WorldWideScience

Sample records for autonomic blocking agents

  1. Effect of autonomic blocking agents and structurally related substances on the “salt arousal of drinking”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, D. de

    The effect of autonomic blocking agents and structurally related substances was studied in rats in which thirst was produced by the administration of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution. Scopolamine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, chlorpromazine, atropine, mecamylamine, hexamethonium, nethalide,

  2. Behavioural domain knowledge transfer for autonomous agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , and Behavior Transfer in Autonomous Robots, AAAI 2014 Fall Symposium Series, 13-15 November 2014 Behavioural Domain Knowledge Transfer for Autonomous Agents Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Modelling and Digital Science Council...

  3. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  4. Autonomous Agents as Artistic Collaborators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadish, David

    In this paper, I ask whether it is possible to exert creative direction on the emergence of large scale patterns from the actions of autonomous or semi-autonomous actors. As an artist and an engineer, I undertake installations and projects with an intent to create, to make art or innovative...... structures. At the same time, one of my artistic interests is in ceding a great deal of creative control to a cluster of robotic actors, in the process interrogating the lack of control that we, as a species, exert over the world. Here, I explore this idea in the context of an ongoing project called...... which innovations at large (galactic systems) and small (DNA) scales emerged were happy accidents of physics and chemistry. This raises the fundamental questions that my work explores, interrogating the relationship between the creativity of emergent processes on the micro- and macro- scales...

  5. Needs, Pains, and Motivations in Autonomous Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Janusz A; Graham, James; Puzio, Leszek

    This paper presents the development of a motivated learning (ML) agent with symbolic I/O. Our earlier work on the ML agent was enhanced, giving it autonomy for interaction with other agents. Specifically, we equipped the agent with drives and pains that establish its motivations to learn how to respond to desired and undesired events and create related abstract goals. The purpose of this paper is to explore the autonomous development of motivations and memory in agents within a simulated environment. The ML agent has been implemented in a virtual environment created within the NeoAxis game engine. Additionally, to illustrate the benefits of an ML-based agent, we compared the performance of our algorithm against various reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms in a dynamic test scenario, and demonstrated that our ML agent learns better than any of the tested RL agents.This paper presents the development of a motivated learning (ML) agent with symbolic I/O. Our earlier work on the ML agent was enhanced, giving it autonomy for interaction with other agents. Specifically, we equipped the agent with drives and pains that establish its motivations to learn how to respond to desired and undesired events and create related abstract goals. The purpose of this paper is to explore the autonomous development of motivations and memory in agents within a simulated environment. The ML agent has been implemented in a virtual environment created within the NeoAxis game engine. Additionally, to illustrate the benefits of an ML-based agent, we compared the performance of our algorithm against various reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms in a dynamic test scenario, and demonstrated that our ML agent learns better than any of the tested RL agents.

  6. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  7. RoBlock: a prototype autonomous manufacturing cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baekdal, Lars K.; Balslev, Ivar; Eriksen, Rene D.; Jensen, Soren P.; Jorgensen, Bo N.; Kirstein, Brian; Kristensen, Bent B.; Olsen, Martin M.; Perram, John W.; Petersen, Henrik G.; Petersen, Morten L.; Ruhoff, Peter T.; Skjolstrup, Carl E.; Sorensen, Anders S.; Wagenaar, Jeroen M.

    2000-10-01

    RoBlock is the first phase of an internally financed project at the Institute aimed at building a system in which two industrial robots suspended from a gantry, as shown below, cooperate to perform a task specified by an external user, in this case, assembling an unstructured collection of colored wooden blocks into a specified 3D pattern. The blocks are identified and localized using computer vision and grasped with a suction cup mechanism. Future phases of the project will involve other processes such as grasping and lifting, as well as other types of robot such as autonomous vehicles or variable geometry trusses. Innovative features of the control software system include: The use of an advanced trajectory planning system which ensures collision avoidance based on a generalization of the method of artificial potential fields, the use of a generic model-based controller which learns the values of parameters, including static and kinetic friction, of a detailed mechanical model of itself by comparing actual with planned movements, the use of fast, flexible, and robust pattern recognition and 3D-interpretation strategies, integration of trajectory planning and control with the sensor systems in a distributed Java application running on a network of PC's attached to the individual physical components. In designing this first stage, the aim was to build in the minimum complexity necessary to make the system non-trivially autonomous and to minimize the technological risks. The aims of this project, which is planned to be operational during 2000, are as follows: To provide a platform for carrying out experimental research in multi-agent systems and autonomous manufacturing systems, to test the interdisciplinary cooperation architecture of the Maersk Institute, in which researchers in the fields of applied mathematics (modeling the physical world), software engineering (modeling the system) and sensor/actuator technology (relating the virtual and real worlds) could

  8. Planning of Autonomous Multi-agent Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viksnin Ilya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a traffic management system with agents acting on behalf autonomous vehicle at the crossroads. Alternatively to existing solutions based on usage of semiautonomous control systems with the control unit, proposed in this paper algorithm apply the principles of decentralized multi-agent control. Agents during their collaboration generate intersection plan and determinate the optimal order of road intersection for a given criterion based on the exchange of information about them and their environment. The paper contains optimization criteria for possible routes selection and experiments that perform in order to estimate the proposed model. Experiment results show that this model can significantly reduce traffic density compared to the traditional traffic management systems. Moreover, the proposed algorithm efficiency increases with road traffic density. Furthermore, the availability of control unit in the system significantly reduces the negative impact of possible failures and hacker attacks.

  9. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  10. Rational decision making in autonomous agents

    OpenAIRE

    Simari, Gerardo I.; Parsons, Simon D.

    2004-01-01

    Making rational decisions is one of the key elements in the design of autonomous agents with successful behavior. Even though there have been many proposals for the support of decision making, most of them can be described either as descriptive or prescriptive. The main goal of our work is to establish the relationship between two of these models, namely bdi and mdps, in order to gain further understanding of how decisions in one model are viewed from the point of view of the other. This goal...

  11. Development of Methodology for Programming Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Kutluhan; Levy, Renato; Lang, Lun

    2004-01-01

    A brief report discusses the rationale for, and the development of, a methodology for generating computer code for autonomous-agent-based systems. The methodology is characterized as enabling an increase in the reusability of the generated code among and within such systems, thereby making it possible to reduce the time and cost of development of the systems. The methodology is also characterized as enabling reduction of the incidence of those software errors that are attributable to the human failure to anticipate distributed behaviors caused by the software. A major conceptual problem said to be addressed in the development of the methodology was that of how to efficiently describe the interfaces between several layers of agent composition by use of a language that is both familiar to engineers and descriptive enough to describe such interfaces unambivalently

  12. Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides an opportunity to consider other biological systems and principles in seeking new design strategies. This paper reports on one such investigation; utilizing the apoptosis metaphor of biological systems to provide a dynamic health indicator signal between autonomic agents.

  13. Theoretical foundations for the responsibility of autonomous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, Jaap

    This article argues that it is possible to hold autonomous agents themselves, and not only their makers, users or owners, responsible for the acts of these agents. In this connection autonomous systems are computer programs that interact with the outside world without human interference. They

  14. Socially intelligent autonomous agents that learn from human reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Guangliang

    2016-01-01

    In the future, autonomous agents will operate in human inhabited environments in many real world applications and become an integral part of human’s daily lives. Therefore, when autonomous agents enter into the real world, they need to adapt to many novel, dynamic and complex situations that cannot

  15. Should autonomous agents be liable for what they do?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, Jaap; Keirse, A.; Loos, M.

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that it may be useful to sometimes hold autonomous agents, and not only their users, responsible for their acts. In this connection autonomous systems can be computer programs that interact with the outside world without human interference, including ‘intelligent’ weapons and

  16. Agent Technology, Complex Adaptive Systems, and Autonomic Systems: Their Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Chistopher; Hincheny, Mike

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the cost of future spaceflight missions and to perform new science, NASA has been investigating autonomous ground and space flight systems. These goals of cost reduction have been further complicated by nanosatellites for future science data-gathering which will have large communications delays and at times be out of contact with ground control for extended periods of time. This paper describes two prototype agent-based systems, the Lights-out Ground Operations System (LOGOS) and the Agent Concept Testbed (ACT), and their autonomic properties that were developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to demonstrate autonomous operations of future space flight missions. The paper discusses the architecture of the two agent-based systems, operational scenarios of both, and the two systems autonomic properties.

  17. Group Formation Among Decentralized Autonomous Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogston, E.F.Y.L.; van Steen, M.R.; Brazier, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines a method of clustering within a fully decentralized multi-agent system. Our goal is to group agents with similar objectives or data, as is done in traditional clustering. However, we add the additional constraint that agents must remain in place on a network, instead of first

  18. Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

  19. An agent-based simulation model for autonomous trailer docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Berry; Mes, Martijn; Schuur, Peter Cornelis

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of a generic automated planning and control system for the pick-up and docking of semi-trailers by means of autonomous Yard Tractors (YTs) in a collision- and conflict free environment. To support the planning and control of the YTs, we propose a Multi-Agent

  20. Evolutionary autonomous agents and the nature of apraxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrett, Donald S; Jin, Frank; Kwan, Hon C

    2005-01-01

    Background Evolutionary autonomous agents are robots or robot simulations whose controller is a dynamical neural network and whose evolution occurs autonomously under the guidance of a fitness function without the detailed or explicit direction of an external programmer. They are embodied agents with a simple neural network controller and as such they provide the optimal forum by which sensorimotor interactions in a specified environment can be studied without the computational assumptions inherent in standard neuroscience. Methods Evolutionary autonomous agents were evolved that were able to perform identical movements under two different contexts, one which represented an automatic movement and one which had a symbolic context. In an attempt to model the automatic-voluntary dissociation frequently seen in ideomotor apraxia, lesions were introduced into the neural network controllers resulting in a behavioral dissociation with loss of the ability to perform the movement which had a symbolic context and preservation of the simpler, automatic movement. Results Analysis of the changes in the hierarchical organization of the networks in the apractic EAAs demonstrated consistent changes in the network dynamics across all agents with loss of longer duration time scales in the network dynamics. Conclusion The concepts of determinate motor programs and perceptual representations that are implicit in the present day understanding of ideomotor apraxia are assumptions inherent in the computational understanding of brain function. The strength of the present study using EAAs to model one aspect of ideomotor apraxia is the absence of these assumptions and a grounding of all sensorimotor interactions in an embodied, autonomous agent. The consistency of the hierarchical changes in the network dynamics across all apractic agents demonstrates that this technique is tenable and will be a valuable adjunct to a computational formalism in the understanding of the physical basis of

  1. Evolutionary autonomous agents and the nature of apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Frank

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary autonomous agents are robots or robot simulations whose controller is a dynamical neural network and whose evolution occurs autonomously under the guidance of a fitness function without the detailed or explicit direction of an external programmer. They are embodied agents with a simple neural network controller and as such they provide the optimal forum by which sensorimotor interactions in a specified environment can be studied without the computational assumptions inherent in standard neuroscience. Methods Evolutionary autonomous agents were evolved that were able to perform identical movements under two different contexts, one which represented an automatic movement and one which had a symbolic context. In an attempt to model the automatic-voluntary dissociation frequently seen in ideomotor apraxia, lesions were introduced into the neural network controllers resulting in a behavioral dissociation with loss of the ability to perform the movement which had a symbolic context and preservation of the simpler, automatic movement. Results Analysis of the changes in the hierarchical organization of the networks in the apractic EAAs demonstrated consistent changes in the network dynamics across all agents with loss of longer duration time scales in the network dynamics. Conclusion The concepts of determinate motor programs and perceptual representations that are implicit in the present day understanding of ideomotor apraxia are assumptions inherent in the computational understanding of brain function. The strength of the present study using EAAs to model one aspect of ideomotor apraxia is the absence of these assumptions and a grounding of all sensorimotor interactions in an embodied, autonomous agent. The consistency of the hierarchical changes in the network dynamics across all apractic agents demonstrates that this technique is tenable and will be a valuable adjunct to a computational formalism in the understanding

  2. Contrasting actions of pressor agents in severe autonomic failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Norman, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension is the most disabling symptom of autonomic failure. The choice of a pressor agent is largely empiric, and it would be of great value to define predictors of a response. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 35 patients with severe orthostatic hypotension due to multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure, we determined the effect on seated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of placebo, phenylpropanolamine (12.5 mg and 25 mg), yohimbine (5.4 mg), indomethacin (50 mg), ibuprofen (600 mg), caffeine (250 mg), and methylphenidate (5 mg). In a subgroup of patients, we compared the pressor effect of midodrine (5 mg) with the effect of phenylpropanolamine (12.5 mg). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the pressor responses between patients with multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure. When compared with placebo, the pressor response was significant for phenylpropanolamine, yohimbine, and indomethacin. In a subgroup of patients, we confirmed that this pressor effect of phenylpropanolamine, yohimbine, and indomethacin corresponded to a significant increase in standing SBP. The pressor responses to ibuprofen, caffeine, and methylphenidate were not significantly different from placebo. Phenylpropanolamine and midodrine elicited similar pressor responses. There were no significant associations between drug response and autonomic function testing, postprandial hypotension, or plasma catecholamine levels. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that significant increases in systolic blood pressure can be obtained in patients with orthostatic hypotension due to primary autonomic failure with phenylpropanolamine in low doses or yohimbine or indomethacin in moderate doses. The response to a pressor agent cannot be predicted by autonomic function testing or plasma catecholamines. Therefore, empiric testing with a sequence of medications, based on the risk of side effects in the individual patient and the probability of a response, is a useful approach.

  3. Safe, Multi-Agent, Reinforcement Learning for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Shalev-Shwartz, Shai; Shammah, Shaked; Shashua, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous driving is a multi-agent setting where the host vehicle must apply sophisticated negotiation skills with other road users when overtaking, giving way, merging, taking left and right turns and while pushing ahead in unstructured urban roadways. Since there are many possible scenarios, manually tackling all possible cases will likely yield a too simplistic policy. Moreover, one must balance between unexpected behavior of other drivers/pedestrians and at the same time not to be too de...

  4. Discovery Learning in Autonomous Agents Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    new declarative knowledge, the development of motor and cognitive skills through instruction or practice, the organization of new knowledge into general...by the fil’.ers during the proceso of hypothesis boosting. I argue that this is a risk that must be taken by the autonomous aircraft agent control...behaviors (wandering, edge following, feeding, etc.) showing the simulation of a sensory- motor system in an animat. One problem to be avoided in such

  5. [Alternative approach to autonomic instability of very severe tetanus: stellate ganglion block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıparmak, Başak; Uysal, Ali İhsan; Yaşar, Eylem; Demirbilek, Semra

    Tetanus is an acute and deadly disease caused by Clostridium tetani. A 60-year-old male came to hospital after he injured his thumb with a knife. Ten days later, he returned to hospital with abdominal spasms. He was vaccinated against tetanus and referred to intensive care unit. As he had sudden difficulty in respiration, he was entubated. Midazolam, magnesium and esmolol infusion were started. Next day, muscle spasms progressed all over his body. Midazolam infusion was replaced with propofol and vecuronium. At the third day, morphine infusion was added. At the 16th day, dexmedetomidine infusion was started. At the 20 th day, ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block was performed to denervate sympathetic activity. The block was performed three times in a 10 days period. At the 30 th the patient recovered from very severe tetanus. The mainstay of tetanus treatment is adequate sedation. Neuroaxial blocks were proved to be effective for the control of sympathetic overactivity in recent years. Circulatory collapse remains to be the major cause of death. The mechanism is unclear but altered myocardial function is thought to be related to changeable catecholamine levels. The effect of stellate ganglion block on sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart has been studied since the beginning of 1980s. Recently Scanlon et al. reported they treated a patient with medically refractory ventricular arrhythmias by ultrasound guided bilateral stellate ganglion block. In conclusion, stellate ganglion block can be an alternative method when the autonomic storm cannot be controlled with medical agents. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Cohesive Motion Control Algorithm for Formation of Multiple Autonomous Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Atta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a motion control strategy for a rigid and constraint consistent formation that can be modeled by a directed graph whose each vertex represents individual agent kinematics and each of directed edges represents distance constraints maintained by an agent, called follower, to its neighbouring agent. A rigid and constraint consistent graph is called persistent graph. A persistent graph is minimally persistent if it is persistent, and no edge can be removed without losing its persistence. An acyclic (free of cycles in its sensing pattern minimally persistent graph of Leader-Follower structure has been considered here which can be constructed from an initial Leader-Follower seed (initial graph with two vertices, one is Leader and another one is First Follower and one edge in between them is directed towards Leader by Henneberg sequence (a procedure of growing a graph containing only vertex additions. A set of nonlinear optimization-based decentralized control laws for mobile autonomous point agents in two dimensional plane have been proposed. An infinitesimal deviation in formation shape created continuous motion of Leader is compensated by corresponding continuous motion of other agents fulfilling the shortest path criteria.

  7. Integration of Autonomous UAVs into Multi-agent Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Selecký

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have attracted much attention both in the research field and in the field of commercial deployment. Researchers recently started to study problems and opportunities connected with the usage, deployment and operation of teams of multiple autonomous UAVs. These multi-UAV scenarios are by their nature well suited to be modelled and simulated as multi-agent systems. In this paper we present solutions to the problems that we had to deal with in the process of integrating two hardware UAVs into an existing multi-agent simulation system with additional virtual UAVs, resulting in a mixed reality system where hardware UAVs and virtual UAVs can co-exist, coordinate their flight and cooperate on common tasks. Hardware UAVs are capable of on-board planning and reasoning, and can cooperate and coordinate their movement with one another, and also with virtual UAVs.

  8. Use of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, M L; Reed, M D

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacology and history of development of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents are presented, and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these agents, administration guidelines for mechanically ventilated patients, adverse effects, factors affecting paralysis, and methods for blockade reversal are reviewed. Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (tubocurarine, metocurine, pancuronium, vecuronium, and atracurium) are frequently used to induce prolonged pharmacologic paralysis in patients in the intensive-care unit (ICU). These agents are poorly absorbed after oral administration and must be administered by injection, preferably by the i.v. route. Individualized adjustment of the dose is necessary to maintain the desired degree of paralysis. Dosing modifications may be necessary in patients with underlying renal or hepatic diseases and in pediatric and geriatric patients. Patients with thermal burns require larger doses of these drugs than other patients. These agents can cause several important adverse effects, including histamine release, cardiovascular changes, and muscle atrophy. Pathophysiologic variables and drug interactions can affect the degree of paralysis. Generally, patients no longer requiring paralysis in the ICU will be allowed to spontaneously regain muscle function after drug therapy has been discontinued. If the effects of the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents must be reversed more rapidly, acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting agents such as physostigmine, neostigmine, pyridostigmine, and edrophonium can be used. Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents can be used to paralyze mechanically ventilated patients, facilitating optimal oxygenation and ventilation.

  9. Treatment of chronic heart failure with aldosterone-blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Swedberg, Karl

    Three large randomized trials in advanced heart failure (RALES), in heart failure after myocardial infarction (EPHESUS), and most recently mild heart failure (EMPHASIS-HF) have firmly established the place of aldosterone-blocking agents in patients with heart failure. In this paper we will shortly

  10. Autonomous Collaborative Agents for Onboard Multi-Sensor Re-Targeting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In our Phase I effort we developed a prototype software-agent based framework to provide for autonomous re-targeting of sensors hosted on satellites in polar orbits,...

  11. Autonomous Collaborative Agents for Onboard Multi-Sensor Re-Targeting Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In our Phase I effort we developed a prototype software-agent based framework to provide for autonomous re-targeting of sensors hosted on satellites in polar orbits,...

  12. Self-Organizing and Autonomous Learning Agents and Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Wei-Min

    2004-01-01

    ...) Autonomous discovery and response to unexpected topology changes; (2) A new distributed functional language called DH2 for programming of self-reconfigurable systems using hormone-inspired computational methods...

  13. Beta-blocking agents during electroconvulsive therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boere, E; Birkenhäger, T K; Groenland, T H N; van den Broek, W W

    2014-07-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with at least transient episodes of hypertension and tachycardia. Beta-blocking agents may be indicated to prevent cardiovascular complications and may shorten seizure duration. This review evaluates studies that used beta-blocking agents during ECT to determine which agent has the most favourable outcomes on cardiovascular variables and seizure duration. A Medline database search was made using the combined keywords 'adrenergic beta-antagonists' and 'electroconvulsive therapy'. The search was restricted to double-blind randomized controlled trials and yielded 29 original studies. With the use of esmolol, significant attenuating effects were found on cardiovascular parameters in the first 5 min after stimulation; its shortening effects on seizure duration may be dose-related. With the use of labetalol, findings on cardiovascular effects were inconsistent during the first minutes after stimulation but were significant after 5 min and thereafter; seizure duration was scarcely studied. Landiolol attenuates heart rate but with inconsistent findings regarding arterial pressure (AP); seizure duration was mostly unaffected. Esmolol appears to be effective in reducing the cardiovascular response, although seizure duration may be affected with higher dosages. Landiolol can be considered a suitable alternative, but effects on AP need further investigation. Labetalol has been studied to a lesser extent and may have prolonged cardiovascular effects. The included studies varied in design, methodology, and the amount of exact data provided in the publications. Further study of beta-blocking agents in ECT is clearly necessary. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents: Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viby-Mogensen, J.; Østergaard, D.; Donati, F.

    2000-01-01

    Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP), neuromuscular blocking agents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling, population pharmacokinetics, statistics, study design......Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP), neuromuscular blocking agents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling, population pharmacokinetics, statistics, study design...

  15. Philosophical aspects of the use of autonomous agents in music production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Moore, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Music interaction through software agents is bound to become the goal of researchers in the near future. Some of the situations to be found in mu- sic interaction using autonomous agents are analyzed here. The seclusion sce- nario, in which a single person is isolated with her own musical ideas......, is dis- armed if an autonomous agent is recognized as a (quasi-) person. This enables the interaction that produces the meaning of the music. The unilateral scenario, in which music tends to contain either novelty, or understanding, is avoided if enough interaction and encounters are taking place....

  16. Embedded Autonomous Agents in Products Supporting Repair and Recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ing. Erik Puik; Daniël Telgen; John-Jules Meyer; Leo van Moergestel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a concept where products are equipped with agents that will assist in recycling and repairing the product. These so-called product agents represent the product in cyberspace and are capable to negotiate with other products in case of recycling or repair. Some product agents of

  17. Perancangan Network Monitoring Tools Menggunakan Autonomous Agent Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurniawan Eko S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tugas pengelolaan jaringan yang dilakukan administrator jaringan diantaranya yaitu pengumpulan informasi resource jaringan yang tersedia. Teknologi SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol memberikan fleksibilitas bagi administrator jaringan dalam mengatur network secara keseluruhan dari satu lokasi. Aplikasi Network Monitoring Tools berbasis Agent JAVA terdiri dari Master agent yang bertugas untuk melakukan management Request agent serta akses database. Request agent yang bertugas untuk melakukan pemantauan server yang mengimplementasi library SNMP4j dengan sistem multi-agent. Disisi interface, aplikasi Network Monitoring Tools menggunakan media web sebagai interface administrator sehingga dapat digunakan darimana saja  dan kapan saja.  Hasil dari penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa aplikasi yang dibuat bekerja sebagai Network Monitoring Tools mampu bekerja dengan persen error pada kisaran 0-18%. Selain itu Aplikasi ini menghasilkan tren pembacaan data server lebih stabil dan cepat dibandingkan dengan aplikasi Cacti. Hal ini didukung oleh kemampuan Request Agent yang mampu merespon tingkat beban kerja server yang di pantau.

  18. The Use of Software Agents for Autonomous Control of a DC Space Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable manned deep-space missions, the spacecraft must be controlled autonomously using on-board algorithms. A control architecture is proposed to enable this autonomous operation for an spacecraft electric power system and then implemented using a highly distributed network of software agents. These agents collaborate and compete with each other in order to implement each of the control functions. A subset of this control architecture is tested against a steadystate power system simulation and found to be able to solve a constrained optimization problem with competing objectives using only local information.

  19. High gender -specific susceptibility to curare- a neuromuscular blocking agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K Maurya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curare, a selective skeletal muscle relaxant, has been used clinically to reduce shivering and as an anesthetic auxiliary in abdominal surgery. It is also widely used in animal experiments to block neuromuscular junction activity. Effective doses of curare diminish muscle contraction without affecting brain function, but at higher doses it is known to be lethal. However, the exact dose of curare initiating muscle relaxation vs. lethal effect has not been fully characterized in mice. In this study we carefully examined the dose-response for achieving muscle inactivity over lethality in both male and female mice (C57BL6/J. The most striking finding of this study is that female mice were highly susceptible to curare; both the EDm and LDm were at least 3-fold lower than male littermates. This study shows that gender-specific differences can be an important factor when administering skeletal muscle relaxants, particularly curare or other analogous agents targeted to the neuromuscular junction.

  20. Simulation of a multi-agent system for autonomous trailer docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Berry; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schuur, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of a generic automated planning and control system for the pick-up and docking of semi-trailers by means of autonomous Yard Tractors (YTs) in a collision- and con flict free environment. To support the planning and control of the YTs, we propose a Multi-Agent

  1. Requirement analysis for autonomous systems and intelligent agents in future Danish electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    we review innovative control architectures in electric power systems such as Microgrids, Virtual power plants and Cell based systems. We evaluate application of autonomous systems and intelligent agents in each of these control architectures particularly in the context of Denmark's strategic energy...

  2. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  3. Autonomous Agents on Expedition: Humans and Progenitor Ants and Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilee, M. L.; Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Truszkowski, W. F.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) is an advanced mission architecture based on a social insect analog of many specialized spacecraft working together to achieve mission goals. The principal mission concept driving the ANTS architecture is a Main Belt Asteroid Survey in the 2020s that will involve a thousand or more nano-technology enabled, artificially intelligent, autonomous pico-spacecraft (architecture. High level, mission-oriented behaviors are to be managed by a control / communications layer of the swarm, whereas common low level functions required of all spacecraft, e.g. attitude control and guidance and navigation, are handled autonomically on each spacecraft. At the higher levels of mission planning and social interaction deliberative techniques are to be used. For the asteroid survey, ANTS acts as a large community of cooperative agents while for precursor missions there arises the intriguing possibility of Progenitor ANTS and humans acting together as agents. For optimal efficiency and responsiveness for individual spacecraft at the lowest levels of control we have been studying control methods based on nonlinear dynamical systems. We describe the critically important autonomous control architecture of the ANTS mission concept and a sequence of partial implementations that feature increasingly autonomous behaviors. The scientific and engineering roles that these Progenitor ANTS could play in human missions or remote missions with near real time human interactions, particularly to the Moon and Mars, will be discussed.

  4. Autonomously Self-Adhesive Hydrogels as Building Blocks for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xudong; Attalla, Rana; Sadowski, Lukas P; Chen, Mengsu; Majcher, Michael J; Urosev, Ivan; Yin, Da-Chuan; Selvaganapathy, P Ravi; Filipe, Carlos D M; Hoare, Todd

    2018-01-08

    We report a simple method of preparing autonomous and rapid self-adhesive hydrogels and their use as building blocks for additive manufacturing of functional tissue scaffolds. Dynamic cross-linking between 2-aminophenylboronic acid-functionalized hyaluronic acid and poly(vinyl alcohol) yields hydrogels that recover their mechanical integrity within 1 min after cutting or shear under both neutral and acidic pH conditions. Incorporation of this hydrogel in an interpenetrating calcium-alginate network results in an interfacially stiffer but still rapidly self-adhesive hydrogel that can be assembled into hollow perfusion channels by simple contact additive manufacturing within minutes. Such channels withstand fluid perfusion while retaining their dimensions and support endothelial cell growth and proliferation, providing a simple and modular route to produce customized cell scaffolds.

  5. A Game Theory Approach to Multi-Agent Decentralized Energy Management of Autonomous Polygeneration Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos-Spyridon Karavas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy management systems are essential and indispensable for the secure and optimal operation of autonomous polygeneration microgrids which include distributed energy technologies and multiple electrical loads. In this paper, a multi-agent decentralized energy management system was designed. In particular, the devices of the microgrid under study were controlled as interactive agents. The energy management problem was formulated here through the application of game theory, in order to model the set of strategies between two players/agents, as a non-cooperative power control game or a cooperative one, according to the level of the energy produced by the renewable energy sources and the energy stored in the battery bank, for the purpose of accomplishing optimal energy management and control of the microgrid operation. The Nash equilibrium was used to compromise the possible diverging goals of the agents by maximizing their preferences. The proposed energy management system was then compared with a multi-agent decentralized energy management system where all the agents were assumed to be cooperative and employed agent coordination through Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. The results obtained from this comparison, demonstrate that the application of game theory based control, in autonomous polygeneration microgrids, can ensure operational and financial benefits over known energy management approaches incorporating distributed intelligence.

  6. A Neural Path Integration Mechanism for Adaptive Vector Navigation in Autonomous Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2015-01-01

    Animals show remarkable capabilities in navigating their habitat in a fully autonomous and energy-efficient way. In many species, these capabilities rely on a process called path integration, which enables them to estimate their current location and to find their way back home after long-distance......Animals show remarkable capabilities in navigating their habitat in a fully autonomous and energy-efficient way. In many species, these capabilities rely on a process called path integration, which enables them to estimate their current location and to find their way back home after long...... of autonomous agent navigation, but it also reproduces various aspects of animal navigation. Finally, we discuss how the proposed path integration mechanism may be used as a scaffold for spatial learning in terms of vector navigation....

  7. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation thru the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The application of many different types of AI techniques for flight will be explored during this research effort. The research concentration will be directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI approaches, which will include Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems thus providing new intellectual merit to this research field. The major area of discussion will be limited to the UAV. The systems of interest include small aircraft, insects, and miniature aircraft. Although flight systems will be explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers, Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. The flight system will be broken down into control agents that will represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework of applying a Security Overseer will be added in an attempt to address errors, emergencies, failures, damage, or over dynamic environment. The chosen control problem was the landing phase of UAV operation. The initial results from simulation in FlightGear are presented.

  8. Pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents : Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viby-Mogensen, J; Ostergaard, D; Donati, F; Fisher, D; Hunter, J; Kampmann, JP; Kopman, A; Proost, JH; Rasmussen, SN; Skovgaard, LT; Varin, F; Wright, PMC

    2000-01-01

    In September 1997, an international consensus conference on standardization of studies of neuromuscular blocking agents was held in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on the conference, a set of guidelines fur good clinical research practice (GCRT) in pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents

  9. Artificial Wrestling: A Dynamical Formulation of Autonomous Agents Fighting in a Coupled Inverted Pendula Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Katsutoshi; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Matsue, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    We develop autonomous agents fighting with each other, inspired by human wrestling. For this purpose, we propose a coupled inverted pendula (CIP) framework in which: 1) tips of two inverted pendulums are linked by a connection rod, 2) each pendulum is primarily stabilized by a PD-controller, 3) and is additionally equipped with an intelligent controller. Based on this framework, we dynamically formulate an intelligent controller designed to store dynamical correspondence from initial states t...

  10. Systems, methods and apparatus for modeling, specifying and deploying policies in autonomous and autonomic systems using agent-oriented software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.

  11. Agent Based Software for the Autonomous Control of Formation Flying Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Jonathan P.; Campbell, Mark; Dennehy, Neil (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Distributed satellite systems is an enabling technology for many future NASA/DoD earth and space science missions, such as MMS, MAXIM, Leonardo, and LISA [1, 2, 3]. While formation flying offers significant science benefits, to reduce the operating costs for these missions it will be essential that these multiple vehicles effectively act as a single spacecraft by performing coordinated observations. Autonomous guidance, navigation, and control as part of a coordinated fleet-autonomy is a key technology that will help accomplish this complex goal. This is no small task, as most current space missions require significant input from the ground for even relatively simple decisions such as thruster burns. Work for the NMP DS1 mission focused on the development of the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. NMRA integrates traditional real-time monitoring and control with components for constraint-based planning, robust multi-threaded execution, and model-based diagnosis and reconfiguration. The complexity of using an autonomous approach for space flight software was evident when most of its capabilities were stripped off prior to launch (although more capability was uplinked subsequently, and the resulting demonstration was very successful).

  12. Adrenoceptor blocking effects of arotinolol, a new combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagishi, A; Nakahara, H; Hara, Y

    1984-10-01

    In isolated tissues and anesthetized animals, beta- and alpha-adrenoceptor blocking properties of arotinolol were studied in comparison with those of other typical adrenoceptor antagonists. The following order of beta-adrenoceptor blocking activities were obtained in isolated tissues: arotinolol = pindolol greater than propranolol = oxprenolol = alprenolol greater than or equal to labetalol for beta 1-adrenoceptors (guinea-pig right atrium) and pindolol = oxprenolol = arotinolol greater than propranolol greater than labetalol for beta 2-adrenoceptors (guinea-pig trachea). In anesthetized cats, arotinolol was about 9 and 25 times more potent than propranolol, about 30 and 100 times more potent than labetalol in blocking beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors, respectively. Furthermore arotinolol showed a competitive antagonistic effect on phenylephrine-induced contraction of isolated rat aortic strips. The relative order of alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocking potencies was as follows: prazosin greater than phentolamine greater than labetalol greater than arotinolol = yohimbine. Presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking action of arotinolol was also assessed in isolated rat vas deferens and arotinolol was revealed to be a much weaker presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. In anesthetized rats arotinolol was 4-5 times less potent than labetalol and about 26 times less potent than phentolamine in blocking alpha 1-adrenoceptors. Thus, as for the selectivity for 2 subtypes of alpha-adrenoceptors, arotinolol showed a selectivity for alpha 1-adrenoceptors over presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

  13. Frequency of Use and Cost of Selected Anesthetic Induction and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-15

    have attempted to look at anesthetic choice. Katz ( 1973) and Broadman , Mesrobian, and McGill ( 1987) researched anesthetic choice among...1994). Adverse effects of depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents : Incidence, prevention and management. Drug Safety, lQ(S), 331-349. Broadman

  14. CLINICAL-PHARMACOLOGY OF ORG-7617, A SHORT-ACTING NONDEPOLARIZING NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING-AGENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBROEK, L; WIERDA, JMKH; PROOST, JH; HOMMES, FDM; AGOSTON, S

    The dose-response relationship and the time course of action of Org 7617, a short acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, were evaluated during thiopentone, fentanyl, halothane and N2O anaesthesia. Neuromuscular transmission was monitored mechanomyographically. The ED(50) and ED(90)

  15. Markov decision processes and the belief-desire-intention model bridging the gap for autonomous agents

    CERN Document Server

    Simari, Gerardo I

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we provide a treatment of the relationship between two models that have been widely used in the implementation of autonomous agents: the Belief DesireIntention (BDI) model and Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). We start with an informal description of the relationship, identifying the common features of the two approaches and the differences between them. Then we hone our understanding of these differences through an empirical analysis of the performance of both models on the TileWorld testbed. This allows us to show that even though the MDP model displays consistently better behavior than the BDI model for small worlds, this is not the case when the world becomes large and the MDP model cannot be solved exactly. Finally we present a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the two approaches, identifying mappings that allow us to extract a set of intentions from a policy (a solution to an MDP), and to extract a policy from a set of intentions.

