WorldWideScience

Sample records for automotive waste heat

  1. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  2. Temperature control of evaporators in automotive waste heat recovery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oom, M.E.E.; Feru, E.; de Jager, A.G.; de Lange, H.C.; Ouwerkerk, H.

    2017-01-01

    his paper presents a control strategy for the steam generation process in automotive waste heat recovery systems that are based on the subcritical Rankine cycle. The central question is how to regulate the flow of water into the evaporator such that dry steam is generated at its outlet, subject to

  3. Control of automotive waste heat recovery systems with parallel evaporators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Rascanu, G.C.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC) is applied to control a Waste Heat Recovery system for a highly dynamic automotive application. As a benchmark, a commonly applied control strategy is used that consists of a feedforward based on engine conditions and of two PI controllers that

  4. Model predictive control of a waste heat recovery system for automotive diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; de Jager, A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is designed for an automotive Waste Heat Recovery system with two parallel evaporators. The objective is to maximize Waste Heat Recovery system output power, while satisfying safe operation under highly dynamic disturbances from the

  5. Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a thermoelectric waste heat energy recovery system for internal combustion engine automobiles, including gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to directly convert the heat energy from automotive waste heat to electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator, which is then regulated by a DC-DC Cuk converter to charge a battery using maximum power point tracking. Hence, the electrical power stored in the battery can be maximized. Both analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can work well under different working conditions, and is promising for automotive industry.

  6. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  7. Performance analysis of a waste heat recovery thermoelectric generation system for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Deng, Y.D.; Li, Z.; Su, C.Q.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A new automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator and its “four-TEGs” system are constructed, and the performance characteristics of system are discussed through road test and revolving drum test. - Highlights: • The automotive thermoelectric generator system was constructed and studied. • Road test and revolving drum test were used to measure the output power. • A performance of 201.7 V (open circuit voltage)/944 W obtained. - Abstract: Thermoelectric power generators are one of the promising green energy sources. In this case study, an energy-harvesting system which extracts heat from an automotive exhaust pipe and turns the heat into electricity by using thermoelectric power generators (TEGs) has been constructed. The test bench is developed to analysis the performance of TEG system characteristics, which are undertaken to assess the feasibility of automotive applications. Based on the test bench, a new system called “four-TEGs” system is designed and assembled into prototype vehicle called “Warrior”, through the road test and revolving drum test table, characteristics of the system such as hot-side temperature, cold-side temperature, open circuit voltage and power output are studied, and a maximum power of 944 W was obtained, which completely meets the automotive application. The present study shows the promising potential of using this kind of thermoelectric generator for low-temperature waste heat recovery vehicle

  8. High-temperature and high-power-density nanostructured thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanliang; Cleary, Martin; Wang, Xiaowei; Kempf, Nicholas; Schoensee, Luke; Yang, Jian; Joshi, Giri; Meda, Lakshmikanth

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermoelectric generator (TEG) is fabricated using nanostructured half-Heusler materials. • The TE unicouple devices produce superior power density above 5 W/cm"2. • A TEG system with over 1 kW power output is demonstrated by recovering automotive waste heat. - Abstract: Given increasing energy use as well as decreasing fossil fuel sources worldwide, it is no surprise that interest in promoting energy efficiency through waste heat recovery is also increasing. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are one of the most promising pathways for waste heat recovery. Despite recent thermoelectric efficiency improvement in nanostructured materials, a variety of challenges have nevertheless resulted in few demonstrations of these materials for large-scale waste heat recovery. Here we demonstrate a high-performance TEG by combining high-efficiency nanostructured bulk materials with a novel direct metal brazing process to increase the device operating temperature. A unicouple device generates a high power density of 5.26 W cm"−"2 with a 500 °C temperature difference between hot and cold sides. A 1 kW TEG system is experimentally demonstrated by recovering the exhaust waste heat from an automotive diesel engine. The TEG system operated with a 2.1% heat-to-electricity efficiency under the average temperature difference of 339 °C between the TEG hot- and cold-side surfaces at a 550 °C exhaust temperature. The high-performance TEG reported here open up opportunities to use TEGs for energy harvesting and power generation applications.

  9. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling and Baseline Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-04-01

    A numerical model has been developed to simulate coupled thermal and electrical energy transfer processes in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) designed for automotive waste heat recovery systems. This model is capable of computing the overall heat transferred, the electrical power output, and the associated pressure drop for given inlet conditions of the exhaust gas and the available TEG volume. Multiple-filled skutterudites and conventional bismuth telluride are considered for thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for conversion of waste heat from exhaust into usable electrical power. Heat transfer between the hot exhaust gas and the hot side of the TEMs is enhanced with the use of a plate-fin heat exchanger integrated within the TEG and using liquid coolant on the cold side. The TEG is discretized along the exhaust flow direction using a finite-volume method. Each control volume is modeled as a thermal resistance network which consists of integrated submodels including a heat exchanger and a thermoelectric device. The pressure drop along the TEG is calculated using standard pressure loss correlations and viscous drag models. The model is validated to preserve global energy balances and is applied to analyze a prototype TEG with data provided by General Motors. Detailed results are provided for local and global heat transfer and electric power generation. In the companion paper, the model is then applied to consider various TEG topologies using skutterudite and bismuth telluride TEMs.

  10. Design of a predictive control strategy for an automotive electrically-assisted waste heat recovery system with preview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seretis, M.

    2017-01-01

    This report regards the development of a predictive control strategy for an automotive electrically-assisted Waste Heat Recovery System (eWHR) with preview information. In this system, the energy recovery is decoupled from the energy supply to the engine. For such dynamical systems with energy

  11. Low Cost Advanced Thermoelectric (TE) Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    Low cost, fully integrated TE generators (TEGs) to recover waste heat from vehicle exhaust will reduce transportation sector energy consumption and emissions. TEGs will be the first application of high-temperature TE materials for high-volume use and establish new industrial sectors with scaled up production capability of TEG materials and components. We will create a potential supply chain for practical automotive TEGs and identify manufacturing and assembly processes for large scale production of TEG materials and components. Our work focusses on several innovative R&D paths: (1) enhanced TE material performance by doping and compositional tuning, (2) optimized TE material fabrication and processing to reduce thermal conductivity and improve fracture strength, (3) high volume production for successful skutterudite commercialization, (4) new material, nanostructure, and nanoscale approaches to reduce thermal interface and electrical contact resistances, (5) innovative heat exchangers for high efficiency heat flows and optimum temperature profiles despite highly variable exhaust gas operating conditions, (6) new modeling and simulation tools, and (7) inexpensive materials for thermal insulation and coatings for TE encapsulation. Recent results will be presented. Supported by the U.S. DOE Vehicle Technology Program.

  12. Performance Analysis of Thermoelectric Based Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System with Nanofluid Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Output performance of a thermoelectric-based automotive waste heat recovery system with a nanofluid coolant is analyzed in this study. Comparison between Cu-Ethylene glycol (Cu-EG nanofluid coolant and ethylene glycol with water (EG-W coolant under equal mass flow rate indicates that Cu-EG nanofluid as a coolant can effectively improve power output and thermoelectric conversion efficiency for the system. Power output enhancement for a 3% concentration of nanofluid is 2.5–8 W (12.65–13.95% compared to EG-Water when inlet temperature of exhaust varies within 500–710 K. The increase of nanofluid concentration within a realizable range (6% has positive effect on output performance of the system. Study on the relationship between total area of thermoelectric modules (TEMs and output performance of the system indicates that optimal total area of TEMs exists for maximizing output performance of the system. Cu-EG nanofluid as coolant can decrease optimal total area of TEMs compared with EG-W, which will bring significant advantages for the optimization and arrangement of TEMs whether the system space is sufficient or not. Moreover, power output enhancement under Cu-EG nanofluid coolant is larger than that of EG-W coolant due to the increase of hot side heat transfer coefficient of TEMs.

  13. A research on thermoelectric generator's electrical performance under temperature mismatch conditions for automotive waste heat recovery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.B. Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric generators recover useful energy by the function of thermoelectric modules which can convert waste heat energy into electricity from automotive exhaust. In the actual operation, the electrical connected thermoelectric modules are operated under temperature mismatch conditions and then the problem of decreased power output causes due to the inhomogeneous temperature gradient distribution on heat exchanger surface. In this case study, an individual module test system and a test bench have been carried out to test and analyze the impact of thermal imbalance on the output electrical power at module and system level. Variability of the temperature difference and clamping pressure are also tested in the individual module measurement. The system level experimental results clearly describe the phenomenon of thermoelectric generator's decreased power output under mismatched temperature condition and limited working temperature. This situation is improved with thermal insulation on the modules and proved to be effective.

  14. Thermodynamic modelling and performance study of an engine waste heat driven adsorption cooling for automotive air-conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Syed Muztuza; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2015-01-01

    Waste heat from engine can be utilized to drive an adsorption cooling system for air conditioning purposes in the vehicle cabin, which not only improves the fuel economy but also reduces the carbon footprint. It is also important to reduce the size of the adsorption bed to adopt the adsorption technology for air-conditioning applications in passenger cars, buses and trucks or even trains. In this article, we present a two stage indirect exhaust heat recovery system of automotive engine employing an effective lumped parameter model to simulate the dynamic behaviors of an adsorption chiller that ranges from the transient to the cyclic steady states. The thermodynamic framework of adsorption chiller is developed from the rigor of mass and energy balances of each component of the system and experimentally confirmed isotherms and kinetics data of various adsorbent–adsorbate pairs. The performance factors are calculated in terms of COP (Coefficient of Performance) and SCP (Specific Cooling Power) for different operating parameters such as cycle time, exhaust gas temperatures, cooling water temperatures and flow rates. From the simulation results, it is found that the exhaust energy of a six cylinder 3000 cc private car is able to produce nearly 3 kW of cooling power for the car cabin. It is also observed that the driving heat source temperature does not remain constant throughout the cycle time unlike the conventional adsorption chiller, and the hot water temperatures as driving source vary from 65 to 95 °C. CaCl 2 -in-silica gel–water system is found better in terms of COP and SCP as compared with other adsorbents – water systems. - Highlights: • Adsorption cooling for car air conditioning. • Thermodynamic frameworks with adsorption isotherms and kinetics. • Various adsorbents such as silica gel, zeolites (AQSOA-Z01, Z-02), CaCl 2 -in-silica gel are tested. • Cooling power for car cabin employing waste heat recovery.

  15. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, José; Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; Royo-Pascual, Lucía; Haller, R.; Melis, J.

    2016-01-01

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE). Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimenta...

  16. A comprehensive design methodology of organic Rankine cycles for the waste heat recovery of automotive heavy-duty diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amicabile, Simone; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Kum, Dongsuk

    2015-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches to recover the waste heat from internal combustion engines is the Organic Rankine Cycle owing to its efficiency and reliability. The design optimization of ORC, however, is nontrivial because there exist many design variables and practical considerations. The present paper proposes a comprehensive design methodology to optimize the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) considering a wide range of design variables as well as practical aspects such as component limitations and costs. The design process is comprised of three steps: heat source selection, candidate fluid selection, and thermodynamic cycle optimization. In order to select the best waste heat source, the available energy and other practical considerations of various heat sources have been compared. Among others, the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) cooler is found to be the best heat source, and thus used for the rest of this study. Based on a systematic working fluid analysis, Ethanol, Pentane, and R245fa are selected as three candidate fluids. For the comprehensive ORC optimization, four types of cycle layouts are considered; 1) subcritical cycle without a recuperator, 2) subcritical cycle with a recuperator, 3) supercritical without a recuperator, and 4) supercritical cycle with a recuperator. Four cycle layouts coupled with three candidate fluids give a total of twelve cycle analyses. Results show that the best performance is provided by the regenerative subcritical cycle with Ethanol, while the solution with minimum capital cost is the subcritical cycles with Ethanol but without a recuperator. - Highlights: • Selection of the best waste heat source of a diesel engine for a heat recovery system. • Screening process to identify the most suitable working fluids for the system. • Comprehensive ORC optimization is introduced for four types of cycle layouts. • Pay Back Time investigation to present the economic analysis of the cycles

  17. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery (WHR in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE. Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimental validation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC with a swash-plate expander integrated in a 2 L turbocharged petrol engine using ethanol as working fluid. A global simulation model of the ORC was developed with a maximum difference of 5%, validated with experimental results. Considering the swash-plate as the main limiting factor, an additional specific submodel was implemented to model the physical phenomena in this element. This model allows simulating the fluid dynamic behavior of the swash-plate expander using a 0D model (Amesim. Differences up to 10.5% between tests and model results were found.

  18. Numerical simulation of heat transfer process in automotive brakes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Voltas, David

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis concerns the theoretical investigations of the heat transfer process in automotive brakes. The process of heat generation and heat transfer to ambient air in automotive brake was presented. The two–dimensional, axi-symmetrical model of transient heat conduction for the brake was applied. The relevant boundary conditions, that describe the heat generated in the brake and the heat transferred to ambient air, were used. The unsteady heat conduction problem was solved by the...

  19. Free automotive and heating fuels for home and farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, K.

    1991-01-01

    This book is for farmers or any landowners with access to free materials, such as agricultural wastes, that can be converted with minimum expense to heating fuel of to ethanol for automotive use. Farmers can learn how to make and use stoves, furnaces or stills for processing their own free materials for their own use or their neighbors. If one is a good mechanic one can learn how to adjust carburetors, to start a business converting engines to burn ethanol. The book is intended to provide the information you need to make practical use of waste materials and to save money. The book contains five chapters: Ethanol feedstocks; Crops for burning; Conversion to fuel; Fuel Utilization; and Business Opportunities. These chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  20. Modeling a Thermoelectric Generator Applied to Diesel Automotive Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, N.; Lazard, M.; Aixala, L.; Scherrer, H.

    2010-09-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are outstanding devices for automotive waste heat recovery. Their packaging, lack of moving parts, and direct heat to electrical conversion are the main benefits. Usually, TEGs are modeled with a constant hot-source temperature. However, energy in exhaust gases is limited, thus leading to a temperature decrease as heat is recovered. Therefore thermoelectric properties change along the TEG, affecting performance. A thermoelectric generator composed of Mg2Si/Zn4Sb3 for high temperatures followed by Bi2Te3 for low temperatures has been modeled using engineering equation solver (EES) software. The model uses the finite-difference method with a strip-fins convective heat transfer coefficient. It has been validated on a commercial module with well-known properties. The thermoelectric connection and the number of thermoelements have been addressed as well as the optimum proportion of high-temperature material for a given thermoelectric heat exchanger. TEG output power has been estimated for a typical commercial vehicle at 90°C coolant temperature.

  1. Product waste in the automotive industry : Technology and environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter; Hond, Frank Den

    1993-01-01

    In this article the changes in technology and industry structure forced by waste management in the automotive industry are explored. The analysis is based on (1) a characterisation of corporate response to environmental issues, and (2) the management of technology applied to the car manufacturing

  2. A heat exchanger analogy of automotive paint ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Preetham P.

    2013-01-01

    Computational prediction of vehicle temperatures in an automotive paint oven is essential to predict paint quality and manufacturability. The complex geometry of vehicles, varying scales in the flow, transient nature of the process, and the tightly coupled conjugate heat transfer render the numerical models computationally very expensive. Here, a novel, simplified model of the oven is developed using an analogy to a three-stream cross flow heat exchanger that transfers heat from air to a series of moving bodies and supporting carriers. The analogous heat exchanger equations are developed and solved numerically. Steady state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to model the flow field and to extract the heat transfer coefficients around the body and carriers. The air temperature distribution from the CFD models is used as a boundary condition in the analogous model. Correction coefficients are used in the analogy to take care of various assumptions. These are determined from existing test data. The same corrections are used to predict air temperatures for a modified configuration of the oven and a different vehicle. The method can be used to conduct control volume analysis of ovens to determine energy efficiency, and to study new vehicle or oven designs. -- Highlights: • Analogy of an automotive paint oven as a three stream cross flow heat exchanger. • The three streams are vehicle bodies, carriers and hot air. • Convection coefficients and inlet air stream temperatures from steady CFD simulations. • Analogy useful for overall energy efficiency analysis of conveyor ovens in general

  3. Industrial waste heat for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitner, K.L.; Brooks, P.P.

    1982-01-01

    Presents 2 bounding evaluations of industrial waste heat availability. Surveys waste heat from 29 major industry groups at the 2-digit level in Standard Industrial Codes (SIC). Explains that waste heat availability in each industry was related to regional product sales, in order to estimate regional waste heat availability. Evaluates 4 selected industries at the 4-digit SIC level. Finds that industrial waste heat represents a significant energy resource in several urban areas, including Chicago and Los Angeles, where it could supply all of these areas residential heating and cooling load. Points out that there is a strong need to evaluate the available waste heat for more industries at the 4-digit level. Urges further studies to identify other useful industrial waste heat sources as well as potential waste heat users

  4. Polymeric hollow fiber heat exchanger as an automotive radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krásný, Ivo; Astrouski, Ilya; Raudenský, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric hollow fiber heat exchanger as an automotive radiator is proposed. • The mechanism of heat transfer (HT) relies on diameter of polymeric hollow fiber. • Grimson equation is sufficient for approximate prediction of the heat transfers. - Abstract: Nowadays, different automotive parts (tubing, covers, manifolds, etc.) are made of plastics because of their superior characteristics, low weight, chemical resistance, reasonable price and several other aspects. Manufacturing technologies are already well-established and the application of plastics is proven. Following this trend, the production of compact and light all-plastic radiators seems reasonable. Two plastic heat exchangers were manufactured based on polypropylene tubes of diameter 0.6 and 0.8 mm (so-called fibers) and tested. The heat transfer performance and pressure drops were studied with hot (60 °C) ethyleneglycol-water brine flowing inside the fibers and air (20 °C) outside because these conditions are conventional for car radiator operation. It was observed that heat transfer rates (up to 10.2 kW), overall heat transfer coefficients (up to 335 W/m"2 K), and pressure drops are competitive to conventional aluminium finned-tube radiators. Moreover, influence of fiber diameter was studied. It was observed that air-side convective coefficients rise with a decrease of fiber diameter. Air-side pressure drops of plastic prototypes were slightly higher than of aluminium radiator but it is expected that additional optimization will eliminate this drawback. Experimentally obtained air-side heat transfer coefficients were compared with the theoretical prediction using the Grimson equation and the Churchill and Bernstein approach. It was found that the Grimson equation is sufficient for approximate prediction of the outer HTCs and can be used for engineering calculations. Further work will concentrate on optimizing and developing a polymeric hollow fiber heat exchanger with reduced size

  5. Heat exchanger modeling and identification for control of waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Rojer, C.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    To meet future CO2 emission targets, Waste Heat Recovery systems have recently attracted much attention for automotive applications, especially for long haul trucks. This paper focuses on the development of a dynamic counter-flow heat exchanger model for control purposes. The model captures the

  6. Heat exchangers for automotive gas turbine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, R.N.

    1974-01-01

    Automotive gas turbine power plants are now in the final stages of development for quantity manufacture. A crucial factor in this development is the regenerative heat exchanger. The relative merits of the rotary regenerative and static recuperative heat exchanger are compared. Thermal efficiency and initial cost are two vital issues involved in the design of small gas turbines for the commercial establishment of gas turbine vehicles. The selection of a material for the rotaty regenerator is essentially related to resolving the two vital issues of future small gas turbines and is, therefore, analysed. The account of the pioneering work involved in engineering the glass ceramic and other non-metal regenerators includes a complete failure analysis based on running experience with over 200 ceramic regenerators. The problems of sealing, supporting and manufacturing the ceramic regenerator are discussed and future practical designs are outlined. Heat exchange theory applied to small gas turbines is also reviewed

  7. Refrigeration waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    UK Super A Stores was built in 1972 and is part of a small indoor shopping complex linked together by a heated mall. The store has a public floor area of approximately 1,232 m{sup 2} (13,261 ft.{sup 2}) and sells the usual variety of food produce including a large selection of frozen foods. There are five lengths of refrigerated display cabinets with a total area of approximately 78 m{sup 2}. There are also some frozen food storage rooms at the back of the store. This report provides a description of a waste heat recovery system within a medium sized food store. It details how the waste heat that is produced by the conventional frozen food display cabinets, can be reused by the store's space heating system. Recommended uses for this waste heat include: diverting to the loading bays which would make the reheat coil unnecessary, diverting to the front of the shop, and heating the adjacent shopping mall. The CREDA (Conservation and Renewable Energy Demonstration Assistance) program contributed $17,444 towards the total project cost of $30,444. The project was initiated by the store owner, who is now realizing a lower annual fuel consumption, with the resulting financial savings. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phi Wah Tooi

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO 2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  9. Simulation and Optimization of the Heat Exchanger for Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Q.; Huang, C.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, Y. P.; Chu, P. Q.; Zheng, S. J.

    2016-03-01

    In order to enhance the exhaust waste heat recovery efficiency of the automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, a three-segment heat exchanger with folded-shaped internal structure for the TEG system is investigated in this study. As the major effect factors of the performance for the TEG system, surface temperature, and thermal uniformity of the heat exchanger are analyzed in this research, pressure drop along the heat exchanger is also considered. Based on computational fluid dynamics simulations and temperature distribution, the pressure drop along the heat exchanger is obtained. By considering variable length and thickness of folded plates in each segment of the heat exchanger, response surface methodology and optimization by a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied for surface temperature, thermal uniformity, and pressure drop for the folded-shaped heat exchanger. An optimum design based on the optimization is proposed to improve the overall performance of the TEG system. The performance of the optimized heat exchanger in different engine conditions is discussed.

  10. Design and instrumentation of an automotive heat pump system using ambient air, engine coolant and exhaust gas as a heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoz, M.; Direk, M.; Yigit, K.S.; Canakci, M.; Alptekin, E.; Turkcan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Because the amount of waste heat used for comfort heating of the passenger compartment in motor vehicles decreases continuously as a result of the increasing engine efficiencies originating from recent developments in internal combustion engine technology, it is estimated that heat requirement of the passenger compartment in vehicles using future generation diesel engines will not be met by the waste heat taken from the engine coolant. The automotive heat pump (AHP) system can heat the passenger compartment individually, or it can support the present heating system of the vehicle. The AHP system can also be employed in electric vehicles, which do not have waste heat, as well as vehicles driven by a fuel cell. The authors of this paper observed that such an AHP system using ambient air as a heat source could not meet the heat requirement of the compartment when ambient temperature was extremely low. The reason is the decrease in the amount of heat taken from the ambient air as a result of low evaporating temperatures. Furthermore, the moisture condensed from air freezed on the evaporator surface, thus blocking the air flow through it. This problem can be solved by using the heat of engine coolant or exhaust gases. In this case, the AHP system can have a higher heating capacity and reuse waste heat. (author)

  11. Electricity from waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjola, Jaakko; Lindgren, Olli; Vakkilainen, Esa

    In industry and in ships, large amounts of waste heat with quite a high release temperature are produced: examples are combustion gases and the exhaust gases of ceramic kilns. Very often they cannot be used for heating purposes because of long transport distances or because there is no local district heating network. Thus, a practical solution would be to convert this waste heat into electric power. This conversion may be carried out using an ORC-plant (Organic Rankine Cycle). There are probably some twenty ORC-plants in commercial use in the world. They are, however, usually based on conventional power plant technology, and are rather expensive, complicated and may have significant maintenance expenses. In order to obviate these problems, a project was started at Lappeenranta University of Technology at the beginning of 1981 to develop a high-speed, hermetic turbogenerator as the prime mover of the ORC. With this new technology the whole ORC-plant is quite simple, with only one moving part in the power system. It is expected to require very little maintenance, and the calculations made give for it significantly lower specific price than for the conventional technology ORC-plant. Two complete prototypes of the new technology ORC-plant have been built, one to the laboratory, other to industrial use. The nominal output of both is 100 kW electricity. Calculated amortization times for the new ORC-plant range from 2.1 to 6.

