve function. Coronary artery plaque burden and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were evaluated using computed tomography. Left ventricular function was evaluated using...... with increased CACS, subclinical left ventricular dysfunction, and increased pulse pressure. In conclusion, CAN in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients is associated with distinct signs of subclinical cardiovascular disease....

  1. Assessment of autonomic function after acute spinal cord injury using heart rate variability analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, L; Biering-Sørensen, T; Bartholdy, K;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in severe dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. C1-C8 SCI affects the supraspinal control to the heart, T1-T5 SCI affects the spinal sympathetic outflow to the heart, and T6-T12 SCI leaves sympathetic control to the heart intact. Heart rate...... variability (HRV) analysis can serve as a surrogate measure of autonomic regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in HRV patterns and alterations in patients with acute traumatic SCI. METHODS: As soon as possible after SCI patients who met the inclusion criteria had 24 h Holter monitoring...

  2. [Sleep and autonomic function: sleep related breathing disorders in Parkinson's disease and related disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    In patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD), including obstructive and central sleep apnea, vocal cord abductor paralysis and dysrhythmic breathing pattern, are frequently observed. SRBD may have a considerable impact on variation of autonomic nervous activity during sleep. The previous studies correlated upper airway muscle dysfunction related parkinsonism with increased prevalence of SRBD in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, recently, the clinical significance of SRBD and its impact on sleepiness and disease severity have been debated. In this review, we discuss sleep and autonomic function, especially, SRBD in PD and related disorders, including the previous studies from our department.

  3. Sexual dysfunction with antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisant, L M; Carr, A A; Bottini, P B; Solursh, D S; Solursh, L P

    1994-04-11

    The relationship of antihypertensive drugs have a long history of association with sexual dysfunction; however, this relationship is poorly documented. There appears to be a higher rate of sexual dysfunction in untreated hypertensive men compared with normotensive men. Sexual dysfunction increases with age and is associated with physical and emotional symptoms. There are few studies assessing sexual dysfunction with female and African-American hypertensive patients. Sexual dysfunction is associated with impairment of quality of life and noncompliance. Since group data may hide individual drug effects, baseline data should be collected on all patients before initiating therapy with any antihypertensive agent. Although questionnaires may not provide objective information on sexual dysfunction, the response rate to direct questioning may be less than the response rate on a questionnaire and may be affected by the gender or race of the interviewer. Research protocols using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design should assess sexual dysfunction in men and women in a standardized fashion.

  4. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi AR Hadi

    2008-01-01

    incompletely understood. A number of trials have demonstrated that statins therapy as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors is associated with improvements in endothelial function in diabetes. Although antioxidants provide short-term improvement of endothelial function in humans, all studies of the effectiveness of preventive antioxidant therapy have been disappointing. Control of hyperglycemia thus remains the best way to improve endothelial function and to prevent atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular complications of diabetes. In the present review we provide the up to date details on this subject.Keywords: endothelial dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance microalbumiuria

  5. Pathophysiology of muscle dysfunction in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Agustí, Alvar; Roca, Josep

    2013-05-01

    Muscle dysfunction often occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may involve both respiratory and locomotor (peripheral) muscles. The loss of strength and/or endurance in the former can lead to ventilatory insufficiency, whereas in the latter it limits exercise capacity and activities of daily life. Muscle dysfunction is the consequence of complex interactions between local and systemic factors, frequently coexisting in COPD patients. Pulmonary hyperinflation along with the increase in work of breathing that occur in COPD appear as the main contributing factors to respiratory muscle dysfunction. By contrast, deconditioning seems to play a key role in peripheral muscle dysfunction. However, additional systemic factors, including tobacco smoking, systemic inflammation, exercise, exacerbations, nutritional and gas exchange abnormalities, anabolic insufficiency, comorbidities and drugs, can also influence the function of both respiratory and peripheral muscles, by inducing modifications in their local microenvironment. Under all these circumstances, protein metabolism imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammatory events, as well as muscle injury may occur, determining the final structure and modulating the function of different muscle groups. Respiratory muscles show signs of injury as well as an increase in several elements involved in aerobic metabolism (proportion of type I fibers, capillary density, and aerobic enzyme activity) whereas limb muscles exhibit a loss of the same elements, injury, and a reduction in fiber size. In the present review we examine the current state of the art of the pathophysiology of muscle dysfunction in COPD.

  6. Complicações microvasculares e disfunção autonômica cardíaca em pacientes com diabete melito tipo 1 Complicaciones microvasculares y disfunción autonómica cardíaca en pacientes con diabetes mellittus tipo 1 Microvascular complications and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando K Almeida

    2011-06-01

    hallazgos sugestivos de NAC durante la realización de la prueba ergométrica (PE y nefropatía y retinopatía en pacientes con DM tipo 1. METHODS: Realizamos un estudio transversal con 84 pacientes con DM tipo 1. Todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a evaluación clínica y laboratorial y llevaron a cabo PE, siendo que aquellos que presentaron hallazgos sugestivos de isquemia miocárdica fueron excluidos del análisis de los datos (n = 3. La evaluación de complicaciones microvasculares (retinopatía y nefropatía se realizó en la muestra. RESULTS: Los pacientes con nefropatía y aquellos con retinopatía alcanzaron una frecuencia cardíaca (FC durante el nivel máximo de ejercicio (FC máxima menor y presentaron aumento menor de FC con relación al reposo (ΔFC pico cuando comparados con aquellos sin estas complicaciones. Estos pacientes también presentaron una menor reducción de la FC en el segundo y 4º minutos tras el final de la prueba (ΔFC recuperación 2 y 4 minutos. Tras la realización de análisis multivariado con control para los posibles factores de confusión, los ΔFC recuperación en dos y 4 minutos, FC máxima y el ΔFC pico permanecieron significativamente asociados a la retinopatía; y los ΔFC recuperación en el segundo y 4º minutos permanecieron asociados a la presencia de nefropatía. CONCLUSION: Se puede considerar la PE como un instrumento adicional para la detección precoz de NAC y para identificar pacientes en un mayor riesgo para complicaciones microvasculares de la diabetes.BACKGROUND: The presence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM is associated with increased mortality and chronic microvascular complications of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible association between specific findings of CAN during exercise testing (ET and nephropathy and retinopathy in patients with type 1 DM. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 84 patients with type 1 DM. All patients underwent clinical

  7. Sympathetic dysfunction of central origin in patients with ALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, M; Andersen, E B; Wiinberg, N

    2003-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe, progressive disease affecting both the central and peripheral parts of the motor nervous system. Some studies have shown unequivocal indications of a more disseminated disease also affecting the autonomic nervous system. We therefore evaluated....... There were no correlations between the ALS Severity Scores and blood flow changes, diastolic blood pressure or MAP. Our study supports previous results, but indicates abnormalities consistent with a solely centrally located sympathetic dysfunction in ALS, independent of the stage of the disease....

  8. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Bjertrup, Anne Juul; Jensen, Johan Høy;

    2015-01-01

    Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-D) and Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and with established neuropsychological and self-assessment measures. Depression symptoms and socio-occupational function were rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Functional Assessment......BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression (UD) contributes to socio-occupational impairment, but there are no feasible methods to screen for and monitor cognitive dysfunction in this patient group. The present study investigated the validity of two new instruments...

  9. Liver dysfunction and anti-thyroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae A Papachristos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioamides have been used in the management of hyperthyroidism for over 50 years. Liver dysfunction is a rare but important side effect associated with their use. Recently, cases of liver failure associated with propylthiouracil have prompted the Federal Drug Administration to issue a Boxed Warning to the label of propylthiouracil regarding its risk of potentially fatal liver injury and acute liver failure in adults and children. Herein, we present a case to underline the importance of recognising the similar potential for severe hepatic dysfunction with the use of other thioamides.

  10. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of sali

  11. Affective mechanisms linking dysfunctional behavior to performance in work teams : a moderated mediation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, M.S.; Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the association between dysfunctional learn behavior and team performance. Data included measures of teams' dysfunctional behavior and negative affective tone as well as supervisors' ratings of teams' (nonverbal) negative emotional expressivity and performance. Utilizing a

  12. Multi-mission, autonomous, synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.; Madsen, David; Jensen, Mark; Sullivan, Stephanie; Addario, Michael; Hally, Iain

    2014-05-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have become a critical asset in current battlespaces and continue to play an increasing role for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. With the development of medium-to-low altitude, rapidly deployable aircraft platforms, the ISR community has seen an increasing push to develop ISR sensors and systems with real-time mission support capabilities. This paper describes recent flight demonstrations and test results of the RASAR (Real-time, Autonomous, Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensor system. RASAR is a modular, multi-band (L and X) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging sensor designed for self-contained, autonomous, real-time operation with mission flexibility to support a wide range of ISR needs within the size, weight and power constraints of Group III UASs. The sensor command and control and real-time image formation processing are designed to allow integration of RASAR into a larger, multi-intelligence system of systems. The multi-intelligence architecture and a demonstration of real-time autonomous cross-cueing of a separate optical sensor will be presented.

  13. Autonomic skin responses in females with Fabry disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anette Torvin; Bach, Flemming W.; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla;

    2009-01-01

    Fabry disease is a genetic lysosomal disorder with dysfunction of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A causing accumulation of glycolipids in multiple organs including the nervous system and with neuropathy as a prominent manifestation. Neurological symptoms include pain and autonomic dysfu...... response to iontophoresis of acetylcholine (p = 0.04) and a smaller capsaicin-induced flare compared to controls. These findings suggest that female patients both have an impaired C-fiber function and local abnormalities in blood vessels and sweat glands......., and the cold pressor test; and (3) cutaneous blood flow following capsaicin. The vasoconstrictor response to inspiratory gasp was increased in Fabry patients compared to controls (p = 0.03), while the response to cold and mental stress did not change. Female patients with Fabry disease had a reduced sweat...... dysfunction. This study examined peripheral autonomic nerve function in 19 female patients with Fabry disease and 19 sex and age-matched controls by measuring (1) sweat production following acetylcholine challenge; (2) the sympathetically mediated vasoconstrictor responses to inspiratory gasp, stress...