  16. Autonomous construction agents: An investigative framework for large sensor network self-management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Joshua Bruce [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made it cost effective to utilize massive, heterogeneous sensor networks. To gain appreciable value from these informational systems, there must be a control scheme that coordinates information flow to produce meaningful results. This paper will focus on tools developed to manage the coordination of autonomous construction agents using stigmergy, in which a set of basic low-level rules are implemented through various environmental cues. Using VE-Suite, an open-source virtual engineering software package, an interactive environment is created to explore various informational configurations for the construction problem. A simple test case is developed within the framework, and construction times are analyzed for possible functional relationships pertaining to performance of a particular set of parameters and a given control process. Initial experiments for the test case show sensor saturation occurs relatively quickly with 5-7 sensors, and construction time is generally independent of sensor range except for small numbers of sensors. Further experiments using this framework are needed to define other aspects of sensor performance. These trends can then be used to help decide what kinds of sensing capabilities are required to simultaneously achieve the most cost-effective solution and provide the required value of information when applied to the development of real world sensor applications.

  17. Locally noisy autonomous agents improve global human coordination in network experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirado, Hirokazu; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2017-05-17

    Coordination in groups faces a sub-optimization problem and theory suggests that some randomness may help to achieve global optima. Here we performed experiments involving a networked colour coordination game in which groups of humans interacted with autonomous software agents (known as bots). Subjects (n = 4,000) were embedded in networks (n = 230) of 20 nodes, to which we sometimes added 3 bots. The bots were programmed with varying levels of behavioural randomness and different geodesic locations. We show that bots acting with small levels of random noise and placed in central locations meaningfully improve the collective performance of human groups, accelerating the median solution time by 55.6%. This is especially the case when the coordination problem is hard. Behavioural randomness worked not only by making the task of humans to whom the bots were connected easier, but also by affecting the gameplay of the humans among themselves and hence creating further cascades of benefit in global coordination in these heterogeneous systems.

  18. DOSE-RESPONSE RELATION, NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING ACTION, INTUBATION CONDITIONS, AND CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF ORG-9273, A NEW NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING-AGENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBROEK, L; LAMBALK, LM; RICHARDSON, FJ; WIERDA, JMKH

    The ED50 and the ED90, the time-course of the neuromuscular block, the intubation conditions, and the cardiovascular effects of Org 9273, a new steroidal nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, have been evaluated in 41 anesthetized patients. From cumulative dose-response curves the ED50 and

  19. Acceleromyography and mechanomyography for establishing potency of neuromuscular blocking agents: a randomized-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Viby-Mogensen, J; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acceleromyography (AMG) is increasingly being used in neuromuscular research, including in studies establishing the potency of neuromuscular blocking and reversal agents. However, AMG is insufficiently validated for use interchangeably with the gold standard, mechanomyography (MMG...... and opioid. Neuromuscular blockade was induced with rocuronium 100, 150, 200 or 250 microg/kg. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed with AMG (TOF-Watch SX) with pre-load (Hand Adapter) at one arm and MMG (modified TOF-Watch SX) on the other, using 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation. Dose...... difference between AMG and MMG is so small that it justifies AMG to be used for establishing the potency of neuromuscular blocking agents. However, the wide CIs show that we cannot rule out a 13% higher ED(50) and a 26% higher ED(95) for AMG....

  20. Autonomous Navigation, Dynamic Path and Work Flow Planning in Multi-Agent Robotic Swarms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Kennedy Space Center has teamed up with the Biological Computation Lab at the University of New Mexico to create a swarm of small, low-cost, autonomous robots,...

  1. [Antihypertensive effect of arotinolol (S-596), a new adrenergic beta blocking agent, on experimental hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Y; Nakahara, H; Miyagishi, A; Nakatani, H

    1983-08-01

    Effects of a new adrenergic beta-blocking agent, arotinolol (S-596), on the blood pressure and heart rate were assessed in comparison with those of other beta-blocking agents in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-saline induced and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The relationship between the antihypertensive effect and the beta- or alpha-adrenoceptor blocking action of S-596 was also investigated in normotensive conscious rats. In the rat, a cannula was implanted chronically in a femoral artery, from which blood pressure was recorded. The test drugs were administered orally once a day for 14 days at several dose levels. The development of hypertension in DOCA-saline treated rats was clearly retarded with the consecutive oral administration of propranolol (100 mg/kg/day) and hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg/day), but not with S-596 (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) or pindolol (10 mg/kg/day). On the other hand, in SHR, S-596 (more than 10 mg/kg/day) propranolol (50 mg/kg/day), pindolol (10 mg/kg/day), labetalol (100 mg/kg/day) and hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg/day) produced definite antihypertensive effects after the chronic administration. In normotensive conscious rats, the vasodepressor responses induced by isoproterenol were reduced by the beta-blocking agents at lower dose levels than those required for development of antihypertensive effects. The acute effects on blood pressure were determined in hypertensive rats during the chronic treatment with the test drugs. In either type of hypertension, S-596, (10-50 mg/kg/day) showed a depressor effect at 4 and/or 8 hr after administration. In normotensive conscious rats, S-596 antagonized the pressor responses to phenylephrine at doses more than 30 mg/kg. It is therefore suggested that an adrenergic alpha-blocking property is at least partly involved in the hypotensive effect of S-596 as labetalol. In the experiment of acute effect in SHR, pindolol and labetalol showed prominent hypotensive effect after the 1st

  2. A reactive polystyrene-block-polyisoprene star copolymer as a toughening agent in an epoxy thermoset

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Raju

    2015-12-29

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg A polystyrene-block-polyisoprene ((PS-b-PI)3) star polymer was synthesized by photochemical reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The obtained star polymer was epoxidized and used as a toughening agent in an epoxy thermoset. The incorporation of the epoxidized star polymer resulted in the formation of nanostructures and it was fixed by a crosslinking reaction. The formation of nanostructures in the thermosets follows the mechanism of reaction-induced microphase separation. The mechanical properties such as toughness and tensile strength were considerably increased due to the nanostructures formed by reactive blending.

  3. Dispersiones acuosas de poliuretano bloqueado: una alternativa como agente curtiente Aqueous dispersions of blocked polyurethane: an alternative as tanning agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Mata-Mata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetizaron y se evaluaron como agentes curtientes de pieles vacunas dos tipos de agentes de reticulación base poliuretano bloqueado. Se presentan los resultados de la síntesis de dispersiones acuosas de poliuretano bloqueado (DPU’s, basadas en prepolímeros a partir de la reacción de los diisocianatos alifáticos H12MDI (4,4’ metilenbis-ciclohexilisocianato y HDI (hexametilendiisocianato con polioles base poliéter óxido de etileno de peso molecular 1 y 2 KDa, en una relación molar isocianato/oxhidrilo (NCO/OH de 4:1 y 6:1 a 100 °C por 2 y 4 horas. En una segunda reacción, los grupos isocianato (NCO libres del prepolímero se bloquearon con una solución acuosa de NaHSO3 ó Na2S2O5 al 40%p/p. Los prepolímeros se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopia IR y RMN de ¹H. El tanto por ciento de isocianato libre en el prepolímero, así como el bloqueo de dichos grupos, se determinaron por espectroscopía IR. La evaluación de la capacidad curtiente de las DPU’s se determinó de acuerdo a la estabilidad térmica de la piel (temperatura de desnaturalización, mediante Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC y a la determinación del índice de reticulación de las DPU’s con la colágena de la piel mediante un ensayo con ninhidrina.Two types of crosslinking agents blocked polyurethanes were synthesized and evaluated as tanning agents of bovine skins. The results of the synthesis of aqueous dispersions of blocked polyurethane (DPU’s are presented. They were based on prepolymers from the reaction of the aliphatic diisocyanates H12MDI 4,4’-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate and HDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate with HO-polyols such as polyethylene oxide of molecular weight 1 and 2 kDa. The molar NCO/OH ratio was fixed in 4:1 or 6:1, at 100 °C and 2 or 4 hours for the reaction time. In a second reaction, the prepolymer containing terminal NCO groups were blocked by reaction with an aqueous NaHSO3 or Na2S2O5 solution to 40% w/w. The

  4. Markets and institutions: relations agents/regulators. The new power of Spanish Autonomous Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guayo Castiella, I. de

    2007-01-01

    The implementation in Spain of the 2003 European Directive on common rules for the internal market for electricity implies a more precise determination of who are the regulatory authorities, as well as which powers enjoy each of them; in Spain, also, the implementation process, relating to the regulatory authorities issues, including the competence of the Autonomous Communities. The implementation process has taken place soon after new Statutes of a number of Autonomous Communities have been passed, where energy issues, at least apparently, are subject to a new treatment. (Author) 25 refs

  5. Visualizing Decision-making Behaviours in Agent-based Autonomous Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Steve; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The authors will report initial progress on the PIAudit project as a Research Resident Associate Program. The objective of this research is to prototype a tool for visualizing decision-making behaviours in autonomous spacecraft. This visualization will serve as an information source for human analysts. The current visualization prototype for PIAudit combines traditional Decision Trees with Weights of Evidence.

  6. Autonomous Navigation, Dynamic Path and Work Flow Planning in Multi-Agent Robotic Swarms Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Leucht, Kurt; Stolleis, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has teamed up with the Biological Computation Lab at the University of New Mexico to create a swarm of small, low-cost, autonomous robots, called Swarmies, to be used as a ground-based research platform for in-situ resource utilization missions. The behavior of the robot swarm mimics the central-place foraging strategy of ants to find and collect resources in an unknown environment and return those resources to a central site.

  7. Preferences of Mexican anesthesiologists for vecuronium, rocuronium, or other neuromuscular blocking agents: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garduño-Espinosa J

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neuromuscular blocking (NMB agents are available for clinical use in anesthesia. The present study was performed in order to identify preferences and behaviors of anesthesiologists for using vecuronium, rocuronium or other NMB agents in their clinical practice. Material and methods The cross-sectional survey was applied at the Updated Course of the Colegio Mexicano de Anestesiología performed last year. Of 989, 282 (28.5% surveys were returned. Results Most anesthesiologists were working at both public and private hospitals, performed anesthetic procedures for hospitalized and ambulatory patients, and anesthetized children as well as adults. Respondents did not consider mechanomyography as the gold standard method for neuromuscular monitoring. The T25 was not recognized as a pharmacodynamic parameter that represents the clinical duration of the neuromuscular block. Most answered that vecuronium induces less histamine release than rocuronium, had never used any neuromuscular monitor, did not know the cost of vecuronium and rocuronium, and preferred rocuronium in multiple-sampling vials and vecuronium in either a vial for single or multiple sampling. Rocuronium was preferred for emergency surgery in patients with full stomach only. Almost all of anesthesiologists that conserve the unused drug did it without refrigeration and more than 30% conserve the unused drug in one syringe for further use. Conclusion Vecuronium was preferred for most clinical situations, and the decision for this choice was not based on costs. Storage of unused drugs without refrigeration in a single syringe for purpose of future use in several patients represented a dangerous common practice.

  8. Mesoporous Silica Formation by Block Copolymers and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide as Structure Control Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Semsarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Block copolymers and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as templates in nano silica structure formation like MCM-41Mobil Composition of Matter, SBA16 Santa Barbara Amorphous and a new compound namely SPB  silicone mesoporous particles, prepared by sol-gel method using PPG-PEG-PPG block copolymer to compare the porosity and regularity of the products together. In this work tetraethylorthosilicate  TEOS, as silica source and alcohol as surface modifying agent were used because of having the main advantage, compared to an ionic template such as etyltrimethylammonium bromide, in producing larger pores  and thicker walls for holding larger catalytic molecules in their pores or increasing  their resistance towards fragmentation. In order to study the copolymer as a template,  SPB structure was prepared and compared with SBA16 which was found to have  broader  pore-size  distribution  and  smaller  specifc  surface  area.  Using  alcohol  in particle production resulted in higher formation rate of micelles with improved  morphology. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction and electron scanning  microscopy confrmed the mesoporous structure and regularity of these synthesized  materials. Finally a mechanism is proposed for the formation of these structures.

  9. Optimization of biguanide derivatives as selective antitumor agents blocking adaptive stress responses in the tumor microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narise K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kosuke Narise, Kensuke Okuda, Yukihiro Enomoto, Tasuku Hirayama, Hideko Nagasawa Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Daigaku-nishi, Gifu, Japan Abstract: Adaptive cellular responses resulting from multiple microenvironmental stresses, such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation, are potential novel drug targets for cancer treatment. Accordingly, we focused on developing anticancer agents targeting the tumor microenvironment (TME. In this study, to search for selective antitumor agents blocking adaptive responses in the TME, thirteen new compounds, designed and synthesized on the basis of the arylmethylbiguanide scaffold of phenformin, were used in structure activity relationship studies of inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1 and unfolded protein response (UPR activation and of selective cytotoxicity under glucose-deprived stress conditions, using HT29 cells. We conducted luciferase reporter assays using stable cell lines expressing either an HIF-1-responsive reporter gene or a glucose-regulated protein 78 promoter-reporter gene, which were induced by hypoxia and glucose deprivation stress, respectively, to screen for TME-targeting antitumor drugs. The guanidine analog (compound 2, obtained by bioisosteric replacement of the biguanide group, had activities comparable with those of phenformin (compound 1. Introduction of various substituents on the phenyl ring significantly affected the activities. In particular, the o-methylphenyl analog compound 7 and the o-chlorophenyl analog compound 12 showed considerably more potent inhibitory effects on HIF-1 and UPR activation than did phenformin, and excellent selective cytotoxicity under glucose deprivation. These compounds, therefore, represent an improvement over phenformin. They also suppressed HIF-1- and UPR-related protein expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor-A. Moreover, these compounds exhibited significant

  10. Evaluating the influence of increasing block tariffs in residential gas sector using agent-based computational economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chengzhu; Yu, Shiwei; Zhu, Kejun; Hailu, Atakelty

    2016-01-01

    Designing a desirable increasing block tariff for the residential gas retail market has been a challenging task for regulated utilities, especially in China. To deal with such problems, in this paper, we establish an agent-based, computational economics system to provide a formal evaluation of the direct and indirect influences of several issued increasing block tariffs in the residential gas market. Moreover, a comprehensive demand response behaviour model has been improved in term of price elasticity, while still coping with income levels and complex social environment. We also compute and compare the outcomes of several increasing block tariffs with the initial flat tariff by running the system on a test-case using real-world data from a middle-scale gas retail market in Wuhan. The results indicate that there is an appropriate increasing block gas tariff scheme that has greater ability to improve social equity while still ensuring operator revenue and promoting gas conservation. In order to offset the limitations of the proposed increasing block tariffs, the regulator should adopt some complementary measures, such as applying appropriate policies targeting the intended consumers, and allowing large families to obtain extra allowance of volume. - Highlights: •Analyse the influence of increasing block tariffs in residential gas sector. •An agent-based computational economics system is utilised for policy analysis. •Increasing block tariff can generate revenue while still promote gas conservation. •The increasing subsidy for low income household can improve the social equity.

  11. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M.; Pereira, Ivo F.; Fernandes, Ricardo; Praça, Isabel; Vale, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition of an ontology allowing the communication between multi-agents systems. • Social welfare evaluation in different electricity markets. • Demonstration of the use of the proposed ontology between two multi-agents systems. • Strategic biding in electricity markets. • European electricity markets comparison. - Abstract: The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models, respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform provides the means for the exemplification of the usefulness of this ontology. A case study using the proposed multi-agent platform is presented, considering a scenario based on real data that simulates the European Electricity Market environment, and comparing its performance using different market mechanisms. The main goal is to demonstrate the advantages that the integration of various market models and simulation platforms have for the study of the electricity markets’ evolution

  12. The Power of Flexibility: Autonomous Agents That Conserve Energy in Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jun-young

    Agent-based systems for energy conservation are now a growing area of research in multiagent systems, with applications ranging from energy management and control on the smart grid, to energy conservation in residential buildings, to energy generation and dynamic negotiations in distributed rural communities. Contributing to this area, my thesis presents new agent-based models and algorithms aiming to conserve energy in commercial buildings. More specifically, my thesis provides three sets of algorithmic contributions. First, I provide online predictive scheduling algorithms to handle massive numbers of meeting/event scheduling requests considering flexibility , which is a novel concept for capturing generic user constraints while optimizing the desired objective. Second, I present a novel BM-MDP ( Bounded-parameter Multi-objective Markov Decision Problem) model and robust algorithms for multi-objective optimization under uncertainty both at the planning and execution time. The BM-MDP model and its robust algorithms are useful in (re)scheduling events to achieve energy efficiency in the presence of uncertainty over user's preferences. Third, when multiple users contribute to energy savings, fair division of credit for such savings to incentivize users for their energy saving activities arises as an important question. I appeal to cooperative game theory and specifically to the concept of Shapley value for this fair division. Unfortunately, scaling up this Shapley value computation is a major hindrance in practice. Therefore, I present novel approximation algorithms to efficiently compute the Shapley value based on sampling and partitions and to speed up the characteristic function computation. These new models have not only advanced the state of the art in multiagent algorithms, but have actually been successfully integrated within agents dedicated to energy efficiency: SAVES, TESLA and THINC. SAVES focuses on the day-to-day energy consumption of individuals and

  13. The Use of an Autonomous Pedagogical Agent and Automatic Speech Recognition for Teaching Sight Words to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Pennington, Robert C.; Welch, Karla C.; Graham, James H.; Scott, Renee E.

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the effects of an instructional package comprised of an autonomous pedagogical agent, automatic speech recognition, and constant time delay during the instruction of reading sight words aloud to young adults with autism spectrum disorder. We used a concurrent multiple baseline across participants design to…

  14. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  15. Occurrence and profiles of organic sun-blocking agents in surface waters and sediments in Japanese rivers and lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, Yutaka, E-mail: kameda.yutaka@pref.saitama.lg.jp [Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, Kamitanadare 914, Kazo 347-0115 (Japan); Kimura, Kumiko; Miyazaki, Motonobu [Saitama City Institute of Health Science and Research, Suzuya 7-5-12, Chuo-ku, Saitama 338-0013 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Sun-blocking agents including eight UV filters (UVF) and 10 UV light stabilizers (UVLS) were measured in water and sediment collected from 22 rivers, four sewage treatment plant effluents (STPE) and three lakes in Japan. Total sun blocking agents levels ranged from N.D. to 4928 ng/L and from 2.0 to 3422 {mu}g/kg dry wt in surface water and in sediment, respectively. Benzyl salicylate, benzophenone-3, 2-ethyl hexyl-4-methoxycinnamte (EHMC) and octyl salicylate were dominant in surface water receiving wastewater effluents and STPE, although UV-328, benzophenone and EHMC were dominant in other surface water except background sites. Three UVF and nine UVLS were observed from all sediment and their compositions showed similar patterns with UV-328 and UV-234 as the most prevalent compounds. Homosalate, octocrylene, UV-326, UV-327, UV-328 and UV-234 were significantly correlated with Galaxolide in sediments. Concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328 also had strong correlation between those of UV-326 in sediment. - Highlights: > Total sun-blocking agents levels ranged from N.D. to 4928 ng/L in surface water from 29 sampling sites. > The maximum concentration of total sun-blocking agents was 3422 {mu}g/kg dry wt. in sediment. > Residential wastewaters and STPE were considered to be potential sources of UVLS in river and lakes. > Most of sun-blocking agents in sediment were significantly correlated with HHCB. > UV-326 had a strong linear correlation between UV-327 as well as UV-328 in all sediment. - Occurrence of eight UV filters and 10 UV light stabilizers in surface water and sediment were investigated and characterized their compositions in water and sediment.

  16. Neuromuscular Blocking Agents and Neuromuscular Dysfunction Acquired in Critical Illness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David R; Mikkelsen, Mark E; Umscheid, Craig A; Armstrong, Ehrin J

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between neuromuscular blocking agents and neuromuscular dysfunction acquired in critical illness remains unclear. We examined the association between neuromuscular blocking agents and ICU-acquired weakness, critical illness polyneuropathy, and critical illness myopathy. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and bibliographies of included studies were searched from database inception until September 24, 2015. Randomized controlled trials and prospective observational studies examining the association between neuromuscular blocking agents and ICU-acquired weakness, critical illness polyneuropathy, or critical illness myopathy. One author screened titles/abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed full text and extracted data from included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian-Laird random effects model (OpenMetaAnalyst 10.10 for OS.X). We assessed reporting bias with funnel plots and heterogeneity with the I statistic. Of 2,170 titles/abstracts screened, 99 full texts were selected for review, yielding one randomized controlled trial and 18 prospective observational studies, for a total of 2,254 patients. The randomized controlled trial did not show an association between neuromuscular blocking agents and neuromuscular dysfunction acquired in critical illness (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.67-2.19), but pooled data from all included studies suggested a modest association (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.48; I = 16%). Funnel plots suggested reporting bias, and sensitivity analyses showed a disproportionate contribution from critical illness polyneuropathy/critical illness myopathy and severe sepsis/septic shock studies. This meta-analysis suggests a modest association between neuromuscular blocking agents and neuromuscular dysfunction acquired in critical illness; limitations include studies with a high risk of bias and a

  17. Immediate allergic hypersensitivity to quinolones associates with neuromuscular blocking agent sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzaire, Paul; Nosbaum, Audrey; Mullet, Christine; Diot, Nathalie; Dubost, Rolande; Bienvenu, Françoise; Guilloux, Laurence; Piriou, Vincent; Bienvenu, Jacques; Bérard, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    We identified a case of quinolone allergic hypersensitivity associated with quaternary ammonium (QA) sensitization, the allergic determinant of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs). Concomitant sensitization to several chemically different drugs is rarely reported and raises the question of a nonfortuitous association. We evaluated a potential association between quinolone immediate allergic hypersensitivity and NMBA sensitization. QA-specific IgE detection was prospectively performed in 26 patients who presented an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to quinolones: 17 with a confirmed allergic hypersensitivity and 9 with allergic hypersensitivity not confirmed. We also included a control population of 88 outpatients without a history of quinolone or NMBA hypersensitivity. Patients with positive QA-specific IgE benefited from a NMBA allergologic workup. The prevalence of positive QA-specific IgE was significantly higher in patients with quinolone allergic hypersensitivity (9/17, 53%) compared with patients with allergic hypersensitivity not confirmed (1/9, 11%) than in controls (3/88, 3.4%). In the quinolone allergic population, ofloxacin elicited inhibition of the 4 positive QA-specific IgE sera tested, in a dose-response manner. Among the 9 patients with positive QA-specific IgE, the QA sensitization (positivity of specific IgE) was confirmed by positive skin tests and/or basophil activation tests to at least 1 NMBA in 5 of the 7 tested patients. We report here the first documentation of a high prevalence of QA sensitization in patients with quinolone allergic hypersensitivity. These results suggest a new way for NMBA sensitization. It thus seems appropriate to investigate NMBA sensitization when quinolone allergic hypersensitivity is diagnosed. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stereoselective separation of β-adrenergic blocking agents containing two chiral centers by countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Liqiong; Bu, Zhisi; Lu, Mengxia; Wang, Xiaoping; Yan, Jizhong; Tong, Shengqiang

    2017-09-01

    Four β-adrenergic blocking agents, including 1-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-3-phenoxy-2-propanol (1), 1-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-3-(3-methylphenoxy)-2-propanol (2), 1,1'-[1,4-phenylenebis(oxy)]bis[3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-propanol (3) and 1,1'-[(4-methyl-1,2-phenylene)bis(oxy)]bis[3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-propanol (4), were stereoselectively separated by countercurrent chromatography using di-n-hexyl l-tartrate and boric acid as chiral selector. The compounds (3) and (4) have four optical isomers since they contained two chiral centers. A two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-0.05molL -1 of acetate buffer containing 0.10molL -1 of boric acid (1:1, v/v) was selected, in which 0.10molL -1 of di-n-hexyl l-tartrate was added in the organic phase as chiral selector. 20-42mg of each racemate was stereoselectively separated by countercurrent chromatography in a single run with high purity of 96-98%, and the recovery of each separated compound reached around 87-93%. This is the first time report on successful stereoselective separation of optical isomeric compounds containing two chiral centers by countercurrent chromatography. At the same time, a chiral stationary phase was screened for analytical stereoselective separation of compounds (3) and (4) by high performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recommendations and Low-Technology Safety Solutions Following Neuromuscular Blocking Agent Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudins, Linda V; Downey, Glenn; Bui, Thuy; Dooley, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBs) are high-risk medications used to facilitate endotracheal intubation and artificial ventilation. In an incident at a metropolitan tertiary referral and teaching public hospital in Australia, a neurosurgical patient became unresponsive at the start of surgery. It was determined that cisatracurium was administered in error in place of midazolam; the patient was ventilated and the emergency surgery continued. Two additional non-operating room (OR) drug-swap cases involving cisatracurium were reported within 12 months of this event, resulting in a comprehensive review of NMB safety. A root cause analysis (RCA) resulted in multiple interventions to decrease the risk of selection and administration errors: (1) review of NMB packaging and introduction of in-house NMB labeling by pharmacy procurement staff before distribution; (2) implementation of a medication administration in anesthetics guideline with ongoing education; (3) audit of storage with removal of NMBs; (4) review of new products by medication safety pharmacists and a senior anesthetist before distribution; and (5) use of red-barrel syringes for administering NMBs was expanded to all areas using NMBs to minimize syringe-swap incidents. In the four years since full implementation of interventions, there have been no reports of cisatracurum selection errors. An incident of atracurium administration resulted in further recommendations for review of OR cart storage. Ongoing monitoring via medication safety walkrounds, by OR staff, by the perioperative pharmacist, and through the hospital's medication incident monitoring system has not detected any further NMB incidents. Technological solutions have been shown to decrease the risk of NMB errors, yet multifaceted low-technology solutions may be an effective, cheaper alternative.

  20. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform......The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators...... have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models...

  1. Intermediate acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents and risk of postoperative respiratory complications: prospective propensity score matched cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse-Sundrup, Martina; Henneman, Justin P; Sandberg, Warren S; Bateman, Brian T; Uribe, Jose Villa; Nguyen, Nicole Thuy; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Martinez, Elizabeth A; Kurth, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during general anesthesia increases the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications. Design Prospective, propensity score matched cohort study. Setting General teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 2006-10. Participants 18 579 surgical patients who received intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during surgery were matched by propensity score to 18 579 reference patients who did not receive such agents. Main outcome measures The main outcome measures were oxygen desaturation after extubation (hemoglobin oxygen saturation 3%) and reintubations requiring unplanned admission to an intensive care unit within seven days of surgery. We also evaluated effects on these outcome variables of qualitative monitoring of neuromuscular transmission (train-of-four ratio) and reversal of neuromuscular blockade with neostigmine to prevent residual postoperative neuromuscular blockade. Results The use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents was associated with an increased risk of postoperative desaturation less than 90% after extubation (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.51) and reintubation requiring unplanned admission to an intensive care unit (1.40, 1.09 to 1.80). Qualitative monitoring of neuromuscular transmission did not decrease this risk and neostigmine reversal increased the risk of postoperative desaturation to values less than 90% (1.32, 1.20 to 1.46) and reintubation (1.76, 1.38 to 2.26). Conclusion The use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during anesthesia was associated with an increased risk of clinically meaningful respiratory complications. Our data suggest that the strategies used in our trial to prevent residual postoperative neuromuscular blockade should be revisited. PMID:23077290

  2. Isoelectric Bovine Serum Albumin: Robust Blocking Agent for Enhanced Performance in Optical-Fiber Based DNA Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyu; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhu, Xiyu; Yang, Chao; Liu, Lanhua; Shi, Hanchang

    2017-02-24

    Surface blocking is a well-known process for reducing unwanted nonspecific adsorption in sensor fabrication, especially important in the emerging field where DNA/RNA applied. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is one of the most popular blocking agents with an isoelectric point at pH 4.6. Although it is widely recognized that the adsorption of a blocking agent is strongly affected by its net charge and the maximum adsorption is often observed under its isoelectric form, BSA has long been perfunctorily used for blocking merely in neutral solution, showing poor blocking performances in the optical-fiber evanescent wave (OFEW) based sensing toward DNA target. To meet this challenge, we first put forward the view that isoelectric BSA (iep-BSA) has the best blocking performance and use an OFEW sensor platform to demonstrate this concept. An optical-fiber was covalently modified with amino-DNA, and further coupled with the optical system to detect fluorophore labeled complementary DNA within the evanescent field. A dramatic improvement in the reusability of this DNA modified sensing surface was achieved with 120 stable detection cycles, which ensured accurate quantitative bioassay. As expected, the iep-BSA blocked OFEW system showed enhanced sensing performance toward target DNA with a detection limit of 125 pM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest number of regeneration cycles ever reported for a DNA immobilized optical-fiber surface. This study can also serve as a good reference and provide important implications for developing similar DNA-directed surface biosensors.

  3. An autonomous agent for on-machine acceptance of machined components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panceerella, C.M.; Hazelton, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Frost, H.R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Center for Design Research

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, manufacturers of high precision mechanical parts have been required to produce increasingly complex designs, in smaller lot sizes, with improved quality. These requirements demand lower process costs, shorter development cycles and more accurate manufacturing technologies. To meet these demands, manufacturers are attempting to both improve process quality and provide better CAD/CAM integration. The technique of on-machine acceptance provides one mechanism for improving the part inspection and verification process. This approach allows one machine and one process capability model to be used for both fabrication and inspection, reducing capital cost and overall cycle time. However, the on-machine acceptance technique possesses greater potential than as simply an alternative mechanism for verifying part geometry. If the inspection capability information generated by on-machine acceptance processes can be made available to designers, it can be used to create a design-for-inspectability environment and help realize the benefits of concurrent 2048 engineering. This paper proposes a novel architecture which integrates on-machine acceptance with an agent-based concurrent design environment, for reducing both the cost and production time for high quality, small lot size, mechanical parts. This work has focused on the production of stainless steel pressure vessels at the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Laboratory (IMTL) manufacturing cell, located at Sandia National Laboratories, California.

  4. A multi-agent decentralized energy management system based on distributed intelligence for the design and control of autonomous polygeneration microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavas, Christos-Spyridon; Kyriakarakos, George; Arvanitis, Konstantinos G.; Papadakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A decentralized energy management system based on multi agent systems theory. • A decentralized energy management system is technically feasible. • A decentralized approach utilizes the devices better than a centralized one. • A decentralized energy management system is economically competitive. - Abstract: The autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology has been developed in order to cover holistically needs in a remote area such as electrical energy, space heating and cooling, potable water through desalination and hydrogen as fuel for transportation. The existence of an advanced energy management system is essential for the operation of an autonomous polygeneration microgrid. So far, energy management systems based on a centralized management and control have been developed for the autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology based on computational intelligence approaches. A decentralized management and control energy management system can have important benefits, when taking into consideration the autonomous character of these microgrids. This paper presents the design and investigation of a decentralized energy management system for the autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology. The decentralized energy management system gives the possibility to control each unit of the microgrid independently. The most important advantage of using a decentralized architecture is that the managed microgrid has much higher chances of partial operation in cases when malfunctions occur at different parts of it, instead of a complete system breakdown. The designed system was based on a multi-agent system and employed Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for its implementation. It was then compared through a case study with an existing centralized energy management system. The technical performance of the decentralized solution performance is on par with the existing centralized one, presenting improvements in financial and operational terms for the implementation and

  5. Prevalence of IgE against neuromuscular blocking agents in hairdressers and bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S; Acouetey, D S; Guéant-Rodriguez, R-M; Zmirou-Navier, D; Rémen, T; Blanca, M; Mertes, P M; Guéant, J-L

    2013-11-01

    Allergic IgE-mediated reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are the main cause of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in anaesthesia; their predominant occurrence in the absence of previous exposure to NMBAs suggests a risk related to environmental exposure. To investigate the prevalence of specific IgE to quaternary ammonium ions in two populations professionally exposed to quaternary ammonium compounds, in the north-eastern France. The study had a retrospective follow-up design whereby apprentices were assessed after their 2-year training period as apprentices. The professionally exposed hairdresser populations (n = 128) were compared with baker/pastry makers (n = 108) and 'non-exposed' matched control subjects (n = 379). We observed a 4.6-fold higher frequency of positive IgE against quaternary ammonium ions in hairdressers (HD), compared with baker/pastry makers (BP) and control (C) groups. The competitive inhibition of quaternary ammonium Sepharose radioimmunoassay (QAS-IgE RIA) with succinylcholine was significantly higher in HD, compared with BP and C groups, with inhibition percentage of 66.2 ± 7.4, 39.7 ± 6.0 and 43.8 ± 9.9, respectively (P  100 kU/L were the two significant predictors of IgE-sensitization against quaternary ammonium ions in the multivariate analysis of a model that included age, sex, professional exposure, increased concentration of total IgE (IgE > 100 kU/L) and positive IgE against prevalent allergens (Phadiatop(®) ; P = 0.019 and P = 0.001, respectively). The exposure to hairdressing professional occupational factors increases IgE-sensitization to NMBAs and quaternary ammonium ion compounds used in hairdressing. Besides the pholcodine hypothesis, our study suggests that repetitive exposure to quaternary ammonium compounds used in hairdressing is a risk factor for NMBAs sensitization. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fatal anaphylaxis with neuromuscular blocking agents: a risk factor and management analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitter, M; Petitpain, N; Latarche, C; Cottin, J; Massy, N; Demoly, P; Gillet, P; Mertes, P M

    2014-07-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) can be severe and even fatal. Our aim was to evaluate mortality rate in France from anaphylactic reactions to NMBAs, to identify risk factors for a fatal outcome, and to describe management of the cases that proved fatal. The French National Pharmacovigilance Database was queried for reports of NMBA anaphylaxis that occurred between January 2000 and December 2011. A questionnaire was sent to regional pharmacovigilance centers to obtain further information on the management of cases with a fatal outcome. Two thousand and twenty-two cases of NMBA hypersensitivity were retrieved, of which 84 were fatal (4.1%). Among the 1247 cases of severe NMBA anaphylaxis (grades 3 and 4), independent risk factors associated with a fatal outcome in a multivariate analysis were male gender (female gender: OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.7; P = 0.0004), an emergency setting (OR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.5-4.6; P = 0.0007), a history of hypertension (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.5-4.4; P = 0.0010) or of other cardiovascular disease (OR = 4.4; 95% CI 2.4-8.1; P < 0.0001), obesity (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.3; P = 0.0376), and ongoing beta-blocker treatment (OR = 4.2; 95% CI 1.8-9.8; P = 0.0011). All 31 patients with a fatal outcome received epinephrine in a titrated manner according to international guidelines. Obese males with a history of cardiovascular disease receiving ongoing beta-blocker treatment and undergoing surgery in an emergency setting were at high risk of a fatal outcome after NMBA-induced anaphylaxis. Some epinephrine-resistant cases may play a role in our high mortality rate. New therapeutic approaches need to be developed to treat these cases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Using colloidal silica as isolator, diverter and blocking agent for subsurface geological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, William L.; Roberts, Sarah K.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Hunt, Jonathan D.