  12. Industrial heat treatment of R-HPDC A356 automotive brake callipers [Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chauke, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available brake callipers to the automotive industry. This research studied A356 brake callipers heat treated on the industrial scale with particular emphasis on the resulting microstructure, hardness and tensile properties. The eutectic Si...

  13. Development of halogen-free, heat-resistant, low-voltage wire for automotive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji; Suzuki, Sizuo; Takahagi, Masatoshi; Uda, Ikujiro

    1995-01-01

    The environmental load of our motorized society is of major concern, and includes considerations of recycling of automotive parts as the industrial wastes. The total average length of AV, AVX (electrical wire insulated with PVC, cross-linked PVC), and AEX (electrical wire insulated with cross-linked polyolefin) wires required for the harnesses in modern automobiles is approximately 2,000-3,000 meters per unit. However these electrical wires contain a large amount of halogen, which can generate the smoke and corrosive gas. In response to this problem the authors have developed the electron beam irradiated halogen-free, heat-resistant, low-voltage electrical wire which does not contain any halogen based polymer or flame retardants. The developed wire features the reliability equivalent to AEX wire with minimum environmental load. (Author)

  14. Waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-12-19

    A waste heat recovery system includes a Rankine cycle (RC) circuit having a pump, a boiler, an energy converter, and a condenser fluidly coupled via conduits in that order, to provide additional work. The additional work is fed to an input of a gearbox assembly including a capacity for oil by mechanically coupling to the energy converter to a gear assembly. An interface is positioned between the RC circuit and the gearbox assembly to partially restrict movement of oil present in the gear assembly into the RC circuit and partially restrict movement of working fluid present in the RC circuit into the gear assembly. An oil return line is fluidly connected to at least one of the conduits fluidly coupling the RC components to one another and is operable to return to the gear assembly oil that has moved across the interface from the gear assembly to the RC circuit.

  15. Influence of heat treatment on magnesium alloys meant to automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, G.; Moldovan, P.; Bojin, D.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the heat treatment realized on magnesium alloys, from AZ80 and ZK60 class. These alloys are destined to replace the conventional ferrous and aluminum alloys in automotive industry. It was realized the heat treatment, T5 - artificially aging, and it were

  16. Work-related heat stress concerns in automotive industries: a case study from Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, Ramalingam; Sankar, Sambandam; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2009-11-11

    Work-related heat stress assessments, the quantification of thermal loads and their physiological consequences have mostly been performed in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries (many of which are also tropical), limited attempts have been made to create detailed job-exposure profiles for various sectors. We present here a case study from Chennai in southern India that illustrates the prevalence of work-related heat stress in multiple processes of automotive industries and the efficacy of relatively simple controls in reducing prevalence of the risk through longitudinal assessments. We conducted workplace heat stress assessments in automotive and automotive parts manufacturing units according to the protocols recommended by NIOSH, USA. Sites for measurements included indoor locations with process-generated heat exposure, indoor locations without direct process-generated heat exposure and outdoor locations. Nearly 400 measurements of heat stress were made over a four-year period at more than 100 locations within eight units involved with automotive or automotive parts manufacturing in greater Chennai metropolitan area. In addition, cross-sectional measurements were made in select processes of glass manufacturing and textiles to estimate relative prevalence of heat stress. Results indicate that many processes even in organised large-scale industries have yet to control heat stress-related hazards adequately. Upwards of 28% of workers employed in multiple processes were at risk of heat stress-related health impairment in the sectors assessed. Implications of longitudinal baseline data for assessing efficacy of interventions as well as modelling potential future impacts from climate change (through contributions from worker health and productivity impairments consequent to increases in ambient temperature) are described. The study re-emphasises the need for recognising heat stress as an important occupational health risk in both formal

  17. Experiments and simulations on heat exchangers in thermoelectric generator for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Deng, Y.D.; Zhang, K.; Xu, M.; Xu, Y.; Su, C.Q.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an energy-harvesting system which extracts heat from an automotive exhaust pipe and turns the heat into electricity by using thermoelectric power generators (TEGs) was built. Experiments show that the temperature difference in automotive system is not constant, especially the heat exchanger, which cannot provide the thermoelectric modules (TMs) large amount of heat. The thermal performance of different heat exchangers in exhaust-based TEGs is studied in this work, and the thermal characteristics of heat exchangers with different internal structures and thickness are discussed, to obtain higher interface temperature and thermal uniformity. Following computational fluid dynamics simulations, infrared experiments and output power testing system are carried out on a high-performance production engine with a dynamometer. Results show that a plate-shaped heat exchanger with chaos-shaped internal structure and thickness of 5 mm achieves a relatively ideal thermal performance, which is practically useful to enhance the thermal performance of the TEG, and larger total output power can be thus obtained. - Graphical abstract: The thermal and electrical characteristics of different heat exchangers of automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator are discussed, to obtain higher interface temperature and thermal uniformity. - Highlights: • Different internal structures and thickness of heat exchangers were proposed. • Power output testing system of the two heat exchangers was characterized. • Chaos-shaped heat exchanger (5 mm thickness) shows better performance

  18. Recycling of waste automotive laminated glass and valorization of polyvinyl butyral through mechanochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Basudev; Ryang Park, Jae; Yoon Shin, Dong; Park, Kyung-Soo; Hwan Hong, Myung; Gi Lee, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Due to strong binding, optical clarity, adhesion to many surfaces, toughness and flexibility polyvinyl butyral (PVB) resin films are commonly used in the automotive and architectural application as a protective interlayer in the laminated glass. Worldwide million tons of PVB waste generated from end-of-life automotive associated with various environmental issues. Stringent environmental directive, higher land cost eliminates land filling option, needs a study, we have developed a mechanochemical separation process to separate PVB resins from glass and characterized the separated PVB through various techniques, i.e., scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Commercial nonionic surfactants D201 used for the mechanochemical separation purpose. Through parameter optimization following conditions are considered to be the optimum condition; 30 vol% D201, stirring speed of 400 rpm, 35 °C temperature, operation time 1 h, and dilute D201 volume to waste automotive laminated glass weight ratio of ≈25. The technology developed in our laboratory is sustainable, environmentally friendly, techno-economical feasible process, capable of mass production (recycling). - Highlights: • Waste automotive laminated glass and polyvinyl butyral mechanochemically separated. • An economical total recovery and environment-friendly process has been developed. • It is a global problem rather than regional environmental issue has been addressed. • Without using hazardous chemical wastes are being converted to a wealth.

  19. Time-series-based hybrid mathematical modelling method adapted to forecast automotive and medical waste generation: Case study of Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Ruzgas, Tomas; Denafas, Gintaras

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to create a hybrid forecasting method that could produce higher accuracy forecasts than previously used 'pure' time series methods. Mentioned methods were already tested with total automotive waste, hazardous automotive waste, and total medical waste generation, but demonstrated at least a 6% error rate in different cases and efforts were made to decrease it even more. Newly developed hybrid models used a random start generation method to incorporate different time-series advantages and it helped to increase the accuracy of forecasts by 3%-4% in hazardous automotive waste and total medical waste generation cases; the new model did not increase the accuracy of total automotive waste generation forecasts. Developed models' abilities to forecast short- and mid-term forecasts were tested using prediction horizon.

  20. The influence of inner topology of exhaust heat exchanger and thermoelectric module distribution on the performance of automotive thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Yifeng; Yang, Xue; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cylindrical grooves to improve the performance of TEG were proposed. • Mainly thermal resistance in TEG was the heat convection in heat exchanger. • Proper height of heat exchanger can improve the TEG performance. • Keeping heat exchanger partly covered with TEM can make full use of each TEM. - Abstract: The waste heat of automotive exhaust gas would be directly transferred into electricity by thermoelectric modules (TEM) because of the temperature difference between heat exchanger and water tank. For the vehicle thermoelectric generator (TEG), the electrical power generation was deeply influenced by temperature difference, temperature uniformity and topological structure of TEG. In previous works, increasing the difference of temperature would significantly enhance the power generation of TEG and inserted fins were always applied to enhance heat transfer in heat exchanger. However the fins would result in a large unwanted back pressure which went against to the efficiency of the engine. In current studies, in order to enhance heat transfer rates and to avoid back pressure increase, a heat exchanger containing cylindrical grooves (the depth-to-width ratio is 0.25) on the interior surface of heat exchanger was proposed. The cylindrical grooves could increase the heat transfer area and enhance the turbulence intensity, meanwhile there was no additional inserts in the fluid to block the flow. The surface temperatures of water tank and heat exchanger with three internal structures, such as grooved surface, flat surface and inserted fins, were studied by numerical simulation at each row of thermoelectric modules. The results showed that comparing to other structures, heat exchanger with cylindrical grooves could improve the TEG efficiency at a low back pressure. The influence of the channel height on the TEG performance was investigated and the TEG with a channel height of 8 mm showed the best overall performance. It was also found that a portion

  1. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  2. Characteristics of waste automotive glasses as silica resource in ferrosilicon synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, Rifat; Rajarao, Ravindra; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-02-01

    This fundamental research on end-of-life automotive glasses, which are difficult to recycle, is aimed at understanding the chemical and physical characteristics of waste glasses as a resource of silica to produce ferrosilicon. Laboratory experiments at 1550°C were carried out using different automotive glasses and the results compared with those obtained with pure silica. In situ images of slag-metal separation showed similar behaviour for waste glasses and silica-bearing pellets. Though X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed different slag compositions for glass and silica-bearing pellets, formation of ferrosilicon was confirmed. Synthesized ferrosilicon alloy from waste glasses and silica were compared by Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Silicon concentration in the synthesized alloys showed almost 92% silicon recovery from the silica-bearing pellet and 74-92% silicon recoveries from various waste glass pellets. The polyvinyl butyral (PVB) plastic layer in the windshield glass decomposed at low temperature and did not show any detrimental effect on ferrosilicon synthesis. This innovative approach of using waste automotive glasses as a silica source for ferrosilicon production has the potential to create sustainable pathways, which will reduce specialty glass waste in landfill. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The flow in an oil/water plate heat exchanger for the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano , A.; Barreras , F.; Fueyo , N.; Santodomingo , S.

    2008-01-01

    The flow in an oil/water plate heat exchanger for the automotive industry correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +34976716463; fax: +34976716456. (Lozano, A.) (Lozano, A.) LITEC/CSIC--> , Mar?'a de Luna 10--> , 50018--> , Zaragoza--> - SPAIN (Lozano, A.) SPAIN (Lozano, A.) LITEC/CSIC--> , Mar?'a de Luna 10--> , 50018--> , Zaragoza--> - S...

  4. Capacity waste management at automotive industry in India: A Six Sigma observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Rathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The companies in present challenging world are trying hard to improve their productivity and capacity utilization levels without actually increasing the sale price of their products. In India, in today combative world, the majority of automotive manufacturing industries are scuffling hard with their low levels of productivity. Possibly there are different reasons for this and capacity waste or under-utilization of productive capacity in industries appears to be one of the prime reasons. As corrective action, the present study makes an effort to check the efficacy of Six Sigma approach to improve capacity waste management. With a case study, through successful execution of Define phase, the study confirms the perception of Six Sigma for capacity waste management in Indian automotive industry.

  5. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  6. Future heat supply of our cities. Heating by waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachetti, H E [Stadtwerke Hannover A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1976-08-01

    The energy-price crisis resulted in structural changes of the complete energy supply and reactivated the question of energy management with respect to the optimum solution of meeting the energy requirements for space heating. Condensation power plants are increasingly replaced by thermal stations, the waste heat of which is used as so-called district heat. Thermal power stations must be situated close to urban areas. The problem of emission of harmful materials can partly be overcome by high-level emission. The main subject of the article, however, is the problem of conducting and distributing the heat. The building costs of heat pipeline systems and the requirements to be met by heat pipelines such as strength, heat insulation and protection against humidity and ground water are investigated.

  7. Control of a waste heat recovery system with decoupled expander for improved diesel engine efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is proposed for a Waste Heat Recovery system in heavy-duty automotive application. The objective is to maximize the WHR system output power while satisfying the output constraints under highly dynamic engine variations. For control design,

  8. Recovering heat from waste air from stables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    A milk cow gives off 35.7 kW h/d via its body, excreta and urine. 68.4% of this is body heat. Part of this waste heat escapes with the waste air from the cowsheds. The heat can be recovered from the waste air by an air/air heat exchanger. The air is collected and taken to a heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, fresh air is heated by the waste air, and is distributed over the cowshed by a system of ducts. The heated waste air escapes through a central chimney at the end of the heat exchanger. It is sensible to fit the heat exchanger above the cowshed roof, if there is sufficient space available and the chimney should run upwards from the cowshed. A double heat exchanger makes it possible to allocate each half of the cowshed to half of the heat exchanger.

  9. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  10. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, Amelia [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hampson, Anne [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  11. Performance evaluation of an integrated automotive air conditioning and heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoz, M.; Direk, M.

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the performance characteristics of an R134a automotive air conditioning system capable of operating as an air-to-air heat pump using ambient air as a heat source. For this aim, an experimental analysis has been performed on a plant made up of original components from an automobile air conditioning system and some extra equipment employed to operate the system in the reverse direction. The system has been tested in the air conditioning and heat pump modes by varying the compressor speed and air temperatures at the inlets of the indoor and outdoor coils. Evaluation of the data gathered in steady state test runs has shown the effects of the operating conditions on the capacity, coefficient of performance, compressor discharge temperature and the rate of exergy destroyed by each component of the system for both operation modes. It has been observed that the heat pump operation provides adequate heating only in mild weather conditions, and the heating capacity drops sharply with decreasing outdoor temperature. However, compared with the air conditioning operation, the heat pump operation usually yields a higher coefficient of performance and a lower rate of exergy destruction per unit capacity. It is also possible to improve the heating mode performance of the system by redesigning the indoor coil, using another refrigerant with a higher heat rejection rate in the condenser and employing a better heat source such as the engine coolant or exhaust gases

  12. Synergy of fuzzy AHP and Six Sigma for capacity waste management in Indian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Rathi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Capacity waste management is highly essential because under utilization of capacity is often referred to as a major reason for lower productivity among industries around the world. For better estimation of capacity and its utilization and then for its improved management; newer techniques are being devised in industrial sector. The current case of capacity waste problem has been taken up as a Six Sigma project, where we try to analyze critical factors responsible for the capacity waste. Decisions on critical factor selection in analysis phase of Six Sigma are always very crucial. The paper discusses an approach for selection of capacity waste factors at an automotive industry using fuzzy logic based AHP method. The fuzzy AHP is a well recognized tool to undertake the fuzziness of the data involved in choosing the preferences of the different decision variables engaged in the process of capacity waste factors selection. In this context, we have explored six crucial parameters for selection of capacity waste factors. Final ranking is calculated through priority vector thus obtained and it is seen that conveyor malfunction is found to be the key factor for capacity waste among all alternatives at the selected site.

  13. Industrial waste heat utilization for low temperature district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hao; Xia, Jianjun; Zhu, Kan; Su, Yingbo; Jiang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of low grade waste heat are discharged into the environment, mostly via water evaporation, during industrial processes. Putting this industrial waste heat to productive use can reduce fossil fuel usage as well as CO 2 emissions and water dissipation. The purpose of this paper is to propose a holistic approach to the integrated and efficient utilization of low-grade industrial waste heat. Recovering industrial waste heat for use in district heating (DH) can increase the efficiency of the industrial sector and the DH system, in a cost-efficient way defined by the index of investment vs. carbon reduction (ICR). Furthermore, low temperature DH network greatly benefits the recovery rate of industrial waste heat. Based on data analysis and in-situ investigations, this paper discusses the potential for the implementation of such an approach in northern China, where conventional heat sources for DH are insufficient. The universal design approach to industrial-waste-heat based DH is proposed. Through a demonstration project, this approach is introduced in detail. This study finds three advantages to this approach: (1) improvement of the thermal energy efficiency of industrial factories; (2) more cost-efficient than the traditional heating mode; and (3) CO 2 and pollutant emission reduction as well as water conservation. -- Highlights: •We review situation of industrial waste heat recovery with a global perspective. •We present a way to analyze the potential to utilize industrial waste heat for DH. •Northern China has huge potential for using low-grade industrial waste heat for DH. •A demonstration project is introduced using the universal approach we propose. •It proves huge benefits for factories, heat-supply companies and the society

  14. Thermoelectrics for waste heat recovery and climate control in automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranville, Clay W. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Schmitz, Peter [Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices have received renewed attention in the past decade for use in light-duty automotive applications. Governmental organizations and private corporations world-wide are sponsoring research at both the basic materials level, as well as for applied research and technology demonstrations. This funding has led to measurable improvement in TE device cost and efficiency, as well as spurring the emergence and growth of a vertically-integrated TE industry. The two broad categories of applications that have been considered for thermoelectrics are power generation through waste-heat recovery and cabin climate control through the use of TE heat pumps. Neither of these uses of TE devices has ever been commercialized in large-scale vehicle applications, in large part due to the challenges of low device efficiency and high costs. While it is still not clear that TEs will emerge as a winner in the marketplace in the near-term, there are several new developments which provide justification for this renewed interest. Among these reasons are increasing electrification of the vehicle fleet, demands from governments and consumers for improvement in fuel economy and reduction in tailpipe CO{sub 2} emissions, and a greater emphasis on occupant comfort. With governments and industry around the world placing substantial financial bets on the promise of this technology to help address national and global concerns for reducing CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbon consumption, it makes sense for the automotive industry to leverage this investment and to re-evaluate TE-based technology for use in vehicles. In this paper, we will present an overview of Ford Motor Company's current and upcoming research efforts into TE technology. This effort is focused on the use of TE waste heat recovery systems in a vehicle exhaust; and the use of TE HVAC systems in hybrid vehicles. We will discuss the role of the automotive OEM in establishing guidelines and targets for cost, power density

  15. Experimentally-determined external heat loss of automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, P. R.; Wulf, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    An external heat balance was conducted on a 150 HP two-shaft automotive gas turbine engine. The engine was enclosed in a calorimeter box and the temperature change of cooling air passing through the box was measured. Cooling airflow ranges of 1.6 to 2.1 lb-per-second and 0.8 to 1.1 lb-per-second were used. The engine housing heat loss increased as the cooling airflow through the calorimeter box was increased, as would be the case in a moving automobile. The heat balance between the total energy input and the sum of shaft power output and various losses compared within 30 percent at engine idle speeds and within 7 percent at full power.

  16. The influence of sodium chlorides fog on corrosion resistance of heat exchangers used in automotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the most important factors which influence on the exploitative durability of heat exchangers are classified. Particular attention was paid to the compounds of sodium chloride used in the winter season for road maintenance. In order to determine their impact on automotive heat exchanger corrosion resistance, a test of heaters in a salt chamber which imitates the conditions of their work was realized. It also allows to verify the durability of these products. To evaluate the corrosion changes, observation with the use of light microscopy and scanning microscopy SEM were made supplemented with microanalysis of chemical composition by EDS spectroscopy method. Critical areas in the heat exchangers which are mostly exposed to damage including the formation of local corrosion pits were located and analyzed.

  17. Waste heat recovery for offshore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Kandepu, Rambabu; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    vary in the range 20-30%. There are several technologies available for onshore gas turbines (and low/medium heat sources) to convert the waste heat into electricity. For offshore applications it is not economical and practical to have a steam bottoming cycle to increase the efficiency of electricity...... production, due to low gas turbine outlet temperature, space and weight restrictions and the need for make-up water. A more promising option for use offshore is organic Rankine cycles (ORC). Moreover, several oil and gas platforms are equipped with waste heat recovery units to recover a part of the thermal...... energy in the gas turbine off-gas using heat exchangers, and the recovered thermal energy acts as heat source for some of the heat loads on the platform. The amount of the recovered thermal energy depends on the heat loads and thus the full potential of waste heat recovery units may not be utilized...

  18. A Feasibility Study on District Heating and Cooling Business Using Urban Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byoung Youn; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Bong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jae In; Yoon, Jae Ho; Oh, Myung Do; Park, Moon Su; Kang, Han Kee; Yoo, Kyeoung Hoon; Bak, Jong Heon; Kim, Sun Chang; Park, Heong Kee; Bae, Tae Sik [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Investigation of papers related to waste heat utilization using heat pump. Estimate of various kinds of urban waste heat in korea. Investigation and study on optimal control of district heating and cooling system. Prediction of energy saving and environmental benefits when the urban waste heat will be used as heat source and sink of heat pump for district heating and cooling. Estimation of economic feasibility on district heating and cooling project utilizing urban waste heat. (author). 51 refs., figs

  19. Waste heat of HTR power stations for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnenberg, H.; Schlenker, H.V.

    1975-01-01

    The market situation, the applied techniques, and the transport, for district heating in combination with HTR plants are considered. Analysis of the heat market indicates a high demand for heat at temperatures between 100 and 150 0 C in household and industry. This market for district heating can be supplied by heat generated in HTR plants using two methods: (1) the combined heat and power generation in steam cycle plants by extracting steam from the turbine, and (2) the use of waste heat of a closed gas turbine cycle. The heat generation costs of (2) are negligible. The cost for transportation of heat over the average distance between existing plant sites and consumer regions (25 km) are between 10 and 20% of the total heat price, considering the high heat output of nuclear power stations. Comparing the price of heat gained by use of waste heat in HTR plants with that of conventional methods, considerable advantages are indicated for the combined heat and power generation in HTR plants. (author)

  20. Effect of heat and mass transfer coefficients on the performance of automotive catalytic converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, T. [Michigan Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2003-06-01

    This paper numerically investigates the role of heat and mass transfer coefficients on the performance of automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions. The pollutant conversion performance of a converter is influenced by a number of physical and chemical processes that take place in gaseous and solid phases as the exhaust gases flow through the catalyst. A quantitative predictive understanding of these complex catalyst processes involving flow dynamics, heterogeneous surface reactions and heat and mass transport mechanisms is important in improving the converter design. The role of convective transport phenomena becomes important at high temperature when the mass transfer becomes rate-limiting to an increasing extent. The objective of the present study is to elucidate the influence of convective heat and mass transfer coefficients (mechanisms). The mathematical model considers the conservation of mass, momentum and energy in both gaseous and solid phases. In addition to the heterogeneous surface reactions, the model also takes into account the adsorption/desorption of oxygen in the catalyst during non-stoichiometric composition of air/fuel mixtures. The governing equations are solved by an implicit scheme using a successive line under a relaxation method. The converter performance under the transient conditions as simulated by the US Federal Test Procedure (US-FTP) is analysed. (Author)

  1. Thermoelectricity from wasted heat of integrated circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2012-05-22

    We demonstrate that waste heat from integrated circuits especially computer microprocessors can be recycled as valuable electricity to power up a portion of the circuitry or other important accessories such as on-chip cooling modules, etc. This gives a positive spin to a negative effect of ever increasing heat dissipation associated with increased power consumption aligned with shrinking down trend of transistor dimension. This concept can also be used as an important vehicle for self-powered systemson- chip. We provide theoretical analysis supported by simulation data followed by experimental verification of on-chip thermoelectricity generation from dissipated (otherwise wasted) heat of a microprocessor.