  14. Depressed cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A dysfunctional autonomic nervous system (ANS has also been recognized as an important mechanism contributing to the poor outcome in CKD patients, with several studies reporting a reduction in heart rate variability (HRV. Objective: Evaluate the sympathovagal balance in patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, patients with CKD stages 3, 4 and 5 not yet on dialysis (CKD group and age-matched healthy subjects (CON group underwent continuous heart rate recording during two twenty-minute periods in the supine position (pre-inclined, followed by passive postural inclination at 70° (inclined period. Power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability was used to assess the normalized low frequency (LFnu, indicative of sympathetic activity, and the normalized high frequency (HFnu, indicative of parasympathetic activity. The LFnu/HFnu ratio represented sympathovagal balance. Results: After tilting, CKD patients had lower sympathetic activity, higher parasympathetic activity, and lower sympathovagal balance than patients in the CON group. Compared to patients in stage 3, patients in stage 5 had a lower LFnu/HFnu ratio, suggesting a more pronounced impairment of sympathovagal balance as the disease progresses. Conclusion: CKD patients not yet on dialysis have reduced HRV, indicating cardiac autonomic dysfunction early in the course of CKD.

  15. Perturbed autonomic nervous system function in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Argyrakopoulou, Georgia; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is characterized by the clustering of various common metabolic abnormalities in an individual and it is associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Its prevalence in the general population is approximately 25%. Central fat accumulation and insulin resistance are considered as the common denominators of the abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Subjects with metabolic syndrome have autonomic nervous system dysfunction characterized by predominance of the sympathetic nervous system in many organs, i.e. heart, kidneys, vasculature, adipose tissue, and muscles. Sympathetic nervous system activation in metabolic syndrome is detected as increased heart rate and blood pressure, diminished heart rate variability, baroreceptor dysfunction, enhanced lipolysis in visceral fat, increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and high urine or plasma catecholamine concentrations as well as turnover rates. The augmented sympathetic activity in individuals with metabolic syndrome worsens prognosis of this high-risk population. The mechanisms linking metabolic syndrome with sympathetic activation are complex and not clearly understood. Whether sympathetic overactivity is involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome or is a consequence of it remains to be elucidated since data from prospective studies are missing. Intervention studies have demonstrated that the autonomic disturbances of the metabolic syndrome may be reversible.

  16. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Concussion: Arterial Pulse Contour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F La Fountaine

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The arterial pulse wave (APW has a distinct morphology whose contours reflect dynamics in cardiac function and peripheral vascular tone as a result of sympathetic nervous system (SNS control. With a transition from rest to increased metabolic demand, the expected augmentation of SNS outflow will not only affect arterial blood pressure and heart rate, it will also induce changes to the contours of the APW. Following a sports concussion, a transient state cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present. How this state affects the APW, has yet to be described. A prospective, parallel-group study on cardiovascular autonomic control (i.e., digital electrocardiogram and continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure was performed in the seated upright position in ten athletes with concussion and 7 non-injured control athletes. Changes in APW were compared at rest and during the first 60 seconds (F60 of an isometric handgrip test (IHGT in concussed athletes and non-injured controls within 48 hours (48hr and 1 week (1wk of injury. The concussion group was further separated by the length of time until they were permitted to return to play (RTP>1wk; RTP≤1wk. SysSlope, an indirect measurement of stroke volume, was significantly lower in the concussion group at rest and during F60 at 48hr and 1wk; a paradoxical decline in SysSlope occurred at each visit during the transition from rest to IHGT F60. The RTP>1wk group had lower SysSlope (405±200; 420±88; 454±236 mmHg/s, respectively at rest 48hr compared to the RTP≤1wk and controls. Similarly at 48hr rest, several measurements of arterial stiffness were abnormal in RTP>1wk compared to RTP≤1wk and controls: Peak-to-Notch Latency (0.12±0.04; 0.16±0.02; 0.17±0.05, respectively, Notch Relative Amplitude (0.70±0.03; 0.71±0.04; 0.66±0.14, respectively and Stiffness Index (6.4±0.2; 5.7±0.4; 5.8±0.5, respectively. Use of APW revealed that concussed athletes have a transient increase in peripheral artery

  17. A Review of Cardiac Autonomic Measures: Considerations for Examination of Physiological Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Teal W.; Lane, Shelly J.

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is responsible for multiple physiological responses, and dysfunction of this system is often hypothesized as contributing to cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses in children. Research suggests that examination of ANS activity may provide insight into behavioral dysregulation in children with autism…

  18. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  19. Upper gastrointestinal sensory-motor dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingbo Zhao; Jens Br(φ)ndum Fr(φ)kjaer; Asbj(φ)rn Mohr Drewes; Niels Ejskjaer

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus and may involve any part of the GI tract. Abnormalities are frequently sub-clinical, and fortunately only rarely do severe and life-threatening problems occur. The pathogenesis of abnormal upper GI sensory-motor function in diabetes is incompletely understood and is most likely multi-factorial of origin. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy as well as acute suboptimal control of diabetes has been shown to impair GI motor and sensory function. Morphological and biomechanical remodeling of the GI wall develops during the duration of diabetes,and may contribute to motor and sensory dysfunction. In this review sensory and motility disorders of the upper GI tract in diabetes is discussed; and the morphological changes and biomechanical remodeling related to the sensory-motor dysfunction is also addressed.

  20. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children can have many faces. It can present with incontinenece for urine, urinary tract infections or even constipation or loosing stools. All kinds of factors influencing the function of the pelvic floor muscle tension can have an impact on the lower urinary trac

  1. Integrated Motion Planning and Autonomous Control Technology for Autonomous ISR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI and MIT propose to design, implement and test a comprehensive Integrated Mission Planning & Autonomous Control Technology (IMPACT) for Autonomous ISR...

  2. A relativistic and autonomous navigation satellite system

    CERN Document Server

    Delva, Pacôme; Kostić, Uros; Carloni, Sante

    2011-01-01

    A relativistic positioning system has been proposed by Bartolom\\'e Coll in 2002. Since then, several group developed this topic with different approaches. I will present a work done in collaboration with Ljubljana University and the ESA Advanced Concepts Team. We developed a concept, Autonomous Basis of Coordinates, in order to take advantage of the full autonomy of a satellite constellation for navigation and positioning, by means of satellite inter-links. I will present the advantages of this new paradigm and a number of potential application for reference systems, geophysics and relativistic gravitation.

  3. Depression and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Antoine; Kparker, Ashay; Niederberger, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) clearly are associated. Although urologists and psychiatrists have long recognized that antidepressant medications affect erectile function negatively, the interplay between the two conditions remains underappreciated. Psychiatrists may be reluctant to question a patient in detail about ED, and urologists seldom perform a formal assessment of the presence of depression in patients who have ED. This article gives a quick overview of the relationship between these two conditions and provides the clinician with the knowledge required to effectively manage ED with comorbid depression.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legido, Agustín; Jethva, Reena; Goldenthal, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Using data of the current prevalence of autism as 200:10,000 and a 1:2000 incidence of definite mitochondrial (mt) disease, if there was no linkage of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and mt disease, it would be expected that 1 in 110 subjects with mt disease would have ASD and 1 in 2000 individuals with ASD would have mt disease. The co-occurrence of autism and mt disease is much higher than these figures, suggesting a possible pathogenetic relationship. Such hypothesis was initially suggested by the presence of biochemical markers of abnormal mt metabolic function in patients with ASD, including elevation of lactate, pyruvate, or alanine levels in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or brain; carnitine level in plasma; and level of organic acids in urine, and by demonstrating impaired mt fatty acid β-oxidation. More recently, mtDNA genetic mutations or deletions or mutations of nuclear genes regulating mt function have been associated with ASD in patients or in neuropathologic studies on the brains of patients with autism. In addition, the presence of dysfunction of the complexes of the mt respiratory chain or electron transport chain, indicating abnormal oxidative phosphorylation, has been reported in patients with ASD and in the autopsy samples of brains. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms linking mt dysfunction and ASD include mt activation of the immune system, abnormal mt Ca(2+) handling, and mt-induced oxidative stress. Genetic and epigenetic regulation of brain development may also be disrupted by mt dysfunction, including mt-induced oxidative stress. The role of the purinergic system linking mt dysfunction and ASD is currently under investigation. In summary, there is genetic and biochemical evidence for a mitochondria (mt) role in the pathogenesis of ASD in a subset of children. To determine the prevalence and type of genetic and biochemical mt defects in ASD, there is a need for further research using the latest genetic technology such as next

  5. Autonomous and non-autonomous roles of DNase II during cell death in C. elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsiang; Lai, Huey-Jen; Lin, Tai-Wei; Lo, Szecheng J

    2015-04-27

    Generation of DNA fragments is a hallmark of cell apoptosis and is executed within the dying cells (autonomous) or in the engulfing cells (non-autonomous). The TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) method is used as an in situ assay of apoptosis by labelling DNA fragments generated by caspase-associated DNase (CAD), but not those by the downstream DNase II. In the present study, we report a method of ToLFP (topoisomerase ligation fluorescence probes) for directly visualizing DNA fragments generated by DNase II in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. ToLFP analysis provided the first demonstration of a cell autonomous mode of DNase II activity in dying cells in ced-1 embryos, which are defective in engulfing apoptotic bodies. Compared with the number of ToLFP signals between ced-1 and wild-type (N2) embryos, a 30% increase in N2 embryos was found, suggesting that the ratio of non-autonomous and autonomous modes of DNase II was ~3-7. Among three DNase II mutant embryos (nuc-1, crn-6 and crn-7), nuc-1 embryos exhibited the least number of ToLFP. The ToLFP results confirmed the previous findings that NUC-1 is the major DNase II for degrading apoptotic DNA. To further elucidate NUC-1's mode of action, nuc-1-rescuing transgenic worms that ectopically express free or membrane-bound forms of NUC-1 fusion proteins were utilized. ToLFP analyses revealed that anteriorly expressed NUC-1 digests apoptotic DNA in posterior blastomeres in a non-autonomous and secretion-dependent manner. Collectively, we demonstrate that the ToLFP method can be used to differentiate the locations of blastomeres where DNase II acts autonomously or non-autonomously in degrading apoptotic DNA.