    2018-03-06

    A system for blocking fast flow paths in geological formations includes preparing a solution of colloidal silica having a nonviscous phase and a solid gel phase. The solution of colloidal silica is injected into the geological formations while the solution of colloidal silica is in the nonviscous phase. The solution of colloidal silica is directed into the fast flow paths and reaches the solid gel phase in the fast flow paths thereby blocking flow of fluid in the fast paths.

  8. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogacki, John R

    2007-01-01

    ... vehicles, cooperative flight of autonomous aerial vehicles using GPS and vision information, cooperative and sharing of information in search missions involving multiple autonomous agents, multi-scale...

  9. Adrenergic receptor effects and antihypertensive actions of beta-adrenoceptor-blocking agents with ancillary properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, S; Nakahara, H; Nakazawa, M; Takeda, K

    1988-01-01

    The acute antihypertensive effects and possible underlying mechanisms of 3 beta-adrenergic-blocking drugs with alpha-blocking activity, i.e. labetalol, drugs with alpha-blocking activity, i.e. labetalol, nipradilol and arotinolol, were studied in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and compared with the effects of prazosin, propranolol and hydralazine. Prazosin produced a dose-dependent antihypertensive effect which paralleled inhibition of the pressor response to phenylephrine. Labetalol (30 mg/kg), nipradilol (30 and 100 mg/kg) and arotinolol (30 and 100 mg/kg) also produced a fall in blood pressure. However, inhibition of the pressor response to phenylephrine was not seen in association with the antihypertensive effect after the lower dose of nipradilol and arotinolol. Propranolol (100 mg/kg) did not lower blood pressure. These results suggest that a mechanism(s) other than an alpha-adrenergic-blocking effect plays a role in the acute antihypertensive effects produced by the lower dose of nipradilol and arotinolol.

  10. Comparison of the effectiveness and safety between lymphocytes scavenger and IL-2 receptor blocking agent induction in living kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-bo QIN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the safety of two antibody inductors, namely lymphocytes scavenger and IL-2 receptor blocking agent, in living kidney transplantation. Methods  The data of 191 patients, who received living kidney transplant in our hospital from Feb. 2007 to Jul. 2012, were retrospectively analyzed, and grouped according to the inductors they received as: a lymphocytes scavenger group (n=56, with rabbit antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG, 4 cases and porcine antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin (pATG, 52 cases served as the inductor; b IL -2 receptor blocking agent group (n=54, with basiliximab (40 cases and daclizumab (14 cases served as the inductor; and c control group (n=81. The incidence of rejection and infection, and the survival rate of patient/allograft within one year were then compared among the three groups. Results  Within one year after the transplantation, the incidence of acute rejection in lymphocytes scavenger group, IL-2 receptor blocking agent group and control group was 12.5%, 11.1% and 28.4%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two inductor groups and control group (P=0.003, but no significant difference was found between the two inductor groups (P>0.05. The incidence of delayed graft function (DGF in the three groups was 8.9%, 7.4% and 13.6%, respectively, with no statistical significance (P>0.05. Also there was no significant difference among the three groups in the incidence of infection and the survival rate of patient/allograft within one year after transplantation (P>0.05. Conclusion  Both inductors may significantly reduce the incidence of acute rejection within one year without increasing the incidence of infection and other adverse events, nor affect the postoperative patient/graft survival, so they are both safe and effective.

  11. Classification of neuromuscular blocking agents in a new neuromuscular preparation of the chick in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezen, H. van

    1968-01-01

    A neuromuscular preparation of the chick is described: 1. 1. The sciatic nerve-tibilis anterior muscle preparation of the 2–10 days old chick fulfils all criteria of an assay preparation and differentiates between curare-like and decamethonium-like agents. 2. 2. The preparation responds to

  12. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Delvecchio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres.

  13. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M; Pezzuto, Paula; Valadão, Ana Luiza; Garcez, Patrícia P; Monteiro, Fábio L; Loiola, Erick C; Dias, André A; Silva, Fábio J M; Aliota, Matthew T; Caine, Elizabeth A; Osorio, Jorge E; Bellio, Maria; O'Connor, David H; Rehen, Stevens; de Aguiar, Renato Santana; Savarino, Andrea; Campanati, Loraine; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-11-29

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres.

  14. Influence of government controls over the currency exchange rate in the evolution of Hurst's exponent: An autonomous agent-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Muñoz, Pablo; Fernandes da Silva, Marcus; Vivas Miranda, José; Claro, Francisco; Gomez Diniz, Raimundo

    2007-12-01

    We have studied the performance of the Hurst's index associated with the currency exchange rate in Brazil and Chile. It is shown that this index maps the degree of government control in the exchange rate. A model of supply and demand based in an autonomous agent is proposed, that simulates a virtual market of sale and purchase, where buyer or seller are forced to negotiate through an intermediary. According to this model, the average of the price of daily transactions correspond to the theoretical balance proposed by the law of supply and demand. The influence of an added tendency factor is also analyzed.

  15. Extended structure design with simple molybdenum oxide building blocks and urea as a directing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Sandra J; Roy, Soumyajit; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Petukhov, Andrei V; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Broersma, Alfred; Soulimani, Fouad; Visser, Tom; Kegel, Willem K

    2008-08-04

    We report here a simple one-pot directed synthesis of an oxomolybdate urea composite in which elementary molybdenum oxide building blocks are linked together with the aid of urea. This type of directed material design resulted in large rod-like crystals of an inorganic-organic hybrid extended structure of {MoO 3(NH 2-CO-NH 2)} infinity consisting of right- and left-handed helical units. In the crystal structure urea acts both as a glue that links the inorganic molybdenum units into a helix and as a supramolecular linker for the stabilization of the crystal structure as a whole. This type of molecular topology resulted in an unexpectedly high thermal stability.

  16. Biosynthesis of ilamycins featuring unusual building blocks and engineered production of enhanced anti-tuberculosis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junying; Huang, Hongbo; Xie, Yunchang; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Chunyan; Jia, Yanxi; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Tianyu; Ju, Jianhua

    2017-08-30

    Tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-tuberculosis agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus. Here, we show the isolation of six anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners (1-6) bearing rare L-3-nitro-tyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid structural units from the deep sea-derived Streptomyces atratus SCSIO ZH16. The biosynthesis of the rare L-3-nitrotyrosine and L-2-amino-4-hexenoic acid units as well as three pre-tailoring and two post-tailoring steps are probed in the ilamycin biosynthetic machinery through a series of gene inactivation, precursor chemical complementation, isotope-labeled precursor feeding experiments, as well as structural elucidation of three intermediates (6-8) from the respective mutants. Most impressively, ilamycins E 1 /E 2 , which are produced in high titers by a genetically engineered mutant strain, show very potent anti-tuberculosis activity with an minimum inhibitory concentration value ≈9.8 nM to Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv constituting extremely potent and exciting anti-tuberculosis drug leads.Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, novel anti-TB agents are urgently needed due to severe drug resistance and the co-epidemic of TB/HIV. Here, the authors show that anti-mycobacterial ilamycin congeners bearing unusual structural units possess extremely potent anti-tuberculosis activities.

  17. Cytokine production from stimulated whole blood cultures in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with various TNF blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Calin; Barrera, Pilar; Joosten, Leo A B; van Riel, Piet L C M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G

    2009-06-01

    Infectious complications are not rare in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the susceptibility to infections is increased during treatment with TNF blocking agents. As a possible mechanism contributing to that, we assessed the modulation of cytokine production induced by TNF neutralization. Whole blood cultures from six healthy volunteers and 13 RA patients starting therapy with either adalimumab (n = 7) or etanercept (n = 6) were stimulated with heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus or with S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL10, IL-17, TNF, IL-8 and IFN-gamma was measured by specific immunoassays. Stimulation with Salmonella LPS resulted in a significantly lower production of IL-1beta, TNF and a trend towards lower IL-6 and IFN-gamma production in RA patients compared to healthy volunteers. Therapy with either of the agents did not significantly alter cytokine production capacity, with the exception of a lower IFN-gamma and IL-8 production in patients treated with adalimumab and stimulated with heat-killed S. aureus. The results of our study suggest that the detrimental effects of anti-TNF agents on the immune response can vary quite widely, from very serious to limited effects, as reported here for etanercept and adalimumab. Because anti-TNF therapy can affect the cellular integrity of tuberculous granuloma, recruitment of new cells at the granuloma site becomes crucial. In line with this, an impaired chemokine production induced by anti-TNF agents may ultimately result in the reactivation of tuberculosis, as previously reported. Therefore, caution should be constantly exercised in order to prevent the development of severe infections and reactivation of tuberculosis whenever therapy with anti-TNF is initiated.

  18. Blocked-micropores, surface functionalized, bio-compatible and silica-coated iron oxide nanocomposites as advanced MRI contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbandi, Masih; Laurent, Sophie; Busch, Martin; Li Zian; Yuan Ying; Krüger, Michael; Farle, Michael; Winterer, Markus; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N.; Wende, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles have been found promising in several biomedical applications for tagging, imaging, sensing and separation in recent years. In this article, a systematic study of the design and development of surface-modification schemes for silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) via a one-pot, in situ method at room temperature is presented. Silica-coated IONP were prepared in a water-in-oil microemulsion, and subsequently the surface was modified via addition of organosilane reagents to the microemulsion system. The structure and the morphology of the as synthesized nanoparticles have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and measurement of N 2 adsorption–desorption. Electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images of the nanoparticles showed the highly crystalline nature of the IONP structures. Nitrogen adsorption indicates microporous and blocked-microporous structures for the silica-coated and amine functionalized silica-coated IONP, respectively which could prove less cytotoxicity of the functionalized final product. Besides, the colloidal stability of the final product and the presence of the modified functional groups on top of surface layer have been proven by zeta-potential measurements. Owing to the benefit from the inner IONP core and the hydrophilic silica shell, the as-synthesized nanocomposites were exploited as an MRI contrast enhancement agent. Relaxometric results prove that the surface functionalized IONP have also signal enhancement properties. These surface functionalized nanocomposites are not only potential candidates for highly efficient contrast agents for MRI, but could also be used as ultrasensitive biological-magnetic labels, because they are in nanoscale size, having magnetic properties, blocked-microporous and are well dispersible in biological environment.

  19. Factors that affect the onset of action of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Byum; Sung, Tae-Yun; Yang, Hong Seuk

    2017-10-01

    Neuromuscular blockade plays an important role in the safe management of patient airways, surgical field improvement, and respiratory care. Rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia is indispensable to emergency surgery and obstetric anesthesia, and its purpose is to obtain a stable airway, adequate depth of anesthesia, and appropriate respiration within a short period of time without causing irritation or damage to the patient. There has been a continued search for new neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) with a rapid onset of action. Factors that affect the onset time include the potency of the NMBDs, the rate of NMBDs reaching the effect site, the onset time by dose control, metabolism and elimination of NMBDs, buffered diffusion to the effect site, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit affinity, drugs that affect acetylcholine (ACh) production and release at the neuromuscular junction, drugs that inhibit plasma cholinesterase, presynaptic receptors responsible for ACh release at the neuromuscular junction, anesthetics or drugs that affect muscle contractility, site and methods for monitoring neuromuscular function, individual variability, and coexisting disease. NMBDs with rapid onset without major adverse events are expected in the next few years, and the development of lower potency NMBDs will continue. Anesthesiologists should be aware of the use of NMBDs in the management of anesthesia. The choice of NMBD and determination of the appropriate dosage to modulate neuromuscular blockade characteristics such as onset time and duration of neuromuscular blockade should be considered along with factors that affect the effects of the NMBDs. In this review, we discuss the factors that affect the onset time of NMBDs.

  20. Architectural design criteria for f-block metal sequestering agents. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US); Paine, R.T. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (US); Roundhill, D.M. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (US)

    1997-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to provide the means to optimize ligand architecture for f-block metal recognition. The authors strategy builds on an innovative and successful molecular modeling approach in developing polyether ligand design criteria for the alkali and alkaline earth cations. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that differences in metal ion binding with multidentate ligands bearing the same number and type of donor groups are primarily attributable to intramolecular steric factors. The authors propose quantifying these steric factors through the application of molecular mechanics models. The proposed research involves close integration of theoretical and experimental chemistry. The experimental work entails synthesizing novel ligands and experimentally determining structures and binding constants for metal ion complexation by series of ligands in which architecture is systematically varied. The theoretical work entails using electronic structure calculations to parameterize a molecular mechanics force field for a range of metal ions and ligand types. The resulting molecular mechanics force field will be used to predict low-energy structures for unidentate, bidentate, and multidentate ligands and their metal complexes through conformational searches. Results will be analyzed to assess the relative importance of several steric factors including optimal M-L length, optimal geometry at the metal center, optimal geometry at the donor atoms (complementarity), and conformation prior to binding (preorganization). An accurate set of criteria for the design of ligand architecture will be obtained from these results. These criteria will enable researchers to target ligand structures for synthesis and thereby dramatically reduce the time and cost associated with metal-specific ligand development.'

  1. Architectural design criteria for f-block metal ion sequestering agents. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Hay, B.P.; Paine, R.T.; Raymond, K.N.; Rogers, R.D.; Roundhill, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to provide a means to optimize ligand architecture for f-block metal recognition. The authors strategy builds on an innovative and successful molecular modeling approach in developing polyether ligand design criteria for the alkali and alkaline earth cations. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that differences in metal ion binding with multidentate ligands bearing the same number and type of donor groups are primarily attributable to intramolecular steric factors. They propose quantifying these steric factors through the application of molecular mechanics models. The research involves close integration of theoretical and experimental chemistry. The experimental work entails synthesizing novel ligands and experimentally determining structures and binding constants for metal ion complexation by series of ligands in which architecture is systematically varied. The theoretical work entails using electronic structure calculations to parameterize a molecular mechanics force field for a range of metal ions and ligand types. The resulting molecular mechanics force field will be used to predict low energy structures for unidentate, bidentate, and multidentate ligands and their metal complexes through conformational searches. Results will be analyzed to assess the relative importance of several steric factors including optimal M-L length, optimal geometry at the metal center, optimal geometry at the donor atoms (complementarity), and conformation prior to binding (preorganization). An accurate set of criteria for the design of ligand architecture will be obtained from these results. These criteria will enable researchers to target ligand structures for synthesis and thereby dramatically reduce the time and cost associated with metal-specific ligand development.'

  2. Screening system of blocking agents of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts in cells using fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dong Ho; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Jin Sook

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) triggers cellular responses implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications; blockade of RAGE has been shown to inhibit the development of diabetic complications. To develop a screening system to identify novel disruptors of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE)-RAGE binding, we used an AGE-RAGE binding system in RAGE-overexpressing cells; test compounds were screened using this system. To construct human RAGE-overexpressing cells, mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) were stably transfected with the pcDNA-human RAGE (hRAGE) vector and selected under 1 mg/mL gentamicin (G418). RAGE expression in hRAGE-overexpressing MMCs was analyzed by Western blotting with specific RAGE antibody. To identify novel disruptors of AGE-RAGE binding, 50 single compounds and AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Alexa 488 (AGE-BSA labeled with Alexa 488) were treated to the hRAGE-overexpressing MMCs. Nonbinding AGE-BSA-Alexa 488 was washed and fluorescence measured by microtiter plate reader (excitation wavelength, 485 nm; emission wavelength, 528 nm). In hRAGE-overexpressing cells, only treatment with AGE-BSA-Alexa 488 significantly increased fluorescence intensity in a dose-dependent manner. Of 50 compounds tested, genistein disrupted AGE-RAGE binding in a dose-dependent manner. This AGE-RAGE binding system using AGE-BSA-Alexa 488 in hRAGE-overexpressing cells was suitable for screening of agents that disrupt AGE-hRAGE binding.

  3. Effects of avoiding neuromuscular blocking agents during maintenance of anaesthesia on recovery characteristics in patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial lesions: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi A Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Neuromuscular blocking agents have been one of the cornerstones of anaesthesia. With the advent of newer surgical, anaesthetic and neurological monitoring techniques, their utility in neuroanaesthesia practice seems dispensable. The aim of this prospective, comparative, randomised study was to determine whether neuromuscular blocking agents are required in patients undergoing supratentorial surgery when balanced anaesthesia with desflurane, dexmedetomidine and scalp block is used. Methods: Sixty patients with the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged between 18 and 60 years were included in the study. All patients received anaesthesia including desflurane, dexmedetomidine and scalp block. The patients were randomly allocated to receive no neuromuscular blocking agent (Group A or atracurium infusion to keep train-of-four count 2 (Group B. The two groups were compared with respect to haemodynamic stability, brain relaxation scores and recovery characteristics. Haemodynamic parameters and time taken to achieve Aldrete score >9 and other secondary outcomes were analysed using Student's t-test. Non-parametric data were analysed using the Mann–Whitney test. Results: The mean arterial pressure was comparable between the groups. The intraoperative heart rate was comparable; however, in the post-operative period, it remained higher in Group B for 30 min after extubation (P = 0.02. The brain relaxation scores were comparable among the two groups (P = 0.27. Tracheal extubation time, time taken for orientation and time required to reach Aldrete score ≥9 were comparable among the two groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that balanced anaesthesia using desflurane, dexmedetomidine and scalp block can preclude the use of neuromuscular blocking agents in patients undergoing supratentorial surgery under intense haemodynamic monitoring.

  4. Effect of incorporation of silane in the bonding agent on the repair potential of machinable esthetic blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Hanaa; Elkassas, Dina Wafik; Haridy, Mohamed Fouad

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the repair potential of CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) ceramic and composite blocks using a silane-containing bonding agent with different repair protocols. Twenty-four discs were constructed from CAD/CAM ceramic and composite blocks. The discs were divided into six groups according to surface pre-treatment employed; GI: Diamond stone roughening (SR), GII: SR+ silanization (SR+S), GIII: Hydrofluoric acid etching (HF), GIV: HF+ silanization (HF+S), GV: Silica coating (SC), GVI: SC+ silanization (SC+S). Silane-containing bonding agent (Single Bond Universal adhesive, 3M ESPE) was applied to the pre-treated discs. Prior to light curing, irises were cut from tygon tubes (internal diameter = 0.8 mm and height = 0.5 mm) and mounted on each treated surface. Nanofilled resin composite (Filtek Z350(XT), 3M ESPE) was packed into the cylinder lumen and light-cured (n = 10). The specimens were subjected to microshear bond strength testing (μ-SBS) using universal testing machine. Failure modes of the fractured specimens were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Eight representative discs were prepared to analyze the effect of surface treatments on surface topography using FESEM. μ-SBS results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukeys post-hoc test. Three-way ANOVA results showed that the materials, surface pre-treatment protocols, and silanization step had a statistically significant effect on the mean μ-SBS values at P ≤ 0.001. For ceramic discs, the groups were ranked; GIV (24.45 ± 7.35)> GVI ((20.18 ± 2.84)> GV (7.14 ± 14)= GII (6.72 ± 1.91)=GI (6.34 ± 2.21)=GIII (5.72 ± 2.18). For composite discs, groups were ranked; GI (24.98 ± 7.69)=GVI (24.84 ± 7.00) >GII (15.85 ± 5.29) =GV (14.65 ± 4.5)= GIV (14.24 ± 2.95)≥ GIII ((9.37 ± 2.78). The additional silanization step cannot be omitted if the repair protocol comprises of either hydrofluoric acid etching or silica coating for both CAD

  5. Surfactant-Free RAFT Emulsion Polymerization of Styrene Using Thermoresponsive macroRAFT Agents: Towards Smart Well-Defined Block Copolymers with High Molecular Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Eggers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT and emulsion polymerization has recently attracted much attention as a synthetic tool for high-molecular-weight block copolymers and their micellar nano-objects. Up to recently, though, the use of thermoresponsive polymers as both macroRAFT agents and latex stabilizers was impossible in aqueous media due to their hydrophobicity at the usually high polymerization temperatures. In this work, we present a straightforward surfactant-free RAFT emulsion polymerization to obtain thermoresponsive styrenic block copolymers with molecular weights of around 100 kDa and their well-defined latexes. The stability of the aqueous latexes is achieved by adding 20 vol % of the cosolvent 1,4-dioxane (DOX, increasing the phase transition temperature (PTT of the used thermoresponsive poly(N-acryloylpyrrolidine (PAPy macroRAFT agents above the polymerization temperature. Furthermore, this cosolvent approach is combined with the use of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-block-poly(N-acryloylpiperidine-co-N-acryloylpyrrolidine (PDMA-b-P(APi-co-APy as the macroRAFT agent owning a short stabilizing PDMA end block and a widely adjustable PTT of the P(APi-co-APy block in between 4 and 47 °C. The temperature-induced collapse of the latter under emulsion polymerization conditions leads to the formation of RAFT nanoreactors, which allows for a very fast chain growth of the polystyrene (PS block. In dynamic light scattering (DLS, as well as cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM, moreover, all created latexes indeed reveal a high (temperature stability and a reversible collapse of the thermoresponsive coronal block upon heating. Hence, this paper pioneers a versatile way towards amphiphilic thermoresponsive high-molecular-weight block copolymers and their nano-objects with tailored corona switchability.

  6. THE PHARMACODYNAMICS AND PHARMACOKINETICS OF ORG-9426, A NEW NONDEPOLARIZING NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING-AGENT, IN PATIENTS ANESTHETIZED WITH NITROUS-OXIDE, HALOTHANE AND FENTANYL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERDA, JMKH; KLEEF, UW; LAMBALK, LM; KLOPPENBURG, WD; AGOSTON, S

    The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a new non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, Org 9426, were investigated. Ten patients undergoing elective head and neck surgery and anaesthetized with nitrous oxide, halothane and fentanyl, received a bolus dose of Org 9426 (1 mg.kg-1, 3 x ED90).

  7. Neuromuscular blocking agents in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a summary of the current evidence from three randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Pereira, Victor Galvão Moura; Espósito, Daniel Crepaldi; Damasceno, Maria Cecília Toledo; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a potentially fatal disease with high mortality. Our aim was to summarize the current evidence for use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) in the early phase of ARDS. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of publications between

  8. Electroanalysis of cardioselective beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent acebutolol by disposable graphite pencil electrodes with detailed redox mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmanand M. Bagoji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple economic graphite pencil electrode (GPE was used for analysis of cardioselective, hydrophilic-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, acebutolol (ACBT using the cyclic voltammetric, linear sweep voltammetric, differential pulse voltammetric (DPV, and square-wave voltammetric (SWV techniques. The dependence of the current on pH, concentration, and scan rate was investigated to optimize the experimental condition for determination of ACBT. The electrochemical behavior of the ACBT at GPE was a diffusion-controlled process. A probable electro-redox mechanism was proposed. Under the optimal conditions, the anodic peak current was linearly proportional to the concentration of ACBT in the range from 1.00 to 15.0 μM with a limit of detection 1.26 × 10−8 M for DPV and 1.28 × 10−8 M for the SWV. This method was applied for quantitative determination of the ACBT levels in urine as real samples. The obtained recovery ranges for ACBT in urine were from 95.4 to101% as found by the standard addition technique. Further interference study was also carried with some common interfering substances.

  9. Chamomile: an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Shukla, Sanjeev; Srivastava, Janmejai K; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-12-01

    Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we investigated the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and explored its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile treatment inhibited LPS-induced NO production and significantly blocked IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile caused reduction in LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, LPS-induced DNA binding activity of RelA/p65 was significantly inhibited by chamomile, an effect that was mediated through the inhibition of IKKβ, the upstream kinase regulating NF-κB/Rel activity, and degradation of inhibitory factor-κB. These results demonstrate that chamomile inhibits NO production and iNOS gene expression by inhibiting RelA/p65 activation and supports the utilization of chamomile as an effective anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Chamomile, an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Shukla, Sanjeev; Srivastava, Janmejai K; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile treatment inhibited LPS-induced NO production and significantly blocked IL-1β , IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile caused reduction in LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, LPS-induced DNA binding activity of RelA/p65 was significantly inhibited by chamomile, an effect that was mediated through the inhibition of IKKβ , the upstream kinase regulating NF-κ B/Rel activity, and degradation of inhibitory factor-κ B. These results demonstrate that chamomile inhibits NO production and iNOS gene expression by inhibiting RelA/p65 activation and supports the utilization of chamomile as an effective anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:21042790

  11. Association between intraoperative non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agent dose and 30-day readmission after abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevathasan, T; Shih, S L; Safavi, K C; Berger, D L; Burns, S M; Grabitz, S D; Glidden, R S; Zafonte, R D; Eikermann, M; Schneider, J C

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesised that intraoperative non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) dose is associated with 30-day hospital readmission. Data from 13,122 adult patients who underwent abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia at a tertiary care hospital were analysed by multivariable regression, to examine the effects of intraoperatively administered NMBA dose on 30-day readmission (primary endpoint), hospital length of stay, and hospital costs. Clinicians used cisatracurium (mean dose [SD] 0.19 mg kg-1 [0.12]), rocuronium (0.83 mg kg-1 [0.53]) and vecuronium (0.14 mg kg-1 [0.07]). Intraoperative administration of NMBAs was dose-dependently associated with higher risk of 30-day hospital readmission (adjusted odds ratio 1.89 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.26-2.84] for 5th quintile vs 1st quintile; P for trend: Psurgery) significantly modified the risk (interaction term: aOR 1.31 [95% CI 1.05-1.63], P=0.02), and the adjusted odds of readmission in patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures who received high-dose NMBAs vs low-dose NMBAs amounted to 2.61 [95% CI 1.11-6.17], P for trend: Phigh doses of NMBAs given during abdominal surgery was associated with an increased risk of 30-day readmission, particularly in patients undergoing ambulatory surgery.

  12. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André; Vervoort, Wiek

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is

  13. Six years without pholcodine; Norwegians are significantly less IgE-sensitized and clinically more tolerant to neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, G H; Florvaag, E; Johansson, S G O; Irgens, Å; Petersen, M N H; Guttormsen, A B

    2017-05-01

    As a strong inducer of IgE antibodies to substituted ammonium ion epitopes (QAI), pholcodine (PHO) is a postulated cause of allergic anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs). Three years after withdrawal of PHO in Norway, a significant reduction in IgE sensitization and anaphylaxis reporting was seen. Six-year follow-up study on the effects of PHO withdrawal on IgE sensitization and anaphylaxis reporting. From 650 acute consecutive reports (2005-2013) to the Norwegian Network for Anaphylaxis under Anaesthesia (NARA), total number of reports on suspected anaphylactic reactions, number of reactions where NMBAs were administered, number of reactions where serum IgE antibodies (≥0.35 kU A /l) to suxamethonium (SUX) and PHO were present at time of reaction and anaphylaxis severity grades were retrieved. In addition, NMBA sales and prevalence of IgE sensitization to PHO and SUX among 'allergics' were monitored. From baseline period P0 (PHO on the market) through the first (P1) and second (P2), three-year periods after withdrawal, significant falls in total reports (P IgE antibodies to PHO (P = 0.008) and SUX (P = 0.001) at time of reaction were found. Total NMBA sales in P2 were 83% of P0, and SUX and rocuronium (ROC) together made up 86% of sales throughout the study. Five NMBA-related anaphylactic deaths occurred during P0 and P1 and, however, none during P2. Prevalence of IgE sensitization to SUX in 'allergics' fell to 0% at 4 and 5 years after withdrawal. Six years after PHO withdrawal, the Norwegian population has become significantly less IgE-sensitized and clinically more tolerant to NMBAs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity is a risk factor for positive allergy skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman, Nadia; Cocis, Mihaela; Petrisor, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are not currently recommended for the general population undergoing general anaesthesia. In a previous study we have reported a high incidence of positive allergy tests for NMBAs in patients with a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy, a larger prospective study being needed to confirm those preliminary results. The objective of this study was to compare the skin tests results for patients with a positive history of antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to those of controls without drug allergies. Ninety eight patients with previous antibiotic hypersensitivity and 72 controls were prospectively included. Skin tests were performed for atracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and suxamethonium. We found 65 positive skin tests from the 392 tests performed in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity (1 6.58%) and 23 positive skin tests from the 288 performed in controls (7.98%), the two incidences showing significant statistical difference (p = 0.0011). The relative risk for having a positive skin test for NMBAs for patients versus controls was 1.77 (1.15-2.76). For atracurium, skin tests were more often positive in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity versus controls (p = 0.02). For pancuronium, rocuronium and suxamethonium the statistical difference was not attained (p-values 0.08 for pancuronium, 0.23 for rocuronium, and 0.26 for suxamethonium). Patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity seem to have a higher incidence of positive skin tests for NMBAs. They might represent a group at higher risk for developing intraoperative anaphylaxis compared to the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible alpha-adrenoceptor blocking activity of arotinolol (S-596), a new beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent in isolated dog coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanashi, M; Miyamoto, Y; Ito, H; Takeo, S; Noguchi, K; Higa, T

    1984-01-01

    Effects of arotinolol on dog coronary arteries were investigated in vitro. In distal portions of left circumflex coronary arteries contracted with 3 X 10(-2)M KCl, norephinephrine relaxed the strips in a concentration-dependent fashion. Propranolol (10(-6)M) converted the norepinephrine-induced relaxations to contractions, and arotinolol (10(-6)-10(-5)M) inhibited the relaxations induced by norepinephrine in a concentration-dependent manner. In proximal portions of the strips after potassium-contracture, norephinephrine produced concentration-dependent contractions which were augmented by propranolol (10(-6)M) and inhibited by arotinolol (10(-6)-10(-5)M). These results suggest that arotinolol has an alpha-adrenoceptor blocking activity in addition to a beta-adrenoceptor blocking action in dog coronary arteries.

  16. Autonomous Intersection Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    and analyzing my algorithms for correctness and rigor. Third, Tarun Nimmagadda, for creating the first mixed simulation using my simulator. In addition...Agent Systems, 10(2):131–164, March 2005. [Beeson et al., 2008] Patrick Beeson, Jack O’Quin, Bartley Gillan, Tarun Nimma- gadda, Mickey Ristroph, David...autonomous vehicles at intersections. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 13(3):82–86, May 1998. [Nimmagadda, 2009] Tarun Nimmagadda. Building an autonomous ground

  17. Evaluation of Isoprene Chain Extension from PEO Macromolecular Chain Transfer Agents for the Preparation of Dual, Invertible Block Copolymer Nanoassemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jeremy W; Cauët, Solène I; Billings, Peter L; Lin, Lily Yun; Zhu, Jiahua; Fidge, Christopher; Pochan, Darrin J; Wooley, Karen L

    2010-09-14

    Two RAFT-capable PEO macro-CTAs, 2 and 5 kDa, were prepared and used for the polymerization of isoprene which yielded well-defined block copolymers of varied lengths and compositions. GPC analysis of the PEO macro-CTAs and block copolymers showed remaining unreacted PEO macro-CTA. Mathematical deconvolution of the GPC chromatograms allowed for the estimation of the blocking efficiency, about 50% for the 5 kDa PEO macro-CTA and 64% for the 2 kDa CTA. Self assembly of the block copolymers in both water and decane was investigated and the resulting regular and inverse assemblies, respectively, were analyzed with DLS, AFM, and TEM to ascertain their dimensions and properties. Assembly of PEO-b-PIp block copolymers in aqueous solution resulted in well-defined micelles of varying sizes while the assembly in hydrophobic, organic solvent resulted in the formation of different morphologies including large aggregates and well-defined cylindrical and spherical structures.

  18. Potential impact of policy regulation and generic competition on sales of cholesterol lowering medication, antidepressants and acid blocking agents in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, J; Van Hal, G; De Loof, H; Remmen, R; De Meyer, G R Y; Beutels, P

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures are increasing as a proportion of health expenditures in most rich countries. Antidepressants, acid blocking agents and cholesterol lowering medication are major contributors to medicine sales around the globe. We aimed to document the possible impact of policy regulations and generic market penetration on the evolution of sales volume and average cost per unit (Defined Daily Doses and packages) of antidepressants, acid blocking agents and cholesterol lowering medication. We extracted data from the IMS health database regarding the public price and sales volume of the antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOl's) and tricyclic and remaining antidepressants (TCA's)), acid blocking agents (proton pump inhibitors (PPl's) and H2 receptor antagonists) and cholesterol lowering medication (statins and fibrates) in Belgium between 1995 and 2009. We describe these sales data in relation to various national policy measures which were systematically searched in official records. Our analysis suggests that particular policy regulations have had immediate impact on sales figures and expenditures on pharmaceuticals in Belgium: changes in reimbursement conditions, a public tender and entry of generic competitors in a reference pricing system. However, possible sustainable effects seem to be counteracted by other mechanisms such as marketing strategies, prescribing behaviour, brand loyalty and the entry of pseudogenerics. It is likely that demand-side measures have a more sustainable impact on expenditure. Compared with other European countries, generic penetration in Belgium remains low. Alternative policy regulations aimed at enlarging the generic market and influencing pharmaceutical expenditures deserve consideration. This should include policies aiming to influence physicians' prescribing and a shared responsibility of pharmacists, physicians and patients towards expenditures.