  2. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The objective of this study was to predict tensile stress levels in thin-walled titanium alloy and thick-walled carbon steel containers designed for the ocean disposal of heat-generating radioactive wastes. Results showed that tensile stresses would be produced in both designs by the expansion of the lead filter, for a temperature rise of 200 0 C. Tensile stress could be reduced if the waste heat output at disposal was reduced. Initial stresses for the titanium-alloy containers could be relieved by heat treatment. (UK)

  3. Heat exchangers and recuperators for high temperature waste gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, H.

    General considerations on high temperature waste heat recovery are presented. Internal heat recovery through combustion air preheating and external heat recovery are addressed. Heat transfer and pressure drop in heat exchanger design are discussed.

  4. Recovery of exhaust waste heat for a hybrid car using steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababatin, Yasser

    A number of car engines operate with an efficiency rate of approximately 22% to 25% [1]. The remainder of the energy these engines generate is wasted through heat escape out of the exhaust pipe. There is now an increasing desire to reuse this heat energy, which would improve the overall efficiency of car engines by reducing their consumption of fuel. Another benefit is that such reuse would minimize harmful greenhouse gases that are emitted into the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to examine how the wasted heat energy can be reused and/or recovered by use of a heat recovery system that would store this energy in a hybrid car battery. Green turbines will be analyzed as a possible solution to recycle the lost energy in a way that will also improve the overall automotive energy efficiency.

  5. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  6. Position paper -- Waste storage tank heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on the heat removal system to be used on the waste storage tanks currently being designed for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF), project W-236A. The current preliminary design for the waste storage primary tank heat removal system consists of the following subsystems: (1) a once-through dome space ventilation system; (2) a recirculation dome space ventilation system; and (3) an annulus ventilation system. Recently completed and ongoing studies have evaluated alternative heat removal systems in an attempt to reduce system costs and to optimize heat removal capabilities. In addition, a thermal/heat transfer analysis is being performed that will provide assurance that the heat removal systems selected will be capable of removing the total primary tank design heat load of 1.25 MBtu/hr at an allowable operating temperature of 190 F. Although 200 F is the design temperature limit, 190 F has been selected as the maximum allowable operating temperature limit based on instrumentation sensitivity, instrumentation location sensitivity, and other factors. Seven options are discussed and recommendations are made

  7. Heat transfer in high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, B.R.; Hogg, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer in the storage of high-level liquid wastes, calcining of radioactive wastes, and storage of solidified wastes are discussed. Processing and storage experience at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are summarized for defense high-level wastes; heat transfer in power reactor high-level waste processing and storage is also discussed

  8. Making the most of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-09-26

    Two papers to the first PEMEC conference on plant maintenance held in London, Sept. 1975, are reported. J. O'Shea (Integrated Energy Systems) discussed the financial savings possible in recovering waste heat from diesel engines, smoke-tube and water-tube boilers and gas turbines. He estimates that use of all the waste heat sources from a diesel engine would return a cost of 0.623 p/kWh. R. Aston described a conventional diesel generator standby power installation at Connolly's (Blackley) Manchester works, expressing doubts as to the economy of the peak-lopping operation, with the favorable tariffs they were getting from Norway.

  9. New waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fangtian; Fu Lin; Zhang Shigang; Sun Jian

    2012-01-01

    A new waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle (DHAC) was developed to increase the heating capacity of combined heat and power (CHP) through waste heat recovery, and enhance heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network through decreasing return water temperature by new type absorption heat exchanger (AHE). The DHAC system and a conventional district heating system based on CHP (CDH) were analyzed in terms of both thermodynamics and economics. Compared to CDH, the DHAC increased heating capacity by 31% and increased heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network by 75%. The results showed that the exergetic efficiency of DHAC was 10.41% higher and the product exergy monetary cost was 36.6¥/GJ less than a CHD. DHAC is an effective way to increase thermal utilization factor of CHP, and to reduce district heating cost. - Highlights: ► Absorption heat pumps are used to recover waste heat in CHP. ► Absorption heat exchanger can reduce exergy loss in the heat transfer process. ► New waste heat heating system (DHAC) can increase heating capacity of CHP by 31%. ► DHAC can enhance heat transmission capacity of the primary pipe network by 75%. ► DHAC system has the higher exergetic efficiency and the better economic benefit.

  10. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  11. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  12. A Study on Infrared Local Heat Treatment for AA5083 to Improve Formability and Automotive Part Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ho; Yang, Dong-Yol; Ko, SeJin

    2017-10-01

    Automotive industries are increasingly employing aluminum alloys for auto parts to reduce vehicle weight. However, the low formability of aluminum alloys has been an obstacle to their application. To resolve the formability problem, some studies involving heat treatments under laboratory conditions have been reported. However, for industrial applications, the heat treatment sequence, heating energy efficiency, and a commercial part test should be studied. This work shows an infrared (IR) local heat treatment, heating only small areas where the heat treatment is required, for an aluminum alloy to improve the formability with a reduction of heating energy. The experiment shows that the formability drastically increases when the aluminum alloy is heat treated between two forming stages, referred to as intermediate heat treatment. The microstructures of the test pieces are evaluated to identify the cause of the increase in the formability. For an industrial application, an aluminum tailgate, which cannot be manufactured without heat treatment, was successfully manufactured by the IR local heat treatment with a reduction of energy. A simulation was also conducted with a stress-based forming limit diagram, which is not affected by the strain path and heat treatment histories. The simulation gives a good prediction of the formability improvement.

  13. Study on waste heat recovery from exhaust gas spark ignition (S.I. engine using steam turbine mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Kamarulhelmy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of global warming has pushed the effort of researchers not only to find alternative renewable energy, but also to improve the machine’s energy efficiency. This includes the utilization of waste energy into ‘useful energy’. For a vehicle using internal combustion engine (ICE, the waste energy produce by exhaust gas can be utilize to ‘useful energy’ up to 34%. The energy from the automotive exhaust can be harness by implementing heat pipe heat exchanger in the automotive system. In order to maximize the amount of waste energy that can be turned to ‘useful energy’, the used of appropriate fluid in the heat exchanger is important. In this study, the fluid used is water, thus converting the fluid into steam and thus drive the turbine that coupling with generator. The paper will explore the performance of a naturally aspirated spark ignition (S.I. engine equipped with waste heat recovery mechanism (WHRM that used water as the heat absorption medium. The experimental and simulation test suggest that the concept is thermodynamically feasible and could significantly enhance the system performance depending on the load applied to the engine.

  14. Ocean disposal of heat generating waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat generating waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the engineering and operational aspects of the Penetrator Option for ocean disposal to enable technical comparisons with other options to be made. In the Penetrator Option concept, waste would be loaded into carefully designed containers which would be launched at a suitable deep ocean site where they would fall freely through the water and would embed themselves completely within the seabed sediments. Radiological protection would be provided by a multi-barrier system including the vitrified waste form, the penetrator containment, the covering sediment and the ocean. Calculations and demonstration have shown that penetrators could easily achieve embedment depths in excess of 30m and preliminary radiological assessments indicate that 30m of intact sediment would be an effective barrier for radionuclide isolation. The study concludes that a 75mm thickness of low carbon steel appears to be sufficient to provide a containment life of 500 to 1000 years during which time the waste heat output would have decayed to an insignificant level. Disposal costs have been assessed. (author)

  15. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the

  16. Use of photovoltaics for waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D

    2013-04-16

    A device for recovering waste heat in the form of radiated light, e.g. red visible light and/or infrared light includes a housing having a viewing window, and a photovoltaic cell mounted in the housing in a relationship to the viewing window, wherein rays of radiated light pass through the viewing window and impinge on surface of the photovoltaic cell. The housing and/or the cell are cooled so that the device can be used with a furnace for an industrial process, e.g. mounting the device with a view of the interior of the heating chamber of a glass making furnace. In this manner, the rays of the radiated light generated during the melting of glass batch materials in the heating chamber pass through the viewing window and impinge on the surface of the photovoltaic cells to generate electric current which is passed onto an electric load.

  17. Simulation and experimental study on thermal optimization of the heat exchanger for automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Su

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric technology has revealed the potential for automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG, which contributes to the improvement of the fuel economy of the engine-powered vehicle. As a major factor, thermal capacity and heat transfer of the heat exchanger affect the performance of TEG effectively. With the thermal energy of exhaust gas harvested by thermoelectric modules, a temperature gradient appears on the heat exchanger surface, so as the interior flow distribution of the heat exchanger. In order to achieve uniform temperature distribution and higher interface temperature, the thermal characteristics of heat exchangers with various heat transfer enhancement features are studied, such as internal structure, material and surface area. Combining the computational fluid dynamics simulations and infrared test on a high-performance engine with a dynamometer, the thermal performance of the heat exchanger is evaluated. Simulation and experiment results show that a plate-shaped heat exchanger made of brass with accordion-shaped internal structure achieves a relatively ideal performance, which can practically improve overall thermal performance of the TEG.

  18. Developing Novel Heat treatments for Automotive Spring Steels : Phase Transformations, Microstructure and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulas, K.

    2018-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis investigates the substitution of quenching and tempering treat-
    ments by isothermal bainitic treatments in automotive spring production. An isothermal bainitic treatment has benefits mainly in terms of energy savings, but it can also prevent quench cracking, distortion and

  19. Experimental study on heat pipe assisted heat exchanger used for industrial waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Hongting; Yin, Lihui; Shen, Xiaopeng; Lu, Wenqian; Sun, Yuexia; Zhang, Yufeng; Deng, Na

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) was used to recycle the waste heat in a slag cooling process of steel industry. • An specially designed on-line cleaning device was construed and used to enhance the heat transfer of HPHE. • The performance characteristics of a HPHE has been assessed by integrating the first and second law of thermodynamics. • The optimum operation conditions was determined by integrating the first and the second law of thermodynamics. - Abstract: Steel industry plays an important role economically in China. A great amount of hot waste liquids and gases are discharged into environment during many steelmaking processes. These waste liquids and gases have crucial energy saving potential, especially for steel slag cooling process. It could be possible to provide energy saving by employing a waste heat recovery system (WHRS). The optimum operation condition was assessed by integrating the first and the second law of thermodynamics for a water–water heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) for a slag cooling process in steel industry. The performance characteristics of a HPHE has been investigated experimentally by analyzing heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient, effectiveness, exergy efficiency and number of heat transfer units (NTU). A specially designed on-line cleaning device was used to clean the heat exchange tubes and enhance heat transfer. The results indicated that the exergy efficiency increased with the increment of waste water mass flow rate at constant fresh water mass flow rate, while the effectiveness decreased at the same operation condition. As the waste water mass flow rate varied from 0.83 m"3/h to 1.87 m"3/h, the effectiveness and exergy efficiency varied from 0.19 to 0.09 and from 34% to 41%, respectively. In the present work, the optimal flow rates of waste water and fresh water were 1.20 m"3/h and 3.00 m"3/h, respectively. The on-line cleaning device had an obvious effect on the heat transfer, by performing

  20. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  1. Optimum length of finned pipe for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeylemez, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A thermoeconomic feasibility analysis is presented yielding a simple algebraic optimization formula for estimating the optimum length of a finned pipe that is used for waste heat recovery. A simple economic optimization method is used in the present study by combining it with an integrated overall heat balance method based on fin effectiveness for calculating the maximum savings from a waste heat recovery system

  2. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  3. A review of waste heat recovery technologies for maritime applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Dig Vijay; Pedersen, Eilif

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Major waste heat sources available on ships have been reviewed. • A review of suitable waste heat recovery systems was conducted for marine vessels. • Technologies have been compared for their potential and suitability for marine use. • Kalina cycle offers the highest potential for marine waste heat recovery. • Turbo compound system most suitable for recovering diesel exhaust pressure energy. - Abstract: A waste heat recovery system produces power by utilizing the heat energy lost to the surroundings from thermal processes, at no additional fuel input. For marine vessels, about 50 percent of the total fuel energy supplied to diesel power-plant aboard is lost to the surroundings. While the total amount of wasted energy is considerable, the quality of this energy is quite low due to its low temperature and has limited potential for power production. Effective waste heat recovery systems use the available low temperature waste heat to produce mechanical/electrical power with high efficiency value. In this study a review of different waste heat recovery systems has been conducted, to lay out the potential recovery efficiencies and suitability for marine applications. This work helps in identifying the most suitable heat recovery technologies for maritime use depending on the properties of shipboard waste heat and achievable recovery efficiencies, whilst discussing the features of each type of system.

  4. Potential of waste heat in Croatian industrial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bišćan Davor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery in Croatian industry is of the highest significance regarding the national efforts towards energy efficiency improvements and climate protection. By recuperation of heat which would otherwise be wasted, the quantity of fossil fuels used for production of useful energy could be lowered thereby reducing the fuel costs and increasing the competitiveness of examined Croatian industries. Another effect of increased energy efficiency of industrial processes and plants is reduction of greenhouse gases i.e. the second important national goal required by the European Union (EU and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. Paper investigates and analyses the waste heat potential in Croatian industrial sector. Firstly, relevant industrial sectors with significant amount of waste heat are determined. Furthermore, significant companies in these sectors are selected with respect to main process characteristics, operation mode and estimated waste heat potential. Data collection of waste heat parameters (temperature, mass flow and composition is conducted. Current technologies used for waste heat utilization from different waste heat sources are pointed out. Considered facilities are compared with regard to amount of flue gas heat. Mechanisms for more efficient and more economic utilization of waste heat are proposed. [Acknoledgment. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the UNITY THROUGH KNOWLEDGE FUND (UKF of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia and the World Bank, under the Grant Agreement No. 89/11.

  5. Waste heat recovery technologies for offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Benato, Alberto; Scolari, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at finding the most suitable waste heat recovery technology for existing and future offshore facilities. The technologies considered in this work are the steam Rankine cycle, the air bottoming cycle and the organic Rankine cycle. A multi-objective optimization approach is employed...... to attain optimal designs for each bottoming unit by selecting specific functions tailored to the oil and gas sector, i.e. yearly CO2 emissions, weight and economic revenue. The test case is the gas turbine-based power system serving an offshore platform in the North Sea. Results indicate that the organic...... and of the primary heat exchanger, organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators appear thus to be the preferred solution to abate CO2 emissions and pollutants on oil and gas facilities. As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for the design of high-efficiency, cost-competitive and low-weight power...

  6. Use of waste heat from a dairy for heating of a community house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehn, C

    1976-01-01

    In a dairy, a lot of cooling capacity is needed. This article describes how this waste heat can be used for heating a community house including a sport establishment and producing hot water for that house. Four different technical solutions are discussed; (1) floor heat, (2) heat transfer connected to the ventilation, (3) regenerative heat exchanger, and (4) use of heat pumps.

  7. Method and means for heating buildings in a district heating system with waste heat from a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margen, P.H.E.

    1975-01-01

    The waste heat from a thermal power plant is transported through a municipal heating network to a plurality of buildings to be heated. The quantity of heat thus supplied to the buildings is higher than that required for the heating of the buildings. The excess heat is released from the buildings to the atmosphere in the form of hot air

  8. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    A study of container designs for heat generating radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean sediments is presented. The purpose of the container would be to isolate the waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The container designs proposed are based on the use of either corrosion allowance or corrosion resistant metals. Appropriate overpack wall thicknesses are suggested for each design using the results of corrosion studies and experiments but these are necessarily preliminary and data relevant to corrosion in deep ocean sediments remain sparse. It is concluded that the most promising design concept involves a thin titanium alloy overpack in which all internal void spaces are filled with lead or cement grout. In situ temperatures for the sediment adjacent to the emplaced 50 year cooled waste containers are calculated to reach about 260 deg C. The behaviour of the sediments at such a high temperature is not well understood and the possibility of 100 years interim storage is recommended for consideration to allow further cooling. Further corrosion data and sediment thermal studies would be required to fully confirm the engineering feasibility of these designs. (author)

  9. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat-generating radioactive waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The study was sub-divided into the following major sections: manufacturing feasibility; stress analysis; integrity in accidents; cost benefit review. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarised as follows: (A) a thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. (B) an unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. (C) an unfilled carbon steel shell planted externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design Types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used. (author)

  10. Radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation suitable for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1987-01-01

    It is planned to dispose of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation in the Konrad repository. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements are derived taking the results of site-specific safety assessments as a basis. These requirements must be fulfilled by the waste packages on delivery. The waste amounts which are currently stored and those anticipated up to the year 2000 are discussed. The disposability of these waste packages in the Konrad repository was evaluated. This examination reveals that basically almost all radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation can be accepted. (orig.) [de

  11. Utilization of waste heat from nuclear power plants in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1981-01-01

    The development of nuclear power will result in the relative and absolute increase in the amount of waste heat which can be used in agriculture for heating greenhouses, open spaces, for fish breeding in heated water, for growing edible mushrooms, growing algae, for frost protection of orchards, air conditioning of buildings for breeding livestock and poultry, and for other purposes. In addition of the positive effect of waste heat, the danger increases of disease, weeds and pests. Pilot plant installations should be build in Czechoslovakia for testing the development of waste heat utilization. (Ha)

  12. Low grade waste heat recovery using heat pumps and power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, D.M. van de; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Kiss, Anton A.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy represents a large part of the global energy usage and about 43% of this energy is used for industrial applications. Large amounts are lost via exhaust gases, liquid streams and cooling water while the share of low temperature waste heat is the largest. Heat pumps upgrading waste heat to process heat and cooling and power cycles converting waste heat to electricity can make a strong impact in the related industries. The potential of several alternative technologies, either for the upgrading of low temperature waste heat such as compression-resorption, vapor compression and trans-critical heat pumps, or for the conversion of this waste heat by using organic Rankine, Kalina and trilateral cycle engines, are investigated with regards to energetic and economic performance by making use of thermodynamic models. This study focuses on temperature levels of 45–60 °C as at this temperature range large amounts of heat are rejected to the environment but also investigates the temperature levels for which power cycles become competitive. The heat pumps deliver 2.5–11 times more energy value than the power cycles in this low temperature range at equal waste heat input. Heat engines become competitive with heat pumps at waste heat temperatures at 100 °C and above. - Highlights: • Application of heat pump technology for heating and cooling. • Compression resorption heat pumps operating with large glides approaching 100 K. • Compression-resorption heat pumps with wet compression. • Potential to convert Industrial waste heat to power or high grade heat. • Comparison between low temperature power cycles and heat pumps

  13. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  14. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The feasibility of safe ocean disposal options for heat-generating radioactive waste relies on the existence of suitable disposal sites. This review considers the status of the development of site selection criteria and the results of the study area investigations carried out under various national and international research programmes. In particular, the usefulness of the results obtained is related to the data needed for environmental and emplacement modelling. Preliminary investigations have identified fifteen potential deep ocean study areas in the North Atlantic. From these Great Meteor East (GME), Southern Nares Abyssal Plan (SNAP) and Kings Trough Flank (KTF) were selected for further investigation. The review includes appraisals of regional geology, geophysical studies, sedimentology, geotechnical studies, geochemical studies and oceanography. (author)

  15. Modeling transient heat transfer in nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2009-09-30

    The heat of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste heat may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the heat generated from the waste canister and analyzes the heat distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer heat flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the heat conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling heat flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the decay heat of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository.

  16. Optimal waste heat recovery and reuse in industrial zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Linke, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Significant energy efficiency gains in zones with concentrated activity from energy intensive industries can often be achieved by recovering and reusing waste heat between processing plants. We present a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and design optimal reuse options across plants in industrial zones. The approach first establishes available waste heat qualities and reuse feasibilities considering distances between individual plants. A targeting optimization problem is solved to establish the maximum possible waste heat recovery for the industrial zone. Then, a design optimization problem is solved to identify concrete waste heat recovery options considering economic objectives. The paper describes the approach and illustrates its application with a case study. -- Highlights: → Developed a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and to design optimal recovery and reuse options across plants in industrial zones. → Five stage approach involving data acquisition, analysis, assessment, targeting and design. → Targeting optimization problem establishes the maximum possible waste heat recovery and reuse limit for the industrial zone. → Design optimization problem provides concrete waste heat recovery and reuse network design options considering economic objectives.

  17. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The detailed radiological assessment of any proposed operations for the disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep ocean sediments would require data describing expected embedment depths and spacing of the waste. In this study a theoretical model which predicts penetrator trajectories from launch through to rest in the sediment has been produced and has been used to generate data for environmental models. The trajectory model has been used to study the effects of small imperfections and launch parameters on the motion of a reference penetrator through water and sediment. The model predicts that the horizontal displacements of the penetrators' final resting places in the sediment from their launch positions at the ocean surface could be limited to less than 15m by twisting their tail fins uniformly by just one degree to induce spinning. The reference penetrator is predicted to achieve satisfactory embedment depth for all the cases considered including allowance for the effect of curved penetration paths in the seabed. However, the ability of the model to represent highly non-linear sediment penetration paths is demonstrated. Distribution histograms of seabed impact points relative to specific release points are presented. The area of seabed required is calculated. (author)

  18. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report is based on an emplacement techniques review prepared for the Department of the Environment in February 1983, which appeared as Chapter III of the Nuclear Energy Agency, Seabed Working Group's Status Report. The original document (DOE/RW/83.032) has been amended to take account of the results of field trials carried out in March 1983 and to better reflect current UK Government policy on ocean disposal of HGW. In particular Figure 7 has been redrawn using more realistic drag factors for the calculation of the terminal velocity in water. This report reviews the work conducted by the SWG member countries into the different techniques of emplacing heat generating radioactive waste into the deep ocean sediments. It covers the waste handling from the port facilities to final emplacement in the seabed and verification of the integrity of the canister isolation system. The two techniques which are currently being considered in detail are drilled emplacement and the free fall penetrator. The feasibility study work in progress for both techniques as well as the mathematical and physical modelling work for embedment depth and hole closure behind the penetrator are reviewed. (author)

  19. Energetical and economical assessment of the waste heat problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, U.; Voort, E. van der; Schneiders, A.; Zegers, P.

    1977-01-01

    Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view

  20. Evaluating the potential of process sites for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluleye, Gbemi; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin; Perry, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis considers the temperature and duties of the available waste heat. • Models for organic Rankine cycles, absorption heat pumps and chillers proposed. • Exploitation of waste heat from site processes and utility systems. • Concept of a site energy efficiency introduced. • Case study presented to illustrate application of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: As a result of depleting reserves of fossil fuels, conventional energy sources are becoming less available. In spite of this, energy is still being wasted, especially in the form of heat. The energy efficiency of process sites (defined as useful energy output per unit of energy input) may be increased through waste heat utilisation, thereby resulting in primary energy savings. In this work, waste heat is defined and a methodology developed to identify the potential for waste heat recovery in process sites; considering the temperature and quantity of waste heat sources from the site processes and the site utility system (including fired heaters and, the cogeneration, cooling and refrigeration systems). The concept of the energy efficiency of a site is introduced – the fraction of the energy inputs that is converted into useful energy (heat or power or cooling) to support the methodology. Furthermore, simplified mathematical models of waste heat recovery technologies using heat as primary energy source, including organic Rankine cycles (using both pure and mixed organics as working fluids), absorption chillers and absorption heat pumps are developed to support the methodology. These models are applied to assess the potential for recovery of useful energy from waste heat. The methodology is illustrated for an existing process site using a case study of a petroleum refinery. The energy efficiency of the site increases by 10% as a result of waste heat recovery. If there is an infinite demand for recovered energy (i.e. all the recoverable waste heat sources are exploited), the site

  1. A study on post impingement effects of urea-water solution spray on the heated wall of automotive SCR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahariar, G. M. H.; Wardana, M. K. A.; Lim, O. T.