  6. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  7. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  8. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  9. Autonomic and inflammatory consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder and the link to cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudey, Chevelle; Park, Jeanie; Wiaderkiewicz, Jan; Kobayashi, Ihori; Mellman, Thomas A; Marvar, Paul J

    2015-08-15

    Stress- and anxiety-related disorders are on the rise in both military and general populations. Over the next decade, it is predicted that treatment of these conditions, in particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), along with its associated long-term comorbidities, will challenge the health care system. Multiple organ systems are adversely affected by PTSD, and PTSD is linked to cancer, arthritis, digestive disease, and cardiovascular disease. Evidence for a strong link between PTSD and cardiovascular disease is compelling, and this review describes current clinical data linking PTSD to cardiovascular disease, via inflammation, autonomic dysfunction, and the renin-angiotensin system. Recent clinical and preclinical evidence regarding the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the extinction of fear memory and relevance in PTSD-related immune and autonomic dysfunction is also addressed.

  10. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review.

  11. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSN/HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system that predominantly affect the sensory and autonomic neurons. Hallmark features comprise not only prominent sensory signs and symptoms and ulcerative mutilations but also variable autonomic and motor disturbances. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported. Molecular genetics studies have identified disease-causing mutations in 11 genes. Some of the affected proteins have nerve-specific roles but underlying mechanisms have also been shown to involve sphingolipid metabolism, vesicular transport, structural integrity, and transcription regulation. Genetic and functional studies have substantially improved the understanding of the pathogenesis of the HSN/HSAN and will help to find preventive and causative therapies in the future.

  12. Cardiac autonomic testing and treating heart disease. “A clinical perspective”

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas L. DePace; Joy P. Mears; Michael Yayac; Joseph Colombo

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major health concern, affecting nearly half the middle-age population and responsible for nearly one-third of all deaths. Clinicians have several major responsibilities beyond diagnosing CHD, such as risk stratification of patients for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and treating risks, as well as the patient. This second of a two-part review series discusses treating risk factors, including autonomic dysfunction, and expected outcomes. ...

  13. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  14. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  15. Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Wood, Phd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, a reliable noninvasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders.

  16. A polling model with an autonomous server

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Polling models are used as an analytical performance tool in several application areas. In these models, the focus often is on controlling the operation of the server as to optimize some performance measure. For several applications, controlling the server is not an issue as the server moves independently in the system. We present the analysis for such a polling model with a so-called autonomous server. In this model, the server remains for an exogenous random time at a queue, which also impl...

  17. Autonomous valve for detection of biopolymer degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Urs; Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Fetz, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    We present a polymer microvalve that allows the detection of biopolymer degradation without the need of external energy. The valve is based on a polymer container filled with a colored marker solution and closed by a thin lid. This structure is covered by a film of poly(L-lactide) and degradation...... of the biopolymer triggers the release of the color which is detected visually. The autonomous valve has potential for the fast testing of biopolymer degradation under various environmental conditions or by specific enzymes....

  18. Navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A.; Soehnitz, I.; Becker, J.C.; Schumacher, W. [Technical Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Control Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the fusion of sensor data for the navigation of an autonomous vehicle as well as two lateral control concepts to track the vehicle along a desired path. The fusion of navigation data is based on information provided by multiple object-detecting sensors. The object data is fused to increase the accuracy and to obtain the vehicle's state from the relative movement w.r.t. the objects. The presented lateral control methods are an LQG/H{sub 2}-design and an input-output linearizing algorithm. These control schemes were both implemented on a test vehicle. (orig.)

  19. AMID: autonomous modeler of intragenic duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Weiss, Anthony S; Fekete, Alan; Jermiin, Lars S

    2003-01-01

    Intragenic duplication is an evolutionary process where segments of a gene become duplicated. While there has been much research into whole-gene or domain duplication, there have been very few studies of non-tandem intragenic duplication. The identification of intragenically replicated sequences may provide insight into the evolution of proteins, helping to link sequence data with structure and function. This paper describes a tool for autonomously modelling intragenic duplication. AMID provides: identification of modularly repetitive genes; an algorithm for identifying repeated modules; and a scoring system for evaluating the modules' similarity. An evaluation of the algorithms and use cases are presented.

  20. [Dirofilariasis in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V A; Romashova, M F

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents data on the prevalence of dirofilariasis in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea during 5 years from 1999 to 2003. The nematode Dirofilaria repens is a causative agent of the disease. Sporadic cases of helminthiasis are annually registered in some urban and rural areas on the plain of the peninsula. The disease is absent on the foothills and Black sea coast of the southern and eastern parts of Crimea. The localization of the parasite is typical of this helminthiasis. Dirofilariasis in Crimea may be regarded as a transmissible helminthiasis with natural focal trends.

  1. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  2. A STUDY OF AUTONOMIC FUNCTION TESTS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC SEVERE ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: The present study is aimed at detecting the association of autonomic dysfunction occurs in chronic severe anemia. All patients with hemoglobin less than 6 gm % and symptoms referable to anemia for > 6 months duration were included in the study. Patients with cardiac, hepatic, renal disease, leprosy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and those on sympathomimetic, parasympatholytic, antihypertensive drugs and also patients below the age of 13 year were excluded from the study. Sample size is 50. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of fifty patients were included in the study. Among them, 20 (40% were males and 30(60% were females with male to female ratio of 1:1.5. majority of the patients were in the age group of 21- 30years with mean age of 33 years. Dimorphic anemia was the most frequent type of anemia in 56% of cases: microcytic hypochromic anemia 42% and macrocytic seen only in 2%. Resting tachycardia of more than 100 per min was observed in 62% cases. Most of the cases (86% had prolonged QTc interval of more than 0.40sec. 44% cases had abnormal valsalva response, 60% had abnormal 30/15 ratio, inspiration and expiration ratio was abnormal in 38% cases, and postural hypotension was observed in 86% cases. Diastolic raise in blood pressure to sustained hand grip was abnormal in 78% cases. Atropine test was abnormal in 26% cases. Two or more autonomic function tests were abnormal in all the cases. All the cases had combined sympathetic and parasympathetic involvement. 42% cases had involvement of afferent limb of parasympathetic reflex arc. The common abnormality found in cases of chronic severe anemia are postural hypotension and abnormal heart rate response to valsalva and standing are due to blunting of carotid body chemoreceptor and baroreceptor indicating of both sympathetic and parasympathetic involvement.

  3. QFD-based conceptual design of an autonomous underwater robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thip Pasawang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater robots in the past few years have been designed according to the individual concepts and experiences of the researchers. To design a robot, which meets all the requirements of potential users, is an advanced work. Hence, a systematic design method that could include users’ preferences and requirements is needed. This paper presents the quality function deployment (QFD technique to design an autonomous underwater robot focusing on the Thai Navy military mission. Important user requirements extracted from the QFD method are the ability to record videos, operating at depth up to 10 meters, the ability to operate remotely with cable and safety concerns related to water leakages. Less important user requirements include beauty, using renewable energy, operating remotely with radio and ability to work during night time. The important design parameters derived from the user requirements are a low cost-controller, an autonomous control algorithm, a compass sensor and vertical gyroscope, and a depth sensor. Of low-importance ranked design parameters include the module design, use clean energy, a low noise electric motor, remote surveillance design, a pressure hull, and a beautiful hull form design. The study results show the feasibility of using QFD techniques to systematically design the autonomous underwater robot to meet user requirements. Mapping between the design and expected parameters and a conceptual drafting design of an autonomous underwater robot are also presented.

  4. Predictors of Erectile Dysfunction in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Referred to a Tertiary Healthcare Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus Ugwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED complicating diabetes mellitus (DM is reportedly high. However, its risk factors have not been well studied. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 160 male type 2 DM adults, aged 30–70 years, attending a tertiary healthcare clinic. Demographic and relevant clinical information was documented. Erectile function was assessed using an abridged version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. All subjects were evaluated for central obesity, glycemic control, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, autonomic neuropathy, dyslipidemia, and testosterone deficiency. Results. 152 (95% patients with a mean age of 60.3 ± 8.8 years completed the study. 71.1% had varying degrees of ED, while 58.3% suffered from a moderate-to-severe form. Independent predictors of ED [presented as adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval] were longer duration of DM, 1.14 (1.02–1.28, PAD, 3.87 (1.28–11.67, autonomic neuropathy, 3.51 (1.82–6.79, poor glycemic control, 7.12 (2.49–20.37, and testosterone deficiency, 6.63 (2.61–16.83. Conclusion. The prevalence of ED and its severe forms was high in this patient population. Poor glycemic control and testosterone deficiency were the strongest risk factors for ED, making it possibly a preventable condition.

  5. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  6. Defining sphincter of oddi dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P

    1996-01-01

    Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysmotility may give rise to pain. The golden standard for the demonstration of SO dysfunction is endoscopic manometry. A number of abnormalities are observed in patients with postcholecystectomy pain and in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis. Criteria for defi...... for defining SO dysfunction and the possible mechanisms for the precipitation of pain are discussed....

