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Sample records for autonomic denervation

  1. Short-Term Autonomic Denervation of the Atria Using Botulinum Toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seil; Choi, Eue-Keun; Choi, Yun-Shik

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Major epicardial fat pads contain cardiac ganglionated plexi (GP) of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic denervation may improve the success rate of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. This study was designed to elucidate the acute effects of blocking the right atrium-pulmonary vein (RA-PV) and left atrium-inferior vena cava (LA-IVC) fat pads on the electrophysiologic characteristics of the atrium and AF inducibility with a botulinum toxin injection. Materials and...

  2. Renal denervation in an animal model of diabetes and hypertension: Impact on the autonomic nervous system and nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Ubiratan F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of renal denervation on cardiovascular reflexes and markers of nephropathy in diabetic-hypertensive rats have not yet been explored. Methods Aim: To evaluate the effects of renal denervation on nephropathy development mechanisms (blood pressure, cardiovascular autonomic changes, renal GLUT2 in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Forty-one male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR ~250 g were injected with STZ or not; 30 days later, surgical renal denervation (RD or sham procedure was performed; 15 days later, glycemia and albuminuria (ELISA were evaluated. Catheters were implanted into the femoral artery to evaluate arterial pressure (AP and heart rate variability (spectral analysis one day later in conscious animals. Animals were killed, kidneys removed, and cortical renal GLUT2 quantified (Western blotting. Results Higher glycemia (p vs. nondiabetics (p vs. SHR. Conclusions Renal denervation in diabetic-hypertensive rats improved previously reduced heart rate variability. The GLUT2 equally overexpressed by diabetes and renal denervation may represent a maximal derangement effect of each condition.

  3. Adrenergic receptors are a fallible index of adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Anders; Liggett, S B; Christensen, N J; Cryer, P E; Hilsted, J

    1991-01-01

    diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Regardless of the mechanism of adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity in such patients, these data provide further evidence that measurements of cellular adrenergic receptors (and adenylate cyclase) in vitro are a fallible index of sensitivity to catecholamines in vivo....

  4. Eligibility for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after a th...

  5. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  6. Denervation of the wrist joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck-Gramcko, D

    1977-01-01

    A collective review was made of the results of denervation of the wrist joint for painful restrictiorn of motion done in 313 patients and follow-up studies on 195 (average 4.1 years, ranging from 9 months to 14 years). Complete denervation was done in only 30, partial denervation in the others being done after testing with local anesthetic blocks. Sixty-nine of the patients retained a moble wrist without pain or with slight pain with heavy work. No evidence of Charcot-like joints was seen. Poorest results followed when the operation was done for sequelae of intra-articular fracture of the radius, fracture dislocations, unstable ligamentous support, joint surface destruction, or for those required to do heavy manual labor. Arthrodesis was done secondarily in nine patients. PMID:839055

  7. Glucose turnover during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in liver-denervated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Sonne, B; Richter, Erik;

    1985-01-01

    The role of hepatic autonomic nerves in glucose production during hypoglycemia was studied. Selective, surgical denervation of the liver was performed in rats, which reduced hepatic norepinephrine concentrations by 96%. Hypoglycemia was induced by 250 mU of insulin intra-arterially in anesthetized...... concentration and rates of production and utilization of glucose were similar in denervated rats and control rats. Also hepatic glycogen depletion was similar in the groups. The lack of effect of denervation could not be ascribed to compensating changes in hormone or substrate levels. In adrenodemedullated rats...... lack of glucose recovery from hypoglycemia was accompanied by delayed normalization of glucose clearance. In fed rats, activity in hepatic autonomic nerves is not a primary mechanism increasing glucose production during acute hypoglycemia. Epinephrine enhances glucose recovery by decreasing glucose...

  8. Reversible bladder denervation in acute polyradiculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Andersen, J T

    1982-01-01

    A case of reversible bladder denervation in acute polyradiculitis is presented, in which both motor and sensory bladder involvement could be demonstrated using cystometry and denervation-hypersensitivity testing. Attention is drawn to the differential diagnosis to cauda equina syndromes of other...

  9. Renal Denervation: a Field in Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffin, Luke J; Bakris, George L

    2016-07-01

    SYMPLICITY HTN-3 was a pivotal moment for renal denervation as a treatment option for resistant hypertension. Prior unblinded studies were called into question given the negative results of the first sham-controlled trial of renal denervation. Reevaluation of the renal denervation procedure demonstrated that a more precise approach was needed to adequately denervate the kidney. This new approach has been implemented in two ongoing clinical trials, one on and one off medications to assess the new procedure's efficacy and safety. These and other ongoing trials will be discussed in the context of older studies in this field. We focus on novel findings published following the release of SYMPLICITY HTN-3 data in early 2014 and look to the future of renal denervation in the treatment of primary hypertension. PMID:27245681

  10. Effects of Renal Sympathetic Denervation on 24-hour Blood Pressure Variability

    OpenAIRE

    AxelBauer; PetraBarthel

    2012-01-01

    Background: In patients with arterial hypertension, increased blood pressure (BP) variability contributes to end organ damage independently from mean levels of arterial BP. Increased BP variability has been linked to alterations in autonomic function including sympathetic overdrive. We hypothesized that catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) confers beneficial effects on BPV. Methods and Results: Eleven consecutive patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension (age 6...

  11. Stunned myocardium and sympathetic denervation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical relationship between stunned myocardium and the sympathetic nervous system, 6 patients who had stunned myocardium accompanied by T wave inversion underwent simultaneous 123I-metaiodobenzyl guanidine (MIGB) scintigraphy and thallium scintigraphy. All patients showed abnormal filling defects on the MIBG scintigrams in the areas with stunned myocardium, but the thallium scintigrams were almost normal. The extent of the defects in these 6 patients was determined on the MIBG scintigrams using a Bull's eye display. The defects were found to be larger than those in 4 patients with angina pectoris, and those in 4 patients who had previously shown T wave inversion but had a normal electrocardiogram at the time of examination. Thus, it is suggested that sympathetic denervation is one of the mechanisms causing stunned myocardium. (author)

  12. Asystole after Orthotopic Lung Transplantation: Examining the Interaction of Cardiac Denervation and Dexmedetomidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Allen-John Webb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dexmedetomidine is an α2-receptor agonist commonly used for sedation and analgesia in ICU patients. Dexmedetomidine is known to provide sympatholysis and also to have direct atrioventricular and sinoatrial node inhibitory effects. In rare instances, orthotopic lung transplantation has been associated with disruption of autonomic innervation of the heart. The combination of this autonomic disruption and dexmedetomidine may be associated with severe bradycardia and/or asystole. Since orthotopic lung transplant patients with parasympathetic denervation will not respond with increased heart rate to anticholinergic therapy, bradyarrhythmias must be recognized and promptly treated with direct acting beta agonists to avoid asystolic cardiac events.

  13. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consigny, Paul M., E-mail: paul.consigny@av.abbott.com; Davalian, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.davalian@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Innovation Incubator (United States); Donn, Rosy, E-mail: rosy.donn@av.abbott.com; Hu, Jie, E-mail: jie.hu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Bioanalytical and Material Characterization (United States); Rieser, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.j.rieser@abbvie.com; Stolarik, DeAnne, E-mail: deanne.f.stolarik@abbvie.com [Abbvie, Analytical Pharmacology (United States)

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  14. Imaging of denervation in the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com

    2010-05-15

    Denervation changes maybe the first sign of a cranial nerve injury. Recognition of denervation patterns can be used to determine the site and extent of a lesion and to tailor imaging studies according to the most likely location of an insult along the course of the affected cranial nerve(s). In addition, the extent of denervation can be used to predict functional recovery after treatment. On imaging, signs of denervation can be misleading as they often mimic recurrent neoplasm or inflammatory conditions. Imaging can both depict denervation related changes and establish its cause. This article briefly reviews the anatomy of the extracranial course of motor cranial nerves with particular emphasis on the muscles supplied by each nerve, the imaging features of the various stages of denervation, the different patterns of denervation that maybe helpful in the topographic diagnosis of nerve lesions and the most common causes of cranial nerve injuries leading to denervation.

  15. Changes following denervation to the masseter muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Masseter muscle nerve is often injured in mandible osteotomy. What changes in food intake and masseter muscle will be brought after masseter muscle nerve injury?OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to selectively establish animal models of denervated masseter muscle and investigate the effects of severing masseter muscular nerve on masseter muscle and animal's food intake. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled animal experiment was performed at the Laboratory Animal Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from September to November 2005. MATERIALS: A total of 50 healthy, adult, SPF-grade, New Zealand rabbits, of both genders, were used to develop an animal model of selectively denervated masseter muscle.METHODS: Five rabbits were randomly selected as normal controls. According to various mutilation methods, the remaining animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, with 15 rabbits in each group: masseter muscular neural stem denervated, masseter muscular neural superior branch-denervated, and masseter muscular neural inferior branch-denervated groups. Self-control comparison was performed on each animal. The right masseter muscle served as the experimental side, and the left masseter muscle served as the control side. In each group, 3 time points (2, 8, and 24 weeks post-surgery) were allotted for observation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At the pre-set time points, masseter muscular thickness was measured with a Logic 500 color Doppler ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus. Masseter muscle tissue was resected for hematoxylin eosin staining. Masseter muscular fiber diameter and area were measured with an optical microscope. Masseter muscle tissue was sectioned and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium oxidoreductase (NADH-TR) and adenosine triphosphatase staining were performed. Following staining, the sections were quantitatively analyzed using an IBAS200 image analyzer.RESULTS: Post-surgery food intake: No abnormal

  16. Cytokine responses during chronic denervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Tomas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to examine inflammatory responses during Wallerian degeneration in rat peripheral nerve when the regrowth of axons was prevented by suturing. Methods Transected rat sciatic nerve was sutured and ligated to prevent reinnervation. The samples were collected from the left sciatic nerve distally and proximally from the point of transection. The endoneurium was separated from the surrounding epi- and perineurium to examine the expression of cytokines in both of these compartments. Macrophage invasion into endoneurium was investigated and Schwann cell proliferation was followed as well as the expression of cytokines IL-1β, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA. The samples were collected from 1 day up to 5 weeks after the primary operation. Results At days 1 to 3 after injury in the epi-/perineurium of the proximal and distal stump, a marked expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β and of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was observed. Concurrently, numerous macrophages started to gather into the epineurium of both proximal and distal stumps. At day 7 the number of macrophages decreased in the perineurium and increased markedly in the endoneurium of both stumps. At this time point marked expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA was observed in the endo- and epi-/perineurium of the proximal stump. At day 14 a marked increase in the expression of IL-1β could be noted in the proximal stump epi-/perineurium and in the distal stump endoneurium. At that time point many macrophages were observed in the longitudinally sectioned epineurium of the proximal 2 area as well as in the cross-section slides from the distal stump. At day 35 TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 mRNA appeared abundantly in the proximal epi-/perineurium together with macrophages. Conclusion The present studies show that even during chronic denervation there is a cyclic expression pattern for the studied cytokines. Contrary to the

  17. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in the denervated heart

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eisenberger, M.; Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Vítovec, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 4 (2004), s. 145. ISSN 0006-9248. [Alpe Adria Cardiology Meeting /12./. 01.05.2004, Cividale del Fuiuli] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0402 Keywords : denervated heart * RSA * HRV Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  18. Renal denervation for resistant hypertension: no.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Stefano; Dal Canto, Elisa; Bruno, Rosa Maria

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, catheter-based radiofrequency denervation of the renal arteries (RDN) has emerged as a potential treatment for resistant hypertension. Though initial non-randomized and randomized small studies demonstrate large reductions in office blood pressure, RDN superiority to conventional treatment is not confirmed either by randomized controlled trials or by large international registries. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that a rational pharmacological therapeutic scheme is equally or more effective; this approach, together with an intervention aimed at increasing patient's compliance with treatment, might solve most of the cases of refractory hypertension. Thus, based on current evidence, renal denervation should not be routinely used to treat resistant hypertension. Though the possibility that RDN might be useful in other subsets of hypertensive patients exists, it has never been proven. Thus, its use should be limited to extreme situations, when all other possible treatments have failed. PMID:27001888

  19. Renale Denervation: Schweizer Erfahrungen im Langzeitverlauf

    OpenAIRE

    Sudano, I; Battegay, E; Erne, P; Luscher, T F

    2015-01-01

    Despite great advances in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of patients with arterial hypertension, a significant proportion of patients do not reach the target values suggested by the guidelines. A therapy-resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure above the suggested target values despite an antihypertensive therapy with three medications at maximal dosis, including a diuretic. The renal denervation is a new and promising method for the treatment of refractory art...

  20. Eligibility for renal denervation: experience at 11 European expert centers

    OpenAIRE

    Persu, A.; Jin, Y.; Baelen, M; Vink, E.; Verloop, W. L.; Schmidt, B.; Blicher, M. K.; Severino, F; Wuerzner, G; Taylor, A.; Pechere-Bertschi, A; Jokhaji, F; Fadl Elmula, F. E. M.; Rosa, J; D. Czarnecka

    2014-01-01

    Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after a thorough work-up and treatment adjustment remains scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation and the reasons for noneligibility at 11 expe...

  1. Neurohumoral indicators of efficacy radiofrequency cardiac denervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, A. V.; Evtushenko, V. V.; Saushkina, Yu. V.; Lishmanov, Yu. B.; Pokushalov, E. A.; Sergeevichev, D. S.; Gusakova, A. M.; Suslova, T. E.; Dymbrylova, O. N.; Bykov, A. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Kistenev, Yu. V.; Anfinogenova, Ya. D.; Smyshlyaev, K. A.; Lotkov, A. I.; Kurlov, I. O.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we compared pre- and postoperative parameters of the cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to examine the approaches to evaluating the quality of radiofrequency (RF)-induced cardiac denervation by using non-invasive and laboratory methods. The study included 32 people with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the objectives of the study: group 1 (main) - 21 patients with mitral valve diseases, which simultaneously with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) AF carried out on the effects of the paraganglionic nervous plexuses by C. Pappone (2004) and N. Doll (2008) schemes. The second group (control) contained 11 patients with heart diseases in sinus rhythm (the RF denervation not been performed). All patients, who underwent surgical treatment, were received examination of cardiac sympathetic tone by using 123I-MIBG. All of them made blood analysis from ascending aorta and coronary sinus to determine the level of norepinephrine and its metabolites before and after cardiac denervation. Data of radionuclide examination are correlating with laboratory data.

  2. Neurohumoral indicators of efficacy radiofrequency cardiac denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtushenko, A. V., E-mail: ave@cardio-tomsk.ru; Evtushenko, V. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Research Institute for Cardiology”, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Saushkina, Yu. V.; Gusakova, A. M.; Suslova, T. E.; Dymbrylova, O. N.; Smyshlyaev, K. A.; Kurlov, I. O. [Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Research Institute for Cardiology”, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lishmanov, Yu. B.; Anfinogenova, Ya. D. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Research Institute for Cardiology”, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sergeevichev, D. S. [Academician E.N. Meshalkin State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bykov, A. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Kistenev, Yu. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lotkov, A. I. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Pokushalov, E. A.

    2015-11-17

    In this study, we compared pre- and postoperative parameters of the cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to examine the approaches to evaluating the quality of radiofrequency (RF)-induced cardiac denervation by using non-invasive and laboratory methods. The study included 32 people with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the objectives of the study: group 1 (main) - 21 patients with mitral valve diseases, which simultaneously with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) AF carried out on the effects of the paraganglionic nervous plexuses by C. Pappone (2004) and N. Doll (2008) schemes. The second group (control) contained 11 patients with heart diseases in sinus rhythm (the RF denervation not been performed). All patients, who underwent surgical treatment, were received examination of cardiac sympathetic tone by using {sup 123}I-MIBG. All of them made blood analysis from ascending aorta and coronary sinus to determine the level of norepinephrine and its metabolites before and after cardiac denervation. Data of radionuclide examination are correlating with laboratory data.

  3. Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-agonist, retards atrophy in denervated muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2) agonist, clenbuterol, on the protein content as well as on the contractile strength and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area of various denervated muscles from rats were investigated. It was found that denervated soleus, anterior tibialis, and gastrocnemius muscles, but not the extensor digitorum longus, of rats treated for 2-3 weeks with clenbuterol contained 95-110 percent more protein than denervated controls. The twofold difference in the protein content of denervated solei was paralleled by similar changes in contractile strength and muscle fiber cross-sectional area.

  4. MR imaging of the denervated skeletal muscles in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyung Guhn; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Lee, Sung Ah; Lee, Kang Mo; Kim, Seon Gu; Park, Dong Sik; Choi, See Sung; Roh, Byung Suk; Kim, Chang Guhn; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To determine the time of magnetic resonance(MR) signal intensity changes in denervated skeletal muscle and to compare MR imaging with electromyography(EMG) in the evaluation of peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated MR imagings of denervated muscles after experimental transection of the sciatic nerve in five rabbits using 1.0T MR unit. MR imaging and EMG were performed 3 days and 1, 2 and 3 weeks after denervation T1-weighted images(T1-WI), T2-WI and Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) images were obtained. The signal intensity (SI) of muscles in the denervated and normal sides were visually and quantitatively compared. After measuring the SI of the normal and abnormal areas, the time of SI change was determined when there was significant difference (P< 0.05) of SI between the normal and denervated sides. On STIR images, two of the five rabbits showed significant SI changes at the third day (P< 0.05) and all showed significant changes (P< 0.05) at the first week. On T2-WI, one rabbit showed significant SI changes at the third day, and all showed significant SI changes at the first week. On T1-WI, significant SI changes were seen in one rabbit at the second week and in one at the third. One week after denervation, all showed denervation potential on EMG. This study suggests that MR imaging using STIR images is a useful method in the evaluation of denervated muscle, and that MR signal changes of denervated muscle may precede EMG changes after denervation. To localize and to determine the severity of the peripheral nerve injury, future analysis of the distribution of abnormal MR SI in denervated muscles would be helpful.

  5. MR imaging of the denervated skeletal muscles in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the time of magnetic resonance(MR) signal intensity changes in denervated skeletal muscle and to compare MR imaging with electromyography(EMG) in the evaluation of peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated MR imagings of denervated muscles after experimental transection of the sciatic nerve in five rabbits using 1.0T MR unit. MR imaging and EMG were performed 3 days and 1, 2 and 3 weeks after denervation T1-weighted images(T1-WI), T2-WI and Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) images were obtained. The signal intensity (SI) of muscles in the denervated and normal sides were visually and quantitatively compared. After measuring the SI of the normal and abnormal areas, the time of SI change was determined when there was significant difference (P< 0.05) of SI between the normal and denervated sides. On STIR images, two of the five rabbits showed significant SI changes at the third day (P< 0.05) and all showed significant changes (P< 0.05) at the first week. On T2-WI, one rabbit showed significant SI changes at the third day, and all showed significant SI changes at the first week. On T1-WI, significant SI changes were seen in one rabbit at the second week and in one at the third. One week after denervation, all showed denervation potential on EMG. This study suggests that MR imaging using STIR images is a useful method in the evaluation of denervated muscle, and that MR signal changes of denervated muscle may precede EMG changes after denervation. To localize and to determine the severity of the peripheral nerve injury, future analysis of the distribution of abnormal MR SI in denervated muscles would be helpful

  6. Selective peripheral denervation : comparison with pallidal stimulation and literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Bosch, D. Andries; Schuurman, P. Richard; Speelman, Johannes D.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cervical dystonia who are non-responders to Botulinum toxin qualify for surgery. Selective peripheral denervation (Bertrand's procedure, SPD) and deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus (GPi-DBS) are available surgical options. Although peripheral denervation has potential advant

  7. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  8. Hemodynamic and ventilatory response to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid body-denervated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo J. Sabino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chemoreceptors play an important role in the autonomic modulation of circulatory and ventilatory responses to changes in arterial O2 and/or CO2. However, studies evaluating hemodynamic responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in rats have shown inconsistent results. Our aim was to evaluate hemodynamic and respiratory responses to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in conscious intact or carotid body-denervated rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ligature of carotid body arteries (or sham-operation and received catheters into the left femoral artery and vein. After two days, each animal was placed into a plethysmographic chamber and, after baseline measurements of respiratory parameters and arterial pressure, each animal was subjected to three levels of hypoxia (15, 10 and 6% O2 and hypercapnia (10% CO2. RESULTS: The results indicated that 15% O2 decreased the mean arterial pressure and increased the heart rate (HR in both intact (n = 8 and carotid body-denervated (n = 7 rats. In contrast, 10% O2did not change the mean arterial pressure but still increased the HR in intact rats, and it decreased the mean arterial pressure and increased the heart rate in carotid body-denervated rats. Furthermore, 6% O2 increased the mean arterial pressure and decreased the HR in intact rats, but it decreased the mean arterial pressure and did not change the HR in carotid body-denervated rats. The 3 levels of hypoxia increased pulmonary ventilation in both groups, with attenuated responses in carotid body-denervated rats. Hypercapnia with 10% CO2 increased the mean arterial pressure and decreased HR similarly in both groups. Hypercapnia also increased pulmonary ventilation in both groups to the same extent. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the hemodynamic and ventilatory responses varied according to the level of hypoxia. Nevertheless, the hemodynamic and ventilatory responses to hypercapnia did not depend on the

  9. Perlecan and synaptophysin changes in denervated skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Ma; Zhifeng Huang; Jianfeng Ma; Longquan Shao; Huiming Wang; Yanliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    The present study observed sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius muscle changes in denervated rats using morphology methods, and assessed expression of perlecan, an extracellular matrix com-ponent, which is located at the skeletal muscle cell surface as acetylcholine esterase, as well as synaptophysin, a synaptic marker. Results showed degeneration and inflammation following transection of the sciatic nerve. In addition, the sciatic nerve-dominated skeletal muscle degen-erated with mild inflammation, indicating that skeletal muscle atrophy primarily contributed to denervation-induced nutritional disturbances. With prolonged injury time (1-4 weeks post-injury), perlecan expression gradually decreased and reached the lowest level at 4 weeks, but synap-tophysin expression remained unchanged after denervation. Results suggested that perlecan expression was more sensitive to denervation and reflected regional extracellular matrix changes following denervation.

  10. Cardiovascular, metabolic, and hormonal responses to noradrenaline in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Anders; Andersen, P; Hvidberg, A;

    1996-01-01

    resistance, glucose kinetics, metabolites (beta-hydroxybuturate, glycerol, and lactate), and glucoregulatory hormones (noradrenaline, adrenaline, growth hormone, pancreatic polypeptide, cortisol, and insulin). Systolic and mean blood pressure increased in all groups but diabetic patients with autonomic......Denervation hypersensitivity is a well-known phenomenon in patients with autonomic failure. In diabetic autonomic neuropathy hypersensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation has been demonstrated. We infused noradrenaline, mainly an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in three escalating doses (0.5, 2...

  11. Renal denervation: a new therapeutic approach for resistant hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Longxing; Fu Qiang; Wang Binghui; Li Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the advances in studies on renal denervation.Data sources References concerning renal denervation and resistant hypertension cited in this review were collected from PubMed published in English and those of renal denervation devices from official websites of device manufacturers up to January 2014.Study selection Articles with keywords "renal denervation" and "resistant hypertension" were selected.Results Renal and systemic sympathetic overactivity plays an important role in pathology of hypertension as well as other diseases characterized by sympathetic overactivity.Renal denervation is a new,catheter based procedure to reduce renal and systemic sympathetic overactivity by disruption of renal sympathetic efferent and afferent nerves through radiofrequency or ultrasound energy delivered to the endoluminal surface of both renal arteries.Although several studies have shown the efficacy and safety of renal denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension and the potential benefit of the procedure in other diseases,Symplicity HTN 3 study,the most rigorous clinical trial of renal denervation to date,failed to meet its primary endpoint.The procedure also has other limitations such as the lack of long term,efficacy and safety data and the lack of the predictors for the blood pressure lowering response and nonresponse to the procedure.An overview of current renal denervation devices holding Conformité Européenne mark is also included in this review.Conclusions Renal denervation is a promising therapeutic approach in the management of resistant hypertension and other diseases characterized by sympathetic overactivity.In its early stage of clinical application,the efficacy of the procedure is still controversial.Large scale,blind,randomized,controlled clinical trials are still necessary to address the limitations of the procedure.

  12. Renal denervation: Results of a single-center cohort study; Renale Denervation. Ergebnisse einer Single-Center Kohortenstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetkens, J.A.; Thomas, D.; Doerner, J.; Schild, H.H.; Naehle, C.P. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wilhelm, K. [Johanniter Hospital, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Duesing, R. [Hypertension Center, Bonn (Germany); Woitas, R.P.; Hundt, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine I

    2015-01-15

    To investigate the effect of renal denervation on office-based and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) in a highly selective patient population with drug-resistant hypertension. Patients with drug resistant hypertension eligible for renal denervation were included in the study population. Office blood pressure and ABPM were assessed prior to and after renal denervation. To detect procedure related renal or renal artery damage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) were performed pre-interventional, one day post-interventional, and one month after renal denervation. Mean follow-up time between renal denervation and blood pressure re-assessment was 9.5 ± 3.9 months. Between August 2011 and March 2013, 17 patients prospectively underwent renal denervation. Pre-interventional mean office blood pressure and ABPM were 177.3 ± 20.3/103.8 ± 20.4 mmHg and 155.2 ± 20.5/93.7 ± 14.5 mmHg, respectively. Post-interventional, office blood pressure was significantly reduced to 144.7 ± 14.9/89.5 ± 12.1 (p < 0.05). ABPM values remained unchanged (147.9 ± 20.3/90.3 ± 15.6, p > 0.05). The number of prescribed antihypertensive drugs was unchanged after renal denervation (4.7 ± 2.0 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, p = 0.18). No renovascular complications were detected in follow-up MRI. After renal denervation, no significant decrease in ABPM was observed. These results may indicate a limited impact of renal denervation for drug resistant hypertension.

  13. Effect of salbutamol on innervated and denervated rat soleus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?oic-Vranic T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to perform a 14-day time-course study of treatment with salbutamol, a ß2 adrenoceptor agonist, on rat soleus muscle in order to assess fiber type selectivity in the hypertrophic response and fiber type composition. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (N = 10, treated with salbutamol (N = 30, denervated (N = 30, and treated with salbutamol after denervation (N = 30. Salbutamol was injected intraperitoneally in the rats of the 2nd and 4th groups at a concentration of 0.3 mg/kg twice a day for 2 weeks. The muscles were denervated using the crush method with pean. The animals were sacrificed 3, 6, 9, 12, and 14 days after treatment. Frozen cross-sections of soleus muscle were stained for myosin ATPase, pH 9.4. Cross-sectional area and percent of muscle fibers were analyzed morphometrically by computerized image analysis. Treatment with salbutamol induced hypertrophy of all fiber types and a higher percentage of type II fibers (21% in the healthy rat soleus muscle. Denervation caused marked atrophy of all fibers and conversion from type I to type II muscle fibers. Denervated muscles treated with salbutamol showed a significantly larger cross-sectional area of type I muscle fibers, 28.2% compared to the denervated untreated muscle. Moreover, the number of type I fibers was increased. These results indicate that administration of salbutamol is able to induce changes in cross-sectional area and fiber type distribution in the early phase of treatment. Since denervation-induced atrophy and conversion from type I to type II fibers were improved by salbutamol treatment we propose that salbutamol, like other ß2 adrenoceptor agonists, may have a therapeutic potential in improving the condition of skeletal muscle after denervation.

  14. Respiratory neuroplasticity following carotid body denervation Central and peripheral adaptations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R. Hodges; Hubert V. Forster

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the role of the carotid bodies in ventilatory control has been understated, but the current view suggests that the carotid bodies (1) provide a tonic, facilitory input to the respiratory network, (2) serve as the major site of peripheral O2 chemoreception and minor contributor to CO2/H+ chemoreception, and (3) are required for ventilatory adaptation to high altitude. Each of these roles has been demonstrated in studies of ventilation in mammals after carotid body denervation. Following carotid body denervation, many of the compromised ventilatory "functions" show a time-dependent recovery plasticity that varies in the degree of recovery and time required for recovery. Respiratory plasticity following carotid body denervation is also dependent on species, with contributions from peripheral and central sites/mechanisms driving the respiratory plasticity. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the data pointing to peripheral and central mechanisms of plasticity following carotid body denervation. We speculate that after carotid body denervation there are altered excitatory and/or inhibitory neuromodulator mechanisms that contribute to the initial respiratory depression and the subsequent respiratory plasticity, and further suggest that the continued exploration of central effects of carotid body denervation might provide useful information regarding the capacity of the respiratory network for plasticity following neurologic injury in humans.

  15. Functional Echomyography of the human denervated muscle: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Zanato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we followed with ultrasound three patients with permanent denervation to evaluate changes in morphology, thickness, contraction and vascularisation of muscles undergoing the home-based electrical stimulation program of the Rise2-Italy project. During a period of 1 year for the first subject, 6 months for the second subject and 3 months for the third subject we studied with ultrasound the denervated muscle comparing it (if possible to the contralateral normal muscle. We evaluated: 1. Changes in morphology and sonographic structure of the pathologic muscle; 2. Muscular thickness in response to the electrical stimulation therapy; 3. Short-term modifications in muscle perfusion and arterial flow patterns after stimulation; 4. Contraction-relaxation kinetic induced by volitional activity or electrical stimulation. Morphology and ultrasonographic structure of the denervated muscles changed during the period of stimulation from a pattern typical of complete muscular atrophy to a pattern which might be considered “normal” when detected in an old patient. Thickness improved significantly more in the middle third than in the proximal and distal third of the denervated muscle, reaching in the last measurements of the first subject approximately the same thickness as the contralateral normal muscle. In all the measurements done within this study, arterial flow of the denervated muscle showed at rest a low-resistance pattern with Doppler Ultra Sound (US, and a pulsed pattern after electrical stimulation. The stimulation- induced pattern is similar to the trifasic high-resistance pattern of the normal muscle. Contraction- relaxation kinetic, measured by recording the muscular movements during electrical stimulation, showed an abnormal behaviour of the denervated muscle during the relaxation phase, which resulted to be significantly longer than in normal muscle (880 msec in the denervated muscle vs 240 msec in the contralateral normal one

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of mouse skeletal muscle to measure denervation atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiangyang; Zhang, Gang; Morrison, Brett; Mori, Susumu; Sheikh, Kazim A.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the potential of different MRI measures to detect and quantify skeletal muscle changes with denervation in two mouse models of denervation/neurogenic atrophy. Acute complete denervation and chronic partial denervation were examined in calf muscles after sciatic nerve axotomy and in transgenic SOD1G93A mice, respectively. Serial T2, diffusion tensor, and high resolution anatomical images were acquired, and compared to behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological data. Increas...

  17. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  18. Impact of unilateral denervation on transdiaphragmatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Luther C; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2015-05-01

    The diaphragm muscle (DIAm) has a large reserve capacity for force generation such that in rats, the transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) generated during ventilatory behaviors is less than 50% of maximal Pdi (Pd(imax)) elicited by bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation. Accordingly, we hypothesized that following unilateral denervation (DNV), the ability of the contralateral DIAm to generate sufficient Pdi to accomplish ventilatory behaviors will not be compromised and normal ventilation (as determined by arterial blood gas measurements) will not be impacted, although neural drive to the DIAm increases. In contrast, we hypothesized that higher force, non-ventilatory behaviors requiring Pdi generation greater than 50% of Pd(imax) will be compromised following DIAm hemiparalysis, i.e., increased neural drive cannot fully compensate for lack of force generating capacity. Pdi generated during ventilatory behaviors (eupnea and hypoxia (10% O2)-hypercapnia (5% CO2)) did not change after DNV and arterial blood gases were unaffected by DNV. However, neural drive to the contralateral DIAm, assessed by the rate of rise of root mean squared (RMS) EMG at 75 ms after onset of inspiratory activity (RMS75), increased after DNV (p<0.05). In contrast, Pdi generated during higher force, non-ventilatory behaviors was significantly reduced after DNV (p < 0.01), while RMS75 was unchanged. These findings support our hypothesis that only non-ventilatory behaviors requiring Pdi generation greater than 50% of Pd(imax) are impacted after DNV. Clinically, these results indicate that an evaluation of DIAm weakness requires examination of Pdi across multiple motor behaviors, not just ventilation. PMID:25641347

  19. Glucose metabolism in rats submitted to skeletal muscle denervation

    OpenAIRE

    Wilton Marlindo Santana Nunes; Maria Alice Rostom de Mello

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzed the local and systemic effects of immobilization by denervation of the skeletal muscle on glucose metabolism. The rats were submitted to section of the right paw sciatic nerve. A reduction was observed in glucose uptake by the isolated soleus muscle of the denervated paw after 3 and 7 days, but not after 28 days in relation to the control animals. There was no difference after 3 and 7 days in glucose uptake by the soleus muscle of the opposite intact paw in relation to the...

  20. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Nerve transection increased Notch signaling in paralyzed muscle. → Nandrolone prevented denervation-induced Notch signaling. → Nandrolone induced the expression of an inhibitor of the Notch signaling, Numb. → Reduction of denervation-induced Notch signaling by nandrolone is likely through upregulation of Numb. -- Abstract: Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.

  1. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Hua [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C. [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Kirschenbaum, Alexander [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Qin, Weiping [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Bauman, William A. [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher P., E-mail: chris.cardozo@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Nerve transection increased Notch signaling in paralyzed muscle. {yields} Nandrolone prevented denervation-induced Notch signaling. {yields} Nandrolone induced the expression of an inhibitor of the Notch signaling, Numb. {yields} Reduction of denervation-induced Notch signaling by nandrolone is likely through upregulation of Numb. -- Abstract: Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.

  2. Hyperresponders vs. nonresponder patients after renal denervation: do they differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Persu, Alexandre; Azizi, Michel; Jin, Yu; Volz, Sebastian; Rosa, Jan; Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M.; Pechere-Bertschi, Antoinette; Burnier, Michel; Patrick B. Mark; Elvan, Arif; Renkin, Jean; Sapoval, Marc; Kahan, Thomas; Kjeldsen, Sverre; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) response after renal denervation (RDN) is highly variable. Besides baseline BP, no reliable predictors of response have been consistently identified. The differences between patients showing a major BP decrease after RDN vs. nonresponders have not been studied so far.

  3. Effects of myenteric denervation on extracellular matrix fibers and mast cell distribution in normal stomach and gastric lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Estofolete Cássia F; Botelho-Machado Carla; Taboga Sebastião R; Zucoloto Sérgio; Polli-Lopes Ana; Gil Cristiane D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study the effect of myenteric denervation induced by benzalconium chloride (BAC) on distribution of fibrillar components of extracellular matrix (ECM) and inflammatory cells was investigated in gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Rats were divided in four experimental groups: non-denervated (I) and denervated stomach (II) without MNNG treatment; non-denervated (III) and denervated stomachs (IV) treated with MNNG. For histo...

  4. Glucose metabolism in rats submitted to skeletal muscle denervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Marlindo Santana Nunes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the local and systemic effects of immobilization by denervation of the skeletal muscle on glucose metabolism. The rats were submitted to section of the right paw sciatic nerve. A reduction was observed in glucose uptake by the isolated soleus muscle of the denervated paw after 3 and 7 days, but not after 28 days in relation to the control animals. There was no difference after 3 and 7 days in glucose uptake by the soleus muscle of the opposite intact paw in relation to the control. There was increased glucose uptake in the same paw 28 days after denervation. The rate of glucose removal in response to exogenous insulin after 28 days of denervation was significantly higher than in control animals and those observed after 3 and 7 days of denervation. These results suggest that immobilization by denervation interfered not only in glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle involved but also in other tissues.O estudo analisou os efeitos locais e sistêmicos da imobilização por desnervação do músculo esquelético sobre o metabolismo glicidico. Ratos foram submetidos à secção do nervo ciático da pata direita. Observou-se redução da captação de glicose pelo músculo sóleo isolado da pata desnervada após 3 e 7 mas não após 28 dias em relação a animais controle. Não houve diferença após 3 e 7 dias na captação de glicose pelo músculo sóleo da pata contralateral intacta em relação ao controle. Houve aumento da captação de glicose nesta mesma pata 28 dias após a desnervação. A taxa de remoção da glicose em resposta à insulina exógena após 28 dias de desnervação foi significantemente superior à do controle e àquelas observadas após 3 e 7 dias da desnervação. Esses resultados sugerem que a imobilização por desnervação interfere não só no metabolismo da glicose no músculo esquelético envolvido como também em outros tecidos.

  5. Renal sympathetic denervation for the treatment of refractory hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kui Toh Gerard; Walton, Antony; Krum, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Resistant hypertension poses significant health concerns. There are strong demands for new and safe therapies to control resistant hypertension while addressing its common causes, specifically poor compliance to lifelong polypharmacy, lifestyle modifications, and physician inertia. The sympathetic nervous system plays a significant pathophysiological role in hypertension. Surgical sympathectomy for blood pressure reduction is an old but extremely efficacious therapeutic concept, now abandoned with the dawn of a safer contemporary pharmacology era. Recently, clinical studies have revealed promising results for safe and sustained blood pressure reduction with percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation. This is a novel, minimally invasive, device-based therapy, specifically targeting and ablating the renal artery nerves with radiofrequency waves without permanent implantation. There are also reported additional benefits in related comorbidities, such as impaired glucose metabolism, renal impairment, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and others. This review focuses on how selective renal sympathetic denervation works, its present and potential therapeutic indications, and its future directions. PMID:24422574

  6. Cardiac sympathetic denervation preceding motor signs in Parkinson disease

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, David S.; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Karp, Barbara I.; Bentho, Oladi; Saleem, Ahmed; Pacak, Karel; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    There is substantial interest in identifying biomarkers to detect early Parkinson disease (PD). Cardiac noradrenergic denervation and attenuated baroreflex-cardiovagal function occur in de novo PD, but whether these abnormalities can precede PD has been unknown. Here we report the case of a patient who had profoundly decreased left ventricular myocardial 6-[18F]fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity and low baroreflex-cardiovagal gain, 4 years before the onset of symptoms and signs of PD. The r...

  7. Hibernating myocardium results in partial sympathetic denervation and nerve sprouting

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley F. Fernandez; Ovchinnikov, Vladislav; Canty, John M.; Fallavollita, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Hibernating myocardium due to chronic repetitive ischemia is associated with regional sympathetic nerve dysfunction and spontaneous arrhythmic death in the absence of infarction. Although inhomogeneity in regional sympathetic innervation is an acknowledged substrate for sudden death, the mechanism(s) responsible for these abnormalities in viable, dysfunctional myocardium (i.e., neural stunning vs. sympathetic denervation) and their association with nerve sprouting are unknown. Accordingly, ma...

  8. Perivascular Cells Increase Expression of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Following Partial Denervation of the Rat Neurohypophysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, David; SunRhodes, Neil; Watt, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was investigated immunocytochemically during the axonal degeneration and collateral axonal sprouting response that follows partial denervation of the rat neurohypophysis. A significant increase in the number of CNTF-immunoreactive (CNTF-ir) cells was observed in the neurohypophysis of partially denervated animals compared to age-matched sham-operated controls by 5 days post-denervation, remaining elevated throughout the 30 day post denervat...

  9. Persistent muscle fiber regeneration in long term denervation. Past, present, future

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Ugo; Boncompagni, Simona; Gobbo, Valerio; Rossini, Katia; Zampieri, Sandra; Mosole, Simone; Ravara, Barbara; Nori, Alessandra; Stramare, Roberto; Ambrosio, Francesco; Piccione, Francesco; Masiero, Stefano; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Gargiulo, Paolo; Protasi, Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ravages of long term denervation there is structural and ultrastructural evidence for survival of muscle fibers in mammals, with some fibers surviving at least ten months in rodents and 3–6 years in humans. Further, in rodents there is evidence that muscle fibers may regenerate even after repeated damage in the absence of the nerve, and that this potential is maintained for several months after denervation. While in animal models permanently denervated muscle sooner or later loses...

  10. Persistent muscle fiber regeneration in long term denervation. Past, present, future

    OpenAIRE

    Ugo Carraro; Simona Boncompagni; Valerio Gobbo; Katia Rossini; Sandra Zampieri; Simone Mosole; Barbara Ravara; Alessandra Nori; Roberto Stramare; Francesco Ambrosio; Francesco Piccione; Stefano Masiero; Vincenzo Vindigni; Paolo Gargiulo; Feliciano Protasi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ravages of long term denervation there is structural and ultrastructural evidence for survival of muscle fibers in mammals, with some fibers surviving at least ten months in rodents and 3-6 years in humans. Further, in rodents there is evidence that muscle fibers may regenerate even after repeated damage in the absence of the nerve, and that this potential is maintained for several months after denervation. While in animal models permanently denervated muscle sooner or later loses...

  11. Denervation Causes Fiber Atrophy and Myosin Heavy Chain Co-Expression in Senescent Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon L Rowan; Rygiel, Karolina; Purves-Smith, Fennigje M.; Solbak, Nathan M.; Turnbull, Douglas M.; Hepple, Russell T.

    2012-01-01

    Although denervation has long been implicated in aging muscle, the degree to which it is causes the fiber atrophy seen in aging muscle is unknown. To address this question, we quantified motoneuron soma counts in the lumbar spinal cord using choline acetyl transferase immunhistochemistry and quantified the size of denervated versus innervated muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle using the in situ expression of the denervation-specific sodium channel, Nav1.5, in young adult (YA) and senes...

  12. CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defining the origin of low back pain is a challenging task. Among a variety of factors the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a possible pain generator, although precise diagnosis is difficult. Joint blocks may reduce pain, but are, in cases, of only temporary effect. This study was conducted to evaluate CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint in patients with low back pain. The procedure was performed on 38 patients who only temporarily responded to CT-guided SIJ blocks. The denervation was carried out in the posterior interosseous sacroiliac ligaments and on the dorsal rami of the fifth spinal nerve. All interventions were carried out under CT guidance as out-patient therapies. Three months after the therapy, 13 patients (34.2%) were completely free of pain. Twelve patients (31.6%) reported on a substantial pain reduction, 7 patients (18.4%) had obtained a slight and 3 patients (7.9%) no pain reduction. The data of 3 patients (7.9%) was missing. There were no intra- or postoperative complications. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint appears safe and effective. The procedure may be a useful therapeutic modality, especially in patients with chronic low back pain, who only temporarily respond to therapeutic blocks. (orig.)

  13. CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevargez, A.; Schirp, S.; Braun, M. [Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, University of Witten/Herdecke, Bochum (Germany); Groenemeyer, D. [Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, University of Witten/Herdecke, Bochum (Germany); EFMT Development and Research Center for Microtherapy, Bochum (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Defining the origin of low back pain is a challenging task. Among a variety of factors the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a possible pain generator, although precise diagnosis is difficult. Joint blocks may reduce pain, but are, in cases, of only temporary effect. This study was conducted to evaluate CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint in patients with low back pain. The procedure was performed on 38 patients who only temporarily responded to CT-guided SIJ blocks. The denervation was carried out in the posterior interosseous sacroiliac ligaments and on the dorsal rami of the fifth spinal nerve. All interventions were carried out under CT guidance as out-patient therapies. Three months after the therapy, 13 patients (34.2%) were completely free of pain. Twelve patients (31.6%) reported on a substantial pain reduction, 7 patients (18.4%) had obtained a slight and 3 patients (7.9%) no pain reduction. The data of 3 patients (7.9%) was missing. There were no intra- or postoperative complications. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint appears safe and effective. The procedure may be a useful therapeutic modality, especially in patients with chronic low back pain, who only temporarily respond to therapeutic blocks. (orig.)