    2018-04-01

    The post impingement effects of urea-water solution spray on the heated wall of automotive SCR systems was numerically investigated in a constant volume chamber using STAR CCM+ CFD code. The turbulence flow was modelled by realizable k-ε two-layer model together with standard wall function and all y+ treatment was applied along with two-layer approach. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used for the modelling of multi phase flow. Urea water solution (UWS) was injected onto the heated wall for the wall temperature of 338, 413, 473, 503 & 573 K. Spray development after impinging on the heated wall was visualized and measured. Droplet size distribution and droplet evaporation rates were also measured, which are vital parameters for the system performance but still not well researched. Specially developed user defined functions (UDF) are implemented to simulate the desired conditions and parameters. The investigation reveals that wall temperature has a great impact on spray development after impingement, droplet size distribution and evaporation. Increasing the wall temperature leads to longer spray front projection length, smaller droplet size and faster droplet evaporation which are preconditions for urea crystallization reduction. The numerical model and parameters are validated comparing with experimental data.

  2. Utilising heat from nuclear waste for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A heating unit utilising the decay heat from irradiated material comprises a storage envelope for the material associated with a heat exchange system, means for producing a flow of air over the heat exchange system to extract heat from the material, an exhaust duct capable of discharging the heated air to the atmosphere, and means for selectively diverting at least some of the heated air to effect the required heating. With the flow of air over the heat exchange system taking place by a natural thermosyphon process the arrangement is self regulating and inherently reliable. (author)

  3. Optimization criteria for low temperature waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranebitter, F.

    1977-01-01

    A special case in this field is the utilization of very low temperature waste heat. The temperature level under consideration in this paper is in the range between the body temperature of human beings and their environment. The waste heat from power generation and industrial processes is also considered. Thermal energy conversion will be mainly accomplished by heat cycles where discharged waste heat is reverse proportional to the upper cycle temperature. Limiting this upper cycle temperature by technological reasons the optimization of the heat cycle will depend on the nature of the cycle itself and specially on the temperature selected for the heat discharge. The waste heat discharge is typical for the different kinds of heat cycles and the paper presents the four most important of them. Feasible heat transfer methods and their economic evaluations are discussed and the distillation processes will be the basis for further considerations. The waste heat utilization for distillation purposes could be realized by three different cycles, the open cycle, the closed cycle and the multy cycle. Resulting problems as deaeration of large water streams and removal of the dissolved gases and their solutions are also discussed. (M.S.)

  4. A central solar-industrial waste heat heating system with large scale borehole thermal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Xu, L.; Torrens, I.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new research of seasonal thermal storage is introduced. This study aims to maximize the utilization of renewable energy source and industrial waste heat (IWH) for urban district heating systems in both heating and non-heating seasons through the use of large-scale seasonal thermal

  5. Coupling effect of waste automotive engine oil in the preparation of wood reinforced LDPE plastic composites for panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maame Adwoa Bentumah Animpong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the formulation of wood plastic composite (WPC materials with flexural strength of 13.69 ± 0.09 MPa for applications in outdoor fencing using municipal waste precursors like low density polyethylene (LDPE plastics (54.0 wt. %, sawn wood dust with particle size between 64 and 500 μm derived from variable hardwood species (36.0 wt. % and used automotive engine oil (10 wt. %. The WPC panels were prepared by pre-compounding, extruding at a screw auger torque of 79.8 Nm and pressing through a rectangular mould of dimension 132 mm × 37 mm × 5 mm at temperature 150 °C. The efficacy of black waste oil, as a coupling agent, was demonstrated by the absence of voids and pull-outs on microscopic examination using scanning electron microscopy. No hazardous substances were exhaled during thermo-gravimetric mass spectrometry analysis. The percentage crystallinity of the LDPE in the as-prepared material determined by differential scanning calorimetry was 11.3%. Keywords: Wood plastic composites, Low density polyethylene, Wood dust, Physical, Thermal and mechanical properties

  6. Waste heat recovering device for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Masanobu; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable utilization of auxiliary-equipment-cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger as a heat source, as well as prevent radioactive contamination. Constitution: A water warming device for recovering the heat of auxiliary equipment cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger is disposed at the succeeding stage of the heat exchanger. Heat exchange is performed in the water warming device between the auxiliary equipment cooling water and a heat source water set to a higher pressure and recycled through the water warming device. The heat recovered from the auxiliary equipment cooling water is utilized in the heat source water for operating relevant equipments. (Aizawa, K.)

  7. Method for utilizing decay heat from radioactive nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busey, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Management of radioactive heat-producing waste material while safely utilizing the heat thereof is accomplished by encapsulating the wastes after a cooling period, transporting the capsules to a facility including a plurality of vertically disposed storage tubes, lowering the capsules as they arrive at the facility into the storage tubes, cooling the storage tubes by circulating a gas thereover, employing the so heated gas to obtain an economically beneficial result, and continually adding waste capsules to the facility as they arrive thereat over a substantial period of time

  8. Industrial heat treatment of R-HPDC A356 automotive brake callipers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chauke, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment of rheo-high pressure die cast (R-HPDC) A356 brake callipers has produced good mechanical properties on the laboratory scale. An industrial heat treatment is required to evaluate the applicability and conformance of the R-HPDC A356...

  9. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified heat generating radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible. (author)

  10. Steel heat treating: mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of a problem arising in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Diaz Moreno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a mathematical model for the industrial heating and cooling processes of a steel workpiece representing the steering rack of an automobile. The goal of steel heat treating is to provide a hardened surface on critical parts of the workpiece while keeping the rest soft and ductile in order to reduce fatigue. The high hardness is due to the phase transformation of steel accompanying the rapid cooling. This work takes into account both heating-cooling stage and viscoplastic model. Once the general mathematical formulation is derived, we can perform some numerical simulations.

  11. Recycling of Automotive Lubricating Waste Oil and Its Quality Assessment for Environment-Friendly Use

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed Anwar; Syed Shahid Ali; Zubair Anwar; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Abdul Jabbar; Tariq M. Ansari; Syed Sibtain Raza Naqvi

    2012-01-01

    Lubricating oils, which are formulated with a number of chemicals blended base oils provide products that last longer, keep machinery cleaner and allow the machinery to work better under severe operating conditions. However, the used oil-waste generated by the automobiles and other allied industries poses an environmental hazard. The motivation of the present research study was to study the merits and demerits of commonly applicable technique acid/clay for reclamation of waste oil. This proce...

  12. Waste conversion into high-value ceramics: Carbothermal nitridation synthesis of titanium nitride nanoparticles using automotive shredder waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyas, Mohannad; Pahlevani, Farshid; Maroufi, Samane; Liu, Zhao; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2017-03-01

    Environmental concern about automotive shredder residue (ASR) has increased in recent years due to its harmful content of heavy metals. Although several approaches of ASR management have been suggested, these approaches remain commercially unproven. This study presents an alternative approach for ASR management where advanced materials can be generated as a by-product. In this approach, titanium nitride (TiN) has been thermally synthesized by nitriding pressed mixture of automotive shredder residue (ASR) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ). Interactions between TiO 2 and ASR at non-isothermal conditions were primarily investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicated that TiO 2 influences and catalyses degradation reactions of ASR, and the temperature, at which reduction starts, was determined around 980 °C. The interaction between TiO 2 and ASR at isothermal conditions in the temperature range between 1200 and 1550 °C was also studied. The pressed mixture of both materials resulted in titanium nitride (TiN) ceramic at all given temperatures. Formation kinetics were extracted using several models for product layer diffusion-controlled solid-solid and solid-fluid reactions. The effect of reactants ratio and temperature on the degree of conversion and morphology was investigated. The effect of reactants ratio was found to have considerable effect on the morphology of the resulting material, while temperature had a lesser impact. Several unique structures of TiN (porous nanostructured, polycrystalline, micro-spherical and nano-sized structures) were obtained by simply tuning the ratio of TiO 2 to ASR, and a product with appreciable TiN content of around 85% was achieved after only one hour nitridation at 1550 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization of Aluminum Waste with Hydrogen and Heat Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakovskaya, O. A.; Meshkov, E. A.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnokov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-10-01

    A concept of energy generation via hydrogen and heat production from aluminum containing wastes is proposed. The hydrogen obtained by oxidation reaction between aluminum waste and aqueous solutions can be supplied to fuel cells and/or infrared heaters for electricity or heat generation in the region of waste recycling. The heat released during the reaction also can be effectively used. The proposed method of aluminum waste recycling may represent a promising and cost-effective solution in cases when waste transportation to recycling plants involves significant financial losses (e.g. remote areas). Experiments with mechanically dispersed aluminum cans demonstrated that the reaction rate in alkaline solution is high enough for practical use of the oxidation process. In theexperiments aluminum oxidation proceeds without any additional aluminum activation.

  14. The Performance Evaluation of Overall Heat Transfer and Pumping Power of γ-Al2O3/water Nanofluid as Coolant in Automotive Diesel Engine Radiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Bozorgan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid as coolant is investigated in the present study. γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles with diameters of 20 nm dispersed in water with volume concentrations up 2% are selected and their performance in a radiator of Chevrolet Suburban diesel engine under turbulent flow conditions are numerically studied. The performance of an automobile radiator is a function of overall heat transfer coefficient and total heat transfer area. The heat transfer relations between nanofluid and airflow have been investigated to evaluate the overall heat transfer and the pumping power of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid in the radiator with a given heat exchange capacity. In the present paper, the effects of the automotive speed and Reynolds number of the nanofluid in the different volume concentrations on the radiator performance are also investigated. As an example, the results show that for 2% γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles in water with Renf=6000 in the radiator while the automotive speed is 50 mph, the overall heat transfer coefficient and pumping power are approximately 11.11% and 29.17% more than that of water for given conditions, respectively. These results confirm that γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid offers higher overall heat transfer performance than water and can be reduced the total heat transfer area of the radiator.

  15. Performance evaluation of an automotive thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubitsky, Andrei O.

    Around 40% of the total fuel energy in typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) is rejected to the environment in the form of exhaust gas waste heat. Efficient recovery of this waste heat in automobiles can promise a fuel economy improvement of 5%. The thermal energy can be harvested through thermoelectric generators (TEGs) utilizing the Seebeck effect. In the present work, a versatile test bench has been designed and built in order to simulate conditions found on test vehicles. This allows experimental performance evaluation and model validation of automotive thermoelectric generators. An electrically heated exhaust gas circuit and a circulator based coolant loop enable integrated system testing of hot and cold side heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and thermal interface materials at various scales. A transient thermal model of the coolant loop was created in order to design a system which can maintain constant coolant temperature under variable heat input. Additionally, as electrical heaters cannot match the transient response of an ICE, modelling was completed in order to design a relaxed exhaust flow and temperature history utilizing the system thermal lag. This profile reduced required heating power and gas flow rates by over 50%. The test bench was used to evaluate a DOE/GM initial prototype automotive TEG and validate analytical performance models. The maximum electrical power generation was found to be 54 W with a thermal conversion efficiency of 1.8%. It has been found that thermal interface management is critical for achieving maximum system performance, with novel designs being considered for further improvement.

  16. Heat removal characteristics of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummerer, M.

    1995-10-01

    A topical report that examines the relationship between tank heat load and maximum waste temperatures. The passive cooling response of the tanks is examined, and loss of active cooling in ventilated tanks is investigated

  17. Performance Analysis of Waste Heat Driven Pressurized Adsorption Chiller

    KAUST Repository

    LOH, Wai Soong; SAHA, Bidyut Baran; CHAKRABORTY, Anutosh; NG, Kim Choon; CHUN, Won Gee

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the transient modeling and performance of waste heat driven pressurized adsorption chillers for refrigeration at subzero applications. This innovative adsorption chiller employs pitch-based activated carbon of type Maxsorb III

  18. Study of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids in an Automotive Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, R.; Srivastav, Hitish; Balakrishnan, Prabhat; Saini, Vivek; Senthil Kumar, D.; Rajni, K. S.; Thirumalini, S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on heat transfer using nanofluid as coolants in engines. Previous studies shows that Al2O3 is found to be more effective in heat transfer due to its high conductive property which is found to increase with concentration. Particles having diameter in the range 10-3 to 10-6 m have low thermal conductivities and cause clogging in the flow section along with significant friction and are highly unstable in solution. Nanoparticles on the other hand are easily dispersed and cause minimal clogging or friction in the flow. In the present work, ethylene glycol-water solution is taken as a base fluid for nanoparticle dispersion. The ratio of water to ethylene glycol used is 80:20 and it has been noted out that heat conduction improved with increasing fraction of ethylene glycol. The experiments were conducted with flow rate of 4,5,6 and 7 L/min and the air flow rate inside the duct was kept constant at 4.9 m/s. The temperature of water in the reservoir is kept at 70°C. The nanoparticles used in this experiment are Cu and TiO2 having particle size less than 80nm. Result shows that there is an improvement of 24.5% in the overall heat transfer coefficient and there was also an increase of 13.9% in the heat transfer rate compared to the base fluid (80:20 Water: EG solution).

  19. Waste Gas And Particulate Control Measures For Laser Cutters In The Automotive Cloth Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, R. D.; Kulik, B. F.; Stoncel, R. J.; Tan, S. L.

    1986-11-01

    Demands for greater flexibility and accuracy in the manufacture of automobile trim parts has made single-ply laser cutting an attractive proposition. Lasers are able to cut a large variety of cloth types, from vinyls to velours. Unlike mechanically cut parts, which in the case of velours produce rough edges and dust problems, laster cutting of parts produces smooth edges, fumes and fine particulate. A detailed study of the nature of the laser effluent from a cross section of typical synthetic cloth found in an automotive trim plant was undertaken. Most samples were cut by a fast axial flow, 500 Watt, continuous wave CO2 laser. A 254 mm (10-inch) focussing optics package was used. The width of the kerf varied with the material, and values were determined at between 0.2 and 0.7 mm. Particle size distribution analysis and rates of particulate emission for each cloth were determined. Gases were collected in gas sample bags and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared analysis. Low boiling point organics were collected on activated charcoal tubes, identified on a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, and quantified on a gas chromatograph. Inorganic contaminants were collected on filter paper and analysed on an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. A number of different effluent control systems were evaluated. Due to the very fine and sticky nature of the particulate, filters capable of removing particulate sizes in the 10 μm or lower range, tend to clog rapidly. Laboratory scale models of wet scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitators were built and tested. The most effective dust and effluent gas control was given by a wet electrostatic precipitator. This system, in conjunction with a scrubber, should maintain emission levels within environmental standards.

  20. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  1. Heat-deproteinated xenogeneic bone from slaughterhouse waste

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xenogeneic bone procured from the slaughterhouse waste was deproteinated by heat treatment method intended for use as a bone substitute. The effect of heat treatment was investigated by thermal analysis and by physico-chemical methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) ...

  2. Using waste oil to heat a greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marla Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    During the winter of 1990, Northwoods Nursery (Elk River, ID) purchased a wood-burning system to heat the current greenhouses. This system burned slabs of wood to heat water that was then pumped into the greenhouses. The winter of 1990 was extremely harsh, requiring non-stop operation of the heating system. In order to keep seedlings in the greenhouse from freezing,...

  3. Research of waste heat energy efficiency for absorption heat pump recycling thermal power plant circulating water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Liansheng; E, Zhijun; Wang, Kun; Wang, Ziyue; Li, Guohao; Qu, Bin

    2018-02-01

    The waste heat energy efficiency for absorption heat pump recycling thermal power plant circulating water has been analyzed. After the operation of heat pump, the influences on power generation and heat generation of unit were taken into account. In the light of the characteristics of heat pump in different operation stages, the energy efficiency of heat pump was evaluated comprehensively on both sides of benefits belonging to electricity and benefits belonging to heat, which adopted the method of contrast test. Thus, the reference of energy efficiency for same type projects was provided.

  4. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  5. NASA 50 amp hour nickel cadmium battery waste heat determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A process for determining the waste heat generated in a 50-ampere-hour, nickel cadmium battery as a function of the discharge rate is described and results are discussed. The technique involved is essentially calibration of the battery as a heat transfer rate calorimeter. The tests are run at three different levels of battery activity, one at 40-watts of waste heat generated, one at 60, and one at 100. Battery inefficiency ranges from 14 to 18 percent at discharge rates of 284 to 588 watts, respectively and top-of-cell temperatures of 20 C.

  6. The cadastre of waste heat in the Upper Rhine Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaei, G.; Kinzelbach, W.

    1980-04-01

    The cadastre of waste heat provides the distribution in space and time of anthropogeneous waste heat emissions on a 2 x 2 km 2 grid. In the case of the Upper Rhine Valley it serves as a basis for the numerical evaluations of climatic changes caused by man. Such a cadastre also allows to analyse the distribution of pollutant emissions and the heat or energy supply, respectively, of the region. In a close approximation the distribution of waste heat is equal to the distribution of energy consumption. As there are generally difficulties in obtaining data about the consumption of the types of energy on the grid level, methods were developed which allow to determine the local energy consumption by using the relevant structural data. The methods used for the Federal Republic of Germany and neighbouring countries and the results for the Upper Rhine Valley, obtained by these methods, are presented. The cadastre of waste heat is based on data of the year 1973 which was a time of great energy consumption. Only in 1978 this energy consumption was exceeded. To be able to estimate the change in the influence of the anthropogeneous waste heat during the next 20 years, the cadastre was extrapolated until the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  7. Regional waste treatment facilities with underground monolith disposal for all low-heat-generating nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative system for treatment and disposal of all ''low-heat-generating'' nuclear wastes from all sources is proposed. The system, Regional Waste Treatment Facilities with Underground Monolith Disposal (RWTF/UMD), integrates waste treatment and disposal operations into single facilities at regional sites. Untreated and/or pretreated wastes are transported from generation sites such as reactors, hospitals, and industries to regional facilities in bulk containers. Liquid wastes are also transported in bulk after being gelled for transport. The untreated and pretreated wastes are processed by incineration, crushing, and other processes at the RWTF. The processed wastes are mixed with cement. The wet concrete mixture is poured into large low-cost, manmade caverns or deep trenches. Monolith dimensions are from 15 to 25 m wide, and 20 to 60 m high and as long as required. This alternative waste system may provide higher safety margins in waste disposal at lower costs

  8. Device for district heating with utilization of waste heat from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korek, J.

    1976-01-01

    In order to utilize the waste heat developing in power plants - especially in nuclear power plants - the author suggests to lead the waste heat of the coolers for oil (which the bearings are lubricated with), hydrogen (which serves for the stator rotor-cooling), and the stator cooling water to the circulating district heating water and to arrange these heat exchangers one behind another or parallel to each other in the water circuit of the district heating system. The oil cooler of the engine transformer is also connected with the circulation of the district heating water. The runback water of the district heating network could thus be heated from approx. 40 0 C up to 65 0 C. (UA) [de

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of waste heat power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jiangfeng; Xu, Mingtian; Cheng, Lin

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, a waste heat power generation system is analyzed based on the criteria with and without considering the heat/exergy loss to the environment. For the criteria without considering the heat/exergy loss to the environment, the first- and second-law efficiencies display different tendencies with the variations of some system parameters. When the heat/exergy loss to the environment is taken into consideration, the first and second law efficiencies display the same tendency. Thus, choosing the appropriate expressions for the performance criteria is crucial for the optimization design of the waste heat power generation system. It is found that there are two approaches to improving the system performance: one is to improve the heat/exergy input; the other is to enhance the heat-work conversion ability of the system. The former would deteriorate the environment if the heat-work conversion ability of the system remains unchanged; the latter could reduce the environmental impact but it's restricted by the heat/exergy input. Therefore, the optimal operation condition should be achieved at the trade-off between the heat/exergy input and the heat-work conversion ability of the system.

  10. A Study of Ballast Water Treatment Using Engine Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Rajoo; Yaakob, Omar; Koh, Kho King; Adnan, Faizul Amri bin; Ismail, Nasrudin bin; Ahmad, Badruzzaman bin; Ismail, Mohd Arif bin

    2018-05-01

    Heat treatment of ballast water using engine waste heat can be an advantageous option complementing any proven technology. A treatment system was envisaged based on the ballast system of an existing, operational crude carrier. It was found that the available waste heat could raise the temperatures by 25 °C and voyage time requirements were found to be considerable between 7 and 12 days to heat the high volumes of ballast water. Further, a heat recovery of 14-33% of input energies from exhaust gases was recorded while using a test rig arrangement representing a shipboard arrangement. With laboratory level tests at temperature ranges of around 55-75 °C, almost complete species mortalities for representative phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria were observed while the time for exposure varied from 15 to 60 s. Based on the heat availability analyses for harvesting heat from the engine exhaust gases(vessel and test rig), heat exchanger designs were developed and optimized using Lagrangian method applying Bell-Delaware approaches. Heat exchanger designs were developed to suit test rig engines also. Based on these designs, heat exchanger and other equipment were procured and erected. The species' mortalities were tested in this mini-scale arrangement resembling the shipboard arrangement. The mortalities realized were > 95% with heat from jacket fresh water and exhaust gases alone. The viability of the system was thus validated.

  11. Mitigation of solid waste and reuse of effluent from paint and varnish automotive and industrial treated by irradiation at electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Fernando C.; Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Minamidani, Pedro T.; Guzella, Catia C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most representative industrial segments is the polymeric coatings for house paint, automotive, industrial, marine, maintenance, and repainting markets. The general consumption of paint market in 2010 was 438,364 10 3 gallons of paint, in Brazil. However, when produce paints and varnishes, various kinds of solid wastes and liquid effluent are generated. The present research focus on the effluent from resins, water base paint and paint for electrophoresis, automotive industry, and general industrial coatings. The goal of this study is to use ionizing radiation to destroy the pollutants allowing the use of part of effluent as reuse water, and the rest discarded within the specified requirements. Actual industrial effluent samples were irradiated at Electron beam Accelerator applying absorbed doses of 10 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The results, in this preliminary stage, showed a reduction of organic compounds and suspended solids. (author)

  12. Management of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1990-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany only one company is responsible for the management of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generations. This is the Company for Nuclear Service (GNS mbH). It was the intention of the competent authorities of the FRG to intensify state control during conditioning, intermediate storage and transport of low- and medium level radioactive waste. A guideline provides that the responsibility of the waste producers and of those concerned with conditioning, storage and transport of radioactive waste is assigned in the individual case and that the qualitative and quantitative registration of all waste streams will be ensured. An overview of the radioactive waste management within the last two years in the FRG is presented. (orig./DG)

  13. Modeling and analysis of flow and heat transfer in a large PEM fuel cell suitable for automotive applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yiğinsu, Berk; Yiginsu, Berk

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) targets, automotive manufacturers realize the necessities to develop new technologies that replace the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Nowadays there are two major trends in the automotive industry; First, hybrid vehicles which combine hydrogen energy with combustion energy, and second there is a down-sizing trend. By using hybrid technologies auto makers can obtain a significant drop in emission levels and the efficiencies increase up to 80%. Reachi...