  7. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  8. Dysfunctional anger and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Sexual offenses with or without aggression attract attention from the popular media and the scientific community. Empirical research suggests a relationship between anger and sexual violence. This article describes the key themes of dysfunctional anger and sexual violence, and how dysfunctional anger relates to sexual fantasies, sexual offending, and sexual recidivism. The implications of the findings for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  9. Stem cell-based therapy for erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-hong; XIA Shu-jie

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the effect of stem cells in erectile dysfunction as well as their application to the therapy of erectile dysfunction.Data sources The data used in the present article were mainly from PubMed with relevant English articles published from 1974 to 2011.The search terms were "stem cells" and "erectile dysfunction".Study selection Articles regarding the role of stem cells in erectile dysfunction and their application to the therapy of erectile dysfunction were selected.Results Stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to self-renew and to differentiate into various cell types.Meanwhile,in preclinical experiments,therapeutic gene-modified stem cells have been approved to offer a novel strategy for cell therapy and gene therapy of erectile dysfunction.Conclusion The transplantation of stem cells has the potential to provide cell types capable of restoring normal function after injury or degradation inerectile dysfunction.However,a series of problems,such as the safety of stem cells transplantation,their application in cell therapy and gene therapy of erectile dysfunction need further investigation.

  10. Autonomous Duffing-Holmes Type Chaotic Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševičius, A.; Bumelienė, S.; Kirvaitis, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and built a novel Duffing type autonomous 3rd-order chaotic oscillator. In comparison with the common non-autonomous DuffingHolmes type oscillator the autonomous circuit has an internal positive feedback loop instead of an external periodic drive source. In addition...

  11. CAAD: Computer Architecture for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoshan; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Zhe; Gaudiot, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    We describe the computing tasks involved in autonomous driving, examine existing autonomous driving computing platform implementations. To enable autonomous driving, the computing stack needs to simultaneously provide high performance, low power consumption, and low thermal dissipation, at low cost. We discuss possible approaches to design computing platforms that will meet these needs.

  12. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  13. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Morton

    2011-01-01

    From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  14. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated fu...

  15. Autonomous vertical profiler data management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A

    The Autonomous Vertical Profiler (AVP), developed at NIO [1] [2], collects position and water column data over a period of 3 days and transmits through a satellite modem which is collated and stored on a PC. Data includes GPS positions, water column...

  16. Designing Assessment for Autonomous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Marie; Mathers, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to disseminate and evaluate an autonomous learning framework developed through collaborative research with first- and second-year undergraduate students at De Montfort University. Central to the framework is the involvement of students in the assessment of their peers and themselves using dialogue about the assessment and feedback…

  17. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  18. Burnout versus work engagement in their effects on 24-hour ambulatory monitored cardiac autonomic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.P. van Doornen (Lorenz); J.H. Houtveen (Jan); S. Langelaan (Saar); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); W. van Rhenen (Willem); W.B. Schaufeli (Wilmar)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBurnout has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This relationship may be mediated by a stress-related disruption in cardiac autonomic activity. The aim of the present study was to assess cardiac autonomic activity (sympathetic and parasympathetic) during a work

  19. Autonomous distributed self-organizing and self-healing hardware architecture - The eDNA concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Michael Reibel; Madsen, Jan; Keymeulen, Didier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the autonomous distributed self-organizing and self-healing electronic DNA (eDNA) hardware architecture (patent pending). In its current prototype state, the eDNA architecture is capable of responding to multiple injected faults by autonomously reconfiguri...

  20. Outcomes of bowel program in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuhal Ozisler; Kurtulus Koklu; Sumru Ozel; Sibel Unsal-Delialioglu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine gastrointestinal problems associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients and to assess the efifcacy of bowel program on gas-trointestinal problems and the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Fifty-ifve spinal cord injury patients were included in this study. A bowel program according to the characteristics of neurogenic bowel dysfunction was performed for each patient. Before and after bowel program, gastrointestinal problems (constipation, dififcult intestinal evacuation, incontinence, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, loss of appetite, hemorrhoids, rectal bleeding and gastrointestinal induced autonomic dysrelfexia) and bowel evacuation methods (digital stimulation, oral med-ication, suppositories, abdominal massage, Valsalva maneuver and manual evacuation) were determined. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was used to assess the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. At least one gastrointestinal problem was identiifed in 44 (80%) of the 55 patients before bowel program. Constipation (56%, 31/55) and incontinence (42%, 23/55) were the most common gastrointestinal problems. Digital rectal stimulation was the most common method for bowel evacuation, both before (76%, 42/55) and after (73%, 40/55) bowel program. Oral medication, enema and manual evacuation application rates were signiifcantly decreased and constipation, dififcult intestinal evacuation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain rates were signiifcantly reduced after bowel program. In addition, mean neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was decreased after bowel program. An effective bowel program decreases the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and reduces associated gastrointestinal problems in patients with spinal cord injury.

  1. Outcomes of bowel program in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Ozisler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine gastrointestinal problems associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients and to assess the efficacy of bowel program on gastrointestinal problems and the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Fifty-five spinal cord injury patients were included in this study. A bowel program according to the characteristics of neurogenic bowel dysfunction was performed for each patient. Before and after bowel program, gastrointestinal problems (constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, incontinence, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, loss of appetite, hemorrhoids, rectal bleeding and gastrointestinal induced autonomic dysreflexia and bowel evacuation methods (digital stimulation, oral medication, suppositories, abdominal massage, Valsalva maneuver and manual evacuation were determined. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was used to assess the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. At least one gastrointestinal problem was identified in 44 (80% of the 55 patients before bowel program. Constipation (56%, 31/55 and incontinence (42%, 23/55 were the most common gastrointestinal problems. Digital rectal stimulation was the most common method for bowel evacuation, both before (76%, 42/55 and after (73%, 40/55 bowel program. Oral medication, enema and manual evacuation application rates were significantly decreased and constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain rates were significantly reduced after bowel program. In addition, mean neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was decreased after bowel program. An effective bowel program decreases the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and reduces associated gastrointestinal problems in patients with spinal cord injury.

  2. Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of a "Central" Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger

    1997-01-01

    Sexual behavior involves the complex integration of higher intellectual function, such as associative memory and the experience of drives and motivations, with basic instinctual or reflexive physiological responses coordinated at the spinal level. Previous research in diabetic sexual dysfunction has largely focused on diabetic male erectile dysfunction, emphasizing a peripheral vasculopathy or neuropathy as etiologic factors, although ignoring the more complex neuropsychiatric components of sexual behavior. Following a review of the basic physiology of sexual behavior and evidence in support of a peripheral vasculopathy and/or a peripheral autonomic neuropathy in the cause of diabetic sexual dysfunction, emphasis will then shift to the role of a "central" neuropathy as a contributing component of diabetic sexual dysfunction. Evidence in support of such a view will come from a variety of studies, ranging from basic neuroscience research on forebrain mechanisms of sexual function to the functional brain imaging of human rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a brain state known to be associated with the periodic occurrence of penile tumescence. An integrative perspective of this research will identify major candidate structures within the brain that may be dysfunctional in diabetic patients and may contribute to the profound sexual dysfunction that characterizes this condition. Major findings as well as deficits in our understanding of the effects of diabetes on female sexual dysfunction will also be highlighted, followed by suggestions for future research in this largely understudied area.

  3. The role of autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy in pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Pejičić Snježana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes is strongly associated with macrovascular complications, among which ischemic heart disease is the major cause of mortality. Autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of complications, which calls for an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine both presence and extent of cardiac autonomic neuropathy, in regard to the type of diabetes mellitus, as well as its correlation with coronary disease and major cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. We have examined 90 subjects, classified into three groups, with 30 patients each: those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and control group of healthy subjects. All patients underwent cardiovascular tests (Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing test, response to standing, blood pressure response to standing sustained, handgrip test, electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test and filled out a questionnaire referring to major cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Results. Our results showed that cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was more frequent in type 2 diabetes, manifesting as autonomic neuropathy. In patients with autonomic neuropathy, regardless of the type of diabetes, the treadmill test was positive, i.e. strongly correlating with coronary disease. In regard to coronary disease risk factors, the most frequent correlation was found for obesity and hypertension. Discussion Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is considered to be the principal cause of arteriosclerosis and coronary disease. Our results showed that the occurrence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of coronary disease due to dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Conclusions. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that significantly correlates with coronary disease. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy points to increased cardiovascular risk, providing a basis for preventive

  4. Clinical relevance of fascial tissue and dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, W; Velders, M; Hoppe, K; Pedro, M; Schleip, R

    2014-01-01

    Fascia is composed of collagenous connective tissue surrounding and interpenetrating skeletal muscle, joints, organs, nerves, and vascular beds. Fascial tissue forms a whole-body, continuous three-dimensional viscoelastic matrix of structural support. The classical concept of its mere passive role in force transmission has recently been disproven. Fascial tissue contains contractile elements enabling a modulating role in force generation and also mechanosensory fine-tuning. This hypothesis is supported by in vitro studies demonstrating an autonomous contraction of human lumbar fascia and a pharmacological induction of temporary contraction in rat fascial tissue. The ability of spontaneous regulation of fascial stiffness over a time period ranging from minutes to hours contributes more actively to musculoskeletal dynamics. Imbalance of this regulatory mechanism results in increased or decreased myofascial tonus, or diminished neuromuscular coordination, which are key contributors to the pathomechanisms of several musculoskeletal pathologies and pain syndromes. Here, we summarize anatomical and biomechanical properties of fascial tissue with a special focus on fascial dysfunctions and resulting clinical manifestations. Finally, we discuss current and future potential treatment options that can influence clinical manifestations of pain syndromes associated with fascial tissues.

  5. Philosophical education as a dysfunction of society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to extricate philosophical education from the restrictions of social and school systems and to commend some independent and subversive views. This is to be accomplished through a conceptual dissection of the term ‘education’. On the one hand, there is education seen as transmitter of the tradition, where to be educated is seen as being able to fit into an established community. There is also another education to which the authority of tradition is a permanent target of resistance, always trying to undermine any educational uniformity. This second history of education, genuinely philosophical, is radically opposed to the history of institutionalized mass-education. However, intention of this paper is not to proclaim this as an "alternative" model, or to build it up as a new mythology. On the contrary, it is being written as a history of continuous subversion. Viewed from this vantage point, autonomous philosophical education is not a subsystem of a social system. This education has itself as a measurement, and always resists the wider community (the environment that has accidentally befallen it. Its honor is exactly in this attitude of resistance, in being watchful against any conscription and integration. Understood in this manner, philosophical education is not a useful "implemented" function of society, but is rather its dysfunction.