  14. Usefulness of muscle denervation as an MRI sign of peripheral nerve pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Peripheral nerve disorders may be classified into compressive or entrapment neuropathies and non-compressive neuropathies. Muscle denervation recognized on MRI may be a useful sign in the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. Acute or subacute denervation results in prolonged T2 relaxation time, producing increased signal in skeletal muscle on short tau inversion-recovery and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. Chronic denervation produces fatty atrophy of skeletal muscles, resulting in increased muscle signal on T1-weighted images. This review will outline and illustrate the various ways that muscle denervation as seen on MRI may assist in the diagnosis and localization of peripheral nerve disorders

  15. Renal Denervation: A Novel Therapy at the Crossroads of Imaging, Intervention, and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, John M; Tung, Roderick; Bradfield, Jason S; McWilliams, Justin; Lee, Edward W; Kuo, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most significant medical problems affecting society today. The estimated 76 million Americans with hypertension represent a significant public health problem, contributing to cardiac, vascular, renal, and neurovascular morbidity and mortality. HTN is the most common indication for lifelong pharmacologic treatment, mainly because of the incontrovertible reductions in cardiovascular events with blood pressure (BP) reduction and control. However, despite the availability and potency of multiple different antihypertensive drugs, up to half of American patients have BPs above the recommended target. Given the overwhelming evidence of both the cost to society of HTN and the benefits that are accrued from improved BP control, alternatives or adjuncts to current management options have been sought to aid in treatment of these patients. Over the past few years, a device-based approach involving modulation of the autonomic nervous system, termed renal denervation, has evolved to meet this challenge. With early trials showing startlingly good results, with few side effects, multiple devices were fast-tracked to clinical trials and hence to the market. However, larger trials have shone an unfavorable light on the field, with concerns about the short- and long-term effectiveness, diverting attention back to operational and procedural details. Despite this, image-guided manipulation of the sympathetic nervous system to treat HTN remains a fertile area of laboratory and clinical research. PMID:26384401

  16. Next generation renal denervation: chemical “perivascular” renal denervation with alcohol using a novel drug infusion catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischell, Tim A. [Borgess Heart Institute, 1521 Gull Road, Kalamazoo, MI, 49008 (United States); Ablative Solutions, 801 Hermosa Way, Menlo Park, CA, 94025 (United States); Fischell, David R.; Ghazarossian, Vartan E. [Ablative Solutions, 801 Hermosa Way, Menlo Park, CA, 94025 (United States); Vega, Félix [Preclinical Consultation, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ebner, Adrian [Clinics, Ascension (Paraguay)

    2015-06-15

    Background/Purpose: We update the pre-clinical and early clinical results using a novel endovascular approach, to perform chemical renal denervation, via peri-adventitial injection of micro-doses of dehydrated alcohol (ethanol–EtOH). Methods/Materials: A novel, three-needle delivery device (Peregrine™) was used to denervate the renal arteries of adult swine (n = 17) and in a first-in-man feasibility study (n = 18). In the pre-clinical testing EtOH was infused bilaterally with one infusion per renal artery into to the perivascular space, using EtOH doses of 0.3 ml/artery (n = 8), and 0.6 ml/artery (n = 9), and with saline sham control (0.4 ml/artery n = 3). Renal parenchymal norepinephrine (NE) concentration (performed blindly), and safety were the primary endpoints. Data from the first-in-man study (n = 18) to evaluate device performance, safety and peri-procedural pain are reported. Results: In the pre-clinical testing renal function was unchanged at 3-month follow-up. Angiography at 90 days (n = 34 arteries) demonstrated normal appearing renal arteries, unchanged from baseline, and without stenosis or other abnormalities. The reductions in mean renal parenchymal NE reductions at 3 months were 68% and 88% at doses of 0.3 and 0.6 ml, respectively (p < 0.001 vs. controls). In the first-in-man study, there was 100% device success, no complications, a mean treatment time of 4.3 ± 3 minutes/artery, and minimal or no patient discomfort during treatment. Angiography at 6-months showed no evidence of renal artery stenosis, and evidence of a reduction of blood pressure from baseline. Conclusion: Perivascular RDN using micro-doses of alcohol is a promising alternative to energy-based systems to achieve dose-dependent, predictable, safe and essentially painless renal denervation. Further clinical evaluation is warranted. Summary: (For annotated table of contents) This paper describes the preclinical results, in a porcine model, and the early first-in-man results, using

  17. Effects of sympathetic denervation on the hyaluronan content of the anterior segment in the normal and traumatized rabbit eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Makar, Anna; Johnsson, Cecilia; Bruun, Anitha; Stenevi, Ulf; Ehinger, Berndt

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is any involvement of sympathetic nerves in the regulation of ocular hyaluronan production in the normal and traumatized rabbit iris. METHODS: Unilateral sympathetic denervation was performed by removing the right superior cervical ganglion. Hyaluronan concentrations in the iris and aqueous were measured with a radiometric assay at various time intervals after denervation. Peripheral iridectomy was also performed in both denervated and non-denervated eyes. ...

  18. Effects of denervation and immobilization on collagen synthesis in rat skeletal muscle and tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, J; Myllylä, V; Myllylä, R; Vihko, V; Väänänen, K; Takala, T E

    1988-06-01

    The activities of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (PH) and galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase (GGT), both enzymes of collagen biosynthesis, and the concentration of hydroxyproline (HYP) were measured in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles of rats after sciatic nerve neurectomy combined with cast immobilization of the denervated limb for 1 and 3 wk. PH and GGT were also observed in Achilles and tibialis anterior tendons after cast immobilization without neurectomy. After neurectomy the specific PH activity in the denervated gastrocnemius muscle increased by 215% (P less than 0.001). The specific GGT activity increased by 92-110% (P less than 0.01) in the denervated gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles. Elevation of the muscular HYP concentration by 118-170% (P less than 0.001) in the denervated muscles was observed. The PH, GGT, and HYP responses of the denervated muscles immobilized at a lengthened or shortened position during denervation atrophy did not generally differ significantly from those of the unfixed denervated ones. The specific PH and GGT activities of the disused tendons decreased by 62 (P less than 0.01) and 25% (P less than 0.001), respectively, in tendons immobilized in a chronically shortened position. The results suggest that denervation atrophy of skeletal muscle is associated with both an increased level of muscular collagen biosynthesis and with an increased muscular collagen concentration. The PH and GGT responses of the cast-immobilized tendons suggest adaptive changes in collagen biosynthesis of the disused tendon. PMID:2837917

  19. High incidence of secondary hypertension in patients referred for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Bang, Lia Evi; Frimodt-Møller, Marie; Kelbæk, Henning; Sander, Mikael; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous renal denervation is a new treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension and little is known about the eligibility of patients referred. 100 consecutive patients were referred for renal denervation from March 2011 through September 2012. Clinical data were prospectively...... antihypertensive agents was 4.0 (± 1.6). Nearly four-fifths (82%) of the patients were categorized as having resistant hypertension based on the criteria stated by The American Heart Association's stated criteria. Nine patients declined interest in renal denervation before completing the clinical workup program....... Thus, 91 patients were screened, and of those 51 were found to be candidates for renal denervation. Forty patients were not candidates, of which secondary hypertension was the most common cause (n = 10). Only 51% of patients referred for renal denervation were eligible for treatment. The prevalence of...

  20. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sejconnor@tiscali.co.uk; Chaudhary, N. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Fareedi, S. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Woo, E.K. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality.

  1. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality

  2. Endovascular Renal Artery Denervation: Why, When, and How?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular renal artery denervation (ERAD) is a new procedure to reduce renal and systemic sympathetic overactivity in hypertensive patients. The role of sympathetic overactivity is recognized since a long time as being one the contributor of human hypertension. In support of this view, several studies in experimental models of hypertension in animal as well as hypertensive human subjects have demonstrated that sympathetic overactivity plays a central role in hypertension catheter based renal denervation is now possible, and this procedure may provide a useful adjunct for the management of patients with drug-resistant primary hypertension. Following a cohort study, the results of an open label randomized control trial have been published showing very encouraging results. The purpose of this paper is to help interventionalists to better understand the medical and technical issues related to this new intervention. It is most likely that as underlined in a recent editorial several other technical approaches may appear in the future, however because this is the only technique that is available today, we will focus on radiofrequency based technique.

  3. Exercise-induced increase in dog adipose tissue blood flow before and after denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was examined during rest and exercise in the inguinal fat pads of four female dogs using the Xe wash-out technique. The experiments were performed before and after denervation of one of the pads. No difference between the resting flows in the two pads could be...... demonstrated either before or after denervation. The flow increased about two-fold on average from rest to exercise. This response was similar before and after denervation. It is concluded that direct sympathetic innervation is not involved in the regulation of adipose tissue blood flow during exercise....

  4. Severely Atrophic Human Muscle Fibers With Nuclear Misplacement Survive Many Years of Permanent Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut

    2016-06-13

    Likewise in rodents, after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) the lower motor neuron (LMN) denervated human muscle fibers lose completely the myofibrillar apparatus and the coil distribution of myonuclei that are relocated in groups (nuclear clumps) in the center of severely atrophic muscle fibers. Up to two years of LMN denervation the muscle fibers with nuclear clumps are very seldom, but in this cohort of patients the severely atrophic muscle fibers are frequent in muscle biopsies harvested three to six years after SCI. Indeed, the percentage increased to 27 ± 9% (pbehavior in long term denervated muscle fibers. PMID:27478559

  5. Cardiac Dysregulation and Myocardial Injury in a 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Rat Model of Sympathetic Denervation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hua Jiang

    Full Text Available Cardiac sympathetic denervation is found in various cardiac pathologies; however, its relationship with myocardial injury has not been thoroughly investigated.Twenty-four rats were assigned to the normal control group (NC, sympathectomy control group (SC, and a sympathectomy plus mecobalamin group (SM. Sympathectomy was induced by injection of 6-OHDA, after which, the destruction and distribution of sympathetic and vagal nerve in the left ventricle (LV myocardial tissue were determined by immunofluorescence and ELISA. Heart rate variability (HRV, ECG and echocardiography, and assays for myocardial enzymes in serum before and after sympathectomy were examined. Morphologic changes in the LV by HE staining and transmission electron microscope were used to estimate levels of myocardial injury and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were used to reflect the inflammatory reaction.Injection of 6-OHDA decreased NE (933.1 ± 179 ng/L for SC vs. 3418.1± 443.6 ng/L for NC, P < 0.01 and increased NGF (479.4± 56.5 ng/mL for SC vs. 315.85 ± 28.6 ng/mL for NC, P < 0.01 concentrations. TH expression was reduced, while ChAT expression showed no change. Sympathectomy caused decreased HRV and abnormal ECG and echocardiography results, and histopathologic examinations showed myocardial injury and increased collagen deposition as well as inflammatory cell infiltration in the cardiac tissue of rats in the SC and SM groups. However, all pathologic changes in the SM group were less severe compared to those in the SC group.Chemical sympathectomy with administration of 6-OHDA caused dysregulation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system and myocardial injuries. Mecobalamin alleviated inflammatory and myocardial damage by protecting myocardial sympathetic nerves.

  6. Cardiac impairment evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography and invasive measurements in rats undergoing sinoaortic denervation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A Sirvente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sympathetic hyperactivity may be related to left ventricular (LV dysfunction and baro- and chemoreflex impairment in hypertension. However, cardiac function, regarding the association of hypertension and baroreflex dysfunction, has not been previously evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE using intracardiac echocardiographic catheter. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated exercise tests, baroreflex sensitivity and cardiovascular autonomic control, cardiac function, and biventricular invasive pressures in rats 10 weeks after sinoaortic denervation (SAD. The rats (n = 32 were divided into 4 groups: 16 Wistar (W with (n = 8 or without SAD (n = 8 and 16 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with (n = 8 or without SAD (SHRSAD (n = 8. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR did not change between the groups with or without SAD; however, compared to W, SHR groups had higher BP levels and BP variability was increased. Exercise testing showed that SHR had better functional capacity compared to SAD and SHRSAD. Echocardiography showed left ventricular (LV concentric hypertrophy; segmental systolic and diastolic biventricular dysfunction; indirect signals of pulmonary arterial hypertension, mostly evident in SHRSAD. The end-diastolic right ventricular (RV pressure increased in all groups compared to W, and the end-diastolic LV pressure increased in SHR and SHRSAD groups compared to W, and in SHRSAD compared to SAD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that baroreflex dysfunction impairs cardiac function, and increases pulmonary artery pressure, supporting a role for baroreflex dysfunction in the pathogenesis of hypertensive cardiac disease. Moreover, TEE is a useful and feasible noninvasive technique that allows the assessment of cardiac function, particularly RV indices in this model of cardiac disease.

  7. Autonomous Search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Decades of innovations in combinatorial problem solving have produced better and more complex algorithms. These new methods are better since they can solve larger problems and address new application domains. They are also more complex which means that they are hard to reproduce and often harder to fine-tune to the peculiarities of a given problem. This last point has created a paradox where efficient tools are out of reach of practitioners. Autonomous search (AS) represents a new research field defined to precisely address the above challenge. Its major strength and originality consist in the

  8. Impaired hepatic counterregulatory response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in hepatic denervated pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Festersen Nielsen

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings indicate a blunted hepatic counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia following complete hepatic denervation. This implies that intact neural impulses to and from the liver are necessary to maintain the increase in EGP that protects the organism against hypoglycemia.

  9. Intrapericardial denervation - Radial artery blood flow and heart rate responses to LBNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeever, Kenneth H.; Skidmore, Michael G.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1990-01-01

    The effects of intrapericardial denervation on the radial artery blood flow velocity (RABFV) and heart rate (HR) responses to LBNP in rhesus monkeys were investigated by measuring the RABFV transcutaneously by a continuous-wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter in order to derive an index of forearm blood flow response to low (0 to -20 mm Hg) and high (0 to -60 mm Hg) ramp exposures during supine LBNP. Four of the eight subjects were subjected to efferent and afferent cardiac denervation. It was found that, during low levels of LBNP, monkeys with cardiac denervation exhibited no cardiopulmonary baroreceptor-mediated change in the RABFV or HR, unlike the intact animals, which showed steady decreases in RABFV during both high- and low-pressure protocols. It is suggested that forearm blood flow and HR responses to low-level LBNP, along with pharmacological challenge, are viable physiological tests for verifying the completeness of atrial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptor denervation.

  10. MRI diagnosis of muscle denervation from herpes zoster with discordant distribution of the skin rash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amit; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Winalski, Carl S. [Cleveland Clinic, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Herpes zoster is a common disorder characterized by a painful rash along a dermatome caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Muscle denervation injury from motor involvement is an uncommon phenomenon. Discordant distribution of the skin rash and motor nerve involvement, presenting as a skin rash in one body part and muscle weakness or pain from nerve involvement in another body part is an even more uncommonly reported finding. We present an unusual case of muscle denervation injury resulting from motor involvement of a peripheral nerve by VZV diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging with cutaneous manifestations in a different dermatomal distribution. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no similar case reported in the English radiology literature. We suggest that whenever a radiologist notices MRI findings suggesting denervation injury and a cause not readily identified, VZV-related denervation injury should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in an older immunocompromised patient. (orig.)

  11. Pure Autonomic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs GARD Information Navigator FAQs About Rare Diseases Pure autonomic failure Title Other Names: Bradbury Eggleston syndrome; ... Categories: Nervous System Diseases ; RDCRN Summary Summary Listen Pure autonomic failure is characterized by generalized autonomic failure ...

  12. Evidence that the hypertrophic action of clenbuterol on denervated rat muscle is not propranolol-sensitive.

    OpenAIRE

    Maltin, C.A.; Hay, S M; Delday, M. I.; Reeds, P J; Palmer, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of propranolol on the clenbuterol-induced protein anabolism in innervated and denervated soleus and plantaris muscles of the rat was studied. 2. The response to the beta-agonist, clenbuterol, in both innervated and denervated muscles, was not significantly inhibited by the beta-antagonist, propranolol. 3. The results provide further evidence to suggest that the action of clenbuterol on skeletal muscle protein accretion may not be directly mediated by beta-adrenoceptors.

  13. Denervation in Femoral Artery-Ligated Hindlimbs Diminishes Ischemic Recovery Primarily via Impaired Arteriogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cen, Yinghuan; Liu, Junfeng; Qin, Yuansen; Liu, Ruiming; Wang, Huijin; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Shenming; Hu, Zuojun

    2016-01-01

    Aims Multiple factors regulate arteriogenesis. Peripheral nerves play a crucial role in vascular remodeling, but the function of peripheral nerves during arteriogenesis is obscure. Our study investigated the contribution of denervation to arteriogenesis during post-ischemic recovery from hindlimb femoral artery ligation. Methods and Results Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups of normal control (NC), hindlimb ischemia (HI), hindlimb ischemia with denervation (HID) and ...

  14. Joint denervation and neuroma surgery as joint-preserving therapy for ankle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohritz, Andreas; Dellon, A Lee; Kalbermatten, Daniel; Fulco, Ilario; Tremp, Mathias; Schaefer, Dirk J

    2013-09-01

    Partial joint denervation or surgical neuroma therapy are alternative concepts to treat pain around the ankle joint that preserve joint function and relieve pain by interrupting neural pathways that transmit pain impulses from the joint to the brain. This review article summarizes the indication, anatomic background, operative techniques, and clinical results of joint denervation or neuroma surgery, which, although rarely reported and used, may provide a valuable alternative treatment in selected patients with neurogenous problems around the ankle. PMID:24008220

  15. Diagnostic signs of motor neuropathy in MR neurography: Nerve lesions and muscle denervation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the diagnostic contribution of T2-w nerve lesions and of muscle denervation in peripheral motor neuropathies by magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). Fifty-one patients with peripheral motor neuropathies underwent high-resolution MRN by large coverage axial T2-w sequences of the upper arm, elbow, and forearm. Images were evaluated by two blinded readers for T2-w signal alterations of median, ulnar, and radial nerves, and for denervation in respective target muscle groups. All 51 patients displayed nerve lesions in at least one of three nerves, and 43 out of 51 patients showed denervation in at least one target muscle group of these nerves. In 21 out of 51 patients, the number of affected nerves matched the number of affected target muscle groups. In the remaining 30 patients, T2-w lesions were encountered more frequently than target muscle group denervation. In 153 nerve-muscle pairs, 72 showed denervation, but only one had increased muscle signal without a lesion in the corresponding nerve. MRN-based diagnosis of peripheral motor neuropathies is more likely by visualization of peripheral nerve lesions than by denervation in corresponding target muscles. Increased muscular T2-w signal without concomitant nerve lesions should raise suspicion of an etiology other than peripheral neuropathy. (orig.)

  16. Renal sympathetic nervous system and the effects of denervation on renal arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Kannan; Raul; Ivan; Medina; Nagapradeep; Nagajothi; Saravanan; Balamuthusamy

    2014-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is associated with chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in various comorbidities. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is often under estimated due to various reasons. Activation of sympathetic nervous system at the renal-as well as systemic-level contributes to the increased level of catecholamines and resulting increase in the blood pressure. This increased activity was demonstrated by increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity and renal and total body noradrenaline spillover. Apart from the hypertension, it is hypothesized to be associated with insulin resistance, congestive heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. Renal denervation is a novel procedure where the sympathetic afferent and efferent activity is reduced by various techniques and has been used successfully to treat drug-resistant hypertension improvement of various metabolic derangements.Renal denervation has the unique advantage of offering the denervation at the renal level, thus mitigating the systemic side effects. Renal denervation can be done by various techniques including radiofrequency ablation, ultrasound guided ablation and chemical ablation. Various trials evaluated the role of renal denervation in the management of resistant hypertension and have found promising results. More studies are underway to evaluate the role of renal denervation in patients presenting with resistant hypertension in different scenarios. Appropriate patient selection might be the key in determining the effectiveness of the procedure.

  17. Diagnostic signs of motor neuropathy in MR neurography: Nerve lesions and muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Daniel; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Baeumer, Philipp [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Weiler, Markus [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Neurooncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heiland, Sabine [Heidelberg University Hospital, Section of Experimental Radiology, Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the diagnostic contribution of T2-w nerve lesions and of muscle denervation in peripheral motor neuropathies by magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). Fifty-one patients with peripheral motor neuropathies underwent high-resolution MRN by large coverage axial T2-w sequences of the upper arm, elbow, and forearm. Images were evaluated by two blinded readers for T2-w signal alterations of median, ulnar, and radial nerves, and for denervation in respective target muscle groups. All 51 patients displayed nerve lesions in at least one of three nerves, and 43 out of 51 patients showed denervation in at least one target muscle group of these nerves. In 21 out of 51 patients, the number of affected nerves matched the number of affected target muscle groups. In the remaining 30 patients, T2-w lesions were encountered more frequently than target muscle group denervation. In 153 nerve-muscle pairs, 72 showed denervation, but only one had increased muscle signal without a lesion in the corresponding nerve. MRN-based diagnosis of peripheral motor neuropathies is more likely by visualization of peripheral nerve lesions than by denervation in corresponding target muscles. Increased muscular T2-w signal without concomitant nerve lesions should raise suspicion of an etiology other than peripheral neuropathy. (orig.)

  18. Regional sympathetic denervation after myocardial infarction in humans detected noninvasively using I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, M.S.; Tuli, M.M.; Radtke, N.L.; Heger, J.J.; Miles, W.M.; Mock, B.H.; Burt, R.W.; Wellman, H.N.; Zipes, D.P. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, IN (USA))

    1989-11-15

    Transmural myocardial infarction in dogs produces denervation of sympathetic nerves in viable myocardium apical to the infarct that may be arrhythmogenic. It is unknown whether sympathetic denervation occurs in humans. The purpose of this study was to use iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiolabeled guanethidine analog that is actively taken up by sympathetic nerve terminals, to image noninvasively the cardiac sympathetic nerves in patients with and without ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. Results showed that 10 of 12 patients with spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial infarction exhibited regions of thallium-201 uptake indicating viable perfused myocardium, with no MIBG uptake. Such a finding is consistent with sympathetic denervation. One patient had frequent episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia induced at exercise testing that was eliminated by beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Eleven of the 12 patients had ventricular tachycardia induced at electrophysiologic study and metoprolol never prevented induction. Sympathetic denervation was also detected in two of seven postinfarction patients without ventricular arrhythmias. Normal control subjects had no regions lacking MIBG uptake. This study provides evidence that regional sympathetic denervation occurs in humans after myocardial infarction and can be detected noninvasively by comparing MIBG and thallium-201 images. Although the presence of sympathetic denervation may be related to the onset of spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias in some patients, it does not appear to be related to sustained ventricular tachycardia induced at electrophysiologic study.

  19. Regional sympathetic denervation after myocardial infarction in humans detected noninvasively using I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmural myocardial infarction in dogs produces denervation of sympathetic nerves in viable myocardium apical to the infarct that may be arrhythmogenic. It is unknown whether sympathetic denervation occurs in humans. The purpose of this study was to use iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiolabeled guanethidine analog that is actively taken up by sympathetic nerve terminals, to image noninvasively the cardiac sympathetic nerves in patients with and without ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. Results showed that 10 of 12 patients with spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial infarction exhibited regions of thallium-201 uptake indicating viable perfused myocardium, with no MIBG uptake. Such a finding is consistent with sympathetic denervation. One patient had frequent episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia induced at exercise testing that was eliminated by beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Eleven of the 12 patients had ventricular tachycardia induced at electrophysiologic study and metoprolol never prevented induction. Sympathetic denervation was also detected in two of seven postinfarction patients without ventricular arrhythmias. Normal control subjects had no regions lacking MIBG uptake. This study provides evidence that regional sympathetic denervation occurs in humans after myocardial infarction and can be detected noninvasively by comparing MIBG and thallium-201 images. Although the presence of sympathetic denervation may be related to the onset of spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias in some patients, it does not appear to be related to sustained ventricular tachycardia induced at electrophysiologic study

  20. Action of cocaine and chronic sympathetic denervation on vagal escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, H. A.; Urquilla, P. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The effect of cocaine has been studied on vagal escape and on the tachycardia due to vagal stimulation in the atropinized dog. All the dogs were submitted to acute cervical section of the spinal cord and acute or chronic sympathetic denervation. 2. Cocaine, 5 mg/kg or 40 μg/kg/min, I.V., induces a significant enhancement of the ventricular escape. The effects of a continuous infusion of cocaine are more reproducible than those of a single injection of the drug. 3. Cocaine, 40 μg/kg/min, I.V., potentiates the tachycardia due to vagal stimulation in the atropinized dog. 4. Chronic thoracic sympathectomy markedly retards the recovery of the ventricular rate from the inhibitory action of the vagus. Under this condition, the infusion of cocaine does not significantly enhance the ventricular escape. 5. These findings suggest that an adrenergic mechanism located at the sympathetic nerves supplying the heart is substantially involved in the phenomenon of vagal escape. PMID:5249864

  1. Renal sympathetic denervation provides ventricular rate control but does not prevent atrial electrical remodeling during atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Dominik; Mahfoud, Felix; Schotten, Ulrich; Ukena, Christian; Hohl, Mathias; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Wirth, Klaus; Böhm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) reduces renal efferent and afferent sympathetic activity thereby lowering blood pressure in resistant hypertension. The effect of modulation of the autonomic nervous system by RDN on atrial electrophysiology and ventricular rate control during atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. Here we report a reduction of ventricular heart rate in a patient with permanent AF undergoing RDN. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of RDN on AF-induced shortening of atrial effective refractory period, AF inducibility, and ventricular rate control during AF maintained by rapid atrial pacing in 12 pigs undergoing RDN (n=7) or sham procedure (n=5). During sinus rhythm, RDN reduced heart rate (RR-interval, 708±12 versus 577±19 ms; P=0.0021) and increased atrioventricular node conduction time (PQ-interval, 112±12 versus 88±9 ms; P=0.0001). Atrial tachypacing for 30 minutes increased AF inducibility and decreased AF cycle length. This was not influenced by RDN. RDN reduced ventricular rate during AF episodes by ≈24% (119±9 versus 158±19 bpm; P=0.0001). AF episodes were shorter after RDN compared with sham (12±3 versus 34±4 s; P=0.0091), but atrial effective refractory period was not modified by RDN. RDN reduced heart rate and reduced atrioventricular node conduction time during sinus rhythm and provided rate control during AF. AF-induced atrial electrical remodeling, AF inducibility, and AF cycle length were not modified, but duration of AF episodes was shorter after RDN. Modulation of the autonomic nervous system by RDN might provide rate control and reduce susceptibility to AF. Whether RDN may provide rate control in a larger number of patients with AF deserves further clinical studies. PMID:23150501

  2. Diffusion-weighted MRI of denervated muscle: a clinical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holl, Nathalie; Bierry, Guillaume; Moser, Thomas; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Kremer, Stephane [Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Radiologie 2, Strasbourg (France); Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni [Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Departement de Neurologie, BP 426, Strasbourg (France); Mohr, Michel [Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Departement d' Anatomie Pathologique, Strasbourg (France); Loeffler, Jean-Philippe [INSERM U692, Laboratoire de Signalisations Moleculaires et Neurodegenerescence, Faculte de Medecine, Strasbourg (France)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate skeletal muscle denervation using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI). Sciatic nerve axotomy was performed in a group of nine New Zealand White rabbits, and electromyographic (EMG), pathological, and DWMRI studies were conducted on ipsilateral hamstring muscles 1 and 8 days after axotomy. In addition, DWMRI studies were carried out on leg muscles of ten patients with acute and subacute lumbosacral radiculopathy. High intensity signals on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance imaging and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were observed in denervated muscles of the animals 1 and 8 days after axotomy as well as in denervated muscles of the patients with radiculopathy. In the clinical study, ADC was 1.26{+-}0.18 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s in normal muscle and increased to 1.56{+-}0.23 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s in denervated muscles (p =0.0016). In animals, EMG and muscle pathological studies were normal 1 day after axotomy, and the muscles demonstrated spontaneous activity on EMG and neurogenic atrophy on histological studies 7 days later. This DWMRI study demonstrates that enlargement of extracellular fluid space in muscle denervation is an early phenomenon occurring several days before the appearance of EMG and histological abnormalities. (orig.)

  3. Diffusion-weighted MRI of denervated muscle: a clinical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate skeletal muscle denervation using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI). Sciatic nerve axotomy was performed in a group of nine New Zealand White rabbits, and electromyographic (EMG), pathological, and DWMRI studies were conducted on ipsilateral hamstring muscles 1 and 8 days after axotomy. In addition, DWMRI studies were carried out on leg muscles of ten patients with acute and subacute lumbosacral radiculopathy. High intensity signals on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance imaging and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were observed in denervated muscles of the animals 1 and 8 days after axotomy as well as in denervated muscles of the patients with radiculopathy. In the clinical study, ADC was 1.26±0.18 x 10-9 m2/s in normal muscle and increased to 1.56±0.23 x 10-9 m2/s in denervated muscles (p =0.0016). In animals, EMG and muscle pathological studies were normal 1 day after axotomy, and the muscles demonstrated spontaneous activity on EMG and neurogenic atrophy on histological studies 7 days later. This DWMRI study demonstrates that enlargement of extracellular fluid space in muscle denervation is an early phenomenon occurring several days before the appearance of EMG and histological abnormalities. (orig.)

  4. Functional Echomyography: thickness, ecogenicity, contraction and perfusion of the LMN denervated human muscle before and during h-bFES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Zanato

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent denervated muscles were evaluated by ultrasound to monitor changes in morphology, thickness, contraction-relaxation kinetics and perfusion due to the electrical stimulation program of the Rise2-Italy project. In a case of monolateral lesion, morphology and ultrasonographic structure of the denervated muscles changed during the period of stimulation from a pattern typical of complete denervation-induced muscle atrophy to a pattern which might be considered “normal” when detected in an old patient. Thickness improved significantly more in the middle third of the denervated muscle, reaching the same value as the contralateral innervated muscle. Contraction-relaxation kinetics, measured by recording the muscle movements during electrical stimulation, showed an abnormal behavior of the chronically denervated muscle during the relaxation phase, which resulted to be significantly longer than in normal muscle. The long-term denervated muscles analyzed with Echo Doppler showed at rest a low resistance arterial flow that became pulsed during and after electrical stimulation. As expected, the ultra sound measured electrical stimulation-induced hyperemia lasted longer than the stimulation period. The higher than normal energy of the delivered electrical stimuli of the Vienna home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation strategy (h-b FES demonstrate that the explored muscles were still almost completely denervated during the one-year of training. In conclusion, this pilot study confirms the usefulness of Functional Echomyography in the follow-up and the positive effects of h-b FES of denervated muscles.

  5. Denervation impairs cutaneous microvascular function and blister healing in the rat hindlimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R W; Delaney, C A; Westerman, R A; Roberts, R G

    1993-05-01

    Skin sensory nerve nocifensor functions were investigated non-invasively in rats by measuring neurogenic inflammation and blister healing-rate after unilateral hindlimb denervation. Axon reflexes were evoked by transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) or noxious electrical stimulation (TNS). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) evoked direct dilator responses. Resultant changes in skin microvascular blood flux were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Compared with their sham-operated control limbs, denervation reduced inflammatory responses (ACh or TNS) by more than 85% and SNP responses by 28% (p < 0.05). Healing of dry-ice blisters raised on the hindpaw 14d post-denervation was significantly slower to complete healing (42d) than controls (26d) and initial inflammation was attenuated, confirming that innervation is important for inflammation and blister-healing. PMID:8513120

  6. Sympathetic denervation impairs responses of brown adipose tissue to VMH stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of unilateral surgical denervation of the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) on its thermogenic and lipogenic responses to electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) nucleus were studied in anesthetized rats. The rapid rise in IBAT temperature in response to VMH stimulation was greatly suppressed in the denervated IBAT, whereas the temperature response was not impaired in the contralateral innervated IBAT in the same animals. Similarly, the increased rates of conversion of [14C] glucose and [3H]H2O to fatty acids and glyceride glycerol in vivo in IBAT after VMH stimulation were almost completely inhibited by sympathetic denervation. These results indicate clearly that the increases in lipogenic and thermogenic activities in IBAT in response to VMH stimulation are mediated by the sympathetic nerve supply of this tissue

  7. Renal denervation attenuates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress and hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleli, Maria; Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Yang, Ting; Larsson, Erik; Wåhlin, Nils; Jensen, Boye L; G Persson, A Erik; Carlström, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is associated with the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Studies have suggested that increased sympathetic nerve activity and oxidative stress play important roles in hypertension and the modulation of salt sensitivity. The present study primarily aimed to examine the role of renal sympathetic nerve activity in the development of hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis. In addition, we aimed to investigate if NADPH oxidase (NOX) function could be affected by renal denervation. Partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) was created in 3-wk-old rats to induce hydronephrosis. Sham surgery or renal denervation was performed at the same time. Blood pressure was measured during normal, high-, and low-salt diets. The renal excretion pattern, NOX activity, and expression as well as components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system were characterized after treatment with the normal salt diet. On the normal salt diet, rats in the PUUO group had elevated blood pressure compared with control rats (115 ± 3 vs. 87 ± 1 mmHg, P NOX activity and expression as well as renin and ANG II type 1A receptor expression were increased in the renal cortex from PUUO rats and normalized by denervation. Plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were elevated in PUUO rats and normalized after renal denervation. Finally, denervation in PUUO rats was also associated with reduced NOX expression, superoxide production, and fibrosis in the heart. In conclusion, renal denervation attenuates hypertension and restores the renal excretion pattern, which is associated with reduced renal NOX and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This study emphasizes a link between renal nerves, the development of hypertension, and modulation of NOX function. PMID:26538440

  8. Uninephrectomy-induced lipolysis and low-grade inflammation are mimicked by unilateral renal denervation

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenijevic, Denis; Cajot, Jean-François; Fellay, Benoit; Abdul G Dulloo; Van Vliet, Bruce N.; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Uninephrectomy (UniNX) in rats on a fixed food intake leads to increased lipolysis and a low-grade inflammation with an increased subset of circulating cytokines. Because UniNX ablates renal nerves on the side of the removed kidney, we tested the contribution of unilateral renal denervation in the phenotype of UniNX. We compared Sham-operated controls, left nephrectomy (UniNX) and unilateral left kidney denervation (uDNX) in rats 4 weeks after surgery. uDNX did not affect kidney weight ...

  9. Leucine minimizes denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy of rats through akt/mtor signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barbosa Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of leucine treatment (0.30 mM on muscle weight and signaling of myoproteins related to synthesis and degradation pathways of soleus muscle following seven days of complete sciatic nerve lesion.Wistar rats (n=24 of 3 to 4 months of age (192 ± 23 g were used. The animals were randomly distributed into four experimental groups (n=6/group: control, treated with leucine (L, denervated (D and denervated treated with leucine (DL.Dependent measures were proteins levels of AKT, AMPK, mTOR, and ACC performed by Western blot. Leucine induced a reduction in the phosphorylation of AMPK (p<0.05 by 16% in the L and by 68% in the DL groups as compared with control group. Denervation increased AMPK by 24% in the D group as compared with the control group (p<0.05. AKT was also modulated by denervation and leucine treatment, highlighted by the elevation of AKT phosphorylation in the D (65%, L (98% and DL (146% groups as compared with the control group (p<0.05. AKT phosphorylation was 49% higher in the D group as compared with the DL group.Furthermore, denervation decreased mTOR phosphorylation by 29% in the D group as compared with the control group. However, leucine treatment induced an increase of 49% in the phosphorylation of mTOR in the L group as compared with the control group, and an increase of 154% in the DL as compared with the D group ( p<0.05. ACC phosphorylation was 20% greater in the D group than the control group. Furthermore, ACC in the soleus was 22% lower in the in the L group and 50% lower in the DL group than the respective control group (p<0.05.In conclusion, leucine treatment minimized the deleterious effects of denervation on rat soleus muscle by increasing anabolic (AKT and mTOR and decreasing catabolic (AMPK pathways. These results may be interesting for muscle recovery following acute denervation, which may contribute to musculoskeletal rehabilitation after denervation.

  10. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  11. Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed 9/2/2015. Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy Summary. Dysautonomia International . http://www.dysautonomiainternational.org/page.php?ID= ... page Basic Information In Depth Information Basic Information Dysautonomia International offers an information page on Autoimmune autonomic ...

  12. Persistent muscle fiber regeneration in long term denervation. Past, present, future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Carraro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ravages of long term denervation there is structural and ultrastructural evidence for survival of muscle fibers in mammals, with some fibers surviving at least ten months in rodents and 3-6 years in humans. Further, in rodents there is evidence that muscle fibers may regenerate even after repeated damage in the absence of the nerve, and that this potential is maintained for several months after denervation. While in animal models permanently denervated muscle sooner or later loses the ability to contract, the muscles may maintain their size and ability to function if electrically stimulated soon after denervation. Whether in mammals, humans included, this is a result of persistent de novo formation of muscle fibers is an open issue we would like to explore in this review. During the past decade, we have studied muscle biopsies from the quadriceps muscle of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI patients suffering with Conus and Cauda Equina syndrome, a condition that fully and irreversibly disconnects skeletal muscle fibers from their damaged innervating motor neurons. We have demonstrated that human denervated muscle fibers survive years of denervation and can be rescued from severe atrophy by home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation (h-bFES. Using immunohistochemistry with both non-stimulated and the h-bFES stimulated human muscle biopsies, we have observed the persistent presence of muscle fibers which are positive to labeling by an antibody which specifically recognizes the embryonic myosin heavy chain (MHCemb. Relative to the total number of fibers present, only a small percentage of these MHCemb positive fibers are detected, suggesting that they are regenerating muscle fibers and not pre-existing myofibers re-expressing embryonic isoforms. Although embryonic isoforms of acetylcholine receptors are known to be re-expressed and to spread from the end-plate to the sarcolemma of muscle fibers in early phases of muscle denervation, we suggest

  13. EFFECT OF LIVER DENERVATION ON GLUCOSE-PRODUCTION DURING RUNNING IN GUINEA-PIGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, MML; VISSING, J; MIKINES, KJ; STEFFENS, AB; GALBO, H

    1995-01-01

    Activity in sympathetic liver nerves has been proposed to be important for glucose production in exercising humans. However, liver denervation does not influence the exercise-induced increase in glucose production in the rat and dog. These species have a poor sympathetic liver innervation in contras

  14. An Update on Renal Artery Denervation and Its Clinical Impact on Hypertensive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a globally prevalent condition, with a heavy clinical and economic burden. It is the predominant risk factor for premature cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is associated with a variety of clinical disorders including stroke, congestive cardiac failure, ischaemic heart disease, chronic renal failure, and peripheral arterial disease. A significant subset of hypertensive patients have resistant hypertensive disease. In this group of patients, catheter-based renal artery denervation has emerged as a potential therapy, with favourable clinical efficacy and safety in early trials. Additional benefits of this therapy are also being identified and include effects on left ventricular remodeling, cardiac performance, and symptom status in congestive cardiac failure. Utility of renal denervation for the management of resistant hypertension, however, has become controversial since the release of the Symplicity HTN-3 trial, the first large-scale blinded randomised study investigating the efficacy and safety of renal artery denervation. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the history, utility, and clinical efficacy of renal artery denervation technology, including an in-depth appraisal of the current literature and principal trials.

  15. Denervation syndromes of the shoulder girdle: MR imaging with electrophysiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To investigate the use of MR imaging in the characterization of denervated muscle of the shoulder correlated with electrophysiologic studies.Design and patients. We studied with MR imaging five patients who presented with shoulder weakness and pain and who underwent electrophysiologic studies. On MR imaging the distribution of muscle edema and fatty infiltration was recorded, as was the presence of masses impinging on a regional nerve.Results. Acute/subacute denervation was best seen on T2-weighted fast spin-echo images with fat saturation, showing increased SI related to neurogenic edema. Chronic denervation was best seen on T1-weighted spin-echo images, demonstrating loss of muscle bulk and diffuse areas of increased signal intensity within the muscle. Three patients showed MR imaging and electrophysiologic findings of Parsonage Turner syndrome. One patient demonstrated an arteriovenous malformation within the spinoglenoid notch, impinging on the suprascapular nerve with associated atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle. The fifth patient demonstrated fatty atrophy of the teres minor muscle caused by compression by a cyst of the axillary nerve and electrophysiologic findings of an incomplete axillary nerve block.Conclusion. MR imaging is useful in detecting and characterizing denervation atrophy and neurogenic edema in shoulder muscles. MR imaging can provide additional information to electrophysiologic studies by estimating the age (acute/chronic) and identifying morphologic causes for shoulder pain and atrophy. (orig.)

  16. Diabetic gastroparesis in association with autonomic neuropathy and microvasculopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koçkar MC

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastroparesis is a frequent and sometimes life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Autonomic neuropathy seems to be one of the most important mechanisms underlying this entity, together with the other probable pathologies. The present study was performed in order to identify an alternative to gastric scintigraphy as a screening test. The gastric emptying times of 60 subjects (Group 1: 20 insulin-dependent patients, Group 2: 20 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, and Group 3: 20 healthy volunteers were monitored by gastric scintigraphy. Perception thresholds for cold, heat, and vibration were tested by a quantitative sensory test, and QTc dispersions were calculated from standard electrocardiography recordings. In addition, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c and urine beta2-microglobulin and microalbumin concentrations were determined for the patient groups. Funduscopic examination was performed by an independent ophthalmologist. Gastroparesis was determined in both patient groups, regardless of fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c concentrations. A strong correlation was observed between nephropathy, retinopathy, and cardiac autonomic denervation (QTc and gastroparesis. In conclusion, retinal and renal microvasculopathy parameters and cardiac autonomic function tests may be useful for screening diabetic patients for gastroparesis.

  17. PPM1B and P-IKKβ expression levels correlated inversely with rat gastrocnemius atrophy after denervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Activated inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase β (IKKβ is necessary and sufficient for denervated skeletal muscle atrophy. Although several studies have shown that Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent protein phosphatase 1B (PPM1B inactivated IKKβ, few studies have investigated the role of PPM1B in denervated skeletal muscle. In this study, we aim to explore the expression and significance of PPM1B and phosphorylated IKKβ (P-IKKβ during atrophy of the denervated gastrocnemius. Thirty young adult female Wistar rats were subjected to right sciatic nerve transection and were sacrificed at 0 (control, 2, 7, 14, and 28 days after denervation surgery. The gastrocnemius was removed from both the denervated and the contralateral limb. The muscle wet weight ratio was calculated as the ratio of the wet weight of the denervated gastrocnemius to that of the contralateral gastrocnemius. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that mRNA and protein levels of PPM1B were significantly lower than those of the control group at different times after the initiation of denervation, while P-IKKβ showed the opposite trends. PPM1B protein expression persistently decreased while P-IKKβ expression persistently increased for 28 days after denervation. PPM1B expression correlated negatively with P-IKKβ expression by the Spearman test, whereas decreasing PPM1B expression correlated positively with the muscle wet weight ratio. The expression levels of PPM1B and P-IKKβ were closely associated with atrophy in skeletal denervated muscle. These results suggest that PPM1B and P-IKKβ could be markers in skeletal muscle atrophy.