  14. Heat transfer in vitrified radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palancar, M.C.; Luis, M.A.; Luis, P.; Aragon, J.M.; Montero, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental method for measuring the thermal conductivity and convection coefficient of borosilicate glass cylinders, containing a simulated high level radioactive waste, is described. A simulation of the thermal behaviour of matrices of solidified waste during the cooling in air, water and a geological repository has been done. The experimental values of the thermal conductivity are ranging from 0.267 to 0.591 w/m K, for matrices with simulated waste contents of 10 to 40% (the waste is simulated by no radioactive isotopes). The convection coefficient for air/cylinders under the operating conditions used is 116 w/m 2 K. The simulated operation of cooling in air shows that about 1-2 days are enough to cool a solidified waste cylinder 0.6m diameter from 900 to 400 0 C. The cooling under water from 400 to near 80 0 C is faster than in air, but sharp temperature gradients within the matrices could be expected. The simulation of geological repositories lead to some criteria of arranging the matrices for avoiding undesirable high temperature points. (author) 1 fig

  15. Recov'Heat: An estimation tool of urban waste heat recovery potential in sustainable cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumba, Alain; Chiche, Samuel; Guo, Xiaofeng; Colombert, Morgane; Bonneau, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    Waste heat recovery is considered as an efficient way to increase carbon-free green energy utilization and to reduce greenhouse gas emission. Especially in urban area, several sources such as sewage water, industrial process, waste incinerator plants, etc., are still rarely explored. Their integration into a district heating system providing heating and/or domestic hot water could be beneficial for both energy companies and local governments. EFFICACITY, a French research institute focused on urban energy transition, has developed an estimation tool for different waste heat sources potentially explored in a sustainable city. This article presents the development method of such a decision making tool which, by giving both energetic and economic analysis, helps local communities and energy service companies to make preliminary studies in heat recovery projects.

  16. Optimal design of an automotive magnetorheological brake considering geometric dimensions and zero-field friction heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) brake for a middle-sized passenger car which can replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. In the optimization, the required braking torque, the temperature due to zero-field friction of MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions are considered. After describing the configuration, the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is derived on the basis of the field-dependent Bingham and Herschel–Bulkley rheological model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of the MR brake is then analyzed taking into account available space, mass, braking torque and steady heat generated by zero-field friction torque of the MR brake. The optimization procedure based on the finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is proposed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Based on the proposed procedure, optimal solutions of single and multiple disc-type MR brakes featuring different types of MR fluid are achieved. From the results, the most effective MR brake for the middle-sized passenger car is identified and some discussions on the performance improvement of the optimized MR brake are described

  17. Applications guide for waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of commercially available organic Rankine cycle (ORC) hardware from a literature search and industry survey is assessed. Engineering criteria for applying ORC technology are established, and a set of nomograms to enable the rapid sizing of the equipment is presented. A comparison of an ORC system with conventional heat recovery techniques can be made with a nomogram developed for a recuperative heat exchanger. A graphical technique for evaluating the economic aspects of an ORC system and conventional heat recovery method is discussed: also included is a description of anticipated future trends in organic Rankine cycle R&D.

  18. The impact of municipal waste combustion in small heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantúch, Martin; Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-06-01

    At present there is a tendency to make greater use for heating houses for burning solid fuel, such as pieces of wood, coal, coke, local sources of heat to burn natural gas. This tendency is given both the high price of natural gas as well as the availability of cheaper solid fuel. In many cases, in the context saving heating costs, respectively in the context of the disposal of waste is co-incinerated with municipal solid fuels and wastes of different composition. This co entails increased production emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides), particulate matter (particulate matter), PM10, HCl (hydrogen chloride), PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and others. The experiment was focused on the emission factors from the combustion of fossil fuels in combination with municipal waste in conventional boilers designed to burn solid fuel.

  19. Affordable Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami Nathan [Eaton Corporation

    2017-06-30

    Nearly 30% of fuel energy is not utilized and wasted in the engine exhaust. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery (WHR) systems offer a promising approach on waste energy recovery and improving the efficiency of Heavy-Duty diesel engines. Major barriers in the ORC WHR system are the system cost and controversial waste heat recovery working fluids. More than 40% of the system cost is from the additional heat exchangers (recuperator, condenser and tail pipe boiler). The secondary working fluid loop designed in ORC system is either flammable or environmentally sensitive. The Eaton team investigated a novel approach to reduce the cost of implementing ORC based WHR systems to Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines while utilizing safest working fluids. Affordable Rankine Cycle (ARC) concept aimed to define the next generation of waste energy recuperation with a cost optimized WHR system. ARC project used engine coolant as the working fluid. This approach reduced the need for a secondary working fluid circuit and subsequent complexity. A portion of the liquid phase engine coolant has been pressurized through a set of working fluid pumps and used to recover waste heat from the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust tail pipe exhaust energy. While absorbing heat, the mixture is partially vaporized but remains a wet binary mixture. The pressurized mixed-phase engine coolant mixture is then expanded through a fixed-volume ratio expander that is compatible with two-phase conditions. Heat rejection is accomplished through the engine radiator, avoiding the need for a separate condenser. The ARC system has been investigated for PACCAR’s MX-13 HD diesel engine.

  20. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  1. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein

  2. Method of heat decomposition for chemical decontaminating resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To make resin wastes into non-deleterious state, discharge them into a resin waste storage tank of existent radioactive waste processing facility and store and dispose them. Constitution: In the processing of chemical decontaminating resin wastes, iron exchange resins adsorbing chemical decontaminating agents comprising a solution of citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and EDTA alone or as a mixture of them are heated to dry, thermally decomposed and then separated from the ion exchange resins. That is, the main ingredients of the chemical decontaminating agents are heat-decomposed when heated and dried at about 250 deg C in air and converted into non-toxic gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 or H 2 O. Further, since combustion or carbonization of the basic materials for the resin is not caused at such a level of temperature, the resin wastes removed with organic acid and chelating agents are transferred to an existent resin waste storage tank and stored therein. In this way, facility cost and radiation exposure can remarkably be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Entropy Generation of Desalination Powered by Variable Temperature Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Warsinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Powering desalination by waste heat is often proposed to mitigate energy consumption and environmental impact; however, thorough technology comparisons are lacking in the literature. This work numerically models the efficiency of six representative desalination technologies powered by waste heat at 50, 70, 90, and 120 °C, where applicable. Entropy generation and Second Law efficiency analysis are applied for the systems and their components. The technologies considered are thermal desalination by multistage flash (MSF, multiple effect distillation (MED, multistage vacuum membrane distillation (MSVMD, humidification-dehumidification (HDH, and organic Rankine cycles (ORCs paired with mechanical technologies of reverse osmosis (RO and mechanical vapor compression (MVC. The most efficient technology was RO, followed by MED. Performances among MSF, MSVMD, and MVC were similar but the relative performance varied with waste heat temperature or system size. Entropy generation in thermal technologies increases at lower waste heat temperatures largely in the feed or brine portions of the various heat exchangers used. This occurs largely because lower temperatures reduce recovery, increasing the relative flow rates of feed and brine. However, HDH (without extractions had the reverse trend, only being competitive at lower temperatures. For the mechanical technologies, the energy efficiency only varies with temperature because of the significant losses from the ORC.

  4. Utilizing waste heat. Energy recovery options for trade and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, W

    1988-08-01

    The article shows options for efficient and low-cost thermal energy recovery. Heat recovery involves a number of problems, e.g. the type of waste heat, the uses of the energy recovered, and the best way of utilizing it. There is no generally applicable way of solving these problems. Some practical examples are presented. Economically efficient solutions require detailed technical knowledge as well as a good portion of creativity and imagination. (BR).

  5. Heat exchanger with dirt separator for the use of the heat energy of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-13

    Well-known heat exchanger systems consist of separate heat exchangers and dirt separators. In the case here in question both devices form a unit. A finned tube heat exchanger is positioned in the center of the dirt separator and is given extra protection through deflection sheets. A safety overflow is supplied so that no residue can appear in the waste water line when decanting.

  6. Utilization of waste heat from aluminium electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Radovan; Gavlas, Stanislav; Lenhard, Richard; Malcho, Milan; Sedlak, Veroslav; Teie, Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    During the aluminium production, 50% of the supplied energy is consumed by the chemical process, and 50% of the supplied energy is lost in form of heat. Heat losses are necessary to maintain a frozen side ledge to protect the side walls, so extra heat has to be wasted. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the process, it is necessary to significantly lower the heat losses dissipated by the furnace's external surface. Goodtech Recovery Technology (GRT) has developed a technology based on the use of heat pipes for utilization energy from the waste heat produced in the electrolytic process. Construction of condenser plays important role for efficient operation of energy systems. The condensation part of the heat pipe is situated on top of the heating zone. The thermal oil is used as cooling medium in the condenser. This paper analyses the effect of different operation condition of thermal oil to thermal performance. From the collected results it is obvious that the larger mass flow and higher temperature cause better thermal performance and lower pressure drop.

  7. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2/sup 0/F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60/sup 0/F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability.

  8. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2 0 F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60 0 F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability

  9. Heat-deproteinated xenogeneic bone from slaughterhouse waste ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Xenogeneic bone procured from the slaughterhouse waste was deproteinated by heat treatment method intended for use as a bone ... bone resembles hydroxyapatite (HA) with composition,. Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. HA is a potential implant .... order to obtain antigenic-free inorganic bone minerals. To gain information about the ...

  10. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  11. Optimal control of diesel engines with waste heat recovery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.; Waschl, H.; Kolmanovsky, I.; Steinbuch, M.; Del Re, L.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO 2 - NO x trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  12. Heat transfer studies in waste repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.F.; Chen, Y.T.; Izzeldin, A.; Kuharic, W.; Sudan, N.

    1994-01-01

    The main task of this project is the development of visualization methods in heat transfer through porous media. Experiments have been performed related to the determination of the wavelength that gives equality of the refractive indices of the porous material and the liquid. The work has been accomplished using the calibration setup consisting of a 2-in. long test cell filled with 2-mm diameter soda-lime glass beads. A supplemental task is an unsaturated flow experiment with heat transfer in porous media. For this work the medium of interest in quartz beads. Essentially two-dimensional flows of admitted water are able to be examined. During this quarter, the setup and calibration of the experimental instrumentation was done. Also the modification of the main experimental tank and the inflow system was carried out. Initial testing was done

  13. Optimization-based design of waste heat recovery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano

    /or selected. This dissertation focuses on the chemical product and process systems used for waste heat recovery. Here, chemical products are working fluids, which are under continuous development and screening to fulfill regulatory environmental protection and safe operation requirements. Furthermore......, for the recovery of low-grade waste heat, new fluids and processes are needed to make the recovery technically and economically feasible. As the chemical product is influential in the design of the process system, the design of novel chemical products must be considered with the process system. Currently, state...... product and process system in terms of efficiency and sustainability. Today, some of the most important chemical product design problems are solvents and working fluids. Solvents are a vital part in the recovery of valuable resources in separation processes or waste water treatment. Working fluids...

  14. Prototype implementation and experimental analysis of water heating using recovered waste heat of chimneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khaled

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses a waste heat recovery system (WHRS applied to chimneys for heating water in residential buildings. A prototype illustrating the suggested system is implemented and tested. Different waste heat scenarios by varying the quantity of burned firewood (heat input are experimented. The temperature at different parts of the WHRS and the gas flow rates of the exhaust pipes are measured. Measurements showed that the temperature of 95 L tank of water can be increased by 68 °C within one hour. Obtained results show that the convection and radiation exchanges at the bottom surface of the tank have a considerable impact on the total heat transfer rate of the water (as high as 70%.

  15. Thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles for multi-stream waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufei; Tang, Qikui; Wang, Mengying; Feng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles (KC) for multi-stream waste heat recovery. • Divide waste heat into straight, convex and concave based on its composite curve. • Use heat ratio and temperature of the most point to show the feature of waste heat. • KC is suitable for straight and most concave heat, while ORC for convex one. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and Kalina cycle are the main technologies to recover waste heat for power generation. Up to now, many works dealing with the thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles are available, but these studies considered for heat recovery from a single heat source or stream. In the process industry, there are multiple waste heat streams, forming a complex heat source profile. In this paper, based on the simulation model developed in the Aspen Hysys software, the two cycles are calculated and compared. According to the waste heat composite curve, the multi-stream waste heat is divided into three kinds, straight, convex, and concave waste heat. Two parameters, the ratio of the heat above and below the most salient/concave point (R) and the temperature of the most point, are used to roughly express the feature of waste heat. With the efficiency from waste heat (exergy) to power as energy performance indicator, the calculation results for waste heat with maximum supply temperature 180 °C show that for straight and concave waste heat with R not less than 0.2, Kalina cycle is better than ORC, while for convex waste heat, ORC is preferable. The work can provide a reference to choose a suitable technology to recover low temperature waste heat for power generation in the process industry.

  16. Feasibility of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery from Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byunghee

    2015-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator has the most competitive method to regenerate the waste heat from research reactors, because it has no limitation on operating temperature. In addition, since the TEG is a solid energy conversion device converting heat to electricity directly without moving parts, the regenerating power system becomes simple and highly reliable. In this regard, a waste heat recovery using thermoelectric generator (TEG) from 15-MW pool type research reactor is suggested and the feasibility is demonstrated. The producible power from waste heat is estimated with respect to the reactor parameters, and an application of the regenerated power is suggested by performing a safety analysis with the power. The producible power from TEG is estimated with respect to the LMTD of the HX and the required heat exchange area is also calculated. By increasing LMTD from 2 K to 20K, the efficiency and the power increases greatly. Also an application of the power regeneration system is suggested by performing a safety analysis with the system, and comparing the results with reference case without the power regeneration

  17. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  18. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  19. Heat Pipe-Assisted Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology for Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ju-Chan; Chi, Ri-Guang; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Lee, Wook-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Currently, large amounts of thermal energy dissipated from automobiles are emitted through hot exhaust pipes. This has resulted in the need for a new efficient recycling method to recover energy from waste hot exhaust gas. The present experimental study investigated how to improve the power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system assisted by a wickless loop heat pipe (loop thermosyphon) under the limited space of the exhaust gas pipeline. The present study shows a novel loop-type heat pipe-assisted TEG concept to be applied to hybrid vehicles. The operating temperature of a TEG's hot side surface should be as high as possible to maximize the Seebeck effect. The present study shows a novel TEG concept of transferring heat from the source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any local place with a loop-type heat pipe. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate an electromotive force power of around 1.3 V in the case of 170°C hot exhaust gas. Two thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for a conductive block model and four Bi2Te3 TEMs with a heat pipe-assisted model were installed in the condenser section. Heat flows to the condenser section from the evaporator section connected to the exhaust pipe. This novel TEG system with a heat pipe can be placed in any location on an automobile.

  20. Waste Heat Recovery. Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Ilona [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Choate, William T. [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Davidson, Amber [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)

    2008-03-01

    This study was initiated in order to evaluate RD&D needs for improving waste heat recovery technologies. A bottomup approach is used to evaluate waste heat quantity, quality, recovery practices, and technology barriers in some of the largest energyconsuming units in U.S. manufacturing. The results from this investigation serve as a basis for understanding the state of waste heat recovery and providing recommendations for RD&D to advance waste heat recovery technologies.

  1. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  2. Heat pipe cooling system for underground, radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.C.; Prenger, F.C.

    1980-02-01

    An array of 37 heat pipes inserted through the central hole at the top of a radioactive waste storage tank will remove 100,000 Btu/h with a heat sink of 70 0 F atmospheric air. Heat transfer inside the tank to the heat pipe is by natural convection. Heat rejection to outside air utilizes a blower to force air past the heat pipe condenser. The heat pipe evaporator section is axially finned, and is constructed of stainless steel. The working fluid is ammonia. The finned pipes are individually shrouded and extend 35 ft down into the tank air space. The hot tank air enters the shroud at the top of the tank and flows downward as it is cooled, with the resulting increased density furnishing the pressure difference for circulation. The cooled air discharges at the center of the tank above the sludge surface, flows radially outward, and picks up heat from the radioactive sludge. At the tank wall the heated air rises and then flows inward to comple the cycle

  3. Two-phase plate-fin heat exchanger modeling for waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Jager, de A.G.; Willems, F.P.T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and model validation for a modular two-phase heat exchanger that recovers energy in heavy-duty diesel engines. The model is developed for temperature and vapor quality prediction and for control design of the waste heat recovery system. In the studied waste heat

  4. Fuzzy Nonlinear Dynamic Evaporator Model in Supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC-based waste heat recovery (WHR system operating under a supercritical condition has a higher potential of thermal efficiency and work output than a traditional subcritical cycle. However, the operation of supercritical cycles is more challenging due to the high pressure in the system and transient behavior of waste heat sources from industrial and automotive engines that affect the performance of the system and the evaporator, which is the most crucial component of the ORC. To take the transient behavior into account, the dynamic model of the evaporator using renowned finite volume (FV technique is developed in this paper. Although the FV model can capture the transient effects accurately, the model has a limitation for real-time control applications due to its time-intensive computation. To capture the transient effects and reduce the simulation time, a novel fuzzy-based nonlinear dynamic evaporator model is also developed and presented in this paper. The results show that the fuzzy-based model was able to capture the transient effects at a data fitness of over 90%, while it has potential to complete the simulation 700 times faster than the FV model. By integrating with other subcomponent models of the system, such as pump, expander, and condenser, the predicted system output and pressure have a mean average percentage error of 3.11% and 0.001%, respectively. These results suggest that the developed fuzzy-based evaporator and the overall ORC-WHR system can be used for transient simulations and to develop control strategies for real-time applications.

  5. Utilisation of diesel engine waste heat by Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kölsch, Benedikt; Radulovic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three different organic liquids were investigated as potential working fluids in an Organic Rankine Cycle. Performance of Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm SES36 was modelled in an ORC powered by a diesel engine waste heat. The ORC model consists of a preheater, evaporator, superheater, turbine, pump and two condensers. With variable maximum cycle temperatures and high cycle pressures, the thermal efficiency, net power output and overall heat transfer area have been evaluated. Methanol was found to have the best thermal performance, but also required the largest heat transfer area. While Toluene achieved lower thermal efficiency, it showed great work potential at high pressures and relatively low temperatures. Our model identified the risks associated with employing these fluids in an ORC: methanol condensing during the expansion and toluene not sufficiently superheated at the turbine inlet, which can compromise the cycle operation. The best compromise between the size of heat exchanger and thermodynamic performance was found for Methanol ORC at intermediate temperatures and high pressures. Flammability and toxicity, however, remain the obstacles for safe implementation of both fluids in ORC systems. - Highlights: • ORC powered by diesel-engine waste heat was developed. • Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm were considered as working fluids. • Methanol was selected due to the best overall thermal performance. • Optimal cycle operating parameters and heat exchanger area were evaluated

  6. Performance and availability of seawater distiller with heat pipe utilizing low grade waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Dae; Chung, Kyung Yul [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tanaka, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Exhaust gas from a small portable electric generator is simply exhausted to the surroundings because the capacity and quality of the waste heat of this gas is generally not sufficient to recover and utilize. We have proposed a seawater distiller utilizing the thermal energy of waste gas from an electric generator. The distiller recovers heat from the waste gas by means of a heat pipe and uses it effectively through a multiple effect diffusion type structure. We constructed an experimental apparatus with a vertical single effect still having a 4 stroke 50cc generator engine and found that the experimental results for distillate productivity show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The results show that the distiller can recover 52W of waste heat from the gas at 171.deg.C, and {approx}85%, of the recovered heat can be utilized for distillation to produce 70g/h of fresh water. This is equivalent to a productivity of 500g/h in the case of a 10 effect still. Therefore, the proposed distiller should be useful in remote areas where electricity and water grids are inadequate.

  7. Thermoelectric System Absorbing Waste Heat from a Steel Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Meng, Xiangning; Zhu, Miaoyong; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-06-01

    China's iron and steel industry has made great progress in energy savings and emission reductions with the application of many waste heat recovery technologies. However, most of the medium and low temperature waste heat and radiant waste heat has not been effectively utilized. This paper proposes a thermoelectric system that generates electricity by absorbing the radiant heat from the surface of steel ladles in a steel plant. The thermoelectric behavior of modules in this system is analyzed by a numerical simulation method. The effects of external resistance and module structure on thermoelectric performance are also discussed in the temperature range of the wall surface of a steel ladle. The results show that the wall temperature has a significant influence on the thermoelectric behavior of the module, so its uniformity and stability should be considered in practical application. The ratio of the optimum external resistance to the internal resistance of the thermoelectric module is in the range of 1.6-2.0, which indicates the importance of external load optimization for a given thermoelectric system. In addition, the output power and the conversion efficiency of the module can be significantly improved by increasing the length of the thermoelectric legs and adopting a double-layer structure. Finally, through the optimization of external resistance and structure, the power output can reach 83-304 W/m2. This system is shown to be a promising approach for energy recovery.

  8. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thekdi, Arvind [E3M, Inc. North Potomac, MD (United States); Rogers, Benjamin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kafka, Orion L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  9. Numerical Modeling of Fin and Tube Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph

    In the present work, multiphysics numerical modeling is carried out to predict the performance of a liquid-gas fin and tube heat exchanger design. Three-dimensional (3D) steady-state numerical model using commercial software COMSOL based on finite element method (FEM) is developed. The study...... associates conjugate heat transfer phenomenon with the turbulent flow to describe the variable temperature and velocity profile. The performance of heat exchanger design is investigated in terms of overall heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, Colburn j-factor, flow resistance factor, and efficiency...... between fin and tube. The present numerical model predicts the performance of the heat exchanger design, therefore, can be applied to existing waste heat recovery systems to improve the overall performance with optimized design and process-dependent parameters....

  10. Self-disposal option for heat-generating waste - 59182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, Michael I.; Poluektov, Pavel P.; Kascheev, Vladimir A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-descending heat generating capsules can be used for disposal of dangerous radioactive wastes in extremely deep layers of the Earth preventing any release of radionuclides into the biosphere. Self-disposal option for heat-generating radioactive waste such as spent fuel, high level reprocessing waste or spent sealed radioactive sources, known also as rock melting concept, was considered in the 70's as a viable alternative disposal option by both Department of Energy in the USA and Atomic Industry Ministry in the USSR. Self-disposal is currently reconsidered as a potential alternative route to existing options for solving the nuclear waste problem and is associated with the renaissance of nuclear industry. Self- disposal option utilises the heat generated by decaying radionuclides of radioactive waste inside a heavy and durable capsule to melt the rock on its way down. As the heat from radionuclides within the capsule partly melts the enclosing rock, the relatively low viscosity and density of the silicate melt allow the capsule to be displaced upwards past the heavier capsule as it sinks. Eventually the melt cools and solidifies (e.g. vitrifies or crystallizes), sealing the route along which the capsule passed. Descending or self-disposal continues until enough heat is generated by radionuclides to provide partial melting of surrounding rock. Estimates show that extreme depths of several tens and up to hundred km can be reached by capsules which could never be achieved by other techniques. Self- disposal does not require complex and expensive disposal facilities and provides a minimal footprint used only at operational stage. It has also an extremely high non- proliferation character and degree of safety. Utilisation of heat generated by relatively short-lived radionuclides diminishes the environmental uncertainties of self-disposal and increases the safety of this concept. Self-sinking heat-generating capsules could be launched from the bottom of the sea as

  11. Absorption technology for solar and waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, G.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption heat pumps, first developed in the 19th century, have received renewed and growing attention in the past two decades. With the increasing cost of oil and electricity, the particular features of this heat-powered cycle have made it attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered air conditioning, gas-fired domestic cooling and waste-heat-powered temperature boosters are some of the applications on which intensive research and development has been conducted. This paper describes the operation of absorption systems and discusses several practical applications. It surveys recent advances in absorption technology, including the selection of working fluids, cycle improvements and multi-staging, and fundamentals of the combined heat and mass transfer in absorption processes. (author)

  12. Heat pipe effects in nuclear waste isolation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, C.; Pruess, K.

    1985-12-01

    The existence of fractures favors heat pipe development in a geologic repository as does a partially saturated medium. A number of geologic media are being considered as potential repository sites. Tuff is partially saturated and fractured, basalt and granite are saturated and fractured, salt is unfractured and saturated. Thus the most likely conditions for heat pipe formation occur in tuff while the least likely occur in salt. The relative permeability and capillary pressure dependences on saturation are of critical importance for predicting thermohydraulic behavior around a repository. Mineral redistribution in heat pipe systems near high-level waste packages emplaced in partially saturated formations may significantly affect fluid flow and heat transfer processes, and the chemical environment of the packages. We believe that a combined laboratory, field, and theoretical effort will be needed to identify the relevant physical and chemical processes, and the specific parameters applicable to a particular site. 25 refs., 1 fig

  13. Performance Analysis of Waste Heat Driven Pressurized Adsorption Chiller

    KAUST Repository

    LOH, Wai Soong

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the transient modeling and performance of waste heat driven pressurized adsorption chillers for refrigeration at subzero applications. This innovative adsorption chiller employs pitch-based activated carbon of type Maxsorb III (adsorbent) with refrigerant R134a as the adsorbent-adsorbate pair. It consists of an evaporator, a condenser and two adsorber/desorber beds, and it utilizes a low-grade heat source to power the batch-operated cycle. The ranges of heat source temperatures are between 55 to 90°C whilst the cooling water temperature needed to reject heat is at 30°C. A parametric analysis is presented in the study where the effects of inlet temperature, adsorption/desorption cycle time and switching time on the system performance are reported in terms of cooling capacity and coefficient of performance. © 2010 by JSME.