  6. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years, and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years. We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males, OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males, slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males; for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males; for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males, and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males. Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in

  7. Autonomous mental development in high dimensional context and action spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ameet; Weng, Juyang

    2003-01-01

    Autonomous Mental Development (AMD) of robots opened a new paradigm for developing machine intelligence, using neural network type of techniques and it fundamentally changed the way an intelligent machine is developed from manual to autonomous. The work presented here is a part of SAIL (Self-Organizing Autonomous Incremental Learner) project which deals with autonomous development of humanoid robot with vision, audition, manipulation and locomotion. The major issue addressed here is the challenge of high dimensional action space (5-10) in addition to the high dimensional context space (hundreds to thousands and beyond), typically required by an AMD machine. This is the first work that studies a high dimensional (numeric) action space in conjunction with a high dimensional perception (context state) space, under the AMD mode. Two new learning algorithms, Direct Update on Direction Cosines (DUDC) and High-Dimensional Conjugate Gradient Search (HCGS), are developed, implemented and tested. The convergence properties of both the algorithms and their targeted applications are discussed. Autonomous learning of speech production under reinforcement learning is studied as an example.

  8. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  9. La autonomía personal y la perspectiva comunitarista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez, Silvina

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El presente artículo analiza el planteamiento que algunos autores comunitaristas han hecho de la noción de autonomía personal. En primer lugar centraré la atención en la formulación kantiana de la autonomía y en las posteriores reformulaciones que se han hecho de la propuesta original. En la segunda parte expondré algunos aspectos generales de la teoría comunitarista para luego desarrollar la propuesta de Charles Taylor, específicamente la ética de la autenticidad. En el análisis se destacan los problemas que surgen de entender la autonomía desde la perspectiva de una ética comprehensiva que concibe al sujeto como continuador de una tradición moral colectiva.

  10. Ant Colony Based Path Planning Algorithm for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Gigras

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of an autonomous robotic vehicles demand highly efficient algorithm as well as software. Today’s advanced computer hardware technology does not provide these types of extensive processing capabilities, so there is still a major space and time limitation for the technologies that are available for autonomous robotic applications. Now days, small to miniature mobile robots are required for investigation, surveillance and hazardous material detection for military and industrial applications. But these small sized robots have limited power capacity as well as memory and processing resources. A number of algorithms exist for producing optimal path for dynamically cost. This paper presents a new ant colony based approach which is helpful in solving path planning problem for autonomous robotic application. The experiment of simulation verified its validity of algorithm in terms of time.

  11. Artificial Pheromone System Using RFID for Navigation of Autonomous Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herianto; Toshiki Sakakibara; Daisuke Kurabayashi

    2007-01-01

    Navigation system based on the animal behavior has received a growing attention in the past few years. The navigation systems using artificial pheromone are still few so far. For this reason, this paper presents our research that aim to implement autonomous navigation with artificial pheromone system. By introducing artificial pheromone system composed of data carriers and autonomous robots, the robotic system creates a potential field to navigate their group. We have developed a pheromone density model to realize the function of pheromones with the help of data carriers. We intend to show the effectiveness of the proposed system by performing simulations and realization using modified mobile robot. The pheromone potential field system can be used for navigation of autonomous robots.

  12. Autonomes und interkulturelles Lernen im Fremdsprachenunterricht – unvereinbar oder untrennbar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Börge Boeckmann

    2015-10-01

    The discussion on learner autonomy has intensified considerably in the last two decades, but autonomous learning in the intercultural field has remained a fairly marginal topic. This paper examines  the compatibility of intercultural and autonomous learning and starts by presenting two approaches that come to contradicting conclusions. The hypothesis that both learning fields are compatible, or indeed inseparable, appears better founded and more popular, however. Considering the broad scope of the discussion, the paper continues by focussing on learner-centredness as an important element of autonomy. The rationale for and advantages of learner-centred concepts of teaching and learning are discussed. In reflecting on the application of learner-centred concepts in the field of intercultural competence the emphasis is laid on attitudes as an area of competence. Some examples show how autonomous and intercultural learning can be interlaced in project-type learning tasks.

  13. Autonomic responses to suggestions for cold and warmth in hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, A; Mariauzouls, C; Wyler, F; Bircher, A J; Wyler-Harper, J

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether suggestions for cold or warmth during hypnosis affect fingertip skin temperature. Hypnosis without specific suggestions for cold or warmth ('neutral hypnosis') caused a drop in respiration frequency, however, pulse rate, fingertip skin temperature, and electrodermal activity were not affected. The cold and warmth suggestions decreased and increased fingertip skin temperature, respectively. Compared with the neutral trance phase, the other three autonomic variables measured were also affected by suggestions for cold. However, there was no association between the changes in autonomic variables induced by suggestions and hypnotizability scores measured by the 'Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Adults'. Fingertip skin temperature was mostly affected when the images used for the cold and warmth suggestions during hypnosis included experiences of physical temperature and psychological stress or relaxation, indicating that the psychological content of the imagery amplified the autonomic response.

  14. A novel autonomous self-assembly distributed swarm flying robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hongxing; Li Ning; Liu Miao; Tan Jindong

    2013-01-01

    Swarm intelligence embodied by many species such as ants and bees has inspired scholars in swarm robotic researches.This paper presents a novel autonomous self-assembly distributed swarm flying robot-DSFR,which can drive on the ground,autonomously accomplish self-assembly and then fly in the air coordinately.Mechanical and electrical designs ofa DSFR module,as well as the kinematics and dynamics analysis,are specifically investigated.Meanwhile,this paper brings forward a generalized adjacency matrix to describe configurations of DSFR structures.Also,the distributed flight control model is established for vertical taking-off and horizontal hovering,which can be applied to control of DSFR systems with arbitrary configurations.Finally,some experiments are carried out to testify and validate the DSFR design,the autonomous self-assembly strategy and the distributed flight control laws.

  15. Neural network regulation driven by autonomous neural firings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung Won

    2016-07-01

    Biological neurons naturally fire spontaneously due to the existence of a noisy current. Such autonomous firings may provide a driving force for network formation because synaptic connections can be modified due to neural firings. Here, we study the effect of autonomous firings on network formation. For the temporally asymmetric Hebbian learning, bidirectional connections lose their balance easily and become unidirectional ones. Defining the difference between reciprocal connections as new variables, we could express the learning dynamics as if Ising model spins interact with each other in magnetism. We present a theoretical method to estimate the interaction between the new variables in a neural system. We apply the method to some network systems and find some tendencies of autonomous neural network regulation.

  16. Autonomous Active and Reactive Power Distribution Strategy in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an autonomous active and reactive power distribution strategy that can be applied directly on current control mode (CCM) inverters, being compatible as well with conventional droop-controlled voltage control mode (VCM) converters. In a microgrid, since renewable energy sources...... in a distributed way. Real-time hardware-in-the-loop results are presented to verify the proposed control strategy.......This paper proposes an autonomous active and reactive power distribution strategy that can be applied directly on current control mode (CCM) inverters, being compatible as well with conventional droop-controlled voltage control mode (VCM) converters. In a microgrid, since renewable energy sources...

  17. Towards Competitive Commercial Autonomous Robots: The Configuration Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a framework for configuring the individual components used in component based robot control systems. Using smart parameters that adapt to the respective robot system makes it possible to obtain optimal parameter values while reusing the software components, without expert...... knowledge about the underlying algorithms. The framework also makes it possible for the robot to autonomously calibrate itself, resulting in higher stability of the robot and less development time required. The work is a result of an industrial research project aimed at lowering development costs...... and improving robustness of autonomous robot applications....

  18. Autonomous economic operation of grid connected DC microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    . The scheme can be realized with the local information (terminal voltages and currents) without centralized controller and high bandwidth communication links. Microgrid voltage can be maintained within the define limit (±5%), which, if required, can be restored back to the nominal value through the proposed......This paper presents an autonomous power sharing scheme for economic operation of grid-connected DC microgrid. Autonomous economic operation approach has already been tested for standalone AC microgrids to reduce the overall generation cost and proven a simple and easier to realize compared...

  19. Turning a remotely controllable observatory into a fully autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Scott; Johnson, Chris; Gabor, Paul; Zareba, Grzegorz; Kubánek, Petr; Prouza, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We describe a complex process needed to turn an existing, old, operational observatory - The Steward Observatory's 61" Kuiper Telescope - into a fully autonomous system, which observers without an observer. For this purpose, we employed RTS2,1 an open sourced, Linux based observatory control system, together with other open sourced programs and tools (GNU compilers, Python language for scripting, JQuery UI for Web user interface). This presentation provides a guide with time estimates needed for a newcomers to the field to handle such challenging tasks, as fully autonomous observatory operations.

  20. Experiences in Benchmarking of Autonomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchevers, Xavier; Coupaye, Thierry; Vachet, Guy

    Autonomic computing promises improvements of systems quality of service in terms of availability, reliability, performance, security, etc. However, little research and experimental results have so far demonstrated this assertion, nor provided proof of the return on investment stemming from the efforts that introducing autonomic features requires. Existing works in the area of benchmarking of autonomic systems can be characterized by their qualitative and fragmented approaches. Still a crucial need is to provide generic (i.e. independent from business, technology, architecture and implementation choices) autonomic computing benchmarking tools for evaluating and/or comparing autonomic systems from a technical and, ultimately, an economical point of view. This article introduces a methodology and a process for defining and evaluating factors, criteria and metrics in order to qualitatively and quantitatively assess autonomic features in computing systems. It also discusses associated experimental results on three different autonomic systems.