  18. PPM1B and P-IKKβ expression levels correlated inversely with rat gastrocnemius atrophy after denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jian; Liang, Bing-Sheng [Department of Orthopedics, the Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China)

    2012-05-18

    Activated inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase β (IKKβ) is necessary and sufficient for denervated skeletal muscle atrophy. Although several studies have shown that Mg{sup 2+}/Mn{sup 2+}-dependent protein phosphatase 1B (PPM1B) inactivated IKKβ, few studies have investigated the role of PPM1B in denervated skeletal muscle. In this study, we aim to explore the expression and significance of PPM1B and phosphorylated IKKβ (P-IKKβ) during atrophy of the denervated gastrocnemius. Thirty young adult female Wistar rats were subjected to right sciatic nerve transection and were sacrificed at 0 (control), 2, 7, 14, and 28 days after denervation surgery. The gastrocnemius was removed from both the denervated and the contralateral limb. The muscle wet weight ratio was calculated as the ratio of the wet weight of the denervated gastrocnemius to that of the contralateral gastrocnemius. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that mRNA and protein levels of PPM1B were significantly lower than those of the control group at different times after the initiation of denervation, while P-IKKβ showed the opposite trends. PPM1B protein expression persistently decreased while P-IKKβ expression persistently increased for 28 days after denervation. PPM1B expression correlated negatively with P-IKKβ expression by the Spearman test, whereas decreasing PPM1B expression correlated positively with the muscle wet weight ratio. The expression levels of PPM1B and P-IKKβ were closely associated with atrophy in skeletal denervated muscle. These results suggest that PPM1B and P-IKKβ could be markers in skeletal muscle atrophy.

  19. Ultra structure of the denervated vocal muscle mechanically in hogs (sus scrofa domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão, Henrique Zaquia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature is not clear in the ultra-structural manifestations of the vocal wrinkles after neural wound. Objective: To verify the alterations that occur in a vocal fold mechanically denervated. Method: In this prospective study, it were utilized 15 hogs of commercial race (Sus scrofa domesticates, with age of 4 to 12 weeks. The animals were distributed in three groups, chosen at random. Everybody was submitted to the denervation of the right vocal fold, with surgical removal of a segment with three centimeters of the recurring right laryngeal nerve. After 45, 90 and 180 days of the operations, it was proceeded the biopsy of the vocal muscles, it was prosecuted the samples for transmission electron microscopy and, for the ultra-structural study, utilized the transmission electron microscopy Philips, model EM208S. Results: The biopsied groups with 45 and 90 days after operation of mechanical denervation, presented disorganization miofibrilar, only vestigial lines Z in many samples, as well like altered mithochondrions presenting limited sizes, and matrix mithocondrial rarefied with rare mithocondrial cristae present. The biopsied group with 180 days after operation of denervation, presented regular sarcomeres, mithocondrions with sizes and regular number with correct positioning between the sarcomerical units. Conclusion: The finds in the ultra-structure of the vocal muscles suggest to re enervation of the muscle being that the muscular mithochondrions were the most sensible structures to the denervated condition, successions by the cytoarchiteture of the miofibrilas; the finds in the ultra-structure of the vocal muscles suggests to reinervation of the muscle in the period of approximately six months.

  20. Cooled radiofrequency denervation for treatment of sacroiliac joint pain: two-year results from 20 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho KY

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kok-Yuen Ho,1 Mohamed Abdul Hadi,2 Koravee Pasutharnchat,2 Kian-Hian Tan21Pain Management Centre, Raffles Hospital, 2Pain Management Centre, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeBackground: Sacroiliac joint pain is a common cause of chronic low back pain. Different techniques for radiofrequency denervation of the sacroiliac joint have been used to treat this condition. However, results have been inconsistent because the variable sensory supply to the sacroiliac joint is difficult to disrupt completely using conventional radiofrequency. Cooled radiofrequency is a novel technique that uses internally cooled radiofrequency probes to enlarge lesion size, thereby increasing the chance of completely denervating the sacroiliac joint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cooled radiofrequency denervation using the SInergyTM cooled radiofrequency system for sacroiliac joint pain.Methods: The charts of 20 patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain who had undergone denervation using the SInergyTM cooled radiofrequency system were reviewed at two years following the procedure. Outcome measures included the Numeric Rating Scale for pain intensity, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Global Perceived Effect for patient satisfaction.Results: Fifteen of 20 patients showed a significant reduction in pain (a decrease of at least three points on the Numeric Rating Scale. Mean Numeric Rating Scale for pain decreased from 7.4 ± 1.4 to 3.1 ± 2.5, mean Patient Global Impression of Change was "improved" (1.4 ± 1.5, and Global Perceived Effect was reported to be positive in 16 patients at two years following the procedure.Conclusion: Cooled radiofrequency denervation showed long-term efficacy for up to two years in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain.Keywords: ablation, chronic low back pain, intervention, neurotomy, sacroiliitis

  1. Denervation in Femoral Artery-Ligated Hindlimbs Diminishes Ischemic Recovery Primarily via Impaired Arteriogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuansen; Liu, Ruiming; Wang, Huijin; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Shenming; Hu, Zuojun

    2016-01-01

    Aims Multiple factors regulate arteriogenesis. Peripheral nerves play a crucial role in vascular remodeling, but the function of peripheral nerves during arteriogenesis is obscure. Our study investigated the contribution of denervation to arteriogenesis during post-ischemic recovery from hindlimb femoral artery ligation. Methods and Results Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups of normal control (NC), hindlimb ischemia (HI), hindlimb ischemia with denervation (HID) and hindlimb simple denervation (HD). Hindlimb ischemic recovery was assessed by clinical assessment and tibialis anterior muscle remodeling on day 28 post-surgery. Blood flow was determined by laser Doppler imaging on day 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 post-surgery. Collateral number of hindlimb was observed by angiography and gracilis muscles were tested by immunostaining on day 7 and 28 post-surgery. Angiogenesis was accessed by counting CD31 positive capillaries in tibialis anterior muscles on day 28 post-surgery. Group HID showed impaired ischemic recovery compared with the other 3 groups and impaired blood flow recovery compared with group HI on day 28 post-surgery. The collateral number and capillary density of group HID were lower than group HI. The collateral diameter of both group HID and group HI significantly increased compared with group NC. However, the lumen diameter was much narrower and the vessel wall was much thicker in group HID than group HI. We also demonstrated that the thickened neointima of collaterals in group HID comprised of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Conclusions Denervation of the ligated femoral artery in the hindlimb impairs ischemic recovery via impaired perfusion. The possible mechanisms of impaired perfusion are lower collateral number, lower capillary density and most likely narrower lumen, which damage ischemic recovery. This study illustrates the crucial role of peripheral nerves in arteriogenesis using a model combined ischemia with

  2. Nonuniform cardiac denervation observed by 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine PET in 6-OHDA-treated monkeys.

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    Valerie Joers

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease presents nonmotor complications such as autonomic dysfunction that do not respond to traditional anti-parkinsonian therapies. The lack of established preclinical monkey models of Parkinson's disease with cardiac dysfunction hampers development and testing of new treatments to alleviate or prevent this feature. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of developing a model of cardiac dysautonomia in nonhuman primates and preclinical evaluations tools. Five rhesus monkeys received intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (total dose: 50 mg/kg. The animals were evaluated before and after with a battery of tests, including positron emission tomography with the norepinephrine analog (11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine. Imaging 1 week after neurotoxin treatment revealed nearly complete loss of specific radioligand uptake. Partial progressive recovery of cardiac uptake found between 1 and 10 weeks remained stable between 10 and 14 weeks. In all five animals, examination of the pattern of uptake (using Logan plot analysis to create distribution volume maps revealed a persistent region-specific significant loss in the inferior wall of the left ventricle at 10 (P<0.001 and 14 weeks (P<0.01 relative to the anterior wall. Blood levels of dopamine, norepinephrine (P<0.05, epinephrine, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (P<0.01 were notably decreased after 6-hydroxydopamine at all time points. These results demonstrate that systemic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine in nonhuman primates creates a nonuniform but reproducible pattern of cardiac denervation as well as a persistent loss of circulating catecholamines, supporting the use of this method to further develop a monkey model of cardiac dysautonomia.

  3. Nonuniform cardiac denervation observed by 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine PET in 6-OHDA-treated monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joers, Valerie; Seneczko, Kailie; Goecks, Nichole C; Kamp, Timothy J; Hacker, Timothy A; Brunner, Kevin G; Engle, Jonathan W; Barnhart, Todd E; Nickles, R Jerome; Holden, James E; Emborg, Marina E

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease presents nonmotor complications such as autonomic dysfunction that do not respond to traditional anti-parkinsonian therapies. The lack of established preclinical monkey models of Parkinson's disease with cardiac dysfunction hampers development and testing of new treatments to alleviate or prevent this feature. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of developing a model of cardiac dysautonomia in nonhuman primates and preclinical evaluations tools. Five rhesus monkeys received intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (total dose: 50 mg/kg). The animals were evaluated before and after with a battery of tests, including positron emission tomography with the norepinephrine analog (11)C-meta-hydroxyephedrine. Imaging 1 week after neurotoxin treatment revealed nearly complete loss of specific radioligand uptake. Partial progressive recovery of cardiac uptake found between 1 and 10 weeks remained stable between 10 and 14 weeks. In all five animals, examination of the pattern of uptake (using Logan plot analysis to create distribution volume maps) revealed a persistent region-specific significant loss in the inferior wall of the left ventricle at 10 (P<0.001) and 14 weeks (P<0.01) relative to the anterior wall. Blood levels of dopamine, norepinephrine (P<0.05), epinephrine, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (P<0.01) were notably decreased after 6-hydroxydopamine at all time points. These results demonstrate that systemic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine in nonhuman primates creates a nonuniform but reproducible pattern of cardiac denervation as well as a persistent loss of circulating catecholamines, supporting the use of this method to further develop a monkey model of cardiac dysautonomia. PMID:22539969

  4. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, A.M.K.; Arnold, N D; Chang, W.; Watson, O.; Swift, A J; Condliffe, R; Elliot, C A; Kiely, D. G.; Suvarna, S K; Gunn, J.; Lawrie, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to de...

  5. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias

    OpenAIRE

    Benoliel, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    1. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs) are headaches/facial pains classified together based on:a suspected common pathophysiology involving the trigeminovascular system, the trigeminoparasympathetic reflex and centres controlling circadian rhythms;a similar clinical presentation of trigeminal pain, and autonomic activation.

  6. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    disease, and may be nonspecific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on the physiological basis of the tests and on practical applicability. Finally, diagnostic criteria, based on autonomic nerve function tests, are...

  7. Effect of denervation and ischemia reperfusion injury on serum nitricoxide levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to evaluate the effect of renal denervation and serumnitric oxide level with a different time course of renal ischemia-reperfusioninjury. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomized into 6 groups. All ratsunderwent right nephrectomy to create a single kidney model. Renal denervatedand innerved rats were subjected to renal clamping for 30-60 minutes. Thestudy was performed in the Department of Anatomy, Akdeniz University,Antalya, Turkey, between June and November 2005. Combined effects ofdenervation and ischemia may cause significant increase in serum nitric oxidelevels and decrease in glomerular filtration rates. Our results indicate thatkidney denervation did not cause any changes in renal functions, but withischemia it worsens the deleterious effect of ischemia-reperfusion injury andcauses a significant increase in serum nitric oxide levels. (author)

  8. Signs of sympathetic denervation associated with a thoracic melanoma in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M J; Cavey, D M; Feldman, B F; Trostle, S S; White, N A

    1997-01-01

    Sympathetic denervation in a 20-year-old, gray, Thoroughbred-Percheron gelding was manifested by cutaneous hyperthermia and sweating over the right side of the body, demarcated by a line from the withers to the elbow and extending cranially. There was cutaneous hyperthermia over the right side of the head, but other signs of Horner's syndrome (sweating, ptosis, miosis, enophthalmos) were not present. The pattern of cutaneous hyperthermia and sweating was consistent with sympathetic denervation localized to the cervicothoracic ganglion, and thoracic radiographs revealed increased density in the craniodorsal thorax. Cytologic evaluation of a sample of pleural effusion revealed mesothelial cells containing melanin and cells suggestive of melanocytes or melanoblasts. Treatment with oral cimetidine and intrapleural cisplatin was not successful. A necropsy was not performed, but the clinical findings supported a diagnosis of thoracic melanoma involving the cervicothoracic ganglion. PMID:9298473

  9. Macrophage populations and cardiac sympathetic denervation during L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, S R S; Machado, C R S; Pinto, A M T; Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Cunha, F Q; Camargos, E R S

    2006-01-01

    leukocyte infiltration during L-NAME (40 mg/Kg body weight/day, orally) treatment. The occurrence of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, a controversial matter, is also addressed. Degenerating cardiomyocytes and focal inflammation occurred one day after treatment. Inflammatory lesions became gradually more frequent...... ventricle, the hypertrophic cardiomyocytes were restricted to damaged areas. Significant reduction of the noradrenergic nerve terminals occurred from day 3 to 28. The area occupied by ED1+ (hematogenous) macrophages increased until day 7, and dropped to control levels by day 10. ED2+ (resident) macrophages...... macrophage infiltration at day 7. No denervation was detectable at day 14 of double treatment, using subcutaneous AG. Our findings favor a role for ED1+ macrophages and iNOS in the hypertension-induced denervation process....

  10. Denervation of the ear and the ‘folding flower’ illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, David Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Following acute denervation of the ear, I experienced altered cutaneous sensory perception analogous to that reported by patients after limb amputation. This suggests that any sudden, complete loss of somaesthetic sensation can result in cortical reorganisation reflecting lost peripheral input. Although the short time course of the phenomenon suggests an initial functional reorganisation, it does not preclude longer time course structural alterations at multiple levels of the nervous system.

  11. Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Trial of Clenbuterol in Denervated Muscle Atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Guang-Liang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Li-Yin; Shen, Li-Ying; Yu, Cong; Xu, Jian-Guang

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. 2 -adrenergic agonists, such as clenbuterol, have been shown to promote the hypertrophy of healthy skeletal muscles and to ameliorate muscle wasting in a few pathological conditions in both animals and humans. We intended to investigate the clinical efficacy of clenbuterol on attenuating denervation-induced muscle atrophy. Methods. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, and randomized trial was employed. 71 patients, suffering from brachial plexus injuries, were given eit...

  12. Excitation-contraction coupling and mechano-sensitivity in denervated skeletal muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy can be defined as a wasting or decrease in muscle mass and muscle force generation owing lack of use, ageing, injury or disease. Thus, the etiology of atrophy can be different. Atrophy in denervated muscle is a consequence of two factors: 1 the complete lack of motoneuron activity inducing the deficiency of neurotransmitter release and 2 the muscles disuse. The balance of the muscular functions depends on extra- and intra-muscular signals. In the balance are involved the excitation-contraction coupling (ECC, local growth factors, Ca2+-dependent and independent intracellular signals, mechano-sensitivity and mechano-transduction that activate Ca2+-dependent signaling proteins and cytoskeleton- nucleus pathways to the nucleus, that regulate the gene expression. Moreover, retrograde signal from intracellular compartments and cytoskeleton to the sarcolemma are additional factors that regulate the muscle function. Proteolytic systems that operate in atrophic muscles progressively reduce the muscle protein content and so the sarcolemma, ECC and the force generation. In this review we will focus on the more relevant changes of the sarcolemma, excitation-contraction coupling, ECC and mechano-transduction evaluated by electrophysiological methods and observed from early- to long-term denervated skeletal muscles. This review put in particular evidence that long-term denervated muscle maintain a sub-population of fibers with ECC and contractile machinery able to be activated, albeit in lesser amounts, by electrical and mechanical stimulation. Accordingly, this provides a potential molecular explanation of the muscle recovery that occurs in response to rehabilitation strategy as transcutaneous electrical stimulation and passive stretching of denervated muscles, which wre developed as a result of empirical clinical observations.

  13. Selective Neuromuscular Denervation in Taiwanese Severe SMA Mouse Can Be Reversed by Morpholino Antisense Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Te-Lin; Chen, Tai-Heng; Hsu, Ya-Yun; Cheng, Yu-Hua; Juang, Bi-Tzen; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease caused by deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which leads to synaptic defects and spinal motor neuron death. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) abnormalities have been found to be involved in SMA pathogenesis in the SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. However, whether similar NMJ pathological findings present in another commonly used mouse model, the Taiwanese SMA mouse, has not been fully investigated. To examine the NMJs of the Taiwanese severe SMA mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN2tg/0), which is characterized by severe phenotype and death before postnatal day (P) 9, we investigated 25 axial and appendicular muscles from P1 to P9. We labelled the muscles with anti-neurofilament and anti-synaptophysin antibodies for nerve terminals and α-bungarotoxin for acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). We found that severe NMJ denervation (<50% fully innervated endplates) selectively occurred in the flexor digitorum brevis 2 and 3 (FDB-2/3) muscles from P5, and an increased percentage of fully denervated endplates correlated with SMA progression. Furthermore, synaptophysin signals were absent at the endplate compared to control littermate mice, suggesting that vesicle transport might only be affected at the end stage. Subsequently, we treated the Taiwanese severe SMA mice with morpholino (MO) antisense oligonucleotides (80 μg/g) via subcutaneous injection at P0. We found that MO significantly reversed the NMJ denervation in FDB-2/3 muscles and extended the survival of Taiwanese severe SMA mice. We conclude that early NMJ denervation in the FDB-2/3 muscles of Taiwanese severe SMA mice can be reversed by MO treatment. The FDB-2/3 muscles of Taiwanese severe SMA mice provide a very sensitive platform for assessing the effectiveness of drug treatments in SMA preclinical studies. PMID:27124114

  14. 123I-MIBG SPECT shows myocardial denervation after transmyocardial laser revascularisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) is an invasive therapy used to treat patients with severe refractory angina pectoris in whom standard treatment is insufficient or not possible. Randomized trials have reported a clear clinical benefit (relief of angina and improvement of Quality of Life (QOL)) of TMLR compared to maximal medical treatment. The post-TMLR clinical improvement has been suggested to be associated with myocardial sympathetic denervation. The aim of the present study was to investigate if TMLR induces myocardial sympathetic denervation. TMLR was performed in 8 patients with refractory angina pectoris. Pre- and post-TMLR myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (99mTc-Tetrofosmin SPECT) and sympathetic innervation (123I-MIBG SPECT) were semi-quantitatively assessed using an 18 segment model and a 5 point scoring system. Pre- and post-TMLR summed perfusion, denervation and difference scores were calculated. In all patients post-TMLR 123I-MIBG SPECT showed decreased uptake: summed denervation score pre-TMLR was 13.4±3.9 vs. 23.9±4.3 post-TMLR (P=0.00002). In 80% of segments the decreased uptake could be related to the TMLR treated area. Pre- and post TMLR myocardial perfusion scintigraphy did not show significant differences. In all patients angina reduced by ≥ 2 classes (NYHA classification) at 3 to 12 months follow up, and QOL significantly improved. Our results indicate that TMLR-induced improvement of angina and QOL can be explained by destruction of nociceptors or cardiac neural pathways, changing the perception of anginal pain

  15. Pulmonary artery denervation for treatment of a patient with pulmonary hypertension secondary to left heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Juan; Xie, Du-Jiang; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Feng-Fu; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) predicts poor outcome in patients with left heart disease. A 62-year-old man was referred for heart failure associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy. He received a diagnosis of combined postcapillary and precapillary PH secondary to left heart disease on the basis of hemodynamic parameters. After the pulmonary artery denervation procedure was performed, hemodynamic parameters were markedly improved, which resulted in a significant increase in functional capacity.

  16. Laparoscopic Kidney Denervation for Refractory Loin Pain: Can We Predict Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srougi, Victor; Duarte, Ricardo J; Srougi, Miguel; Yu, Luis

    2016-09-01

    A 19-year-old female patient presented refractory disabling loin pain associated with mild kidney atrophy (split renal function of 33%). Investigation revealed elevated serum renin level; a therapeutic test with oral renin inhibitor was tried, obtaining important pain control. Aiming to resolve the symptom while preserving the patient kidney and attributing the pain mechanism to be associated with the abnormal renin production, a laparoscopic kidney denervation was performed with no complications and complete pain resolution. PMID:27419076

  17. Renal Denervation Using an Irrigated Catheter in Patients with Resistant Hypertension: A Promising Strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaganijan, Luciana, E-mail: luciana-va@hotmail.com; Staico, Rodolfo; Moraes, Aline; Abizaid, Alexandre; Moreira, Dalmo; Amodeo, Celso; Sousa, Márcio; Borelli, Flávio; Armaganijan, Dikran; Sousa, J. Eduardo; Sousa, Amanda [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Systemic hypertension is an important public health problem and a significant cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its high prevalence and the low rates of blood pressure control have resulted in the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. Percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation emerged as a perspective in the treatment of patients with resistant hypertension. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of renal denervation using an irrigated catheter. Ten patients with resistant hypertension underwent the procedure. The primary endpoint was safety, as assessed by periprocedural adverse events, renal function and renal vascular abnormalities at 6 months. The secondary endpoints were changes in blood pressure levels (office and ambulatory monitoring) and in the number of antihypertensive drugs at 6 months. The mean age was 47.3 (± 12) years, and 90% of patients were women. In the first case, renal artery dissection occurred as a result of trauma due to the long sheath; no further cases were observed after technical adjustments, thus showing an effect of the learning curve. No cases of thrombosis/renal infarction or death were reported. Elevation of serum creatinine levels was not observed during follow-up. At 6 months, one case of significant renal artery stenosis with no clinical consequences was diagnosed. Renal denervation reduced office blood pressure levels by 14.6/6.6 mmHg, on average (p = 0.4 both for systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Blood pressure levels on ambulatory monitoring decreased by 28/17.6 mmHg (p = 0.02 and p = 0.07 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). A mean reduction of 2.1 antihypertensive drugs was observed. Renal denervation is feasible and safe in the treatment of resistant systemic arterial hypertension. Larger studies are required to confirm our findings.

  18. Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland after sympathetic denervation. Quantitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; García-Mauriño, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland were studied quantitatively 7 and 60 days after the sympathetic denervation by bilateral excission or decentralization of superior cervical ganglia. The surface occupied by pineal parenchymal cells decreased in rats of experimental groups with respect to the control group. Furthermore, profile areas of the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus of the pinealocytes were also diminished. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the ...

  19. Transcatheter renal denervation for the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension: the Swiss expert consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Wuerzner, Gregoire; Muller, Olivier; Erne, Paul; Cook, Stéphane; Sudano, Isabella; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Noll, Georg; Kaufmann, Urs; Rickli, Hans; Waeber, Bernard; Kaiser, Christophe; Sticherling, Christian; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Baumgartner, Iris; Jacob, Augustinus L

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter (or percutaneous) renal denervation is a novel technique developed for the treatment of resistant hypertension. So far, only one randomised controlled trial has been published, which has shown a reduction of office blood pressure. The Swiss Society of Hypertension, the Swiss Society of Cardiology, The Swiss Society of Angiology and the Swiss Society of Interventional Radiology decided to establish recommendations to practicing physicians and specialists for good clinical practic...

  20. Renale Sympathikus-Denervation bei Patienten mit milder therapierefraktärer arterieller Hypertonie

    OpenAIRE

    Rombach, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal sympathetic denervation is applied as a therapy in patients with treatment-resistant arterial hypertension at Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin Berlin. Patients take at least three antihypertensive drugs, including one diuretic. So far, 56 patients with moderate arterial hypertension have been treated (office blood pressure at least 140/90 mmHg). 1 ½ years after the systematic registration of the patient parameters has started, their results 12, 6 and 3 months after the proce...

  1. The Multidisciplinary Approach to Renal Denervation: Current Evidences and Open Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Samoni; Marco Sartori; Elisa Scalzotto; Alessandra Brocca; Silvia Guggia; Francesco Ramponi; Mauro Neri; Paolo Armignacco; Grazia Maria Virzì; Maria Pia Rodighiero; Claudio Ronco

    2014-01-01

    Renal denervation (RD) is a new clinical procedure which aims to treat resistant hypertensive patients. As with every new technology introduced into the clinical setting, many aspects were not explored sufficiently in order to be implemented into routine clinical practice. Advances in clinical technology require different steps of development, which start from preliminary in vitro experiments and finally arrive in the market, available for physicians when they have been proven to produce bene...

  2. Renal Denervation Using an Irrigated Catheter in Patients with Resistant Hypertension: A Promising Strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic hypertension is an important public health problem and a significant cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its high prevalence and the low rates of blood pressure control have resulted in the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. Percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation emerged as a perspective in the treatment of patients with resistant hypertension. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of renal denervation using an irrigated catheter. Ten patients with resistant hypertension underwent the procedure. The primary endpoint was safety, as assessed by periprocedural adverse events, renal function and renal vascular abnormalities at 6 months. The secondary endpoints were changes in blood pressure levels (office and ambulatory monitoring) and in the number of antihypertensive drugs at 6 months. The mean age was 47.3 (± 12) years, and 90% of patients were women. In the first case, renal artery dissection occurred as a result of trauma due to the long sheath; no further cases were observed after technical adjustments, thus showing an effect of the learning curve. No cases of thrombosis/renal infarction or death were reported. Elevation of serum creatinine levels was not observed during follow-up. At 6 months, one case of significant renal artery stenosis with no clinical consequences was diagnosed. Renal denervation reduced office blood pressure levels by 14.6/6.6 mmHg, on average (p = 0.4 both for systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Blood pressure levels on ambulatory monitoring decreased by 28/17.6 mmHg (p = 0.02 and p = 0.07 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). A mean reduction of 2.1 antihypertensive drugs was observed. Renal denervation is feasible and safe in the treatment of resistant systemic arterial hypertension. Larger studies are required to confirm our findings

  3. Injection therapy and denervation procedures for chronic low-back pain: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Henschke, N.; Kuijpers, T; Rubinstein, S.M.; Middelkoop, van, J.C.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Verhagen, A.; Koes, B W; Tulder, van, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInjection therapy and denervation procedures are commonly used in the management of chronic low-back pain (LBP) despite uncertainty regarding their effectiveness and safety. To provide an evaluation of the current evidence associated with the use of these procedures, a systematic review was performed. Existing systematic reviews were screened, and the Cochrane Back Review Group trial register was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. S...

  4. Myogenin Regulates Denervation-Dependent Muscle Atrophy in Mouse Soleus Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, Peter C. D.; Wang, Xun; Goldman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Muscle inactivity due to injury or disease results in muscle atrophy. The molecular mechanisms contributing to muscle atrophy are poorly understood. However, it is clear that expression of atrophy-related genes, like Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, are intimately tied to loss of muscle mass. When these atrophy-related genes are knocked out, inactive muscles retain mass. Muscle denervation stimulates muscle atrophy and Myogenin (Myog) is a muscle-specific transcription factor that is highly induced foll...

  5. Dopaminergic denervation severity depends on COMT Val158Met polymorphism in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Muellner, Julia; Gharrad, Iman; Habert, Marie-Odile; Kas, Aurélie; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; Cormier-Dequaire, Florence; Tahiri, Khadija; Vidailhet, Marie; Meier, Niklaus; Brice, Alexis; Schuepbach, Michael; Mallet, Alain; Hartmann, Andreas; Corvol, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Background : Catecholamine-O-methyl-tranferase (COMT) initiates dopamine degradation. Its activity is mainly determined by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene (Val158Met, rs4680) separating high (Val/Val, COMTHH), intermediate (Val/Met, COMTHL) and low metabolizers (Met/Met, COMTLL). We investigated dopaminergic denervation in the striatum in PD patients according to COMT rs4680 genotype.Methods : Patients with idiopathic PD were assessed for motor severity (UPDRS-III rating sca...

  6. Ulnar nerve injuries of the hand producing intrinsic muscle denervation of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscle and nerve injuries in the hand may be difficult to detect and diagnose clinically. Two cases are reported in which magnetic resonance imaging showed ulnar nerve injury and intrinsic hand muscle denervation. The clinical, anatomical and radiological features of injury to the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve and associated muscle denervation are discussed and illustrated. Compression of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve is a rare cause of hand dysfunction. This condition produces a clinical syndrome characterized by weakness of the muscles innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve, with normal sensation in the hand. Denervation of the intrinsic hand muscles is variable, depending on the site and severity of the nerve injury. The anatomy of the ulnar nerve is complex and ulnar nerve compression syndrome is difficult to detect and localize clinically. Multiple causes exist, including ganglions; repeated trauma, typically occupationally related; calcification adjacent to the pisiform and the pisotriquetral joint; anomalous muscle bellies; fractures or dislocations affecting the ulnar side of the wrist; vascular anomalies of the ulnar artery; and oedema of the hand, requiring differing surgical treatments. We report two patients who presented with ulnar nerve compression syndrome secondary to post-traumatic neuromas as a result of blunt trauma to the palm. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Ulnar nerve injuries of the hand producing intrinsic muscle denervation of magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberie, J.E.; Connell, D.G.; Munk, P.L.; Janzen, D.L. [Vancouver General Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada). Department of Radiology

    1999-08-01

    Muscle and nerve injuries in the hand may be difficult to detect and diagnose clinically. Two cases are reported in which magnetic resonance imaging showed ulnar nerve injury and intrinsic hand muscle denervation. The clinical, anatomical and radiological features of injury to the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve and associated muscle denervation are discussed and illustrated. Compression of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve is a rare cause of hand dysfunction. This condition produces a clinical syndrome characterized by weakness of the muscles innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve, with normal sensation in the hand. Denervation of the intrinsic hand muscles is variable, depending on the site and severity of the nerve injury. The anatomy of the ulnar nerve is complex and ulnar nerve compression syndrome is difficult to detect and localize clinically. Multiple causes exist, including ganglions; repeated trauma, typically occupationally related; calcification adjacent to the pisiform and the pisotriquetral joint; anomalous muscle bellies; fractures or dislocations affecting the ulnar side of the wrist; vascular anomalies of the ulnar artery; and oedema of the hand, requiring differing surgical treatments. We report two patients who presented with ulnar nerve compression syndrome secondary to post-traumatic neuromas as a result of blunt trauma to the palm. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Diffusion-weighted MRI, dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI and ultrasound perfusion quantification of denervated muscle in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyault, G.; Beregi, J.P. [University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular imaging, Cardiologic Hospital, Lille (France); Bierry, G.; Holl, N.; Dietemann, J.L.; Kremer, S. [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Strasbourg (France); Lhermitte, B. [University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Strasbourg (France)

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess denervated muscle perfusion using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSCMRI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and to measure denervated muscle apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on b1000 diffusion-weighted MRI (DWMRI) at 3 T in order to clarify whether muscle denervation leads to an increase in the extracellular extravascular space, or an increase in blood flow - or both. Axotomy of the right sciatic nerve of six white rabbits was performed at day 0. At day 9, hind limb muscles MRI and CEUS were performed to assess the consequences of denervation and both semimembranosus muscles of each rabbit were explanted for histological studies. Signal intensity on T2- and T1-weighted MRI, ADC on DWMRI, maximum signal drop (MSD) on DSCMRI and the area under the curve (AUC) on CEUS were measured over circular regions of interest (ROI), in both semimembranosus muscles. Non-parametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests were used to assess the mean differences between denervated and normal muscles. T2 fat-saturated (FS) MRI studies showed a strong signal in the right semimembranosus muscles compared with the left side, and gadolinium enhancement was observed on T1 FS MRI. Denervated muscles show a significant increase in ADC on DWMRI (p < 0.01) and a significant signal enhancement on DSCMR imaging (p < 0.05) and on first-pass CEUS (p < 0.05). The results of this study - based on perfusion- and diffusion-weighted images - suggest that, after denervation, both increased blood flow through muscle tissue and expansion of the extracellular water volume are present. (orig.)

  9. The influence of passive stretch on the growth and protein turnover of the denervated extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldspink, D F

    1978-08-15

    At 7 days after cutting the sciatic nerve, the extensor digitorum longus muscle was smaller and contained less protein than its innervated control. Correlating with these changes was the finding of elevated rates of protein degradation (measured in vitro) in the denervated tissue. However, at this time, rates of protein synthesis (measured in vitro) and nucleic acid concentrations were also higher in the denervated tissue, changes more usually associated with an active muscle rather than a disused one. These anabolic trends have, at least in part, been explained by the possible greater exposure of the denervated extensor digitorum longus to passive stretch. When immobilized under a maintained influence of stretch the denervated muscle grew to a greater extent. Although this stretch-induced growth appeared to occur predominantly through a stimulation of protein synthesis, it was opposed by smaller increases in degradative rates. Nucleic acids increased at a similar rate to the increase in muscle mass when a continuous influence of stretch was imposed on the denervated tissue. In contrast, immobilization of the denervated extensor digitorum longus in a shortened unstretched state reversed most of the stretch-induced changes; that is, the muscle became even smaller, with protein synthesis decreasing to a greater extent than breakdown after the removal of passive stretch. The present investigation suggests that stretch will promote protein synthesis and hence growth of the extensor digitorum longus even in the absence of an intact nerve supply. However, some factor(s), in addition to passive stretch, must contribute to the anabolic trends in this denervated muscle. PMID:708412

  10. Autonomous linear lossless systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Shodhan; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We define a lossless autonomous system as one having a quadratic differential form associated with it called an energy function, which is positive and which is conserved. We define an oscillatory system as one which has all its trajectories bounded on the entire time axis. In this paper, we show that an autonomous system is lossless if and only if it is oscillatory. Next we discuss a few properties of energy functions of autonomous lossless systems and a suitable way of splitting a given ener...

  11. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  12. AUTONOMOUS DRIVEN CAR

    OpenAIRE

    Meeshika Arora

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve autonomous operation of a vehiclein urban situations with unpredictable traffic, several real timesystems must interoperate, including environment perceptionplanning and control. In addition a robust vehicle platform withappropriate sensors, computational hardware, networking andsoftware infrastructure is essential.

  13. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  14. Engineering Autonomous Driving Software

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Christian; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    A larger number of people with heterogeneous knowledge and skills running a project together needs an adaptable, target, and skill-specific engineering process. This especially holds for a project to develop a highly innovative, autonomously driving vehicle to participate in the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge. In this contribution, we present essential elements of a software and systems engineering process to develop a so-called artificial intelligence capable of driving autonomously in complex u...

  15. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren;

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  16. Denervation atrophy is independent from Akt and mTOR activation and is not rescued by myostatin inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. MacDonald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to compare two acquired muscle atrophies and the use of myostatin inhibition for their treatment. Myostatin naturally inhibits skeletal muscle growth by binding to ActRIIB, a receptor on the cell surface of myofibers. Because blocking myostatin in an adult wild-type mouse induces profound muscle hypertrophy, we applied a soluble ActRIIB receptor to models of disuse (limb immobilization and denervation (sciatic nerve resection atrophy. We found that treatment of immobilized mice with ActRIIB prevented the loss of muscle mass observed in placebo-treated mice. Our results suggest that this protection from disuse atrophy is regulated by serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK rather than by Akt. Denervation atrophy, however, was not protected by ActRIIB treatment, yet resulted in an upregulation of the pro-growth factors Akt, SGK and components of the mTOR pathway. We then treated the denervated mice with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and found that, despite a reduction in mTOR activation, there is no alteration of the atrophy phenotype. Additionally, rapamycin prevented the denervation-induced upregulation of the mTORC2 substrates Akt and SGK. Thus, our studies show that denervation atrophy is not only independent from Akt, SGK and mTOR activation but also has a different underlying pathophysiological mechanism than disuse atrophy.

  17. Denervation atrophy is independent from Akt and mTOR activation and is not rescued by myostatin inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Elizabeth M; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Mejias, Rebeca; Simmers, Jessica L; Mi, Ruifa; Park, Jae-Sung; Ying, Stephanie; Hoke, Ahmet; Lee, Se-Jin; Cohn, Ronald D

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare two acquired muscle atrophies and the use of myostatin inhibition for their treatment. Myostatin naturally inhibits skeletal muscle growth by binding to ActRIIB, a receptor on the cell surface of myofibers. Because blocking myostatin in an adult wild-type mouse induces profound muscle hypertrophy, we applied a soluble ActRIIB receptor to models of disuse (limb immobilization) and denervation (sciatic nerve resection) atrophy. We found that treatment of immobilized mice with ActRIIB prevented the loss of muscle mass observed in placebo-treated mice. Our results suggest that this protection from disuse atrophy is regulated by serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK) rather than by Akt. Denervation atrophy, however, was not protected by ActRIIB treatment, yet resulted in an upregulation of the pro-growth factors Akt, SGK and components of the mTOR pathway. We then treated the denervated mice with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and found that, despite a reduction in mTOR activation, there is no alteration of the atrophy phenotype. Additionally, rapamycin prevented the denervation-induced upregulation of the mTORC2 substrates Akt and SGK. Thus, our studies show that denervation atrophy is not only independent from Akt, SGK and mTOR activation but also has a different underlying pathophysiological mechanism than disuse atrophy. PMID:24504412

  18. Prevention and treatment of sciatic denervation disuse osteoporosis in the rat tibia with capacitively coupled electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis in the sciatic-denervated rat tibia was both prevented and reversed with a capacitively coupled electrical field. In both the prevention of the development of osteoporosis and the reversal of a previously established osteoporosis, a statistically significant enhancement of wet weight, dry weight, ashed weight, ultimate strength, cortical area, cortical thickness, and a concomitant decrease in cortical porosity occurred in the stimulated, denervated tibiae of the experimental animals compared with the nonstimulated, denervated tibiae of the control animals. These effects exhibited dose-response characteristics. A 60 kHz symmetrical sinewave signal was effective in preventing osteoporosis at a range of 5-10 peak-to-peak, and it was effective in reversing osteoporosis at 10 V peak-to-peak. Reversal of a well-established osteoporosis in laboratory animals has not been reported previously. Continued investigation into the use of a capacitively coupled electrical field in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis seems warranted from these studies

  19. A refined technique for sciatic denervation in a golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) model of disuse atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarukhanov, Valeri; Van Andel, Roger; Treat, Michael D; Utz, Jenifer C; van Breukelen, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Disuse atrophy of both muscle and bone can occur rapidly during periods of inactivity. In several rodent models developed for the study of disuse atrophy, immobilization is induced by prolonged cage restraint, hind limb unloading, tenotomy, sciatic nerve block or sciatic denervation. In less tractable species such as wild-caught hibernating rodents, the sciatic denervation model is superior in terms of both animal welfare and applicability to the characteristics of natural cases of disuse atrophy. The authors describe a refined surgical approach to sciatic denervation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), a hibernating species, that improves animal welfare and reduces the incidence of post-operative complications such as autotomy. PMID:24845006

  20. Role of vascular KATP channels in blood pressure variability after sinoaortic denervation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhong-Wei; Li, Dong-jie; Liu, Chong; Han, Ping; Yang, Yi-li; Su, Ding-Feng; Shen, Fu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels on blood pressure variability (BPV) in sinoaortic denervated (SAD) rats. Methods: SAD was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats 4 weeks before the study. mRNA expression of Kir6.1, Kir6.2 and SUR2 in aorta and mesenteric artery was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and confirmed at the protein level using Western blotting and laser confocal immunofluorescence assays. Concentration-response...

  1. Revisiting renovascular imaging for renal sympathetic denervation: current techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is an emerging technique in the treatment of resistant hypertension, most commonly performed using an endovascular approach. Clinical and anatomical criteria for RDN are well established and imaging plays an integral role in selecting patients with suitable anatomy, procedural planning and device selection. Nevertheless, the current body of literature surrounding imaging related to RDN remains limited. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the expectations and limitations of various imaging techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, MR angiography and newer techniques such as non-contrast MR angiography, in the context of RDN. (orig.)

  2. Renal denervation of the native kidneys for drug-resistant hypertension after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Linn C; Bemelman, Frederike J; Ten Berge, Ineke J M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Reekers, Jim A; Krediet, C T Paul

    2015-02-01

    There is a strong rationale for renal denervation (RDN) of the native kidneys in kidney transplant recipients with treatment-resistant hypertension. We present a patient with a stable graft function, who underwent RDN for posttransplant therapy-resistant hypertension (24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) 143/89 mmHg, while compliantly using five different antihypertensive agents). After RDN, BP measurements and orthostatic complaints required withdrawal of two antihypertensive agents and halving a third. At 6 months, ABPM was 134/84 mmHg and allograft function remained unchanged. This case calls for designing well-designed prospective studies on RDN in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:25713714

  3. Revisiting renovascular imaging for renal sympathetic denervation: current techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei; Tan, Cher Heng [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Ho, Hee Hwa; Tan, Julian Ko Beng; Ong, Paul Jau Leong [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is an emerging technique in the treatment of resistant hypertension, most commonly performed using an endovascular approach. Clinical and anatomical criteria for RDN are well established and imaging plays an integral role in selecting patients with suitable anatomy, procedural planning and device selection. Nevertheless, the current body of literature surrounding imaging related to RDN remains limited. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the expectations and limitations of various imaging techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, MR angiography and newer techniques such as non-contrast MR angiography, in the context of RDN. (orig.)

  4. Architecture of autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  5. Exercise and autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, R L; Bloomfield, D M; Rosenwinkel, E T

    2000-03-01

    The complex interplay between the dichotomous subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system establishes and maintains a delicately tuned homeostasis in spite of an ever-changing environment. Aerobic exercise training can increase activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and decrease sympathetic activity. Conversely, it is well-documented that cardiac disease is often characterized by attenuated parasympathetic activity and heightened sympathetic tone. A correlation between autonomic disequilibrium and disease has led to the hypothesis that exercise training, as a therapy that restores the autonomic nervous system towards normal function, may be associated with, and possibly responsible for, outcome improvements in various populations. This is merely one of the many benefits that is conferred by chronic exercise training and reviewed in this issue. PMID:10758814

  6. Renal Sympathetic Denervation by CT-scan-Guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection in Sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouznia, Kavous, E-mail: k-firouznia@yahoo.com; Hosseininasab, Sayed jaber, E-mail: dr.hosseininasab@gmail.com [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TMUS), Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amanpour, Saeid, E-mail: saeidamanpour@yahoo.com [Tehran University of Medical Science, Cancer Models Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haj-Mirzaian, Arya, E-mail: arya.mirzaian@gmail.com [Tehran University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology and Imaging, MIC, Imam Khomeini Hospital (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Miri, Roza, E-mail: rosa.miri@yahoo.com [Tehran University of Medical Science, Department of Pathology, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Muhammadnejad, Ahad, E-mail: mohamadnejad@yahoo.com [Tehran University of Medical Science, Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Muhammadnejad, Samad, E-mail: s-muhammadnejad@sina.tums.ac.ir [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalali, Amir H., E-mail: amirjalali51@yahoo.com [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TMUS), Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha, E-mail: ahmadi@tums.ac.ir [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nephrology Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rokni-Yazdi, Hadi, E-mail: rokniyaz@tums.ac.ir [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TMUS), Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    BackgroundRenal nerves are a recent target in the treatment of hypertension. Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is currently performed using catheter-based radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and because this method has limitations, percutaneous magnetic resonance (MR)-guided periarterial ethanol injection is a suggested alternative. However, few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of percutaneous ethanol injection for RSD.AimTo evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided periarterial ethanol injection.MethodsEthanol (10 ml, 99.6 %) was injected around the right renal artery in six sheep under CT guidance with the left kidney serving as a control. Before and after the intervention, the sheep underwent MR imaging studies and the serum creatinine level was measured. One month after the intervention, the sheep were euthanized and norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma was measured to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. The treated tissues were also examined histopathologically to evaluate vascular, parenchymal, and neural injury.ResultsThe right kidney parenchymal NE concentration decreased significantly compared with the left kidney after intervention (average reduction: 40 %, P = 0.0016). Histologic examination revealed apparent denervation with no other vascular or parenchymal injuries observed in the histological and imaging studies.ConclusionEffective and feasible RSD was achieved using CT-guided periarterial ethanol injection. This technique may be a potential alternative to catheter-based RFA in the treatment of hypertension.