  19. Efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 as an anesthetic agent for blocking sensory-motor responses in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlana Ramlochansingh

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are drugs that reversibly relieve pain, decrease body movements and suppress neuronal activity. Most drugs only cover one of these effects; for instance, analgesics relieve pain but fail to block primary fiber responses to noxious stimuli. Alternately, paralytic drugs block synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions, thereby effectively paralyzing skeletal muscles. Thus, both analgesics and paralytics each accomplish one effect, but fail to singularly account for all three. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 is structurally similar to benzocaine, a typical anesthetic for anamniote vertebrates, but contains a sulfate moiety rendering this drug more hydrophilic. MS-222 is used as anesthetic in poikilothermic animals such as fish and amphibians. However, it is often argued that MS-222 is only a hypnotic drug and its ability to block neural activity has been questioned. This prompted us to evaluate the potency and dynamics of MS-222-induced effects on neuronal firing of sensory and motor nerves alongside a defined motor behavior in semi-intact in vitro preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Electrophysiological recordings of extraocular motor discharge and both spontaneous and evoked mechanosensory nerve activity were measured before, during and after administration of MS-222, then compared to benzocaine and a known paralytic, pancuronium. Both MS-222 and benzocaine, but not pancuronium caused a dose-dependent, reversible blockade of extraocular motor and sensory nerve activity. These results indicate that MS-222 as benzocaine blocks the activity of both sensory and motor nerves compatible with the mechanistic action of effective anesthetics, indicating that both caine-derivates are effective as single-drug anesthetics for surgical interventions in anamniotes.

  20. Design and Integration of a Three Degrees-of-Freedom Robotic Vehicle with Control Moment Gyro for the Autonomous Multi-Agent Physically Interacting Spacecraft (AMPHIS) Testbed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Jason S

    2006-01-01

    ...) Spacecraft Simulator. This simulator will be used in the Proximity Operations Simulator Facility, as part of the Naval Postgraduate School's Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory, to simulate autonomous guidance, navigation and control (GNC...

  1. Chamomile, an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Shukla, Sanjeev; Srivastava, Janmejai K; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile treatment inhibited LPS-induced NO production and significantly blocked IL-1β , IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels in RAW 264.7 macropha...

  2. Autonomic neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

  3. Water-soluble organo-building blocks of aminoclay as a soil-flushing agent for heavy metal contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Eun Jung; Ko, Dong Ah; Yang, Ji-Won

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aminoclays have synthesized using centered metals with aminopropyl silane. ► Developed aminoclay has unique nano-sized and water-soluble properties. ► Aminoclay showed high heavy metal capacity with metal ions and its less toxicity. ► Aminoclay could be used to remediate heavy metals from soils an alternative soil-flushing agent. - Abstract: We demonstrated that water-soluble aminopropyl magnesium functionalized phyllosilicate could be used as a soil-flushing agent for heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil flushing has been an attractive means to remediate heavy metal contamination because it is less disruptive to the soil environment after the treatment was performed. However, development of efficient and non-toxic soil-flushing agents is still required. We have synthesized aminoclays with three different central metal ions such as magnesium, aluminum, and ferric ions and investigated applicability of aminoclays as soil flushing agents. Among them, magnesium (Mg)-centered aminoclay showed the smallest size distribution and superior water solubility, up to 100 mg/mL. Mg aminoclay exhibited cadmium and lead binding capacity of 26.50 and 91.31 mg/g of Mg clay, respectively, at near neutral pH, but it showed negligible binding affinity to metals in acidic conditions. For soil flushing with Mg clay at neutral pH showed cadmium and lead were efficiently extracted from soils by Mg clay, suggesting strong binding ability of Mg clay with cadmium and lead. As the organic matter and clay compositions increased in the soil, the removal efficiency by Mg clay decreased and the operation time increased.

  4. Autonomous houses. Autonomous house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    Self-sufficiency type houses are outlined. On condition that people gain a certain amount of income in relation with the society, they self-suffice under the given environment, allowing themselves to accept a minimum of industrial products with small environmental load. Ordinary supply from outside of fossil energy and materials which depend on it is minimized. Types are classified into three: energy, energy materials and perfect self-sufficiency. A study project for environment symbiotic houses is progressing which is planned by the Ministry of Construction and Institute of Building Energy Conservation and is invested by a private company. Its target is making a house for halving an environmental load by CO{sub 2}, for the purpose of creating the environment symbiotic house which is nice to and in harmony with the global environment and human beings. As a part of the studies on energy-saving and resource conservation on houses, introduced is a plan of an autonomous house at Izu-Atagawa. The passive method and high thermal-insulation are used for air conditioning, and hot spring water for hot water supply. Electric power is generated by hydroelectric power generation using mountain streams and by solar cells. Staple food is purchased, while subsidiary food is sufficed. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Effects of a new beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent, S-596 (arotinolol), on isolated dog coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanashi, M; Miyamoto, Y; Takeo, S; Noguchi, K

    1983-06-01

    Effects of S-596 on dog coronary arteries were investigated in vitro. S-596 produced concentration-dependent relaxations of coronary arterial strips under potassium-, prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha- or PGE2-contracture. S-596-induced relaxations of the strips were not influenced by tetraethylammonium or tranylcypromine, but restored by additional Ca++ or prevented by prior administration of Ca++. In distal portions of coronary arteries, S-596 significantly inhibited concentration-dependent relaxations of the strips induced by norepinephrine and reversed to weak contractions. In proximal portions, S-596 significantly inhibited concentration-dependent contractions induced by norepinephrine. Results indicate that S-596 has a nonspecific relaxant effect on isolated dog coronary arteries maybe through impairment of Ca++ availability and simultaneously has an alpha-adrenoceptor blocking effect, particularly on large coronary arteries.

  6. Bone-targeted agents in the treatment of bone metastases: RANK outsider or new kid on the block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouganim, Nathaniel; Clemons, Mark J

    2011-03-01

    Stopeck AT, Lipton A, Body JJ et al.: Denosumab compared with zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind study. Clin. Oncol. 28(35), 5132-5139 (2010). Bone is the most common site of recurrence in patients with advanced breast cancer. Bisphosphonates have revolutionized the care for patients with bone metastases by delaying and reducing skeletal complications. The RANK ligand inhibitor denosumab has been developed as a result of our enhanced understanding of bone physiology. In a recent randomized, double-blind trial, denosumab has been shown to be superior to zoledronic acid in delaying the onset of skeletal complications in advanced breast cancer patients. While these results are exciting, the absence of any survival benefit and the considerable cost of this agent mean that further quality-of-life data are needed before it becomes widely used as a new standard of care.

  7. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  8. Prolonged Atrioventricular Block and Ventricular Standstill Following Adenosine Triphosphate Injection in a Patient Taking Dipyridamole and Antiarrhythmic Agents: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Oe, MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of palpitation. She had hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, treated with digoxin and cibenzoline, and took dipyridamole for microalbuminuria. Before admission, she had taken pilsicainide pills in addition. On admission, electrocardiogram showed regular tachycardia with mildly prolonged QRS width. For the purpose of terminating tachycardia, 10 mg of adenosine triphosphate (ATP was rapidly injected. About 20 sec later, atrioventricular block and ventricular standstill occurred. She presented loss of consciousness and convulsion, and chest compression was performed. About 30 sec later, the QRS complex reappeared, and she became alert. Serum concentration of digoxin, cibenzoline and pilsicainide was within therapeutic level, respectively. We should be cautious in using ATP for a patient taking dipyridamole and antiarrhythmic agents.

  9. High improvement in trap level density and direct current breakdown strength of block polypropylene by doping with a β-nucleating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Zha, Jun-Wei; Yan, Hong-Da; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2018-02-01

    Polypropylene is one kind of eco-friendly insulating material, which has attracted more attention for use in high voltage direct current (HVDC) insulation due to the long-distance transmission, low loss, and recyclability. In this work, the morphology and thermal and electrical properties of the block polypropylene with various β-nucleating agent (β-NA) contents were investigated. The relative fraction of the β-crystal can reach 64.7% after adding 0.05 wt. % β-NA. The β-NA also greatly reduced the melting point and improved the crystallization temperature. The electrical property results showed that the alternating and direct current breakdown strength and conduction current were obviously improved. In addition, space charge accumulation was significantly suppressed by introducing the β-NA. This work provides an attractive strategy of design and fabrication of polypropylene for HVDC application.

  10. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine) for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment. PMID:25984478

  11. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Parirokh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment.

  12. Hydroxypyridinonate complex stability of group (IV) metals and tetravalent f-block elements: the key to the next generation of chelating agents for radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Choi, Taylor A; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-04-06

    The solution thermodynamics of the water-soluble complexes formed between 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and Zr(IV) or Pu(IV) were investigated to establish the metal coordination properties of this octadentate chelating agent. Stability constants log β110 = 43.1 ± 0.6 and 43.5 ± 0.7 were determined for [Zr(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], respectively, by spectrophotometric competition titrations against Ce(IV). Such high thermodynamic stabilities not only confirm the unparalleled Pu(IV) affinity of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as a decorporation agent but also corroborate the great potential of hydroxypyridinonate ligands as new (89)Zr-chelating platforms for immuno-PET applications. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates and are discussed with respect to ionic radius and electronic configuration, in comparison with those of Ce(IV) and Th(IV). Furthermore, a liquid chromatography assay combined with mass spectrometric detection was developed to probe the separation of the neutral [M(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] complex species (M = Zr, Ce, Th, and Pu), providing additional insight into the coordination differences between group IV and tetravalent f-block metals and on the role of d and f orbitals in bonding interactions.

  13. Autonomous search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous combinatorial search (AS) represents a new field in combinatorial problem solving. Its major standpoint and originality is that it considers that problem solvers must be capable of self-improvement operations. This is the first book dedicated to AS.

  14. Blocking heme oxygenase-1 by zinc protoporphyrin reduces tumor hypoxia-mediated VEGF release and inhibits tumor angiogenesis as a potential therapeutic agent against colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun-Chia; Guan, Siao-Syun; Yang, Hao-Jhih; Chang, Chun-Chao; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Chang, Jungshan; Ho, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-28

    Hypoxia in tumor niche is one of important factors to start regeneration of blood vessels, leading to increase survival, proliferation, and invasion in cancer cells. Under hypoxia microenvironment, furthermore, steadily increased hypoxia-inducible factor -1α (HIF-1α) is observed, and can increase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and promote angiogenesis. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor, is potential to inhibit tumor proliferation and progression. However, the mechanism of ZnPP in inhibition of tumor is not completely clear. We hypothesize that ZnPP may modulate HIF-1α through inhibiting HO-1, and then inhibit angiogenesis and tumor progression. This study aimed to dissect the mechanism of ZnPP in tumor suppression. We observed the amount of VEGF was increased in the sera of the colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (n = 34, p ZnPP inhibited the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF coupled with cell proliferations of HCT-15 cells, suggesting that ZnPP blocked HIF-1α expression, and then inhibited the consequent VEGF production. In the xenograft model, we also observed that the animals exposed to ZnPP displayed much smaller tumor nodules and less degree of angiogenesis with decreased expression of the angiogenesis marker, αvβ3 integrin, compared to that in normal control. This study demonstrated that VEGF level in serum was elevated in the patients with CRC. The HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, possessed the properties of anti-tumor agent by decreasing HIF-1α levels, blocking VEGF production, impairing tumor angiogenesis, and inhibiting tumor growth.

  15. Data Provisioning Systems for Autonomous Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varaiya, Pravin

    1999-01-01

    This project is part of a portfolio comprising four other projects to investigate the possibility of operating a collection of intelligent autonomous agents so that the collection can undertakes complex missions...

  16. Identification on the content of micronuclei and nature of DNA damaging agent using cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay in combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamizh Selvan, G.; Bhavani, M.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Human beings are continuously exposed to many types of DNA damaging agents which could affect normal function of the cells. While many biomarkers are available to monitor the exposed individuals, limited tools have the ability to discriminate the nature of genotoxic agents. Such identification is an important measure in case of lack of information on the nature of exposure during accidents where many peoples can be exposed. Hence, we aimed to study the capability of cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay in combination with centeromere specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to discriminate the radiation from chemicals. Peripheral blood was exposed to γ radiation (0.25 and 2Gy), bleomycin (40 and 80 μg/ml), mitomycin-C (4 and 8 μg/ml) and colchicine (0.05 and 0.1 μg/ml); then cultured for 72 hours to prepare the binucleated cells (BN). The BN were hybridized with pan-centromeric FISH probe and counter stained with DAPI to count the MN with centromere (MNCN + ) and without centromere (MNCN - ) using fluorescence microscope. The unexposed cells showed 0.014±0.004 (MNCN - ) and exposed cells showed both MNCN + and MNCN - . The obtained total MN frequencies were 0.050±0.007 (0.25 Gy) and 0.188±0.017 (2 Gy) for γ irradiated cells, 0.072±0.011 (40 μg/ml) and 0.112±0.012 (80 μg/ml) for bleomycin, 0.029±0.006 (21 μg/ml) and 0.066±0.009 (4 μg/ml) for MMC, 0.072±0.004 (0.05 μg/ml) and 0.106±0.005 (0.1 μg/ml) for colchicine exposed cells. The γ-irradiated cells exhibited dose dependent decrease of MNCN + (32.6 and 16.7%); however, bleomycin exposed cells showed 20.5 and 20.7%; whereas, colchicine exposed cells showed 79.6 and 82.4% and MMC exposed cells exhibited MNCN + of 18.5 and 26.7% for the different concentrations. The obtained results suggest that colchicine alone induced more CNMN + and differences in the induction of MNCN + by using different chemicals as compare to ionizing radiation. Hence, CBMN assay using

  17. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  18. Reclassifying Anaphylaxis to Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Based on the Presumed Patho-Mechanism: IgE-Mediated, Pharmacological Adverse Reaction or “Innate Hypersensitivity”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Spoerl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of perioperative anaphylactic reactions are thought to be immunoglobulin IgE mediated, whereas 40% are thought to be non-IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions (both considered non-dose-related type B adverse drug reactions. In both cases, symptoms are elicited by mast cell degranulation. Also, pharmacological reactions to drugs (type A, dose-related may sometimes mimic symptoms triggered by mast cell degranulation. In case of hypotension, bronchospasm, or urticarial rash due to mast cell degranulation, identification of the responsible mechanism is complicated. However, determination of the type of the underlying adverse drug reaction is of paramount interest for the decision of whether the culprit drug may be re-administered. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA are among the most frequent cause of perioperative anaphylaxis. Recently, it has been shown that NMBA may activate mast cells independently from IgE antibodies via the human Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor member X2 (MRGPRX2. In light of this new insight into the patho-mechanism of pseudo-allergic adverse drug reactions, in which as drug-receptor interaction results in anaphylaxis like symptoms, we critically reviewed the literature on NMBA-induced perioperative anaphylaxis. We challenge the dogma that NMBA mainly cause IgE-mediated anaphylaxis via an IgE-mediated mechanism, which is based on studies that consider positive skin test to be specific for IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Finally, we discuss the question whether MRGPRX2 mediated pseudo-allergic reactions should be re-classified as type A adverse reactions.

  19. Reclassifying Anaphylaxis to Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Based on the Presumed Patho-Mechanism: IgE-Mediated, Pharmacological Adverse Reaction or "Innate Hypersensitivity"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerl, David; Nigolian, Haig; Czarnetzki, Christoph; Harr, Thomas

    2017-06-07

    Approximately 60% of perioperative anaphylactic reactions are thought to be immunoglobulin IgE mediated, whereas 40% are thought to be non-IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions (both considered non-dose-related type B adverse drug reactions). In both cases, symptoms are elicited by mast cell degranulation. Also, pharmacological reactions to drugs (type A, dose-related) may sometimes mimic symptoms triggered by mast cell degranulation. In case of hypotension, bronchospasm, or urticarial rash due to mast cell degranulation, identification of the responsible mechanism is complicated. However, determination of the type of the underlying adverse drug reaction is of paramount interest for the decision of whether the culprit drug may be re-administered. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) are among the most frequent cause of perioperative anaphylaxis. Recently, it has been shown that NMBA may activate mast cells independently from IgE antibodies via the human Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor member X2 (MRGPRX2). In light of this new insight into the patho-mechanism of pseudo-allergic adverse drug reactions, in which as drug-receptor interaction results in anaphylaxis like symptoms, we critically reviewed the literature on NMBA-induced perioperative anaphylaxis. We challenge the dogma that NMBA mainly cause IgE-mediated anaphylaxis via an IgE-mediated mechanism, which is based on studies that consider positive skin test to be specific for IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Finally, we discuss the question whether MRGPRX2 mediated pseudo-allergic reactions should be re-classified as type A adverse reactions.

  20. Preformulation studies for an ultrashort-acting neuromuscular blocking agent GW280430A. I. Buffer and cosolvent effects on the solution stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haijian; Meserve, Kathy; Floyd, Alison

    2002-01-01

    GW280430A is an ultrashort-acting neuromuscular blocking agent targeted at muscle relaxation to facilitate surgical intubation. The objective of this work was to study the buffer and cosolvent effects on the solution stability of GW280430A. The buffer catalytic effect was examined in citrate, malate, tartrate, and glycine by measuring the rate of degradation of GW280430A (0.2 mg/mL) at constant pH (3), ionic strength (0.15 M), and various buffer concentrations (0.01-0.05 M). The temperature dependence of the buffer catalytic effect and the degradation of the GW280430A in cosolvent (ethanol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400, N,N-dimethylacetamide)/water mixtures were studied at 40, 50, and 60 degrees C. The loss of parent drug was monitored by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The degradation of GW280430A followed first-order kinetics in all buffer solutions. Significant buffer-catalyzed hydrolysis of GW280430A was observed with citrate, tartrate, and malate buffers, but not in glycine-buffered solutions. The activation energies in all buffered drug solutions ranged from 70 to 80 kJ/mol and decreased with increasing buffer concentration. GW280430A degradation was primarily through ester hydrolysis and followed first-order kinetics in aqueous solutions. In cosolvent/water mixtures, new degradation products were observed, indicating a chemical reaction between GW280430A and cosolvents. The reaction activation energies in the cosolvent/water mixtures ranged from 75 to 85 kJ/mol, with the longest t(0.9) at 5 degrees C equal to approximately 12 months and at 25 degrees C equal to 36 days. Consideration should be given to the incorporation of glycine or a low concentration of citrate, malate, or tartrate buffer in the parenteral formulation development of GW280430A. Cosolvents prolonged the predicted t(0.9) for GW280430A in solution, but the enhancement was not significant enough to pursue a liquidformulation.

  1. Desenvolvimento de uma arquitetura embarcada reativa para agentes autônomos inteligentes, aplicada ao futebol de robôs = Development of an onboard reactive architecture for intelligent autonomous agents, applied to robot soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Jose Biazus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as principais dificuldades encontradas para a construção de sistemas multiagentes em que existe a disponibilidade de um sistema de visão local, como é o caso de algumas categorias de futebol de robôs, destacam-se: necessidade de resposta em tempo realpara identificação dos objetos em cena, conhecimento do ambiente, distribuição das competências de controle entre os comportamentos reativos a cargo de cada agente. O presente artigo descreve a implementação de uma arquitetura embarcada reativa paracontrole de Sistemas Multiagentes equipados com sistema de visão local e dotados de sensores, e sua aplicação em ambientes de futebol de robôs. Neste trabalho, foram descritas as técnicas de processamento digital de imagens e a arquitetura proposta para satisfazer às restrições relacionadas ao problema.There are a lot of difficulties that must be faced during the development of multi-agent systems equipped with local vision, as is the case of some robotic soccer leagues, such as: the real-time constraints for recognition of scene objects, acquisition of environment knowledge, and the distribution and allocation ofcontrol competencies among reactive behaviors under the responsibility of each agent. This article describes the implementation of an onboard reactive control architecture for a multiagent system, equipped with local vision camera and local sensors. This multiple agent system is applied in robot soccer environments. The work describes the digital image processing techniques as well as the proposed control architecture that satisfy the constraints related with this kind of application.

  2. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  3. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  4. Intelligent autonomous systems 12. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukhan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of). College of Information and Communication Engineering; Yoon, Kwang-Joon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyungsuck [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangmyung (eds.) [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Recent research in Intelligent and Autonomous Systems. Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, jeju Island, Korea. Written by leading experts in the field. Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of ''Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security and space applications, and intelligent autonomous systems for manufacturing and healthcare. This volume 2 includes contributions devoted to Service Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction and Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems and Life Engineering.

  5. Efficacy of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetic agent in scalp block and scalp infiltration to control postcraniotomy pain: A double-blind randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Vallapu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Scalp infiltration and scalp block are being used to manage postcraniotomy pain. Dexmedetomidine has been successfully used as an adjuvant in regional anesthesia. The study was intended to compare whether addition of dexmedetomidine prolonged the duration of analgesia as well as to compare the two techniques. Aims: The primary objective was to assess whether addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine prolonged the duration of analgesia. The secondary objective was to compare between scalp nerve block and scalp infiltration as techniques for pain relief. Settings and Design: The randomized control study was conducted in a tertiary care center from November 2013 to October 2014. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I–II patients, aged 18–70 years undergoing elective craniotomy were included. Patients were randomized into three groups of 50 patients, i.e., Group BI (bupivacaine infiltration, Group BDI (bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine infiltration, and Group BDNB (bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine scalp nerve block. Patient's pain score, pain-free interval, rescue analgesic requirement, and hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were noted for 48 h. Patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months to assess postcraniotomy pain. Results: Pain-free period was significantly longer in Group BDNB than Groups BDI and BI (P < 0.0001 and pain control was better in dexmedetomidine containing groups than in bupivacaine group (BI (P < 0.0001. The rescue analgesic requirement was significantly lower in Group BDNB and Group BDI compared to Group BI. Conclusion: The addition of dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg to bupivacaine prolonged the pain-free period. Scalp nerve block is a superior technique than scalp infiltration.

  6. Efficacy of Dexmedetomidine as an Adjuvant to Local Anesthetic Agent in Scalp Block and Scalp Infiltration to Control Postcraniotomy Pain: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallapu, Shankar; Panda, Nidhi Bidyut; Samagh, Navneh; Bharti, Neerja

    2018-01-01

    Scalp infiltration and scalp block are being used to manage postcraniotomy pain. Dexmedetomidine has been successfully used as an adjuvant in regional anesthesia. The study was intended to compare whether addition of dexmedetomidine prolonged the duration of analgesia as well as to compare the two techniques. The primary objective was to assess whether addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine prolonged the duration of analgesia. The secondary objective was to compare between scalp nerve block and scalp infiltration as techniques for pain relief. The randomized control study was conducted in a tertiary care center from November 2013 to October 2014. A total of 150 American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I-II patients, aged 18-70 years undergoing elective craniotomy were included. Patients were randomized into three groups of 50 patients, i.e., Group BI (bupivacaine infiltration), Group BDI (bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine infiltration), and Group BDNB (bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine scalp nerve block). Patient's pain score, pain-free interval, rescue analgesic requirement, and hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were noted for 48 h. Patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months to assess postcraniotomy pain. Pain-free period was significantly longer in Group BDNB than Groups BDI and BI ( P infiltration.

  7. Enhancing agent safety through autonomous environment adaptation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and self-directed learning are valuable components of early childhood development. This often comes at an unacceptable safety trade-off, as infants and toddlers are especially at risk from environmental hazards that may fundamentally...

  8. Agent Transparency for an Autonomous Squad Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    How insecure, discouraged, irritated, stressed and annoyed versus secure, gratified, content, relaxed and complacent did you feel during the task...around me. Almost never, Sometimes, Often, Always My concentration is good even if there is music in the room around me. Almost

  9. Holonic Spacecraft Autonomous Agents, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, Cybernet proposes to leverage our distributed Procedure Execution and Projection (PEP) system that focuses on supporting automation of complex...

  10. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  11. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  12. A Cognitive Architecture Using Reinforcement Learning to Enable Autonomous Spacecraft Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an architecture to enable the modular development and deployment of autonomous intelligent agents in support of spacecraft operations. This architecture...

  13. Inhibitory effects of sizofiran on anticancer agent- or X-ray-induced sister chromatid exchanges and mitotic block in murine bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhi-Bo; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Arika, Tadashi; Hosokawa, Masuo.

    1993-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of a biological response modifier (RRM), sizofiran, on sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the bone marrow cells of mice treated with various anticancer agents or irradiation were investigated. Sizofiran (10 mg/kg i.m.) inhibited SCEs induced by mitomycin C (2 mg/kg i.v.), adriamycin (20 mg/kg i.v.) and cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg i.v.) by about 20%, respectively. Analysis of the SCEs in vivo after irradiation plus sizofiran indicated that SCE levels were significantly lower than those observed in mice exposed to irradiation without sizofiran. Moreover, the effects of sizofiran were dependent on the timing of administration. Our results indicated that sizofiran should be administered simultaneously or soon after irradiation in order to minimize damage. Sizofiran also markedly restored the bone marrow cell mitosis which had been suppressed by anticancer agents, and this action was closely correlated with the prevention of increase in SCEs. These results indicate that in addition to immunopotentiating activity, sizofiran may play a role in preventing chromosomal damage induced by cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  15. Requirement analysis for autonomous systems and intelligent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This control architecture is based upon the requirements identified in the first part. We also present development of a software framework to test such flexible control architectures. Keywords: Electric power system, distributed control, autonomous systems, intelligent agents. 1. Introduction. Electric power systems is one of the ...

  16. [Establishment of a cell line with antisense-blocked POLH and the role of POLH in alkylating agent MNNG induced nontargeted mutagenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yue-qiu; Yang, Jun; Yu, Ying-nian

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the function of POLH(polymerase eta) through establishment of the POLH gene-blocked cell line FL-POLH(-). A mammalian expression vector expressing antisense POLH gene fragment pMAMneo-amp-POLHA (-) was constructed by cloning the 1473 - 2131 fragment of POLH gene into the mammalian expression vector pMAMneo-amp(-) in antisense orientation. The FL cells were transfected with this antisense RNA expressing vector and selected by G418. The mutation assay was conducted using the shuttle plasmid pZ189. The spontaneous mutation frequency of SupF tRNA gene in the plasmid replicated in the FL-POLH(-) was 13.5 x 10(-4), while it was 4.9x10(-4) and 3.7x10(-4) in the control cells FL and FL-M, respectively. The nontargeted mutation frequency of SupF tRNA gene decreased in the plasmid replicated in these cell lines pretreated with MNNG. POLH plays an important role in maintenance of genetic stability and genesis of nontargeted mutation.

  17. Down-titration and discontinuation strategies of tumor necrosis factor-blocking agents for rheumatoid arthritis in patients with low disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herwaarden, Noortje; den Broeder, Alfons A; Jacobs, Wilco; van der Maas, Aatke; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; van den Bemt, Bart J F

    2014-09-29

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but they are associated with (dose-dependent) adverse effects and high costs. To prevent overtreatment, several trials have assessed the effectiveness of down-titration compared with continuation of the standard dose. To evaluate the benefits and harms of down-titration (dose reduction, discontinuation or disease activity guided dose tapering) of anti-TNF agents (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab) on disease activity, functioning, costs, safety and radiographic damage compared with usual care in patients with RA and low disease activity. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 8, 2013; Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to 8 September 2013); EMBASE (1947 to 8 September 2013); Science Citation Index (Web of Science); and conference proceedings of the American College of Rheumatology (2005 to 2012) and European League against Rheumatism (2005 to 2013). We contacted authors of the seven included studies to ask for additional information on their study; five responded. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing down-titration (dose reduction, discontinuation, disease activity-guided dose tapering) of anti-TNF agents (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab) to usual care/no down-titration in patients with RA and a low disease activity state. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Six RCTs and one CCT (total 1203 participants), reporting anti-TNF down-titration, were included. Three studies (559 participants) reported anti-TNF dose reduction compared with anti-TNF continuation. Five studies (732 participants) reported anti-TNF discontinuation compared with anti-TNF continuation (two studies assessed both anti-TNF discontinuation and dose reduction), and one study assessed disease activity

  18. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  19. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  20. Effect of 2 Bleaching Agents with a Content of High Concentrated Hydrogen Peroxide on Stained 2 CAD/CAM Blocks and a Nanohybrid Composite Resin: An AFM Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzgen Karakaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate color stability of 3 restorative materials, discoloration ability of different solutions, efficacy of 2 office bleaching agents, and surface roughness and topography. Sixty specimens for Clearfil Majesty Esthetic (CME, Lava Ultimate (LU, and Vita Enamic (VE were prepared. They were immersed into 3 staining solutions for 2 weeks and then they were bleached. According to the measured L⁎, a⁎, and b⁎ parameters described by CIELAB system, color changes (ΔE00, translucency parameters (TP, whiteness index values (W⁎, and changes in closeness to pure white (ΔW⁎ were calculated. Then 3 specimens from each group were scanned with an atomic force microscope for surface analysis. After staining, CME groups and control groups of LU and VE showed clinically acceptable color changes (ΔE00<1,8. After bleaching, while a reverse effect on color was observed, VE showed the furthest color values to pure white. There was no statistically significant difference between whiteness index values of LU and CME. LU was the most translucent material during the study and TP values of materials showed minimal differences. Most of the VE groups and a control group of LU showed surface roughness (Ra values higher than critical value for biofilm accumulation (0,2 μm.

  1. Anestesia peribulbar com ropivacaína como alternativa ao bloqueio neuromuscular para facectomia em cães Peribulbar anesthesia with ropivacaine as an alternative to neuromuscular blocking agents for cataract surgery in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N.L.S. Oliva

    2010-06-01

    according to posterior peribulbar block described in humans. In both groups, the globe was centralized and globe position scores did not differ between groups. The intra-ocular pressure was significantly lower in G1 after the block (10.7±0.6 vs 14.7±0.6. There were no electrocardiographycal changes attributed to the oculocardiac reflex. In conclusion, satisfactory surgical conditions were provided by the peribulbar block. This technique can be used as an alternative to the use of neuromuscular blocking agents in dogs undergoing cataract surgery, with the advantage of providing analgesia of the eye.

  2. Autonomous Mission Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Mission Operations project will develop understanding of the impacts of increasing communication time delays on mission operations and develop...

  3. Tier-scalable reconnaissance: the future in autonomous C4ISR systems has arrived: progress towards an outdoor testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Brooks, Alexander J.-W.; Tarbell, Mark A.; Dohm, James M.

    2017-05-01

    Autonomous reconnaissance missions are called for in extreme environments, as well as in potentially hazardous (e.g., the theatre, disaster-stricken areas, etc.) or inaccessible operational areas (e.g., planetary surfaces, space). Such future missions will require increasing degrees of operational autonomy, especially when following up on transient events. Operational autonomy encompasses: (1) Automatic characterization of operational areas from different vantages (i.e., spaceborne, airborne, surface, subsurface); (2) automatic sensor deployment and data gathering; (3) automatic feature extraction including anomaly detection and region-of-interest identification; (4) automatic target prediction and prioritization; (5) and subsequent automatic (re-)deployment and navigation of robotic agents. This paper reports on progress towards several aspects of autonomous C4ISR systems, including: Caltech-patented and NASA award-winning multi-tiered mission paradigm, robotic platform development (air, ground, water-based), robotic behavior motifs as the building blocks for autonomous tele-commanding, and autonomous decision making based on a Caltech-patented framework comprising sensor-data-fusion (feature-vectors), anomaly detection (clustering and principal component analysis), and target prioritization (hypothetical probing).

  4. Somatic DNA Damages in Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Supriya Simon, A.; Dinesh Roy, D.; Jayapal, V.; Vijayakumar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is one of the most clinically significant complications of diabetes mellitus. Even though many ethological factors have been attributed for the pathogenesis of this disease no attempts were made to correlate DNA damage as a causative factor. Hence the present study was undertaken to asses the extent of somatic DNA damages by cytokinesis-block micronuclei assay (CBMN). An attempt is also being made to correlate the habits and/or risk factors and socioe...

  5. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — VisionThe Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  6. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    of the disease, and may be nonspecific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on the physiological basis of the tests and on practical applicability. Finally, diagnostic criteria, based on autonomic nerve function tests...

  7. Anti-tumor effects of a novel retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent VN/14-1 in the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary carcinoma model and its effects on the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Paul E; Qi, Shangle; Hu, Haiqing; Gediya, Lalji K; Purushottamachar, Puranik; Godbole, Abhijit M; Njar, Vincent C O

    2012-05-01

    VN/14-1 [4-(±)-(1H-Imidazol-1-yl)-(E)-retinoic acid], a novel retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent (RAMBA), works by inhibiting the breakdown of all-trans-retinoic acid. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of VN/14-1 on the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat mammary carcinoma model, and peripheral organ effects on the uteri of immature ovariectomized (OVX) rats. In tumor burden experiments, after 56 days of administration of VN/14-1 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day, significant tumor reductions in mean tumor weight of 19.1, 34.4, and 44.3%, compared to tumors in control animals occurred. Cumulative tumor growth was also significantly slower in a dose-dependent manner in groups receiving 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day of VN/14-1 compared to growth rates in the control group. Tumor apoptosis was significant increases in animals treated with 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day of VN/14-1. In uterotrophic experiments, immature OVX rats given VN/14-1 significantly reduced uterine weight and blocked endometrial stimulation induced by unopposed β-estradiol (E2). In both rat models, adverse toxicities included weakness, anorexia, and reduction in body weight in the groups given the highest dose of 20 mg/kg/day. In summary, VN/14-1 inhibited tumor growth in the MNU-induced estrogen receptor (ER)-positive rat mammary tumor model, and antagonized the stimulatory effect of estrogens on the uterus. The studies suggest that VN/14-1 may be a useful novel therapy for ER-positive breast cancer.

  8. Autonomous Lawnmower using FPGA implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Lokman, Nabill bin; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, there are various types of robot have been invented for multiple purposes. The robots have the special characteristic that surpass the human ability and could operate in extreme environment which human cannot endure. In this paper, an autonomous robot is built to imitate the characteristic of a human cutting grass. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the movements where all data and information would be processed. Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is used to describe the hardware using Quartus II software. This robot has the ability of avoiding obstacle using ultrasonic sensor. This robot used two DC motors for its movement. It could include moving forward, backward, and turning left and right. The movement or the path of the automatic lawn mower is based on a path planning technique. Four Global Positioning System (GPS) plot are set to create a boundary. This to ensure that the lawn mower operates within the area given by user. Every action of the lawn mower is controlled by the FPGA DE' Board Cyclone II with the help of the sensor. Furthermore, Sketch Up software was used to design the structure of the lawn mower. The autonomous lawn mower was able to operate efficiently and smoothly return to coordinated paths after passing the obstacle. It uses 25% of total pins available on the board and 31% of total Digital Signal Processing (DSP) blocks.