  1. Markers of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin P Davies

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED, the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients.

  2. Psychoanalysis: a dysfunctional family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskurth, P

    1998-01-01

    The discussion opens with an account of the author's mother's bizarre family in which a strong, charismatic grandmother maintained absolute control over her large family by encouraging a neurotic dependence in them through daily reports of their complaints. Getting interested in psychoanalysis in an effort to understand the dynamics of this dysfunctional family, the author, a biographer, turned to the study of Melanie Klein, becoming entranced by her ideas. Her research also revealed how Klein had discouraged her followers from developing ideas that diverged in any way from her own. Her portrait of the pioneer analyst provoked intense indignation. A similar pattern of absolute loyalty to his person and theories was to be found in Freud's Secret Committee, formed primarily as a means of getting rid of Jung who had been showing disturbing signs of independence. When Ferenczi and Rank began to pursue independent lines of enquiry in their work, they too were though to be undermining the foundations of classical psychoanalysis. Finally, the author concludes that though there have been sorry incidents in psychoanalysis, we should be mature enough to accept both the contributions of the early pioneers and the realizations that new ideas must be permitted to evolve.

  3. DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Diastolic heart failure is an underestimated pathology. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that HF with a preserved ejection fraction will become the more common form of HF which clinicians will encounter. Symptomatic treatment focuses on the reduction in pulmonary congestion and the improvement in LV filling. Specific treatment is actually lacking, but encouraging data are emerging concerning the use of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis blockers, nitric oxide donors, or, very recently, new agents specifically targeting actin–myosin cross-bridges. It is generally considered to have a somewhat better prognosis than systolic HF, but frequency of hospitalizations is comparable in systolic and diastolic HF. 1 Despite the recognition of its importance, definition and diagnostic criteria of diastolic dysfunction and diastolic HF remain controversial. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This review focus of definition, diagnosis and management of diastolic heart failure with it prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We have studied various guidelines, articles, reviews using given keywords, along with our experience in management of diastolic heart failure in 2015. The articles and the references were reviewed keeping in mind about the simplified management offered to the patient.

  4. Endothelial dysfunction: EDCF revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAUL M Vanhoutte

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cells can initiate contraction (constriction) of the vascular smooth muscle cells that surround them. Such endothelium-dependent, acute increases in contractile tone can be due to the withdrawal of the production of nitric oxide, to the production of vasoconstrictor peptides (angiotensin Ⅱ, endothelin-1), to the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals(superoxide anions) and/or the release of vasoconstrictor metabolites of arachidonic acid. The latter have been termed endothelium-derived contracting factor (EDCF) as they can contribute to moment-to-moment changes in contractile activity of the underlying vascular smooth muscle cells. To judge from animal experiments, EDCF-mediated responses are exacerbated when the production of nitric oxide is impaired as well as by aging, spontaneous hypertension and diabetes. To judge from human studies, they contribute to the blunting of endothelium-dependent vasodilatations in aged subjects and essential hypertensive patients. Since EDCF causes vasoconstriction by activation of the TP-receptors on the vascular smooth muscle cells, selective antagonists at these receptors prevent endothelium-dependent contractions, and curtail the endothelial dysfunction in hypertension and diabetes.

  5. Chaos control on autonomous and non-autonomous systems with various types of genetic algorithm-optimized weak perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, C.Y. [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cysoong@fcu.edu.tw; Huang, W.T. [Department of Marine Mechanical Engineering, Chinese Naval Academy, Kaohsiung 81300, Taiwan (China); Lin, F.P. [Grid Computing Division, National Center of High Performance Computing, Hsinchu 30012, Taiwan (China)

    2007-12-15

    Recently, we proposed a chaos control strategy with weak Fourier signals optimized by using a genetic algorithm (GA) and demonstrated its merits in controlling Lorenz and Roessler systems (Physical Review E, 2004). In this continuation work, performance of various types of signals, namely periodic continuous, periodic discrete, and constant bias (non-periodic), applied to an autonomous (Roessler) system and a non-autonomous (Murali-Lakshmanan-Chua, MLC) system are investigated. An index of relative robustness is proposed for measuring the noise-resisting ability of the control signals. The results reveal that the constant signal has the strongest noise-resisting ability, the periodic pulse signal has the weakest, and the Fourier signal falls in between. Phase modulation generally shortens the transient time period and is additionally beneficial to non-autonomous systems in minimizing significantly the signal power. By searching with the present GA-optimization, it is demonstrated that the minimum-power signal for controlling the non-autonomous (MLC) system is the signal with a frequency exactly the same as that of the system forcing but with phase modulation. The effectiveness of the GA-optimized signals of extremely low power employed in alternatively switching control of non-autonomous systems is also demonstrated.

  6. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Yong Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

  7. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L

    2014-01-01

    implications of muscle dysfunction in cancer patients. The efficacy of exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate cancer-related muscle dysfunction is also discussed. DESIGN: We identified 194 studies examining muscular outcomes in cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Muscle......, be powered to evaluate clinical outcomes associated with improvements in muscle function, or be promoted in advanced stage settings, aiming to reverse cancer-related muscle dysfunction, and thus potentially improve time-to-progression, treatment toxicity and survival....

  8. Strapping for temporomandibular joint dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD is a common problem seen in many of the dental clinics. Management of this depends on an accurate diagnosis of the cause for the TMJD. Physical therapy and rehabilitation play a vital role in the management of these dysfunctions. Physical therapy is useful in treating post-traumatic stiffness of the TMJ while strapping of the TMJ for a dysfunction along with conventional physical therapy is of benefit in terms of reduction in click, decrease in pain, and an improvement in function.

  9. Strapping for temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; John, Sandhya Mary; Unni, Amith

    2008-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) is a common problem seen in many of the dental clinics. Management of this depends on an accurate diagnosis of the cause for the TMJD. Physical therapy and rehabilitation play a vital role in the management of these dysfunctions. Physical therapy is useful in treating post-traumatic stiffness of the TMJ while strapping of the TMJ for a dysfunction along with conventional physical therapy is of benefit in terms of reduction in click, decrease in pain, and an improvement in function.

  10. New insights into the pathology of Parkinson's disease: does the peripheral autonomic system become central?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, A; Bloch, A; Tolnay, M

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies in aged, neurologically unimpaired subjects have pointed to a specific induction site of the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the region of the dorsal glossopharyngeus-vagus complex as well as in the anterior olfactory nucleus. From the lower brainstem, the disease process would then pursue an ascending course and involve more rostral brainstem areas, limbic structures, and eventually the cerebral cortex. One barrier to the acceptance of the caudal medullary structures as the induction site of PD pathology is that not all parts of the nervous system have been investigated for the presence of PD-associated lesions in cases of early asymptomatic PD. Using alpha-synuclein immunostaining, we investigated the brain, the sacral, and thoracic autonomic nuclei of the spinal cord as well as several components of the peripheral autonomic nervous system in a autopsy cohort of 98 neurologically unimpaired subjects aged 64 or more. Our data indicate that the autonomic nuclei of the spinal cord and the peripheral autonomic nervous system belong to the most constantly and earliest affected regions next to medullary structures and the olfactory nerves in neurologically unimpaired older individuals, thus providing a pathological basis for early premotor autonomic dysfunctions at a prodromal stage of PD.

  11. Cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Liu; Dongmei Chen; Yonggang Wang; Xin Zhao; Yang Zheng

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves and to explore the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia.DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based retrieval was performed for papers examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerves, using "heart, autonomic nerve, sympathetic nerve, vagus nerve, nerve distribution, rhythm and atrial fibrillation" as the key words.SELECTION CRITERIA: A total of 165 studies examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerve were screened, and 46 of them were eventually included.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The distribution and characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves were observed, and immunohistochemical staining was applied to determine the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase (main markers of cardiac autonomic nerve distribution). In addition, the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and cardiac arrhythmia was investigated.RESULTS: Cardiac autonomic nerves were reported to exhibit a disordered distribution in different sites, mainly at the surface of the cardiac atrium and pulmonary vein, forming a ganglia plexus. The distribution of the pulmonary vein autonomic nerve was prominent at the proximal end rather than the distal end, at the upper left rather than the lower right, at the epicardial membrane rather than the endocardial membrane, at the left atrium rather than the right atrium, and at the posterior wall rather than the anterior wall. The main markers used for cardiac autonomic nerves were tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase. Protein gene product 9.5 was used to label the immunoreactive nerve distribution, and the distribution density of autonomic nerves was determined using a computer-aided morphometric analysis system.CONCLUSION: The uneven distribution of the cardiac autonomic nerves is the leading cause of the occurrence of arrhythmia, and the cardiac autonomic nerves play an important role in the

  12. Erectile dysfunction in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Gorsane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a common problem seen among patients on hemodialysis (HD, but it is still a taboo subject in our country. The attention given to this sexual problem remained low, and the prevalence of ED among these patients has not been well characterized. We carried out this study in order to determine the prevalence and severity of ED in HD patients. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in our HD unit in March 2013. ED was evaluated using the International Index Erection Function. Thirty patients with a mean age of 49.1 years were eligible for this study. The main causes of chronic kidney disease were hypertension (62.5% and diabetes (41.6%. The prevalence of ED was 80%, including 33.3% severe ED. Plasma levels of gonadotropins: luteinizing hormone (LH, follicule-stimulating hormone were in the standards except for one patient who had an elevated level of LH. Prolactin was elevated in four cases. ED was present in 8.4% of patients before the discovery of renal failure and in 91.6% of patients at the beginning of dialysis. For 19 patients (79.1%, the ED had increased during the dialysis sessions. A significant number of our HD patients presented with ED of varying degrees. Nephrologists should pay attention to the problem of ED in order to improve the quality of their life.