  7. MR-guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection for Renal Sympathetic Denervation: A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, F., E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.de; Walter, A.; Stolzenburg, N.; Heckmann, L.; Breinl, J. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Rinnenthal, J. L. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Neuropathology (Germany); Beck, A.; De Bucourt, M.; Schnorr, J. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bernhardt, U. [InnoRa GmbH (Germany); Gebauer, B.; Hamm, B.; Guenther, R. W. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of image-guided periarterial ethanol injection as an alternative to transluminal radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Unilateral renal periarterial ethanol injection was performed under general anesthesia in 6 pigs with the contralateral kidney serving as control. All interventions were performed in an open 1.0 T MRI system under real-time multiplanar guidance. The injected volume was 5 ml (95 % ethanol labelled marked MR contrast medium) in 2 pigs and 10 ml in 4 pigs. Four weeks after treatment, the pigs underwent MRI including MRA and were killed. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma served as a surrogate parameter to analyze the efficacy of sympathetic denervation. In addition, the renal artery and sympathetic nerves were examined histologically to identify evidence of vascular and neural injury. Results. In pigs treated with 10 ml ethanol, treatment resulted in neural degeneration. We found a significant reduction of NE concentration in the kidney parenchyma of 53 % (p < 0.02) compared with the untreated contralateral kidney. In pigs treated with 5 ml ethanol, no significant changes in histology or NE were observed. There was no evidence of renal arterial stenosis in MRI, macroscopy or histology in any pig. Conclusion. MR-guided periarterial ethanol injection was feasible and efficient for renal sympathetic denervation in a swine model. This technique may be a promising alternative to the catheter-based approach in the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.

  8. MR-guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection for Renal Sympathetic Denervation: A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of image-guided periarterial ethanol injection as an alternative to transluminal radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Unilateral renal periarterial ethanol injection was performed under general anesthesia in 6 pigs with the contralateral kidney serving as control. All interventions were performed in an open 1.0 T MRI system under real-time multiplanar guidance. The injected volume was 5 ml (95 % ethanol labelled marked MR contrast medium) in 2 pigs and 10 ml in 4 pigs. Four weeks after treatment, the pigs underwent MRI including MRA and were killed. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma served as a surrogate parameter to analyze the efficacy of sympathetic denervation. In addition, the renal artery and sympathetic nerves were examined histologically to identify evidence of vascular and neural injury. Results. In pigs treated with 10 ml ethanol, treatment resulted in neural degeneration. We found a significant reduction of NE concentration in the kidney parenchyma of 53 % (p < 0.02) compared with the untreated contralateral kidney. In pigs treated with 5 ml ethanol, no significant changes in histology or NE were observed. There was no evidence of renal arterial stenosis in MRI, macroscopy or histology in any pig. Conclusion. MR-guided periarterial ethanol injection was feasible and efficient for renal sympathetic denervation in a swine model. This technique may be a promising alternative to the catheter-based approach in the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.

  9. Arthroscopic Patelloplasty and Circumpatellar Denervation for the Treatment of Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Liu, Yujie; Yuan, Bangtuo; Shen, Xuezhen; Qu, Feng; Wang, Jiangtao; Qi, Wei; Zhu, Juanli; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patellofemoral osteoarthritis commonly occurs in older people, often resulting in anterior knee pain and severely reduced quality of life. The aim was to examine the effectiveness of arthroscopic patelloplasty and circumpatellar denervation for the treatment of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). Methods: A total of 156 PFOA patients (62 males, 94 females; ages 45-81 years, mean 66 years) treated in our department between September 2012 and March 2013 were involved in this study. Clinical manifestations included recurrent swelling and pain in the knee joint and aggravated pain upon ascending/descending stairs, squatting down, or standing up. PFOA was treated with arthroscopic patelloplasty and circumpatellar denervation. The therapeutic effects before and after surgery were statistically evaluated using Lysholm and Kujala scores. The therapeutic effects were graded by classification of the degree of cartilage defect. Results: A total of 149 cases were successfully followed up for 14.8 months, on average. The incisions healed well, and no complications occurred. After surgery, the average Lysholm score improved from 73.29 to 80.93, and the average Kujala score improved from 68.34 to 76.48. This procedure was highly effective for patients with cartilage defects I-III but not for patients with cartilage defect IV. Conclusions: For PFOA patients, this procedure is effective for significantly relieving anterior knee pain, improving knee joint function and quality of life, and deferring arthritic progression. PMID:25563318

  10. Arthroscopic Patelloplasty and Circumpatellar Denervation for the Treatment of Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral osteoarthritis commonly occurs in older people, often resulting in anterior knee pain and severely reduced quality of life. The aim was to examine the effectiveness of arthroscopic patelloplasty and circumpatellar denervation for the treatment of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA. Methods: A total of 156 PFOA patients (62 males, 94 females; ages 45-81 years, mean 66 years treated in our department between September 2012 and March 2013 were involved in this study. Clinical manifestations included recurrent swelling and pain in the knee joint and aggravated pain upon ascending/descending stairs, squatting down, or standing up. PFOA was treated with arthroscopic patelloplasty and circumpatellar denervation. The therapeutic effects before and after surgery were statistically evaluated using Lysholm and Kujala scores. The therapeutic effects were graded by classification of the degree of cartilage defect. Results: A total of 149 cases were successfully followed up for 14.8 months, on average. The incisions healed well, and no complications occurred. After surgery, the average Lysholm score improved from 73.29 to 80.93, and the average Kujala score improved from 68.34 to 76.48. This procedure was highly effective for patients with cartilage defects I-III but not for patients with cartilage defect IV. Conclusions: For PFOA patients, this procedure is effective for significantly relieving anterior knee pain, improving knee joint function and quality of life, and deferring arthritic progression.

  11. Renal Sympathetic Denervation by CT-scan-Guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection in Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BackgroundRenal nerves are a recent target in the treatment of hypertension. Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is currently performed using catheter-based radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and because this method has limitations, percutaneous magnetic resonance (MR)-guided periarterial ethanol injection is a suggested alternative. However, few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of percutaneous ethanol injection for RSD.AimTo evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided periarterial ethanol injection.MethodsEthanol (10 ml, 99.6 %) was injected around the right renal artery in six sheep under CT guidance with the left kidney serving as a control. Before and after the intervention, the sheep underwent MR imaging studies and the serum creatinine level was measured. One month after the intervention, the sheep were euthanized and norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma was measured to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. The treated tissues were also examined histopathologically to evaluate vascular, parenchymal, and neural injury.ResultsThe right kidney parenchymal NE concentration decreased significantly compared with the left kidney after intervention (average reduction: 40 %, P = 0.0016). Histologic examination revealed apparent denervation with no other vascular or parenchymal injuries observed in the histological and imaging studies.ConclusionEffective and feasible RSD was achieved using CT-guided periarterial ethanol injection. This technique may be a potential alternative to catheter-based RFA in the treatment of hypertension

  12. Age-associated striatal dopaminergic denervation and falls in community-dwelling subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Muller, Martijn L. T. M.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Cham, Rakié; Constantine, Gregory M.; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have a high prevalence of gait and balance disturbances and falls. Normal aging is associated with significant striatal dopaminergic denervation, which might be a previously unrecognized additional contributor to geriatric falls. This study investigated the relationship between the severity of age-associated striatal dopaminergic denervation (AASDD) and falls in community-dwelling subjects. Community-dwelling subjects who did not have a clinical diagnosis to explain falls (n = 77: 43 female, 34 male; mean age 61.4 +/− 16.4; range 20–85) completed clinical assessment and brain dopamine transporter (DAT) [11C]beta-CFT (2-beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane) positron emission tomography imaging followed by 6 months of prospective fall monitoring using diaries. Results showed a significant inverse relationship between striatal DAT activity and age (r = −0.82, p < 0.001). A total of 26 subjects (33.8%) reported at least one fall, with 5 subjects (6.5%) reporting two or more falls. While no significant difference was noted in striatal DAT activity between nonfallers (n = 51) and fallers (n = 26; f = 0.02, not significant), striatal DAT activity was modestly reduced in the small subgroup of recurrent fallers compared with the other subjects (f = 5.07, p < 0.05). Findings indicate that AASDD does not explain isolated self-reported falls in community-dwelling subjects. However, it may be a contributing factor in the small subgroup of subjects with recurrent falls. PMID:20157861

  13. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  14. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple. The...

  15. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, van Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André W.P.; Vervoort, Wiek A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is n

  16. Autonomous Security Patrol System

    OpenAIRE

    Erramouspe, Jake

    2010-01-01

    This project provides an efficient and cost-effective solution to building security and active monitoring. The security is monitored and controlled by autonomous patrol robots. Any indication of a security breach will result in an immediate alarm and activation of the robot group to subdue and tranquilize the intruder.

  17. Software Architecture for Autonomous Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jimmy S.

    1997-01-01

    The thesis objective is to design an autonomous spacecraft architecture to perform both deliberative and reactive behaviors. The Autonomous Small Planet In-Situ Reaction to Events (ASPIRE) project uses the architecture to integrate several autonomous technologies for a comet orbiter mission.

  18. The morphological substrate for Renal Denervation : Nerve distribution patterns and parasympathetic nerves. A post-mortem histological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Wouter A C; Blankestijn, Peter J; Goldschmeding, Roel; Bleys, Ronald L A W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal Denervation as a possible treatment for hypertension has been studied extensively, but knowledge on the distribution of nerves surrounding the renal artery is still incomplete. While sympathetic and sensory nerves have been demonstrated, there is no mention of the presence of paras

  19. Effects of denervation, immobilization and cachexia on fibre size in the anterior tibial muscle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindboe, C F; Presthus, J

    1985-01-01

    The effects of denervation, immobilization and cachexia on the size of the various histochemical fibre types were studied in the anterior tibial muscle of male Wistar rats aged 60-100 days. Denervation was induced by unilateral sectioning of the sciatic nerve, immobilization by a plaster cast on one hindlimb and cachexia by restriction of food intake. In the anterior tibial muscle of the normal rat, three fibre types can be identified by myofibrillar ATPase stain after alkaline preincubation. These fibres were called dark (D-fibres), intermediate (I-fibres) and light fibres (L-fibres), respectively. The I-fibres correspond to the fast-twitch type 2 fibres and the L-fibres to the slow-twitch type 1 fibres. The D-fibres have intermediate characteristics, but they probably belong to the type 2 group. The three fibre types reacted differently to denervation, immobilization and cachexia. Denervation caused progressive atrophy of the D- and I-fibres and almost no change of the L-fibres. Immobilization caused minor reduction in size of the D- and I-fibres during the first days and no change thereafter, whereas the L-fibres showed transitory hypertrophy. Cachexia, on the other hand, resulted in progressive atrophy of all three fibre types but a predominant affection of the D- and I-fibres. The different susceptibilities of the various fibre types suggest different mechanisms for atrophy of muscle in these three conditions. PMID:3158148

  20. Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauman William A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days or 29 days later (35 days attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on

  1. Permanent LMN denervation of human skeletal muscle and recovery by h-b FES: management and monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Denervation of a defined skeletal muscle is due to lower motor neuron (LMN or peripheral nerve lesions that have major consequences on the muscle tissue. After early atrophy, the mid- and late-phases presents two very contrasting myofibers populations: beside those severely atrophic with internalized groups of myonuclei, large fast-type muscle fibers continue to be present 4 to 6 years after Spinal Cord Injury (SCI. Recent results of rat experiments provides the rational basis for understanding the residual functional characteristics of the long-term denervated muscle and the molecular explanation of its ability to respond to home-base functional electrical stimulation (h-b FES using custom-designed electrodes and stimulators. Further outcomes of the Vienna-Padova ten-year collaboration are: 1. a world-unique Myo- Bank of muscle biopsies and 2. improved imaging procedures (Color Computer Tomography (CT scan and Functional Echomyography, all demonstrating that h-b FES induces improvements in muscle contractility, tissue composition and mass, despite permanent LMN denervation. The benefits of h-b FES could be extended from patents suffering with complete Conus-Cauda Syndrome to the numerous patients with incomplete LMN denervation of skeletal muscles to determine whether h-b FES reduces secondary complications related to disuse and impaired blood perfusion (reduction in bone density, risk of bone fracture, decubitus ulcers, and pulmonary thromboembolism. We are confident that translation of the results of a clinical experiment, the EU Project RISE, to the larger cohort of incomplete LMN denervated muscles will provide the wanted results.

  2. [Endovascular radiofrequency denervation of renal arteries as an innovation method of treatment of refractory arterial hypertension. First experience in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, N M; Matchin, Iu G; Chazova, I E

    2012-01-01

    Excessive activation of the sympathetic nervous system forms the basis of pathogenesis of essential arterial hypertension (AH). The present work was aimed at evaluating efficacy and safety of endovascular radiofrequency denervation of renal arteries in patients with AH refractory AH based on the initial first experience in with using this methodology in the Russian Federation. The interventions were carried out on December 14-15th, 2011 in the first five patients presenting with AH refractory to antihypertensive therapy consisting of three and more drugs in therapeutic doses, one of which was a diuretic. The selection criteria were systolic arterial pressure (SAP) ≥160 mm Hg or ≥150 mm Hg in the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The obligatory conditions for selection were the preserved renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥45 ml/min] and the absence of the secondary form of AH. The procedure of denervation was performed in the conditions of roentgen-operating room using special Medtronic Ardian Simplicity Catheter System™. In all cases we managed to perform bilateral denervation of renal arteries with the radiofrequency effect in not less than 4 zones of each of vessels. Efficacy of each of the effect was registered with due regard for reaching certain temperature and values of impedance. The interventions were not accompanied by the development of any complications either in the area of manipulations or the site of puncture. Neither were there any complications from the side of the cardiovascular or excretory systems of the body. Diurnal monitoring of AP (DMAP) registered a significant decrease in SAP averagely from 174±12 to 145±10 mm Hg three days after the intervention. A persistent antihypertensive effect was confirmed by the DMAP findings one month after denervation - the SAP level averagely amounted to 131±6 mm Hg. Endovascular radiofrequency denervation of renal arteries is a safe and efficient method of treatment of AH resistant

  3. Effect of renal sympathetic denervation on atrial substrate remodeling in ambulatory canines with prolonged atrial pacing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xule Wang

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RSD could suppress atrial fibrillation (AF in canines with short-time rapid right atrial pacing (RAP. However, the role of renal denervation on atrial remodeling is unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the long-term effect of RSD on the atrial remodeling during prolonged RAP. Twenty mongrel dogs were implanted with a high-frequency cardiac pacemaker with a transvenous lead inserted into the right atrial appendage. The dogs were divided into three groups: a sham-operated group (n = 6, the chronic RAP (CRAP group (n = 7, and the CRAP+RSD group (n = 7. In the CRAP+RSD group, a pacemaker was implanted 6 weeks after RSD was performed bilaterally for recovery. RAP was maintained for 5 weeks in CRAP group and CRAP+RSD group. The plasma levels of Angiotensin II and aldosterone were significantly increased in CRAP group compared with sham-operated group, but the increasing trend was inhibited in CRAP+RSD group compared with CRAP group (P<0.05. Similarly, RSD suppressed the increasing trend that prolonged RAP produced in the left atrial levels of ANP, TNF-α and IL-6. Compared with the sham-operated group, the CRAP group had significantly increased levels of caspase-3, bax and Cx40 whereas the level of Bcl-2 decreased (P<0.05. RSD markedly reduced the upregulation of caspase-3, bax and Cx40 and the downregulation of Bcl-2 expression compared with the CRAP group (P<0.05. Picric acid-sirius red staining study suggested that RSD could markedly alleviate the lesion degree of cardic fibrosis induced by CRAP (P<0.05. Immunohistochemistry results showed that the densities of TH- and GAP43- positive nerves were significantly elevated in the CRAP group compared with the sham-operated group, while RSD operation signicantly inhibited the these changes produced by CRAP. These findings suggest that renal denervation could suppress the atrial remodeling after

  4. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  5. Autonomous single camera exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Calleja, Teresa A.; Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present an active exploration strategy for a mobile robot navigating in 3D. The aim is to control a moving robot that autonomously builds a visual feature map while at the same time optimises its localisation in this map. The technique chooses the most appropriate commands maximising the information gain between prior states and measurements, while performing 6DOF bearing only SLAM at video rate. Maximising the mutual information helps the vehicle avoid ill-conditioned measur...

  6. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle control

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Morató, Jordi; Gomáriz Castro, Spartacus; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the system control design stages for an autonomous underwater vehicle are presented. The vehicle must be able to sail on sea surface, following a path without losing its route and once a position is reached, a dive following a perpendicular path to the surface is carried out. A two level system control are proposed. The primary level will control the navigation of the vehicle where a linear controllers are proposed. Whereas in secondary level guidance system, collision system, s...

  7. The autonomous acoustic buoy

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicer, Francisco; Reitsma, Robert; Agüera, Joaquín; Marinas, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The Acoustic Buoy is a project between the Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics (LAB) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). In areas that the human activities produce high noise levels, such as oil exploration or construction, there is a need to monitor the environment for the presence of cetaceans. Another need is for fishing, to prevent endangered species from being killed. This can be done with an Autonomous Acoustic Buoy (AAB). Mooring or anchoring at to the seaflo...

  8. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra R. Raol; Ajith Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS) is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i) perception and reasoning, (ii) mobility and navigation,(iii) haptics and teleoperation, (iv) image fusion/computervision, (v) modelling of manipulators, (vi) hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii) ve...

  9. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  10. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, M; Goadsby, P J

    2016-01-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterised by lateralized symptoms: prominent headache and ipsilateral cranial autonomic features, such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation and rhinorrhea. The TACs are: cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)/short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic features (SUNA) and hemicrania continua (HC). Their diagnostic criteria are outlined in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition-beta (ICHD-IIIb). These conditions are distinguished by their attack duration and frequency, as well as response to treatment. HC is continuous and by definition responsive to indomethacin. The main differential when considering this headache is chronic migraine. Other TACs are remarkable for their short duration and must be distinguished from other short-lasting painful conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache. Cluster headache is characterised by exquisitely painful attacks that occur in discrete episodes lasting 15-180 min a few times a day. In comparison, PH occurs more frequently and is of shorter duration, and like HC is responsive to indomethacin. SUNCT/SUNA is the shortest duration and highest frequency TAC; attacks can occur over a hundred times every day. PMID:24888770

  11. Renal denervation attenuates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress and hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peleli, Maria; Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Yang, Ting;

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is associated with development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Studies suggest that increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and oxidative stress play important roles in renovascular hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the link between renal SNA and NADPH oxidase (NOX......) regulation in the development of hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis was induced by partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) in young rats. Sham surgery or renal denervation was performed at the same time. Blood pressure was measured during normal, high and low salt diets. Renal...... excretion pattern, NOX activity and expression, as well as components of RAAS were characterized. On normal salt diet, PUUO rats had elevated blood pressure compared with controls (115±3 vs 87±1 mmHg), and displayed increased urine production and lower urine osmolality. Blood pressure change in response to...

  12. Evidence nitric oxide mediates the vasodepressor response to hypoxia in sino-denervated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Miaokun; Reis, D.J. (Cornell Univ., New York, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Systemic hypoxia, produced in deeply anesthetized, paralyzed rats in which arterial chemoreceptors were denervated, elicited a decrease in arterial pressure (AP) averaging {minus}47 mmHg. Systemic administration of N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (L-NO{sub 2}Arg), inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, attenuated the hypoxic depressor response by 79% and elevated AP by 21 mmHg. The effects of L-NO{sub 2}Arg on the hypoxic depressor response and arterial pressure were reversed by systemic administration of L- but not D-arginine. Elevation of AP with arginine-vasopressin or reduction of AP with nitroprusside to the pre-L-NO{sub 2}Arg levels did not modify the fall of AP to hypoxia. Endogenous NO synthesized in vivo from L-arginine, mediates most of the hypoxia depressor response.

  13. Artificial facial nerve reflex restores eyelid closure following orbicularis oculi muscle denervation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujuan Wang; Keyong Li; Jingquan Liu; Dongyue Xu; Yuefeng Rui; Chunsheng Yang

    2010-01-01

    To date, treatment of peripheral facial paralysis has focused on preservation of facial nerve integrity. However, with seriously damaged facial nerve cases, it is difficult to recover anatomical and functional integrity using present therapies. Therefore, the present study utilized artificial facial nerve reflex to obtain orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) electromyography signals on the uninjured side through the use of implanted recording electrodes. The implanted electrical chips analyzed facial muscle motion on the uninjured side and triggered an electrical stimulator to emit current pulses, which resulted in stimulation of injured OOM contraction and maintained bilateral symmetry and consistency. Following signal recognition, extraction, and computer analysis, electromyography signals in the uninjured OOM resulted in complete eyelid closure, which was consistent with the voltage threshold for eye closure. These findings suggested that artificial facial nerve reflex through the use of implanted microelectronics in unilateral peripheral facial paralysis could restore eyelid closure following orbicularis oculi muscle denervation.

  14. Blood pressure changes after renal denervation at 10 European expert centers

    OpenAIRE

    Persu, A.; Jin, Y.; Azizi, M; Baelen, M; Völz, S; Elvan, A.; Severino, F; Rosa, J; Adiyaman, A; Fadl Elmula, F E; Taylor, A.; Pechère-Bertschi, A; Wuerzner, G; Jokhaji, F; Kahan, T

    2013-01-01

    We did a subject-level meta-analysis of the changes (Δ) in blood pressure (BP) observed 3 and 6 months after renal denervation (RDN) at 10 European centers. Recruited patients (n=109; 46.8% women; mean age 58.2 years) had essential hypertension confirmed by ambulatory BP. From baseline to 6 months, treatment score declined slightly from 4.7 to 4.4 drugs per day. Systolic/diastolic BP fell by 17.6/7.1 mm Hg for office BP, and by 5.9/3.5, 6.2/3.4, and 4.4/2.5 mm Hg for 24-h, daytime and nightti...

  15. α-Actinin-3 deficiency alters muscle adaptation in response to denervation and immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, F C; Seto, J T; Quinlan, K G R; Yang, N; Houweling, P J; North, K N

    2014-04-01

    Homozygosity for a common null polymorphism (R577X) in the ACTN3 gene results in the absence of the fast fibre-specific protein, α-actinin-3 in ∼16% of humans worldwide. α-Actinin-3 deficiency is detrimental to optimal sprint performance and benefits endurance performance in elite athletes. In the general population, α-actinin-3 deficiency is associated with reduced muscle mass, strength and fast muscle fibre area, and poorer muscle function with age. The Actn3 knock-out (KO) mouse model mimics the human phenotype, with fast fibres showing a shift towards slow/oxidative metabolism without a change in myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform. We have recently shown that these changes are attributable to increased activity of the calcineurin-dependent signalling pathway in α-actinin-3 deficient muscle, resulting in enhanced response to exercise training. This led us to hypothesize that the Actn3 genotype influences muscle adaptation to disuse, irrespective of neural innervation. Separate cohorts of KO and wild-type mice underwent 2 weeks immobilization and 2 and 8 weeks of denervation. Absence of α-actinin-3 resulted in reduced atrophic response and altered adaptation to disuse, as measured by a change in MyHC isoform. KO mice had a lower threshold to switch from the predominantly fast to a slower muscle phenotype (in response to immobilization) and a higher threshold to switch to a faster muscle phenotype (in response to denervation). We propose that this change is mediated through baseline alterations in the calcineurin signalling pathway of Actn3 KO muscle. Our findings have important implications for understanding individual responses to muscle disuse/disease and training in the general population. PMID:24234654

  16. An experimental MR study on denervated skeletal muscles. The cause of signal intensity change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Yoshito; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Takayama, Shinichirou; Horiuchi, Yukio [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Hikosaka, Kazuo

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to clarify the cause of signal intensity changes and we examined the T1 and T2 relaxation times, and muscle water volume as proton density in vitro. The tibialis posterior nerve of male Wistar rat was cut and both stumps were ligated. The serial changes in T1 and T2 relaxation times of gastrocnemius muscles were measured every one-week for four weeks. The measurement of T1 and T2 relaxation times was performed by means of NMR spectroscopy. The T1 value was obtained using an inversion recovery sequence and T2 value by the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) spin-echo technique. The gastrocnemius muscle was dehydrated and the total water content was calculated as (wet weight-dry weight)/wet weight. {sup 35}S-labeled sodium sulfate was injected intraperitoneally and the extracellular fluid spaces were measured by the beta-counting of the tissue samples using the liquid scintillation technique. Each value was evaluated by calculating the ratio of the denervated to contralateral control side. The T1 relaxation time increased serially from one to four weeks and the ratio was between 1.08 and 1.16. The T2 relaxation time increased more apparently than T1 and the ratio was between 1.13 and 1.38. The total water content of the muscles showed no significant increase in all the series. However, the extracellular water volume markedly increased after denervation and the ratio was 1.67 after one week and 2.81 after four. (K.H.)

  17. Demonstration of a neurotrophic factor for the maintenance of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in the preganglionically denervated superior cervical ganglion of the cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Koelle, G B; Ruch, G A

    1983-01-01

    Under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, the superior cervical ganglia of cats were preganglionically denervated bilaterally. The following day cats were reanesthetized, the external carotid and lingual arteries were ligated bilaterally, and the right common carotid artery was infused for 24 hr with an extract prepared from cat brain, spinal cord, and sciatic nerves, with and without the incorporation of aprotinin, an inhibitor of proteases. They were sacrificed 48 hr after denervation, and the...

  18. Short-Term Motor Compensations to Denervation of Feline Soleus and Lateral Gastrocnemius Result in Preservation of Ankle Mechanical Output during Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, H.; Bulgakova, M.; Hodson-Tole, E.F.; Gregor, R.J.; Prilutsky, B.I.

    2011-01-01

    Denervation of selected ankle extensors in animals results in locomotor changes. These changes have been suggested to permit preservation of global kinematic characteristics of the hindlimb during stance. The peak ankle joint moment is also preserved immediately after denervation of several ankle extensors in the cat, suggesting that the animal's response to peripheral nerve injury may also be aimed at preserving ankle mechanical output. We tested this hypothesis by comparing joint moments an...

  19. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tordeux, Antoine; Lassarre, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed...

  20. Chemical Specification of Autonomic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Banâtre, Jean-Pierre; Fradet, Pascal; Radenac, Yann

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic computing provides a vision of information systems allowing self-management of many predefined properties. Such systems take care of their own behavior and of their interactions with other components without any external intervention. One of the major challenges concerns the expression of properties and constraints of autonomic systems. We believe that the {\\em chemical programming paradigm} (represented here by the Gamma formalism) is well-suited to the specification of autonomic s...

  1. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors......In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity of...

  2. Administration of Recombinant Heat Shock Protein 70 Delays Peripheral Muscle Denervation in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Gifondorwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A prominent clinical feature of ALS is muscle weakness due to dysfunction, denervation and degeneration of motoneurons (MNs. While MN degeneration is a late stage event in the ALS mouse model, muscle denervation occurs significantly earlier in the disease. Strategies to prevent this early denervation may improve quality of life by maintaining muscle control and slowing disease progression. The precise cause of MN dysfunction and denervation is not known, but several mechanisms have been proposed that involve potentially toxic intra- and extracellular changes. Many cells confront these changes by mounting a stress response that includes increased expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70. MNs do not upregulate Hsp70, and this may result in a potentially increased vulnerability. We previously reported that recombinant human hsp70 (rhHsp70 injections delayed symptom onset and increased lifespan in SOD1G93A mice. The exogenous rhHsp70 was localized to the muscle and not to spinal cord or brain suggesting it modulates peripheral pathophysiology. In the current study, we focused on earlier administration of Hsp70 and its effect on initial muscle denervation. Injections of the protein appeared to arrest denervation with preserved large myelinated peripheral axons, and reduced glial activation.

  3. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  4. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  5. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  6. Autonomous packaging robot

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Van Thanh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the autonomous packaging robot application is to replace manual product packaging in food industry with a fully automatic robot. The objective is achieved by using the combination of machine vision, central computer, sensors, microcontroller and a typical ABB robot. The method is to equip the robot with different sensors: camera as “eyes” of robot, distance sensor and microcontroller as “sense of touch” of the robot, central computer as “brain” of the robot. Because the ro...

  7. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...

  8. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  9. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  10. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  11. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  12. Cardiac sympathetic denervation in patients with refractory ventricular arrhythmias or electrical storm: Intermediate and long-term follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Vaseghi, M; Gima, J; Kanaan, C; Ajijola, OA; Marmureanu, A; Mahajan, A.; Shivkumar, K

    2014-01-01

    Background Left and bilateral cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) have been shown to reduce burden of ventricular arrhythmias acutely in a small number of patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT) storm. The effects of this procedure beyond the acute setting are unknown. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intermediate and long-term effects of left and bilateral CSD in patients with cardiomyopathy and refractory VT or VT storm. Methods Retrospective analysis of medi...

  13. Cutaneous collateral axonal sprouting re-innervates the skin component and restores sensation of denervated Swine osteomyocutaneous alloflaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaib Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Reconstructive transplantation such as extremity and face transplantation is a viable treatment option for select patients with devastating tissue loss. Sensorimotor recovery is a critical determinant of overall success of such transplants. Although motor function recovery has been extensively studied, mechanisms of sensory re-innervation are not well established. Recent clinical reports of face transplants confirm progressive sensory improvement even in cases where optimal repair of sensory nerves was not achieved. Two forms of sensory nerve regeneration are known. In regenerative sprouting, axonal outgrowth occurs from the transected nerve stump while in collateral sprouting, reinnervation of denervated tissue occurs through growth of uninjured axons into the denervated tissue. The latter mechanism may be more important in settings where transected sensory nerves cannot be re-apposed. In this study, denervated osteomyocutaneous alloflaps (hind- limb transplants from Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC-defined MGH miniature swine were performed to specifically evaluate collateral axonal sprouting for cutaneous sensory re-innervation. The skin component of the flap was externalized and serial skin sections extending from native skin to the grafted flap were biopsied. In order to visualize regenerating axonal structures in the dermis and epidermis, 50 um frozen sections were immunostained against axonal and Schwann cell markers. In all alloflaps, collateral axonal sprouts from adjacent recipient skin extended into the denervated skin component along the dermal-epidermal junction from the periphery towards the center. On day 100 post-transplant, regenerating sprouts reached 0.5 cm into the flap centripetally. Eight months following transplant, epidermal fibers were visualized 1.5 cm from the margin (rate of regeneration 0.06 mm per day. All animals had pinprick sensation in the periphery of the transplanted skin within 3 months post

  14. Improved neurological outcome by intramuscular injection of human amniotic fluid derived stem cells in a muscle denervation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung Chen

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle develops various degrees of atrophy and metabolic dysfunction following nerve injury. Neurotrophic factors are essential for muscle regeneration. Human amniotic fluid derived stem cells (AFS have the potential to secrete various neurotrophic factors necessary for nerve regeneration. In the present study, we assess the outcome of neurological function by intramuscular injection of AFS in a muscle denervation and nerve anastomosis model.Seventy two Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 gm were enrolled in this study. Muscle denervation model was conducted by transverse resection of a sciatic nerve with the proximal end sutured into the gluteal muscle. The nerve anastomosis model was performed by transverse resection of the sciatic nerve followed by four stitches reconnection. These animals were allocated to three groups: control, electrical muscle stimulation, and AFS groups.NT-3 (Neurotrophin 3, BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor, CNTF (Ciliary neurotrophic factor, and GDNF (Glia cell line derived neurotrophic factor were highly expressed in AFS cells and supernatant of culture medium. Intra-muscular injection of AFS exerted significant expression of several neurotrophic factors over the distal end of nerve and denervated muscle. AFS caused high expression of Bcl-2 in denervated muscle with a reciprocal decrease of Bad and Bax. AFS preserved the muscle morphology with high expression of desmin and acetylcholine receptors. Up to two months, AFS produced significant improvement in electrophysiological study and neurological functions such as SFI (sciatic nerve function index and Catwalk gait analysis. There was also significant preservation of the number of anterior horn cells and increased nerve myelination as well as muscle morphology.Intramuscular injection of AFS can protect muscle apoptosis and likely does so through the secretion of various neurotrophic factors. This protection furthermore improves the nerve

  15. Glycyl-L-glutamine opposes the fall in choline acetyltransferase in the denervated superior cervical ganglion of the cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Koelle, G B; O'Neill, J J; Thampi, N S; Han, M S; Caccese, R

    1989-01-01

    Intracarotid infusion of 3 microM glycyl-L-glutamine was found to oppose the fall in the choline acetyl-transferase content of the preganglionically denervated cat superior cervical ganglion; this same effect has been demonstrated previously for acetylcholinesterase content. Because choline acetyltransferase, in contrast to acetylcholinesterase, occurs exclusively in the preganglionic axons and their terminals, this finding raises the possibility that glycyl-L-glutamine opposes postsectional ...

  16. Intracellular uptake and degradation of extracellular tracers in mouse skeletal muscle in vitro: the effect of denervation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innervated and chronically denervated mouse skeletal muscles have been incubated under various conditions in a Ringer solution containing one of the three macromolecules [3H] α-neurotoxin, [3H]inulin and horseradish peroxidase. Following extensive wash-out for 4 h of the extracellular compartment, the amount of each macromolecule retained intracellularly was obtained. Intracellular uptake of a [3H]monoacetylated α-neurotoxin in vitro at 37 C was found to be increased in denervated mouse extensor digitorum longus muscles compared to innervated control muscles. Similarly, the uptake in vitro at 37 C of [3H] inulin and horseradish peroxidase was also increased in denervated muscles. At 4 C the uptake of [3H]inulin and horseradish peroxidase was markedly reduced. Protamine was found to stimulate the uptake of [3H]inulin at 37 C, but not at 4 C. Reduction in specific activity by addition of 50-fold excess of unlabelled inulin failed to affect the uptake of [3H]inulin suggesting that this uptake process obeyed bulk kinetics. Furthermore, the endocytized [3H]inulin was found to be strongly retained in the muscles since prolonged washing or addition of unlabelled inulin to the washing solution did not reduce the uptake. Characterization of [3H]inulin taken up by the muscles was performed by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-25. Using a purified [3H]inulin solution it was observed that about 45% of the total radioactivity remaining in the muscles was eluted as [3H]inulin. Additional radioactivity consisted of lower molecular weight compounds. These degradation products of [3H]inulin were only present in the muscle homogenate and were not detected in the incubation solution. The results suggest that intracellular uptake of different macromolecules by endocytosis in skeletal muscles increases following denervation, and that following uptake, degradation of the endocytized material may occur. (author)

  17. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  18. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic dysfunction in patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chi-Ren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX is a rare lipid-storage disease. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic system (ANS dysfuction in CTX are rarely examined in large-scale studies in the literature. We studied the peripheral nervous system, myopathology, and autonomic system of four CTX patients and performed a literature review of the reported CTX patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods Four biochemically and genetically confirmed CTX patients, belonging to two families, were included for study and all received nerve conduction study (NCS, muscle biopsy for histopathologic and ultrastructural study, skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fiber (INEF density measurement, autonomic testings including sympathetic skin response, R-R interval variation and head-up tilt test using an automated tilt table to record the changes of blood pressure and heart rate in different postures. The Q-Sweat test was also applied for the detection of sweat amount and onset time of response. The clinical characteristics, study methods and results of 13 studies of peripheral neuropathy in CTX patients in the literature were also recorded for analysis. Results The results of NCS study showed axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy in three CTX cases and mixed axonal and demyelinating sensor-motor polyneuropathy in one. The myopathological and histopathologic studies revealed mild denervation characteristics, but the ultrastructural study revealed changes of mitochondria and the membranous system, and increased amounts of glycogen, lipofuscin and lipid deposition. The ANS study revealed different degrees of abnormalities in the applied tests and the INEF density measurement showed small fiber neuropathy in three of the four CTX patients. The literature review of peripheral neuropathy in CTX revealed different types of peripheral neuropathy, of which axonal peripheral neuropathy was the most common. Conclusions Peripheral neuropathy, especially the

  19. Uninephrectomy-Induced Lipolysis and Low-Grade Inflammation Are Mimicked by Unilateral Renal Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenijevic, Denis; Cajot, Jean-François; Fellay, Benoit; Dulloo, Abdul G; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Uninephrectomy (UniNX) in rats on a fixed food intake leads to increased lipolysis and a low-grade inflammation with an increased subset of circulating cytokines. Because UniNX ablates renal nerves on the side of the removed kidney, we tested the contribution of unilateral renal denervation in the phenotype of UniNX. We compared Sham-operated controls, left nephrectomy (UniNX) and unilateral left kidney denervation (uDNX) in rats 4 weeks after surgery. uDNX did not affect kidney weight and function. In general, the uDNX phenotype was similar to the UniNX phenotype especially for lipolysis in fat pads and increased low-grade inflammation. uDNX led to decreased fat pad weight and increased hormone sensitive lipase and adipocyte triglyceride lipase mRNA levels in epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue, as well as increased circulating lipolysis markers β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol. Measured circulating hormones such as leptin, T3 and insulin were similar amongst the three groups. The lipolytic cytokines interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor were increased in the circulation of both uDNX and UniNX groups. These two cytokines were also elevated in the spleen of both groups, but contrastingly they were decreased in fat pads, liver, and kidneys. Both uDNX and UniNX similarly increased noradrenaline content in fat pads and spleen. Melanocortin 4 receptor mRNA levels were increased in the brains of both uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham and may contribute to increased tissue noradrenaline levels. In addition, the farnesoid x receptor (FXR) may contribute to changes in tissue metabolism and inflammation, as anti-inflammatory FXR was decreased in the spleen but increased in other tissues in uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham. In summary, both uDNX and UniNX in rats promote metabolic and immunological alterations by mechanisms that seem to implicate modification of unilateral renal nerve pathways as well as central and peripheral neural pathways

  20. Uninephrectomy-Induced Lipolysis and Low-Grade Inflammation Are Mimicked by Unilateral Renal Denervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenijevic, Denis; Cajot, Jean-François; Fellay, Benoit; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Van Vliet, Bruce N.; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Uninephrectomy (UniNX) in rats on a fixed food intake leads to increased lipolysis and a low-grade inflammation with an increased subset of circulating cytokines. Because UniNX ablates renal nerves on the side of the removed kidney, we tested the contribution of unilateral renal denervation in the phenotype of UniNX. We compared Sham-operated controls, left nephrectomy (UniNX) and unilateral left kidney denervation (uDNX) in rats 4 weeks after surgery. uDNX did not affect kidney weight and function. In general, the uDNX phenotype was similar to the UniNX phenotype especially for lipolysis in fat pads and increased low-grade inflammation. uDNX led to decreased fat pad weight and increased hormone sensitive lipase and adipocyte triglyceride lipase mRNA levels in epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue, as well as increased circulating lipolysis markers β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol. Measured circulating hormones such as leptin, T3 and insulin were similar amongst the three groups. The lipolytic cytokines interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor were increased in the circulation of both uDNX and UniNX groups. These two cytokines were also elevated in the spleen of both groups, but contrastingly they were decreased in fat pads, liver, and kidneys. Both uDNX and UniNX similarly increased noradrenaline content in fat pads and spleen. Melanocortin 4 receptor mRNA levels were increased in the brains of both uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham and may contribute to increased tissue noradrenaline levels. In addition, the farnesoid x receptor (FXR) may contribute to changes in tissue metabolism and inflammation, as anti-inflammatory FXR was decreased in the spleen but increased in other tissues in uDNX and UniNX compared to Sham. In summary, both uDNX and UniNX in rats promote metabolic and immunological alterations by mechanisms that seem to implicate modification of unilateral renal nerve pathways as well as central and peripheral neural pathways

  1. Increased salt sensitivity induced by sensory denervation:role of superoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-zhong SONG; Alex F CHEN; Donna H WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that production of superoxide in mesenteric resistance arteries is increased and contributes to the development of hypertension induced by sensory denervation plus high salt intake. METHODS:Newborn Wistar rats were given capsaicin 50mg/kg sc on the 1st and 2nd d of life. After weaning, male rats were grouped as follows and treated for 3 weeks with: capsaicin pretreatment plus normal sodium diet (0.5%, CAP-NS),CAP plus high sodium diet (4%, CAP-HS), control plus NS (CON-NS), or CON-HS. Both tail-cuff systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured in each of the groups. Western blot analysis was used for measurement of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the mesenteric resistance arteries. Lucigenin chemiluminescence assay was used for superoxide production in the mesenteric resistance arteries. The Griess method was used for measurement of nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma.RESULTS: Both tail-cuff pressure and MAP were higher in CAP-HS compared with CAP-NS, CON-HS, and CONNS rats (P<0.05). Both MnSOD and eNOS in the mesenteric resistance arteries were increased in CAP-HS compared with CAP-NS, CON-HS, and CON-NS (P<0.05). However, nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma were not different among 4 groups. Acute iv administration of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide scavenger, decreased MAP in both CAP-HS and CON-HS when compared with their respective controls. However, the decreases of MAP between these two groups were not different. Chronic treatment with tempol failed to prevent the development of hypertension in CAP-HS rats. Superoxide production in the mesenteric resistance arteries was increased in CAP-HS compared with CAP-NS, CON-HS, and CON-NS (P<0.05). However, chronic treatment with tempol did not prevent the increase of mesenteric superoxide production in CAP-HS rats. CONCLUSIONS:Regardless of increased vascular MnSOD levels, salt sensitive hypertension

  2. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  3. Repeated stimuli for axonal growth causes motoneuron death in adult rats: the effect of botulinum toxin followed by partial denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C M; Greensmith, L; Vrbová, G

    2000-01-01

    Axons of motoneurons to tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles of adult rats were induced to sprout by injecting botulinum toxin into them, by partial denervation or by a combination of the two procedures. Ten weeks later, the number of motoneurons innervating the control and operated tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles was established by retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase. In the same preparations, the motoneurons were also stained with a Nissl stain (gallocyanin) to reveal motoneurons in the sciatic pool. Examination of the spinal cords from animals treated with botulinum toxin showed that the number of retrogradely labelled cells and those stained with gallocyanin in the ventral horn on the treated compared to the control side was unchanged. In rats that had their L4 spinal nerve sectioned on one side, the number of retrogradely labelled cells on the operated side was 48+/-3% (n = 5) of that present in the control unoperated ventral horn. Thus, just over half the innervation was removed by cutting the L4 spinal nerve. Counts made from gallocyanin-stained sections showed that 94+/-4% (n = 5) of motoneurons were present in the ventral horn on the operated side. Thus, section of the L4 spinal nerve did not lead to any death of motoneurons. In rats that had their muscles injected with botulinum toxin three weeks prior to partial denervation, the number of retrogradely labelled cells was reduced from 48+/-3% (n = 5) to 35+/-4% (n = 5). Moreover, only 67+/-5% (n = 5) of motoneurons stained with gallocyanin, suggesting that a proportion of motoneurons died after this combined procedure. This result was supported by experiments in which motor unit numbers in extensor digitorum longus muscles were determined by measurements of stepwise increments of force in response to stimulation of the motor nerve with increasing stimulus intensity. In partially denervated extensor digitorum longus muscles, 16.6+/-0.7 (n = 5) motor

  4. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Robert R; Murray, Claire E; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian L; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W M; Dickey, John

    2014-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21cm absorption spectra from the 21cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the HI line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the up...