  14. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat...... to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...

  15. Hazardous waste incinerators under waste uncertainty: balancing and throughput maximization via heat recuperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos Aristeides

    2013-09-01

    Hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) differ substantially from thermal power facilities, since instead of maximizing energy production with the minimum amount of fuel, they aim at maximizing throughput. Variations in quantity or composition of received waste loads may significantly diminish HWI throughput (the decisive profit factor), from its nominal design value. A novel formulation of combustion balance is presented, based on linear operators, which isolates the wastefeed vector from the invariant combustion stoichiometry kernel. Explicit expressions for the throughput are obtained, in terms of incinerator temperature, fluegas heat recuperation ratio and design parameters, for an arbitrary number of wastes, based on fundamental principles (mass and enthalpy balances). The impact of waste variations, of recuperation ratio and of furnace temperature is explicitly determined. It is shown that in the presence of waste uncertainty, the throughput may be a decreasing or increasing function of incinerator temperature and recuperation ratio, depending on the sign of a dimensionless parameter related only to the uncertain wastes. The dimensionless parameter is proposed as a sharp a' priori waste 'fingerprint', determining the necessary increase or decrease of manipulated variables (recuperation ratio, excess air, auxiliary fuel feed rate, auxiliary air flow) in order to balance the HWI and maximize throughput under uncertainty in received wastes. A 10-step procedure is proposed for direct application subject to process capacity constraints. The results may be useful for efficient HWI operation and for preparing hazardous waste blends. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EMISSION AND TRENDS IN RECLAIMING WASTE HEAT IN INDUSTRIAL INSTALATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Hys

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of waste heat emission in a typical industrial installation. On the basis of the process monitoring system, periodic analyses of fumes composition, installation process manual and the conducted measurements of the heat fluxes from individual sources emitting heat on the way of natural convection from the devices’ coats and forced convection in the fumes flux were calculated. According to the authors the heat of temperature 140–155 °C and surface power density 860–970 W/m2 emitted by devices’ covers can be reclaimed in ORC techniques, Peltier’s modules and the systems realising Stirling cycle. Part of the waste heat included in fumes, which makes c.a. 76% of the total emission from the installation, should be returned to the process of fuel oxidation, what will reduce the emission by c.a. 18% and the volume of consumed fuel by c.a. 25 m3 CH4/h, according to the presented calculations.

  17. Environment-friendly heat supply with natural refrigerants. Large heat pumps use industrial waste heat and waste water; Umweltschonende Waermeversorgung mit natuerlichen Kaeltemitteln. Grosswaermepumpen nutzen industrielle Abwaerme und Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-01-15

    Everywhere, where industrial processes occur or coldness is produced, simultaneously heat is produced. While many private houses use geothermal energy or ambient air for the production of heat, waste water and waste heat prove to be optimal energy sources for the industrial need due to higher output temperatures. By means of large heat pumps the residual heat is used for heating or the supply of hot water for example in local heat supply grids and makes an important contribution to climate protection.

  18. Sea water desalination utilizing waste heat by low temperature evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, A.; Srivastava, A.; Rao, I.S.; Majumdar, M.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Economics of a process is controlled by management of energy and resources. Fresh water has become most valued resource in industries. Desalination is a process by which fresh water resource is generated from sea water or brackish water, but it is an energy intensive process. The energy cost contributes around 25-40% to the total cost of the desalted water. Utilization of waste heat from industrial streams is one of the ecofriendly ways to produce low cost desalted water. Keeping this in mind Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) desalination technology utilizing low quality waste heat in the form of hot water (as low as 50 deg C) or low pressure steam (0.13 bar) has been developed for offshore and land based applications to produce high purity water (conductivity < 2μS/cm) from sea water. The probability of the scale formation is practically eliminated by operating it at low temperature and controlling the brine concentration. It also does not require elaborate chemical pretreatment of sea water except chlorination, so it has no environmental impact. LTE technology has found major applications in nuclear reactors where large quantity of low quality waste heat is available to produce high quality desalted water for make up water requirement replacing conventional ion exchange process. Successful continuous operation of 30 Te/day LTE desalination plant utilizing waste heat from nuclear research reactor has demonstrated the safety, reliability, extreme plant availability and economics of nuclear desalination by LTE technology. It is also proposed to utilize waste heat from Main Heat Transport (MHT) purification circuit of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) to produce about 250 Te/ day high quality desalinated water by Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) process for the reactor make up and plant utilization. Recently we have commissioned a 50 Te/day 2-effect low temperature desalination plant with cooling tower where the specific energy and cooling water requirement are

  19. Heating a school by means of waste heat from an ice hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    As the first building in Norway, Gimle school in Halden can be heated by means of a special combination system that gives up waste heat from a nearby ice hall and earth heat. This system will reduce the expenses of the municipality with the equivalent of USD 30 000 per year, or 618 000 kWh. 308 000 kWh comes from the refrigeration plant of the ice hall and 310 000 kWh from the ground. Although the system is both environmentally friendly end energy conserving, financial state support has been refused

  20. A heating system for piglets in farrowing house using waste heat from biogas engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payungsak Junyusen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design and test a heating system for piglets in farrowing house by utilising the waste heat from a biogas engine as a heat source. The study was separated into three parts: the study on the biogas combined heat and power plant, the investigation on the properties of the heat panel, and the installation and testing of the heating system. From the experiment, the condition producing 60 kW of electrical power was a proper one, in which electrical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were 14% and 1.22 m3/kWh respectively. Generating both electricity and heat increased the overall efficiency to 37.7% and decreased the specific fuel consumption to 0.45 m3/kWh. The heat panel, which was made of a plastic material, had a thermal conductivity of 0.58 W/mC and the maximum compressive force and operating pressure of 8.1 kN and 0.35 bar respectively. The surface temperature of the panel was dependent on the inlet water temperature. When hot water of 44C was supplied into the farrowing house with room temperature of 26C, the average surface temperature was 33C. The developed heating system could provide heat for 4.3 farrowing houses. The payback period of this project was 2.5 years.

  1. Development of low grade waste heat thermoelectric power generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvit Punnachaiya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a 50 watt thermoelectric power generator using low grade waste heat as a heat source,in order to recover and utilize the excess heat in cooling systems of industrial processes and high activity radioisotope sources. Electricity generation was based on the reverse operation of a thermoelectric cooling (TEC device. The TEC devices weremodified and assembled into a set of thermal cell modules operating at a temperature less than 100°C. The developed powergenerator consisted of 4 modules, each generating 15 watts. Two cascade modules were connected in parallel. Each modulecomprised of 96 TEC devices, which were connected in series. The hot side of each module was mounted on an aluminumheat transfer pipe with dimensions 12.212.250 cm. Heat sinks were installed on the cold side with cooling fans to provideforced air cooling.To test electricity generation in the experiment, water steam was used as a heat source instead of low grade waste heat.The open-circuit direct current (DC of 250 V and the short-circuit current of 1.2 A was achieved with the following operatingconditions: a hot side temperature of 96°C and a temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of 25°C. The DC poweroutput was inverted to an AC power source of 220 V with 50 Hz frequency, which can continuously supply more than 50 wattsof power to a resistive load as long as the heat source was applied to the system. The system achieved an electrical conversionefficiency of about 0.47 percent with the capital cost of 70 US$/W.

  2. Automotive websites

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Todd A

    2006-01-01

    For anyone buying a new car, restoring an old favorite, collecting license plates or looking for motorsports information, the internet is the place to go and this is the book to help you get there. Now with over 650 internet addresses, this expanded and updated guide provides detailed descriptions and reviews of the biggest, best and most interesting automotive websites on the net. Beginning with a brief internet history and helpful hints, it aids the novice (or not so novice) user in picking through the countless automotive sites on the internet. Websites are arranged by topics such as afterm

  3. Analysis of a waste-heat boiler by CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongziang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Waste-heat boilers play important roles in the continuous operation of a smelter and in the conservation of energy. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour has not been well studied, concerning the boiler performance and design. This presentation describes simulated gas flow and heat transfer of a waste-heat boiler in the Outokumpu copper flash smelting process. The governing transport equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and enthalpy were solved with a commercial CFD-code PHOENICS. The standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model and a composite-flux radiation model were used in the computations. The computational results show that the flow is strongly recirculating and distinctly three-dimensional in most part of the boiler, particularly in the radiation section. The predicted flow pattern and temperature distribution were in a good agreement with laboratory models and industrial measurements. The results provide detailed information of flow pattern, the temperature distribution and gas cooling efficiency. The CFD proved to be a useful tool in analysing the boiler operation. (author)

  4. Analysis of a waste-heat boiler by CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongziang; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Waste-heat boilers play important roles in the continuous operation of a smelter and in the conservation of energy. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour has not been well studied, concerning the boiler performance and design. This presentation describes simulated gas flow and heat transfer of a waste-heat boiler in the Outokumpu copper flash smelting process. The governing transport equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and enthalpy were solved with a commercial CFD-code PHOENICS. The standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model and a composite-flux radiation model were used in the computations. The computational results show that the flow is strongly recirculating and distinctly three-dimensional in most part of the boiler, particularly in the radiation section. The predicted flow pattern and temperature distribution were in a good agreement with laboratory models and industrial measurements. The results provide detailed information of flow pattern, the temperature distribution and gas cooling efficiency. The CFD proved to be a useful tool in analysing the boiler operation. (author)

  5. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated, and that waste available for heat recovery in 2030 is equally determined by total generation volumes by this year as by future EU deployment levels of district heating. - Highlights: • European municipal solid waste time series data analysed from 1995 to 2012. • Review of modelling approaches to assess future European waste generation. • Weather corrected district heat data for EU Member States in 1995 and 2012. • Low average heat recovery efficiency in current European waste incineration. • Future heat recovery efficiencies as determinant as future generation volumes.

  6. Improved energy efficiency in juice production through waste heat recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.-O.; Elfgren, E.; Westerlund, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A heating system at a juice production was investigated and improved. • Different impacts of drying cycle improvements at the energy usage were explored. • The total heat use for drying could thereby be decreased with 52%. • The results point out a significant decrease of heat consumption with low investment costs. - Abstract: Berry juice concentrate is produced by pressing berries and heating up the juice. The by-products are berry skins and seeds in a press cake. Traditionally, these by-products have been composted, but due to their valuable nutrients, it could be profitable to sell them instead. The skins and seeds need to be separated and dried to a moisture content of less than 10 %wt (on dry basis) in order to avoid fermentation. A berry juice plant in the north of Sweden has been studied in order to increase the energy and resource efficiency, with special focus on the drying system. This was done by means of process integration with mass and energy balance, theory from thermodynamics and psychrometry along with measurements of the juice plant. Our study indicates that the drying system could be operated at full capacity without any external heat supply using waste heat supplied from the juice plant. This would be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the dryer by recirculation of the drying air and by heat supply from the flue gases of the industrial boiler. The recirculation would decrease the need of heat in the dryer with about 52%. The total heat use for the plant could thereby be decreased from 1262 kW to 1145 kW. The improvements could be done without compromising the production quality

  7. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aladayleh, Wail; Alahmer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively....

  8. Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization in Vehicle Bio-Methane Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Current vehicle bio-methane plants have drawbacks associated with high energy consumption and low recovery levels of waste heat produced during the gasification process. In this paper, we have optimized the performance of heat exchange networks using pinch analysis and through the introduction of heat pump integration technology. Optimal results for the heat exchange network of a bio-gas system producing 10,000 cubic meters have been calculated using a pinch point temperature of 50 °C, a minimum heating utility load of 234.02 kW and a minimum cooling utility load of 201.25 kW. These optimal parameters are predicted to result in energy savings of 116.08 kW (19.75%, whilst the introduction of new heat pump integration technology would afford further energy savings of 95.55 kW (16.25%. The combined energy saving value of 211.63 kW corresponds to a total energy saving of 36%, with economic analysis revealing that these reforms would give annual savings of 103,300 USD. The installation costs required to introduce these process modifications are predicted to require an initial investment of 423,200 USD, which would take 4.1 years to reach payout time based on predicted annual energy savings.

  9. Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Ralph C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide, which was validated by vocational teachers and mechanics in the field, describes the competencies needed by entry-level automotive mechanics. This guide lists 15 competencies; for each competency, various tasks with their performance objective, student learning experiences, suggested instructional techniques, instructional…

  10. Thermophysical and heat transfer properties of phase change material candidate for waste heat transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizawa, Akihide; Maruoka, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Atsushi; Kamano, Hiroomi; Jozuka, Tetsuji; Senda, Takeshi; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2008-05-01

    A waste heat transportation system trans-heat (TH) system is quite attractive that uses the latent heat of a phase change material (PCM). The purpose of this paper is to study the thermophysical properties of various sugars and sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) as PCMs for a practical TH system and the heat transfer property between PCM selected and heat transfer oil, by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a heat storage tube. As a result, erythritol, with a large latent heat of 344 kJ/kg at melting point of 117°C, high decomposition point of 160°C and excellent chemical stability under repeated phase change cycles was found to be the best PCM among them for the practical TH system. In the heat release experiments between liquid erythritol and flowing cold oil, we observed foaming phenomena of encapsulated oil, in which oil droplet was coated by solidification of PCM.

  11. Application and design of an economizer for waste heat recovery in a cogeneration plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martić Igor I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy increase cost has required its more effective use. However, many industrial heating processes generate waste energy. Use of waste-heat recovery systems decreases energy consumption. This paper presents case study of waste heat recovering of the exhaust flue gas in a 1415 kWe cogeneration plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing an economizer to heat the condensed and fresh water in thermal degasification unit and reduce steam use for maintaining the temperature of 105˚C for oxygen removal. Design methodology of economizer is presented.

  12. Waste Heat Recovery from a High Temperature Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jonas E.

    Government-mandated improvements in fuel economy and emissions from internal combustion engines (ICEs) are driving innovation in engine efficiency. Though incremental efficiency gains have been achieved, most combustion engines are still only 30-40% efficient at best, with most of the remaining fuel energy being rejected to the environment as waste heat through engine coolant and exhaust gases. Attempts have been made to harness this waste heat and use it to drive a Rankine cycle and produce additional work to improve efficiency. Research on waste heat recovery (WHR) demonstrates that it is possible to improve overall efficiency by converting wasted heat into usable work, but relative gains in overall efficiency are typically minimal ( 5-8%) and often do not justify the cost and space requirements of a WHR system. The primary limitation of the current state-of-the-art in WHR is the low temperature of the engine coolant ( 90 °C), which minimizes the WHR from a heat source that represents between 20% and 30% of the fuel energy. The current research proposes increasing the engine coolant temperature to improve the utilization of coolant waste heat as one possible path to achieving greater WHR system effectiveness. An experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of running a diesel engine at elevated coolant temperatures and to estimate the efficiency benefits. An energy balance was performed on a modified 3-cylinder diesel engine at six different coolant temperatures (90 °C, 100 °C, 125 °C, 150 °C, 175 °C, and 200 °C) to determine the change in quantity and quality of waste heat as the coolant temperature increased. The waste heat was measured using the flow rates and temperature differences of the coolant, engine oil, and exhaust flow streams into and out of the engine. Custom cooling and engine oil systems were fabricated to provide adequate adjustment to achieve target coolant and oil temperatures and large enough temperature differences across the

  13. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO 2 accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO 2 saving of 48 kg CO 2 /GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO 2 /GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  14. Final flotation waste kinetics of sintering at different heating regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocić Mira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the copper extraction, especially during the process of flotation enrichment and the pyrometallurgical processing, the waste materials that represent huge polluters of environment are being generated. In order to examine the application of Final flotation waste (FFW in the manufacturing of new materials from the glass-ceramic group phase and mineral composition were examined as well as thermal properties. FFW kinetics of sintering has been tested at different dyamics (1°C/min, 29°C/min and 43°C/min, in order to find the optimum conditions for sintering with a minimum amount of energy and time consumption. The samples were examined using: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence analysis, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy and thermal microscopy. The best results for the production of glass ceramic materials were obtained during the sintering at heating regime of 29°C/min. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176010

  15. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  16. Recouping the thermal-to-electric conversion loss by the use of waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper looks at ways to recoup the thermal-to-electric conversion loss of our thermal power generating stations. These stations now produce twice as much low-grade waste heat as they do electricity. We can improve the situation in two ways: by improving the station efficiency, and by utilizing the low-grade heat beneficially. The following options are examined: N 2 O 4 turbines condensing at 10 deg C; power from moderator waste heat; 50 MW heat pump for district heating; industrial parks with integrated waste heat upgrading station. (author)

  17. Neutron diffraction measurements for the determination of heat treatment effectiveness in generating compressive residual stress in an automotive crown gear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, G.; Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Pyzalla, A.; Quadrini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Thermal austenitizing and tempering treatments are being developed in automotive industry to prevent crack initiation and avoid crack propagation, especially in components where stress intensity factors influence the stress field and then the fatigue life of the component itself. This is the case of crown gears, where the teeth root undergoes frequently to cracking when tensile residual stresses are present at the surface, as typical loads are impulsive and very high. The sign reversal of these stresses is the aim of austenitizing and tempering treatments. In this work residual stress measurements carried out at HMI-BENSC are presented, in a UNI55Cr3 steel crown gear submitted to such kind of treatments, performed with a new multi-frequency induction technique whose effectiveness is checked. (author)

  18. Decision Document for Heat Removal from High-Level Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document establishes the combination of design and operational configurations that will be used to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. The chosen method--to use the primary and annulus ventilation systems to remove heat from the high-level waste tanks--is documented herein

  19. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  20. Performance evaluation of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in high temperature waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at high temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The high temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  1. Examination of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in low and medium temperatures waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at low and medium temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The low and medium temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  2. Comparative assessment of alternative cycles for waste heat recovery and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Adrienne B.; Garimella, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    Thermally activated systems based on sorption cycles, as well as mechanical systems based on vapor compression/expansion are assessed in this study for waste heat recovery applications. In particular, ammonia-water sorption cycles for cooling and mechanical work recovery, a heat transformer using lithium bromide-water as the working fluid pair to yield high temperature heat, and organic Rankine cycles using refrigerant R245fa for work recovery as well as versions directly coupled to a vapor compression cycle to yield cooling are analyzed with overall heat transfer conductances for heat exchangers that use similar approach temperature differences for each cycle. Two representative cases are considered, one for smaller-scale and lower temperature applications using waste heat at 60 o C, and the other for larger-scale and higher temperature waste heat at 120 o C. Comparative assessments of these cycles on the basis of efficiencies and system footprints guide the selection of waste heat recovery and upgrade systems for different applications and waste heat availabilities. Furthermore, these considerations are used to investigate four case studies for waste heat recovery for data centers, vehicles, and process plants, illustrating the utility and limitations of such solutions. The increased implementation of such waste heat recovery systems in a variety of applications will lead to decreased primary source inputs and sustainable energy utilization. -- Highlights: → Sorption and mechanical pathways for the conversion of waste heat streams to work, cooling, and temperature boosting were investigated. → Waste heat sources including 300 W of energy at 60 o C and 1 kW of energy at 120 o C were analyzed. → Up to about seventy percent of the input waste heat can be converted to cooling. → Up to about ten percent can be converted to work. → Up to about 47 percent can be upgraded to a higher temperature.

  3. Exergo-economic analysis of finned tube for waste heat recovery including phase change heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shuang Ying; Jiu, Jing Rui; Xiao, Lan; Li, You Rong; Liu, Chao; Xu, Jin Liang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an exergo-economic criterion, i.e. the net profit per unit transferred heat load, is established from the perspective of exergy recovery to evaluate the performance of finned tube used in waste heat recovery. Also, the dimensionless exergy change number is introduced to investigate the effect of the flow (mechanical) exergy loss rate on the recovered thermal exergy. Selecting R245fa as a working fluid and exhaust flue gas as a heat source, the effects of the internal Reynolds number Re_i, the external Reynolds number Re_o , the unit cost of thermal exergy ε_q , the geometric parameter of finned tube η_oβ and the phase change temperature T_v etc. on the performance of finned tube are discussed in detail. The results show that the higher T_v and η_oβ, and lower Re_i may lead to the negligible flow(mechanical) exergy loss rate. There exists an optimal value of Re_i where the net profit per unit transferred heat load peaks, while the variations of Re_o, ε_q and T_v cause monotonic change of the net profit per unit transferred heat load. The phase change temperature exerts relatively greater influence on the exergo-economic performance of finned tube in comparison with other parameters. And there exists a critical phase change temperature, where the net profit per unit transferred heat load is equal to zero.

  4. DuraLith geopolymer waste form for Hanford secondary waste: Correlating setting behavior to hydration heat evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hui; Gong, Weiliang; Syltebo, Larry; Lutze, Werner; Pegg, Ian L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantitative correlations firstly established for cementitious waste forms. • Quantitative correlations firstly established for geopolymeric materials. • Ternary DuraLith geopolymer waste forms for Hanford radioactive wastes. • Extended setting times which improve workability for geopolymer waste forms. • Reduced hydration heat release from DuraLith geopolymer waste forms. - Abstract: The binary furnace slag-metakaolin DuraLith geopolymer waste form, which has been considered as one of the candidate waste forms for immobilization of certain Hanford secondary wastes (HSW) from the vitrification of nuclear wastes at the Hanford Site, Washington, was extended to a ternary fly ash-furnace slag-metakaolin system to improve workability, reduce hydration heat, and evaluate high HSW waste loading. A concentrated HSW simulant, consisting of more than 20 chemicals with a sodium concentration of 5 mol/L, was employed to prepare the alkaline activating solution. Fly ash was incorporated at up to 60 wt% into the binder materials, whereas metakaolin was kept constant at 26 wt%. The fresh waste form pastes were subjected to isothermal calorimetry and setting time measurement, and the cured samples were further characterized by compressive strength and TCLP leach tests. This study has firstly established quantitative linear relationships between both initial and final setting times and hydration heat, which were never discovered in scientific literature for any cementitious waste form or geopolymeric material. The successful establishment of the correlations between setting times and hydration heat may make it possible to efficiently design and optimize cementitious waste forms and industrial wastes based geopolymers using limited testing results

  5. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  6. Assessment of Feasibility of the Beneficial Use of Waste Heat from the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna P. Guillen

    2012-07-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using waste heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). A proposed glycol waste heat recovery system was assessed for technical and economic feasibility. The system under consideration would use waste heat from the ATR secondary coolant system to preheat air for space heating of TRA-670. A tertiary coolant stream would be extracted from the secondary coolant system loop and pumped to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, where heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air in the heating and ventilation system. Historical data from Advanced Test Reactor operations over the past 10 years indicates that heat from the reactor coolant was available (when needed for heating) for 43.5% of the year on average. Potential energy cost savings by using the waste heat to preheat intake air is $242K/yr. Technical, safety, and logistics considerations of the glycol waste heat recovery system are outlined. Other opportunities for using waste heat and reducing water usage at ATR are considered.