  13. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  14. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    applications. One notable example of such missions are those to explore for the existence of water on planets such as Mars and the moons of Jupiter. It is clear that water does not exist on the surfaces of such bodies, but may well be located at some considerable depth below the surface, thus requiring a subsurface drilling capability. Subsurface drilling on planetary surfaces will require a robust autonomous control and analysis system, currently a major challenge, but within conceivable reach of planned technology developments. This paper will focus on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations, including flight test results, lessons learned, and implications for the future. An additional focus will be on technologies for planetary exploration using autonomous systems and astronaut-assistance systems that employ new spoken language technology. Topics to be presented will include a description of key autonomous control concepts, illustrated by the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will also be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. Current results of autonomous planetary drilling system research will be presented. A key thrust within NASA is to develop technologies that will leverage the capabilities of human astronauts during planetary surface explorations. One such technology is spoken dialogue interfaces, which would allow collaboration with semi-autonomous agents that are engaged in activities that are normally accomplished using language, e.g., astronauts in space suits interacting with groups of semi-autonomous rovers and other

  15. An Adaptive Game Algorithm for an Autonomous, Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Bak, Thomas; Risager, Claus

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a field study of a physical ball game for elderly based on an autonomous, mobile robot. The game algorithm is based on Case Based Reasoning and adjusts the game challenge to the player’s mobility skills by registering the spatio-temporal behaviour of the player using an on boa...

  16. Cost-Prioritized Droop Schemes for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two cost-prioritized droop sche- mes for distributed generators (DGs) in a rural or islanded microgrid. Dispatch prioritization of the schemes allows autonomous identification of the appropriate DGs for generation, in accordance to the overall load conditions of the microgrid....

  17. Guidance and control for an autonomous soaring UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides a practical method for UAVs to take advantage of thermals in a manner similar to piloted aircrafts and soaring birds. In general, the invention is a method for a UAV to autonomously locate a thermal and be guided to the thermal to greatly improve range and endurance of the aircraft.

  18. Methylglyoxal promotes oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Cristina M; Matafome, Paulo; Crisóstomo, Joana; Rodrigues, Lisa; Fernandes, Rosa; Pereira, Paulo; Seiça, Raquel M

    2012-05-01

    Modern diets can cause modern diseases. Research has linked a metabolite of sugar, methylglyoxal (MG), to the development of diabetic complications, but the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate whether MG could directly influence endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammation in Wistar and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Wistar and GK rats treated with MG in the drinking water for 3 months were compared with the respective control rats. The effects of MG were investigated on NO-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated rat aortic arteries from the different groups. Insulin resistance, NO bioavailability, glycation, a pro-inflammatory biomarker monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular oxidative stress were also evaluated. Methylglyoxal treated Wistar rats significantly reduced the efficacy of NO-dependent vasorelaxation (pMethylglyoxal treated GK rats significantly aggravated endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, AGEs accumulation and diminished NO bioavailability when compared with control GK rats. These results indicate that methylglyoxal induced endothelial dysfunction in normal Wistar rats and aggravated the endothelial dysfunction present in GK rats. The mechanism is at least in part by increasing oxidative stress and/or AGEs formation with a concomitant increment of inflammation and a decrement in NO bioavailability. The present study provides further evidence for methylglyoxal as one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of macrovascular diabetic complication.

  19. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy

    2011-01-01

    in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests....... diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, 2. detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, OH, nondipping, QT interval prolongation), 3. risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 4. modulation of targets of diabetes therapy......Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...

  20. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper...... investigates the missing links and gaps between the research and developments efforts and the real-world application requirements, in order to bring the AIMM technology from laboratories to manufacturing environments. The investigation is based on 12 general application requirements for robotics......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry...

  1. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    of, and perhaps will not be tolerated in, manmade critical systems. Although this paper does not directly address questions of ethics associated...political, ethical , and moral issues associated with the use of autonomous systems in warfare will be debated long after the technology hurdles to...accessible discussion on the interplay of biochemistry, genetics and embryology in animal evolution; Wagner, 2005 describes biological concepts of

  2. Cognitive dysfunction in spinocerebellar ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    Full Text Available Abstract Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs comprise a heterogeneous group of complex neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the presence of progressive cerebellar ataxia, associated or otherwise with ophthalmoplegia, pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal features, pigmentary retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Objective: To verify the presence of cognitive dysfunction among the main types of SCA described in the literature. Methods: the review was conducted using the search system of the PUBMED and OMIM databases. Results: Cognitive dysfunction occurs in a considerable proportion of SCA, particularly in SCA 3, which is the most frequent form of SCA worldwide. Dementia has been described in several other types of SCA such as SCA 2, SCA 17 and DRPLA. Mental retardation is a specific clinical feature of SCA 13. Conclusions: The role of the cerebellum in cognitive functions has been observed in different types of SCAs which can manifest varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction, dementia and mental retardation.

  3. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  4. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  5. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  6. Unmanned vehicle mobility: Limits of autonomous navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormac, A. W.; Hanna, D. M.; McFee, J.

    Considerable research is being conducted on the development of unmanned vehicles for military and civilian applications, particularly for hostile environments. It is desirable to produce a vehicle which can select its own route, not requiring remote navigation, but then it would be required to sense its surroundings. Although imaging systems and modern computers make this possible, the extreme data processing demands usually make it impractical. It is suggested that an inverse relationship exists between vehicle mobility and the complexity of the autonomous navigation system required for an unmanned vehicle. An overview of vehicle navigation is presented which shows the degree to which navigation is affected by increasing inherent mobility. If the inherent mobility of a vehicle is greatly enhanced, the scene image processing requirements and navigational computations are greatly simplified. This means the vehicle path selection and speed and steering adjustments may be made more quickly, resulting in higher vehicle speeds whenever possible. Combined with reduced deviation from the intended path, this would greatly increase the speed of the vehicle from one given point to another, suggesting that high speed autonomous navigation may be feasible.

  7. Safety analysis of autonomous excavator functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, D.; Pace, C.; Morrey, R.; Sommerville, I

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents an account of carrying out a hazard analysis to define the safety requirements for an autonomous robotic excavator. The work is also relevant to the growing generic class of heavy automated mobile machinery. An overview of the excavator design is provided and the concept of a safety manager is introduced. The safety manager is an autonomous module responsible for all aspects of system operational safety, and is central to the control system's architecture. Each stage of the hazard analysis is described, i.e. system model creation, hazard definition and hazard analysis. Analysis at an early stage of the design process, and on a system that interfaces directly to an unstructured environment, exposes certain issues relevant to the application of current hazard analysis methods. The approach taken in the analysis is described. Finally, it is explained how the results of the hazard analysis have influenced system design, in particular, safety manager specifications. Conclusions are then drawn about the applicability of hazard analysis of requirements in general, and suggestions are made as to how the approach can be taken further.

  8. Brain networks during free viewing of complex erotic movie: new insights on psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Cera

    Full Text Available Psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED is defined as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain adequate penile erection due predominantly or exclusively to psychological or interpersonal factors. Previous fMRI studies were based on the common occurrence in the male sexual behaviour represented by the sexual arousal and penile erection related to viewing of erotic movies. However, there is no experimental evidence of altered brain networks in psychogenic ED patients (EDp. Some studies showed that fMRI activity collected during non sexual movie viewing can be analyzed in a reliable manner with independent component analysis (ICA and that the resulting brain networks are consistent with previous resting state neuroimaging studies. In the present study, we investigated the modification of the brain networks in EDp compared to healthy controls (HC, using whole-brain fMRI during free viewing of an erotic video clip. Sixteen EDp and nineteen HC were recruited after RigiScan evaluation, psychiatric, and general medical evaluations. The performed ICA showed that visual network (VN, default-mode network (DMN, fronto-parietal network (FPN and salience network (SN were spatially consistent across EDp and HC. However, between-group differences in functional connectivity were observed in the DMN and in the SN. In the DMN, EDp showed decreased connectivity values in the inferior parietal lobes, posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas in the SN decreased and increased connectivity was observed in the right insula and in the anterior cingulate cortex respectively. The decreased levels of intrinsic functional connectivity principally involved the subsystem of DMN relevant for the self relevant mental simulation that concerns remembering of past experiences, thinking to the future and conceiving the viewpoint of the other's actions. Moreover, the between group differences in the SN nodes

  9. Brain Networks during Free Viewing of Complex Erotic Movie: New Insights on Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cera, Nicoletta; Di Pierro, Ezio Domenico; Ferretti, Antonio; Tartaro, Armando; Romani, Gian Luca; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain adequate penile erection due predominantly or exclusively to psychological or interpersonal factors. Previous fMRI studies were based on the common occurrence in the male sexual behaviour represented by the sexual arousal and penile erection related to viewing of erotic movies. However, there is no experimental evidence of altered brain networks in psychogenic ED patients (EDp). Some studies showed that fMRI activity collected during non sexual movie viewing can be analyzed in a reliable manner with independent component analysis (ICA) and that the resulting brain networks are consistent with previous resting state neuroimaging studies. In the present study, we investigated the modification of the brain networks in EDp compared to healthy controls (HC), using whole-brain fMRI during free viewing of an erotic video clip. Sixteen EDp and nineteen HC were recruited after RigiScan evaluation, psychiatric, and general medical evaluations. The performed ICA showed that visual network (VN), default-mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal network (FPN) and salience network (SN) were spatially consistent across EDp and HC. However, between-group differences in functional connectivity were observed in the DMN and in the SN. In the DMN, EDp showed decreased connectivity values in the inferior parietal lobes, posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas in the SN decreased and increased connectivity was observed in the right insula and in the anterior cingulate cortex respectively. The decreased levels of intrinsic functional connectivity principally involved the subsystem of DMN relevant for the self relevant mental simulation that concerns remembering of past experiences, thinking to the future and conceiving the viewpoint of the other’s actions. Moreover, the between group differences in the SN nodes suggested a

  10. Transient renal dysfunction with reversible splenial lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Matsuda, Tomoka; Kitagata, Ryoichi; Tajima, Iwao; Ono, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Keiko; Shirai, Masami; Endoh, Akira; Hongo, Teruaki

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 6-month-old boy with transient renal dysfunction who had an intensified signal in the splenium of the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging. He presented to hospital with fever and sudden disturbance of consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not show pleocytosis. The mild consciousness disturbance disappeared after 30 min, but the splenial signal persisted even after 8 days. Further, renal glucosuria, increased excretion of select amino acids, and abnormal fractional excretion of electrolytes were observed, indicating renal tubular dysfunction. The abnormal urinary findings spontaneously resolved by day 9 of hospitalization. The splenial lesion took 21 days to normalize. There were no signs of neurological complications 2 months later. This case suggests the possibility of renal involvement in splenial lesions.