  5. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  6. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra R. Raol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i perception and reasoning, (ii mobility and navigation,(iii haptics and teleoperation, (iv image fusion/computervision, (v modelling of manipulators, (vi hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii vehicle-robot path and motionplanning/control, (viii human-machine interfaces for interaction between humans and robots, and (ix application of artificial neural networks (ANNs, fuzzy logic/systems (FLS,probabilistic/approximate reasoning (PAR, Bayesian networks(BN and genetic algorithms (GA to the above-mentioned problems. Also, multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF playsvery crucial role at many levels of the data fusion process:(i kinematic fusion (position/bearing tracking, (ii imagefusion (for scene recognition, (iii information fusion (forbuilding world models, and (iv decision fusion (for tracking,control actions. The MIAS as a technology is useful for automation of complex tasks, surveillance in a hazardousand hostile environment, human-assistance in very difficultmanual works, medical robotics, hospital systems, autodiagnosticsystems, and many other related civil and military systems. Also, other important research areas for MIAScomprise sensor/actuator modelling, failure management/reconfiguration, scene understanding, knowledge representation, learning and decision-making. Examples ofdynamic systems considered within the MIAS would be:autonomous systems (unmanned ground vehicles, unmannedaerial vehicles, micro/mini air vehicles, and autonomousunder water vehicles, mobile/fixed robotic systems, dexterousmanipulator robots, mining robots, surveillance systems,and networked/multi-robot systems, to name a few.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.3-4,

  7. Iodine labelling of sea anemone toxin II, and binding to normal and denervated diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Sea anemone toxin II (ATX II) which keeps the activated sodium channels open, can be labelled at its histidine residues with 125I up to a specific radioactivity of 500 Ci/mmole. Upon intraventricular injection in mice, ATX II causes acute, short-lasting hyperexcitation and convulsions. Its LD50 in mice is between 25 and 50 ng of the native peptide, and between 50 and 100 ng of the radioactive material per animal. 2. The labelled peptide is bound to mouse diaphragm from where it can be displaced by ATX II and, even better, by scorpion neurotoxin but not by other basic peptides, e.g., histone or aprotinin. Binding is not significantly influenced by 50 mM potassium, by replacing sodium with choline, by veratridine or tetrodotoxin. In contrast to binding of α-bungarotoxin, binding of ATX II is not changed by denervation of the diaphragm. ATX II binds not only to the muscular but also to the tendinous moiety of the mouse diaphragm. 3. ATX II lowers the surface tension of water. Further experiments are needed to establish the usefulness of 125I-ATX for labelling sodium channels in excitable membranes. (orig.)

  8. Preventive effect of dietary quercetin on disuse muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria in denervated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Rie; Matsui, Naoko; Fujikura, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Norifumi; Hou, De-Xing; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Horikawa, Manabu; Iwasa, Keiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Nikawa, Takeshi; Terao, Junji

    2016-05-01

    Quercetin is a major dietary flavonoid in fruits and vegetables. We aimed to clarify the preventive effect of dietary quercetin on disuse muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanisms. We established a mouse denervation model by cutting the sciatic nerve in the right leg (SNX surgery) to lack of mobilization in hind-limb. Preintake of a quercetin-mixed diet for 14days before SNX surgery prevented loss of muscle mass and atrophy of muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle (GM). Phosphorylation of Akt, a key phosphorylation pathway of suppression of protein degradation, was activated in the quercetin-mixed diet group with and without SNX surgery. Intake of a quercetin-mixed diet suppressed the generation of hydrogen peroxide originating from mitochondria and elevated mitochondrial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α mRNA expression as well as NADH dehydrogenase 4 expression in the GM with SNX surgery. Quercetin and its conjugated metabolites reduced hydrogen peroxide production in the mitochondrial fraction obtained from atrophied muscle. In C2C12 myotubes, quercetin reached the mitochondrial fraction. These findings suggest that dietary quercetin can prevent disuse muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria in skeletal muscle tissue through protecting mitochondria from decreased biogenesis and reducing mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide release, which can be related to decreased hydrogen peroxide production and/or improvements on antioxidant capacity of mitochondria. PMID:27133425

  9. The response of denervated muscle to long-term stimulation (1985, revisited here in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Lomo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1985, at a meeting in Abano, I presented results showing that direct stimulation of skeletal muscles with appropriate stimulus patterns prevents the effects of denervation on non-junctional properties of muscle fibers. Hence, it appeared unnecessary to postulate that unknown nerve-derived trophic factors control such properties, as posited by the (anterograde neurotrophic hypothesis. Here I discuss this conclusion in the light of what we know today, particularly with respect to the many lines of evidence that were then taken to support the trophic hypothesis, but which today have alternative interpretations consistent with control by evoked impulse activity. Despite much effort, no one has yet identified any nerve-derived factor consistent with the neurotrophic hypothesis. Reports favoring the existence of neurotrophic factors were numerous before 2000. Now they have essentially disappeared from the literature, including original research papers, textbooks and handbooks, suggesting that the hypothesis is no longer arguable. Thus, the results that I presented in our paper in 1985 seem to have held up rather well.

  10. Renal sympathetic denervation in treating drug-resistant hypertension in a patient on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä-Effati, Päivi M; Salmela, Anna K; Niemi, Risto T; Ylitalo, Antti S; Koistinen, M Juhani

    2016-02-01

    A 26-year-old man had an end-stage renal disease because of a neurogenic urinary bladder with a vesicourinary reflux. The first kidney transplant was lost in consequence of chronic allograft nephropathy. Immunosuppressive medication was withdrawn and transplantectomy was performed in November 2010. After transplantectomy, his blood pressure (BP) slowly increased up to 200/100 mmHg. Antihypertensive medication was intensified and a fluid overload was excluded with body composition bioimpedance measurements. Forty-eight-hour ambulatory BP was 180/109 mmHg in the daytime and 178/108 mmHg in the night-time. Bilateral renal denervation (RDN) was performed with a single electrode Symplicity catheter on May 2013. The effect of RDN became evident at the 6 months visit, and all the antihypertensive medicines were withdrawn at 12 months. Fifteen months after RDN, 48-h ambulatory BP was 120/63 mmHg in the daytime and 108/60 mmHg in the night-time. The patient was without antihypertensive medication until retransplantation in May 2015. PMID:26867061

  11. Electromyographic stages of denervation/reinnervation process in neuromuscular diseases: need for revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Nikitin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of motor unit potentials (MUPs parameters registered by needle EMG electrodes is the key for understanding changes of the motor units in different neuromuscular disorders. The classification of MUPs changes known as electromyographic stages (EMGS of the denervation/reinnervation process (DRP is based on the analysis of myogenic, synaptic neurogenic and neuronal disorders. Current article focuses on pathogenesis of typical and atypical MUPs of low duration, decreased and increased amplitude, additionally muscle biopsy data and neurophysiological assessment of muscle fiber density, and мacro-EMG. The absence of primary neurogenic disturbances in inflammatory and non-inflammatory muscle diseases, as well as in neuro-muscular junction disorders, confirmed by single fiber EMG and мacro-EMG makes it impossible to discuss the concept of EMG stages in patients with these levels of pathology. The EMG stages concept can be applied for peripheral nerve and motor neuron disturbances only, reflecting the volume but not the efficiency of reinnervation.

  12. The Multidisciplinary Approach to Renal Denervation: Current Evidences and Open Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Samoni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal denervation (RD is a new clinical procedure which aims to treat resistant hypertensive patients. As with every new technology introduced into the clinical setting, many aspects were not explored sufficiently in order to be implemented into routine clinical practice. Advances in clinical technology require different steps of development, which start from preliminary in vitro experiments and finally arrive in the market, available for physicians when they have been proven to produce benefits for patients. Each stage usually takes many years before acquiring consensus from specialists involved in specific fields. In our opinion, this is a long and blind way and is a disadvantage to patients who need rapid, specific, and effective treatments. Otherwise, a multidisciplinary approach can provide the right evaluation of RD position and its potential for clinical application and research development. Therefore, we decided to draw a well-structured literature review from different specialists’ points of view in order to cover the subject in a translational manner. We reported animal models and experimental trials, in chronological order, and their evidences which have created the basis for human research. Technologies and devices were compared to underlined advantages and disadvantages. An update of clinical data was considered to define clinical needs in order to build focused trials. Furthermore, we evaluate the feasibility of routine RD clinical use by means of an economic analysis. Finally, we tried to settle the main unresolved questions and then assessed future RD perspectives, including non-hypertension indications.

  13. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  14. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  15. Framework for Autonomous Optimization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration and MIT propose to create a novel autonomous optimization tool and application programming interface (API). The API will demonstrate the ability...

  16. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  17. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  18. Semantic Web Meets Autonomic Ubicomp

    OpenAIRE

    Belecheanu, R A; Jawaheer, G; Hoskins, A.; McCann, J; Payne, T.

    2004-01-01

    The placement of autonomic systems’ management functionality into a ubiquitous computing environment is a difficult task due to the lack of systems’ resources and the need for ‘intelligence’ to ensure that the system is selfhealing/ organising or configuring. For such systems to adapt to changes to their current environment they need to be able to (re) configure the workflow of their services. In this paper, we propose the ANS, an autonomic middleware for ubicomp devices. We briefly describe ...

  19. Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji Hashimoto; Shingo Maeda; Yusuke Hara; Satoshi Nakamaru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the c...

  20. Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the chemical robot.

  1. Build Autonomic Agents with ABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    The IBM Agent Building and Learning Environment(ABLE) provides a lightweight Java~(TM) agent frame- work,a comprehensive JavaBeansTM library of intelligent software components,a set of development and test tools, and an agent platform.After the introduction to ABLE,classes and interfaces in the ABLE agent framework were put forward.At last an autonomic agent that is an ABLE-based architecture for incrementally building autonomic systems was discussed.

  2. Autonomous vertical profiler data management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.

    and reduced data �� Ease in operation and one man deployable 2 Fig.1. Autonomous Vertical Profiler Table 1. Autonomous Vertical Profiler Specifications 2. Communication Communication with the AVP is through the satellite modem... Aluminum alloy, Acetal nose & tail cones Propulsion Single DC thruster Electronics 8051 and ARM7 microcontroller based Communication Radio modem (2.4 GHz) & Satellite Transmission (Iridium) GUI Labview based Energy Source Lithium Ion Polymer batteries...

  3. Maternal coordination of the daily rhythm of malate dehydrogenase activity in testes from young rats: effect of maternal sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland and administration of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermouth, N T; Carriazo, C S; Gallará, R V; Carpentieri, A R; Bellavía, S L

    1995-02-01

    Chronic sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by bilateral removal of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) was performed on female rats 30 days before impregnation. The offspring, maintained in the dark from birth, had disruption of the malate dehydrogenase circadian rhythm in the testes at 25 days of age. A daily injection of melatonin (1 mg/kg s.c. at 10:00 or 18:00 h) to denervated mothers from the 14th day of pregnancy up to the 10th day postpartum produced one daily phase in the enzyme activity of tests in the offspring. Entrainment of daily enzyme activity also was obtained when the hormone was administered orally to the pups during the postnatal period or when pups were reared by intact (not denervated) foster mothers. The results indicate the involvement of the maternal pineal gland in the maternal transfer of photoperiodic information necessary for the coordination of the circadian system in young rats. PMID:7750160

  4. Eligibility for Renal Denervation: Anatomical Classification and Results in Essential Resistant Hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Takuya, E-mail: okabone@gmail.com; Pellerin, Olivier [Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (France); Savard, Sébastien [Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Department of Hypertension, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (France); Curis, Emmanuel; Monge, Matthieu [INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9201 (France); Frank, Michael; Bobrie, Guillaume [Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Department of Hypertension, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (France); Yamaguchi, Masato; Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Plouin, Pierre-François; Azizi, Michel [Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Department of Hypertension, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (France); Sapoval, Marc [Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (France)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo classify the renal artery (RA) anatomy based on specific requirements for endovascular renal artery denervation (RDN) in patients with drug-resistant hypertension (RH).Materials and MethodsThe RA anatomy of 122 consecutive RH patients was evaluated by computed tomography angiography and classified as two types: A (main RA ≥20 mm in length and ≥4.0 mm in diameter) or B (main RA <20 mm in length or main RA <4.0 mm in diameter). The A type included three subtypes: A1 (without accessory RAs), A2 (with accessory RAs <3.0 mm in diameter), and A3 (with accessory RAs ≥3.0 mm in diameter]. A1 and A2 types were eligible for RDN with the Simplicity Flex catheter. Type B included twi subtypes based on the main RA length and diameter. Patients were accordingly classified into three eligibility categories: complete (CE; both RAs were eligible), partial (PE; one eligible RA), and noneligibility (NE; no eligible RA).ResultsBilateral A1 type was the most prevalent and was observed in 48.4 % of the patients followed by the A1/A2 type (18 %). CE, PE, and NE were observed in 69.7, 22.9, and 7.4 % of patients, respectively. The prevalence of accessory RAs was 41 %.ConclusionsOf RH patients, 30.3 % were not eligible for bilateral RDN with the current Simplicity Flex catheter. This classification provides the basis for standardized reporting to allow for pooling of results of larger patient cohorts in the future.

  5. 123I-Labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine for the evaluation of cardiac sympathetic denervation in early stage amyloidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac amyloidosis is a rare disorder, but it may lead to potentially life-threatening restrictive cardiomyopathy. Cardiac manifestations frequently occur in primary amyloidosis (AL) and familial amyloidosis (ATTR), but are uncommon in secondary amyloidosis (AA). Echocardiography is the method of choice for assessing cardiac amyloidosis. Amyloid deposits impair the function of sympathetic nerve endings. Disturbance of myocardial sympathetic innervations may play an important role in the remodelling process. 123I-MIBG can detect these innervation changes. Patients with biopsy-proven amyloidosis underwent general work-up, echocardiography and 123I-MIBG scintigraphy. Left ventricular internal dimensions and wall thickness were measured, and highly refractile cardiac echoes (sparkling) were analysed. Early (15 min) and late (4 h) heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR) and wash-out rate were determined after administration of MIBG. Included in the study were 61 patients (30 women and 31 men; mean age 62 years; 39 AL, 11 AA, 11 ATTR). Echocardiographic parameters were not significantly different between the groups. Sparkling was present in 72 % of ATTR patients, in 54 % of AL patients and in 45 % of AA patients. Mean late HMR in all patients was 2.3 ± 0.75, and the mean wash-out rate was 8.6 ± 14 % (the latter not significantly different between the patient groups). Late HMR was significantly lower in patients with echocardiographic signs of amyloidosis than in patients without (2.0 ± 0.70 versus 2.8 ± 0.58, p 123I-MIBG scintigraphy can detect cardiac denervation in ATTR patients before signs of amyloidosis are evident on echocardiography. (orig.)

  6. Renal Denervation Findings on Cardiac and Renal Fibrosis in Rats with Isoproterenol Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Shengchan; Lu, Dasheng; Li, Zhenzhen; Geng, Jie; Fang, Ping; Wang, Ying; Shan, Qijun

    2015-12-01

    Cardio-renal fibrosis plays key roles in heart failure and chronic kidney disease. We sought to determine the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on cardiac and renal fibrosis in rats with isoproterenol induced cardiomyopathy. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to Control (n = 10) and isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiomyopathy group (n = 50). At week 5, 31 survival ISO-induced cardiomyopathy rats were randomized to RDN (n = 15) and Sham group (n = 16). Compared with Control group, ejection fraction was decreased, diastolic interventricular septal thickness and left atrial dimension were increased in ISO-induced cardiomyopathy group at 5 week. After 10 weeks, cardio-renal pathophysiologic results demonstrated that the collagen volume fraction of left atrio-ventricular and kidney tissues reduced significantly in RDN group compared with Sham group. Moreover the pro-fibrosis factors (TGF-β1, MMP2 and Collagen I), inflammatory cytokines (CRP and TNF-α), and collagen synthesis biomarkers (PICP, PINP and PIIINP) concentration significantly decreased in RDN group. Compared with Sham group, RDN group showed that release of noradrenaline and aldosterone were reduced, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) axis was downregulated. Meanwhile, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-1-7 (Ang-(1-7))/mas receptor (Mas-R) axis was upregulated. RDN inhibits cardio-renal fibrogenesis through multiple pathways, including reducing SNS over-activity, rebalancing RAAS axis.

  7. Endovascular radiofrequency renal denervation in resistant hypertension: a single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Negro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight patients with office blood pressure >140/90 mmHg, despite being treated with at least three antihypertensive drugs, underwent catheter-based renal denervation. Secondary hypertension was excluded in all patients. Every patient underwent follow-up at 30 days, and then every 3 months. At 6 and 12 months the median value of systolic clinic blood pressure decreased from 161 mmHg (25th-75th percentiles: 158-191 mmHg at baseline to 144 mmHg (25th-75th percentiles: 136-153 mmHg at follow up (P=0.012, and the median value of diastolic clinic blood pressure decreased from 102 mmHg (25th-75th percentiles: 94-122 mmHg at baseline to 90 mmHg (25th-75th percentiles: 78-99 mmHg at follow-up (P=0.012. The number of medications decreased from 5 (range, 2-8 at baseline to 3.3 (range, 0-6 at follow up. There was a significant decrease of left ventricular mass index from a median of 160 g/m2 (25th-75th percentiles: 147-151 g/m2 at baseline to 126 g/m2 (25th-75th percentiles 107-151 g/m2 at follow-up (P=0.043 was detected. The renal function, and metabolic and neurohumoral parameters, did not change significantly. No complications were observed.

  8. Mid-Term Vascular Safety of Renal Denervation Assessed by Follow-up MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Axel, E-mail: axel.schmid@uk-erlangen.de; Schmieder, Raphael; Lell, Michael; Janka, Rolf [Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Veelken, Roland; Schmieder, Roland E. [Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension (Germany); Uder, Michael [Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Ott, Christian [Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Background/AimsRenal denervation (RDN) emerged as a treatment option for reducing blood pressure (BP) in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). However, concerns have been raised regarding the incidence of late renal artery stenosis or thromboembolism after RDN. The goal of the current study was, therefore, to conduct a prospective clinical trial on the mid-term vascular integrity of the renal arteries and the perfusion of the renal parenchyma assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the follow-up after catheter-based RDN.MethodsIn our single-centre investigator initiated study, 51 patients with true TRH underwent catheter-based RDN using the Symplicity Flex{sup TM} catheter (Medtronic Inc., Palo Alto, CA). Follow-up MRI was performed at a median of 11 months (interquartile range 6–18 months) after RDN on a 1.5T MR unit. High-resolution MR angiography (MRA) and MRI results were compared to the baseline digital angiography of renal arteries obtained at time of RDN. In case of uncertainties (N = 2) catheter angiography was repeated.ResultsBoth office and 24-h ambulatory BP were significantly reduced 6 and 12 months after RDN. Renal function remained unchanged 6 and 12 months after RDN. In all patients, MRA excluded new or progression of pre-existing low grade renal artery stenosis as well as focal aneurysms at the sites of radiofrequency ablation. In none of the patients new segmental perfusion deficits in either kidney were detected on MRI.ConclusionsNo vascular or parenchymal complications after radiofrequency-based RDN were detected in 51 patients followed up by MRI.

  9. Renal denervation for refractory hypertension. Technical aspects, complications and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze procedural details, complications and radiation exposure in renal denervation (RDN) using the Medtronic Symplicity registered device in the treatment of refractory hypertension. Materials and Methods: Fifty three consecutive patients underwent RDN. The number of ablations per artery, peri-procedural complications, procedure time (PT), fluoroscopy time (FT), dose-area product (DAP) and procedure-related complications were documented. Additionally, the radiation dose was compared between obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) and non-obese patients. Results: Bilateral RDN was performed in 50/53 (94 %) cases and with a minimum of 4 ablations per artery in 33/50 (66 %), the mean count being 5.4 (range R: 2 - 13) on the right and 4.3 (R: 1 - 10) on the left. The FT and DAP decreased significantly over the first 12 procedures, reaching a steady state with a median FT of 11.2 min (R: 7.5 - 27) and a median DAP of 4796 cGy x cm2 (R: 1076 - 21 371), resulting in an effective dose of 15.7 mSv. The median PT was 57 min (R: 40 - 70). Obese patients had a 3.3-fold higher radiation dose (p < 0.001). We observed one severe spasm and one imminent respiratory depression, both resolved without sequelae. Conclusion: For an experienced interventionalist, RDN has a short learning curve with a low risk profile. The radiation dose does not exceed that of other renal artery interventions, but is explicitly higher in obese patients, who account for a large portion of patients with refractory hypertension. (orig.)

  10. Eligibility for Renal Denervation: Anatomical Classification and Results in Essential Resistant Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo classify the renal artery (RA) anatomy based on specific requirements for endovascular renal artery denervation (RDN) in patients with drug-resistant hypertension (RH).Materials and MethodsThe RA anatomy of 122 consecutive RH patients was evaluated by computed tomography angiography and classified as two types: A (main RA ≥20 mm in length and ≥4.0 mm in diameter) or B (main RA <20 mm in length or main RA <4.0 mm in diameter). The A type included three subtypes: A1 (without accessory RAs), A2 (with accessory RAs <3.0 mm in diameter), and A3 (with accessory RAs ≥3.0 mm in diameter]. A1 and A2 types were eligible for RDN with the Simplicity Flex catheter. Type B included twi subtypes based on the main RA length and diameter. Patients were accordingly classified into three eligibility categories: complete (CE; both RAs were eligible), partial (PE; one eligible RA), and noneligibility (NE; no eligible RA).ResultsBilateral A1 type was the most prevalent and was observed in 48.4 % of the patients followed by the A1/A2 type (18 %). CE, PE, and NE were observed in 69.7, 22.9, and 7.4 % of patients, respectively. The prevalence of accessory RAs was 41 %.ConclusionsOf RH patients, 30.3 % were not eligible for bilateral RDN with the current Simplicity Flex catheter. This classification provides the basis for standardized reporting to allow for pooling of results of larger patient cohorts in the future

  11. Renal denervation for refractory hypertension. Technical aspects, complications and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheurig-Muenkler, C.; Kroencke, T.J.; Powerski, M.J. [Charite Universitatesmedizin, Berlin (Germany). Radiologie; Weiss, W.; Toelle, M.; Giet, M. van der; Zidek, W. [Charite Universitatesmedizin, Berlin (Germany). Nephrologie; Foert, E. [DRK Klinikum Berlin Mitte, Berlin (Germany). Radiologie

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To analyze procedural details, complications and radiation exposure in renal denervation (RDN) using the Medtronic Symplicity {sup registered} device in the treatment of refractory hypertension. Materials and Methods: Fifty three consecutive patients underwent RDN. The number of ablations per artery, peri-procedural complications, procedure time (PT), fluoroscopy time (FT), dose-area product (DAP) and procedure-related complications were documented. Additionally, the radiation dose was compared between obese (body mass index {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}) and non-obese patients. Results: Bilateral RDN was performed in 50/53 (94 %) cases and with a minimum of 4 ablations per artery in 33/50 (66 %), the mean count being 5.4 (range R: 2 - 13) on the right and 4.3 (R: 1 - 10) on the left. The FT and DAP decreased significantly over the first 12 procedures, reaching a steady state with a median FT of 11.2 min (R: 7.5 - 27) and a median DAP of 4796 cGy x cm{sup 2} (R: 1076 - 21 371), resulting in an effective dose of 15.7 mSv. The median PT was 57 min (R: 40 - 70). Obese patients had a 3.3-fold higher radiation dose (p < 0.001). We observed one severe spasm and one imminent respiratory depression, both resolved without sequelae. Conclusion: For an experienced interventionalist, RDN has a short learning curve with a low risk profile. The radiation dose does not exceed that of other renal artery interventions, but is explicitly higher in obese patients, who account for a large portion of patients with refractory hypertension. (orig.)

  12. An improved strategy for evaluating the extent of chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation in conscious rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez-Martínez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no index or criterion of aortic barodenervation, nor can we differentiate among rats that have suffered chronic sham, aortic or sino-aortic denervation. The objective of this study was to develop a procedure to generate at least one quantitative, reproducible and validated index that precisely evaluates the extent of chronic arterial barodenervation performed in conscious rats. Data from 79 conscious male Wistar rats of about 65-70 days of age with diverse extents of chronic arterial barodenervation and used in previous experiments were reanalyzed. The mean arterial pressure (MAP and the heart rate (HR of all rats were measured systematically before (over 1 h and after three consecutive iv bolus injections of phenylephrine (PHE and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Four expressions of the effectiveness of barodenervation (MAP lability, PHE ratio, SNP ratio, and SNP-PHE slope were assessed with linear fixed models, three-level average variance, average separation among levels, outlier box plot analysis, and overlapping graphic analysis. The analysis indicated that a neither MAP lability nor SNP-PHE slope was affected by the level of chronic sodium intake; b even though the Box-Cox transformations of both MAP lability [transformed lability index (TLI] and SNP-PHE slope [transformed general sensitivity index (TGSI, {((3-(ΔHRSNP-ΔHRPHE/ΔMAPSNP-ΔMAPPHE-0.4-1/-0.04597}] could be two promising indexes, TGSI proved to be the best index; c TLI and TGSI were not freely interchangeable indexes for this purpose. TGSI ranges that permit differentiation between sham (10.09 to 11.46, aortic (8.40 to 9.94 and sino-aortic (7.68 to 8.24 barodenervated conscious rats were defined.

  13. Renal Sympathetic Denervation by CT-Guided Ethanol Injection: A Phase II Pilot Trial of a Novel Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ObjectivesCT-guided ethanol-mediated renal sympathetic denervation in treatment of therapy-resistant hypertension was performed to assess patient safety and collect preliminary data on treatment efficacy.Materials and MethodsEleven patients with therapy-resistant hypertension (blood pressure of >160 mmHg despite three different antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic) and following screening for secondary causes were enrolled in a phase II single arm open label pilot trial of CT-guided neurolysis of sympathetic renal innervation. Primary endpoint was safety, and secondary endpoint was a decrease of the mean office as well as 24-h systolic blood pressure in follow-up. Follow-up visits at 4 weeks, 3, and 6 months included 24-h blood pressure assessments, office blood pressure, laboratory values, as well as full clinical and quality of life assessments.ResultsNo toxicities ≥3° occurred. Three patients exhibited worsened kidney function in follow-up analyses. When accounting all patients, office systolic blood pressure decreased significantly at all follow-up visits (maximal mean decrease −41.2 mmHg at 3 months). The mean 24-h systolic blood pressure values decreased significantly at 3 months, but not at 6 months (mean: −9.7 and −6.3 mmHg, respectively). Exclusion of five patients who had failed catheter-based endovascular denervation and/or were incompliant for antihypertensive drug intake revealed a more pronounced decrease of 24-h systolic blood pressure (mean: −18.3 and −15.2 mmHg at 3 and 6 months, p = 0.03 and 0.06).ConclusionCT-guided sympathetic denervation proved to be safe and applicable under various anatomical conditions with more renal arteries and such of small diameter

  14. Renal Sympathetic Denervation by CT-Guided Ethanol Injection: A Phase II Pilot Trial of a Novel Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, J., E-mail: jens.ricke@med.ovgu.de; Seidensticker, M.; Becker, S. [Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg AöR (Germany); Schiefer, J. [Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg AöR, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Diabetes and Endocrinology (Germany); Adamchic, I.; Lohfink, K. [Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg AöR (Germany); Kandulski, M.; Heller, A.; Mertens, P. R. [Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg AöR, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Diabetes and Endocrinology (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    ObjectivesCT-guided ethanol-mediated renal sympathetic denervation in treatment of therapy-resistant hypertension was performed to assess patient safety and collect preliminary data on treatment efficacy.Materials and MethodsEleven patients with therapy-resistant hypertension (blood pressure of >160 mmHg despite three different antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic) and following screening for secondary causes were enrolled in a phase II single arm open label pilot trial of CT-guided neurolysis of sympathetic renal innervation. Primary endpoint was safety, and secondary endpoint was a decrease of the mean office as well as 24-h systolic blood pressure in follow-up. Follow-up visits at 4 weeks, 3, and 6 months included 24-h blood pressure assessments, office blood pressure, laboratory values, as well as full clinical and quality of life assessments.ResultsNo toxicities ≥3° occurred. Three patients exhibited worsened kidney function in follow-up analyses. When accounting all patients, office systolic blood pressure decreased significantly at all follow-up visits (maximal mean decrease −41.2 mmHg at 3 months). The mean 24-h systolic blood pressure values decreased significantly at 3 months, but not at 6 months (mean: −9.7 and −6.3 mmHg, respectively). Exclusion of five patients who had failed catheter-based endovascular denervation and/or were incompliant for antihypertensive drug intake revealed a more pronounced decrease of 24-h systolic blood pressure (mean: −18.3 and −15.2 mmHg at 3 and 6 months, p = 0.03 and 0.06).ConclusionCT-guided sympathetic denervation proved to be safe and applicable under various anatomical conditions with more renal arteries and such of small diameter.

  15. Integrated Motion Planning and Autonomous Control Technology for Autonomous ISR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI and MIT propose to design, implement and test a comprehensive Integrated Mission Planning & Autonomous Control Technology (IMPACT) for Autonomous ISR...

  16. Autonomic control of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, David H.; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. PMID:25589275

  17. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  18. Autonomous underwater riser inspection tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, Claudio; Marnet, Robson [Petrobras SA, (Brazil); Freitas, Miguel; Von der Weid, Jean Pierre [CPTI/PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil); Artigas Lander, Ricardo [EngeMOVI, Curitiba, (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The detection of damage on the riser is a serious concern for pipeline companies. Visual examinations by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) are presently carried out to detect the defects but this process has limitations and is expensive. This paper presents the development of a new tool to ensure autonomous underwater riser inspection (AURI) that uses the riser itself for guidance. The AURI, which is autonomous in terms of control and power supply, is equipped with several cameras that perform a complete visual inspection of the riser with 100 % coverage of the external surface of the riser. The paper presents the detailed characteristics of the first AURI prototype, describes its launching procedure and provides the preliminary test results from pool testing. The results showed that the AURI is a viable system for autonomous riser inspection. Offshore tests on riser pipelines are scheduled to be performed shortly.

  19. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    involving brain stem areas, which is consistent with the Braak hypothesis. In the narcolepsy patients, it was shown that a reduced HRR to arousals was primarily predicted by hypocretin deficiency in both rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep, independent of cataplexy and other factors. The results......, which includes the cardiac centre and controls autonomic functions, and therefore autonomic dysfunction may be experienced early in the disease course. Sleep disturbances are also common non-motor complications of PD, and therefore PD patients undergo polysomnography at the Danish Center for Sleep...... narcolepsy patients on autonomic function and on the sleep transition rate. The results showed an attenuated heart rate response (HRR) in PD patients compared to controls and early PD (iRBD patients). Also iRBD patients had an attenuated HRR compared to control subjects, and the method to measure the HRR may...

  20. 3D Modelling and monitoring of denervated muscle under Functional Electrical Stimulation treatment and associated bone structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gargiulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel clinical rehabilitation method for patients who have permanent and non recoverable muscle denervation in the legs was developed in the frame of the European Project RISE. The technique is based on FES and the project results shows, in these severely disabled patients, restoration of muscle tissue and function. This study propose novel methods based on image processing technique and medical modelling to monitor growth in denervated muscle treated with FES. Geometrical and structural changes in muscle and bone are studied and modelled. Secondary effects on the bone mineral density produced by the stimulation treatment and due the elicited muscle contraction are also investigated. The restoration process in DDM is an important object of discussion since there isn’t yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms regulating growth in denervated muscle. This study approaches the problem from a macroscopic point of view, developing 3-dimensional models of the whole stimulated muscles and following changes in volume, geometry and density very accurately. The method is based on the acquisition of high resolution Spiral CT scans from patients who have long-term flaccid paraplegia and the use of special image processing tools allowing tissue discriminations and muscle segmentation. Three patients were measured at different points of time during 4 years of electrical stimulation treatment. In this study is quantitatively demonstrated the influences of FES treatment on the different quadriceps bellies. The rectus femoris muscle is positioned in the middle of the quadriceps and responds (in general better to stimulation. In a patient with abundant adipose tissue surrounding the quadriceps, rectus femoris almost doubled the volume during the FES treatment while in the other bellies the changes measured were minimal. The analysis of the density shows clearly a restoration of the muscular structure in the growing muscle. The remarkable increase of

  1. Blood pressure changes after renal denervation at 10 European expert centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persu, A; Jin, Y; Azizi, M; Baelen, M; Völz, S; Elvan, A; Severino, F; Rosa, J; Adiyaman, A; Fadl Elmula, F E; Taylor, A; Pechère-Bertschi, A; Wuerzner, G; Jokhaji, F; Kahan, T; Renkin, J; Monge, M; Widimský, P; Jacobs, L; Burnier, M; Mark, P B; Kjeldsen, S E; Andersson, B; Sapoval, M; Staessen, J A

    2014-01-01

    We did a subject-level meta-analysis of the changes (Δ) in blood pressure (BP) observed 3 and 6 months after renal denervation (RDN) at 10 European centers. Recruited patients (n=109; 46.8% women; mean age 58.2 years) had essential hypertension confirmed by ambulatory BP. From baseline to 6 months, treatment score declined slightly from 4.7 to 4.4 drugs per day. Systolic/diastolic BP fell by 17.6/7.1 mm Hg for office BP, and by 5.9/3.5, 6.2/3.4, and 4.4/2.5 mm Hg for 24-h, daytime and nighttime BP (P⩽0.03 for all). In 47 patients with 3- and 6-month ambulatory measurements, systolic BP did not change between these two time points (P⩾0.08). Normalization was a systolic BP of <140 mm Hg on office measurement or <130 mm Hg on 24-h monitoring and improvement was a fall of ⩾10 mm Hg, irrespective of measurement technique. For office BP, at 6 months, normalization, improvement or no decrease occurred in 22.9, 59.6 and 22.9% of patients, respectively; for 24-h BP, these proportions were 14.7, 31.2 and 34.9%, respectively. Higher baseline BP predicted greater BP fall at follow-up; higher baseline serum creatinine was associated with lower probability of improvement of 24-h BP (odds ratio for 20-μmol l−1 increase, 0.60; P=0.05) and higher probability of experiencing no BP decrease (OR, 1.66; P=0.01). In conclusion, BP responses to RDN include regression-to-the-mean and remain to be consolidated in randomized trials based on ambulatory BP monitoring. For now, RDN should remain the last resort in patients in whom all other ways to control BP failed, and it must be cautiously used in patients with renal impairment. PMID:24067345

  2. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta, E-mail: aneta@lancaster.ac.uk

    2014-09-30

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale—from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems—their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous

  3. Autonomous Home Automated Hexapod Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addanki Purna Ramesh,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on design and implementation of six legged robot that is capable of monitoring and performing house hold works independently. The Autonomous Home Automated Hexapod is developed with three AT89C52 microcontrollers which functions as brain of the robot to which all operating functions of each module are chronologically programmed in it. The legs of the robot were developed with 2 servo motors to provide two degree for each leg. Several additional sensors like TSOP1738 (IR, RF transmitter andreceiver, DS1307 (Real Time Clock have been embedded into robot in modular form to make it work autonomously.

  4. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  5. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale—from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems—their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous

  6. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  7. Intelligent, autonomous systems in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, H.; Heer, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

  8. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  9. A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

  10. Chronic Kidney Pain in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease : A Case Report of Successful Treatment by Catheter-Based Renal Denervation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; de Jager, Rosa L.; Neeleman, M. Peer; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common concern in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We report what to our knowledge is the first catheter-based renal denervation procedure in a patient with ADPKD resulting in successful management of chronic pain. The patient was a 43-year-old wo

  11. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated...

  12. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio;

    2003-01-01

    telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  13. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  14. Autonomous systems for plant protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm;

    2010-01-01

    autonomous operations related to crop protection probably commercially available in the near future. Scouting and monitoring together with the efficient application of chemicals or mechanical treatments are operations which can be successful automated. Drawbacks are that current systems are lacking robust...

  15. Autonomous Duffing-Holmes Type Chaotic Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševičius, A.; Bumelienė, S.; Kirvaitis, R.; Mykolaitis, G.; Tamaševičiūtė, E.; Lindberg, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and built a novel Duffing type autonomous 3rd-order chaotic oscillator. In comparison with the common non-autonomous DuffingHolmes type oscillator the autonomous circuit has an internal positive feedback loop instead of an external periodic drive source. In addition, it is...

  16. Indoor Autonomous Airship Control and Navigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorenko Roman; Krukhmalev Victor

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an automatic control system for autonomous airship. The system is designed to organize autonomous flight of the mini-airship performing flight mission defined from ground control station. Structure, hardware and software implementation of indoor autonomous airship and its navigation and control system as well as experiment results are described.

  17. Indoor Autonomous Airship Control and Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic control system for autonomous airship. The system is designed to organize autonomous flight of the mini-airship performing flight mission defined from ground control station. Structure, hardware and software implementation of indoor autonomous airship and its navigation and control system as well as experiment results are described.

  18. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  19. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  20. DYNAMICS OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL AFTER RENAL DENERVATION IN PATIENTS WITH RESISTANT HYPERTENSION AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Falkovskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluatetheglycemic control dynamics depending on degree of blood pressure (BP reduction and dynamic of TNF-α after 6 and 12 months of Tran catheter renal denervation (TRD of patients with true resistant hypertension (RH and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Material and methods. Thirty two essentially hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and resistant hypertension were included in single-arm prospective interventional study. Office BP measurement, ambulatory 24-h BP, renal Doppler ultrasound and assessment of renal function (proteinuria, creatinine, eGFR, HbА1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels, activity of TNF-α were performed at baseline and 6 and 12 months after TRD. On average, patients were taking 4 (3–6 antihypertensive drugs. None of the patients changed the antihypertensive treatments during follow-up. A 6 months follow-up was completed by 27 patients (43–75 years old, 14 male, 12 months follow-up was completed by 26 patients. Results. Renal denervation significantly reduced the systolic office BP (SBP as well as 24-h SBP (– 27.2/–10.7 mm Hg and–13.4/–10 mm Hg, respectively, p < 0.01 after 6-month follow-up, and –31,7/–12,8 mmHg and –13.4/–10 mm Hg, respectively, p < 0.01 after 12-month follow-up without any negative effect on renal function. The number of responders with reduction of SBP >10 mmHg according to ABPM were 56% (15/27 after 6-month and 61.5% (16/26 after 12-month follow-up. There were significant reduction of the average HbA1c levels (from (6.9 ± 1.8% to (5.8 ± 1.5%, p = 0.04 and nonsignificant decreasing of FPG levels (from 8.7 ± 2.8 to 7.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, p = 0.07 after 6-month followup. Conspicuously, the responders according to ABPM had significantly higher mean dynamics of HbA1c than the non-responders after 6-month follow-up (–2.4 ± 1.9 and –0.1 ± 0.8%, p = 0.02, respectively as well as after 12-month follow-up (–0.12 ± 0.98 and 1

  1. Effects of Renal Denervation on Sympathetic Activation, Blood Pressure and Glucose Metabolism in Patients with Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Peter Schlaich

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased central sympathetic drive is a hallmark of a number of important and common clinical conditions including essential hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Afferent signalling from the kidney via sensory nerves has been identified as an important contributor and underlying cause of elevated central sympathetic drive, which in turn increases efferent sympathetic outflow to the kidney and other organs crucially involved in cardiovascular control. The resulting effects on renal haemodynamics, sodium and water retention and renin release contribute to the blood pressure rise and other adverse consequences of sustained sympathetic activation and identify the renal nerves as a logical therapeutic target. Recent clinical studies using catheter based radiofrequency ablation technology to achieve functional renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension have exposed the sympathetic link between these conditions and indicate that this approach may provide a safe and effective treatment alternative for resistant hypertension and its adverse consequences.

  2. Atrophy, inducible satellite cell activation, and possible denervation of supraspinatus muscle in injured human rotator-cuff muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Deanna; Leiter, Jeff R S; Macek, Bryce; Davidson, Michael J; MacDonald, Peter B; Anderson, Judy E

    2015-09-15

    The high frequency of poor outcome and chronic pain after surgical repair of shoulder rotator-cuff injury (RCI) prompted this study to explore the potential to amplify muscle regeneration using nitric oxide (NO)-based treatment. After preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biopsies of supraspinatus and ipsilateral deltoid (as a control) were collected during reparative surgery for RCI. Muscle fiber diameter, the pattern of neuromuscular junctions observed with alpha-bungarotoxin staining, and the γ:ε subunit ratio of acetylcholine receptors in Western blots were examined in tandem with experiments to determine the in vitro responsiveness of muscle satellite cells to activation (indicated by uptake of bromodeoxyuridine, BrdU) by the NO-donor drug, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). Consistent with MRI findings of supraspinatus atrophy (reduced occupation ratio and tangent sign), fiber diameter was lower in supraspinatus than in deltoid. ISDN induced a significant increase over baseline (up to 1.8-fold), in the proportion of BrdU+ (activated) Pax7+ satellite cells in supraspinatus, but not in deltoid, after 40 h in culture. The novel application of denervation indices revealed a trend for supraspinatus muscle to have a higher γ:ε subunit ratio than deltoid (P = 0.13); this ratio inversely with both occupancy ratio (P < 0.05) and the proportion of clusters at neuromuscular junctions (P = 0.05). Results implicate possible supraspinatus denervation in RCI and suggest NO-donor treatment has potential to promote growth in atrophic supraspinatus muscle after RCI and improve functional outcome. PMID:26135801

  3. Circadian expression of clock genes and angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptors in suprachiasmatic nuclei of sinoaortic-denervated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui LI; Ning-ling SUN; Jin WANG; Ai-jun LIU; Ding-feng SU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the circadian expression of central clock genes and angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 (AT1) receptors was altered in sinoaortic-denervated (SAD)rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sinoaortic denervation or a sham operation at the age of 12 weeks. Four weeks after the operation, blood pressure and heart period were measured in the conscious state in a group of sham-operated (n=10) and SAD rats (n=9). Rest SAD and sham-operated rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6 in each group). The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)tissues were taken every 4 h throughout the day from each group for the determi-nation of the mRNA expression of clock genes (Per2 and Bmall) and the AT1receptor by RT-PCR; the protein expression of Per2 and Bmall was determined by Western blotting. Results: Blood pressure levels in the SAD rats were similar to those of the sham-operated rats. However, blood pressure variabilities signifi-cantly increased in the SAD rats compared with the sham-operated rats. The circadian variation of clock genes in the SCN of the sham-operated rats was char-acterized by a marked increase in the mRNA and protein expression during dark periods. Per2 and Bmall mRNA levels were significantly lower in the SAD rats,especially during dark periods. Western blot analysis confirmed an attenuation of the circadian rhythm of the 2 clock proteins in the SCN of the SAD rats. AT1 receptor mRNA expressions in the SCN were abnormally upregulated in the light phase, changed to a 12-h cycle in the SAD rats. Conclusion: The circadian varia-tion of the 2 central clock genes was attenuated in the SAD rats. Arterial baroreflex dysfunction also induced a disturbance in the expression of AT1 receptors in the SCN.