  9. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3]....

  10. Mobile Agents in Networking and Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2012-01-01

    The book focuses on mobile agents, which are computer programs that can autonomously migrate between network sites. This text introduces the concepts and principles of mobile agents, provides an overview of mobile agent technology, and focuses on applications in networking and distributed computing.

  11. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  12. Modern approaches to agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Quan; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui; Aydoğan, Reyhan; Hadfi, Rafik

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses several important aspects of complex automated negotiations and introduces a number of modern approaches for facilitating agents to conduct complex negotiations. It demonstrates that autonomous negotiation is one of the most important areas in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. Further, it presents complex automated negotiation scenarios that involve negotiation encounters that may have, for instance, a large number of agents, a large number of issues with strong interdependencies and/or real-time constraints.

  13. Autonomous Systems and Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Systems and Operations (ASO) project will develop an understanding of the impacts of increasing communication time delays on mission operations,...

  14. Autonomous Systems: Habitat Automation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Habitat Automation Project Element within the Autonomous Systems Project is developing software to automate the automation of habitats and other spacecraft. This...

  15. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  16. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Richard; Rasmussen, Robert; Man, Guy; Patel, Keyur

    1998-01-01

    Researchers and technology developers from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other government agencies, academia, and industry recently met in Pasadena, California, to take stock of past and current work and future challenges in the application of AI to highly autonomous systems. The meeting was catalyzed by new opportunities in developing autonomous spacecraft for NASA and was in part a celebration of the fictional birth year of the HAL-9000 computer.

  17. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  18. [Idiopathic autonomic neuropathy (pandysautonomia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowicz, E; Drozdowski, W; Pogumirski, J

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of current literature, clinical and neuropathologic features of idiopathic autonomic neuropathy is presented. Idiopathic autonomic neuropathy is a disease characterized by acute or subacute onset, monophasic course over a period of several years, it is often preceded by an infection. The spectrum of autonomic changes ranges from cholinergic or adrenergic dysfunction to pandysautonomia, leading to heterogeneity of its clinical features. Possible sympathetic system abnormalities found in autonomic neuropathy are: poor pupillary response to light in darkness, orthostatic hypotension leading to syncope, hypotension without compensatory tachycardia, ejaculation disturbances and vasomotor instability. Possible parasympathetic dysfunctions are: salivation and lacrimation disturbances, absent pupillary constriction to light and near gaze, gastrointestinal tract immobility and impairment of gastrointestinal function, atonic bladder with large residual volume, erectile impotence. Pandysautonomia is thought to result from an immune mediated mechanism and responds well to plasmaferesis and intravenous immunoglobin therapy leading to gradual, sometimes not full, recovery. Moreover in this article we pay attention to the clinical value of many tests like cardiovascular or pharmacological studies in the diagnosis of pandysautonomia and in differentiation of pre- and postganglionic changes. In order to diagnose idiopathic autonomic neuropathy one has to rule out a large number of diseases with autonomic dysfunction e.g.: diabetes, malignant neoplasms, acute intermittent porphyria, Shy-Drager syndrome, Riley-Day's dysautonomia, Parkinson's disease, amyloidosis and others.

  19. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  20. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks.

  1. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Game Theory Models for the Verification of the Collective Behaviour of Autonomous Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, László Z.

    2017-01-01

    The collective of autonomous cars is expected to generate almost optimal traffic. In this position paper we discuss the multi-agent models and the verification results of the collective behaviour of autonomous cars. We argue that non-cooperative autonomous adaptation cannot guarantee optimal behaviour. The conjecture is that intention aware adaptation with a constraint on simultaneous decision making has the potential to avoid unwanted behaviour. The online routing game model is expected to b...

  3. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  4. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  5. Towards autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We are moving towards an age of autonomous vehicles. Cycles of innovation initiated in the public and private sectors : have led one into another since the 1990s; and out of these efforts have sprung a variety of Advanced Driver Assistance : Systems ...

  6. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  7. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost applications. In addition, utilizing component and system modeling and reasoning capabilities, autonomous systems will play an increasing role in ground operations for space missions, where they will both reduce the human workload as well as provide greater levels of monitoring and system safety. This paper will focus specifically on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations. Topics to be presented will include a brief description of key autonomous control concepts, the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New on-board software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. A new multi-agent architecture that addresses some of the challenges of autonomous systems will be presented. Autonomous operation of ground systems will also be considered, including software for autonomous in-situ propellant production and management, and closed- loop ecological life support systems (CELSS). Finally, plans and directions for the future will be discussed.

  8. Micellization and Characterization of Block Copolymer Detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are used widely in industry as emulsifiers, anti-foaming agents, and in delayed drug release. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depen...

  9. Autonomous Robot Retrieval System

    OpenAIRE

    Ahern, S.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile robots are increasingly being deployed in environments hazardous to humans. However, many of these robots require remote control operation or are tethered, requiring the human operator to remain within a potentially hazardous radius of the area of operation. To resolve this issue an Autonomous Robot Retrieval System (ARRS) utilising Open RatSLAM based on the Lego NXT 2.0 robotics platform is proposed but could not be implemented due to memory limitations of the hardware. An occupancy g...

  10. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  11. [Dirofilariasis in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V A; Romashova, M F

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents data on the prevalence of dirofilariasis in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea during 5 years from 1999 to 2003. The nematode Dirofilaria repens is a causative agent of the disease. Sporadic cases of helminthiasis are annually registered in some urban and rural areas on the plain of the peninsula. The disease is absent on the foothills and Black sea coast of the southern and eastern parts of Crimea. The localization of the parasite is typical of this helminthiasis. Dirofilariasis in Crimea may be regarded as a transmissible helminthiasis with natural focal trends.

  12. Mobile intelligent autonomous systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raol, J. R; Gopal, Ajith K

    2013-01-01

    ..., and includes examples and applications throughout. The organization of the book is based on fundamental concepts, with sections covering fundamental concepts, methods and approaches, block/flow diagrams, and numerical examples...

  13. Improving Human/Autonomous System Teaming Through Linguistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    An area of increasing interest for the next generation of aircraft is autonomy and the integration of increasingly autonomous systems into the national airspace. Such integration requires humans to work closely with autonomous systems, forming human and autonomous agent teams. The intention behind such teaming is that a team composed of both humans and autonomous agents will operate better than homogenous teams. Procedures exist for licensing pilots to operate in the national airspace system and current work is being done to define methods for validating the function of autonomous systems, however there is no method in place for assessing the interaction of these two disparate systems. Moreover, currently these systems are operated primarily by subject matter experts, limiting their use and the benefits of such teams. Providing additional information about the ongoing mission to the operator can lead to increased usability and allow for operation by non-experts. Linguistic analysis of the context of verbal communication provides insight into the intended meaning of commonly heard phrases such as "What's it doing now?" Analyzing the semantic sphere surrounding these common phrases enables the prediction of the operator's intent and allows the interface to supply the operator's desired information.

  14. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent ...

  15. Pacemaker Placement in Patients with Stroke-Mediated Autonomic Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Alsaad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral medullary syndrome (LMS is an ischemic disease of the medulla oblongata, which involves the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Lateral medullary syndrome is often missed as the cause of autonomic dysregulation in patients with recent brain stem stroke. Due to the location of the baroreceptor regulatory center in the lateral medulla oblongata, patients with LMS occasionally have autonomic dysregulation-associated clinical manifestations. We report a case of LMS-associated autonomic dysregulation. The case presented as sinus arrest and syncope, requiring permanent pacemaker placement. A dual-chamber pacemaker was placed, after failure of conservative measures to alleviate the patient’s symptoms. Our case shows the importance of recognizing LMS as a potential cause for life-threatening arrhythmias, heart block, and symptomatic bradycardia. Placement of permanent pacemaker may be necessary in some patients with LMS presenting with syncope, secondary to sinus arrest.

  16. Autonomic Fuselet Specification and Composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Peter H

    2006-01-01

    A framework for autonomic fuselet business logic development was developed, using semantic web services and workflow technologies to specify fuselet information needs, to define an executable workflow...

  17. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  18. An Intelligent Multiagent System for Autonomous Microgrid Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Kinoshita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A microgrid is an eco-friendly power system because renewable sources such as solar and wind power are used as the main power sources. For this reason, much research, development, and demonstration projects have recently taken place in many countries. Operation is one of the important research topics for microgrids. For efficient and economical microgrid operation, a human operator is required as in other power systems, but it is difficult because there are some restrictions related to operation costs and privacy issues. To overcome the restriction, autonomous operation for microgrids is required. Recently, an intelligent agent system for autonomous microgrid operation has been studied as a potential solution. This paper proposes a multiagent system for autonomous microgrid operation. To build the multiagent system, the functionalities of agents, interactions among agents, and an effective agent protocol have been designed. The proposed system has been implemented by using an ADIPS/DASH framework as an agent platform. The intelligent multiagent system for microgrid operation based on the proposed scheme is tested to show the functionality and feasibility on a distributed environment through the Internet.

  19. Morally autonomous practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P A

    1998-12-01

    The structures and contexts within which nurses work results in the moral agency and moral autonomy of the nurse being compromised. This claim results from a confusion of (1) the concept of autonomy with those of freedom and independence; and (2) a confusion of the notion of moral autonomy with that of autonomous professional practice. The drawing of appropriate distinctions allows clarification of the relevant concepts. It also underlines the responsibility of practitioners to recognize the moral dimension of their practice, and the moral implications of their actions, as they attempt to meet the health care needs of their patients and develop practice professionally.

  20. Are ‘Agent’ Exclusion Clauses a Legitimate Application of the EU Database Directive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi Groom

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the implications of the implementation of the European Database Directive in the area of autonomous agents and the use of exclusion tools in the part of database owners to stop agents accessing their works.

  1. Are Agent Exclusion Clauses a Legitimate Application of the EU Database Directive?

    OpenAIRE

    Jimi Groom

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the implications of the implementation of the European Database Directive in the area of autonomous agents and the use of exclusion tools in the part of database owners to stop agents accessing their works.

  2. A hybrid POMDP-BDI agent architecture with online stochastic planning and plan caching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an agent architecture for controlling an autonomous agent in stochastic, noisy environments. The architecture combines the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model with the belief-desire-intention (BDI...

  3. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  4. Autonomic epileptic seizures, autonomic effects of seizures, and SUDEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Brian; Bateman, Lisa; Millichap, John J; Wirrell, Elaine; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P

    2013-03-01

    Many generalized tonic-clonic seizures are accompanied by profound autonomic changes. However, autonomic seizures and autonomic status epilepticus can also be seen with specific electroclinical syndromes (Panayiotopoulos syndrome), etiologies, and localizations. Such autonomic symptoms may impact cardiorespiratory function. While it is likely that several factors contribute to SUDEP, further study of both ictal respiratory and cardiac changes and underlying neuroanatomical mechanisms involved in autonomic seizure semiology are likely to provide important data to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of this devastating condition. This paper will review the association between autonomic symptoms and epileptic seizures and will highlight the work of three young investigators. Drs. Lisa Bateman and Brian Moseley will review their work on cardiorespiratory effects of recorded seizures and how this assists in our understanding of SUDEP. Dr. John Millichap will review autonomic seizures and autonomic dysfunctions related to childhood epilepsy and will discuss the importance of expanded research efforts in this field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  6. Autonomous Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  7. Development of an autonomous vertical profiler for oceanographic studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dabholkar, N.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Madhan, R.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Navelkar, G.; Maurya, P.K.; Prabhudesai, S.; Nagvekar, S.; Martins, H.; Sawkar, G.; Fernandes, P.; Manoj, K.K.

    showing different modules of it coupled together 2. AVP architecture The AVP electronics is shown as a block diagram in Fig. 2. It is based on distributed node architecture comprising of two CYGNAL C8051F041 [2] microcontroller boards... acquisition from the sensors. Fig. 2 : Architecture of Autonomous Vertical Profiler Initially the CNMC controller was interfaced with an Altitude & Heading Reference System (AHRS) [5] for measuring the vehicle dynamics data which was used...

  8. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... process. Autonomic disorders may be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous ... with acetylcholine and placed on the legs and forearm. Then, the volume of sweat is measured to ...

  9. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  10. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.

    2016-01-01

    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  11. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  12. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  13. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem......Low-power base stations such as e.g. Femto-cells are one of the candidates for high data rate provisioning in local areas, such as residences, apartment complexes, business offices and outdoor hotspot scenarios. Unfortunately, the benefits are not without new challenges in terms of interference...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  14. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  15. Autonomy in robots and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, T

    1997-06-01

    The word "autonomous" has become widely used in artificial intelligence, robotics, and, more recently, artificial life and is typically used to qualify types of systems, agents, or robots: we see terms like "autonomous systems," "autonomous agents," and "autonomous robots." Its use in these fields is, however, both weak, with no distinctions being made that are not better and more precisely made with other existing terms, and varied, with no single underlying concept being involved. This ill-disciplined usage contrasts strongly with the use of the same term in other fields such as biology, philosophy, ethics, law, and human rights, for example. In all these quite different areas the concept of autonomy is essentially the same, though the language used and the aspects and issues of concern, of course, differ. In all these cases the underlying notion is one of self-law making and the closely related concept of self-identity. In this paper I argue that the loose and varied use of the term autonomous in artificial intelligence, robotics, and artificial life has effectively robbed these fields of an important concept. A concept essentially the same as we find it in biology, philosophy, ethics, and law, and one that is needed to distinguish a particular kind of agent or robot from those developed and built so far. I suggest that robots and other agents will have to be autonomous, i.e., self-law making, not just self-regulating, if they are to be able effectively to deal with the kinds of environments in which we live and work: environments which have significant large scale spatial and temporal invariant structure, but which also have large amounts of local spatial and temporal dynamic variation and unpredictability, and which lead to the frequent occurrence of previously unexperienced situations for the agents that interact with them.

  16. A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; Bastiansen, Finn; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Ginot, Vincent; Giske, Jarl; Goss-Custard, John; Grand, Tamara; Heinz, Simone K.; Huse, Geir; Huth, Andreas; Jepsen, Jane U.; Jorgensen, Christian; Mooij, Wolf M.; Muller, Birgit; Pe'er, Guy; Piou, Cyril; Railsback, Steven F.; Robbins, Andrew M.; Robbins, Martha M.; Rossmanith, Eva; Ruger, Nadja; Strand, Espen; Souissi, Sami; Stillman, Richard A.; Vabo, Rune; Visser, Ute; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Simulation models that describe autonomous individual organisms (individual based models, IBM) or agents (agent-based models, ABM) have become a widely used tool, not only in ecology, but also in many other disciplines dealing with complex systems made up of autonomous entities. However, there is no standard protocol for describing such simulation models, which can make them difficult to understand and to duplicate. This paper presents a proposed standard protocol, ODD, for describing IBMs and ABMs, developed and tested by 28 modellers who cover a wide range of fields within ecology. This protocol consists of three blocks (Overview, Design concepts, and Details), which are subdivided into seven elements: Purpose, State variables and scales, Process overview and scheduling, Design concepts, Initialization, Input, and Submodels. We explain which aspects of a model should be described in each element, and we present an example to illustrate the protocol in use. In addition, 19 examples are available in an Online Appendix. We consider ODD as a first step for establishing a more detailed common format of the description of IBMs and ABMs. Once initiated, the protocol will hopefully evolve as it becomes used by a sufficiently large proportion of modellers.

  17. Operator Informational Needs for Multiple Autonomous Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Cross, Charles D.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.

  18. Recent advances in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Fujita, Katsuhide; Robu, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in Complex Automated Negotiations as a widely studied emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. The book includes selected revised and extended papers from the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN2014), which was held in Paris, France, in May 2014. The book also includes brief introductions about Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiation which are based on tutorials provided in the workshop, and brief summaries and descriptions about the ANAC'14 (Automated Negotiating Agents Competition) competition, where authors of selected finalist agents explain the strategies and the ideas used by them. The book is targeted to academic and industrial researchers in various communities of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as agreement technology, mechanism design, electronic commerce, related areas, as well as graduate, undergraduate, and PhD students working in those areas or having interest in them.

  19. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  20. Minimal Representation and Decision Making for Networked Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign 1308 W Main, Urbana , IL 61801 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...Laboratory University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign 1308 W Main, Urbana , IL 61801 tel: 217-333-1368, fax: 217-244-1653 email: voulgari@illinois.edu...a mobile sensor network (MSN) when some of the nodes in the network fail. We posed the problem as a multi-stage decision process, and used forward

  1. Determining Resource Needs of Autonomous Agents in Decoupled Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.E.G.; Ravenhorst, R.; Witteveen, C.; Van Leeuwen, P.

    2008-01-01

    At airports, the turnaround process of aircraft is crucial for a timely and efficient handling of air traffic. During this process, a number of services need to be provided during the time the aircraft is at the gate: e.g., de-boarding, cleaning, catering, fuelling, and boarding. These services are

  2. Agent-based Multimodal Interface for Dynamically Autonomous Mobile Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sofge, Donald; Bugajska, Magdalena; Adams, William; Perzanowski, Dennis; Schultz, Alan

    2003-01-01

    .... The robot implements and integrates a variety of artificial intelligence techniques including a multimodal interface that allows natural language understanding, gesture interpretation, simultaneous...

  3. The Unified Behavior Framework for the Simulation of Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    2009. [5] “human eye,” Encyclopedia Britannica . Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Encyclope- dia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web, vol. 16, Feb. 2015. [6] N. J...Experiments in Synthetic Psychology, ser. Bradford Books. MIT Press, 1986. [ Online ]. Available: http://books.google.com/books?id=7KkUAT q sQC [3] N. J

  4. Nonuniform Deployment of Autonomous Agents in Harbor-Like Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-12

    References [1] V. Sarma and S. Raju, Multisensor data fusion and de- cision support for airborne target identification, IEEE Transactions on Systems...extensively from algorithmic to implementation aspects. Mobility, coupled with estimation, data fusion , and motion control algorithms, enables groups of...scientific data in an underwater environment, and optimal DRDC-RDDC-2014-P78 8 S. Miah, B. Nguyen, A. Bourque, D. Spinello −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

  5. Autonomous Agents with Application to the Evaluation of Organizational Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curry, Michael L

    1999-01-01

    Experimental investigation of adaptive command and control (C2) organizations is limited in scope by the availability of qualified subjects and the complexity of experimental design and analysis for large organizational structures...

  6. DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiden, Wendy M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.

  7. Autonomic and Apoptotic, Aeronautical and Aerospace Systems, and Controlling Scientific Data Generated Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy (Inventor); Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A self-managing system that uses autonomy and autonomicity is provided with the self-* property of autopoiesis (self-creation). In the event of an agent in the system self-destructing, autopoiesis auto-generates a replacement. A self-esteem reward scheme is also provided and can be used for autonomic agents, based on their performance and trust. Art agent with greater self-esteem may clone at a greater rate compared to the rate of an agent with lower self-esteem. A self-managing system is provided for a high volume of distributed autonomic/self-managing mobile agents, and autonomic adhesion is used to attract similar agents together or to repel dissimilar agents from an event horizon. An apoptotic system is also provided that accords an "expiry date" to data and digital objects, for example, that are available on the internet, which finds usefulness not only in general but also for controlling the loaning and use of space scientific data.

  8. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  9. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors...

  10. Control concept for autonomous changeable material flow systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Today’s material flow systems for mass customization or dynamic productions are usually realized with manual transportation systems. However new concepts in the domain of material flow and device control like function-oriented modularization and intelligent multi-agent-systems offer the possibility to employ changeable and automated material flow systems in dynamic production structures. These systems need the ability to react on unplanned and unexpected events autonomously.

  11. Mobile agent location in distributed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoukis, S. G.; Argyropoulos, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    An agent is a small program acting on behalf of a user or an application which plays the role of a user. Artificial intelligence can be encapsulated in agents so that they can be capable of both behaving autonomously and showing an elementary decision ability regarding movement and some specific actions. Therefore they are often called autonomous mobile agents. In a distributed system, they can move themselves from one processing node to another through the interconnecting network infrastructure. Their purpose is to collect useful information and to carry it back to their user. Also, agents are used to start, monitor and stop processes running on the individual interconnected processing nodes of computer cluster systems. An agent has a unique id to discriminate itself from other agents and a current position. The position can be expressed as the address of the processing node which currently hosts the agent. Very often, it is necessary for a user, a processing node or another agent to know the current position of an agent in a distributed system. Several procedures and algorithms have been proposed for the purpose of position location of mobile agents. The most basic of all employs a fixed computing node, which acts as agent position repository, receiving messages from all the moving agents and keeping records of their current positions. The fixed node, responds to position queries and informs users, other nodes and other agents about the position of an agent. Herein, a model is proposed that considers pairs and triples of agents instead of single ones. A location method, which is investigated in this paper, attempts to exploit this model.

  12. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes

  13. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  14. [Autonomic peripheral neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David; Cauquil, Cecile; Lozeron, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms of dysautonomic disturbances are varied and mostly acquired. They can result from lesions of sympathetic or parasympathetic vegetative fibers located in the peripheral contingent, or in the somatic contingent by demyelination or axonal loss; or more rarely by cellular bodies in the sympathetic or parasympathetic ganglia. Several chronic peripheral neuropathies can be associated with dysautonomia. Only some causes need to be known because they can be clinically significant. Dysautonomia may be seen during chronic acquired neuropathies but also acute or subacute ones. The most frequent cause in the world is the dysautonomia of the diabetes; it affects all the systems; the cardiovascular dysfunction has an impact on the prognosis for survival when it is severe. Hereditary autonomic neuropathies are rare; they can declare themselves very early during the Riley-Day syndrome or very late during amyloid polyneuropathies due to transthyretin gene mutation. The diagnosis can be confirmed by molecular biology. The dysautonomia is frequent and often severe. These neuropathies justify symptomatic treatment to improve quality of life. For some of them, a specific treatment can be proposed to treat the causal affection to try to stop the progression of the disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: rlindner@astro.wisc.edu [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  16. Self-explaining agents in virtual training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual training systems are increasingly used for the training of complex, dynamic tasks. To give trainees the opportunity to train autonomously, intelligent agents are used to generate the behavior of the virtual players in the training scenario. For effective training however, trainees should be

  17. The Rise of Robots: The Military’s Use of Autonomous Lethal Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Similarly, by deploying autonomous robots we could effectively reduce the number of required human troops thus saving many from the horrors of war...of disputes.62 Ironically, the advent of most military technologies, including autonomous robots, is to further remove humans from the horrors of...science fiction movies by the end of the 21st Century. Although they still may not be considered free moral agents, the social implications of such

  18. Combination ergotamine and caffeine improves seated blood pressure and presyncopal symptoms in autonomic failure

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Amy C.; Ramirez, Claudia E.; Choi, Leena; Okamoto, Luis E.; Gamboa, Alfredo; Diedrich, André; Raj, Satish R.; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Shibao, Cyndya A.

    2014-01-01

    Severely affected patients with autonomic failure require pressor agents to counteract the blood pressure fall and improve presyncopal symptoms upon standing. Previous studies suggest that combination ergotamine and caffeine may be effective in the treatment of autonomic failure, but the efficacy of this drug has not been evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, we compared the effects of ergotamine/caffeine on seated blood pressure and orthostatic tolerance and symptoms in 12 primary auto...

  19. Autonomous power system: Integrated scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis, isolation, and recovery (FDIR), the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space-based power system. Faults can be introduced into the Brassboard and in turn, be diagnosed and corrected by APEX and AIPS. The Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler controls the execution of loads attached to the Brassboard. Each load must be executed in a manner that efficiently utilizes available power and satisfies all load, resource, and temporal constraints. In the case of a fault situation on the Brassboard, AIPS dynamically modifies the existing schedule in order to resume efficient operation conditions. A database is kept of the power demand, temporal modifiers, priority of each load, and the power level of each source. AIPS uses a set of heuristic rules to assign start times and resources to each load based on load and resource constraints. A simple improvement engine based upon these heuristics is also available to improve the schedule efficiency. This paper describes the operation of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler as a single entity, as well as its integration with APEX and the Brassboard. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler.

  20. Collaborative autonomous sensing with Bayesians in the loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nisar

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong push to develop intelligent unmanned autonomy that complements human reasoning for applications as diverse as wilderness search and rescue, military surveillance, and robotic space exploration. More than just replacing humans for `dull, dirty and dangerous' work, autonomous agents are expected to cope with a whole host of uncertainties while working closely together with humans in new situations. The robotics revolution firmly established the primacy of Bayesian algorithms for tackling challenging perception, learning and decision-making problems. Since the next frontier of autonomy demands the ability to gather information across stretches of time and space that are beyond the reach of a single autonomous agent, the next generation of Bayesian algorithms must capitalize on opportunities to draw upon the sensing and perception abilities of humans-in/on-the-loop. This work summarizes our recent research toward harnessing `human sensors' for information gathering tasks. The basic idea behind is to allow human end users (i.e. non-experts in robotics, statistics, machine learning, etc.) to directly `talk to' the information fusion engine and perceptual processes aboard any autonomous agent. Our approach is grounded in rigorous Bayesian modeling and fusion of flexible semantic information derived from user-friendly interfaces, such as natural language chat and locative hand-drawn sketches. This naturally enables `plug and play' human sensing with existing probabilistic algorithms for planning and perception, and has been successfully demonstrated with human-robot teams in target localization applications.

  1. Autonomous stimulus triggered self-healing in smart structural composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C J; White, J A P; McCombe, G; Chatterjee, P; Bond, I P; Trask, R S

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the ability of biological systems to sense and autonomously heal damage, this research has successfully demonstrated the first autonomous, stimulus triggered, self-healing system in a structural composite material. Both the sensing and healing mechanisms are reliant on microvascular channels incorporated within a laminated composite material. For the triggering mechanism, a single air filled vessel was pressurized, sealed and monitored. Upon drop weight impact (10 J), delamination and microcrack connectivity between the pressurized vessel and those open to ambient led to a pressure loss which, with the use of a suitable sensor, triggered a pump to deliver a healing agent to the damage zone. Using this autonomous healing approach, near full recovery of post-impact compression strength was achieved (94% on average). A simplified alternative system with healing agent continuously flowing through the vessels, akin to blood flow, was found to offer 100% recovery of the material’s virgin strength. Optical microscopy and ultrasonic C-scanning provided further evidence of large-scale infusion of matrix damage with the healing agent. The successful implementation of this bioinspired technology could substantially enhance the integrity and reliability of aerospace structures, whilst offering benefits through improved performance/weight ratios and extended lifetimes. (paper)

  2. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by the presence of a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals. Organizations, such as those used in real-life to structure human activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, can regulate the agents...... boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we present the AORTA reasoning framework and show how it can be integrated into typical BDI-agents. We provide operational semantics that enables agents to make organizational decisions in order to coordinate and cooperate without...... explicit coordination mechanisms within the agents. The organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model, but uses an organizational metamodel. We show how AORTA helps agents work together in a system with an organization...

  3. Multi-agent for manufacturing systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.; Tulbure, A.; Huţanu, C.-tin

    2016-08-01

    The paper is meant to be a dynamic approach to optimize manufacturing systems based on multi-agent systems. Multi-agent systems are semiautonomous decision makers and cooperate to optimize the manufacturing process. Increasing production the capacity is achieved by developing, implementing efficient and effective systems from control based on current manufacturing process. The model multi-agent proposed in this paper is based on communication between agents who, based on their mechanisms drive to autonomous decision making. Methods based on multi-agent programming are applied between flexible manufacturing processes and cooperation with agents. Based on multi-agent technology and architecture of intelligent manufacturing can lead to development of strategies for control and optimization of scheduled production resulting from the simulation.

  4. Recent Developments on Microencapsulation for Autonomous Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Jolley, Scott T.; Surma, Jan M.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns recent progress in the development of a multifunctional smart coating based on microencapsulation for the autonomous control of corrosion. Microencapsulation allows the incorporation of desired corrosion control functionalities, such as early corrosion detection and inhibition through corrosion controlled release of corrosion indicators and inhibitors, as well as self-healing agent release when mechanical damage occurs.While proof-of-concept results have been reported previously, more recent efforts have been concentrated in technical developments to improve coating compatibility, synthesis procedure scalability, as well as fine tuning the release property of encapsulated active agents.

  5. A Formal Investigation of the Organization of Guidance Behavior: Implications for Humans and Autonomous Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaodan

    Guidance behavior generated either by artificial agents or humans has been actively studied in the fields of both robotics and cognitive science. The goals of these two fields are different. The former is the automatic generation of appropriate or even optimal behavior, while the latter is the understanding of the underlying mechanism. Their challenges, though, are closely related, the most important one being the lack of a unified, formal and grounded framework where the guidance behavior can be modeled and studied. This dissertation presents such a framework. In this framework, guidance behavior is analyzed as the closed-loop dynamics of the whole agent-environment system. The resulting dynamics give rise to interaction patterns. The central points of this dissertation are that: first of all, these patterns, which can be explained in terms of symmetries that are inherent to the guidance behavior, provide building blocks for the organization of behavior; second, the existence of these patterns and humans' organization of their guidance behavior based on these patterns are the reasons that humans can generate successful behavior in spite of all the complexities involved in the planning and control. This dissertation first gives an overview of the challenges existing in both scientific endeavors, such as human and animal spatial behavior study, and engineering endeavors, such as autonomous guidance system design. It then lays out the foundation for our formal framework, which states that guidance behavior should be interpreted as the collection of the closed-loop dynamics resulting from the agent's interaction with the environment. The following, illustrated by examples of three different UAVs, shows that the study of the closed-loop dynamics should not be done without the consideration of vehicle dynamics, as is the common practice in some of the studies in both autonomous guidance and human behavior analysis. The framework, the core concepts of which are

  6. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new 3-parameter family of homogeneous 2-by-2 block shifts is described. These are the first examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1. Author Affiliations. Adam Korányi1. Department of Mathematics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY 10016, USA ...

  7. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  8. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    applications. One notable example of such missions are those to explore for the existence of water on planets such as Mars and the moons of Jupiter. It is clear that water does not exist on the surfaces of such bodies, but may well be located at some considerable depth below the surface, thus requiring a subsurface drilling capability. Subsurface drilling on planetary surfaces will require a robust autonomous control and analysis system, currently a major challenge, but within conceivable reach of planned technology developments. This paper will focus on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations, including flight test results, lessons learned, and implications for the future. An additional focus will be on technologies for planetary exploration using autonomous systems and astronaut-assistance systems that employ new spoken language technology. Topics to be presented will include a description of key autonomous control concepts, illustrated by the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will also be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. Current results of autonomous planetary drilling system research will be presented. A key thrust within NASA is to develop technologies that will leverage the capabilities of human astronauts during planetary surface explorations. One such technology is spoken dialogue interfaces, which would allow collaboration with semi-autonomous agents that are engaged in activities that are normally accomplished using language, e.g., astronauts in space suits interacting with groups of semi-autonomous rovers and other

  9. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices. Collagen as a protein. Collagen in tissues and organs. Stabilizing and cross linking agents. Immunogenicity. Hosts (drugs). Controlled release mechanisms of hosts. Biodegradability, workability into devices ...

  10. Compact autonomous navigation system (CANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. C.; Ying, L.; Xiong, K.; Cheng, H. Y.; Qiao, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous navigation of Satellite and constellation has series of benefits, such as to reduce operation cost and ground station workload, to avoid the event of crises of war and natural disaster, to increase spacecraft autonomy, and so on. Autonomous navigation satellite is independent of ground station support. Many systems are developed for autonomous navigation of satellite in the past 20 years. Along them American MANS (Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System) [1] of Microcosm Inc. and ERADS [2] [3] (Earth Reference Attitude Determination System) of Honeywell Inc. are well known. The systems anticipate a series of good features of autonomous navigation and aim low cost, integrated structure, low power consumption and compact layout. The ERADS is an integrated small 3-axis attitude sensor system with low cost and small volume. It has the Earth center measurement accuracy higher than the common IR sensor because the detected ultraviolet radiation zone of the atmosphere has a brightness gradient larger than that of the IR zone. But the ERADS is still a complex system because it has to eliminate many problems such as making of the sapphire sphere lens, birefringence effect of sapphire, high precision image transfer optical fiber flattener, ultraviolet intensifier noise, and so on. The marginal sphere FOV of the sphere lens of the ERADS is used to star imaging that may be bring some disadvantages., i.e. , the image energy and attitude measurements accuracy may be reduced due to the tilt image acceptance end of the fiber flattener in the FOV. Besides Japan, Germany and Russia developed visible earth sensor for GEO [4] [5]. Do we have a way to develop a cheaper/easier and more accurate autonomous navigation system that can be used to all LEO spacecraft, especially, to LEO small and micro satellites? To return this problem we provide a new type of the system—CANS (Compact Autonomous Navigation System) [6].

  11. Agents with a theory of mind in virtual training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual training provides an effective means to train complex, dynamic tasks like social interaction, negotiation and crisis management. The virtual characters with whom the trainee interacts are often played by autonomous, intelligent agents. For effective training, it is required that the agents

  12. Nautical traffic simulation with multi-agent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, F.; Ligteringen, H.; Van Gulijk, C.; Ale, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a microscopic nautical traffic simulation model based on multi-agent system. The ship traffic is produced from the behavior of autonomous agents that represent ships. Especially, we look at the behaviors for collision avoidance in different encountering situations with different

  13. Embodied agents in virtual environments: The Aveiro project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leiviska, K.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes

    2001-01-01

    We present current and envisaged work on the AVEIRO project of our research group concerning virtual environments inhabited by autonomous embodied agents. These environments are being built for researching issues in human-computer interactions and intelligent agent applications. We describe the

  14. Agent-Based Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Tourism Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, Sarah; Amelung, B.; Student, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a way of representing complex systems of autonomous agents or actors, and of simulating the multiple potential outcomes of these agents’ behaviors and interactions in the form of a range of alternatives or futures. Despite the complexity of the tourism system, and the

  15. Using of colleague learning mobile agents for protecting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the growing use of the internet network, using tools that can help user to transact with the network is inevitable. One of the technologies that has been taken into consideration recently and has been used is the mobile agents technology mobile agent is software that can take an action independently and autonomously ...