  11. Recognition and Management of Nonrelaxing Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Faubion, Stephanie S.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction is not widely recognized. Unlike in pelvic floor disorders caused by relaxed muscles (eg, pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence, both of which often are identified readily), women affected by nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction may present with a broad range of nonspecific symptoms. These may include pain and problems with defecation, urination, and sexual function, which require relaxation and coordination of pelvic floor muscles and urinary and ...

  12. Internet-Based Interventions for Women’s Sexual Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lankveld, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the methodology and results of the first decade of research into Internet-based interventions for women’s sexual dysfunction. The interventions, retrieved in a literature search, were mostly well grounded on common theoretical models of sexual dysfunction and psychological disorders, and most ingredients of the interventions were theory-informed. Most interventions offered Web-based therapeutic content within a more or less preprogrammed structure. Most ...

  13. Hypothalamic dysfunction following whole-brain irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechanick, J.I.; Hochberg, F.H.; LaRocque, A.

    1986-10-01

    The authors describe 15 cases with evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction 2 to 9 years following megavoltage whole-brain x-irradiation for primary glial neoplasm. The patients received 4000 to 5000 rads in 180- to 200-rad fractions. Dysfunction occurred in the absence of computerized tomography-delineated radiation necrosis or hypothalamic invasion by tumor, and antedated the onset of dementia. Fourteen patients displayed symptoms reflecting disturbances of personality, libido, thirst, appetite, or sleep. Hyperprolactinemia (with prolactin levels up to 70 ng/ml) was present in all of the nine patients so tested. Of seven patients tested with thyrotropin-releasing hormone, one demonstrated an abnormal pituitary gland response consistent with a hypothalamic disorder. Seven patients developed cognitive abnormalities. Computerized tomography scans performed a median of 4 years after tumor diagnosis revealed no hypothalamic tumor or diminished density of the hypothalamus. Cortical atrophy was present in 50% of cases and third ventricular dilatation in 58%. Hypothalamic dysfunction, heralded by endocrine, behavioral, and cognitive impairment, represents a common, subtle form of radiation damage.

  14. An Autonomous Omnidirectional Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available RoboCup is an international research and education initiative, which aims to foster artificial intelligence and robotics research by using competitive soccer as a standard problem. This paper presents a detailed engineering design process and the outcome for an omni-directional mobile robot platform for the Robocup Middle Size League competition. A prototype that can move omnidirectionally with kicking capability was designed, built, and tested by a group of senior students. The design included a mechanical base, pneumatic kicking mechanism, a DSP microcontroller-based control system, various sensor interfacing units, and the analysis of omnidirectional motions. The testing results showed that the system was able to move omnidirectionally with a speed of ∼2 m/s and able to kick a size 5 FIFA soccer ball for a distance of at least 5 meters.

  15. Learning Phrasal Verbs Autonomously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Moore Hanna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design process of a learning object (LO for the acquisition of phrasal verbs (PVs in English, which are a particularly difficult aspect of English as a Foreign Language (EFL for many learners. As such, learners can benefit from the provision of greater opportunities for practice in this area. The PV problem is approached as a semantic rather than a syntactic problem, and so the LO aims to present the learner with contextualized, meaningful practice of PVs with a view to developing independent learning skills. The paper discusses the twin problems of PV use in different language styles (formal vs. informal and the polysemy of PVs, both of which have been found to contribute directly to learner difficulty (Side, 1990; Dempsey, McCarthy & McNamara, 2007. The way in which the LO attempts to resolve these issues is described in the hope that other materials developers may find them useful.

  16. A comparative study of lipid profile and autonomic functions in vegetarian and non-vegetarian postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dyslipedaemia, autonomic dysfunction leading to cardiovascular diseases, increases with menopause and an ageing population. Autonomic dysfunction as measured by lower heart rate variability is an established risk factor for cardiac death. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases and are also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: To compare lipid profile and autonomic functions of postmenopausal women on vegetarian and non- vegetarian diet. Materials and Methods: 120 Postmenopausal women (menopausal duration and age-matched without any gross systemic disease from an Industrial population were selected. Sixty women were on vegetarian diet and 60 on non-vegetarian diet. BMI and waist/hip ratios were calculated, lipid profile was analyzed, and autonomic function tests were carried out. A comparison was done between the two groups using Students t test. Pearson′s correlation coefficient was calculated between the independent variable (lipid profile parameters and the dependent variables (deep breath test, valsalva ratio, 30:15 ratio, OTT, IHG, CPT to understand the effect of lipid profile on autonomic control of heart. Results : Significant increases in total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, cholesterol/HDL ratio were noticed in women on non-vegetarian diet. Results of autonomic function tests, i.e. valsalva ratio, deep breath test, 30: 15R-R intervals ratio, isometric hand grip test, cold pressor test, and orthostatic tolerance test were significantly worsened in postmenopausal women on non-vegetarian diet. Conclusion: Dietary factors may be an important cause of alteration of lipid metabolism. Increased cholesterol decreases heart rate variability and increased LDL cholesterol decreases baroreceptor sensitivity thereby worsening autonomic functions in postmenopausal women.

  17. Sleep apnoea and metabolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Bonsignore

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is a highly prevalent condition often associated with central obesity. In the past few years, several studies have analysed the potential independent contribution of OSA to the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities, including type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. New perspectives in OSA patient care have been opened by the promotion of lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise programmes that could improve both OSA and the metabolic profile. The rich clinical literature on this subject, together with the growing amount of data on pathophysiological mechanisms provided by animal studies using the chronic intermittent hypoxia model, urged the organising Committee of the Sleep and Breathing meeting to organise a session on sleep apnoea and metabolic dysfunction, in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. This review summarises the state-of-the-art lectures presented in the session, more specifically the relationship between OSA and diabetes, the role of OSA in the metabolic consequences of obesity, and the effects of lifestyle interventions on nocturnal respiratory disturbances and the metabolic profile in OSA patients.

  18. IED blast postconcussive syncope and autonomic dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Richard; LaBrie, D Walter; Norris, Jacob; Schauer, Judy; Frantz, Earl

    2012-01-01

    Concussions are the most frequent battle injury sustained in Afghanistan. The Concussion Restoration Care Center provides multidisciplinary care to concussed service members in theater. The Concussion Restoration Care Center has managed over 500 concussions, the majority being from improvised explosive device (IED) blasts. Syncope following a concussion without a loss of consciousness is rarely reported in the literature. The pathophysiology of concussion from a blast injury may be distinct from a concussion secondary to blunt trauma. Two cases of syncope following concussions with an alteration of consciousness are presented, and a mechanism of action is proposed. Post-IED blast concussive symptom frequency at initial presentation on a cohort of patients is reported, with 1.3% of patients experiencing postconcussive syncope. Syncope following an IED blast may be related to centrally mediated autonomic dysregulation at the brain stem level. Syncope should be added to the list of possible symptoms that occur following concussions, in particular concussions following a blast injury.

  19. Autonomous driving in NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The automatic analysis of NMR data has been a much-desired endeavour for the last six decades, as it is the case with any other analytical technique. This need for automation has only grown as advances in hardware; pulse sequences and automation have opened new research areas to NMR and increased the throughput of data. Full automatic analysis is a worthy, albeit hard, challenge, but in a world of artificial intelligence, instant communication and big data, it seems that this particular fight is happening with only one technique at a time (let this be NMR, MS, IR, UV or any other), when the reality of most laboratories is that there are several types of analytical instrumentation present. Data aggregation, verification and elucidation by using complementary techniques (e.g. MS and NMR) is a desirable outcome to pursue, although a time-consuming one if performed manually; hence, the use of automation to perform the heavy lifting for users is required to make the approach attractive for scientists. Many of the decisions and workflows that could be implemented under automation will depend on the two-way communication with databases that understand analytical data, because it is desirable not only to query these databases but also to grow them in as much of an automatic manner as possible. How these databases are designed, set up and the data inside classified will determine what workflows can be implemented. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Endothelial dysfunction in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Maria Dolores; Aldasoro, Martin; Ortega, Joaquin; Vila, José María

    2013-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a chronic multifunctional disease characterized by an accumulation of fat. Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction, as defined by an imbalance between relaxing and contractile endothelial factors, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of these cardiometabolic diseases. Diminished bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) contributes to endothelial dysfunction and impairs endothelium- dependent vasodilatation. But this is not the only mechanism that drives to endothelial dysfunction. Obesity has been associated with a chronic inflammatory process, atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress. Moreover levels of asymmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), are elevated in obesity. On the other hand, increasing prostanoid-dependent vasoconstriction and decreasing vasodilator prostanoids also lead to endothelial dysfunction in obesity. Other mechanisms related to endothelin-1 (ET-1) or endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) have been proposed. Bariatric surgery (BS) is a safe and effective means to achieve significant weight loss, but its use is limited only to patients with severe obesity including morbid obesity. BS also proved efficient in endothelial dysfunction reduction improving cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities associated with morbid obesity such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. This review will provide a brief overview of the mechanisms that link obesity with endothelial dysfunction, and how weight loss is a cornerstone treatment for cardiovascular comorbidities obesity-related. A better understanding of the mechanisms of obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction may help develop new therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.