  4. Development of autonomous operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enhance operation reliability of nuclear plants by removing human factors, study on an autonomous operation system has been carried out to substitute artificial intelligence (AI) for plant operators and, in addition, traditional controllers used in existing plants. For construction of the AI system, structurization of knowledge on the basis of the principles such as physical laws, function and structure of relevant objects and generalization of problem solving process are intended. A hierarchical distributed cooperative system configuration in employed because it is superior from the viewpoint of dynamical reorganization of system functions. This configuration is realized by an object-oriented multi-agent system. Construction of a prototype system was planned and the conceptual design was made for FBR plant in order to evaluate applicability of AI to the autonomous operation and to have a prospect for the realization of the system. The prototype system executes diagnosis, state evaluation, operation and control for the main plant subsystems. (author)

  5. An Autonomously Reciprocating Transmembrane Nanoactuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Matthew A; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-01-22

    Biological molecular machines operate far from equilibrium by coupling chemical potential to repeated cycles of dissipative nanomechanical motion. This principle has been exploited in supramolecular systems that exhibit true machine behavior in solution and on surfaces. However, designed membrane-spanning assemblies developed to date have been limited to simple switches or stochastic shuttles, and true machine behavior has remained elusive. Herein, we present a transmembrane nanoactuator that turns over chemical fuel to drive autonomous reciprocating (back-and-forth) nanomechanical motion. Ratcheted reciprocating motion of a DNA/PEG copolymer threaded through a single α-hemolysin pore was induced by a combination of DNA strand displacement processes and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Ion-current recordings revealed saw-tooth patterns, indicating that the assemblies operated in autonomous, asymmetric cycles of conformational change at rates of up to one cycle per minute. PMID:26661295

  6. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy;

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in the setting of diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The prevalence of confirmed CAN is around 20%, and increases up to 65% with age and diabetes duration. Established risk factors for CAN are glycaemic control in type 1 and a combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and glycaemic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests...

  7. Treatment of gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnblom, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The symptoms caused by gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is important to highlight since it affects a large proportion of people with diabetes, regardless of whether this is type 1 or type 2. Gastroparesis and general signs of bowel dysfunction, such as constipation, diarrhoea and abdominal pain are most often encountered and involve both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. This mini-review summarises a presentation given at the 'Diagnosis and treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy in the gut' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by another mini-review on a topic from this symposium (by Azpiroz and Malagelada, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3831-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Péter Kempler (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3826-y ). PMID:26634570

  8. Advancing Autonomous Structural Health Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Benjamin Luke

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is aimed at advancing autonomous structural health monitoring. All the research is based on developing the impedance method for monitoring structural health. The impedance technique utilizes piezoelectric patches to interrogate structures of interested with high frequency excitations. These patches are bonded directly to the structure, so information about the health of the structure can be seen in the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric patch. However, tr...

  9. Insurance for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, G; N Bose; Ferguson, J.; Blidberg, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    The background and practice of insurance for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are examined. Key topics include: relationships between clients, brokers and underwriters; contract wording to provide appropriate coverage; and actions to take when an incident occurs. Factors that affect cost of insurance are discussed, including level of autonomy, team experience and operating environment. Four case studies from industry and academia illustrate how AUV insurance has worked in practice. The p...

  10. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired traje...

  11. Robotic perception for autonomous navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan,

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the research work the author carried on during his PhD on the topic of robotic perception for autonomous navigation. In particular, the efforts focus on the Self-Localization, Scene Understanding and Object Detection and Tracking problems, proposing for each of these three topics one or more approaches that present an improvement over the state-of-the-art. In some cases the proposed approaches mutually exploit the generated information to improve the quality of the final ...

  12. Prototype design for autonomous vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lehander, Jacob; Persson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanical design of a prototype vehicle developed for a company located in California. The project was based on an earlier vehicle located at KTH, Transport Labs, and investigated if the existing concept for the vehicle would work as a concept for an autonomous prototype, with focus on component layout and increased forces. The design of the vehicle is based on a concept with a carbon fiber bottom plate, two separate suspension modules with electric hub motors and s...

  13. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. Whe...

  14. Autonomous Behavior of Computational Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculín, Roman; Neruda, Roman

    Wien : Springer-Verlag, 2005 - (Ribiero, B.; Albrecht, R.; Dobnikar, A.; Pearson, D.; Steele, N.), s. 514-517 ISBN 3-211-24934-6. [ICANNGA'2005 /7./. Coimbra (PT), 21.03.2005-23.03.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : computational agents * autonomous behavior * reasoning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  15. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  16. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  17. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Resists Denervation-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Activating PGC-1α and Integrating Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ting Kuo

    Full Text Available Denervation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy results from the loss of electric stimulation and leads to protein degradation, which is critically regulated by the well-confirmed transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α. No adequate treatments of muscle wasting are available. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, a naturally occurring antioxidant component with multiple functions including mitochondrial modulation, demonstrates the ability to protect against muscle dysfunction. However, it remains unclear whether PQQ enhances PGC-1α activation and resists skeletal muscle atrophy in mice subjected to a denervation operation. This work investigates the expression of PGC-1α and mitochondrial function in the skeletal muscle of denervated mice administered PQQ. The C57BL6/J mouse was subjected to a hindlimb sciatic axotomy. A PQQ-containing ALZET® osmotic pump (equivalent to 4.5 mg/day/kg b.w. was implanted subcutaneously into the right lower abdomen of the mouse. In the time course study, the mouse was sacrificed and the gastrocnemius muscle was prepared for further myopathological staining, energy metabolism analysis, western blotting, and real-time quantitative PCR studies. We observed that PQQ administration abolished the denervation-induced decrease in muscle mass and reduced mitochondrial activities, as evidenced by the reduced fiber size and the decreased expression of cytochrome c oxidase and NADH-tetrazolium reductase. Bioenergetic analysis demonstrated that PQQ reprogrammed the denervation-induced increase in the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR and led to an increase in the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, a measurement of the glycolytic metabolism. The protein levels of PGC-1α and the electron transport chain (ETC complexes were also increased by treatment with PQQ. Furthermore, PQQ administration highly enhanced the expression of oxidative fibers and maintained the type II glycolytic

  18. Comparison of growth-induced resorption and denervation-induced resorption on the release of [3H]tetracycline, 45calcium, and [3H]collagen from whole bones of growing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major effect of immobilization during growth is a smaller bone mass induced by either an increased bone resorption or a decreased bone formation. Using a method of analyzing radioisotopic loss of [3H]tetracycline and [3H]collagen from bone prelabeled in vivo, we compared the amount of bone resorption due to immobilization with bone resorption induced by growth. One hind limb was denervated in growing male rats, 6 weeks of age, that had been chronically prelabeled with [3H]tetracycline, 45calcium, and [3H]proline. The total radioactivity of the whole femur and tibia/fibula from the denervated limb was compared with that from bones of the control limb at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after denervation. The effect of growth on bone formation was measured by net increases in bone length, volume, and mass of matrix and mineral. Experimental bones had a significantly smaller volume and mass. Bone resorption was much greater during growth modeling than during denervation. The additional bone resorption induced by denervation was a small fraction (one-fourth) of the resorption induced by growth. Denervation during growth resulted in less bone being formed due to a smaller gain in matrix and mineral mass as a result of a reduction in bone formation

  19. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  20. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  1. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nadir kamal Salih; G. K. Viju; Mohamed, Abdelmotalib A.

    2011-01-01

    Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, socialit...

  2. Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor of the stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.; Al-Garni, Ayed A.; Sami A Al-Momen; Al-Nahawi, Mamdouh; Abu Subaih, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 32 Final Diagnosis: Gastrintestinal Autonomic Nerve Tumor (GANT) Symptoms: anemia • anorexia • fatigue • fever • hearburn • nausea • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANT) are extremely rare tumors that are related to gastrointestinal autonomic nervous plexuses. They are distinguished from stromal tumors by their unique ultrastructural feature...

  3. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  4. Obstacle Detection and Avoidance Autonomous Car

    OpenAIRE

    K.Vasavi; M.V.S.Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Driving models are needed by many researchers to improve traffic safety and to advance autonomous vehicle design. To be most useful, a driving model must state specifically what information is needed and how it is processed. So we developed an “Obstacle Avoidance and Detection Autonomous Car” based on sensor application. The essential part of this autonomous car is that it drives taking the energy from solar panel. This paper explains the method of interfacing the solar panel, relay circuit b...

  5. Tele/Autonomous Robot For Nuclear Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Tso, Kam S.

    1994-01-01

    Fail-safe tele/autonomous robotic system makes it unnecessary for human technicians to enter nuclear-fuel-reprocessing facilities and other high-radiation or otherwise hazardous industrial environments. Used to carry out experiments as exchanging equipment modules, turning bolts, cleaning surfaces, and grappling turning objects by use of mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation with either single arm or two cooperating arms. System capable of fully autonomous operation, teleoperation or shared control.

  6. Self-Adapting Reactive Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, M.; Ali, M. K.

    This paper describes a new self-adapting control algorithm for reactive autonomous agents. The architecture of the autonomous agents integrates the reactive behavior with reinforcement learning. We show how these components perform on-line adaptation of the autonomous agents to various complex navigation situations by constructing an internal model of the environment. Also, a discussion on cooperation and coordination of teams of agents is presented.

  7. Autonomous vehicle control systems for safe crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Ruiz, Javier; Milanés Montero, Vicente; Pérez, Joshué; Onieva Caracuel, Enrique; González Fernández-Vallejo, Carlos; Pedro Lucio, María Teresa de

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a cooperative manoeuvre among three dual mode cars – vehicles equipped with sensors and actuators, and that can be driven either manually or autonomously. One vehicle is driven autonomously and the other two are driven manually. The main objective is to test two decision algorithms for priority conflict resolution at intersections so that a vehicle autonomously driven can take their own decision about crossing an intersection mingling with manually driven cars without th...

  8. Effects of sodium pentobarbital anesthesia and neurotrophic factor on the maintenance of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in the preganglionically denervated superior cervical ganglion of the cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Koelle, G B; Ruch, G A; Uchida, E

    1983-01-01

    In continuation of a previously reported study, the superior cervical ganglia of cats were preganglionically denervated bilaterally under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia. The following day cats were reanesthetized and infused via the common carotid artery with an aqueous extract of cat brain, spinal cord, and sciatic nerves for periods of 24, 12, 6, and 3 hr, without ligation of the external carotid or lingual arteries as was done previously. Values for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholine...

  9. Effects of cocaine or denervation on responses of isolated strips of cat spleen to (—)-noradrenaline and (—)-isoprenaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, A. R.; Langer, S. Z.

    1973-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the effects of cocaine and sympathetic denervation on responses of the cat spleen to (—)-noradrenaline and (—)-isoprenaline. 2. Responses of isolated strips of spleen capsule to (—)-noradrenaline or to (—)-isoprenaline were not affected by reserpine-pretreatment. 3. In adult cats, cocaine (1 and 10 μg/ml) or denervation produced a shift to the left of dose-response curves to (—)-noradrenaline, whereas they failed to modify dose-response curves to (—)-isoprenaline. 4. There was an increase in the maximum development of tension to (—)-noradrenaline after denervation or in the presence of cocaine (10 μg/ml). These procedures did not increase the maximal responses to (—)-isoprenaline. 5. Cocaine (10 μg/ml) did not affect dose-response curves to (—)-noradrenaline or (—)-isoprenaline in the denervated spleen. 6. In the kitten spleen, cocaine (1 and 10 μg/ml) produced a shift to the left of dose-response curves to (—)-noradrenaline both in untreated and in reserpine-pretreated tissues. 7. There was a small shift to the left in dose-response curves to (—)-isoprenaline in the presence of cocaine in the untreated but not in the reserpine-pretreated kitten spleen. 8. It is concluded that the potentiation of responses to (—)-noradrenaline in the cat's spleen is due to a prejunctional effect of cocaine. PMID:4788210

  10. Effects of glycyl-L-glutamine in vitro on the molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase in the preganglionically denervated superior cervical ganglion of the cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Koelle, G B; Massoulié, J; Eugène, D; Melone, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Normal and preganglionically denervated cat superior cervical ganglia were sectioned and cultured for 24 or 48 hr, with or without preliminary inactivation of acetylcholinesterase, and in the presence or absence of 10(-5) M glycyl-L-glutamine. They were then homogenized, and the molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase were analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation. We observed an increased proportion of the globular monomeric G1 form, and to a lesser extent of the dimeric G2 and tetrameric m...

  11. Microencapsulated Dopamine (DA)-Induced Restitution of Function in 6-OHDA-Denervated Rat Striatum in vivo: Comparison Between Two Microsphere Excipients

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, Amanda; Hjorth, Stephan; Mason, David W.; Dillon, Lynn; Tice, Thomas R.

    1991-01-01

    Biodegradable controlled-release microsphere systems made with the biocompatible biodegradable polyester excipient poly [DL lactide-co-glycolide] constitute an exciting new technology for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). The present study describes functional observations indicating that implantation of dopamine (DA) microspheres encapsulated within two different polymer excipients into denervated- striatal tissue assures a prolonged release of the transmitter in vivo. Moreo...

  12. Intrinsic denervation of the colon is associated with a decrease of some colonic preneoplastic markers in rats treated with a chemical carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.O. Vespúcio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Denervation of the colon is protective against the colon cancer; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the denervated colonic mucosa could be less responsive to the action of the chemical carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH. Three groups of 32 male Wistar rats were treated as follows: group 1 (G1 had the colon denervated with 0.3 mL 1.5 mM benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (benzalkonium chloride, BAC; G2 received a single ip injection of 125 mg/kg DMH; G3 was treated with BAC + the same dose and route of DMH. A control group (Sham, N = 32 did not receive any treatment. Each group was subdivided into four groups according to the sacrifice time (1, 2, 6, and 12 weeks after DMH. Crypt fission index, ß-catenin accumulated crypts, aberrant crypt foci, and cell proliferation were evaluated and analyzed by ANOVA and the Student t-test. G3 animals presented a small number of aberrant crypt foci and low crypt fission index compared to G2 animals after 2 and 12 weeks, respectively. From the second week on, the index of ß-catenin crypt in G3 animals increased slower than in G2 animals. From the 12th week on, G2 animals presented a significant increase in cell proliferation when compared to the other groups. Colonic denervation plays an anticarcinogenic role from early stages of colon cancer development. This finding can be of importance for the study of the role of the enteric nervous system in the carcinogenic process.

  13. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) in denervation-induced atrophy in aged muscle: facts and hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Gouspillou, Gilles; Picard, Martin; Godin, Richard; Burelle, Yan; Hepple, Russell T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging-related loss of muscle mass, a biological process named sarcopenia, contributes to mobility impairment, falls, and physical frailty, resulting in an impaired quality of life in older people. In view of the aging of our society, understanding the underlying mechanisms of sarcopenia is a major health-care imperative. Evidence obtained from human and rodent studies demonstrates that skeletal muscle denervation/reinnervation cycles occur with aging, and that progressive failure of myofiber ...

  14. Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

  15. Autonomic dysfunction in primary sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglis, Mitchell G

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the coordination of many important physiologic functions during sleep. Many patients with untreated sleep disorders will describe symptoms of autonomic impairment, and a majority of patients with autonomic impairment have some form of sleep disorder. This article will explore possible explanations for this connection, as well as review the current literature on autonomic impairment in common primary sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, narcolepsy, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. PMID:27198946

  16. Design of a Miniature Autonomous Surveillance Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chang-e; HUANG Qiang; HUANG Yuan-can

    2009-01-01

    The small size of miniature robots poses great challenges for the mechanical and deetrieal design and the implementation of autonomous capabilities.In this paper,the mechanical and electrical design for a twowheeled cylindrical miniature autonomous robot ("BMS-1",BIT MicroScout-1) is presented and some autonomous capabilities are implemented by multiple sensors and some arithmetic models.Several experimental results show that BMS-1 is useful for surveillance in confined spaces and suitable for large-scale surveillance due to some autonomous capabilities.

  17. A necessary and sufficient condition for transforming autonomous systems into linear autonomous Birkhoffian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of transforming autonomous systems into Birkhoffian systems is studied. A reasonable form of linear autonomous Birkhoff equations is given. By combining them with the undetermined tensor method, a necessary and sufficient condition for an autonomous system to have a representation in terms of linear autonomous Birkhoff equations is obtained. The methods of constructing Birkhoffian dynamical functions are given. Two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  18. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    and REM sleep control, indicating that the disorder may serve as a human model for the sleep-wake and REM sleep flip-flop switches. The increased frequency of transitions may cause increased sympathetic activity during sleep and thereby increased heart rate, or the increased heart rate could be caused...... confirm that hypocretin deficiency affects the autonomic nervous system of patients with narcolepsy and that the hypocretin system is important for proper heart rate modulation at rest.Furthermore, it was shown that hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake...

  19. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  20. Konstruktion av en autonom vindstation

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Joel; Starck, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Construction of an autonomous wind station was a project with the goal of creating a product that could collect wind data from a sensor and then transfer this data to a server wirelessly over the GSM network. The device would be powered by batteries and solar cells and function fully without requiring external power supply. This required that a small computer was constructed and programmed to store and send data at predetermined cycle times and programming of a server that received the sent d...

  1. BART: The Czech Autonomous Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Štrobl, Jan; Polášek, Cyril

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, Spec. Is. (2010), 103986/1-103986/5. ISSN 1687-7969. [Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Observatories. Málaga, 18.05.2009-21.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant ostatní: ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : robotic telescope * BART * gamma ray bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aa/2010/103986.html

  2. Knowledge acquisition for autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge-based capabilities for autonomous aerospace systems, such as the NASA Space Station, must encompass conflict-resolution functions comparable to those of human operators, with all elements of the system working toward system goals in a concurrent, asynchronous-but-coordinated fashion. Knowledge extracted from a design database will support robotic systems by furnishing geometric, structural, and causal descriptions required for repair, disassembly, and assembly. The factual knowledge for these databases will be obtained from a master database through a technical management information system, and it will in many cases have to be augmented by domain-specific heuristic knowledge acquired from domain experts.

  3. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  4. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  5. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  6. Fuzzy control of autonomous robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autonomous robot which can move and find its own route to a destination by means of fuzzy control is under development. An AI technique is utilized to determine the route to a destination from geographical information gathered through an ITV camera mounted on the robot. Information on robot location is also gained through an ITV camera, and, by applying fuzzy inference operation, the robot's movement is controlled. This paper describes the methods that are used for finding a route and controlling movement. Effectiveness of the proposed methods has been confirmed through actual robot movement tests and through computer simulations. (author)

  7. Autonomous Dome for Robotic Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Akash; Ganesh, Shashikiran

    2016-01-01

    Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu. This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  8. Plant Watering Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Now days, due to busy routine life, people forget to water their plants. In this paper, we present a completely autonomous and a cost-effective system for watering indoor potted plants placed on an even surface. The system comprises of a mobile robot and a temperature-humidity sensing module. The system is fully adaptive to any environment and takes into account the watering needs of the plants using the temperature-humidity sensing module. The paper describes the hardware architecture of the fully automated watering system, which uses wireless communication to communicate between the mobile robot and the sensing module. This gardening robot is completely portable and is equipped with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID module, a microcontroller, an on-board water reservoir and an attached water pump. It is capable of sensing the watering needs of the plants, locating them and finally watering them autonomously without any human intervention. Mobilization of the robot to the potted plant is achieved by using a predefined path. For identification, an RFID tag is attached to each potted plant. The paper also discusses the detailed implementation of the system supported with complete circuitry. Finally, the paper concludes with system performance including the analysis of the water carrying capacity and time requirements to water a set of plants.

  9. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  10. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  11. Structured control for autonomous robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To operate in rich, dynamic environments, autonomous robots must be able to effectively utilize and coordinate their limited physical and occupational resources. As complexity increases, it becomes necessary to impose explicit constraints on the control of planning, perception, and action to ensure that unwanted interactions between behaviors do not occur. This paper advocates developing complex robot systems by layering reactive behaviors onto deliberative components. In this structured control approach, the deliberative components handle normal situations and the reactive behaviors, which are explicitly constrained as to when and how they are activated, handle exceptional situations. The Task Control Architecture (TCA) has been developed to support this approach. TCA provides an integrated set of control constructs useful for implementing deliberative and reactive behaviors. The control constructs facilitate modular and evolutionary system development: they are used to integrate and coordinate planning, perception, and execution, and to incrementally improve the efficiency and robustness of the robot systems. To date, TCA has been used in implementing a half-dozen mobile robot systems, including an autonomous six-legged rover and indoor mobile manipulator

  12. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  13. Intelligent autonomous systems 12. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukhan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of). College of Information and Communication Engineering; Yoon, Kwang-Joon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyungsuck [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangmyung (eds.) [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Recent research in Intelligent and Autonomous Systems. Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, jeju Island, Korea. Written by leading experts in the field. Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of ''Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security and space applications, and intelligent autonomous systems for manufacturing and healthcare. This volume 2 includes contributions devoted to Service Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction and Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems and Life Engineering.

  14. Autonomic Nervous System and Immune System Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, MJ; Ganta, CK

    2014-01-01

    The present review assesses the current state of literature defining integrative autonomic-immune physiological processing, focusing on studies that have employed electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological and central nervous system experimental approaches. Central autonomic neural networks are informed of peripheral immune status via numerous communicating pathways, including neural and non-neural. Cytokines and other immune factors affect the level of activity and responsiv...

  15. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are available to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions

  16. A Practical Approach to Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailani, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    The presence of autonomic symptoms can make the diagnosis of headache challenging. While commonly seen with the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, autonomic dysfunction can also be present in patients with migraine, or with a variety of secondary headaches. The pathophysiology of cranial autonomic symptoms in headache is based between the trigeminal system and the hypothalamus. This article will review the pathophysiology and presence of autonomic dysfunction in headache and will provide techniques to help in headache diagnosis in patients with autonomic dysfunction. PMID:27021770

  17. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir kamal Salih

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, sociality and pro-activity, software agents are promising to make autonomic computing system a reality. This paper mixed multi-agent system with autonomic feature that completely hides its complexity from users/services. Mentioned Java Application Development Framework (JADE as platform example of this environment, could applied to web services as front end to users. With multi agent support it also provides adaptability, intelligence, collaboration, goal oriented interactions, flexibility, mobility and persistence in software systems.

  18. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salih, Nadir K; Viju, PG K; Mohamed, Abdelmotalib A

    2011-01-01

    Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, sociality and pro-activity, software agents are promising to make autonomic computing system a reality. This paper mixed multi-agent system with autonomic feature that completely hides its complexity from users/services. Mentioned Java Application Development Framework as platform example of this environment, could applied to web services as front end to users. With multi agent support it also provides adaptability, intelligence, collaboration, goal oriented interactions, flexibility, mobility and persistence in software systems

  19. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Niño Mantilla

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is a serious problem in diabetic patients. The cardiovacular autonomic neuropathy is the most important autonomic dysfuntion for it´s implication in the increasesof the mortality rate in diabetis patients. tis ethiopatogenesis is the result of a multifactorial process caused by chronic hyperglycemia, ending up in damage of the autonomic fibers thet innervate the heart and blood vessels, leading to dysfuntional hearth rate control and abnormal vascular dynamics. the associated clinical manifestations include orthotatic hypotension, excecise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular liability and silent myocardial ischemia. Being important its recognition, quantitative test to evaluate the cardiovascular funtion, to value its evolution and the effects of the treatment ahould be done, being the most used, the hearth rate response to standing test, and teh valsalva maneuver. the handling of this entity is done improving control of glucose blood levels its the most effective way to prevent the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

  20. Naringin ameliorates bone loss induced by sciatic neurectomy and increases Semaphorin 3A expression in denervated bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinlong; Lv, Jianwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong; Xing, Guosheng; Wang, Ying; Sun, Lei; Wang, Jianbao; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Zhihu

    2016-01-01

    Naringin maintains bone mass in various osteoporosis models, while its effect on bone in disuse osteoporosis has not been reported. The present study explores whether naringin can prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy (USN) and whether the Semaphorin 3A-induced Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the osteoprotection of naringin. Naringin dose-dependently prevented the deterioration of bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular structure and biomechanical strength in femur due to USN. Naringin increased bone formation but inhibited resorption, as indicated by bone-turnover markers in blood and urine and the histological staining of Osteocalcin (OCN) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in femur. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and active β-catenin protein decreased after USN and could be restored by naringin to the levels of the sham-operated rats. In addition, naringin in vitro promoted the differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. Our studies suggest that the down-regulation of Sema3A and the subsequent inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling may be some of the mechanisms involved in USN-induced osteoporosis. Naringin could increase the expression of Sema3A and the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling to prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by denervation. Thus, naringin functions in bone maintenance and could be a promising therapeutic alternative in preventing disuse osteoporosis. PMID:27109829

  1. Greater hypertrophy in right than left ventricles is associated with pulmonary vasculopathy in sinoaortic-denervated Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao CY; Cai GJ; Tao X; Xie HH; Su DF

    2005-01-01

    1. Biventricular hypertrophy has been described in a high blood pressure variability (BPV) model of sinoaortic-denervated (SAD) rats without systemic hypertension. To explore the possible involvement of the lung in SAD-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), we examined lung morphology, in addition to systemic haemodynamics and ventricle morphology, in Wistar-Kyoto rats 32 weeks after SAD. 2. In Wistar-Kyoto rats 32 weeks after SAD, there existed a substantial elevation in BPV, with no change in the average level of arterial pressure. Biventricular hypertrophy following SAD was characterized by a greater hypertrophy in right than left ventricles; both absolute and normalized right ventricular weights were significantly increased by 22 and 27%, respectively, and only normalized left ventricular weight was significantly increased by 12%. No infarcts were found in any ventricles examined. 3. In the lung, the most prominent change following SAD was pulmonary vasculopathy, including wall thickening, perivascular fibrosis and cell infiltration. In pulmonary arteries with an internal diameter of 70-130 microm, the external diameter, wall thickness and wall thickness to internal diameter ratio were increased in SAD compared with control rats. 4. There was no correlation between right and left ventricular weights. In contrast with BPV-correlated left ventricular weight, right ventricular weight was correlated with the wall thickness of the pulmonary artery, but not with BPV. 5. These findings suggest that greater RVH following SAD is associated with pulmonary vasculopathy, but is not secondary to the left ventricular problems or high BPV.

  2. Multiscale entropy analysis of heart rate variability in heart failure, hypertensive, and sinoaortic-denervated rats: classical and refined approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Eduardo Virgilio; Lataro, Renata Maria; Castania, Jaci Airton; da Silva, Carlos Alberto Aguiar; Valencia, Jose Fernando; Murta, Luiz Otavio; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Fazan, Rubens; Porta, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) by nonlinear methods has been gaining increasing interest due to their ability to quantify the complexity of cardiovascular regulation. In this study, multiscale entropy (MSE) and refined MSE (RMSE) were applied to track the complexity of HRV as a function of time scale in three pathological conscious animal models: rats with heart failure (HF), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and rats with sinoaortic denervation (SAD). Results showed that HF did not change HRV complexity, although there was a tendency to decrease the entropy in HF animals. On the other hand, SHR group was characterized by reduced complexity at long time scales, whereas SAD animals exhibited a smaller short- and long-term irregularity. We propose that short time scales (1 to 4), accounting for fast oscillations, are more related to vagal and respiratory control, whereas long time scales (5 to 20), accounting for slow oscillations, are more related to sympathetic control. The increased sympathetic modulation is probably the main reason for the lower entropy observed at high scales for both SHR and SAD groups, acting as a negative factor for the cardiovascular complexity. This study highlights the contribution of the multiscale complexity analysis of HRV for understanding the physiological mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27225948

  3. Autonomous navigation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J. [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  4. Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner; Jessner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. In this paper we describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

  5. Sleep in trigeminal autonomic cephalagias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barløse, Mads; Lund, Nunu; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep and cluster headache (CH) are believed to be interconnected but the precise relation to the other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) is uncertain and complex. A better understanding of these relations may eventually lead to a clarification of the underlying mechanisms...... and eventually to more effective therapeutic regimens. This review aims to evaluate the existing literature on the subject of TACs and sleep. An association between episodic CH and distinct macrostructural sleep phases, especially the relation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, has been described in...... some older studies but could not be confirmed in other, more recent studies. Investigations into the microstructure of sleep in these patients are lacking. Only a few case reports exist on the relation between sleep and other TACs. SUMMARY: Recent studies do not find an association between CH and REM...

  6. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  7. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  8. Testbed for an autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    In previous works we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can easily be mapped to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01), and we illustrated that model by applying it to the thermal management system of a space station (SDAG-87-01). In this note, we will further develop that application and design the detail of the implementation of such a model. First we present the environment of our application by describing the thermal management problem and an abstraction, which was called TESTBED, that includes a specific function for each module in the architecture, and the nature of the interfaces between each pair of blocks.

  9. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  10. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  11. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov;

    2012-01-01

    ; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper...... investigates the missing links and gaps between the research and developments efforts and the real-world application requirements, in order to bring the AIMM technology from laboratories to manufacturing environments. The investigation is based on 12 general application requirements for robotics...

  12. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  13. Wireless autonomous device data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

  14. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  15. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunctions and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Guaraldi, Pietro; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Cortelli, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Animal and human studies have shown that disorders of the autonomic nervous system may influence sleep physiology. Conversely, sleep disorders may be associated with autonomic dysfunctions. The current review describes the clinical presentation, supposed pathogenetic mechanisms and the diagnostic and prognostic implications of impaired cardiovascular autonomic control in sleep disorders. This dysfunction may result from a common pathogenetic mechanism affecting both autonomic cardiovascular control and sleep, as in fatal familial insomnia, or it may be mainly caused by the sleep disorder, as observed in obstructive sleep apnoea. For other sleep disorders, like primary insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy type 1 and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, the causal link with the autonomic dysfunction and its possible impact on health remains unsettled. Given its clinical implications, most of the data available suggest that a systematic assessment of the association between sleep disorders and impaired autonomic control of the cardiovascular system is warranted. Understanding the mechanism of this association may also yield insights into the interaction between the autonomic nervous system and sleep. PMID:26146026

  16. Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

    2014-06-01

    This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

  17. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  18. Autonomous Bicycle: The First Self Balanced Ride

    OpenAIRE

    Ånnestad, Dag Christian

    2011-01-01

    The idea of an autonomous bicycle originates from Jens G. Balchen who wanted to make an unmanned autonomous bicycle. The idea was picked up by Amund Skavhaug who extended the idea with the concept of using an inverted pendulum to simulate a leaning rider. The previous attempts to develop a bicycle capable of performing an autonomous ride has so far all ended in failure. The main reason for the Department of Engineering Cybernetics is to develop such a bicycle is for use in recruitment and mot...

  19. Effect of unilateral incisor tooth amputation on the glucose metabolism in submandibular glands of rats following sympathetic and parasympathetic denervation Efeito da amputação unilateral do incisivo inferior sobre o metabolismo da glicose em glândulas submandibulares de ratos submetidas a desnervação simpática e parassimpática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinez ALMEIDA-DE-FARIA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system is of major importance in the regulation of physiological functions of the salivary glands, including the sialadenotrophic process. It is well known that the secretory function as well as other functions in the salivary glands depend upon the energy produced in the gland. The acini volume density, some enzymes of the glucose metabolism, such as hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated following sympathetic and parasympathetic denervation of submandibular glands of rats, submitted to unilateral incisor amputation, five days after denervation. Sympathectomized glands submitted to amputation showed a reduction in the activity of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase-1, varying from 27.5 to 36.7 % for hexokinase and from 22.8 to 38.4 % for phosphofructokinase-1. Although no variation was observed in the enzymatic activity of parasympathectomized animals, the acini volume density showed a significant decrease.O sistema nervoso autônomo é de grande importância na regulação da fisiologia das glândulas salivares, incluindo o processo sialadenotrófico. Já é bem conhecido o fato de que a função secretora, bem como, outras funções desempenhadas pelas glândulas salivares dependem de energia produzida nas glândulas. A histometria dos ácinos, algumas enzimas do metabolismo de carboidratos como, hexoquinase, fosfofrutoquinase-1, piruvato quinase, glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase e lactato desidrogenase foram avaliados na glândula submandibular de ratos com desnervação simpática e parassimpática, submetidos a amputação unilateral dos dentes incisivos, cinco dias após a desnervação. Nas glândulas simpatectomizadas submetidas a amputação dos incisivos observou-se uma redução nas atividades da hexoquinase (27,5 - 36,7 % e da fosofofrutoquinase-1 (22,8 - 38,4 %. Embora, nehuma variação foi observado nas atividades enzim

  20. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  1. Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Staehelin Jensen, Troels;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autonomic function has received little attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology has an impact on brain regions which are important for central autonomic control, but it is unclear if AD is associated with disturbance of autonomic function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autonomic...

  2. The effect of renal denervation on kidney oxygenation as determined by BOLD MRI in patients with hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vink, E.E.; Boer, A.; Blankestijn, P.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nephrology, P.O. Box 85500, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verloop, W.L.; Voskuil, M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Spiering, W.; Leiner, T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Vascular Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vonken, E.; Hoogduin, J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bots, M.L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Renal denervation (RDN) is a promising therapy for resistant hypertension. RDN is assumed to decrease sympathetic activity. Consequently, RDN can potentially increase renal oxygenation. Blood oxygen level-dependent MRI (BOLD-MRI) provides a non-invasive tool to determine renal oxygenation in humans. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RDN on renal oxygenation as determined by BOLD-MRI. Patients with resistant hypertension or the inability to follow a stable drug regimen due to unacceptable side effects were included. BOLD-MRI was performed before and 12 months after RDN. Twenty-seven patients were imaged on 3 T and 19 on 1.5 T clinical MRI systems. Fifty-four patients were included, 46 patients (23 men, mean age 57 years) completed the study. Mean 24-h BP changed from 163(±20)/98(±14) mmHg to 154(±22)/92(±13) mmHg (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). eGFR did not change after RDN [77(±18) vs. 79(±20) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; p = 0.13]. RDN did not affect renal oxygenation [1.5 T: cortical R2*: 12.5(±0.9) vs. 12.5(±0.9), p = 0.94; medullary R2*: 19.6(±1.7) vs. 19.3(1.4), p = 0.40; 3 T: cortical R2*: 18.1(±0.8) vs. 17.8(±1.2), p = 0.47; medullary R2*: 27.4(±1.9) vs. 26.7(±1.8), p = 0.19]. The current study shows that RDN does not lead to changes in renal oxygenation 1 year after RDN as determined by BOLD-MRI. (orig.)

  3. Renal denervation mitigates cardiac remodeling and renal damage in Dahl rats: a comparison with β-receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Heitaro; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Miyaji, Yuki; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2016-04-01

    Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) contributes to cardiac remodeling and the transition to heart failure (HF). Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) may ameliorate this damage by improving renal function and sympathetic cardioregulation in hypertensive HF patients with renal injury. The efficacy may be comparable to that of chronic β-blocker treatment. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats were subjected to RDN in the hypertrophic stage. Another group of Dahl rats were subjected to sham operations and treated chronically with vehicle (CONT) or β-blocker bisoprolol (BISO). Neither RDN nor BISO altered the blood pressure; however, BISO significantly reduced the heart rate (HR). Both RDN and BISO significantly prolonged survival (22.2 and 22.4 weeks, respectively) compared with CONT (18.3 weeks). Echocardiography revealed reduced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and improved LV function, and histological analysis demonstrated the amelioration of LV myocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis in the RDN and BISO rats at the HF stage. Tyrosine hydroxylase and β1-adrenergic receptor (ADR) expression levels in the LV myocardium significantly increased only in the RDN rats, whereas the α1b-, α1d- and α2c-ADR expression levels increased only in the BISO rats. In both groups, renal damage and dysfunction were also reduced, and this reduction was accompanied by the suppression of endothelin-1, renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNAs. RDN ameliorated the progression of both myocardial and renal damage in the hypertensive rats independent of blood pressure changes. The overall effects were similar to those of β-receptor blockade with favorable effects on HR and α-ADR expression. These findings may be associated with the restoration of the myocardial SNS and renal protection. PMID:26631854

  4. Simulation of the Electrical Field in Equine Larynx to Optimize Functional Electrical Stimulation in Denervated Musculus Cricoarythenoideus Dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Martin; Martinek, Johannes

    2014-09-23

    Distribution of the electrical field is very important to activate muscle and nerve cells properly. One therapeutic method to treat Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy (RLN) in horses can be performed by Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). Current method to optimize the stimulation effect is to use implanted quadripolar electrodes to the musculus cricoarythenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and testing electrode configuration until best possible optimum is reached. For better understanding and finding of maximum possible activation of CAD a simulation model of the actual entire setting is currently in development. Therefore the geometric model is built from CT-data of a dissected larynx containing the quadripolar electrodes as well as fiducials for later data registration. The geometric model is the basis for a finite difference method containing of voxels with corresponding electrical conductivity of the different types of tissue due to threshold segmentation of the CT-data. Model validation can be done by the measurement of the 3D electrical potential distribution of a larynx positioned in an electrolytic tray. Finally, measured and calculated results have to be compared as well as further investigated. Preliminary results show, that changes of electrode as well as conductivity configuration leads to significant different voltage distributions and can be well presented by equipotential lines superimposed CT-slices - a Matlab graphical user interface visualizes the results in freely selectable slices of the 3D geometry. Voltage distribution along theoretically estimated fiber paths could be calculated as well as visualized. For further calculation of nerve or denervated muscle fiber activation and its optimization, real fiber paths have to be defined and referenced to the potential- and the CT-data. PMID:26913137

  5. The effect of renal denervation on kidney oxygenation as determined by BOLD MRI in patients with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal denervation (RDN) is a promising therapy for resistant hypertension. RDN is assumed to decrease sympathetic activity. Consequently, RDN can potentially increase renal oxygenation. Blood oxygen level-dependent MRI (BOLD-MRI) provides a non-invasive tool to determine renal oxygenation in humans. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RDN on renal oxygenation as determined by BOLD-MRI. Patients with resistant hypertension or the inability to follow a stable drug regimen due to unacceptable side effects were included. BOLD-MRI was performed before and 12 months after RDN. Twenty-seven patients were imaged on 3 T and 19 on 1.5 T clinical MRI systems. Fifty-four patients were included, 46 patients (23 men, mean age 57 years) completed the study. Mean 24-h BP changed from 163(±20)/98(±14) mmHg to 154(±22)/92(±13) mmHg (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). eGFR did not change after RDN [77(±18) vs. 79(±20) mL/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.13]. RDN did not affect renal oxygenation [1.5 T: cortical R2*: 12.5(±0.9) vs. 12.5(±0.9), p = 0.94; medullary R2*: 19.6(±1.7) vs. 19.3(1.4), p = 0.40; 3 T: cortical R2*: 18.1(±0.8) vs. 17.8(±1.2), p = 0.47; medullary R2*: 27.4(±1.9) vs. 26.7(±1.8), p = 0.19]. The current study shows that RDN does not lead to changes in renal oxygenation 1 year after RDN as determined by BOLD-MRI. (orig.)

  6. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  7. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  8. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  9. Autonomic html interface generator for web applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef; 10.5121/ijwest.2012.3104

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in computing systems have led to a new digital era in which every area of life is nearly interrelated with information technology. However, with the trend towards large-scale IT systems, a new challenge has emerged. The complexity of IT systems is becoming an obstacle that hampers the manageability, operability, and maintainability of modern computing infrastructures. Autonomic computing popped up to provide an answer to these ever-growing pitfalls. Fundamentally, autonomic systems are self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, and self-protecting; hence, they can automate all complex IT processes without human intervention. This paper proposes an autonomic HTML web-interface generator based on XML Schema and Style Sheet specifications for self-configuring graphical user interfaces of web applications. The goal of this autonomic generator is to automate the process of customizing GUI web-interfaces according to the ever-changing business rules, policies, and operating environment with th...

  10. An introduction to autonomous control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The functions, characteristics, and benefits of autonomous control are outlined. An autonomous control functional architecture for future space vehicles that incorporates the concepts and characteristics described is presented. The controller is hierarchical, with an execution level (the lowest level), coordination level (middle level), and management and organization level (highest level). The general characteristics of the overall architecture, including those of the three levels, are explained, and an example to illustrate their functions is given. Mathematical models for autonomous systems, including 'logical' discrete event system models, are discussed. An approach to the quantitative, systematic modeling, analysis, and design of autonomous controllers is also discussed. It is a hybrid approach since it uses conventional analysis techniques based on difference and differential equations and new techniques for the analysis of the systems described with a symbolic formalism such as finite automata. Some recent results from the areas of planning and expert systems, machine learning, artificial neural networks, and the area restructurable controls are briefly outlined.

  11. AGATE: Autonomous Go and Touch Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation (AGATE, for Autonomous Go And Touch Exploration) will enable single-sol "go and touch" instrument placement from distances of up to five meters for...

  12. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves;

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...... to study the disorders of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the SCOPA-AUT, was administered to all the patients and controls. The SCOPA-AUT consists of 25 items assessing the following domains: gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor...

  13. Autonomic Closure for Large Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ryan; Hamlington, Peter; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2015-11-01

    A new autonomic subgrid-scale closure has been developed for large eddy simulation (LES). The approach poses a supervised learning problem that captures nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonequilibrium turbulence effects without specifying a predefined turbulence model. By solving a regularized optimization problem on test filter scale quantities, the autonomic approach identifies a nonparametric function that represents the best local relation between subgrid stresses and resolved state variables. The optimized function is then applied at the grid scale to determine unknown LES subgrid stresses by invoking scale similarity in the inertial range. A priori tests of the autonomic approach on homogeneous isotropic turbulence show that the new approach is amenable to powerful optimization and machine learning methods and is successful for a wide range of filter scales in the inertial range. In these a priori tests, the autonomic closure substantially improves upon the dynamic Smagorinsky model in capturing the instantaneous, statistical, and energy transfer properties of the subgrid stress field.

  14. LEO AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION BASED ON IMAGE MOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANFang; LIUJian-ye; YUFeng

    2005-01-01

    A method of LEO autonomous navigation is presented based on the nonlinear satellite velocity relative to the earth. The velocity is detected by a high-speed camera, with the attitude information detected by a star sensor. Compared with traditional autonomous navigation by landmark identification, the satellite velocity relarive to the earth is obtained by correlativity analysis of images. It does not need to recognize ground objects or views. Since it is not necessary to pre-store the database of ground marks, lots of memory space can be saved.The state and observation equations are constructed, and the filtering is processed by the Kalman filter. Simulation results show that the system has high autonomous navigation precision in LEO autonomous navigation.