  16. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...... that the system can be divided into two separate constituents. The immediate dispersion, which is used for small areas and quick response, and the individual alleviation, which considers the longer distance decision support. Both of these require intrinsicate models and cost functions which at the beginning...

  17. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  18. JAK-STAT6 Pathway Inhibitors Block Eotaxin-3 Secretion by Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts from Esophageal Eosinophilia Patients: Promising Agents to Improve Inflammation and Prevent Fibrosis in EoE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Edaire; Zhang, Xi; Wilson, Kathleen S; Wang, David H; Park, Jason Y; Huo, Xiaofang; Yu, Chunhua; Zhang, Qiuyang; Spechler, Stuart J; Souza, Rhonda F

    2016-01-01

    Although most studies on treatments for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have focused on effects in the epithelium, EoE is a transmural disease. Eosinophils that infiltrate the subepithelial layers of the esophagus lead to fibrosis and the serious complications of EoE, and current therapies have shown minimal effects on this fibrosis. We aimed to elucidate T helper (Th)2 cytokine effects on esophageal fibroblasts and to explore potential fibroblast-targeted therapies for EoE. We established telomerase-immortalized fibroblasts from human esophageal biopsies. We stimulated these esophageal fibroblasts with Th2 cytokines, and examined effects of omeprazole and inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6) pathway (AS1517499, leflunomide, and ruxolitinib) on STAT6 phosphorylation, STAT6 nuclear translocation, and eotaxin-3 expression. We also measured the effects of these inhibitors in esophageal epithelial cells stimulated with Th2 cytokines. As in esophageal epithelial cells, Th2 cytokines increased STAT6 phosphorylation, STAT6 nuclear translocation, eotaxin-3 transcription and protein secretion in esophageal fibroblasts. Unlike in epithelial cells, however, omeprazole did not inhibit cytokine-stimulated eotaxin-3 expression in fibroblasts. In contrast, JAK-STAT6 pathway inhibitors decreased cytokine-stimulated eotaxin-3 expression in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Omeprazole does not inhibit Th2 cytokine-stimulated eotaxin-3 expression by esophageal fibroblasts, suggesting that PPIs will have limited impact on subepithelial EoE processes such as fibrosis. JAK-STAT6 pathway inhibitors block Th2 cytokine-stimulated eotaxin-3 expression both in fibroblasts and in epithelial cells, suggesting a potential role for JAK-STAT inhibitors in treating both epithelial inflammation and subepithelial fibrosis in EoE.

  19. Adaptive Source Localization Based Station Keeping of Autonomous Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Guler, Samet

    2016-10-26

    We study the problem of driving a mobile sensory agent to a target whose location is specied only in terms of the distances to a set of sensor stations or beacons. The beacon positions are unknown, but the agent can continuously measure its distances to them as well as its own position. This problem has two particular applications: (1) capturing a target signal source whose distances to the beacons are measured by these beacons and broadcasted to a surveillance agent, (2) merging a single agent to an autonomous multi-agent system so that the new agent is positioned at desired distances from the existing agents. The problem is solved using an adaptive control framework integrating a parameter estimator producing beacon location estimates, and an adaptive motion control law fed by these estimates to steer the agent toward the target. For location estimation, a least-squares adaptive law is used. The motion control law aims to minimize a convex cost function with unique minimizer at the target location, and is further augmented for persistence of excitation. Stability and convergence analysis is provided, as well as simulation results demonstrating performance and transient behavior.

  20. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  1. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  2. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  3. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    the method by applying standardized methods to measure the autonomic function based on heart rate variability (HRV) measures. 3) Based on the results, assess the validity of autonomic dysfunction as an early marker of a neurodegenerative disease. 4) Evaluate the influence of hypocretin loss in narcolepsy...... areas, which is consistent with the Braak hypothesis. In the narcolepsy patients, it was shown that a reduced HRR to arousals was primarily predicted by hypocretin deficiency in both rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep, independent of cataplexy and other factors. The results confirm...... that hypocretin deficiency affects the autonomic nervous system of patients with narcolepsy and that the hypocretin system is important for proper heart rate modulation at rest.Furthermore, it was shown that hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake and REM sleep...

  4. Toward autonomous operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, M.

    1994-01-01

    Issues toward realization of autonomous operation as well as maintenance of nuclear power plants are reviewed in this paper. First, the necessity and significance of the technical program aiming at the establishment of autonomous nuclear plant are discussed through reviewing the history and current status computerized operation of complex artifacts. Then, key technologies currently studied to meet the need within the framework of artificial intelligence (AI) and advanced robotics are described. Among such AI-technologies are distributed multi-agent system, operator thinking model, and advanced man-machine interface design. Advances in robot technology attained include active sensing technique and multi-unit autonomous maintenance robot systems. Techniques for simulation of human action have been pursued as basic issues for understanding mechanisms behind human behavior. In addition to the individual developments, methodological topics relevant to the autonomy of nuclear facilities are briefly addressed. The concepts called methodology diversity and dynamic functionality restoration (realization) are introduced and discussed as the underlining principles to be considered in the development of the autonomous nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  6. Political accountability and autonomous weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Igoe Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous weapons would have the capacity to select and attack targets without direct human input. One important objection to the introduction of such weapons is that they will make it more difficult to identify and hold accountable those responsible for undesirable outcomes such as mission failures and civilian casualties. I hypothesize that individuals can modify their attribution of responsibility in predicable ways to accommodate this new technology. The results of a survey experiment are consistent with this; subjects continue to find responsible and hold accountable political and military leaders when autonomous weapons are used, but also attribute responsibility to the designers and programmers of such weapons.

  7. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  8. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for structural discrimination to be woven into the fabric of autonomous vehicle developments, which remain underexplored and undiscussed. The prospect for structural discrimination arises as a result of the coordinated modes of autonomous vehicle behaviour...... discrimination looms with the possibility of crash optimisation impulses in which a protective shield is cast over those individuals in which society may have a vested interest in prioritising or safeguarding. A stark dystopian scenario is introduced to sketch the contours whereby personal beacons signal...

  9. Amphiphilic block copolymers for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Kwon, Glen S

    2003-07-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have been used extensively in pharmaceutical applications ranging from sustained-release technologies to gene delivery. The utility of ABCs for delivery of therapeutic agents results from their unique chemical composition, which is characterized by a hydrophilic block that is chemically tethered to a hydrophobic block. In aqueous solution, polymeric micelles are formed via the association of ABCs into nanoscopic core/shell structures at or above the critical micelle concentration. Upon micellization, the hydrophobic core regions serve as reservoirs for hydrophobic drugs, which may be loaded by chemical, physical, or electrostatic means, depending on the specific functionalities of the core-forming block and the solubilizate. Although the Pluronics, composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide), are the most widely studied ABC system, copolymers containing poly(L-amino acid) and poly(ester) hydrophobic blocks have also shown great promise in delivery applications. Because each ABC has unique advantages with respect to drug delivery, it may be possible to choose appropriate block copolymers for specific purposes, such as prolonging circulation time, introduction of targeting moieties, and modification of the drug-release profile. ABCs have been used for numerous pharmaceutical applications including drug solubilization/stabilization, alteration of the pharmacokinetic profile of encapsulated substances, and suppression of multidrug resistance. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a concise, yet detailed, introduction to the use of ABCs and polymeric micelles as delivery agents as well as to highlight current and past work in this area. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  10. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...

  11. Connected and autonomous vehicles 2040 vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) commissioned a one-year project, Connected and Autonomous : Vehicles 2040 Vision, with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to assess the implications of connected and : autonomous ve...

  12. Energy homeostasis, autonomic activity and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Balkan, B; Nyakas, C; vanDijk, G; Steffens, AB; Bohus, B

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by alterations in both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The present paper summarizes the results of a number of studies designed to investigate autonomic functioning in normal, genetically, and experimentally obese rats, Particular emphasis is given

  13. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Superbugs and Drugs" Home | Contact Us General Background: Antibiotic Agents What is an antibacterial and how are ... with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have ...

  14. Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Anthony Finn; Adam Jacoff; Mike...these metrics against the detailed choreography of the challenge to prevent teams ‘gaming’ the result (i.e. devising technical solutions that were

  15. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated...

  16. Autonomous Duffing-Holmes Type Chaotic Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševičius, A.; Bumelienė, S.; Kirvaitis, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and built a novel Duffing type autonomous 3rd-order chaotic oscillator. In comparison with the common non-autonomous DuffingHolmes type oscillator the autonomous circuit has an internal positive feedback loop instead of an external periodic drive source. In addition...

  17. CAAD: Computer Architecture for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoshan; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Zhe; Gaudiot, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    We describe the computing tasks involved in autonomous driving, examine existing autonomous driving computing platform implementations. To enable autonomous driving, the computing stack needs to simultaneously provide high performance, low power consumption, and low thermal dissipation, at low cost. We discuss possible approaches to design computing platforms that will meet these needs.

  18. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may either be spontaneous or triggered by touch, visual, auditory or emotional stimuli.[7] Autonomic dysfunction may occur, and does not necessarily correlate with the severity of tetanus. Wassay et al.[8] reported autonomic dysfunction in a third of tetanus cases. Autonomic dysfunction presents as labile hypertension, ...

  19. Technologies for faults diagnosis of FPGA logic blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. U. Ngene

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The critical issues of testing field programmable gate arrays (FPGA with a view to diagnosing faults are an important step that ensures the reliability of FPGA designs. Correct diagnosis of faulty logic blocks of FPGAs guarantees restoration of functionality through replacement of faulty block with replacement units. This process can be done autonomously or without the intervention of an engineer depending on application area. This paper considers two methods for analysing test results of FPGA logic blocks with the purpose of localising and distinguishing faults. The algebraic logic and vector-logical methods are proposed for diagnosing faulty logic blocks in FPGA fabric. It is found that the algebraic logic method is more useful for processing of sparse faults tables when the number of coordinates with 1s values with respect to zero values ​​is not more than 20%, whereas the vector-logical method facilitates the analysis of faults table with predominance of 1s values.

  20. Accomplishments and challenges in development of an autonomous operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, A.; Saiki, A.; Yoshikawa, S.; Okusa, K.; Suda, K.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are studying an autonomous operation system for nuclear power plants in which AI plays key roles as an alternative of plant operators and traditional controllers. In contrast with past studies dedicated to assist the operators, the ultimate target of development of the autonomous operation system is to operate the nuclear plants by AI. To realize humanlike decision-making process by means of AI, the authors used a model-based approach from multiple viewpoints and methodology diversity. A hierarchical distributed cooperative multi-agent system configuration is adopted to allow to incorporate diversified methodologies and to dynamically reorganize system functions. In the present paper, accomplishments to date in the course of the development are described. Challenges for developing methodologies to attain dynamic reorganization are also addressed. (author)

  1. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Homogeneous bilateral block shifts. ADAM KORÁNYI. Department of Mathematics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York,. New York, NY 10016, USA. E-mail: Adam.Koranyi@lehman.cuny.edu. MS received 18 January 2013. Abstract. A new 3-parameter family of homogeneous 2-by-2 block shifts is described.

  2. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  3. Control rod blocking monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru.

    1993-01-01

    The number of times for setting up a control rod blocking monitor of a BWR type power plant is remarkably reduced to mitigate operator's burden. In the control rod blocking monitor, trip levels, as a judging standard upon outputting control rod blocking inhibition signals, are set up stepwise depending on the power level around control rods put to blocking control. The present invention comprises an allowance judging means capable of setting up trip levels for each of power levels corresponding to a plurality of control rods at once if the power levels are within the set up allowable range. With such a constitution, the set up allowable range is determined previously in the allowance judging means. Accordingly, when a gang blocking is conducted to control rods, if power levels around the control rods are increased at once into the set up allowable range, the trip levels for each of the control rods are set up at once. (I.S.)

  4. An agent-based information management model of the Chinese pig sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, S.A.; Kramer, M.R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Roozmand, O.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of a selected top-down measure (what-if scenario) on actual agent behaviour and total system behaviour by means of an agent-based simulation model, when agents’ behaviour cannot fully be managed because the agents are autonomous. The Chinese pork sector serves as

  5. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  6. Teamwork in Multi-Agent Systems A Formal Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dunin-Keplicz, Barbara Maria

    2010-01-01

    What makes teamwork tick?. Cooperation matters, in daily life and in complex applications. After all, many tasks need more than a single agent to be effectively performed. Therefore, teamwork rules!. Teams are social groups of agents dedicated to the fulfilment of particular persistent tasks. In modern multiagent environments, heterogeneous teams often consist of autonomous software agents, various types of robots and human beings. Teamwork in Multi-agent Systems: A Formal Approach explains teamwork rules in terms of agents' attitudes and their complex interplay. It provides the first comprehe

  7. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  8. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Yong Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

  9. Mathematical Validation and Credibility of Diagnostic Blocks for Spinal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Andrew J; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2016-10-01

    Diagnostic blocks are used in different ways for the diagnosis of spinal pain, but their validity has not been fully evaluated. Four clinical protocols were analyzed mathematically to determine the probability of correct responses arising by chance. The complement of this probability was adopted as a measure of the credibility of correct responses. The credibility of responses varied from 50% to 95%, and was determined less by the agents used but more by what information was given to patients and if the agents were fully randomized for each block. Randomized, comparative local anesthetic blocks offer a credibility of 75%, but randomized, placebo-controlled blocks provide a credibility of 95%, and are thereby suitable as a criterion standard for diagnostic blocks. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Autonomic nervous system involvement in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Mylène; Chia, Pamela; Sarji, Shervin; Nguyen, Jason; Hoftman, Nir; Ruffenach, Gregoire; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Mahajan, Aman; Umar, Soban

    2017-12-04

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic pulmonary vascular disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) leading to right ventricular (RV) failure. Autonomic nervous system involvement in the pathogenesis of PAH has been demonstrated several years ago, however the extent of this involvement is not fully understood. PAH is associated with increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, decreased heart rate variability, and presence of cardiac arrhythmias. There is also evidence for increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in PAH patients associated with clinical worsening. Reduction of neurohormonal activation could be an effective therapeutic strategy for PAH. Although therapies targeting adrenergic receptors or RAAS signaling pathways have been shown to reverse cardiac remodeling and improve outcomes in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH)-models, the effectiveness and safety of such treatments in clinical settings have been uncertain. Recently, novel direct methods such as cervical ganglion block, pulmonary artery denervation (PADN), and renal denervation have been employed to attenuate SNS activation in PAH. In this review, we intend to summarize the multiple aspects of autonomic nervous system involvement in PAH and overview the different pharmacological and invasive strategies used to target autonomic nervous system for the treatment of PAH.

  11. Insights into the background of autonomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Geraldes, Vera; Oliveira, Mário; Rocha, Isabel

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the physiology underlying the autonomic nervous system is pivotal for understanding autonomic dysfunction in clinical practice. Autonomic dysfunction may result from primary modifications of the autonomic nervous system or be secondary to a wide range of diseases that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Together with a detailed history and physical examination, laboratory assessment of autonomic function is essential for the analysis of various clinical conditions and the establishment of effective, personalized and precise therapeutic schemes. This review summarizes the main aspects of autonomic medicine that constitute the background of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  13. Coordinated Control of Multi-Agent Systems in Rapidly Varying Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this Phase II STTR project is to develop advanced control algorithms that enable multiple autonomous agents to perform complex tasks in rapidly...

  14. 'Do you smell rotten eggs?' Evaluating interactions with mobile agents in crisis response situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterboer, A.; Cramer, H.S.M.; Pavlin, G.; Groen, F.C.A.; Evers, V.; Oppermann, R.; Eisenhauer, M.; Jarke, M.; Wulf, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present ongoing research concerning the interaction between users and autonomous mobile agents in the environmental monitoring domain. The overarching project, DIADEM, deals with developing a system that detects potentially hazardous situations in populated industrial areas using

  15. Culturally adaptive mobile agent dialogue to communicate with people in crisis recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, V.; Winterboer, A.; Pavlin, G.; Groen, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present ongoing research concerning the interaction between users and environmental agencies through autonomous mobile agents in the environmental monitoring domain. The overarching EU FP7 project DIADEM, concerns the development of a system that detects potentially hazardous situations in

  16. Autonomous intelligent cars: proof that the EPSRC Principles are future-proof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, R.W.; de Cock Buning, M.

    2017-01-01

    Principle 2 of the EPSRC’s principles of robotics (AISB workshop on PrinciplesofRobotics, 2016) proves to be future proof when applied to the current state of the art of law and technology surrounding autonomous intelligent cars (AICs). Humans, not AICS, are responsible agents. AICs should be

  17. Health, autonomic financing and transferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cantarero Prieto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as objective to study the whole relative problem to the autonomous communities and regional heath care expenditure financing in Spain. This article has a dual purpose. First, the financing of the current health care attendance is approached in the Spanish regions passing magazine to its possible variants and we observe that the balance of our system is clearly inclined towards the side of the integration in the general pattern of financing («Fiscal Room» with specific conditions («Mixed System». Secondly, we examine the new situation in the mark of health care and its corresponding financing in the new model approved in 2001, in terms of the effects of tax assignment on autonomous communities.

  18. Autonomously managed high power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.J.; Bechtel, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The need for autonomous power management capabilities will increase as the power levels of spacecraft increase into the multi-100 kW range. The quantity of labor intensive ground and crew support consumed by the 9 kW Skylab cannot be afforded in support of a 75-300 kW Space Station or high power earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft. Marshall Space Flight Center is managing a program to develop necessary technologies for high power system autonomous management. To date a reference electrical power system and automation approaches have been defined. A test facility for evaluation and verification of management algorithms and hardware has been designed with the first of the three power channel capability nearing completion

  19. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry...... Manipulation (AIMM)....

  20. Autonomic computing meets SCADA security

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, S; Patel, S; Patel, D

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 IEEE. National assets such as transportation networks, large manufacturing, business and health facilities, power generation, and distribution networks are critical infrastructures. The cyber threats to these infrastructures have increasingly become more sophisticated, extensive and numerous. Cyber security conventional measures have proved useful in the past but increasing sophistication of attacks dictates the need for newer measures. The autonomic computing paradigm mimics the auton...

  1. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  2. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  3. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  4. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  5. Blocked Urethral Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the penis. Rarely, small membranes form across the urethra in boys early in pregnancy, and they can block the flow of urine out of the bladder. These membranes are called posterior urethral valves and can have life-threatening consequences ...

  6. Optoelectronics using block copolymers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botiz, I.; Darling, S. B.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2010-05-01

    Block copolymers, either as semiconductors themselves or as structure directors, are emerging as a promising class of materials for understanding and controlling processes associated with both photovoltaic energy conversion and light emitting devices.

  7. Recent advances in neuromuscular block during anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Martijn; Martini, Christian; Dahan, Albert

    2018-01-01

    Muscle relaxation is a routine part of anesthesia and has important advantages. However, the lingering effects of muscle relaxants in the postoperative period have historically been associated with postoperative adverse events. Neuromuscular reversal, together with neuromuscular monitoring, is a recognized strategy to reduce the rate of postoperative residual relaxation but has only marginally improved outcome in the past few decades. Sugammadex, a novel reversal agent with unique encapsulating properties, has changed the landscape of neuromuscular reversal and opened up new opportunities to improve patient care. By quickly and completely reversing any depth of neuromuscular block, it may reduce the rate of residual relaxation and improve respiratory recovery. In addition, sugammadex has made the use of deep neuromuscular block possible during surgery. Deep neuromuscular block may improve surgical working conditions and allow for a reduction in insufflation pressures during selected laparoscopic procedures. However, whether and how this may impact outcomes is not well established.

  8. 9th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    Agents and multi-agent systems are related to a modern software paradigm which has long been recognized as a promising technology for constructing autonomous, complex and intelligent systems. The topics covered in this volume include agent-oriented software engineering, agent co-operation, co-ordination, negotiation, organization and communication, distributed problem solving, specification of agent communication languages, agent privacy, safety and security, formalization of ontologies and conversational agents. The volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research and includes 38 papers classified in the following specific topics: learning paradigms, agent-based modeling and simulation, business model innovation and disruptive technologies, anthropic-oriented computing, serious games and business intelligence, design and implementation of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published p...

  9. Materials and methods for autonomous restoration of electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiszik, Benjamin J; Odom, Susan A; Caruso, Mary M; Jackson, Aaron C; Baginska, Marta B; Ritchey, Joshua A; Finke, Aaron D; White, Scott R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Sottos, Nancy R; Braun, Paul V; Amine, Khalil

    2014-03-25

    An autonomic conductivity restoration system includes a solid conductor and a plurality of particles. The particles include a conductive fluid, a plurality of conductive microparticles, and/or a conductive material forming agent. The solid conductor has a first end, a second end, and a first conductivity between the first and second ends. When a crack forms between the first and second ends of the conductor, the contents of at least a portion of the particles are released into the crack. The cracked conductor and the released contents of the particles form a restored conductor having a second conductivity, which may be at least 90% of the first conductivity.

  10. Simulation Framework for Rebalancing of Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczuk Katarzyna A.

    2016-01-01

    This study is built upon our previous work on Autonomous Mobility on Demand (AMOD systems. Our methodology is simulation-based and we make use of SimMobility, an agent-based microscopic simulation platform. In the current work we focus on the framework for testing different rebalancing policies for the AMOD systems. We compare three different rebalancing methods: (i no rebalancing, (ii offline rebalancing, and (iii online rebalancing. Simulation results indicate that rebalancing reduces the required fleet size and shortens the customers’ wait time.

  11. Mathematical Biomarkers for the Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate and blood pressure are the most important vital signs in diagnosing disease. Both heart rate and blood pressure are characterized by a high degree of short term variability from moment to moment, medium term over the normal day and night as well as in the very long term over months to years. The study of new mathematical algorithms to evaluate the variability of these cardiovascular parameters has a high potential in the development of new methods for early detection of cardiovascular disease, to establish differential diagnosis with possible therapeutic consequences. The autonomic nervous system is a major player in the general adaptive reaction to stress and disease. The quantitative prediction of the autonomic interactions in multiple control loops pathways of cardiovascular system is directly applicable to clinical situations. Exploration of new multimodal analytical techniques for the variability of cardiovascular system may detect new approaches for deterministic parameter identification. A multimodal analysis of cardiovascular signals can be studied by evaluating their amplitudes, phases, time domain patterns and sensitivity to imposed stimuli, i.e. drugs blocking the autonomic system. The causal effects, gains and dynamic relationships may be studied through dynamical fuzzy logic models, such as the discrete-time model and discrete-event model. We expect an increase in accuracy of modeling and a better estimation of the heart rate and blood pressure time series, which could be of benefit for intelligent patient monitoring. We foresee that identifying quantitative mathematical biomarkers for autonomic nervous system will allow individual therapy adjustments to aim at the most favorable sympathetic-parasympathetic balance.

  12. Autonomously stabilized entanglement between two superconducting quantum bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K. M.; Narla, A.; Vool, U.; Girvin, S. M.; Frunzio, L.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    Quantum error correction codes are designed to protect an arbitrary state of a multi-qubit register from decoherence-induced errors, but their implementation is an outstanding challenge in the development of large-scale quantum computers. The first step is to stabilize a non-equilibrium state of a simple quantum system, such as a quantum bit (qubit) or a cavity mode, in the presence of decoherence. This has recently been accomplished using measurement-based feedback schemes. The next step is to prepare and stabilize a state of a composite system. Here we demonstrate the stabilization of an entangled Bell state of a quantum register of two superconducting qubits for an arbitrary time. Our result is achieved using an autonomous feedback scheme that combines continuous drives along with a specifically engineered coupling between the two-qubit register and a dissipative reservoir. Similar autonomous feedback techniques have been used for qubit reset, single-qubit state stabilization, and the creation and stabilization of states of multipartite quantum systems. Unlike conventional, measurement-based schemes, the autonomous approach uses engineered dissipation to counteract decoherence, obviating the need for a complicated external feedback loop to correct errors. Instead, the feedback loop is built into the Hamiltonian such that the steady state of the system in the presence of drives and dissipation is a Bell state, an essential building block for quantum information processing. Such autonomous schemes, which are broadly applicable to a variety of physical systems, as demonstrated by the accompanying paper on trapped ion qubits, will be an essential tool for the implementation of quantum error correction.

  13. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia.

  14. Autonomous Multicamera Tracking on Embedded Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Horst

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a strong trend towards the deployment of advanced computer vision methods on embedded systems. This deployment is very challenging since embedded platforms often provide limited resources such as computing performance, memory, and power. In this paper we present a multicamera tracking method on distributed, embedded smart cameras. Smart cameras combine video sensing, processing, and communication on a single embedded device which is equipped with a multiprocessor computation and communication infrastructure. Our multicamera tracking approach focuses on a fully decentralized handover procedure between adjacent cameras. The basic idea is to initiate a single tracking instance in the multicamera system for each object of interest. The tracker follows the supervised object over the camera network, migrating to the camera which observes the object. Thus, no central coordination is required resulting in an autonomous and scalable tracking approach. We have fully implemented this novel multicamera tracking approach on our embedded smart cameras. Tracking is achieved by the well-known CamShift algorithm; the handover procedure is realized using a mobile agent system available on the smart camera network. Our approach has been successfully evaluated on tracking persons at our campus.

  15. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  16. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  17. Scheduling lessons learned from the Autonomous Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA LeRC is designed to demonstrate the applications of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution systems. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR); the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to efficiently assign activities start times and resources; and power hardware (Brassboard) to emulate a space-based power system. The AIPS scheduler was tested within the APS system. This scheduler is able to efficiently assign available power to the requesting activities and share this information with other software agents within the APS system in order to implement the generated schedule. The AIPS scheduler is also able to cooperatively recover from fault situations by rescheduling the affected loads on the Brassboard in conjunction with the APEX FDIR system. AIPS served as a learning tool and an initial scheduling testbed for the integration of FDIR and automated scheduling systems. Many lessons were learned from the AIPS scheduler and are now being integrated into a new scheduler called SCRAP (Scheduler for Continuous Resource Allocation and Planning). This paper will service three purposes: an overview of the AIPS implementation, lessons learned from the AIPS scheduler, and a brief section on how these lessons are being applied to the new SCRAP scheduler.

  18. From Autonomous Systems to Sociotechnical Systems: Designing Effective Collaborations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Behymer

    Full Text Available Effectiveness in sociotechnical systems often depends on coordination among multiple agents (including both humans and autonomous technologies. This means that autonomous technologies must be designed to function as collaborative systems, or team players. In many complex work domains, success is beyond the capabilities of humans unaided by technologies. However, at the same time, human capabilities are often critical to ultimate success, as all automated control systems will eventually face problems their designers did not anticipate. Unfortunately, there is often an either/or attitude with respect to humans and technology that tends to focus on optimizing the separate human and autonomous components, with the design of interfaces and team processes as an afterthought. The current paper discusses the limitations of this approach and proposes an alternative where the goal of design is a seamless integration of human and technological capabilities into a well-functioning sociotechnical system. Drawing lessons from both the academic (SRK Framework and commercial (IBM’s Watson, video games worlds, suggestions for enriching the coupling between the human and automated systems by considering both technical and social aspects are discussed.

  19. [The interface between the immune system and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Shunya; Mukaino, Akihiro; Ando, Yukio

    2017-01-01

      The nervous system and the immune system are two major systems in human body. Although it was revealed these two systems correlated, the control of immune cell dynamics by the nervous system has come to draw a lot of attention at the present time. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in several animal models. One well-characterized cytokine-inhibiting mechanism, termed the "inflammatory reflex", is dependent upon vagus nerve stimulation that inhibits cytokine production and attenuates the inflammation. And the mechanism for controlling lymphocyte trafficking becomes clear, and molecular basis of immune regulation by the nervous system was reported. On the other hand, the nervous system is protected from the invasion of harmful agents by the barrier. However, there are neuroimmunological disorders, which is associated with autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and infection immunity. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder that leads to widespread autonomic manifestations, in which autoantibodies to ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play a central role. Previously, we elucidated the prevalence of extra-autonomic manifestations in patients with AAG. It is necessary to establish the new systems for the detection of autoantibodies to other subunits of acetylcholine receptor.

  20. Autonomous navigation strategy for robot swarms using local communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Hernán Martínez Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our motivation focuses on answering a simple question: What is the minimum robotic structure necessary to solve a navigation problem? Our research deals with environments that are unknown, dynamic, and denied to sensors. In particular, the paper addresses problems concerning how to coordinate the navigation of multi-ple autonomous mobile robots without requiring system identification, geometric map building, localization or state estimation. The proposed navigation algorithm uses the gradient of the environment to set the navigation control. This gradient is continuously modified by all the robots in the form of local communication. The design scheme, both for the algorithm and for its implementation on robots, searches for a minimal approximation, in which it minimizes the requirements of the robot (processing power, communication and kind of sensors. Besides, our research finds autonomous navigation for each robot, and also scales the system to any number of agents. The navigation algorithm is formulated for a grouping task, where the robots form autonomous groups without any external interaction or prior information of the environment or information from other robots. Finally, task performance is verified through simulation for the laboratory prototypes of the group.

  1. Information Sharing Mechanism among Mobile Agents In Ad-hoc Network Environment and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Umetsuji

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are programs that can move from one site to another in a network with their data and states. Mobile agents are expected to be an essential tool in pervasive computing. In multi platform environment, it is important to communicate with mobile agents only using their universal or logical name not using their physical locations. More, in an ad-hoc network environment, an agent can migrate autonomously and communicate with other agents on demand. It is difficult that mobile agent grasps the position information on other agents correctly each other, because mobile agent processes a task while moving a network successively. In order to realize on-demand mutual communication among mobile agents without any centralized servers, we propose a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. In this paper, we present a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. The method is a complete peer based and requires no agent servers to manage mobile agent locations. Therefore, a mobile agent can get another mobile agent, communicate with it and shares information stored in the agent without any knowledge of the location of the target mobile agent. The basic idea of the mechanism is an introduction of Agent Ring, Agent Chain and Shadow Agent. With this mechanism, each agent can communicate with other agents in a server-less environment, which is suitable for ad-hoc agent network and an agent system can manage agents search and communications efficiently.

  2. Mobile agents basic concepts, mobility models, and the tracy toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mobile agents are software nomads that act as your personal representative, working autonomously through networks. They are able to visit network nodes directly using available computing power and are not limited by platform. This emerging field is now poised to become a cornerstone for new Web-based ubiquitous computing environments. Mobile Agents provides a practical introduction to mobile agent technology and surveys the state of the art in mobile agent research. Students and researchers can use the book as an introduction to the concepts and possibilities of this field and as an overview of ongoing research. Developers can use it to identify the capabilities of the technology to decide if mobile agents are the right solution for them. Practioners can also gain hands-on experience in programming mobile agents through exploration of the source code for a complete mobile agent environment available through the companion website.*Summarizes the state of the art in mobile agent research*Identifies the benefits...

  3. Towards the Development of Autonomous Ferries

    OpenAIRE

    Bitar, Glenn Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous ships is at the moment a heavily researched topic in the maritime industry. Development to introduce autonomous ferries in the Norwegian fjords is under way. This thesis is a study of technical and formal challenges related to autonomous ferries. The thesis goes into topics such as industrial control systems for ships, path planning and collision avoidance algorithms, as well as automatic docking. Additionally, information and statistics regarding ferry activities in Norway are pre...

  4. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-01-01

    The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negativ...

  5. Autonomous Exploration Using an Information Gain Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    navigation goals, serving to drive an autonomous system. By continually moving to these navigation goals and taking measurements, the system works to...ARL-TR-7638 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Autonomous Exploration Using an Information Gain Metric by Nicholas C Fung...Laboratory Autonomous Exploration Using an Information Gain Metric by Nicholas C Fung, Jason M Gregory, and John G Rogers Computational and

  6. DARTS: Deceiving Autonomous Cars with Toxic Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Sitawarin, Chawin; Bhagoji, Arjun Nitin; Mosenia, Arsalan; Chiang, Mung; Mittal, Prateek

    2018-01-01

    Sign recognition is an integral part of autonomous cars. Any misclassification of traffic signs can potentially lead to a multitude of disastrous consequences, ranging from a life-threatening accident to a large-scale interruption of transportation services relying on autonomous cars. In this paper, we propose and examine realistic security attacks against sign recognition systems for Deceiving Autonomous caRs with Toxic Signs (we call the proposed attacks DARTS). Leveraging the concept of ad...

  7. Design of an Autonomous Forklift Using Kinect

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellatif Mohamed; Shoeir Metwali; Talaat Omar; Gabalah Mahmoud; Elbably Mohamed; Saleh Saleh

    2018-01-01

    Material handling is a necessary, but expensive activity in factories. Autonomous robot technology can help reduce the cost and relax humans from the exhaustive job of driving forklifts. In this paper, we describe the mechatronics design and implementation of an autonomous forklift. The robot can perceive the 3D dynamic world and can plan its motion autonomously to lift materials from a source to target locations. Dynamic map of the world is built using data from a Microsoft Kinect head and r...

  8. Implementing a Cloud Platform for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoshan; Tang, Jie; Wang, Chao; Wang, Quan; Gaudiot, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous driving clouds provide essential services to support autonomous vehicles. Today these services include but not limited to distributed simulation tests for new algorithm deployment, offline deep learning model training, and High-Definition (HD) map generation. These services require infrastructure support including distributed computing, distributed storage, as well as heterogeneous computing. In this paper, we present the details of how we implement a unified autonomous driving clo...

  9. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T van den Heever

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of generalised tetanus in a 50-year-old female patient after sustaining a wound to her right lower leg. She developed autonomic dysfunction, which included labile hypertension alternating with hypotension and sweating. The autonomic dysfunction was treated successfully with a combination of morphine sulphate infusion, magnesium sulphate, and clonidine. She also received adrenaline and phenylephrine infusions as needed for hypotension. We then discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment options of autonomic dysfunction.