  7. Design and optimization of automotive thermoelectric generators for maximum fuel efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, Nicholas; Zhang, Yanliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A three-dimensional automotive thermoelectric generator (TEG) model is developed. • Heat exchanger design and TEG configuration are optimized for maximum fuel efficiency increase. • Heat exchanger conductivity has a strong influence on maximum fuel efficiency increase. • TEG aspect ratio and fin height increase with heat exchanger thermal conductivity. • A 2.5% fuel efficiency increase is attainable with nanostructured half-Heusler modules. - Abstract: Automotive fuel efficiency can be increased by thermoelectric power generation using exhaust waste heat. A high-temperature thermoelectric generator (TEG) that converts engine exhaust waste heat into electricity is simulated based on a light-duty passenger vehicle with a 4-cylinder gasoline engine. Strategies to optimize TEG configuration and heat exchanger design for maximum fuel efficiency improvement are provided. Through comparison of stainless steel and silicon carbide heat exchangers, it is found that both the optimal TEG design and the maximum fuel efficiency increase are highly dependent on the thermal conductivity of the heat exchanger material. Significantly higher fuel efficiency increase can be obtained using silicon carbide heat exchangers at taller fins and a longer TEG along the exhaust flow direction when compared to stainless steel heat exchangers. Accounting for major parasitic losses, a maximum fuel efficiency increase of 2.5% is achievable using newly developed nanostructured bulk half-Heusler thermoelectric modules.

  8. Capturing the Invisible Resource. Analysis of Waste Heat Potential in Chinese Industry and Policy Options for Waste Heat to Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed the theoretical maximum potential and practical potential of waste heat in the cement, iron, and steel, and glass sectors in China, based on thermal energy modeling, expert interviews, and literature reviews.

  9. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  10. Impact of the amount of working fluid in loop heat pipe to remove waste heat from electronic component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitka Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the options on how to remove waste heat from electronic components is using loop heat pipe. The loop heat pipe (LHP is a two-phase device with high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes change phase to transport heat. It was invented in Russia in the early 1980’s. The main parts of LHP are an evaporator, a condenser, a compensation chamber and a vapor and liquid lines. Only the evaporator and part of the compensation chamber are equipped with a wick structure. Inside loop heat pipe is working fluid. As a working fluid can be used distilled water, acetone, ammonia, methanol etc. Amount of filling is important for the operation and performance of LHP. This work deals with the design of loop heat pipe and impact of filling ratio of working fluid to remove waste heat from insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT.

  11. Utilization of waste heat from electricity generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1977-06-01

    Historically the nuclear power station has been designed solely as an electricity producer. But in Canada today only 15 percent of our energy consumption is as electricity. The non-electrical needs today are supplied almost entirely by natural gas and oil. There is an incentive to see whether a nuclear station could supply energy for some of these non-electrical needs, thus freeing gas and oil for uses for which they may be more valuable and suitable, especially in transportation. A group located at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment undertook a series of studies to examine this problem. These studies were done in sufficient depth to provide technological and economic answers, and as a result several reports have been published on various topics. In this report, the findings from these studies are drawn together in an assessment of the potential in Canada for using waste heat. (author)

  12. Reducing the Cost of RLS: Waste Heat from Crop Production Can Be Used for Waste Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparter, Richard; Flynn, Michael; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The applicability of plant-based life support systems has traditionally suffered from the limitations imposed by the high energy demand of controlled environment growth chambers. Theme types of systems are typically less than 2% efficient at converting electrical energy into biomass. The remaining 98% of supplied energy is converted to thermal energy. Traditionally this thermal energy is discharged to the ambient environment as waste heat. This paper describes an energy efficient plant-based life support system which has been designed for use at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. At the South Pole energy is not lost to the environment. What is lost is the ability to extract useful work from it. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Program (CAAP) has developed a system which is designed to extract useful work from the waste thermal energy generated from plant growth lighting systems. In the CAAP system this energy is used to purify Station Sewage.

  13. System and method for determining the net output torque from a waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaud, Christophe; Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2016-12-13

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system with a system and method for calculation of the net output torque from the waste heat recovery system. The calculation uses inputs from existing pressure and speed sensors to create a virtual pump torque sensor and a virtual expander torque sensor, and uses these sensors to provide an accurate net torque output from the WHR system.

  14. Uses of the waste heat from the interim fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrum, A.

    It was the objective of this study to investigate the possibilities of a convenient use of the waste heat from the designed interim fuel storage at Ahaus. In this sense the following possibilities have been investigated: district heating, heat for industrial processes, fish-production, green house-heating, production of methane from original waste, agrotherm (agricultur field heating). It has been shown, that an economical behaviour for nearly all variations is not given without the financial help of the government, because of the high costs for heat transport and out-put. The most economical project is the intensive fish production plant. (orig.) [de

  15. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    optimizing cutting speed and power while maintaining surface quality and interface properties. Key parameters are obtained from these experiments and used to develop a process that can be used to fabricate a working TEG directly onto the waste-heat component surface. A TEG module has been fabricated for the first time entirely by using thermal spray technology and laser micromachining. The target applications include automotive exhaust systems and other high-volume industrial waste heat sources. The application of TEGs for thermoelectrically powered sensors for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) is presented. In conclusion, more ways to improve the fabrication process of TEGs are suggested.

  16. Bed geometries, fueling strategies and optimization of heat exchanger designs in metal hydride storage systems for automotive applications: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Dornheim, Martin; Sloth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This review presents recent developments for effective heat management systems to be integrated in metal hydride storage tanks, and investigates the performance improvements and limitations of each particular solution. High pressures and high temperatures metal hydrides can lead to different design...... given to metal hydride storage tanks for light duty vehicles, since this application is the most promising one for such storage materials and has been widely studied in the literature. Enhancing cooling/heating during hydrogen uptake and discharge has found to be essential to improve storage systems...

  17. Simultaneous heat integration and techno-economic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for multiple waste heat stream recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haoshui; Eason, John; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Feng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has become a promising technology for low and medium temperature energy utilization. In refineries, there are usually multiple waste heat streams to be recovered. From a safety and controllability perspective, using an intermedium (hot water) to recover waste heat before releasing heat to the ORC system is more favorable than direct integration. The mass flowrate of the intermediate hot water stream determines the amount of waste heat recovered and the final hot water temperature affects the thermal efficiency of ORC. Both, in turn, exert great influence on the power output. Therefore, the hot water mass flowrate is a critical decision variable for the optimal design of the system. This study develops a model for techno-economic optimization of an ORC with simultaneous heat recovery and capital cost optimization. The ORC is modeled using rigorous thermodynamics with the concept of state points. The task of waste heat recovery using the hot water intermedium is modeled using the Duran-Grossmann model for simultaneous heat integration and process optimization. The combined model determines the optimal design of an ORC that recovers multiple waste heat streams in a large scale background process using an intermediate heat transfer stream. In particular, the model determines the optimal heat recovery approach temperature (HRAT), the utility load of the background process, and the optimal operating conditions of the ORC simultaneously. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated with a case study that uses a refinery as the background process. Sensitivity of the optimal solution to the parameters (electricity price, utility cost) is quantified in this paper. - Highlights: • A new model for Organic Rankine cycle design optimization is presented. • Process heat integration and ORC are considered simultaneously. • Rigorous equation oriented models of the ORC are used for accurate results. • Impact of working

  18. Application of shortened heat treatment cycles on A356 automotive brake calipers with respective globular and dendritic microstructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The conventional casting alloy A356 is probably one of the most popular alloys used for semi-solid metal (SSM) forming. This is due to its high fluidity and good castability. This alloy can be heat treated alternatively to the T4, T5 or T6 temper...

  19. Process and device for determining the effect of river water heating by waste heat on its temperature characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietzsch, L.; Kauer, H.; Lautersack, K.

    1979-01-01

    It is proposed to use measurements for determining the effect of heating river water by introducing waste heat from industrial plants or power-stations, instead of deriving the effect from calculations. A suitable method of measurement is proposed and discussed. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 CKA [de

  20. A combined thermodynamic cycle used for waste heat recovery of internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Maogang; Zhang, Xinxin; Zeng, Ke; Gao, Ke

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a steady-state experiment, energy balance and exergy analysis of exhaust gas in order to improve the recovery of the waste heat of an internal combustion engine (ICE). Considering the different characteristics of the waste heat of exhaust gas, cooling water, and lubricant, a combined thermodynamic cycle for waste heat recovery of ICE is proposed. This combined thermodynamic cycle consists of two cycles: the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), for recovering the waste heat of lubricant and high-temperature exhaust gas, and the Kalina cycle, for recovering the waste heat of low-temperature cooling water. Based on Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS), the thermodynamic parameters in the high-temperature ORC were calculated and determined via an in-house computer program. Suitable working fluids used in high-temperature ORC are proposed and the performance of this combined thermodynamic cycle is analyzed. Compared with the traditional cycle configuration, more waste heat can be recovered by the combined cycle introduced in this paper. -- Highlights: ► We study the energy balance of fuel in internal combustion engine. ► Heat recovery effect of exhaust gas is good when ICE is at a high-load condition. ► We propose a new combined thermodynamic cycle for waste heat of ICE. ► The combined cycle has a higher recovery efficiency than previous configurations.

  1. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  2. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) and compact disc (CD) waste: options for recovery of materials and energy. Final report for study funded by Ekokem Oy Ab 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Saeed, L.

    2002-07-01

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR) Auto shredder residue (ASR), also referred to as auto shredder fluff, shedder light fraction (SLF), residues from shredding (RESH) or simply 'auto fluff' of 'fluff', is the fraction of an shredded end-of-life vehicle (ELV) for which recycling routes do not yet exist. After removing several recyclable parts such as bumpers (recycled into splash plates or into new bumpers, air bags, batteries, fuel tanks and nowadays also tyres and sometimes even seats, the dismantled vehicle is shredded. The ASR is then obtained as the light shredder fraction from the airflow separator that separates it from the heavier metallic fraction, which is fully recyclable as a secondary raw material. ASR is a complex mixture of plastics (rigid and foam), rubber, glass, wood, paper, leather, textile, sand plus other dirt, and a significant fraction of metals. It may be feasible to remove a large plastics or non-ferrous fraction from the ASR or it may be separated into fractions that contain lighter and heavier fractions, respectively. The ASR fraction is typically around 20 - 25 % of the weight of the ELV it derives from. Whilst for Finland the amount of ASR produced is around 25000 tonnes annually, this number is at least 100 times higher for North America, which suggests that worldwide the annual production will be of the order of 10 million tonnes. Although recycling and recovery of ELV components is increasing the increasing number of vehicles will give a further rise of ASR generated for years to come. Since the mid-1990's there is, however, increased concern over how to handle this waste material and in European countries that follow EU legislations and directives, important changes are being enforced by three new directives: Directive 2000/53/EC (September 18, 2000) on End-of-Life Vehicles, Directive 200/76/EC (December 4, 2000) on the Incineration of Waste and Directive 1999/31/EC (April 26, 1999) on the Landfill of Waste

  3. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating units... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat...

  4. Heat transfer analyses for grout disposal of radioactive double-shell slurry and customer wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-04-01

    Grout immobilization is being considered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell Hanford) as a permanent disposal method for several radioactive waste streams. These include disposal of customer and double-shell slurry wastes in earthen trenches and in single-shell underground waste storage tanks. Heat transfer studies have previously been made to determine the maximum heat loading for grout disposal of various wastes under similar conditions, but a sensitivity analysis of temperature profiles to input parameters was needed. This document presents the results of heat transfer calculations for trenches containing grouted customer and double-shell slurry wastes and for in situ disposal of double-shell wastes in single-shell, domed concrete storage tanks. It discusses the conditions that lead to maximum grout temperatures of 250 0 F during the curing stage and 350 0 F thereafter and shows the dependence of these temperatures on input parameters such as soil and grout thermal conductivity, grout specific heat, waste loading, and disposal geometries. Transient heat transfer calculations were made using the HEATING6 computer code to predict temperature profiles in solidified low-level radioactive waste disposal scenarios at the Rockwell Hanford site. The calculations provide guidance for the development of safe, environmentally acceptable grout formulas for the Transportable Grout Facility. 11 refs

  5. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Aladayleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively. The indication work, real shaft power and specific fuel consumption for Stirling engine, and the exhaust power losses for IC engine are calculated. The study shows the availability and possibility of recovery of the waste heat from internal combustion engine using Stirling engine.

  6. Application of Waste Heat Recovery Energy Saving Technology in Reform of UHP-EAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. H.; Zhang, S. X.; Yang, W.; Yu, T.

    2017-08-01

    The furnace waste heat of a company’s existing 4 × 100t ultra-high-power electric arc furnaces is not used and discharged directly of the situation has been unable to meet the national energy-saving emission reduction requirements, and also affected their own competitiveness and sustainable development. In order to make full use of the waste heat of the electric arc furnace, this paper presents an the energy-saving transformation program of using the new heat pipe boiler on the existing ultra-high-power electric arc furnaces for recovering the waste heat of flue gas. The results show that after the implementation of the project can save energy equivalent to 42,349 tons of standard coal. The flue gas waste heat is fully utilized and dust emission concentration is accorded with the standard of Chinese invironmental protection, which have achieved good results.

  7. Parametric optimization and comparative study of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low grade waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Yiping; Wang Jiangfeng; Gao Lin

    2009-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycles for low grade waste heat recovery are described with different working fluids. The effects of the thermodynamic parameters on the ORC performance are examined, and the thermodynamic parameters of the ORC for each working fluid are optimized with exergy efficiency as an objective function by means of the genetic algorithm. The optimum performance of cycles with different working fluids was compared and analyzed under the same waste heat condition. The results show that the cycles with organic working fluids are much better than the cycle with water in converting low grade waste heat to useful work. The cycle with R236EA has the highest exergy efficiency, and adding an internal heat exchanger into the ORC system could not improve the performance under the given waste heat condition. In addition, for the working fluids with non-positive saturation vapor curve slope, the cycle has the best performance property with saturated vapor at the turbine inlet

  8. Numerical study on turbulent forced convective heat transfer using nanofluids TiO2 in an automotive cooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan M. Hussein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The limited thermal properties of liquids have led to the addition of solid nanoparticles to liquids in many industrial applications. In this paper, the friction factor and forced convection heat transfer of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in water in a car radiator was numerically determined. Four different nanofluid volume concentrations (1%, 2%, 3% and 4% were used, and the resulting thermal properties were evaluated. The Reynolds number and inlet temperature ranged from 10000 to 100000 and from 60 to 90 °C, respectively. The results showed that the friction factor decreases as the Reynolds number increases and increases as the volume concentration increases. Additionally, the Nusselt number increases as the Reynolds number and volume concentration of the nanofluid increases. The TiO2 nanofluid at low concentrations can enhance the heat transfer efficiency up to 20% compared with that of pure water. There was good agreement among the CFD analysis and experimental data available in the literature.

  9. Numerical Investigation on the Performance of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator with Exhaust-Module-Coolant Direct Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Tang, Yulin; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi

    2018-06-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection have typically been a concern of research. Researchers have confirmed that in automotive engines, just 12-25% of the fuel energy converts into effective work and 30-40% gets wasted in the form of exhaust. Saidur et al. (Energy Policy 37:3650, 2009) and Hasanuzzaman et al. (Energy 36:233, 2011). It will be significant to enhance fuel availability and decrease environmental pollution if the waste heat in the exhaust could be recovered. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs), which can translate heat into electricity, have become a topic of interest for vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery. In conventional automotive TEGs, the thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are arranged between the exhaust tank and the coolant tank. The TEMs do not contact the hot exhaust and coolant, which leads to low heat transfer efficiency. Moreover, to provide enough packing force to keep good contact with the exhaust tank and the coolant tank, the framework required is so robust that the TEGs become too heavy. Therefore, in current study, an automotive TEG was designed which included one exhaust channel, one coolant channel and several TEMs. In the TEG, the TEMs which contacted the exhaust and coolant directly were inserted into the walls of each coolant channel. To evaluate the performance of the automotive TEG, the flow field and temperature field were computed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Based on the temperature distribution obtained by CFD and the performance parameters of the modules, the total power generation was obtained by some proved empirical formulas. Compared with conventional automotive TEGs, the power generation per unit volume exhaust was boosted.

  10. Numerical Investigation on the Performance of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator with Exhaust-Module-Coolant Direct Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Tang, Yulin; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi

    2017-12-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection have typically been a concern of research. Researchers have confirmed that in automotive engines, just 12-25% of the fuel energy converts into effective work and 30-40% gets wasted in the form of exhaust. Saidur et al. (Energy Policy 37:3650, 2009) and Hasanuzzaman et al. (Energy 36:233, 2011). It will be significant to enhance fuel availability and decrease environmental pollution if the waste heat in the exhaust could be recovered. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs), which can translate heat into electricity, have become a topic of interest for vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery. In conventional automotive TEGs, the thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are arranged between the exhaust tank and the coolant tank. The TEMs do not contact the hot exhaust and coolant, which leads to low heat transfer efficiency. Moreover, to provide enough packing force to keep good contact with the exhaust tank and the coolant tank, the framework required is so robust that the TEGs become too heavy. Therefore, in current study, an automotive TEG was designed which included one exhaust channel, one coolant channel and several TEMs. In the TEG, the TEMs which contacted the exhaust and coolant directly were inserted into the walls of each coolant channel. To evaluate the performance of the automotive TEG, the flow field and temperature field were computed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Based on the temperature distribution obtained by CFD and the performance parameters of the modules, the total power generation was obtained by some proved empirical formulas. Compared with conventional automotive TEGs, the power generation per unit volume exhaust was boosted.

  11. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery - Potential Applications, Available Technologies and Crosscutting R&D Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc, North Potomac, MD (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explore key areas and characteristics of industrial waste heat and its generation, barriers to waste heat recovery and use, and potential research and development (R&D) opportunities. The report also provides an overview of technologies and systems currently available for waste heat recovery and discusses the issues or barriers for each. Also included is information on emerging technologies under development or at various stages of demonstrations, and R&D opportunities cross-walked by various temperature ranges, technology areas, and energy-intensive process industries.

  12. Advanced Waste Heat Recovery Systems within Hybrid Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A waste heat recovery system (WHRS is very well known to provide no advantage during the cold start driving cycles, such as the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC, which are used for certification of emissions and assessment of fuel economy. Here, we propose a novel integrated WHRS using the internal combustion engine (ICE coolant passages and an exchanger on the exhaust working as pre-heater / boiler / super-heater of a Rankine cycle. The expander is connected to an electric generator unit (GU, and the pump is connected to an electric motor unit (MU. The vehicle is also fitted with an electric, kinetic energy recovery system (KERS. The expander and condenser are bypassed during the first part of the NEDC when the vehicle covers the four ECE-15 (Economic Commission for Europe - 15 - UDC (Urban Drive Cycle segments where the engine warms-up.  Only after the engine is fully warmed up, during the last part of the NEDC, the extra urban driving cycle (EUDC segment, the expander and condenser are activated to recover part of the coolant and exhaust energy.

  13. Biogas Engine Waste Heat Recovery Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Italy is a leading country in the biogas sector. Energy crops and manure are converted into biogas using anaerobic digestion and, then, into electricity using internal combustion engines (ICEs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for improving the efficiency of these engines taking the real operation into account. To this purpose, in the present work, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC technology is used to recover the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases of a 1 MWel biogas engine. The ICE behavior being affected by the biogas characteristics, the ORC unit is designed, firstly, using the ICE nameplate data and, then, with data measured during a one-year monitoring activity. The optimum fluid and the plant configuration are selected in both cases using an “in-house” optimization tool. The optimization goal is the maximization of the net electric power while the working fluid is selected among 115 pure fluids and their mixtures. Results show that a recuperative ORC designed using real data guarantees a 30% higher net electric power than the one designed with ICE nameplate conditions.

  14. Automotive exhaust gas flow control for an ammonia–water absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rêgo, A.T.; Hanriot, S.M.; Oliveira, A.F.; Brito, P.; Rêgo, T.F.U.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of the energy generated by an automotive internal combustion engine is wasted as heat in the exhaust system. This wasted heat could be recovered and applied to power auxiliary systems in a vehicle, contributing to its overall energy efficiency. In the present work, the experimental analysis of an absorption refrigeration system was performed. The exhaust system of an automotive internal combustion engine was connected to the generator element of an absorption refrigeration system. The performance of the absorption refrigerator was evaluated as a function of the supplied heat. The use of a control strategy for the engine exhaust gas mass flow rate was implemented to optimize the system. Exhaust gas flow was controlled by step-motor actuated valves commanded by a microcontroller in which a proportional-integral control scheme was implemented. Information such as engine torque, speed, key temperatures in the absorption cycle, as well as internal temperatures of the refrigerator was measured in a transient regime. The results indicated that the refrigeration system exhibited better performance when the amount of input heat is controlled based on the temperature of the absorption cycle generator. It was possible to conclude that, by dynamically controlling the amount of input heat, the utilisation range of the absorption refrigeration system powered by exhaust gas heat could be expanded in order to incorporate high engine speed operating conditions. - Highlights: •An absorption refrigerator was driven by automotive exhaust gas heat. •A system for controlling the refrigeration system heat input was developed. •Excessive exhaust gas heat leads to ineffective operation of the refrigerator. •Control of refrigerator's generator temperature led to better performance. •The use of exhaust gas was possible for high engine speeds

  15. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dede, Ercan M.; Schmalenberg, Paul; Wang, Chi-Ming; Zhou, Feng; Nomura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  16. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan M., E-mail: eric.dede@tema.toyota.com; Schmalenberg, Paul; Wang, Chi-Ming; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute, Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States); Nomura, Tsuyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., Nagakute 480-1192 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  17. Fluidized-bed incineration plant equipped with waste heat boilers. Developed for mid-size municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Hitoshi

    1988-01-20

    A fluidized bed incineration plant with a waste heat boiler was installed to dispose wastes in Sakura City on March, 1987 and has waste disposing capacity of 120tons/d. Sands are fluidized in the furnace at 700-800/sup 0/C and wastes are burned completely for a short time. The waste heat boiler is used to utilize waste heat to send steam to aquiculturing farms and hot water to the community plaza and further supplies steam to two 90kW back pressure turbines for driving forced draft fan used for the incineration plant. Harmful gases in waste gas are removed by the harmful gas eliminator to lower HCl to 120ppm or less and K value of SOx to 9.0 or less and then cleaned gas is exhausted through the electostatic precipitator and the chimney. Dust and fly ash are transferred to a reservior through a superior seal tight air transportation system, pelletized and disposed for land fill. Bulk waste disposing capacity is 50 tons/d and harmful wastes, magnetic materials, unburnable and burnable wastes are classified and separated. Separated iron purity is 95% or more. (4 figs, 2 photos)

  18. Heat production thanks to waste water; Produire de l'energie grace aux eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2009-07-01

    The district heating of a large residential compound in Rheinfelden, Switzerland has been refurbished and extended in order to include new buildings and take advantage of the heat from the municipal waste water treatment plant. The initial system was built in 1976 and delivered heat to 3000 people in 1050 housing units, from three natural gas fired boilers with a total power of 3 MW. In 1993, a study supported by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy identified considerable possible energy savings. Some operational measures were implemented immediately. The recent extension of the district heating to a second residential compound in the neighbourhood increased the heat demand by about 50%. In the course of the planning process it was recognized that waste water from the joint municipal treatment plant of Rheinfelden and Magden - a second city located in the vicinity - has to be cooled by 5 K before being rejected into the Rhine River. This water is now used after filtration as the heat source for two big heat pumps (total 2.5 MW; working fluid: ammonia) supplying the refurbished and extended district heating. Peak heat demand is covered by natural gas boilers (total 9 MW) that can operate alone or in parallel with the heat pumps. Provision has been made to later connect another waste heat source to the district heating network: the municipal skating rink and swimming pool sport facility.