  15. Rover: Autonomous concepts for Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiget, A.; Castets, B.; Chochon, H.; Hayard, M.; Lamarre, H.; Lamothe, A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a mobile, autonomous vehicle that will be launched towards an unknown planet is considered. The rover significant constraints are: Ariane 5 compatibility, Earth/Mars transfer capability, 1000 km autonomous moving in Mars environment, on board localization, and maximum science capability. Two different types of subsystem were considered: classical subsystems (mechanical and mechanisms, thermal, telecommunications, power, onboard data processing) and robotics subsystem, (perception/navigation, autonomous displacement generation, autonomous localization). The needs of each subsystem were studied in terms of energy and data handling capability, in order to choose an on board architecture which best use the available capability, by means of specialized parts. A compromise must always be done between every subsystem in order to obtain the real need with respect to the goal, for example: between perception/navigation and the motion capability. A compromise must also be found between mechanical assembly and calibration need, which is a real problem.

  16. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  17. Autonomic Findings in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio; Martinez, Jose; Katz, Stuart D; Tully, Lisa; Reynolds, Harmony R

    2016-01-15

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) often occurs after emotional or physical stress. Norepinephrine levels are unusually high in the acute phase, suggesting a hyperadrenergic mechanism. Comparatively little is known about parasympathetic function in patients with TC. We sought to characterize autonomic function at rest and in response to physical and emotional stimuli in 10 women with a confirmed history of TC and 10 age-matched healthy women. Sympathetic and parasympathetic activity was assessed at rest and during baroreflex stimulation (Valsalva maneuver and tilt testing), cognitive stimulation (Stroop test), and emotional stimulation (event recall, patients). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation were also performed. TC women (tested an average of 37 months after the event) had excessive pressor responses to cognitive stress (Stroop test: p emotional arousal (recall of TC event: p = 0.03 vs baseline). Pressor responses to hemodynamic stimuli were also amplified (Valsalva overshoot: p <0.05) and prolonged (duration: p <0.01) in the TC women compared with controls. Plasma catecholamine levels did not differ between TC women and controls. Indexes of parasympathetic (vagal) modulation of heart rate induced by respiration and cardiovagal baroreflex gain were significantly decreased in the TC women versus controls. In conclusion, even long after the initial episode, women with previous episode of TC have excessive sympathetic responsiveness and reduced parasympathetic modulation of heart rate. Impaired baroreflex control may therefore play a role in TC. PMID:26743349

  18. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.

  19. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  20. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  1. Autonomic dysregulation in headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Jason J; Glaros, Alan G

    2013-12-01

    To analyze autonomic nervous system activity in headache subjects, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), skin temperature, skin conductance, and respiration were compared to a matched control group. HRV data were recorded in time and frequency domains. Subjects also completed self-report questionnaires assessing psychological distress, fatigue, and sleep dysfunction. Twenty-one headache and nineteen control subjects participated. In the time domain, the number of consecutive R-to-R intervals that varied by more than 50 ms and the standard deviation of the normalized R-to-R intervals, both indices of parasympathetic nervous system activity, were significantly lower in the headache group than the control group. Groups did not differ statistically on HRV measures in the frequency domain. Self-report measures showed significantly increased somatization, hostility, anxiety, symptom distress, fatigue, and sleep problems in the headache group. The results suggest headache subjects have increased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased parasympathetic activity compared to non-headache control subjects. Headaches subjects also showed greater emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep problems. The results indicate an association between headaches and cardiovascular functioning suggestive of sympathetic nervous system activation in this sample of mixed migraine and tension-type headache sufferers. PMID:23912525

  2. Autonomous Systems Developments and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kyamaky, Kyandoghere; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    The Workshops on Autonomous Systems emanated from a gathering with the doctoral students of just three chairs at Fernuniversität in Hagen, which we organise twice per year for a number of years now. Their purpose is to discuss on-going research and to create a community spirit. Furthermore, they serve as a means of structuring the students' research processes. The workshop has grown and matured in several respects. The doctoral students presenting their work do not come from a single university anymore, but from three. Besides them and their supervisors, also other scientists became interested in the event and contribute to its programme. Following the model of Advanced Study Institutes, they are available on the premises for relaxed, informal discussions outside the formal sessions. Finally, with the co-sponsorship of Gesellschaft für Informatik, the German Computer Society, and this surprisingly comprehensive volume of contributions published by Springer-Verlag the workshop turned into a visible scientifi...

  3. Environmental data collection using autonomous Wave Gliders

    OpenAIRE

    Hermsdorfer, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Sensor Hosting Autonomous Remote Craft (SHARC), also known as Wave Glider, is an autonomous ocean vehicle powered by wave motion. This slow-moving platform makes long-term deployments and environmental data collection feasible, especially in data sparse regions or hazardous environments. The standard SHARC hosts a meteorological station (Airmar PB200) that samples air pressure, temperature, wind speed and wind direction at 1.12 m. ...

  4. A middleware architecture for autonomic software deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Matougui, Mohamed El Amine; LERICHE, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    International audience Autonomic software deployment in open networked environments such as mobile and ad hoc networks is an open issue. Some solutions to software deployment exist; but, they are usable only within static topologies of devices. We propose a middleware architecture providing a constraint-based language guiding the deployment process at a high level and an autonomous agent-based system for establishing and maintaining a software deployment according to a deployment plan. Con...

  5. Tele-robotic/autonomous control using controlshell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, K.C.; Hurd, R.L.; Couture, S.

    1996-12-10

    A tele-robotic and autonomous controller architecture for waste handling and sorting has been developed which uses tele-robotics, autonomous grasping and image processing. As a starting point, prior work from LLNL and ORNL was restructured and ported to a special real-time development environment. Significant improvements in collision avoidance, force compliance, and shared control aspects were then developed. Several orders of magnitude improvement were made in some areas to meet the speed and robustness requirements of the application.

  6. Decentralized Coordination of Autonomous Vehicles at intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Makarem, Laleh; Gillet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the decentralized coordination of point-mass autonomous vehicles at intersections using navigation functions is considered. As main contribution, the inertia of the vehicles is taken into account to enable on-board energy optimization for crossing. In such a way, heavier vehicles that need more energy and time for acceleration or breaking are given an indirect priority at intersections. The proposed decentralized coordination scheme of autonomous vehicles at intersection is com...

  7. Omnidirectional Stereo Vision for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Schönbein, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Environment perception with cameras is an important requirement for many applications for autonomous vehicles and robots. This work presents a stereoscopic omnidirectional camera system for autonomous vehicles which resolves the problem of a limited field of view and provides a 360° panoramic view of the environment. We present a new projection model for these cameras and show that the camera setup overcomes major drawbacks of traditional perspective cameras in many applications.

  8. Autonomous navigation and sign detector learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Liam; Pugeault, Nicolas; Öfjäll, Kristoffer; Hedborg, Johan; Bowden, Richard; Felsberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an autonomous robotic system that incorporates novel Computer Vision, Machine Learning and Data Mining algorithms in order to learn to navigate and discover important visual entities. This is achieved within a Learning from Demonstration (LfD) framework, where policies are derived from example state-to-action mappings. For autonomous navigation, a mapping is learnt from holistic image features (GIST) onto control parameters using Random Forest regression. Additionally, vis...

  9. Autonomous Path Following Using Convolutional Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiterlöw, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles have many application possibilities within many different fields like rescue missions, exploring foreign environments or unmanned vehicles etc. For such system to navigate in a safe manner, high requirements of reliability and security must be fulfilled. This master's thesis explores the possibility to use the machine learning algorithm convolutional network on a robotic platform for autonomous path following. The only input to predict the steering signal is a monochromati...

  10. Visual navigation for an autonomous mobile vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Kevin Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Image understanding for a mobile robotic vehicle is an important and complex task for ensuring safe navigation and extended autonomous operations. The goal of this work is to implement a working vision-based navigation control mechanism within a known environment onboard the autonomous mobile vehicle Yamabico-II. Although installing a working hardware system was not accomplished, the image processing, model description, pattern match...

  11. Control of the MARES Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Ferreira; Miguel Pinto; Anibal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses the control problem of a nonholonomic autonomous underwater vehicle, moving in the tridimensional space. The dynamic of a body in submarine environments is strongly nonlinear. This implies that classical linear controllers are often inadequate whereby Lyapunov theory is here considered. Methods based in this theory are promising tools to design controllers and are applied to the case of MARES, a small-sized autonomous underwater vehicle. Several controllers based only on Ly...

  12. Autonomous vehicle development for vertical submarine observation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomáriz Castro, Spartacus; Prat Tasias, Jordi; Arbós, Alejandro; Viñolo Monzoncillo, Carlos; Pallares, Oriol

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes the development of an ocean observation vehicle. This vehicle, a hybrid between Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) and Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASV) moves on the surface of the sea and makes vertical immersions to obtain the profiles of a water column according to a pre-established plan. Its design provides lower production cost and higher efficiency. GPS navigation allows the platform to move along the surface of the water while a radio-modem provid...

  13. Operations on Rigid Formations of Autonomous Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Tolga; Anderson, Brian D. O.; Morse, A. Stephen; Whiteley, Walter; Belhumeur, Peter N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the maintenance of rigid formations of mobile autonomous agents. A key element in all future multi-agent systems will be the role of sensor and communication networks as an integral part of coordination. Network topologies are critically important for autonomous systems involving mobile underwater, ground and air vehicles and for sensor networks. This paper focuses on developing techniques and strategies for the analysis and design of sensor a...

  14. TRIDENT: A Framework for Autonomous Underwater Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Valero, Pedro José; Ridao, Pere; Oliver, Gabriel; Melchiorri, Claudio; Casalino, Giuseppe; Silvestre, Carlos; Petillot, Yvan; Turetta, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    TRIDENT is a STREP project recently approved by the European Commission whose proposal was submitted to the ICT call 4 of the 7th Framework Program. The project proposes a new methodology for multipurpose underwater intervention tasks. To that end, a cooperative team formed with an Autonomous Surface Craft and an Intervention Autonomous Underwater Vehicle will be used. The proposed methodology splits the mission in two stages mainly devoted to survey and intervention tasks, res...

  15. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  16. Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

  17. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-Yan; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jing-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The log-polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014_CXJJ-DH_12), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JB141303 and 201413B), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), and the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant. No CXY1350(4)).

  18. Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

  19. Autonomous and autonomic systems with applications to NASA intelligent spacecraft operations and exploration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rouff, Christopher; Karlin, Jay; Rash, James; Hinchey, Michael; Sterritt, Roy

    2009-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth discussion of autonomous and autonomic systems, their interdependencies, differences and similarities. Current and pending issues in these evermore increasingly important subjects are highlighted and discussed. Concepts, ideas and experiences are explored in relation to real-life NASA systems in spacecraft control and in the exploration domain.

  20. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shademan, Azad; Decker, Ryan S; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-05-01

    The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques. PMID:27147588

  1. CT-guided injection of botulinic toxin for percutaneous therapy of piriformis muscle syndrome with preliminary MRI results about denervative process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanucci, E.; Masala, S.; Sodani, G.; Varrucciu, V.; Romagnoli, A.; Squillaci, E.; Simonetti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is a cause of sciatica, leg or buttock pain and disability. The pain is usually increased by muscular contraction, palpation or prolonged sitting. The aim of our paper was to evaluate the feasibility of CT-guided percutaneous botulinic toxin (BTX) injection for the purpose of PMS treatment. Thirty patients suffering from PMS, suspected with clinical and electrophysiological criteria, after imaging examinations excluding other causes of sciatic pain, resulted positive at the lidocaine test and were treated by intramuscular injection of BTX type A under CT guidance. The follow-up (12 months) was performed with clinical examination in all cases and with MR 3 months after the procedure in 9 patients to evaluate the denervative process entity of the treated muscle. In 26 cases relief of symptoms was obtained after 5-7 days. In 4 patients an insufficient relief of pain justified a second percutaneous treatment which was clinically successful. No complications or side effects were recorded after BTX injection. The MR examination showed a signal intensity change of the treated muscle in 7 patients due to the denervative process of PM, whereas in the remaining 2 cases only an atrophy of the treated muscle was detected. Larger series are necessary to confirm these MRI preliminary results. The CT-guided BTX injection in the PMS is an emergent and feasible technique that obtains an excellent local therapeutic effect without risk of imprecise inoculation. (orig.)

  2. Early changes of graft function, cytokines and superoxide dismutase serum levels after donor liver denervation and Kupffer cell depletion in a rat-to-rat liver transplantation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhu; Catena Marco; Ferla Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Hepatic reperfusion injury may cause acute inlfammatory damage, producing signiifcant organ dysfunction, and is an important problem in liver transplantation. This experiment aimed to study early changes of hepatic function after donor liver denervation and Kupffer cell depletion in rat-to-rat liver transplantation and to evaluate the effect of pre-treatment on liver reperfusion injury. METHODS:Donor rats were divided into four groups:control group; group G was pre-treated with gadolinium chloride (G), an inhibitor of Kupffer cells; group H with hexamethonium (H), a sympathetic ganglionic blocking agent; and group HG, with combined H and G pre-treatment. Under the same conditions, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of recipient rats were assessed at 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours after liver transplantation. Histological studies of the grafts were compared. RESULTS:HG pre-treatment signiifcantly decreased ALT, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, increased AKBR and SOD levels, and demonstrated less pathological damage at 8, 16 and 24 hours compared with the control group. Similar trends were also found in the other groups (G and H). However, the differences among them were not signiifcant at 4 post-operative hours.CONCLUSIONS:Donor denervation and Kupffer cell depletion had preventive effect on liver reperfusion injury. HG pre-treatment is a feasible and reproducible method to protect grafts from reperfusion injury.

  3. CT-guided injection of botulinic toxin for percutaneous therapy of piriformis muscle syndrome with preliminary MRI results about denervative process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piriformis muscle syndrome (PMS) is a cause of sciatica, leg or buttock pain and disability. The pain is usually increased by muscular contraction, palpation or prolonged sitting. The aim of our paper was to evaluate the feasibility of CT-guided percutaneous botulinic toxin (BTX) injection for the purpose of PMS treatment. Thirty patients suffering from PMS, suspected with clinical and electrophysiological criteria, after imaging examinations excluding other causes of sciatic pain, resulted positive at the lidocaine test and were treated by intramuscular injection of BTX type A under CT guidance. The follow-up (12 months) was performed with clinical examination in all cases and with MR 3 months after the procedure in 9 patients to evaluate the denervative process entity of the treated muscle. In 26 cases relief of symptoms was obtained after 5-7 days. In 4 patients an insufficient relief of pain justified a second percutaneous treatment which was clinically successful. No complications or side effects were recorded after BTX injection. The MR examination showed a signal intensity change of the treated muscle in 7 patients due to the denervative process of PM, whereas in the remaining 2 cases only an atrophy of the treated muscle was detected. Larger series are necessary to confirm these MRI preliminary results. The CT-guided BTX injection in the PMS is an emergent and feasible technique that obtains an excellent local therapeutic effect without risk of imprecise inoculation. (orig.)

  4. {sup 123}I-Labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine for the evaluation of cardiac sympathetic denervation in early stage amyloidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordzij, Walter; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Rheenen, Ronald W.J. van; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Hazenberg, Bouke P.C. [University of Groningen, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [University of Groningen, Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    Cardiac amyloidosis is a rare disorder, but it may lead to potentially life-threatening restrictive cardiomyopathy. Cardiac manifestations frequently occur in primary amyloidosis (AL) and familial amyloidosis (ATTR), but are uncommon in secondary amyloidosis (AA). Echocardiography is the method of choice for assessing cardiac amyloidosis. Amyloid deposits impair the function of sympathetic nerve endings. Disturbance of myocardial sympathetic innervations may play an important role in the remodelling process. {sup 123}I-MIBG can detect these innervation changes. Patients with biopsy-proven amyloidosis underwent general work-up, echocardiography and {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy. Left ventricular internal dimensions and wall thickness were measured, and highly refractile cardiac echoes (sparkling) were analysed. Early (15 min) and late (4 h) heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR) and wash-out rate were determined after administration of MIBG. Included in the study were 61 patients (30 women and 31 men; mean age 62 years; 39 AL, 11 AA, 11 ATTR). Echocardiographic parameters were not significantly different between the groups. Sparkling was present in 72 % of ATTR patients, in 54 % of AL patients and in 45 % of AA patients. Mean late HMR in all patients was 2.3 {+-} 0.75, and the mean wash-out rate was 8.6 {+-} 14 % (the latter not significantly different between the patient groups). Late HMR was significantly lower in patients with echocardiographic signs of amyloidosis than in patients without (2.0 {+-} 0.70 versus 2.8 {+-} 0.58, p < 0.001). Wash-out rates were significantly higher in these patients (-3.3 {+-} 9.9 % vs. 17 {+-} 10 %, p < 0.001). In ATTR patients without echocardiographic signs of amyloidosis, HMR was lower than in patients with the other types (2.0 {+-} 0.59 vs. 2.9 {+-} 0.50, p = 0.007). MIBG HMR is lower and wash-out rate is higher in patients with echocardiographic signs of amyloidosis. Also, {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy can detect cardiac denervation in

  5. Autonomous Learning and Improving Communicative Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝红; 孙晓黎

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, English as a world language becomes more and more important. Consequently, English learning becomes more and more popular. As we know, an important object for English learners is to improve their communicative competence. So autonomous learning is a good way to improve communicative competence. In this paper, two terms, autonomous learning and communicative competence, and their relationship will be introduced from the perspective of English learning. Autonomous learning is self-managed learning, which is contrary to passive learning and mechanical learning, according to intrinsic property of language learning. Communicative competence is a concept introduced by Dell Hymes and is discussed and refined by many oth⁃er linguists. According to Hymes, communicative competence is the ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of language in order to form grammatically correct sentences but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom. Communi⁃cative competence includes 4 aspects: Possibility, feasibility, appropriateness and performance. Improving communicative compe⁃tence is the result of autonomous learning, autonomous learning is the motivation of improving communicative competence. English, of course, is a bridge connecting China to the world, and fostering students’communicative competence through auton⁃omous learning is the vital element of improving English learning in China.

  6. Autonomous driving technical, legal and social aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Gerdes, J; Lenz, Barbara; Winner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    This book takes a look at fully automated, autonomous vehicles and discusses many open questions: How can autonomous vehicles be integrated into the current transportation system with diverse users and human drivers? Where do automated vehicles fall under current legal frameworks? What risks are associated with automation and how will society respond to these risks? How will the marketplace react to automated vehicles and what changes may be necessary for companies? Experts from Germany and the United States define key societal, engineering, and mobility issues related to the automation of vehicles. They discuss the decisions programmers of automated vehicles must make to enable vehicles to perceive their environment, interact with other road users, and choose actions that may have ethical consequences. The authors further identify expectations and concerns that will form the basis for individual and societal acceptance of autonomous driving. While the safety benefits of such vehicles are tremendous, the auth...

  7. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  8. An Autonomous Reference Frame for Relativistic GNSS

    CERN Document Server

    Kostić, Uroš; Carloni, Sante; Delva, Pacôme; Gomboc, Andreja

    2014-01-01

    Current GNSS systems rely on global reference frames which are fixed to the Earth (via the ground stations) so their precision and stability in time are limited by our knowledge of the Earth dynamics. These drawbacks could be avoided by giving to the constellation of satellites the possibility of constituting by itself a primary and autonomous positioning system, without any a priori realization of a terrestrial reference frame. Our work shows that it is possible to construct such a system, an Autonomous Basis of Coordinates, via emission coordinates. Here we present the idea of the Autonomous Basis of Coordinates and its implementation in the perturbed space-time of Earth, where the motion of satellites, light propagation, and gravitational perturbations are treated in the formalism of general relativity.

  9. Autonomous Robot Navigation based on Visual Landmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    autonomous navigation and self-localization using automatically selected landmarks. The thesis investigates autonomous robot navigation and proposes a new method which benefits from the potential of the visual sensor to provide accuracy and reliability to the navigation process while relying on naturally...... update of the estimated robot position while the robot is moving. In order to make the system autonomous, both acquisition and observation of landmarks have to be carried out automatically. The thesis consequently proposes a method for learning and navigation of a working environment and it explores......The use of landmarks for robot navigation is a popular alternative to having a geometrical model of the environment through which to navigate and monitor self-localization. If the landmarks are defined as special visual structures already in the environment then we have the possibility of fully...

  10. Elements of Autonomous Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan

    In this thesis, we study several central elements of autonomous self-reconfigurable modular robots. Unlike conventional robots such robots are: i) Modular, since robots are assembled from numerous robotic modules. ii) Reconfigurable, since the modules can be combined in a variety of ways. iii) Self......-reconfigurable, since the modules themselves are able to change how they are combined. iv) Autonomous, since robots control themselves without human guidance. Such robots are attractive to study since they in theory have several desirable characteristics, such as versatility, reliability and cheapness. In practice...... however, it is challenging to realize such characteristics since state-of-the-art systems and solutions suffer from several inherent technical and theoretical problems and limitations. In this thesis, we address these challenges by exploring four central elements of autonomous self-reconfigurable modular...

  11. Autonomous forward inference via DNA computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yan; Li Gen; Li Yin; Meng Dazhi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies direct the researchers into building DNA computing machines with intelligence, which is measured by three main points: autonomous, programmable and able to learn and adapt. Logical inference plays an important role in programmable information processing or computing. Here we present a new method to perform autonomous molecular forward inference for expert system.A novel repetitive recognition site (RRS) technique is invented to design rule-molecules in knowledge base. The inference engine runs autonomously by digesting the rule-molecule, using a Class ⅡB restriction enzyme PpiⅠ. Concentration model has been built to show the feasibility of the inference process under ideal chemical reaction conditions. Moreover, we extend to implement a triggering communication between molecular automata, as a further application of the RRS technique in our model.

  12. Autonomous operations through onboard artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

  13. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  14. Connecting orbits of autonomous Lagrangian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to the time-dependent case, the time-t-section of Mañé set of autonomous Lagrangian systems is independent of time, thus, it is nowhere disconnected. This causes some difference in the study of dynamics, for instance, Mather's c-equivalence cannot exist among different cohomology classes if they are not in a flat of the α-function (cf (Bernard 2002 Ann. Inst. Fourier 52 1533–68.)). In this paper, we show how to construct connecting orbits in autonomous systems, and propose a modified notion of c-equivalence. We also apply the result to construct diffusion orbits in an energy surface

  15. Dynamic biomaterials: toward engineering autonomous feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eliza; Chavez, Michael; Tan, Cheemeng

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic biomaterials are biocompatible engineered systems capable of sensing and actively responding to their surrounding environment. They are of growing interest, both as models in basic research to understand complex cellular systems and in medical applications. Here, we review recent advances in nano-scale and micro-scale biomaterials, specifically artificial cells consisting of compartmentalized biochemical reactions and biologically compatible hydrogels. These dynamic biomaterials respond to stimuli through triggered reactions, reaction cascades, logic gates, and autonomous feedback loops. We outline the advances and remaining challenges in implementing such 'smart' biomaterials capable of autonomously responding to environmental stimuli. PMID:26974245

  16. Blunted autonomic response in cluster headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads; Brinth, Louise; Mehlsen, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is a disabling headache disorder with chronobiological features. The posterior hypothalamus is involved in CH pathophysiology and is a hub for autonomic control. We studied autonomic response to the head-up tilt table test (HUT) including heart rate variability...... (HRV) in CH patients and compared results to healthy controls. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-seven episodic and chronic CH patients and an equal number of age-, sex- and BMI-matched controls were included. We analyzed responses to HUT in the time and frequency domain and by non-linear analysis. RESULTS...

  17. Light Sailboats: Laser driven autonomous microrobots

    CERN Document Server

    Búzás, Anrdás; Mathesz, Anna; Oroszi, László; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton; Vicsek, Tamás; Ormos, Pál; 10.1063/1.4737646

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a system of light driven microscopic autonomous moving particles that move on a flat surface. The design is simple, yet effective: Micrometer sized objects with wedge shape are produced by photopolymerization, they are covered with a reflective surface. When the area of motion is illuminated perpendicularly from above, the light is deflected to the side by the wedge shaped objects, in the direction determined by the position and orientation of the particles. The momentum change during reflection provides the driving force for an effectively autonomous motion. The system is an efficient tool to study self propelled microscopic robots.

  18. Reflex control for safe autonomous robot operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design of an autonomous, sonar-based world mapping system for collision prevention in robotic systems. Obstacle detection and mapping is performed as a task that competes with higher-level tasks for the robot's attention. All tasks are integrated within a hierarchy, organized and co-ordinated by schemes analogous to biological reflexes and fixed action patterns. It is illustrated how the existence of low-level reflex behaviours can enhance the survivability and autonomy of complex systems and simplify the design of complex higher-level controls like our autonomous sonar-based world mapping system

  19. Design of an autonomous exterior security robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and preliminary design of robotic vehicle designed for performing autonomous exterior perimeter security patrols around warehouse areas, ammunition supply depots, and industrial parks for the U.S. Department of Defense. The preliminary design allows for the operation of up to eight vehicles in a six kilometer by six kilometer zone with autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. In addition to detection of crawling intruders at 100 meters, the system must perform real-time inventory checking and database comparisons using a microwave tags system.

  20. Autonomous control of multi-fingered hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Li; LIU Hong

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a novel autonomous control strategy of multi-fingered hand based on a modular control system of dexterous manipulation. A simple proportional-integral-derivative(PID) position control with friction compensation, which requires few friction parameters, is used to realize accurate and smooth trajectory tracking in pregrasp phase. In grasp and manipulation phases, an event-driven switcher is adopted to determine the switching between unconstrained position control and constrained torque control, and an improved explicit integral force control strategy is implemented to realize simultaneously stable contact transition and accurate force tracking. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed autonomous control strategy of multi-fingered hand.

  1. Evolutionary strategy for achieving autonomous navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1999-01-01

    An approach is presented for the evolutionary development of supervised autonomous navigation capabilities for small 'backpackable' ground robots, in the context of a DARPA- sponsored program to provide robotic support to small units of dismounted warfighters. This development approach relies on the implementation of a baseline visual serving navigation capability, including tools to support operator oversight and override, which is then enhanced with semantically referenced commands and a mission scripting structure. As current and future machine perception techniques are able to automatically designate visual serving goal points, this approach should provide a natural evolutionary pathway to higher levels of autonomous operation and reduced requirements for operator intervention.

  2. Emerging Technologies for Autonomous Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Warschauer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a lengthier review completed for the US National Institute for Literacy, this paper examines emerging technologies that are applicable to self-access and autonomous learning in the areas of listening and speaking, collaborative writing, reading and language structure, and online interaction. Digital media reviewed include podcasts, blogs, wikis, online writing sites, text-scaffolding software, concordancers, multiuser virtual environments, multiplayer games, and chatbots. For each of these technologies, we summarize recent research and discuss possible uses for autonomous language learning.

  3. Advances in autonomous systems for space exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. D.; Gross, A. R.; Clancy, D. J.; Cannon, H. N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Muscettola, N.; Chien, S.; Johnson, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operation, including distributed autonomous systems, flight test results, and implications and directions for future systems.

  4. Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

  5. Navigation of autonomous underwater vehicle using extended kalman filter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranjan, T.N.; Nherakkol, A.; Navelkar, G.S.

    To navigate the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) accurately is one of the most important aspects in its application. A truly autonomous vehicle must determine its position which requires the optimal integration of all available attitude...

  6. A Rare Association of Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalgia: Pontine Capillary Telangiectasia

    OpenAIRE

    Gocmen, Rahsan; Kurt, Erdal; Arslan, Sabina; Unal-Cevik, Isin; Karli Oguz, Kader; Tezer, F Irsel

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a case of pontine capillary telangiectasia in a 43-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. The possible association with pontine capillary telangiectasia and trigeminal autonomic cephalgia is discussed.

  7. Use of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy to assess cardiac sympathetic denervation and the impact of hypertension in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Koji; Nakatani, Yuko; Onishi, Satoshi [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Keihanna Hospital, Hirakata City, Osaka (Japan); Utsunomiya, Keita; Saika, Yoshinori [Dept. of Radiology, Keihanna Hospital, Hirakata City (Japan); Iwasaka, Toshiji [Cardiovascular Center, Kansai Medical University, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    The objectives of this clinical study using iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy were (a) to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients with and without hypertension and (b) to investigate the relation between cardiac sympathetic denervation and prognosis in NIDDM patients. We compared clinical characteristics and MIBG data [heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio and % washout rate (WR)] in a control group and NIDDM patients with and without hypertension. MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 11 controls and 82 NIDDM patients without overt cardiovascular disease except for hypertension (systolic blood pressure {>=}140 and/or diastolic blood pressure {>=}90 mmHg). After MIBG examination, blood pressure was measured regularly in all NIDDM patients. There were significant differences between 65 normotensive and 17 hypertensive NIDDM patients with respect to age (55{+-}11 vs 63{+-}12 years, respectively, P<0.05), prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (12% vs 35%, respectively, P<0.05) and systolic blood pressure (120{+-}12 vs 145{+-}16 mmHg, respectively, P<0.001). The H/M ratio in hypertensive NIDDM patients was significantly lower than in the control group (1.81{+-}0.29 vs 2.27{+-}0.20, respectively, P<0.01). During the follow-up period (18{+-} 12 months), 17 NIDDM patients newly developed hypertension after MIBG examination. There were no significant differences in their clinical characteristics compared with persistently normotensive or hypertensive NIDDM patients. %WR in patients with new onset hypertension was significantly higher than in the control group (30.88%{+-}16.87% vs 12.89%{+-}11.94%, respectively, P<0.05). Moreover, in these patients %WR correlated with duration from the date of MIBG scintigraphy to the onset of hypertension (r=-0.512, P<0.05). Five NIDDM patients died during the follow-up period (four newly hypertensive patients and one normotensive patient). There were significant

  8. Geometric integration of non-autonomous Hamiltonian problems

    OpenAIRE

    Marthinsen, Håkon; Owren, Brynjulf

    2014-01-01

    Symplectic integration of autonomous Hamiltonian systems is a well-known field of study in geometric numerical integration, but for non-autonomous systems the situation is less clear, since symplectic structure requires an even number of dimensions. We show that one possible extension of symplectic methods in the autonomous setting to the non-autonomous setting is obtained by using canonical transformations. Many existing methods fit into this framework. We also perform experiments which indi...

  9. Engineering an Ontology for Autonomous Systems - The OASys Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Alonso, Julita; Sanz Bravo, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Hernández Corbato, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an ontology for autonomous systems, as the initial stage of a research programe on autonomous systems’ engineering within a model-based control approach. The ontology aims at providing a unified conceptual framework for the autonomous systems’ stakeholders, from developers to software engineers. The modular ontology contains both generic and domain-specific concepts for autonomous systems description and engineering. The ontology serves as the basis in a ...

  10. A programming model and execution environment for autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Razafimahefa, Chrislain

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and implementation of a programming model for autonomous systems. Autonomous systems are distributed systems based on wireless networks, mobile devices and the Internet. They are characterized by the high dynamics with which their configuration evolves. Ad hoc networks, a member of autonomous systems, illustrate this point since in these networks participants can join and leave at any time. Similarly in Peer-to-Peer networks, another member of autonomous system...

  11. College English Students’ Autonomous Learning Motivation and Cultivation Model Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳荣; 李娥

    2015-01-01

    Studying the autonomous learning motivation and excitation model can stimulate intrinsic motivation of foreign language learners,develop students self-management strategy evaluation are very necessary.The purpose of this paper is to give students the skills of listening and speaking for their autonomous learning.Then study the cultivation and motivation of college English students autonomous learning,hoping to make students to learn autonomous learning and stimulate their motivation fully.

  12. Reconfigurability Analysis Method for Spacecraft Autonomous Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dayi Wang; Chengrui Liu

    2014-01-01

    As a critical requirement for spacecraft autonomous control, reconfigurability should be considered in design stage of spacecrafts by involving effective reconfigurability analysis method in guiding system designs. In this paper, a novel reconfigurability analysis method is proposed for spacecraft design. First, some basic definitions regarding spacecraft reconfigurability are given. Then, based on function tree theory, a reconfigurability modeling approach is established to properly describe...

  13. The CASCADAS Framework for Autonomic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, Luciano; Ferdinando, Antonio Di; Manzalini, Antonio; Zambonelli, Franco

    An interesting approach to the design and development of the future Internet foresees a networked service eco-system capable of seamlessly offering services for human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions. This chapter builds in this direction by describing a distributed component-ware framework for autonomic and situation-aware communication developed within the CASCADAS project. The core of this framework is the Autonomic Communication Element (ACE), an innovative software abstraction capable of providing dynamically adaptable services that can be built, composed, and let evolve according to autonomic principles. Services are capable of adapting their logic to the dynamically changing context they operate in without human intervention. As a result, whenever the need arises, ACEs can be federated autonomously and produce new services on a situation-aware basis. Systems and, in particular, eco-systems can thus be conceived as collections of ACEs. The chapter introduces the concept of ACE and its different facets. It also presents the architecture of a prototype ACE-based platform and exemplifies the different concepts through a future Pervasive Behavioral Advertisement scenario.

  14. Information Engineering in Autonomous Robot Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziafati, P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to engage and help in our daily life, autonomous robots are to operate in dynamic and unstructured environments and interact with people. As the robot's environment and its behaviour are getting more complex, so are the robot's software and the knowledge that the robot needs to carry out it

  15. Autonomous operation of distributed storages in microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Chai, Yi Kai; Li, Ding; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Operation of distributed generators in microgrids has been widely discussed, but would not be fully autonomous if distributed energy storages are not considered. Storages are important since they provide energy buffering to load changes, energy levelling to source variations and ride-through enha......Operation of distributed generators in microgrids has been widely discussed, but would not be fully autonomous if distributed energy storages are not considered. Storages are important since they provide energy buffering to load changes, energy levelling to source variations and ride......-through enhancement to the microgrids. Recognising their importance, this study presents a scheme for sharing power among multiple distributed storages in coordination with the distributed sources and loads. The scheme prompts the storages to autonomously sense for local operating conditions, requesting for maximum...... to help with meeting the extra load demand. The described process takes place autonomously with energy eventually shared among the storages in proportion to their ratings. To test the concepts discussed, experiments have been performed with favourable results obtained for performance verification....

  16. Integrating the autonomous subsystems management process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Barry R.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which the ranking of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution testbed may be achieved and an individual subsystem's internal priorities may be managed within the complete system are examined. The application of these results in the integration and performance leveling of the autonomously managed system is discussed.

  17. Autonomous Robot Navigation In Public Nature Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole; Blas, Morten Rufus

    2005-01-01

    This extended abstract describes a project to make a robot travel autonomously across a public nature park. The challenge is to detect and follow the right path across junctions and open squares avoiding people and obstacles. The robot is equipped with a laser scanner, a (low accuracy) GPS, wheel...

  18. Autonomous biomorphic robots as platforms for sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of building autonomous robots that can carry out complex and nonrepetitive tasks is an old one, so far unrealized in any meaningful hardware. Tilden has shown recently that there are simple, processor-free solutions to building autonomous mobile machines that continuously adapt to unknown and hostile environments, are designed primarily to survive, and are extremely resistant to damage. These devices use smart mechanics and simple (low component count) electronic neuron control structures having the functionality of biological organisms from simple invertebrates to sophisticated members of the insect and crab family. These devices are paradigms for the development of autonomous machines that can carry out directed goals. The machine then becomes a robust survivalist platform that can carry sensors or instruments. These autonomous roving machines, now in an early stage of development (several proof-of-concept prototype walkers have been built), can be developed so that they are inexpensive, robust, and versatile carriers for a variety of instrument packages. Applications are immediate and many, in areas as diverse as prosthetics, medicine, space, construction, nanoscience, defense, remote sensing, environmental cleanup, and biotechnology

  19. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  20. Distributed formation control for autonomous robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina Peinado, Hector Jesús

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses several theoretical and practical problems related to formation-control of autonomous robots. Formation-control aims to simultaneously accomplish the tasks of forming a desired shape by the robots and controlling their coordinated collective motion. This kind of robot performan

  1. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced

  2. Autonomous biomorphic robots as platforms for sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilden, M.; Hasslacher, B.; Mainieri, R.; Moses, J.

    1996-10-01

    The idea of building autonomous robots that can carry out complex and nonrepetitive tasks is an old one, so far unrealized in any meaningful hardware. Tilden has shown recently that there are simple, processor-free solutions to building autonomous mobile machines that continuously adapt to unknown and hostile environments, are designed primarily to survive, and are extremely resistant to damage. These devices use smart mechanics and simple (low component count) electronic neuron control structures having the functionality of biological organisms from simple invertebrates to sophisticated members of the insect and crab family. These devices are paradigms for the development of autonomous machines that can carry out directed goals. The machine then becomes a robust survivalist platform that can carry sensors or instruments. These autonomous roving machines, now in an early stage of development (several proof-of-concept prototype walkers have been built), can be developed so that they are inexpensive, robust, and versatile carriers for a variety of instrument packages. Applications are immediate and many, in areas as diverse as prosthetics, medicine, space, construction, nanoscience, defense, remote sensing, environmental cleanup, and biotechnology.

  3. Modeling and motion analysis of autonomous paragliders

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Toglia; Marilena Vendittelli

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a preliminary study on modeling and control of parafoil and payload systems with the twofold objective of developing tools for automatic testing and classification of parafoils and of devising autonomous paragliders able to accomplish long-range delivery or monitoring tasks. Three different models of decreasing complexity are derived and their accuracy compared by simulation.

  4. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1985-09-20

    This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

  5. Autonomic neuropathy in acute intermittent porphyria.

    OpenAIRE

    Laiwah, A C; Macphee, G. J.; P Boyle; Moore, M R; Goldberg, A

    1985-01-01

    Autonomic function was assessed in subjects with acute intermittent porphyria and age- and sex-matched controls using five different bedside tests of cardiovascular reflexes. During the acute attack both parasympathetic and sympathetic tests were impaired, but subsequently improved during remission. Early parasympathetic dysfunction was also detected during remission and in latent asymptomatic acute intermittent porphyria.

  6. Autonomous Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.

    2006-01-01

    The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…

  7. My Understanding on Cultivation of Autonomous Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金玉

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous learning has been popular in western education system for some time, this article aims to analyze the connotation and the necessity of cultivating learner autonomy, and then offer some strategies about the cultivation of learner autonomy from a chinese perspective.

  8. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  9. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel. PMID:26227680

  10. Autonomous droop scheme with reduced generation cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    DGs are usually of different types unlike synchronous generators. This paper presents an autonomous droop scheme that takes into consideration the operating cost, efficiency and emission penalty of each DG since all these factors directly or indirectly contributes to the Total Generation Cost (TGC...

  11. Autonomous behavior of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, LM; Akkerman, [No Value; Weersing, E; Ausema, A; Dontje, B; Van Zant, G; de Haan, G

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Mechanisms that affect the function of primitive hematopoietic stem cells with long-term proliferative potential remain largely unknown. Here we assessed whether properties of stem cells are cell-extrinsically or cell-autonomously regulated. Materials and Methods. We developed a model in

  12. Non-autonomous second order Hamiltonian systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pipan, J; Schechter, M

    2014-01-01

    We study the existence of periodic solutions for a second order non-autonomous dynamical system containing variable kinetic energy terms. Our assumptions balance the interaction between the kinetic energy and the potential energy with neither one dominating the other. We study sublinear problems and the existence of non-constant solutions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Autonomous Language Learning: The Teachers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a large-scale study on learner autonomy in language learning carried out with students and English teachers at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Examines the teachers' views of their roles and responsibilities, their assessment of their students'decision-making abilities and the autonomous language learning activities that they have…

  14. Autonomic dysfunction in a Jack Russell terrier

    OpenAIRE

    Caines, Deanne; Pinard, Chantale L.; Kruth, Stephen; Orr, Jeremy; James, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with an array of clinical signs suggestive of autonomic dysfunction. Many of the clinical signs were consistent with a diagnosis of dysautonomia; however, both chronicity and resolution of signs contradicted a diagnosis of this disease.

  15. Geometric formulations and variational integrators of discrete autonomous Birkhoff systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variational integrators of autonomous Birkhoff systems are obtained by the discrete variational principle. The geometric structure of the discrete autonomous Birkhoff system is formulated. The discretization of mathematical pendulum shows that the discrete variational method is as effective as symplectic scheme for the autonomous Birkhoff systems. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not

  17. Autonomous Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Based on Information Filters and Active Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Tianhong Yan; Yan Liang; Shujing Zhang; Chao Li; Bo He; Hongjin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China). Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF) can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM). All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespec...

  18. Autonomous Job Analysis: A Method for Design of Autonomous Marine Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Grøtli, Esten Ingar; Vagia, Marialena; Fjerdingen, Sigurd Aksnes; Bjerkeng, Magnus Christian; Transeth, Aksel Andreas; Svendsen, Eirik; Rundtop, Per

    2016-01-01

    Increased use of autonomy is considered crucial for continued growth in maritime industries like oil- and gas, waterborne transport, and fisheries- and aquaculture. This article presents a method called Autonomous Job Analysis (AJA), which purpose is to guide the design of autonomous marine operations. AJA breaks down the operation, and focuses on autonomy early in the design phase. The method uses elements from Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA), and the execution of the analysis is influen...

  19. Tethered operation of autonomous aerial vehicles to provide extended field of view for autonomous ground vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Phang, Nyit Sin

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was part of the ongoing research conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to achieve greater collaboration between heterogeneous autonomous vehicles. The research addresses optimal control issues in the collaboration between an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV). The scenario revolves around using the camera onboard the UAV to extend the effective field of view of the AGV. For military operations, this could be helpful in improving security for co...

  20. Autonomic consequences of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shaoping; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2014-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results not only in motor and sensory deficits but also in autonomic dysfunctions. The disruption of connections between higher brain centers and the spinal cord, or the impaired autonomic nervous system itself, manifests a broad range of autonomic abnormalities. This includes compromised cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, gastrointestinal, thermoregulatory, and sexual activities. These disabilities evoke potentially life-threatening symptoms that severely interfere with the daily living of those with SCI. In particular, high thoracic or cervical SCI often causes disordered hemodynamics due to deregulated sympathetic outflow. Episodic hypertension associated with autonomic dysreflexia develops as a result of massive sympathetic discharge often triggered by unpleasant visceral or sensory stimuli below the injury level. In the pelvic floor, bladder and urethral dysfunctions are classified according to upper motor neuron versus lower motor neuron injuries; this is dependent on the level of lesion. Most impairments of the lower urinary tract manifest in two interrelated complications: bladder storage and emptying. Inadequate or excessive detrusor and sphincter functions as well as detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia are examples of micturition abnormalities stemming from SCI. Gastrointestinal motility disorders in spinal cord injured-individuals are comprised of gastric dilation, delayed gastric emptying, and diminished propulsive transit along the entire gastrointestinal tract. As a critical consequence of SCI, neurogenic bowel dysfunction exhibits constipation and/or incontinence. Thus, it is essential to recognize neural mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying various complications of autonomic dysfunctions after SCI. This overview provides both vital information for better understanding these disorders and guides to pursue novel therapeutic approaches to alleviate secondary complications. PMID:25428850

  1. Renal denervation in treatment-resistant essential hypertension. A randomized, SHAM-controlled, double-blinded 24-h blood pressure-based trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Ole N; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal denervation (RDN), treating resistant hypertension, has, in open trial design, been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) dramatically, but this was primarily with respect to office BP. METHOD: We conducted a SHAM-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-center trial to establish.......5 (SHAM)].RDN performed at a single center and by a high-volume operator reduced ABPM to the same level as SHAM treatment and thus confirms the result of the HTN3 trial. CONCLUSION: Further, clinical use of RDN for treatment of resistant hypertension should await positive results from double-blinded, SHAM...... cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0....