  10. Autonomous aerial vehicles : guidance, control, signal and image processing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarrah, M.; Adiansyah, S.; Marji, Z. M.; Chowdhury, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of unmanned systems is gaining momentum in civil applications after successful use by the armed forces around the globe. Autonomous aerial vehicles are important for providing assistance in monitoring highways, power grid lines, borders, and surveillance of critical infrastructures. It is envisioned that cargo shipping will be completely handled by UAVs by the 2025. Civil use of unmanned autonomous systems brings serious challenges. The need for cost effectiveness, reliability, operation simplicity, safety, and cooperation with human and with other agents are among these challenges. Aerial vehicles operating in the civilian aerospace is the ultimate goal which requires these systems to achieve the reliability of manned aircraft while maintaining their cost effectiveness. In this presentation the development of an autonomous fixed and rotary wing aerial vehicle will be discussed. The architecture of the system from the mission requirements to low level auto pilot control laws will be discussed. Trajectory tracking and path following guidance and control algorithms commonly used and their implementation using of the shelf low cost components will be presented. Autonomous takeo? landing is a key feature that was implemented onboard the vehicle to complete its degree of autonomy. This is implemented based on accurate air-data system designed and fused with sonar measurements, INS/GPS measurements, and vector field method guidance laws. The outcomes of the proposed research is that the AUS-UAV platform named MAZARI is capable of autonomous takeoff and landing based on a pre scheduled flight path using way point navigation and sensor fusion of the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS). Several technologies need to be mastered when developing a UAV. The navigation task and the need to fuse sensory information to estimate the location of the vehicle is critical to successful autonomous vehicle. Currently extended Kalman filtering is

  11. Towards social autonomous vehicles: Efficient collision avoidance scheme using Richardson's arms race model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Faisal; Niazi, Muaz A

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM) level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC) framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson's arms race model has also been presented. The performance of the proposed social agent has been validated at two levels-firstly it has been simulated using NetLogo, a standard agent-based modeling tool and also, at a practical level using a prototype AV. The simulation results have confirmed that the proposed social agent-based collision avoidance strategy is 78.52% more efficient than Random walk based collision avoidance strategy in congested flock-like topologies. Whereas practical results have confirmed that the proposed scheme can avoid rear end and lateral collisions with the efficiency of 99.876% as compared with the IEEE 802.11n-based existing state of the art mirroring neuron-based collision avoidance scheme.

  12. Towards social autonomous vehicles: Efficient collision avoidance scheme using Richardson’s arms race model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Muaz A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM) level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC) framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson’s arms race model has also been presented. The performance of the proposed social agent has been validated at two levels–firstly it has been simulated using NetLogo, a standard agent-based modeling tool and also, at a practical level using a prototype AV. The simulation results have confirmed that the proposed social agent-based collision avoidance strategy is 78.52% more efficient than Random walk based collision avoidance strategy in congested flock-like topologies. Whereas practical results have confirmed that the proposed scheme can avoid rear end and lateral collisions with the efficiency of 99.876% as compared with the IEEE 802.11n-based existing state of the art mirroring neuron-based collision avoidance scheme. PMID:29040294

  13. Towards social autonomous vehicles: Efficient collision avoidance scheme using Richardson's arms race model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Riaz

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs, which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson's arms race model has also been presented. The performance of the proposed social agent has been validated at two levels-firstly it has been simulated using NetLogo, a standard agent-based modeling tool and also, at a practical level using a prototype AV. The simulation results have confirmed that the proposed social agent-based collision avoidance strategy is 78.52% more efficient than Random walk based collision avoidance strategy in congested flock-like topologies. Whereas practical results have confirmed that the proposed scheme can avoid rear end and lateral collisions with the efficiency of 99.876% as compared with the IEEE 802.11n-based existing state of the art mirroring neuron-based collision avoidance scheme.

  14. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe...... the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  15. Science Data Understanding for Autonomous Rover Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous rover traversal speed and capabilities are rapidly increasing, but communications bandwidth for planetary exploration remains limited. In order to...

  16. A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbier, Magali; Gabard, Jean-Francois; Ayreault, Herve

    2007-01-01

    ...; few solutions propose architecture adaptive to several types of platform. Autonomous vehicles that move in partially known and dynamic environments have to deal with asynchronous disruptive events...

  17. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  18. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  19. Autonomous systems for plant protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Ruckelhausen, Arno; Jørgensen, Rasmus N.

    2010-01-01

    of autonomous operations related to crop protection probably commercially available in the near future. Scouting and monitoring together with the efficient application of chemicals or mechanical treatments are operations which can be successful automated. Drawbacks are that current systems are lacking robust......Advances in automation are demanded by the market mainly as a response to high labor costs. Robotic outdoor systems are ready to allow not only economically viable operations but also increased efficiency in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. The aim of this chapter is to give examples...

  20. Autonomous quality assurance and troubleshooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPlain, Ronald F.; Radziwill, Nicole M.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2006-06-01

    To improve operational availability (the proportion of time that a telescope is able to accomplish what a visiting observer wants at the time the observation is scheduled), response time to faults must be minimized. One way this can be accomplished is by characterizing the relationships and interdependencies between components in a control system, developing algorithms to identify the root cause of a problem, and capturing expert knowledge of a system to simplify the process of troubleshooting. Results from a prototype development are explained, along with deployment issues. Implications for the future, such as effective knowledge representation and management, and learning processes which integrate autonomous and interactive components, are discussed.

  1. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  2. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  3. BART: The Czech Autonomous Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Štrobl, Jan; Polášek, Cyril

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, Spec. Is. (2010), 103986/1-103986/5 ISSN 1687-7969. [Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Observatories. Málaga, 18.05.2009-21.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : robotic telescope * BART * gamma ray bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aa/2010/103986.html

  4. Agent-based model of soil water dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Benjamin; Schumann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, agent based modelling became more and more popular in social science, biology and environmental modelling. The concept is designed to simulate systems that are highly dynamic and sensitive to small variations in their composition and their state. As hydrological systems often show dynamic and nonlinear behaviour, agent based modelling can be an adequate way to model aquatic systems. Nevertheless, up to now only a few results on agent based modelling are known in hydrology. Processes like the percolation of water through the soil are highly responsive to the state of the pedological system. To simulate these water fluxes correctly by known approaches like the Green-Ampt model or approximations to the Richards equation, small time steps and a high spatial discretisation are needed. In this study a new approach for modelling water fluxes in a soil column is presented: autonomous water agents that transport water through the soil while interacting with their environment as well as with other agents under physical laws. Setting up an agent-based model requires a predefined rule set for the behaviour of the autonomous agents. Moreover, we present some principle assumptions of the interaction not only between agents, but as well between agents and their environment. Our study shows that agent-based modelling in hydrology leads to very promising results but we also have to face new challenges.

  5. The mobile agent rendezvous problem in the ring

    CERN Document Server

    Kranakis, Evangelos; Marcou, Euripides

    2010-01-01

    Mobile agent computing is being used in fields as diverse as artificial intelligence, computational economics and robotics. Agents' ability to adapt dynamically and execute asynchronously and autonomously brings potential advantages in terms of fault-tolerance, flexibility and simplicity. This monograph focuses on studying mobile agents as modelled in distributed systems research and in particular within the framework of research performed in the distributed algorithms community. It studies the fundamental question of how to achieve rendezvous, the gathering of two or more agents at the same n

  6. Knowledge exchange between agents in real-time environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert Lykke

    2005-01-01

    To obtain unpredictable social interaction between autonomous agents in real-time environments, we present a simple method for logic-based knowledge exchange. A method which is able to form new knowledge rather than do simple exchange of particular rules found in predetermined rule sets. The appl....... The applicability of our concept is demonstrated through a simple visualization of a real-time 3D environment, where agents seek to persuade opponents to join their team. This is done through cooperation with friends and education of neutral agents.......To obtain unpredictable social interaction between autonomous agents in real-time environments, we present a simple method for logic-based knowledge exchange. A method which is able to form new knowledge rather than do simple exchange of particular rules found in predetermined rule sets...

  7. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  8. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  9. Autonomic neuropathy in Fabry disease: a prospective study using the Autonomic Symptom Profile and cardiovascular autonomic function tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegstraaten, Marieke; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Wieling, Wouter; Wijburg, Frits A.; Hollak, Carla E. M.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fabry patients have symptoms and signs compatible with autonomic dysfunction. These symptoms and signs are considered to be due to impairment of the peripheral nervous system, but findings indicative of autonomic neuropathy in other diseases, such as orthostatic intolerance and

  10. Structured control for autonomous robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    To operate in rich, dynamic environments, autonomous robots must be able to effectively utilize and coordinate their limited physical and occupational resources. As complexity increases, it becomes necessary to impose explicit constraints on the control of planning, perception, and action to ensure that unwanted interactions between behaviors do not occur. This paper advocates developing complex robot systems by layering reactive behaviors onto deliberative components. In this structured control approach, the deliberative components handle normal situations and the reactive behaviors, which are explicitly constrained as to when and how they are activated, handle exceptional situations. The Task Control Architecture (TCA) has been developed to support this approach. TCA provides an integrated set of control constructs useful for implementing deliberative and reactive behaviors. The control constructs facilitate modular and evolutionary system development: they are used to integrate and coordinate planning, perception, and execution, and to incrementally improve the efficiency and robustness of the robot systems. To date, TCA has been used in implementing a half-dozen mobile robot systems, including an autonomous six-legged rover and indoor mobile manipulator

  11. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  12. Nonselective Blocking of the Sympathetic Nervous System Decreases Detrusor Overactivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Shin Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The involuntary dual control systems of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the bladder of awake spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were investigated through simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures to observe detrusor overactivity (DO objectively as a core symptom of an overactive bladder. SHRs (n = 6 showed the features of overactive bladder syndrome during urodynamic study, especially DO during the filling phase. After injection of the nonselective sympathetic blocking agent labetalol, DO disappeared in 3 of 6 SHRs (50%. DO frequency decreased from 0.98 ± 0.22 min−1 to 0.28 ± 0.19 min−1 (p < 0.01, and DO pressure decreased from 3.82 ± 0.57 cm H2O to 1.90 ± 0.86 cm H2O (p < 0.05. This suggests that the DO originating from the overactive parasympathetic nervous system is attenuated by the nonselective blocking of the sympathetic nervous system. The detailed mechanism behind this result is still not known, but parasympathetic overactivity seems to require overactive sympathetic nervous system activity in a kind of balance between these two systems. These findings are consistent with recent clinical findings suggesting that patients with idiopathic overactive bladder may have ANS dysfunction, particularly a sympathetic dysfunction. The search for newer and better drugs than the current anticholinergic drugs as the mainstay for overactive bladder will be fueled by our research on these sympathetic mechanisms. Further studies of this principle are required.

  13. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  14. Making Block Grants Accountable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    Methods of accountability are presented in considering the Reagan administration plan to consolidate 84 federal health, education and social service grants into six block grant areas and to cut overall funding. After matching aspects of public criticism with proposal objectives, a rationale is developed for building elements of accountability into…

  15. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  16. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  17. Coding with Blockly

    CERN Document Server

    Lovett, Amber

    2017-01-01

    "Blockly is a fun, graphical programming language designed to get kids interested in creating their own computer programs. Through simple text written to foster creativity and problem solving, students will the art of innovation. Large, colorful images show students how to complete activities. Additional tools, including a glossary and an index, help students learn new vocabulary and locate information."-- Provided by publisher.

  18. Negotiation and argumentation in multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) composed of autonomous agents representing individuals or organizations and capable of reaching mutually beneficial agreements through negotiation and argumentation are becoming increasingly important and pervasive.Research on both automated negotiation and argumentation in MAS has a vigorous, exciting tradition. However, efforts to integrate both areas have received only selective attention in the academia and the practitioner literature. A symbiotic relationship could significantly strengthen each area's progress and trigger new R&D challenges and prospects toward t

  19. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliom, Laura R.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-05-10

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems.

  20. Assurance in Agent-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliom, Laura R.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-01-01

    Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software agents which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of agent and multi-agent technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous agents in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into agent-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual agents must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. Providing for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using agent-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in agent-based systems

  1. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V₅ and V₆). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V₅ and V₆.

  2. Controlling rigid formations of mobile agents under inconsistent measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina Peinado, Hector; Cao, Ming; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    —Despite the great success of using gradient-based controllers to stabilize rigid formations of autonomous agents in the past years, surprising yet intriguing undesirable collective motions have been reported recently, when inconsistent measurements are used in the agents’ local controllers. To make

  3. AORTA : Adding organizational reasoning to agents (Extended Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt Jensen, A.; Dignum, V.

    2014-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe

  4. Tick-borne agents in rodents, China, 2004-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zhan (Lin); W.-C. Cao (Wu-Chun); C.Y. Chu (Chen); B.G. Jiang; F. Zhang (Fang); L.J. Liu (Wei); J.S. Dumler (Stephen); X-M. Wu (Xiao-Ming); S-Q. Zuo (Shu-Qing); H.N. Huang; Q.M. Zhao; N. Jia (Na); H. Yang (Hong); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA total of 705 rodents from 6 provinces and autonomous regions of mainland People's Republic of China were tested by PCRs for tick-borne agents (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and Francisella tularensis). Infection rates were

  5. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  6. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are available to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions

  7. The Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    part of our training and practice is spent acquiring skills in averting or utilizing the autonomic nervous system effects of anaesthetic drugs or surgical procedures under a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Moreover, many of these pathophysiological condi- tions may be associated with impaired preoperative autonomic ...

  8. Blunted autonomic response in cluster headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads; Brinth, Louise; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is a disabling headache disorder with chronobiological features. The posterior hypothalamus is involved in CH pathophysiology and is a hub for autonomic control. We studied autonomic response to the head-up tilt table test (HUT) including heart rate variability...

  9. Basic and clinical pharmacology of autonomic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Autonomic drugs are used clinically to either imitate or inhibit the normal functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. A large number of additional drug classes also interact with these systems to produce a stunning number of possible side effects. This article reviews the basic function of the autonomic nervous system and the various drug classes that act within these neural synapses.

  10. Safe and Autonomous Drones for Urban Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are no longer futuristic technology; in fact, there are already cars with self-driving features on the road. Over the next five years, the connected vehicles will disrupt the entire automotive and UAS ecosystems. The industry will undergo fundamental change as semi-autonomous driving and flying emerges, followed by an eventual shift to full autonomy.

  11. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  12. Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

  13. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases wit...

  14. Temporal stability and drivers of change in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mandy X; Lamers, Femke; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J C

    2017-12-01

    This study determined temporal stability of ambulatory measured cardiac autonomic activity for different time periods and investigated potential drivers of changes in this activity. Data was drawn from baseline (n=2379), 2-year (n=2245), and 6-year (n=1876) follow-up from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Cardiac autonomic activity was measured with heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP). Autonomic temporal stability was determined across 2, 4, and 6year intervals. We subsequently examined the association between sociodemographics, lifestyle, mental health, cardiometabolic health, and the use of antidepressant and cardiac medication with change in cardiac autonomic activity. Over 2years, stability was good for HR (ICC=0.703), excellent for RSA (ICC=0.792) and moderate for PEP (ICC=0.576). Stability decreased for a 4- (HR ICC=0.688, RSA ICC=0.652 and PEP ICC=0.387) and 6-year interval (HR ICC=0.633, RSA ICC=0.654 and PEP ICC=0.355). The most important determinants for increase in HR were (increase in) smoking, increase in body mass index (BMI) and (starting) the use of antidepressants. Beta-blocking/antiarrhythmic drug use led to a decrease in HR. Decrease in RSA was associated with age, smoking and (starting) antidepressant use. Decrease in PEP was associated with age and (increase in) BMI. Cardiac autonomic measures were rather stable over 2years, but stability decreased with increasing time span. Determinants contributing to cardiac autonomic deterioration were older age, (increase in) smoking and BMI, and (starting) the use of antidepressants. (Starting) the use of cardiac medication improved autonomic function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  16. Novel insights in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan; Fujita, Katsuhide

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on all aspects of complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. This book consists of two parts. I: Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations, and II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. The chapters in Part I are extended versions of papers presented at the 2012 international workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN), after peer reviews by three Program Committee members. Part II examines in detail ANAC 2012 (The Third Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents that have different negotiation strategies and are implemented by different developers are automatically negotiated in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of universities and research institutes across the world, are evaluated in tournament style. The purpose of the competition is to steer the research in the area of bilate...

  17. Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

  18. Anesthesia Management in Diabetic Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Karacaer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is frequently observed in patients with diabetes mellitus and encompasses damage to the autonomic nerve fibers, resulting in abnormalities in heart rate control and vascular dynamics. There is an increased mortality and morbidity rate among these patients. A series of cardiovascular reflex tests known as Ewing's battery tests are used for diagnosis cardiac autonomic neuropathy and provide valuable information to the clinical assessment of these patients. As anesthesia has a major influence on perioperative autonomic function, the interplay between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and anesthesia may result in unexpected haemodynamic instability during surgery and postoperative recovery. A comprehensive preoperative assessment and perioperative cautious monitoring are necessary for successful anesthesia management. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 140-151

  19. Current challenges in autonomous driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  20. Human-Vehicle Interface for Semi-Autonomous Operation of Uninhabited Aero Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Henry L.; Frew, Eric W.; Woodley, Bruce R.; Rock, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    The robustness of autonomous robotic systems to unanticipated circumstances is typically insufficient for use in the field. The many skills of human user often fill this gap in robotic capability. To incorporate the human into the system, a useful interaction between man and machine must exist. This interaction should enable useful communication to be exchanged in a natural way between human and robot on a variety of levels. This report describes the current human-robot interaction for the Stanford HUMMINGBIRD autonomous helicopter. In particular, the report discusses the elements of the system that enable multiple levels of communication. An intelligent system agent manages the different inputs given to the helicopter. An advanced user interface gives the user and helicopter a method for exchanging useful information. Using this human-robot interaction, the HUMMINGBIRD has carried out various autonomous search, tracking, and retrieval missions.

  1. Sleep in trigeminal autonomic cephalagias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barløse, Mads; Lund, Nunu; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep and cluster headache (CH) are believed to be interconnected but the precise relation to the other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) is uncertain and complex. A better understanding of these relations may eventually lead to a clarification of the underlying mechanisms...... and eventually to more effective therapeutic regimens. This review aims to evaluate the existing literature on the subject of TACs and sleep. An association between episodic CH and distinct macrostructural sleep phases, especially the relation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, has been described in some older...... studies but could not be confirmed in other, more recent studies. Investigations into the microstructure of sleep in these patients are lacking. Only a few case reports exist on the relation between sleep and other TACs. SUMMARY: Recent studies do not find an association between CH and REM sleep. One...

  2. Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Polk, J. D.; Hines, John W.; Nall, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of Autonomous Medical Care (AMC) is to ensure a healthy, well-performing crew which is a primary need for exploration. The end result of this effort will be the requirements and design for medical systems for the CEV, lunar operations, and Martian operations as well as a ground-based crew health optimization plan. Without such systems, we increase the risk of medical events occurring during a mission and we risk being unable to deal with contingencies of illness and injury, potentially threatening mission success. AMC has two major components: 1) pre-flight crew health optimization and 2) in-flight medical care. The goal of pre-flight crew health optimization is to reduce the risk of illness occurring during a mission by primary prevention and prophylactic measures. In-flight autonomous medical care is the capability to provide medical care during a mission with little or no real-time support from Earth. Crew medical officers or other crew members provide routine medical care as well as medical care to ill or injured crew members using resources available in their location. Ground support becomes telemedical consultation on-board systems/people collect relevant data for ground support to review. The AMC system provides capabilities to incorporate new procedures and training and advice as required. The on-board resources in an autonomous system should be as intelligent and integrated as is feasible, but autonomous does not mean that no human will be involved. The medical field is changing rapidly, and so a challenge is to determine which items to pursue now, which to leverage other efforts (e.g. military), and which to wait for commercial forces to mature. Given that what is used for the CEV or the Moon will likely be updated before going to Mars, a critical piece of the system design will be an architecture that provides for easy incorporation of new technologies into the system. Another challenge is to determine the level of care to provide for each

  3. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  4. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  5. Engineering Autonomous Chemomechanical Nanomachines Using Brownian Ratchets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavella, Gabriel

    Nanoscale machines which directly convert chemical energy into mechanical work are ubiquitous in nature and are employed to perform a diverse set of tasks such as transporting molecules, maintaining molecular gradients, and providing motion to organisms. Their widespread use in nature suggests that large technological rewards can be obtained by designing synthetic machines that use similar mechanisms. This thesis addresses the technological adaptation of a specific mechanism known as the Brownian ratchet for the design of synthetic autonomous nanomachines. My efforts were focused more specifically on synthetic chemomechanical ratchets which I deem will be broadly applicable in the life sciences. In my work I have theoretically explored the biophysical mechanisms and energy landscapes that give rise to the ratcheting phenomena and devised devices that operate off these principles. I demonstrate two generations of devices that produce mechanical force/deformation in response to a user specified ligand. The first generation devices, fabricatied using a combination nanoscale lithographic processes and bioconjugation techniques, were used to provide evidence that the proposed ratcheting phenomena can be exploited in synthetic architectures. Second generation devices fabricated using self-assembled DNA/hapten motifs were constructed to gain a precise understanding of ratcheting dynamics and design constraints. In addition, the self-assembled devices enabled fabrication en masse, which I feel will alleviate future experimental hurdles in analysis and facilitate its adaptation to technologies. The product of these efforts is an architecture that has the potential to enable numerous technologies in biosensing and drug delivery. For example, the coupling of molecule-specific actuation to the release of drugs or signaling molecules from nanocapsules or porous materials could be transformative. Such architectures could provide possible avenues to pressing issues in biology and

  6. Radar based autonomous sensor module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  7. Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

  8. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  9. Change Around the Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-04-01

    Proponents of a block grant or per-capita cap trumpet them as vehicles for the federal government to give the states a capped amount of funding for Medicaid that legislatures would effectively distribute how they see fit. Questions abound as to what capped Medicaid funding would look like, and what effect it would have on the current Medicaid-eligible population, covered services, and physician payments.

  10. Managing access block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  11. Agent Building Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  12. Law-Abiding & Integrity on the Internet: a Case for Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskamp, A.; Brazier, F.M.; Prins, J.E.J.; Schellekens, M.H.M.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Software agents extend the current, information-based Internet to include autonomous mobile processing. In most countries such processes, i.e., software agents are, however, without an explicit legal status. Many of the legal implications of their actions (e.g., gathering information, negotiating

  13. Cloud-based multi-agent architecture for effective planning and scheduling of distributed manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Nishikant; Singh, Akshit; Kumari, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    . In this article, a self-reactive cloud-based multi-agent architecture for distributed manufacturing system is developed. The proposed architecture will assist manufacturing industry to establish real-time information exchange between the autonomous agents, clients, suppliers and manufacturing unit. The mechanism...

  14. Detecting and Forecasting Economic Regimes in Multi-Agent Automated Exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); M. Gini (Maria); A. Gupta (Alok); P. Schrater (Paul)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe show how an autonomous agent can use observable market conditions to characterize the microeconomic situation of the market and predict future market trends. The agent can use this information to make both tactical decisions, such as pricing, and strategic decisions, such as product

  15. A Buyer Behaviour Framework for the Development and Design of Software Agents in E-Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Susan; Archer, Norm

    2000-01-01

    Software agents are computer programs that run in the background and perform tasks autonomously as delegated by the user. This paper blends models from marketing research and findings from the field of decision support systems to build a framework for the design of software agents to support in e-commerce buying applications. (Contains 35…

  16. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  17. Competing agents in agent-mediated institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, Enric; Arcos, Josep Ll.; Noriega, Pablo; Sierra, Carles

    1998-01-01

    Social processes and agent interaction always take place in a specific context. A school of thought in social studies analyses them in the framework of institutions. We present in this paper the notion of agentmediated institutions and show how it is relevant for multi-agent systems (MAS) in general and, more specifically, for MAS that include human agents and software agents involved in socioeconomic interactions. We show how the social interactions of human and software agents taking place ...

  18. Reinforcement Learning with Autonomous Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Cluttered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Cross, Charles; Montague, Gilbert; Motter, Mark; Neilan, James; Qualls, Garry; Rothhaar, Paul; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    We present ongoing work in the Autonomy Incubator at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) exploring the efficacy of a data set aggregation approach to reinforcement learning for small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) flight in dense and cluttered environments with reactive obstacle avoidance. The goal is to learn an autonomous flight model using training experiences from a human piloting a sUAV around static obstacles. The training approach uses video data from a forward-facing camera that records the human pilot's flight. Various computer vision based features are extracted from the video relating to edge and gradient information. The recorded human-controlled inputs are used to train an autonomous control model that correlates the extracted feature vector to a yaw command. As part of the reinforcement learning approach, the autonomous control model is iteratively updated with feedback from a human agent who corrects undesired model output. This data driven approach to autonomous obstacle avoidance is explored for simulated forest environments furthering autonomous flight under the tree canopy research. This enables flight in previously inaccessible environments which are of interest to NASA researchers in Earth and Atmospheric sciences.

  19. Seborrheic dermatitis treatment with stellate ganglion block: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun Woo; Mun, Ki Ho; Song, Jeong Yun; Kim, Byung Gun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Lee, Choon Soo; Cha, Young Deog; Song, Jang Ho

    2016-04-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disorder presumed to be caused by increased sebaceous gland secretion, metabolic changes in the cutaneous microflora, and changes in the host immune function. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is known to increase the blood flow rate without altering the blood pressure, heart rate, or cardiac output, to stabilize hypertonic conditions of the sympathetic nerves, and to affect the endocrine and immune systems. It is used in the differential diagnosis and treatment of autonomic nervous system disorders of the head, neck, and upper limbs. The authors report the first case of successful treatment of a patient with seborrheic dermatitis through repeated SGB trials.

  20. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Matt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Trudnowski, Daniel J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mattix, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dagle, Jeffery E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  1. Autonomous Bicycle: The First Self Balanced Ride

    OpenAIRE

    Ånnestad, Dag Christian

    2011-01-01

    The idea of an autonomous bicycle originates from Jens G. Balchen who wanted to make an unmanned autonomous bicycle. The idea was picked up by Amund Skavhaug who extended the idea with the concept of using an inverted pendulum to simulate a leaning rider. The previous attempts to develop a bicycle capable of performing an autonomous ride has so far all ended in failure. The main reason for the Department of Engineering Cybernetics is to develop such a bicycle is for use in recruitment and mot...

  2. Paving block study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-10-01

    The Louisiana Department of Highways has conducted field tests with an experimental revetment consisting of cellular concrete revetment blocks used in conjunction with plastic filter cloth and/or vegetation such as grass or vines. The precast blocks ...

  3. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  4. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  5. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  6. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  7. How Artists Overcome Creative Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Six practicing artists were interviewed about how they overcome creative blocks. Their responses indicated that feelings of self-doubt, fear, and depression accompany blocks but that relaxing and working on new directions and playing ideas off a supportive person helped to overcome such blocks. (DB)

  8. Block Scheduling in High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmsher, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Block Scheduling has been considered a cure for a lengthy list of educational problems. This report reviews the literature on block schedules and describes some Oregon high schools that have integrated block scheduling. Major disadvantages included resistance to change and requirements that teachers change their teaching strategies. There is…

  9. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neimann, Jens Dupont Børglum; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.  Rec...

  10. Quantum-enhanced deliberation of learning agents using trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, V.; Friis, N.; Briegel, H. J.

    2015-02-01

    A scheme that successfully employs quantum mechanics in the design of autonomous learning agents has recently been reported in the context of the projective simulation (PS) model for artificial intelligence. In that approach, the key feature of a PS agent, a specific type of memory which is explored via random walks, was shown to be amenable to quantization, allowing for a speed-up. In this work we propose an implementation of such classical and quantum agents in systems of trapped ions. We employ a generic construction by which the classical agents are ‘upgraded’ to their quantum counterparts by a nested process of adding coherent control, and we outline how this construction can be realized in ion traps. Our results provide a flexible modular architecture for the design of PS agents. Furthermore, we present numerical simulations of simple PS agents which analyze the robustness of our proposal under certain noise models.

  11. Virtual agents in a simulated virtual training environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achorn, Brett; Badler, Norman L.

    1993-01-01

    A drawback to live-action training simulations is the need to gather a large group of participants in order to train a few individuals. One solution to this difficulty is the use of computer-controlled agents in a virtual training environment. This allows a human participant to be replaced by a virtual, or simulated, agent when only limited responses are needed. Each agent possesses a specified set of behaviors and is capable of limited autonomous action in response to its environment or the direction of a human trainee. The paper describes these agents in the context of a simulated hostage rescue training session, involving two human rescuers assisted by three virtual (computer-controlled) agents and opposed by three other virtual agents.

  12. University Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Roles in Promoting Autonomous Language Learning with Technology outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Yeung, Yuk; Hu, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    Helping students to become autonomous learners, who actively utilize technologies for learning outside the classroom, is important for successful language learning. Teachers, as significant social agents who shape students' intellectual and social experiences, have a critical role to play. This study examined students' and teachers' perceptions of…

  13. Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif

    Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica...

  14. Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Staehelin Jensen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autonomic function has received little attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology has an impact on brain regions which are important for central autonomic control, but it is unclear if AD is associated with disturbance of autonomic function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autonomic...

  15. Agent-based computational economics using NetLogo

    CERN Document Server

    Damaceanu, Romulus-Catalin

    2013-01-01

    Agent-based Computational Economics using NetLogo explores how researchers can create, use and implement multi-agent computational models in Economics by using NetLogo software platform. Problems of economic science can be solved using multi-agent modelling (MAM). This technique uses a computer model to simulate the actions and interactions of autonomous entities in a network, in order to analyze the effects on the entire economic system. MAM combines elements of game theory, complex systems, emergence and evolutionary programming. The Monte Carlo method is also used in this e-book to introduc

  16. Autonomous Operations Design Guidelines for Flight Hardware

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSC experimentally modified an autonomous operations flexible system suite developed for a ground application for a flight system under development by JSC. The...

  17. Autonomous Operations System: Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.; Wilkins, Kim N.; Walker, Mark; Stahl, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous control systems provides the ability of self-governance beyond the conventional control system. As the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems increases, there develops a natural drive for developing robust control systems to manage complicated operations. By closing the bridge between conventional automated systems to knowledge based self-awareness systems, nominal control of operations can evolve into relying on safe critical mitigation processes to support any off-nominal behavior. Current research and development efforts lead by the Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) group at NASA Kennedy Space Center aims to improve cryogenic propellant transfer operations by developing an automated control and health monitoring system. As an integrated systems, the center aims to produce an Autonomous Operations System (AOS) capable of integrating health management operations with automated control to produce a fully autonomous system.

  18. Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System (CAPS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent efforts led by the PI of this proposal have studied the benefits of a satellite navigation technique known as Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit...

  19. Computer vision for an autonomous mobile robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Withey, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems are essential for practical, autonomous, mobile robots – machines that employ artificial intelligence and control their own motion within an environment. As with biological systems, computer vision systems include the vision...

  20. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  1. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  2. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sforza, Pasquale

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this project is to leverage the manpower resources dedicated to basic research in technologies relevant to autonomous precision systems at the Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate (AFRL/MN...

  3. Autonomous Task Primitives for Complex Manipulation Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this research effort is to enable robots to autonomously perform the complex manipulation tasks that are necessary to maintain a spacecraft. Robots, like...

  4. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  5. Acupuncture effect and central autonomic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Xu, Qian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Wang, Lin-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  6. Framework for Autonomous Optimization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration and MIT propose to create a novel autonomous optimization tool and application programming interface (API). The API will demonstrate the ability...

  7. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  8. Interpersonal communication and issues for autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Interpersonal roadway communication is a vital component of the transportation system. Road users communicate to coordinate movement and increase roadway safety. Future autonomous vehicle research needs to account for the role of interpersonal roadwa...

  9. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    to study the disorders of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the SCOPA-AUT, was administered to all the patients and controls. The SCOPA-AUT consists of 25 items assessing the following domains: gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor......Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...

  10. Adaptive Sampling in Autonomous Marine Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eickstedt, Donald P

    2006-01-01

    ... oceanographic network scenario. This architecture has three major components, an intelligent, logical sensor that provides high-level environmental state information to a behavior-based autonomous vehicle control system, a new...

  11. Autonomous Training for Long-Term Spaceflight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the autonomous capability to intelligently select/generate practice scenarios in order to provide individually targeted crew training when...

  12. Future Autonomous and Automated Systems Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trust is the greatest obstacle to implementing greater autonomy and automation (A&A) in the human spaceflight program. The Future Autonomous and Automated...

  13. Autonomic neuropathy induced by cisplatin and vincristine in rats: functional study, electrophysiological and morphological

    OpenAIRE

    KÃtia VirgÃnia Viana Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chemotherapeutic agents are chemical compounds used for the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of chemotherapy is limited by its side effects such as nephro, neuro, hepato and ototoxicity. Cisplatin and vincristine are chemotherapy drugs and their use is limited by peripheral neuropathy with autonomic, sensory and/or motor involvement. Aims: We evaluated the effect of cisplatin and vincristine on the gastric emptying (GE), gastrointestinal (GI) transit of liquid, baroreflex funct...