  2. Sympathetic denervation-induced MSC mobilization in distraction osteogenesis associates with inhibition of MSC migration and osteogenesis by norepinephrine/adrb3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhaojie; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Yinghua; Cao, Jian; Wang, Tao; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yabo; Yang, Xinjie; Cheng, Xiaobing; Liu, Baolin; Lei, Delin

    2014-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system regulates bone formation and resorption under physiological conditions. However, it is still unclear how the sympathetic nerves affect stem cell migration and differentiation in bone regeneration. Distraction osteogenesis is an ideal model of bone regeneration due to its special nature as a self-engineering tissue. In this study, a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis with transection of cervical sympathetic trunk was used to demonstrate that sympathetic denervation can deplete norepinephrine (NE) in distraction-induced bone callus, down-regulate β3-adrenergic receptor (adrb3) in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and promote MSC migration from perivascular regions to bone-forming units. An in vitro Transwell assay was here used to demonstrate that NE can inhibit stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-induced MSC migration and expression of the migration-related gene matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and downregulate that of the anti-migration gene tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3). Knockdown of adrb3 using siRNA abolishes inhibition of MSC migration. An in vitro osteogenic assay was used to show that NE can inhibit the formation of MSC bone nodules and expression of the osteogenic marker genes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), and runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), but knockdown of adrb3 by siRNA can abolish such inhibition of the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. It is here concluded that sympathetic denervation-induced MSC mobilization in rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis is associated with inhibition of MSC migration and osteogenic differentiation by NE/adrb3 in vitro. These findings may facilitate understanding of the relationship of MSC mobilization and sympathetic nervous system across a wide spectrum of tissue regeneration processes. PMID:25144690

  3. Sympathetic denervation-induced MSC mobilization in distraction osteogenesis associates with inhibition of MSC migration and osteogenesis by norepinephrine/adrb3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojie Du

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system regulates bone formation and resorption under physiological conditions. However, it is still unclear how the sympathetic nerves affect stem cell migration and differentiation in bone regeneration. Distraction osteogenesis is an ideal model of bone regeneration due to its special nature as a self-engineering tissue. In this study, a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis with transection of cervical sympathetic trunk was used to demonstrate that sympathetic denervation can deplete norepinephrine (NE in distraction-induced bone callus, down-regulate β3-adrenergic receptor (adrb3 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and promote MSC migration from perivascular regions to bone-forming units. An in vitro Transwell assay was here used to demonstrate that NE can inhibit stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1-induced MSC migration and expression of the migration-related gene matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and downregulate that of the anti-migration gene tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3. Knockdown of adrb3 using siRNA abolishes inhibition of MSC migration. An in vitro osteogenic assay was used to show that NE can inhibit the formation of MSC bone nodules and expression of the osteogenic marker genes alkaline phosphatase (ALP, osteocalcin (OCN, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2, but knockdown of adrb3 by siRNA can abolish such inhibition of the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. It is here concluded that sympathetic denervation-induced MSC mobilization in rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis is associated with inhibition of MSC migration and osteogenic differentiation by NE/adrb3 in vitro. These findings may facilitate understanding of the relationship of MSC mobilization and sympathetic nervous system across a wide spectrum of tissue regeneration processes.

  4. A Localisation and Navigation System for an Autonomous Wheel Loader

    OpenAIRE

    Lilja, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are an emerging trend in robotics, seen in a vast range of applications and environments. Consequently, Volvo Construction Equipment endeavour to apply the concept of autonomous vehicles onto one of their main products. In the company’s Autonomous Machine project an autonomous wheel loader is being developed. As an ob jective given by the company; a demonstration proving the possibility of conducting a fully autonomous load and haul cycle should be performed. Conducting su...

  5. Histological modifications of the rat prostate following transection of somatic and autonomic nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaura Diaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that hormones influence significantly the prostate tissue. However, we reported that mating induces an increase in androgen receptors, revealing a neural influence on the gland. These data suggested that somatic afferents (scrotal and genitofemoral nerves and autonomic efferents (pelvic and hypogastric nerves could regulate the structure of the prostate. Here we assessed the role of these nerves in maintaining the histology of the gland. Hence, afferent or efferent nerves of male rats were transected. Then, the ventral and dorsolateral regions of the prostate were processed for histology. Results showed that afferent transection affects prostate histology. The alveoli area decreased and increased in the ventral and dorsolateral prostate, respectively. The epithelial cell height increased in both regions. Efferent denervation produced dramatic changes in the prostate gland. The tissue lost its configuration, and the epithelium became scattered and almost vanished. Thus, afferent nerves are responsible for spinal processes pertaining to the trophic control of the prostate, activating its autonomic innervation. Hence, our data imply that innervation seems to be synergic with hormones for the healthy maintenance of the prostate. Thus, it is suggested that some prostate pathologies could be due to the failure of the autonomic neural pathways regulating the gland.Sabe-se que os hormônios influenciam significativamente o tecido prostático. Entretanto, nós demonstramos que o acasalamento induz um aumento nos receptores androgênicos, revelando uma influência neural sobre a glândula. Esses dados sugerem que os aferentes somáticos (nervos escrotal e genito-femural e os eferentes autonômicos (nervos pélvicos e hipo-gástricos poderiam regular a estrutura da próstata. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a função destes nervos na manutenção da histologia da glândula. Dessa forma, os nervos aferentes e eferentes de ratos machos foram

  6. Forced synchronization of autonomous dynamical Boolean networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the design of an autonomous time-delay Boolean network realized with readily available electronic components. Through simulations and experiments that account for the detailed nonlinear response of each circuit element, we demonstrate that a network with five Boolean nodes displays complex behavior. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of two identical networks display near-instantaneous synchronization to a periodic state when forced by a common periodic Boolean signal. A theoretical analysis of the network reveals the conditions under which complex behavior is expected in an individual network and the occurrence of synchronization in the forced networks. This research will enable future experiments on autonomous time-delay networks using readily available electronic components with dynamics on a slow enough time-scale so that inexpensive data collection systems can faithfully record the dynamics

  7. Autonomous rough terrain navigation - Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David P.

    1991-01-01

    Because of light-time delays, a planetary rover located on Mars or beyond will probably need to be able to navigate autonomously, in order to do significant exploration. Recent work at JPL has explored several different autonomous navigation strategies. This work includes highly deliberative methods that require large amounts of computation and internal storage but yield very planful behavior to more reactive systems that require less resources but whose behavior is more difficult to model. This paper briefly presents these methods, the results from experiments both in simulation and in the field, and some conclusions on the value of different approaches, and their possible impact on the structure of the robot and the mission architecture.

  8. Forced synchronization of autonomous dynamical Boolean networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Durón, R. R., E-mail: roberto.rivera@ipicyt.edu.mx; Campos-Cantón, E., E-mail: eric.campos@ipicyt.edu.mx [División de Matemáticas Aplicadas, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A. C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4 Sección, C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Campos-Cantón, I. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, C.P. 78000, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Duke University, Box 90305, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present the design of an autonomous time-delay Boolean network realized with readily available electronic components. Through simulations and experiments that account for the detailed nonlinear response of each circuit element, we demonstrate that a network with five Boolean nodes displays complex behavior. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of two identical networks display near-instantaneous synchronization to a periodic state when forced by a common periodic Boolean signal. A theoretical analysis of the network reveals the conditions under which complex behavior is expected in an individual network and the occurrence of synchronization in the forced networks. This research will enable future experiments on autonomous time-delay networks using readily available electronic components with dynamics on a slow enough time-scale so that inexpensive data collection systems can faithfully record the dynamics.

  9. Outdoor Field Experience with Autonomous Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, L; Blanco, A; Carolino, N; Cerda, M A; Conceicao, R; Cunha, O; Ferreira, M; Fonte, P; Luz, R; Mendes, L; Pereira, A; Pimenta, M; Sarmento, R; Tome, B

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Resistive Plate Chambers were employed in the Cosmic Ray Experiments COVER-PLASTEX and ARGO/YBJ. In both experiments the detectors were housed indoors, likely owing to gas distribution requirements and the need to control environment variables that directly affect RPCs operational stability. But in experiments where Extended Air Shower (EAS) sampling is necessary, large area arrays composed by dispersed stations are deployed, rendering this kind of approach impossible. In this situation, it would be mandatory to have detectors that could be deployed in small standalone stations, with very rare opportunities for maintenance, and with good resilience to environmental conditions. Aiming to meet these requirements, we started some years ago the development of RPCs for Autonomous Stations. The results from indoor tests and measurements were very promising, both concerning performance and stability under very low gas flow rate, which is the main requirement for Autonomous Stations. In this w...

  10. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.

  11. Iatrogenic urological triggers of autonomic dysreflexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, N; Zhou, M; Biering-Sørensen, F;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: This is a systematic review. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the literature on iatrogenic urological triggers of autonomic dysreflexia (AD). SETTING: This study was conducted in an international setting. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted from Pub......Med search using AD/ autonomic hyperreflexia and spinal cord injury (SCI). Studies selected for review involved iatrogenic urological triggers of AD in individuals with SCI, including original articles, previous practice guidelines, case reports and literature reviews. Studies that did not report AD or blood...... pressure (BP) assessments during urological procedures were excluded. RESULTS: Forty studies were included for analysis and categorized into four groups: (1) urodynamics and cystometry; (2) cystoscopy and transurethral litholapaxy; (3) extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL); and (4) other procedures...

  12. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface....... Using the tree hierarchy of the mission file, several actions are determined, including the sequence of points the tractor has to follow, the type of motion between successive points (e.g.,straight motion or maneuvering), the type of predefined turning routine used in maneuvering, and the actions...... that should be taken once the tractor reaches the desired point (e.g., raising or lowering the attached tool, turning on or turning off the ower take-off). In order to automatically create the XML mission files, a program was developed using the MATLAB technical programming language. The program uses data...

  13. 13th International Conference Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Nathan; Berns, Karsten; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the latest research accomplishments, innovations, and visions in the field of robotics as presented at the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS), held in Padua in July 2014, by leading researchers, engineers, and practitioners from across the world. The contents amply confirm that robots, machines, and systems are rapidly achieving intelligence and autonomy, mastering more and more capabilities such as mobility and manipulation, sensing and perception, reasoning, and decision making. A wide range of research results and applications are covered, and particular attention is paid to the emerging role of autonomous robots and intelligent systems in industrial production, which reflects their maturity and robustness. The contributions have been selected through a rigorous peer-review process and contain many exciting and visionary ideas that will further galvanize the research community, spurring novel research directions. The series of biennial IAS conferences ...

  14. Development of autonomous grasping and navigating robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Keisuke; Nakayama, Yasuichi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to find and grasp target items in an unknown environment is important for working robots. We developed an autonomous navigating and grasping robot. The operations are locating a requested item, moving to where the item is placed, finding the item on a shelf or table, and picking the item up from the shelf or the table. To achieve these operations, we designed the robot with three functions: an autonomous navigating function that generates a map and a route in an unknown environment, an item position recognizing function, and a grasping function. We tested this robot in an unknown environment. It achieved a series of operations: moving to a destination, recognizing the positions of items on a shelf, picking up an item, placing it on a cart with its hand, and returning to the starting location. The results of this experiment show the applicability of reducing the workforce with robots.

  15. EEG and autonomic arousal measures in schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, C

    1989-04-01

    EEG and autonomic indices were measured in basal, tonic, and phasic conditions in order to delineate the nature of arousal dysfunction in schizophrenics as compared to normals. The experimental procedure involved six continuous recording sessions consisting of a basal recording before and after four experimental series. Sequentially, these were the visual nonsignal (VNS), the auditory nonsignal (ANS), the visual signal (VS), and the auditory signal (AS) series. The main findings indicated significant differences between the two groups in cardiovascular indices during the basal and tonic conditions and in the EEG and EMG indices of phasic response. These results suggest a dysfunction of basal and tonic autonomic arousal and a modulatory impairement of the central phasic arousal reaction. The findings are in accordance with the two arousal hypothesis postulated by Routtenberg (1968) and disconfirm the unitary concept of arousal for the explanation of psychophysiological abnormality in schizophrenia. PMID:2744968

  16. Autonomous reinforcement learning with experience replay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyński, Paweł; Tanwani, Ajay Kumar

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers the issues of efficiency and autonomy that are required to make reinforcement learning suitable for real-life control tasks. A real-time reinforcement learning algorithm is presented that repeatedly adjusts the control policy with the use of previously collected samples, and autonomously estimates the appropriate step-sizes for the learning updates. The algorithm is based on the actor-critic with experience replay whose step-sizes are determined on-line by an enhanced fixed point algorithm for on-line neural network training. An experimental study with simulated octopus arm and half-cheetah demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to solve difficult learning control problems in an autonomous way within reasonably short time. PMID:23237972

  17. Autonomous Rovers for Polar Science Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, J. H.; Ray, L. E.; Williams, R. M.; Morlock, A. M.; Burzynski, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed and deployed two over-snow autonomous rovers able to conduct remote science campaigns on Polar ice sheets. Yeti is an 80-kg, four-wheel-drive (4WD) battery-powered robot with 3 - 4 hr endurance, and Cool Robot is a 60-kg 4WD solar-powered robot with unlimited endurance during Polar summers. Both robots navigate using GPS waypoint-following to execute pre-planned courses autonomously, and they can each carry or tow 20 - 160 kg instrument payloads over typically firm Polar snowfields. In 2008 - 12, we deployed Yeti to conduct autonomous ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to detect hidden crevasses to help establish safe routes for overland resupply of research stations at South Pole, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland. We also deployed Yeti with GPR at South Pole in 2011 to identify the locations of potentially hazardous buried buildings from the original 1950's-era station. Autonomous surveys remove personnel from safety risks posed during manual GPR surveys by undetected crevasses or buried buildings. Furthermore, autonomous surveys can yield higher quality and more comprehensive data than manual ones: Yeti's low ground pressure (20 kPa) allows it to cross thinly bridged crevasses or other voids without interrupting a survey, and well-defined survey grids allow repeated detection of buried voids to improve detection reliability and map their extent. To improve survey efficiency, we have automated the mapping of detected hazards, currently identified via post-survey manual review of the GPR data. Additionally, we are developing machine-learning algorithms to detect crevasses autonomously in real time, with reliability potentially higher than manual real-time detection. These algorithms will enable the rover to relay crevasse locations to a base station for near real-time mapping and decision-making. We deployed Cool Robot at Summit Station in 2005 to verify its mobility and power budget over Polar snowfields. Using solar power, this zero

  18. Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

  19. {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients. Relationship with {sup 201}Tl uptake and cardiac autonomic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Kurose, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Flores, L.G. II; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Futami, Shigemi; Tamura, Shozo; Matsukura, Shigeru [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of diabetic myocardial damage (suspected myocardial damage; SMD) diagnosed by {sup 201}Tl-SPECT and diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (AN) on myocardial MIBG uptake in patients with NIDDM. Eighty-seven diabetic patients divided into four subgroups: 23 with SMD (+) AN (+); 19 with SMD (+) AN (-); 27 with SMD (-) AN (+); 18 with SMD (-) AN (-), and 10 controls were studied. Both planar and SPECT images were taken at 30 minutes (early) and 3 hours (delayed) after {sup 123}I-MIBG injection. The heart to mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M) and washout ratio of {sup 123}I-MIBG (WR) were obtained from both planar images. Similarly, the difference between the {sup 201}Tl image and the {sup 123}I-MIBG image in the total uptake score (TUS) was taken as the difference in the total uptake score ({Delta}TUS) representing cardiac sympathetic denervation without SMD. On both early and delayed planar images, the mean H/M value in the subgroups of diabetic patients was significantly lower in the SMD (+) AN (+) group than in the control group, but among those subgroups, there was statistically significant difference between the SMD (+) AN (+) and SMD (-) AN (-) groups only on the delayed images. Regarding the WR value, there was no statistically significant difference among subjects. On SPECT image analysis, the diabetic subgroup with AN or SMD had statistically significant lower values for TUS than those of the control group. Among diabetics, there was a statistically significant differences between SMD [+] AN [+] and SMD [-] AN [-] on both early and delayed images. Similarly, the SMD [+] AN [-] group also had significantly lower values than those of SMD [-] AN [-] on early images. Regarding {Delta}TUS, there was a statistically significant differences between AN [+] subgroups and controls. Similarly, the mean value for {Delta}TUS was much higher in AN [+] subgroups than in AN [-] subgroups with or without SMD in diabetes

  20. [sup 123]I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients. Relationship with [sup 201]Tl uptake and cardiac autonomic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Kurose, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Flores, L.G. II; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Futami, Shigemi; Tamura, Shozo; Matsukura, Shigeru (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of diabetic myocardial damage (suspected myocardial damage; SMD) diagnosed by [sup 201]Tl-SPECT and diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (AN) on myocardial MIBG uptake in patients with NIDDM. Eighty-seven diabetic patients divided into four subgroups: 23 with SMD (+) AN (+); 19 with SMD (+) AN (-); 27 with SMD (-) AN (+); 18 with SMD (-) AN (-), and 10 controls were studied. Both planar and SPECT images were taken at 30 minutes (early) and 3 hours (delayed) after [sup 123]I-MIBG injection. The heart to mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M) and washout ratio of [sup 123]I-MIBG (WR) were obtained from both planar images. Similarly, the difference between the [sup 201]Tl image and the [sup 123]I-MIBG image in the total uptake score (TUS) was taken as the difference in the total uptake score ([Delta]TUS) representing cardiac sympathetic denervation without SMD. On both early and delayed planar images, the mean H/M value in the subgroups of diabetic patients was significantly lower in the SMD (+) AN (+) group than in the control group, but among those subgroups, there was statistically significant difference between the SMD (+) AN (+) and SMD (-) AN (-) groups only on the delayed images. Regarding the WR value, there was no statistically significant difference among subjects. On SPECT image analysis, the diabetic subgroup with AN or SMD had statistically significant lower values for TUS than those of the control group. Among diabetics, there was a statistically significant differences between SMD [+] AN [+] and SMD [-] AN [-] on both early and delayed images. Similarly, the SMD [+] AN [-] group also had significantly lower values than those of SMD [-] AN [-] on early images. Regarding [Delta]TUS, there was a statistically significant differences between AN [+] subgroups and controls. Similarly, the mean value for [Delta]TUS was much higher in AN [+] subgroups than in AN [-] subgroups with or without SMD in diabetes

  1. Visual SLAM for Autonomous Navigation of MAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shaowu

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing onboard visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) systems to enable autonomous navigation of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs), which is still a challenging topic considering the limited payload and computational capability that an MAV normally has. In MAV applications, the visual SLAM systems are required to be very efficient, especially when other visual tasks have to be done in parallel. Furthermore, robustness in pose tracking is highly desired in or...

  2. Smart Systems Integration for Autonomous Wireless Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Danesh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of sensors and wireless transceivers for system networking aims at emerging applications that are highly integrated, self-powered, and low cost, relying on efficient power management schemes to prolong lifetime, thus eliminating the need for batteries as a limited primary source of energy. These applications include: health monitoring and body-area networks, environment and infrastructure monitoring, security, and building automation. Autonomous wireless transmitter sensor nodes t...

  3. Precise laser gyroscope for autonomous inertial navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements to gyroscopes of strapdown inertial navigation systems for aircraft application are formulated. The construction of a ring helium – neon laser designed for autonomous navigation is described. The processes that determine the laser service life and the relation between the random error of the angular velocity measurement and the surface relief features of the cavity mirrors are analysed. The results of modelling one of the promising approaches to processing the laser gyroscope signals are presented. (laser gyroscopes)

  4. DNA Hairpins: Fuel for Autonomous DNA Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Simon J.; Lubrich, Daniel; Turberfield, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of the hybridization of complementary DNA hairpin loops, with particular reference to their use as fuel for autonomous DNA devices. The rate of spontaneous hybridization between complementary hairpins can be reduced by increasing the neck length or decreasing the loop length. Hairpins with larger loops rapidly form long-lived kissed complexes. Hairpin loops may be opened by strand displacement using an opening strand that contains the same sequence as half of the neck and a...

  5. Modelling tunnel thrusters for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, A.; Hearn, G.E.; Stevenson, P

    2008-01-01

    With 900 Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) required over the next decade (Newman et al., 2007) existing survey-style AUVs need improved utilization factors. Additional control devices to extend operational capability need consideration together with the interchange between AUV control approaches. This paper considers supplementary through-body tunnel thruster control during the transition from survey operation to low-speed manoeuvring. Modified manoeuvring equations permit investigation o...

  6. Model Predictive Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zanon, Mario; Frasch, Janick V.; Vukov, Milan; Sager, Sebastian; Diehl, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    International audience The control of autonomous vehicles is a challenging task that requires advanced control schemes. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) and Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) are optimization-based control and estimation techniques that are able to deal with highly nonlinear, constrained, unstable and fast dynamic systems. In this chapter, these techniques are detailed, a descriptive nonlinear model is derived and the performance of the proposed control scheme is dem...

  7. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  8. Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    McCorry, Laurie Kelly

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the physiology of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The following topics are presented: regulation of activity; efferent pathways; sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions; neurotransmitters, their receptors and the termination of their activity; functions of the ANS; and the adrenal medullae. In addition, the application of this material to the practice of pharmacy is of special interest. Two case studies regarding insecticide poisoning and pheochromocytoma are i...

  9. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks. PMID:24852272

  10. Autonomous Guided Car Using a Fuzzy Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Campoy, Pascual; Mellado-Bataller, Ignacio; Mondragon, Ivan; Martinez, Carol; Sanchez-Lopez, Joseluis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the work described in this paper is to develop a visual line guided system for being used on-board an Autonomous Guided Vehicle (AGV) commercial car, controlling the steering and using just the visual information of a line painted below the car. In order to implement the control of the vehicle, a Fuzzy Logic controller has been implemented, that has to be robust against curvature changes and velocity changes. The only input information for the controller is th...

  11. A memory model for autonomous virtual humans

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Christopher; O'SULLIVAN, CAROL ANN

    2002-01-01

    PUBLISHED A memory model based on ?stage theory?, the dominant view of memory from the field of cognitive psychology, is presented for application to autonomous virtual humans. The virtual human senses external stimuli through a synthetic vision system. The vision system incorporates multiple modes of vision in order to accommodate a perceptual attention approach. The memory model is used to store perceived and attended object data at different stages in a filtering process....

  12. Autonomous Spacecraft Communication Interface for Load Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; May, Ryan D.; Morris, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Ground-based controllers can remain in continuous communication with spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) with near-instantaneous communication speeds. This permits near real-time control of all of the core spacecraft systems by ground personnel. However, as NASA missions move beyond LEO, light-time communication delay issues, such as time lag and low bandwidth, will prohibit this type of operation. As missions become more distant, autonomous control of manned spacecraft will be required. The focus of this paper is the power subsystem. For present missions, controllers on the ground develop a complete schedule of power usage for all spacecraft components. This paper presents work currently underway at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous spacecraft, and focuses on the development of communication between the Mission Manager and the Autonomous Power Controller. These two systems must work together in order to plan future load use and respond to unanticipated plan deviations. Using a nominal spacecraft architecture and prototype versions of these two key components, a number of simulations are run under a variety of operational conditions, enabling development of content and format of the messages necessary to achieve the desired goals. The goals include negotiation of a load schedule that meets the global requirements (contained in the Mission Manager) and local power system requirements (contained in the Autonomous Power Controller), and communication of off-plan disturbances that arise while executing a negotiated plan. The message content is developed in two steps: first, a set of rapid-prototyping "paper" simulations are preformed; then the resultant optimized messages are codified for computer communication for use in automated testing.

  13. Designing Bidding Strategies for Autonomous Trading Agents

    OpenAIRE

    He, Minghua

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly many systems are being conceptualised, designed and implemented as marketplaces in which autonomous software entities (agents) trade services. These services can be commodities in e-commerce applications or data and knowledge services in information economies. In such systems, dynamic pricing through some form of negotiation or auction protocol is becoming the norm for many goods and customers. Thus, negotiation capabilities for software agents are a central concern. Specifically...

  14. Precise laser gyroscope for autonomous inertial navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A G; Molchanov, A V; Izmailov, E A [Joint Stock Company ' Moscow Institute of Electromechanics and Automatics' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Chirkin, M V [Ryazan State Radio Engineering University (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-31

    Requirements to gyroscopes of strapdown inertial navigation systems for aircraft application are formulated. The construction of a ring helium – neon laser designed for autonomous navigation is described. The processes that determine the laser service life and the relation between the random error of the angular velocity measurement and the surface relief features of the cavity mirrors are analysed. The results of modelling one of the promising approaches to processing the laser gyroscope signals are presented. (laser gyroscopes)

  15. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor E Valenti; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C F; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Luiz Carlos de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation bet...

  16. Interception and Rendezvous Between Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Crispin, Yechiel J.

    2008-01-01

    The interception and rendezvous problems between two autonomous vehicles moving in an underwater environment has been treated using an optimal control formulation with terminal constraints. The vehicles have a constant thrust propulsion system and use the direction of the thrust vector for steering and control. We use a genetic algorithm to determine directly the control history of the vehicle by evolving populations of possible solutions of initial value problems. In order to fulfill the fin...

  17. Miniature Autonomous Rocket Recovery System (MARRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Yakimenko, O.A.; Yingling, A.J.; Hewgley, C.W.; Seigenthaler, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2011-2597 Proceedings of the 21st AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Technology Conference, Dublin, Ireland, May 23-26, 2011. This paper discusses the development and testing of the new-generation recovery system in highpowered rockets. It starts from the overall description of the rocket system, the requirements of the Miniature Autonomous Rocket Recovery System (MARRS) and is followed by a descrip...

  18. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle „ABYSS“

    OpenAIRE

    Linke, Peter; Lackschewitz, Klas

    2016-01-01

    The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) „ABYSS“ is a modular AUV designed to survey the ocean combining geophysical studies of the seafloor with oceanographic investigations of the overlying water column. The basic mission of ABYSS is deep-sea exploration, specifically in volcanically and tectonically active parts, such as mid-ocean ridges. With a maximum mission depth of 6000 meters, the AUV uses several technologies to map the seafloor accurately and determine its geological ...

  19. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle „ABYSS“

    OpenAIRE

    Linke, Peter; Lackschewitz, Klas

    2016-01-01

    The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) „ABYSS“ is a modular AUV designed to survey the ocean combining geophysical studies of the seafloor with oceanographic investigations of the overlying water column. The basic mission of ABYSS is deep-sea exploration, specifically in volcanically and tectonically active parts, such as mid-ocean ridges. With a maximum mission depth of 6000 meters, the AUV uses several technologies to map the seafloor accurately and determine its geological structure with ...

  20. An architecture for an autonomous learning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Brian

    1988-01-01

    An autonomous learning device must solve the example bounding problem, i.e., it must divide the continuous universe into discrete examples from which to learn. We describe an architecture which incorporates an example bounder for learning. The architecture is implemented in the GPAL program. An example run with a real mobile robot shows that the program learns and uses new causal, qualitative, and quantitative relationships.

  1. Autonomous valve for detection of biopolymer degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Stephan Urs; Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Fetz, Stefanie; Grünefeld, Marco; Geschke, Oliver; Boisen, Anja; Haefliger, D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a polymer microvalve that allows the detection of biopolymer degradation without the need of external energy. The valve is based on a polymer container filled with a colored marker solution and closed by a thin lid. This structure is covered by a film of poly(L-lactide) and degradation of the biopolymer triggers the release of the color which is detected visually. The autonomous valve has potential for the fast testing of biopolymer degradation under various environmental condition...

  2. Unemployment in Galician autonomous community (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Seoane, Maria Jesus Freire; Cristal, Venancio Salcines; Freire, Maria Jesus Bilbao

    1998-01-01

    An aspect of unquestionable transcendency is the impact of the unemployment in the current society. Most part of the countries in the European continent present as from the decade of the 70's very significant rates of unemployment. The persistence of this characteristic in the occupational market constitutes the most important fact of concern for citizens and governments. The problem of the unemployment becomes much more serious in the case of Spain, and the Galician Autonomous Community is n...

  3. Impact of autonomous vehicles on urban mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Azmat, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The urban population is growing at an exponential rate throughout the world leading to the problems related to swift and speedy mobility or issues caused by convectional mobility options. This study illustrates and explores the new ways to transport people specially taking into account the self-driving cars concept and discusses the concept of mobility 4.0 (smart / intelligent mobility) and briefly highlights the technological aspects of autonomous vehicles, adaptation advantages and progress...

  4. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Clare, Amanda; Khan, Muhammed N; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Rowland, Jem; Soldatova, Larisa N.; Whelan, Kenneth E; Young, Michael; King, Ross D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two ...

  5. Collaborative reinforcement learning of autonomic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Jim; CUNNINGHAM, RAYMOND; Curran, Eoin; Cahill, Vinny

    2004-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper introduces Collaborative Reinforcement Learning (CRL), a coordination model for solving system-wide optimisation problems in distributed systems where there is no support for global state. In CRL the autonomic properties of a distributed system emerge from the coordination of individual agents solving discrete optimisation problems using Reinforcement Learning. In the context of an ad hoc routing protocol, we show how system-wide optimisation in CRL can be used t...

  6. Development of an Autonomous Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Niewada, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Although the robotics community did a lot of research in the field of autonomous mobile robotics, there are still many unsolved challenges. With this dynamic, the European Robotics Challenges (EUROC) aim at enhancing mobile robotics research by building concrete projects with industrial applications. During my final year internship for the Télécom Physique Strasbourg’s Engineering Degree which has taken place in the Robotics and Mechatronics Institute at the DLR Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany),...

  7. An autonomous boat based Synthetic Aperture Sonar

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Rui Silva; Sergio Cunha; Anibal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) system being developed at the University of Porto to be used in a small autonomous boat for the survey of shallow water environments, such as rivers, deltas, estuaries and dams. Its purpose is to obtain high resolution echo reflectivity maps through synthetic aperture techniques, taking advantage of the high precision navigation system of the boat. In the future the production of bottom tomography maps is also considered through the use of...

  8. The utility of pollination for autonomic computing

    OpenAIRE

    Kasinger, Holger; Bauer, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    From the biology’s point of view, pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants. From our point of view, pollination is a promising and novel, biological paradigm for future dependable and self-managing computing systems. This estimation is based on the characteristics the pollination process between plants and insects implies inherently. To utilize pollination as a paradigm for self-managing and thus autonomic computing systems, this paper identifies the useful prope...

  9. SOLON: An autonomous vehicle mission planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The State-Operator Logic Machine (SOLON) Planner provides an architecture for effective real-time planning and replanning for an autonomous vehicle. The highlights of the system, which distinguish it from other AI-based planners that have been designed previously, are its hybrid application of state-driven control architecture and the use of both schematic representations and logic programming for the management of its knowledge base. SOLON is designed to provide multiple levels of planning for a single autonomous vehicle which is supplied with a skeletal, partially-specified mission plan at the outset of the vehicle's operations. This mission plan consists of a set of objectives, each of which will be decomposable by the planner into tasks. These tasks are themselves comparatively complex sets of actions which are executable by a conventional real-time control system which does not perform planning but which is capable of making adjustments or modifications to the provided tasks according to constraints and tolerances provided by the Planner. The current implementation of the SOLON is in the form of a real-time simulation of the Planner module of an Intelligent Vehicle Controller (IVC) on-board an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The simulation is embedded within a larger simulator environment known as ICDS (Intelligent Controller Development System) operating on a Symbolics 3645/75 computer.

  10. Reference test courses for autonomous mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoff, Adam; Messina, Elena; Evans, John

    2001-09-01

    One approach to measuring the performance of intelligent systems is to develop standardized or reproducible tests. These tests may be in a simulated environment or in a physical test course. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed a test course for evaluating the performance of mobile autonomous robots operating in an urban search and rescue mission. The test course is designed to simulate a collapsed building structure at various levels of fidelity. The course will be used in robotic competitions, such as the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Mobile Robot Competition and the RoboCup Rescue. Designed to be repeatable and highly reconfigurable, the test course challenges a robot's cognitive capabilities such as perception, knowledge representation, planning, autonomy and collaboration. The goal of the test course is to help define useful performance metrics for autonomous mobile robots which, if widely accepted, could accelerate development of advanced robotic capabilities by promoting the re-use of algorithms and system components. The course may also serve as a prototype for further development of performance testing environments which enable robot developers and purchasers to objectively evaluate robots for a particular application. In this paper we discuss performance metrics for autonomous mobile robots, the use of representative urban search and rescue scenarios as a challenge domain, and the design criteria for the test course.

  11. Grid administration: towards an autonomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we deployed an autonomous policy system acting as a central status information point for grid elements. Experts working as grid administrators have a broad and very deep knowledge about the underlying system which makes them very precious. We have attempted to formalize this knowledge in an autonomous system able to aggregate information, draw conclusions, validate them, and take actions accordingly. The DIRAC Resource Status System (RSS) is a monitoring and generic policy system that enforces managerial and operational actions automatically. As an example, the status of a grid entity can be evaluated using a number of policies, each making assessments relative to specific monitoring information. Individual results of these policies can be combined to evaluate and propose a global status for the resource. This evaluation goes through a validation step driven by a state machine and an external validation system. Once validated, actions can be triggered accordingly. External monitoring and testing systems such as Nagios or Hammercloud are used by policies for site commission and certification. This shows the flexibility of our system, and of what an autonomous policy system can achieve.

  12. Diagnosing faults in autonomous robot plan execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond K.; Doshi, Rajkumar S.; Atkinson, David J.; Lawson, Denise M.

    1989-01-01

    A major requirement for an autonomous robot is the capability to diagnose faults during plan execution in an uncertain environment. Many diagnostic researches concentrate only on hardware failures within an autonomous robot. Taking a different approach, the implementation of a Telerobot Diagnostic System that addresses, in addition to the hardware failures, failures caused by unexpected event changes in the environment or failures due to plan errors, is described. One feature of the system is the utilization of task-plan knowledge and context information to deduce fault symptoms. This forward deduction provides valuable information on past activities and the current expectations of a robotic event, both of which can guide the plan-execution inference process. The inference process adopts a model-based technique to recreate the plan-execution process and to confirm fault-source hypotheses. This technique allows the system to diagnose multiple faults due to either unexpected plan failures or hardware errors. This research initiates a major effort to investigate relationships between hardware faults and plan errors, relationships which were not addressed in the past. The results of this research will provide a clear understanding of how to generate a better task planner for an autonomous robot and how to recover the robot from faults in a critical environment.

  13. Review of Static Compensation of Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarnath Banerji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deregulation of the electric power energy market has thrown open opportunities for tapping the large number of small pockets of renewable energy sources with the asynchronous generators. Whether the power is supplied by asynchronous generator or by the grid at the remote location, its quality has become an important aspect for consumers of electricity. Efforts have been made to improve the power quality using passive filters, active filters and the new concept of Custom Power. Use of Custom power devices ensures that a load do not pollute the power supply of the other loads. One such custom power device is the DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Compensator which is connected in shunt at the load end. The heart of the DSTATCOM is an inverter. The focus on the autonomous generation has increased in the recent years. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the DSTATCOM used for autonomous generation. It is aimed at providing a broad perspective on the status of DSTATCOM, used with Asynchronous generators, vis-à-vis its working principle, topology, solid state switching devices and technology, supply system, control methodologies and approaches, technical and economic considerations, etc. to researchers and application engineers dealing with power quality aspects of Autonomous Systems. Classified manner in which the references are presented in this paper will serve them as quick and useful reference.

  14. Autonomous system for cross-country navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, Anthony; Brumitt, Barry L.; Coulter, R. C.; Kelly, Alonzo

    1993-05-01

    Autonomous cross-country navigation is essential for outdoor robots moving about in unstructured environments. Most existing systems use range sensors to determine the shape of the terrain, plan a trajectory that avoids obstacles, and then drive the trajectory. Performance has been limited by the range and accuracy of sensors, insufficient vehicle-terrain interaction models, and the availability of high-speed computers. As these elements improve, higher- speed navigation on rougher terrain becomes possible. We have developed a software system for autonomous navigation that provides for greater capability. The perception system supports a large braking distance by fusing multiple range images to build a map of the terrain in front of the vehicle. The system identifies range shadows and interpolates undersamples regions to account for rough terrain effects. The motion planner reduces computational complexity by investigating a minimum number of trajectories. Speeds along the trajectory are set to provide for dynamic stability. The entire system was tested in simulation, and a subset of the capability was demonstrated on a real vehicle. Results to date include a continuous 5.1 kilometer run across moderate terrain with obstacles. This paper begins with the applications, prior work, limitations, and current paradigms for autonomous cross-country navigation, and then describes our contribution to the area.

  15. Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.

  16. Autonomous Image Analysis for Future Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Ruzon, M. A.; Bandari, E.; Roush, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    To explore high priority landing sites and to prepare for eventual human exploration, future Mars missions will involve rovers capable of traversing tens of kilometers. However, the current process by which scientists interact with a rover does not scale to such distances. Specifically, numerous command cycles are required to complete even simple tasks, such as, pointing the spectrometer at a variety of nearby rocks. In addition, the time required by scientists to interpret image data before new commands can be given and the limited amount of data that can be downlinked during a given command cycle constrain rover mobility and achievement of science goals. Experience with rover tests on Earth supports these concerns. As a result, traverses to science sites as identified in orbital images would require numerous science command cycles over a period of many weeks, months or even years, perhaps exceeding rover design life and other constraints. Autonomous onboard science analysis can address these problems in two ways. First, it will allow the rover to preferentially transmit "interesting" images, defined as those likely to have higher science content. Second, the rover will be able to anticipate future commands. For example, a rover might autonomously acquire and return spectra of "interesting" rocks along with a high-resolution image of those rocks in addition to returning the context images in which they were detected. Such approaches, coupled with appropriate navigational software, help to address both the data volume and command cycle bottlenecks that limit both rover mobility and science yield. We are developing fast, autonomous algorithms to enable such intelligent on-board decision making by spacecraft. Autonomous algorithms developed to date have the ability to identify rocks and layers in a scene, locate the horizon, and compress multi-spectral image data. We are currently investigating the possibility of reconstructing a 3D surface from a sequence of images

  17. A Priori User Acceptance and the Perceived Driving Pleasure in Semi-autonomous and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    concerns about trust, user interactions and legislation, as well as the use of technology when driving on highways. Future studies should use a more substantial theoretical framework and real-life tests for a better understanding of user acceptance of driving automation.......The aim of this minor pilot study is, from a sociological user perspective, to explore a priori user acceptance and the perceived driving pleasure in semi- autonomous and autonomous vehicles. The methods used were 13 in-depth interviews while having participants watch video examples within four...

  18. Denervação capsular percutânea no tratamento da displasia coxofemoral canina Percutaneous hip denervation for the treatment of canine hip dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Selmi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A displasia coxofemoral canina (DCF é uma afecção ortopédica freqüente, comumente dolorosa, decorrente de instabilidade e que leva à doença articular degenerativa. Várias formas de tratamento cirúrgico são descritas, entre elas a denervação capsular a céu aberto. Neste trabalho, é descrita a denervação capsular percutânea e seus efeitos em 92 cães com sensibilidade dolorosa na articulação do quadril atribuída à DCF. Foram avaliados os seguintes aspectos: o grau de claudicação (CLAUD, a dor por escala analógica visual, a perimetria da coxa (PC e os graus máximos de extensão (GME e flexão (GMF passiva do quadril imediatamente antes da cirurgia e aos sete, 15, 30, 180 e 360 dias de pós-operatório (p.o.. Os animais foram pré-medicados e submetidos à anestesia geral inalatória e, posteriormente, a borda acetabular crânio-dorsal foi denervada por meio da introdução percutânea de um pino de Steinman com aproximadamente 4,5mm de diâmetro. A CLAUD e a dor foram analisadas por meio da ANOVA e do teste de Friedman. A PC, a GME e a GMF foram analisadas por meio da ANOVA e do teste de Tukey. Foi observada melhora significativa na CLAUD e dor a partir dos 15 dias de p.o. A GME apresentou aumento significativo já aos 30 dias de p.o., enquanto que a PC apresentou aumento significativo após os 60 dias de p.o. Conclui-se que a denervação capsular percutânea é alternativa cirúrgica eficaz em restabelecer a movimentação do quadril displásico e promove melhora significativa da dor e claudicação.Canine hip dysplasia is a common painfull orthopedic disorder, resulting from articular instability and causing degenerative joint disease. Several treatment options are available, including capsular denervation. This study describes the results of percutaneous capsular denervation in 92 dogs diagnosed with hip dysplasia. Lameness (LAM and pain on palpation (PN were determined using a visual analogue scale (VAS, muscle girth

  19. Use of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy to assess cardiac sympathetic denervation and the impact of hypertension in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this clinical study using iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy were (a) to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients with and without hypertension and (b) to investigate the relation between cardiac sympathetic denervation and prognosis in NIDDM patients. We compared clinical characteristics and MIBG data [heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio and % washout rate (WR)] in a control group and NIDDM patients with and without hypertension. MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 11 controls and 82 NIDDM patients without overt cardiovascular disease except for hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg). After MIBG examination, blood pressure was measured regularly in all NIDDM patients. There were significant differences between 65 normotensive and 17 hypertensive NIDDM patients with respect to age (55±11 vs 63±12 years, respectively, P<0.05), prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (12% vs 35%, respectively, P<0.05) and systolic blood pressure (120±12 vs 145±16 mmHg, respectively, P<0.001). The H/M ratio in hypertensive NIDDM patients was significantly lower than in the control group (1.81±0.29 vs 2.27±0.20, respectively, P<0.01). During the follow-up period (18± 12 months), 17 NIDDM patients newly developed hypertension after MIBG examination. There were no significant differences in their clinical characteristics compared with persistently normotensive or hypertensive NIDDM patients. %WR in patients with new onset hypertension was significantly higher than in the control group (30.88%±16.87% vs 12.89%±11.94%, respectively, P<0.05). Moreover, in these patients %WR correlated with duration from the date of MIBG scintigraphy to the onset of hypertension (r=-0.512, P<0.05). Five NIDDM patients died during the follow-up period (four newly hypertensive patients and one normotensive patient). There were significant statistical differences

  20. Methods of determining complete sensor requirements for autonomous mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of determining complete sensor requirements for autonomous mobility of an autonomous system includes computing a time variation of each behavior of a set of behaviors of the autonomous system, determining mobility sensitivity to each behavior of the autonomous system, and computing a change in mobility based upon the mobility sensitivity to each behavior and the time variation of each behavior. The method further includes determining the complete sensor requirements of the autonomous system through analysis of the relative magnitude of the change in mobility, the mobility sensitivity to each behavior, and the time variation of each behavior, wherein the relative magnitude of the change in mobility, the mobility sensitivity to each behavior, and the time variation of each behavior are characteristic of the stability of the autonomous system.