  14. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  15. A bihemispheric autonomic model for traumatic stress effects on health and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A bihemispheric autonomic model (BHAM may support advanced understanding of traumatic stress effects on physiology and behavior. The model builds on established data showing hemispheric lateralization in management of the autonomic nervous system, and proposes that traumatic stress can produce dominant asymmetry in activity of bilateral homologous brain regions responsible for autonomic management. Rightward and leftward dominant asymmetries are associated with sympathetic high arousal or parasympathetic freeze tendencies, respectively, and return to relative symmetry is associated with improved autonomic regulation. Autonomic auto-calibration for recovery (inverse of Jacksonian dissolution proposed by polyvagal theory has implications for risk behaviors associated with traumatic life stress. Trauma-induced high arousal may be associated with risk for maladaptive behaviors to attenuate arousal (including abuse of alcohol or sedative-hypnotics. Trauma-induced freeze mode (including callous-unemotional trait may be associated with low resting heart rate and risk for conduct disorders. The model may explain higher prevalence of leftward hemispheric abnormalities reported in studies of violence. Implications of the bihemispheric autonomic model are illustrated through case examples of a military special operations officer with history of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder, and a college athlete with persisting post-concussion symptoms. Both undertook use of a noninvasive closed-loop neurotechnology – High-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring – with ensuing decrease in hemispheric asymmetry, improvement in heart rate variability, and symptom reduction. Finally the BHAM aligns with calls for researchers to use brain-behavioral constructs (research domain criteria or RDoC, proposed by the National Institutes of Mental Health as building blocks for assessment and intervention in mental health

  16. Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Remodeling in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Jiang, Y-H; Jiang, P; Lin, H-Q; Yang, J-L; Ma, D-f; Wang, X; Yang, C-H

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with both cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) can be used to monitor changes in response to autonomic innervation and stimulation of the heart. In this study, conducted in a rat model of diabetes, HRV and changes in associated neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in the right atrium (RA) were monitored. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats, and HRV data were collected for 10 weeks by telemetry. Time and frequency domains of HRV data were analyzed using established metrics. The levels of various neural enzymes in the RA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence to characterize autonomic nerve remodeling. Insulin and methycobal were used to block the effects of STZ. HRV parameters reflecting parasympathetic tone (SDNN, RMSSD and HF domains) sharply decreased in the first 3 weeks after STZ administration; measures of sympathetic tone (SDANN) increased. After a series of adjustments, cardiac autonomic nerve innervation reached a new equilibrium, with a dominance of sympathetic tone. RA levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increased, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) decreased, indicating autonomic nerve remodeling. Levels of growth associated protein-43 (GAP43) and nerve growth factor (NGF) increased during the period of diabetes-induced cardiac-nerve damage; however, the level of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) decreased. The physical condition and indexes of rats were normalized in different degree after administration of the insulin and methycobal, but not completely recovered. STZ-induced diabetes was associated with cardiac autonomic nerve dysfunction at both the organ and molecular levels. Parasympathetic nerves exhibited severe damage and/or weak recovery; remodeling of sympathetic nerves predominated during 10-weeks of STZ-induced diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag

  17. Physical training associated with Enalapril but not to Losartan, results in better cardiovascular autonomic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Karina Delgado; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice; de Paula Facioli, Tabata; de Araújo, João Eduardo; de Souza, Hugo Celso Dutra

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular autonomic effects of physical training associated with Enalapril or Losartan pharmacological treatments in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHRs, 18weeks of age (N=48) was assigned to either sedentary (N=24) and trained (N=24; aerobic training by swimming for 10wk). Each group was subdivided in 3 subgroups (N=8) vehicle (control); Enalapril (10mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ); and Losartan (5mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ). All animals received a 10-week treatment in drinking water. In the last week of the treatments, the animals had their femoral artery and vein cannulated for blood pressure recording and drug injection, respectively. The autonomic assessment was performed by means of different approaches: double cardiac autonomic block with atropine and propranolol, spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic arterial pressure (SAPV) and assessment of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). The groups treated with Enalapril, sedentary and trained, showed more significant decrease in blood pressure when compared to the other groups. Autonomic evaluation showed that the sedentary group treated with Enalapril or Losartan had similar results, characterized by decreased effect of sympathetic tone and/or increased effect of cardiac vagal tone associated with improved BRS. Isolated physical training attenuated only the effect of sympathetic tone. The association of physical training with Enalapril showed the best results, characterized by the predominance of vagal tone in cardiac autonomic balance, increased HRV, reduced SAPV and increased BRS. Enalapril and Losartan promoted similar beneficial cardiovascular autonomic effects in sedentary animals, while only the association of physical training with Enalapril potentiated these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  19. Non-autonomous bifurcation in impulsive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat Akhmet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first paper which considers non-autonomous bifurcations in impulsive differential equations. Impulsive generalizations of the non-autonomous pitchfork and transcritical bifurcation are discussed. We consider scalar differential equation with fixed moments of impulses. It is illustrated by means of certain systems how the idea of pullback attracting sets remains a fruitful concept in the impulsive systems. Basics of the theory are provided.

  20. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Qian-Qian Li; Guang-Xia Shi; Qian Xu; Jing Wang; Cun-Zhi Liu; Lin-Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temp...

  1. Autonomous Control System for Precise Orbit Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Aorpimai, Manop; Hashida, Yoshi; Palmer, Phil

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a closed-loop autonomous control system that enables orbit operations to be performed without the need of any ground segment. The growing availability of GPS receivers on satellites provides an excellent means for autonomous orbit determination and our work builds upon previous work on orbit determination algorithms developed here at Surrey. The orbit is described using a set of epicycle parameters which provide an analytic model of LEO orbits. The parameters in thi...

  2. Program structure-based blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolli, Carlo; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O'Brien, John K.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2017-09-26

    Embodiments relate to program structure-based blocking. An aspect includes receiving source code corresponding to a computer program by a compiler of a computer system. Another aspect includes determining a prefetching section in the source code by a marking module of the compiler. Yet another aspect includes performing, by a blocking module of the compiler, blocking of instructions located in the prefetching section into instruction blocks, such that the instruction blocks of the prefetching section only contain instructions that are located in the prefetching section.

  3. [Using autonomous electrostimulation device Erektron in treating female overactive bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarin, G Yu; Shelyakina, O V; Fedorenko, V N; Alekseeva, A V; Vilgelmi, I A

    2016-11-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is one of the most common syndromes of lower urinary tract dysfunction. Besides standard therapy using anticholinergic medications, comprehensive management of overactive bladder includes physiotherapy. To test the clinical effectiveness and safety of autonomous electrostimulation device "Erektron" in treating OAB in women. The study was conducted at the Urology and Gynecology Clinic of the Innovative Medical Technology Center between 25.04.2014 and 30.01.2015. It included 20 women with newly diagnosed OAB both with and without urinary urgency incontinence or urinary stress incontinence. The patients were divided into 2 groups. All patients were treated with the first line anticholinergic agent solifenacin 5 mg daily. In patients of group 1, anticholinergic therapy was administered concurrently with intravaginal electrostimulation using "Erektron" device. In both groups, the treatment resulted in positive results, but a more pronounced improvement was found in group 1 patients with mixed incontinence. Autonomous electrostimulation device MT-RV "Erektron" can be used in comprehensive management of patients with OAB, including those with stress urinary incontinence.

  4. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  5. Autonomic Wireless Sensor Networks: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. T. Portocarrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic computing (AC is a promising approach to meet basic requirements in the design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, and its principles can be applied to efficiently manage nodes operation and optimize network resources. Middleware for WSNs supports the implementation and basic operation of such networks. In this systematic literature review (SLR we aim to provide an overview of existing WSN middleware systems that address autonomic properties. The main goal is to identify which development approaches of AC are used for designing WSN middleware system, which allow the self-management of WSN. Another goal is finding out which interactions and behavior can be automated in WSN components. We drew the following main conclusions from the SLR results: (i the selected studies address WSN concerns according to the self-* properties of AC, namely, self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimization, and self-protection; (ii the selected studies use different approaches for managing the dynamic behavior of middleware systems for WSN, such as policy-based reasoning, context-based reasoning, feedback control loops, mobile agents, model transformations, and code generation. Finally, we identified a lack of comprehensive system architecture designs that support the autonomy of sensor networking.

  6. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  7. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  8. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  9. The role of autonomic testing in syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pearl K; Gibbons, Christopher H

    2014-09-01

    Syncope is a common presenting complaint in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. The main goals in the clinical evaluation of syncope are to identify an underlying etiology, to stratify risk and to guide plans for therapeutic intervention. Testing begins with an initial electrocardiogram to screen for any cardiac rhythm abnormalities. Heart rate variability to paced breathing provides a standard measure of cardiac parasympathetic function and offers clues towards an autonomic cause of syncope. A Valsalva maneuver is used to evaluate for parasympathetic dysfunction through the Valsalva ratio. In addition, sympathetic adrenergic function is assessed through evaluation of blood pressure response during the Valsalva maneuver. Abnormalities to the Valsalva maneuver can suggest clues towards an autonomic cause of syncope. Head-up tilt table testing is an important part of the autonomic evaluation of patients with syncope, and can be diagnostic for many disorders that result in syncope including orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope, postural tachycardia syndrome or delayed orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic function testing provides a safe and controlled environment for evaluation of patients, and plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of syncope, particularly in challenging cases. While the initial clinical evaluation of syncope involves a detailed history and physical examination; in situations where the diagnosis is unknown, the addition of autonomic testing is complementary and can lead to identification of autonomic causes of syncope. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Katrien; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lagae, Lieven

    2012-12-01

    West syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy. Autonomic changes are increasingly being recognized in patients with epilepsy: cardiac autonomic function is mediated by sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent activity to the heart and can provide information on the functional state of the autonomic nervous system. The goal of the study is to evaluate the effect of an early epileptic encephalopathy on the autonomic nervous system by measuring heart rate variability. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated in 13 patients with West syndrome by measuring heart rate variability during 5 min epochs of ECG in wake, stage 2 and slow wave sleep. In 5 patients who developed subsequently another type of epilepsy, a second evaluation was performed after 3 years of follow-up. Results showed a lower heart rate in stage 2 sleep in patients with West syndrome. Spectral components did not show significant differences compared to age matched controls at the moment of presentation. After follow-up of 3 years we were able to demonstrate higher low frequency (LF), lower high frequency (HF) and a higher LF/HF ratio during slow wave sleep. This study shows a lower heart rate in patients presenting with West syndrome, already at the onset of the syndrome and before ACTH treatment. The epileptic encephalopathy is not sufficient to alter spectral components of heart rate at the moment of presentation. However, already after 3 years of epilepsy, chronic autonomic changes appear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanba, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a study further advanced on a base of results of study on artificial intelligence for nuclear power', one of nuclear basis crossover studies, conducted at five years planning from 1989 fiscal year was executed. Here was conducted on study on a system technology for supplying cooperation, judgement process, judgement results, and so forth between decentralized artificial intelligent elements (agents) to operation managers (supervisors) by focussing a system for monitoring if autonomous decentralized system containing plant operation and robot group action functioned appropriately. In 1997 fiscal year, by mainly conducting development for displaying working state of robot group, some investigations on integrated management of each function already development and maintained were executed. Furthermore, some periodical meetings on realization of its integration with operation control system and maintenance system with other research institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  12. Recent Developments on Autonomous Corrosion Protection Through Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.; Gillis, M.; Blanton, M.; Hanna, J.; Rawlins, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns recent progress in the development of a multifunctional smart coating, based on microencapsulation, for the autonomous detection and control of corrosion. Microencapsulation has been validated and optimized to incorporate desired corrosion control functionalities, such as early corrosion detection and inhibition, through corrosion-initiated release of corrosion indicators and inhibitors, as well as self-healing agent release triggered by mechanical damage. While proof-of-concept results have been previously reported, more recent research and development efforts have concentrated on improving coating compatibility and synthesis procedure scalability, with a targeted goal of obtaining easily dispersible pigment-grade type microencapsulated materials. The recent progress has resulted in the development of pH-sensitive microparticles as a corrosion-triggered delivery system for corrosion indicators and inhibitors. The synthesis and early corrosion indication results obtained with coating formulations that incorporate these microparticles are reported. The early corrosion indicating results were obtained with color changing and with fluorescent indicators.

  13. Block copolymer investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufa, Nataliya A.

    The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or

  14. Celiac ganglia block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: oakhan@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2005-09-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation.

  15. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...... it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...

  16. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  17. Celiac ganglia block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Devrim; Akhan, Okan

    2005-01-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation

  18. Formal Specification and Verification of Real-Time Multi-Agent Systems using Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    QASIM, A.; KAZMI, S. A. R.; FAKHIR, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we have formally specified and verified the actions of communicating real-time software agents (RTAgents). Software agents are expected to work autonomously and deal with unfamiliar situations astutely. Achieving cent percent test cases coverage for these agents has always been a problem due to limited resources. Also a high degree of dependability and predictability is expected from real-time software agents. In this research we have used Timed-Arc Petri Net...

  19. Agility: Agent - Ility Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Craig

    2002-01-01

    ...., object and web technologies). The objective of the Agility project is to develop an open agent grid architecture populated with scalable, deployable, industrial strength agent grid components, targeting the theme 'agents for the masses...

  20. Mobile Agent Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Mobile agent technology offers a new computing paradigm in which a program, in the form of a software agent, can suspend its execution on a host computer, transfer itself to another agent-enabled host...

  1. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  2. Clozapine-Induced Cardiovascular Side Effects and Autonomic Dysfunction: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica W. Y. Yuen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clozapine is the antipsychotic of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and has minimal risk for extrapyramidal symptoms. Therapeutic benefits, however, are accompanied by a myriad of cardiometabolic side-effects. The specific reasons for clozapine's high propensity to cause adverse cardiometabolic events remain unknown, but it is believed that autonomic dysfunction may play a role in many of these.Objective: This systematic review summarizes the literature on autonomic dysfunction and related cardiovascular side effects associated with clozapine treatment.Method: A search of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, and EBM Cochrane databases was conducted using the search terms antipsychotic agents, antipsychotic drug*, antipsychotic*, schizophrenia, schizophren*, psychos*, psychotic*, mental ill*, mental disorder*, neuroleptic*, cardiovascular*, cardiovascular diseases, clozapine*, clozaril*, autonomic*, sympathetic*, catecholamine*, norepinephrine, noradrenaline, epinephrine, adrenaline.Results: The search yielded 37 studies that were reviewed, of which only 16 studies have used interventions to manage cardiovascular side effects. Side effects reported in the studies include myocarditis, orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. These were attributed to sympathetic hyperactivity, decreased vagal contribution, blockade of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, reduced heart rate variability and elevated catecholamines with clozapine use. Autonomic neuropathy was identified by monitoring blood pressure and heart rate changes in response to stimuli and by spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Metoprolol, lorazepam, atenolol, propranolol, amlodipine, vasopressin and norepinephrine infusion were used to treat tachycardia and fluctuations in blood pressure, yet results were limited to case reports.Conclusion: The results indicate there is a lack of clinical studies investigating autonomic dysfunction and a limited use of interventions to manage

  3. Stellate ganglion block attenuates chronic stress induced depression in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wang

    Full Text Available Stress is a significant factor in the etiology of depression. Stellate ganglion block (SGB has been shown to maintain the stability of the autonomic system and to affect the neuroendocrine system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. The objective of this study was to determine the antidepressant-like effects of SGB on the autonomic system and the HPA axis, apoptosis-related proteins, related spatial learning and memory impairment, and sensorimotor dysfunction.Forty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: control + saline (sham group, control + SGB (SGB group, unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS + saline (UCMS group, and UCMS + SGB (UCSG group. Stress-induced effects and the function of SGB were assessed using measures of body weight, coat state, sucrose consumption, and behavior in open-field and Y-maze tests. Neuronal damage was assessed histologically using the hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining method, while western blotting was used to investigate changes in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Plasma corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone (CORT, noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured to evaluate changes in the autonomic system and HPA axis.SGB treatment significantly improved sensorimotor dysfunction and spatial learning and memory impairment following UCMS. Moreover, UCMS significantly decreased body weight, sucrose preference and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and increased scores on measures of coat state, adrenal gland weight, levels of CORT, CRF, ACTH, noradrenaline and adrenaline, as well as increased neuronal loss, cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. These symptoms were attenuated by treatment with SGB.These findings suggest that SGB can attenuate depression-like behaviors induced by chronic stress. These protective effects appear to be due to an anti-apoptotic mechanism of two stress

  4. Dimensional reduction for conformal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-09-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO( d + 1 , 1) up into multiplets of SO( d, 1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d - 1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3 d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2 F 1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  5. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vinayak V; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  6. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak V Dixit

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  7. Enabling technologies for autonomous MAV operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanhawi, M.; Mohamed, A.; Clothier, R.; Palmer, J. L.; Simic, M.; Watkins, S.

    2017-05-01

    The utility of micro air vehicles (MAVs) has expanded significantly in the last decade, and there are now numerous commercial systems available at relatively low cost. This expansion has arisen mainly due to the miniaturisation of flight control systems and advances in energy storage and propulsion technologies. Several emerging applications involve routine operation of MAVs in complex urban environments such as parcel delivery, communications relay and environmental monitoring. However, MAVs currently rely on one or more operators-in-the-loop and, whilst desirable, full autonomous operation has not yet been achieved. In this review paper, autonomous MAV operation in complex environments is explored with conceptualisation for future MAV operation in urban environments. Limitations of current technologies are systematically examined through consideration of the state-of-the-art and future trends. The main limitations challenging the realisation of fully autonomous MAVs are mainly attributed to: computational power, communication and energy storage. These limitations lead to poor sensing and planning capabilities, which are essential components of autonomous MAVs. Possible solutions are explored with goal of enabling MAVs to reliably operate autonomously in urban environments.

  8. Learning Potentials in Number Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Misfeldt, Morten; Nielsen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    . The tool is called Number Blocks and it combines physical interaction, learning, and immediate feedback. Number Blocks supports the children's understanding of place value in the sense that it allows them to experiment with creating large numbers. We found the blocks contributed to the learning process...... in several ways. The blocks combined mathematics and play, and they included and supported children at different academic levels. The auditory representation, especially the enhanced rhythmic effects due to using speech synthesis, and the rhythm helped the children to pronounce large numbers. This creates...

  9. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  10. The AORTA Reasoning Framework - Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    -aware and autonomous. The reasoning component makes them organization-aware, and their autonomy is intact because the component does not change the existing reasoning mechanisms. As such, it allows the agents to decide whether to adhere to the system’s expectations. The ability to reason about organizations has......Intelligent agents are entities defined by, among other things, autonomy. In systems of many agents, the agents’ individual autonomy can lead to uncertainty since their behavior cannot always be predicted. Usually, this kind of uncertainty is accommodated by imposing an organization upon the system......; an organization that defines expected behavior of the agents and attempts to restrict the agents’ behavior to let it match the expectations. Restrictions can lead to a decrease in autonomy, contradicting one of the pillars of intelligent agents. This thesis presents the AORTA reasoning framework, which...

  11. A Case of Acoustic Shock with Post-trauma Trigeminal-Autonomic Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Londero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the case of an acoustic shock injury (ASI, which did not result in a significant hearing loss, but was followed by manifold chronic symptoms both within (tinnitus, otalgia, tingling in the ear, tension in the ear, and red tympanum and outside the ears (blocked nose, pain in the neck/temporal region. We suggest that these symptoms may result from a loop involving injury to middle ear muscles, peripheral inflammatory processes, activation and sensitization of the trigeminal nerve, the autonomic nervous system, and central feedbacks. The pathophysiology of this ASI is reminiscent of that observed in post-traumatic trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgia. This framework opens new and promising perspectives on the understanding and medical management of ASI.

  12. Percutaneous autonomic neural modulation: A novel technique to treat cardiac arrhythmia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSimone, Christopher V.; Madhavan, Malini [Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Venkatachalam, Kalpathi L. [Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Knudson, Mark B. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); EnteroMedics, EnteroMedics, St. Paul, MN (United States); Asirvatham, Samuel J., E-mail: asirvatham.samuel@mayo.edu [Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Ablation and anti-arrhythmic medications have shown promise but have been met with varying success and unwanted side effects such as myocardial injury, arrhythmias, and morbidity from invasive surgical intervention. The answer to improving efficacy of ablation may include modulation of the cardiac aspect of the autonomic nervous system. Our lab has developed a novel approach and device to navigate the oblique sinus and to use DC current and saline/alcohol irrigation to selectively stimulate and block the autonomic ganglia found on the epicardial side of the heart. This novel approach minimizes myocardial damage from thermal injury and provides a less invasive and targeted approach. For feasibility, proof-of-concept, and safety monitoring, we carried out canine studies to test this novel application. Our results suggest a safer and less invasive way of modulating arrhythmogenic substrate that may lead to improved treatment of AF in humans.

  13. Autonomous charging to enable long-endurance missions for small aerial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgaonkar, Yash; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen an increased interest towards research involving Autonomous Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The predominant reason for this is their agility and ability to perform tasks too difficult or dangerous for their human counterparts and to navigate into places where ground robots cannot reach. Among MAVs, rotary wing aircraft such as quadrotors have the ability to operate in confined spaces, hover at a given point in space and perch1 or land on a flat surface. This makes the quadrotor a very attractive aerial platform giving rise to a myriad of research opportunities. The potential of these aerial platforms is severely limited by the constraints on the flight time due to limited battery capacity. This in turn arises from limits on the payload of these rotorcraft. By automating the battery recharging process, creating autonomous MAVs that can recharge their on-board batteries without any human intervention and by employing a team of such agents, the overall mission time can be greatly increased. This paper describes the development, testing, and implementation of a system of autonomous charging stations for a team of Micro Aerial Vehicles. This system was used to perform fully autonomous long-term multi-agent aerial surveillance experiments with persistent station keeping. The scalability of the algorithm used in the experiments described in this paper was also tested by simulating a persistence surveillance scenario for 10 MAVs and charging stations. Finally, this system was successfully implemented to perform a 9½ hour multi-agent persistent flight test. Preliminary implementation of this charging system in experiments involving construction of cubic structures with quadrotors showed a three-fold increase in effective mission time.

  14. 31 CFR 545.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS... name of the Taliban or persons whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 545.201, or in which the Taliban or persons whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  15. Lessons learned from the Autonomous Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at the NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the applications of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control and scheduling techniques to space power distribution systems. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR); the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to efficiently assign activities start times and resources; and power hardware (Brassboard) to emulate a space-based power system. The APS project had been through one design iteration. Each of the three elements of the APS project has been designed, tested, and integrated into a complete working system. After these three portions were completed, an evaluation period was initiated. Each piece of the system was critiqued based on individual performance as well as the ability to interact with the other portions of the APS project. These critiques were then used to determine guidelines for new and improved components of the APS system.

  16. An Expert System for Autonomous Spacecraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), part of the New Millennium Space Technology 6 Project, is flying onboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission. The ASE software enables EO-1 to autonomously detect and respond to science events such as: volcanic activity, flooding, and water freeze/thaw. ASE uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect chang-e and science events. Detection of these events is then used to trigger follow-up imagery. Onboard mission planning software then develops a response plan that accounts for target visibility and operations constraints. This plan is then executed using a task execution system that can deal with run-time anomalies. In this paper we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations. We will also describe the current experiment status and future plans.

  17. Autonomous Robot Navigation based on Visual Landmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    The use of landmarks for robot navigation is a popular alternative to having a geometrical model of the environment through which to navigate and monitor self-localization. If the landmarks are defined as special visual structures already in the environment then we have the possibility of fully...... autonomous navigation and self-localization using automatically selected landmarks. The thesis investigates autonomous robot navigation and proposes a new method which benefits from the potential of the visual sensor to provide accuracy and reliability to the navigation process while relying on naturally...... update of the estimated robot position while the robot is moving. In order to make the system autonomous, both acquisition and observation of landmarks have to be carried out automatically. The thesis consequently proposes a method for learning and navigation of a working environment and it explores...

  18. On-Orbit Autonomous Assembly from Nanosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchison, Luke S.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The On-Orbit Autonomous Assembly from Nanosatellites (OAAN) project will demonstrate autonomous control algorithms for rendezvous and docking maneuvers; low-power reconfigurable magnetic docking technology; and compact, lightweight and inexpensive precision relative navigation using carrier-phase differential (CD) GPS with a three-degree of freedom ground demonstration. CDGPS is a specific relative position determination method that measures the phase of the GPS carrier wave to yield relative position data accurate to.4 inch (1 centimeter). CDGPS is a technology commonly found in the surveying industry. The development and demonstration of these technologies will fill a current gap in the availability of proven autonomous rendezvous and docking systems for small satellites.

  19. Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Mahboob; Das, Pinaki; Ghosh, Parasar; Zaman, Md Salim Uz; Boro, Madhusmita; Sadhu, Manika; Mazumdar, Ardhendu

    2015-01-01

    Objective is to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in SLE by simple non-invasive tests. A case control study was carried out involving 18-50 yrs old previously diagnosed SLE patients and same number of age and sex-matched controls. Parasympathetic function was assessed by heart rate (HR) response to Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing and standing. Sympathetic function was evaluated by blood pressure response to standing and sustained hand-grip test (HGT). There were 50 female SLE patients. They had significantly higher minimum resting HR and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). HR variation with deep breathing, expiratory inspiratory ratio, 30:15 ratio and DBP change in response to HGT were significantly lower inpatients compared to controls. Thirty patients (60%) had at least one abnormal or two borderline test results indicating autonomic impairment of which 27 had parasympathetic dysfunction and 7 had sympathetic dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction is common in SLE with higher prevalence of parasympathetic impairment.

  20. Autonomous driving technical, legal and social aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Gerdes, J; Lenz, Barbara; Winner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    This book takes a look at fully automated, autonomous vehicles and discusses many open questions: How can autonomous vehicles be integrated into the current transportation system with diverse users and human drivers? Where do automated vehicles fall under current legal frameworks? What risks are associated with automation and how will society respond to these risks? How will the marketplace react to automated vehicles and what changes may be necessary for companies? Experts from Germany and the United States define key societal, engineering, and mobility issues related to the automation of vehicles. They discuss the decisions programmers of automated vehicles must make to enable vehicles to perceive their environment, interact with other road users, and choose actions that may have ethical consequences. The authors further identify expectations and concerns that will form the basis for individual and societal acceptance of autonomous driving. While the safety benefits of such vehicles are tremendous, the auth...

  1. Development of an autonomous power system testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.R.; Adams, T.; Liffring, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A power system testbed has been assembled to advance the development of large autonomous electrical power systems required for the space station, spacecraft, and aircraft. The power system for this effort was designed to simulate single- or dual-bus autonomous power systems, or autonomous systems that reconfigure from a single bus to a dual bus following a severe fault. The approach taken was to provide a flexible power system design with two computer systems for control and management. One computer operates as the control system and performs basic control functions, data and command processing, charge control, and provides status to the second computer. The second computer contains expert system software for mission planning, load management, fault identification and recovery, and sends load and configuration commands to the control system

  2. Control of autonomous robot using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Adam; Volna, Eva

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the article is to design a method of control of an autonomous robot using artificial neural networks. The introductory part describes control issues from the perspective of autonomous robot navigation and the current mobile robots controlled by neural networks. The core of the article is the design of the controlling neural network, and generation and filtration of the training set using ART1 (Adaptive Resonance Theory). The outcome of the practical part is an assembled Lego Mindstorms EV3 robot solving the problem of avoiding obstacles in space. To verify models of an autonomous robot behavior, a set of experiments was created as well as evaluation criteria. The speed of each motor was adjusted by the controlling neural network with respect to the situation in which the robot was found.

  3. Autonomous calibration of single spin qubit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Florian; Unden, Thomas; Zoller, Jonathan; Said, Ressa S.; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2017-12-01

    Fully autonomous precise control of qubits is crucial for quantum information processing, quantum communication, and quantum sensing applications. It requires minimal human intervention on the ability to model, to predict, and to anticipate the quantum dynamics, as well as to precisely control and calibrate single qubit operations. Here, we demonstrate single qubit autonomous calibrations via closed-loop optimisations of electron spin quantum operations in diamond. The operations are examined by quantum state and process tomographic measurements at room temperature, and their performances against systematic errors are iteratively rectified by an optimal pulse engineering algorithm. We achieve an autonomous calibrated fidelity up to 1.00 on a time scale of minutes for a spin population inversion and up to 0.98 on a time scale of hours for a single qubit π/2 -rotation within the experimental error of 2%. These results manifest a full potential for versatile quantum technologies.

  4. Irresponsibilities, inequalities and injustice for autonomous vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2017-01-01

    With their prospect for causing both novel and known forms of damage, harm and injury, the issue of responsibility has been a recurring theme in the debate concerning autonomous vehicles. Yet, the discussion of responsibility has obscured the finer details both between the underlying concepts...... of responsibility, and their application to the interaction between human beings and artificial decision-making entities. By developing meaningful distinctions and examining their ramifications, this article contributes to this debate by refining the underlying concepts that together inform the idea...... of responsibility. Two different approaches are offered to the question of responsibility and autonomous vehicles: targeting and risk distribution. The article then introduces a thought experiment which situates autonomous vehicles within the context of crash optimisation impulses and coordinated or networked...

  5. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  6. Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu-Quang, Hieu

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been employed as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to improve sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis. In addition, these contrast agents are potentially combined with other therapeutic compounds or near infrared bio-imaging (NIR) fluorophores to obtain...... theranostic or dual imaging purposes, respectively. There were two main types of MRI contrast agent that were synthesized during this PhD project including fluorine containing nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles. In regard of fluorine containing nanoparticles, there were two types contrast agent...... that were synthesized in project I and II. In project I, Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly (ethylene glycol)-Folate Pefluorooctyl Bromide/Indocyanine green/ Doxorubicin (PLGA-PEG-Folate PFOB/ICG/Dox) has been formulated for the dual imaging NIR and 19F MRI as well as in the combination of Dox...

  7. Are Turkish University Students Autonomous or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büşra Kırtık

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tried to determine Turkish learners’ attitudes, and the Turkish education system’s approach towards learner autonomy with regard to three main points: 1 whether Turkish university students are aware of learner autonomy or not 2 whether Turkish university students have the characteristics of autonomous learners (whether they are autonomous learners or not, and 3 if the Turkish education system is suitable for fostering learner autonomy or not from the viewpoint of the participants. Participants were 50 second grade learners in the English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe University (N=10, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University (N=10, and Uludag University (N=30 who had already taken courses about learner autonomy.  The data were collected by means of a questionnaire which had two Likert-scale sections and an open-ended questions section. The first Likert-scale section contained 15 characteristics of autonomous learners each of which was rated by the participants in a scale from strongly disagree to agree, from 1 to 5. In the second Likert-scale section, the participants were asked to rate the Turkish education system’s five basic elements such as school curriculums, course materials, approaches used by the teachers in classrooms, learning activities, and classroom settings. Additionally, learners’ opinions about their awareness and understanding of learner autonomy were gathered by five open ended questions. The results proposed that the participants were aware of learner autonomy, and had the characteristics of autonomous learners. On the other hand, results showed that the Turkish education system was not suitable for autonomous learners and did not foster learner autonomy. The findings suggested that the Turkish education system should be designed again in such a way to support the autonomous learners and to foster learner autonomy in all sections of the education.

  8. Block fuel element for gas-cooled high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a block fuel element consisting of only one carbon matrix which is almost isotropic of high crystallinity into which the coated particles are incorporated by a pressing process. This block element is produced under isostatic pressure from graphite matrix powder and coated particles in a rubber die and is subsequently subjected to heat treatment. The main component of the graphite matrix powder consists of natural graphite powder to which artificial graphite powder and a small amount of a phenol resin binding agent are added

  9. Autonomous execution of the Precision Immobilization Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascareñas, David D. L.; Stull, Christopher J.; Farrar, Charles R.

    2017-03-01

    Over the course of the last decade great advances have been made in autonomously driving cars. The technology has advanced to the point that driverless car technology is currently being tested on publicly accessed roadways. The introduction of these technologies onto publicly accessed roadways not only raises questions of safety, but also security. Autonomously driving cars are inherently cyber-physical systems and as such will have novel security vulnerabilities that couple both the cyber aspects of the vehicle including the on-board computing and any network data it makes use of, with the physical nature of the vehicle including its sensors, actuators, and the vehicle chassis. Widespread implementation of driverless car technology will require that both the cyber, as well as physical security concerns surrounding these vehicles are addressed. In this work, we specifically developed a control policy to autonomously execute the Precision Immobilization Technique, a.k.a. the PIT maneuver. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end high-speed vehicular pursuits in a quasi-safe manner. However, there is still a risk of damage/roll-over to both the vehicle executing the PIT maneuver as well as to the vehicle subject to the PIT maneuver. In law enforcement applications, it would be preferable to execute the PIT maneuver using an autonomous vehicle, thus removing the danger to law-enforcement officers. Furthermore, it is entirely possible that unscrupulous individuals could inject code into an autonomously-driving car to use the PIT maneuver to immobilize other vehicles while maintaining anonymity. For these reasons it is useful to know how the PIT maneuver can be implemented on an autonomous car. In this work a simple control policy based on velocity pursuit was developed to autonomously execute the PIT maneuver using only a vision and range measurements that are both commonly collected by contemporary driverless cars. The ability of this

  10. Design of an autonomous exterior security robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and preliminary design of robotic vehicle designed for performing autonomous exterior perimeter security patrols around warehouse areas, ammunition supply depots, and industrial parks for the U.S. Department of Defense. The preliminary design allows for the operation of up to eight vehicles in a six kilometer by six kilometer zone with autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. In addition to detection of crawling intruders at 100 meters, the system must perform real-time inventory checking and database comparisons using a microwave tags system.

  11. Emerging Technologies for Autonomous Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Warschauer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a lengthier review completed for the US National Institute for Literacy, this paper examines emerging technologies that are applicable to self-access and autonomous learning in the areas of listening and speaking, collaborative writing, reading and language structure, and online interaction. Digital media reviewed include podcasts, blogs, wikis, online writing sites, text-scaffolding software, concordancers, multiuser virtual environments, multiplayer games, and chatbots. For each of these technologies, we summarize recent research and discuss possible uses for autonomous language learning.

  12. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface...... and formulated, via semantic representations, as a vehicle routing problem (VRP). By using this approach, the total non-working distance can be reduced by up to 50% compared to the conventional non-optimized method. Three sets of experiments are presented. In the first set, three fields were separately covered...

  13. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  14. Autonomous control of distributed storages in microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Operation of distributed generators in microgrids has widely been discussed, but would not be fully autonomous, if distributed storages are not considered. Storages in general are important, since they provide energy buffering to load changes, energy leveling to source variations and ride......-through enhancement to the overall microgrids. Recognizing their importance, this paper presents a scheme for sharing power among multiple distributed storages, in coordination with the distributed sources and loads. The scheme prompts the storages to autonomously sense for system conditions, requesting for maximum...

  15. Autonomous operation of distributed storages in microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Chai, Yi Kai; Li, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Operation of distributed generators in microgrids has been widely discussed, but would not be fully autonomous if distributed energy storages are not considered. Storages are important since they provide energy buffering to load changes, energy levelling to source variations and ride......-through enhancement to the microgrids. Recognising their importance, this study presents a scheme for sharing power among multiple distributed storages in coordination with the distributed sources and loads. The scheme prompts the storages to autonomously sense for local operating conditions, requesting for maximum...

  16. Applying Energy Autonomous Robots for Dike Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Dresscher, Douwe; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an exploratory study of an energy-autonomous robot that can be deployed on the Dutch dykes. Based on theory in energy harvesting from sun and wind and the energy-cost of locomotion an analytic expression to determine the feasible daily operational time of such a vehicle is composed. The parameters in this expression are identified using lab results and weather statistics. After an evaluation of the “Energy autonomous robot in the Netherlands‿ case, the results are genera...

  17. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  18. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University,Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-30

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  19. Four-block beam collimator

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows a four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with the secondary beams, the collimators operated in vacuum conditions. The blocks were made of steel and had a standard length of 1 m. The maximum aperture had a square coss-section of 144 cm2. (See Annual Report 1976.)

  20. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.