  19. Feasibility of deep ocean disposal of heat generating waste. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarises the research performed in the UK during the period 1977 to 1987 as part of the international programme investigating the feasibility of ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste. This study has involved: (i) the definition of the disposal operations needed to meet the minimum requirements for safely emplacing waste on or under the floor of the deep ocean; (ii) the identification and characterisation of areas of the deep ocean that might be suitable for containing heat generating waste; (iii) a study of the processes by which radionuclides might migrate through the multiple barriers that isolate the waste from man's environment; and (iv) a calculation of the radiological impact of the conceptual deep ocean repository. It is concluded that, from a technical and scientific viewpoint, disposal of heat generating waste in the deep ocean could provide a safe, economic and feasible alternative to deep disposal on land. (author)

  20. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NOx Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO x reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO x reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO x reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO x unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO x to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO x concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO x unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO x reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO x unit. The NO x destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO x reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO x reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO x concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry

  1. Preliminary market assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.T.; Fey, C.L.; Grogan, P.J.; Klein, N.P.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR) system market potential is presented with emphasis on the factors influencing industrial acceptability. Preliminary market potential areas are identified based on the availability of waste heat. Trends in energy use are examined to see the effect they might have on these market potential areas in the future. Focus groups interviews are used to explore important factors in the industrial decision-making process. These important factors are explored quantitatively in a survey of industrial plant engineers. The survey deals with the waste-heat boiler configuration of the FBWHR system. Results indicate market acceptance of the fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler could be quite low.

  2. The feasibility study on supercritical methane Recuperated Brayton Cycle for waste heat recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Dyuisenakhmetov, Aibolat

    2017-01-01

    solar power. RBC’s compactness and the ease at which it can be integrated into existent power plants for waste heat recovery require few modifications. Methane, carbon dioxide and trifluoromethane are analyzed as possible working fluids. This work shows

  3. Study on a waste heat-driven adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the performance analysis of a waste heat-driven adsorption cycle. With the implementation of adsorption-desorption phenomena, the cycle simultaneously produces cooling energy and high-grade potable water. A mathematical model

  4. On-Board Thermal Management of Waste Heat from a High-Energy Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klatt, Nathan D

    2008-01-01

    The use of on-board high-energy devices such as megawatt lasers and microwave emitters requires aircraft system integration of thermal devices to either get rid of waste heat or utilize it in other areas of the aircraft...

  5. Waste heat and water recovery opportunities in California tomato paste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amón, Ricardo; Maulhardt, Mike; Wong, Tony; Kazama, Don; Simmons, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Water and energy efficiency are important for the vitality of the food processing industry as demand for these limited resources continues to increase. Tomato processing, which is dominated by paste production, is a major industry in California – where the majority of tomatoes are processed in the United States. Paste processing generates large amounts of condensate as moisture is removed from the fruit. Recovery of the waste heat in this condensate and reuse of the water may provide avenues to decrease net energy and water use at processing facilities. However, new processing methods are needed to create demand for the condensate waste heat. In this study, the potential to recover condensate waste heat and apply it to the tomato enzyme thermal inactivation processing step (the hot break) is assessed as a novel application. A modeling framework is established to predict heat transfer to tomatoes during the hot break. Heat recovery and reuse of the condensate water are related to energy and monetary savings gained through decreased use of steam, groundwater pumping, cooling towers, and wastewater processing. This analysis is informed by water and energy usage data from relevant unit operations at a commercial paste production facility. The case study indicates potential facility seasonal energy and monetary savings of 7.3 GWh and $166,000, respectively, with most savings gained through reduced natural gas use. The sensitivity of heat recovery to various process variables associated with heat exchanger design and processing conditions is presented to identify factors that affect waste heat recovery. - Highlights: • The potential to recovery waste heat in tomato paste processing is examined. • Heat transfer from evaporator condensate to tomatoes in the hot break is modeled. • Processing facility data is used in model to predict heat recovery energy savings. • The primary benefit of heat recovery is reduced use of natural gas in boilers. • Reusing

  6. Automotive perspective on laser material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a broad review is given of the development and use of laser processing in the automotive industry. a brief introduction to the major types of processing lasers and related systems is followed by a summary of the major processing regimes. Examples are given of the automotive industry's use of lasers in a variety of applications, from heat treating and welding, to cutting and marking

  7. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of fin-tube exchanger and PSHE for waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Bae, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Oh Kyung

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, heat transfer characteristics of fin-tube heat exchanger and primary surface heat exchanger (PSHE) used in waste heat recovery were investigated experimentally. The flow in the fin-tube heat exchanger is cross flow and in PSHE counter flow. The variations of friction factor and Colburn j factor with air mass flow rate, and Nu number with Re number are presented. Various comparison methods are used to evaluate heat transfer performance, and the results show that the heat transfer rate of the PSHE is on average 17.3% larger than that of fin-tube heat exchanger when air mass flow rate is ranging from 1.24 to 3.45 kg/min. However, the PSHE causes higher pressure drop, and the fin-tube heat exchanger has a wider application range which leads to a 31.7% higher value of maximum heat transfer rate compared to that of the PSHE. Besides, under the same fan power per unit frontal surface, a higher heat transfer rate value is given in the fin-tube heat exchanger.

  8. HD Diesel engine equipped with a bottoming Rankine cycle as a waste heat recovery system. Part 1: Study and analysis of the waste heat energy

    OpenAIRE

    Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; Novella Rosa, Ricardo; García Martínez, Antonio; Sánchez Serrano, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the study of different bottoming Rankine cycles with water-steam and/or ORC configurations in classical and innovative setups such as a waste heat recovery system in a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) Engine. This work has been divided in two parts. This first part describes the model of the studied HDD engine and the available waste energy sources in this HDD Engine. The waste energy sources are studied from the standpoint of energy analysis to determine which are the most approp...

  9. Modeling Pumped Thermal Energy Storage with Waste Heat Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarr, Miles L. Lindsey

    This work introduces a new concept for a utility scale combined energy storage and generation system. The proposed design utilizes a pumped thermal energy storage (PTES) system, which also utilizes waste heat leaving a natural gas peaker plant. This system creates a low cost utility-scale energy storage system by leveraging this dual-functionality. This dissertation first presents a review of previous work in PTES as well as the details of the proposed integrated bottoming and energy storage system. A time-domain system model was developed in Mathworks R2016a Simscape and Simulink software to analyze this system. Validation of both the fluid state model and the thermal energy storage model are provided. The experimental results showed the average error in cumulative fluid energy between simulation and measurement was +/- 0.3% per hour. Comparison to a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model showed heat transfer. The system model was used to conduct sensitivity analysis, baseline performance, and levelized cost of energy of a recently proposed Pumped Thermal Energy Storage and Bottoming System (Bot-PTES) that uses ammonia as the working fluid. This analysis focused on the effects of hot thermal storage utilization, system pressure, and evaporator/condenser size on the system performance. This work presents the estimated performance for a proposed baseline Bot-PTES. Results of this analysis showed that all selected parameters had significant effects on efficiency, with the evaporator/condenser size having the largest effect over the selected ranges. Results for the baseline case showed stand-alone energy storage efficiencies between 51 and 66% for varying power levels and charge states, and a stand-alone bottoming efficiency of 24%. The resulting efficiencies for this case were low compared to competing technologies; however, the dual-functionality of the Bot-PTES enables it to have higher capacity factor, leading to 91-197/MWh levelized cost of energy compared to 262

  10. Low temperature industrial waste heat utilization in the area 'Speyer-Ludwigshafen-Frankenthal-Worms'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunold, K.; Krebs, A.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the study is the elaboration of reliable facts whether and under which conditions low temperature industrial waste heat systems can be economically utilized for heating purposes. The source of the waste heat are power- and industrial plants. In order to obtain reliable results, investigations have been carried out in the area Speyer-Ludwigshafen-Frankenthal and Worms. These investigations showed a number of application possibilities for heat pumps and it became moreover evident that there is a high variaiton of the heat requirement due to social components and the different type of building structures of the consumers. The economic results showed that the application of this heating system can under certain conditions supplement resp. replace other heating systems. (orig.) [de

  11. Waste-heat recovery potential in Turkish textile industry. Case study for city of Bursa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulat, E.; Etemoglu, A.B.; Can, M. [Uludag University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Mechanical Engineering Department, Gorukle, TR-16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Textile sector of Turkey has a large production capacity and it is one of the important sectors. Many industrial heating processes generate waste energy in textile industry. Therefore, there is a tremendous waste-heat potential to utilize in textile applications. This study assesses the potential of waste-heat obtained from particularly dyeing process at textile industry in Bursa where textile center of Turkey. Energy consumptions could be decreased by using of waste-heat recovery systems (WHRSs). A thermodynamic analysis is performed in this study. An exergy-based approach is performed for optimizing the effective working conditions for WHRSs with water-to-water shell and tube heat exchanger. The payback period is found to be less than 6 months. The variations of the parameters which affect the system performance such as waste-water inlet temperature, mass flow rate, cooling water inlet pressure and dead state conditions are examined respectively. The results of the analysis show that the exergy destruction rate and economical profit increase with increasing of mass flow rate of the waste water. Similarly, exergy destruction rate, effectiveness and economical profit increase while the second law efficiency decreases as the waste-water inlet temperature increases. (author)

  12. A Joule-Heated Melter Technology For The Treatment And Immobilization Of Low-Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  13. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  14. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aniza Abdul Aziz; Sreenivasaiah Purushothama Rao; Elias Salleh

    2013-01-01

    The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyr...

  15. Thermoelectric as recovery and harvesting of waste heat from portable generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, S. N.; Kamarrudin, N. S.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Bakar, S. A.; Razlan, Z. M.; Harun, A.; Ibrahim, I.; Faizi, M. K.; Saad, M. A. M.; Zunaidi, I.; Wan, W. K.; Desa, H.

    2017-10-01

    Generation of waste heat was ineluctable especially during energy producing process. Waste heat falls into low temperature grade make it complicated to utilize. Thermoelectric generator (TEG) offers opportunity to harvest any temperature grade heat into useful electricity. This project is covered about recovery and utilizing waste heat from portable electric generator by using a TEG which placed at exhaust surface. Temperature difference at both surfaces of TEG was enhanced with supplying cold air from a wind blower. It is found that, even at low air speed, the TEG was successfully produced electricity with aid from DC-DC booster. Results shows possibility to harvest low temperature grade heat and still exist areas for continual improvement.

  16. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  17. Modelling temperature-dependent heat production over decades in High Arctic coal waste rock piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface heat production from oxidation of pyrite is an important process that may increase subsurface temperatures within coal waste rock piles and increase the release of acid mine drainage, AMD. Waste rock piles in the Arctic are especially vulnerable to changes in subsurface temperatures...... such as heat production from coal oxidation may be equally important....... as the release of AMD normally is limited by permafrost. Here we show that temperatures within a 20 year old heat-producing waste rock pile in Svalbard (78°N) can be modelled by the one-dimensional heat and water flow model (CoupModel) with a new temperature-dependent heat-production module that includes both...

  18. Performance analysis on a new multi-effect distillation combined with an open absorption heat transformer driven by waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Dapeng; Li, Zhiyi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new water distillation system, which consists of either a single- or multi-effect distiller combined with an open absorption heat transformer (OAHT), has been proposed. The new integrated system can be used for distilling waste water with high amounts of SiO 2 from heavy oil production, and the resultant distilled water can be supplied to steam boilers to produce high quality steam which in turn is injected into oil reservoirs to assist with heavy oil recovery. The thermodynamic cycle performances for these new integrated distillation systems were simulated based on the thermodynamic properties of the aqueous solution of LiBr as well as the mass and energy balance of the system. The results indicate that combined with OAHT, the waste heat at 70 °C can be elevated to 125 °C and thereby produce steam at 120 °C in the absorber, which is able to drive a four-effect distiller to produce distilled water. For a single-effect and four-effect distiller, the coefficients of performance (COP) are approximately 1.02 while the performance ratios are 2.19 and 5.72, respectively. Therefore, the four-effect distillation system combined with an OAHT is more thermally effective and is an ideal option to process the waste water in oilfields. -- Highlights: • A new absorption vapor compression distillation was proposed in present research. • An open absorption heat transformer has a coupled thermally evaporator and absorber. • Distillation of waste water with high content of SiO 2 from heavy oil production. • The waste heat of 70 °C can be elevated up to 125 °C and generate steam of 120 °C. • The waste heat is able to drive four-effect distillation to produce distilled water

  19. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume II. Options for capturing the waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Options for utilizing the heated SRP effluent are investigated. The temperature and availability characteristics of the heated effluent are analyzed. Technical options for energy recovery are discussed. A number of thermodynamic cycles that could generate electrical power using the energy in the heated SRP effluent are described. Conceptual designs for SRP application of two attractive options are presented. Other direct uses for the heated effluent, as heat sources for agriculture and aquaculture options are discussed

  20. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  1. Investigation on thermal environment improvement by waste heat recovery in the underground station in Qingdao metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jiaquan; Wang, Fengyin; Wang, Cuiping

    2018-03-01

    The thermal environment parameters, like the temperature and air velocity, are measured to investigate the heat comfort status of metro staff working area in winter in Qingdao. The temperature is affected obviously by the piston wind from the train and waiting hall in the lower Hall, and the temperature is not satisfied with the least heat comfort temperature of 16 °C. At the same time, the heat produced by the electrical and control equipments is brought by the cooling air to atmosphere for the equipment safety. Utilizing the water-circulating heat pump, it is feasible to transfer the emission heat to the staff working area to improve the thermal environment. Analyzed the feasibility from the technique and economy when using the heat pump, the water-circulating heat pump could be the best way to realize the waste heat recovery and to help the heat comfort of staff working area in winter in the underground metro station in north China.

  2. Experimental validation of a dynamic waste heat recovery system model for control purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Kupper, F.; Rojer, C.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Scappin, F.; Willems, F.P.T.; Smits, Jeroen; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the identification and validation of a dynamic Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system model. Driven by upcoming CO2 emission targets and increasing fuel costs, engine exhaust gas heat utilization has recently attracted much attention to improve fuel efficiency, especially for

  3. Hydrous mineral dehydration around heat-generating nuclear waste in bedded salt formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie A; Robinson, Bruce A; Stauffer, Philip H

    2015-06-02

    Heat-generating nuclear waste disposal in bedded salt during the first two years after waste emplacement is explored using numerical simulations tied to experiments of hydrous mineral dehydration. Heating impure salt samples to temperatures of 265 °C can release over 20% by mass of hydrous minerals as water. Three steps in a series of dehydration reactions are measured (65, 110, and 265 °C), and water loss associated with each step is averaged from experimental data into a water source model. Simulations using this dehydration model are used to predict temperature, moisture, and porosity after heating by 750-W waste canisters, assuming hydrous mineral mass fractions from 0 to 10%. The formation of a three-phase heat pipe (with counter-circulation of vapor and brine) occurs as water vapor is driven away from the heat source, condenses, and flows back toward the heat source, leading to changes in porosity, permeability, temperature, saturation, and thermal conductivity of the backfill salt surrounding the waste canisters. Heat pipe formation depends on temperature, moisture availability, and mobility. In certain cases, dehydration of hydrous minerals provides sufficient extra moisture to push the system into a sustained heat pipe, where simulations neglecting this process do not.

  4. Energetic and exergetic analysis of waste heat recovery systems in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, S.; Leontaritis, A.-D.; Panousis, G.; Bellos, E.; Kakaras, E.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical cement producing procedure, 25% of the total energy used is electricity and 75% is thermal energy. However, the process is characterized by significant heat losses mainly by the flue gases and the ambient air stream used for cooling down the clinker (about 35%–40% of the process heat loss). Approximately 26% of the heat input to the system is lost due to dust, clinker discharge, radiation and convection losses from the kiln and the preheaters. A heat recovery system could be used to increase the efficiency of the cement plant and thus contribute to emissions decrease. The aim of this paper is to examine and compare energetically and exergetically, two different WHR (waste heat recovery) methods: a water-steam Rankine cycle, and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). A parametric study proved that the water steam technology is more efficient than ORC in exhaust gases temperature higher than 310 °C. Finally a brief economic assessment of the most efficient solution was implemented. WHR installations in cement industry can contribute significantly in the reduction of the electrical consumptions operating cost thus being a very attractive investment with a payback period up to 5 years. - Highlights: • This paper presents waste heat recovery as a way to gain energy from the exhaust gases in a cement plant. • Water steam cycle and ORC has been analyzed for waste heat recovery. • The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two waste heat recovery processes is presented and compared

  5. Development of Thermoelectric Power Generators for high temperature Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    By converting heat directly into electricity, thermoclectric generators (TEGs) provide a very promising solution for emerging energy saving and environmental issues. These devices could be incorporated in a variety of applications, in particular those making use of waste heat recovery. To expand...

  6. Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carls, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it's inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention

  7. Heat transport analysis in a district heating and snow melting system in Sapporo and Ishikari, Hokkaido applying waste heat from GTHTR300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Seiji; Kamiji, Yu; Terada, Atsuhiko; Yan Xing; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Murata, Tetsuya; Mori, Michitsugu

    2015-01-01

    A district heating and snow melting system utilizing waste heat from Gas Turbine High temperature Gas Reactor of 300 MW_e (GTHTR300), a heat-electricity cogeneration design of high temperature gas-cooled reactor, was analyzed. Application areas are set in Sapporo and Ishikari, the heavy snowfall cities in Northern Japan. The heat transport analyses are carried out by modeling the components in the system; pipelines of the secondary water loops between GTHTR300s and heat demand district and heat exchangers to transport the heat from the secondary water loops to the tertiary loops in the district. Double pipe for the secondary loops are advantageous for less heat loss and smaller excavation area. On the other hand, these pipes has disadvantage of more electricity consumption for pumping. Most of the heat demand in the month of maximum requirement can be supplied by 2 GTHTR300s and delivered by 9 secondary loops and around 5000 heat exchangers. Closer location of GTHTR300 site to the heat demand district is largely advantageous economically. Less decrease of the distance from 40 km to 20 km made the heat loss half and cost of the heat transfer system 22% smaller. (author)

  8. CFD modeling and computation of convective heat coefficient transfer of automotive disc brake rotors -Modelado CFD y cálculo de la transferencia de coeficientes de calor por convección de rotores de freno de disco automotores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhocine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Braking system is one of the important control systems of an automotive. For many years, the disc brakes have been used in automobiles for safe retardation of the vehicles. During braking enormous amount of heat will be generated and for effective braking sufficient heat dissipation is essential. The thermal performance of disc brake depends upon the characteristics of the airflow around the brake rotor and hence the aerodynamics is an important in the region of brake components. A CFD analysis is carried out on the braking system as a case study to make out the behaviour of airflow distribution around the disc brake components using ANSYS CFX software. We are interested in the determination of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC on each surface of a ventilated disc rotor varying with time in a transient state using CFD analysis, and then imported the surface film condition data into a corresponding FEM model for disc temperature analysis.

  9. Mathematical modelling of heat production in deep geological repository of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanda, O.

    2017-01-01

    Waste produced by nuclear industry requires special handling. Currently, there is a research taking place, focused at possibilities of nuclear waste storage in deep geological repositories, hosted in stable geological environment. The high-level nuclear waste produces significant amount of heat for a long time, which can affect either environment outside of or within the repository in a negative way. Therefore to reduce risks, it is desirable to know the principles of such heat production, which can be achieved using mathematical modeling. This thesis comes up with a general model of heat production-time dependency, dependable on initial composition of the waste. To be able to model real situations, output of this thesis needs to be utilized in an IT solution. (authors)

  10. Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling free convection heat transfer in an cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rack. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3--4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions

  11. The thermo-mechanical behaviour of a salt dome with a heat-generating waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, L.G.J.; Prij, J.; Kevenaar, J.W.A.M.; Jong, C.J.T.; Klok, J.; Beemsterboer, C.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews the analytical work on the disposal of radioactive waste in salt domes performed at ECN in the period 1 January 1980 to 31 December 1982. Chapter 4 in the main report covers the global temperature and deformation analyses of the salt dome and the surrounding rocks. The attached three topical reports cover self-contained parts of the study. The computer program TASTE developed to analyse, at acceptable cost and with, for engineering purposes, sufficient accuracies, the temperature rises in the salt dome due to the stored heat-generating waste is described in Annex 1. Annex 2 gives a description of the extended finite element program GOLIA. The program has been extended to make it suitable for the creep analysis of salt domes with repositories of heat-generating waste. The study on the closing and sealing of boreholes wit heat-generating waste is reported in Annex 3

  12. Influence of working fluids on Organic Rankine Cycle for waste heat recovery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzyna, Ralf; Eifler, Wolfgang; Steinmill, Jens [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    2012-11-01

    More than 50% of the energy contained in fuel is lost due to the loss of heat content to the exhaust gas, the cooling water or the charge air cooler medium. Therefore, one of the most promising attempts to further increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines is waste heat recovery by means of a combined process. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a promising process for waste heat recovery systems. The main purpose is to identify suitable working fluids to achieve best system performance. Therefore an analysis of the influence of different working fluids on system output is required. (orig.)

  13. Applying the principles of thermoeconomics to the organic Rankine Cycle for low temperature waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, F.; Lilun, Q.; Changsun, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, thermoeconomic principle is used to study the selection of working fluids and the option of the cycle parameters in the organic Rankine cycle of low temperature waste heat recovery. The parameter ξ, the product of the ratio of waste heat recovery and real cycle thermal efficiency, is suggested as a unified thermodynamic criterion for the selection of the working fluids. The mathematical expressions are developed to determine the optimal boiling temperature and the optimal pin point temperature difference in the heat recovery exchanger by way of thermoeconomic principle

  14. Waste heat discharges in the aquatic environment -- impact and monitoring 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on ecological impacts, on fishes in particular, of waste heat discharges in the aquatic environment are briefly reviewed. These studies cover the susceptibility of fishes to disease and predation, population biology, parasite proliferation and its impact on fishes, synergistic effects due to heat and other stresses such as chemicals, pollutant, lowering of saturation limit of dissolved oxygen at elevated temperature and radioactivity. Experiences of monitoring waste heat discharges at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) and the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) are presented. Entrainment losses and impingement losses are also reviewed. Requirements for thermal monitoring are mentioned. (M.G.B.)

  15. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  16. Heat supply from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Japan: Current situation and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Tsai, Peii

    2016-02-01

    The use of waste-to-energy technology as part of a municipal solid waste management strategy could reduce the use of fossil fuels and contribute to prevention of global warming. In this study, we examined current heat and electricity production by incineration plants in Japan for external use. Herein, we discuss specific challenges to the promotion of heat utilisation and future municipal solid waste management strategies. We conducted a questionnaire survey to determine the actual conditions of heat production by incineration plants. From the survey results, information of about 498 incineration plants was extracted. When we investigated the relationship between heat production for external use and population density where incineration plants were located, we found that regions with a population density situation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Characteristics of Vacuum Freeze Drying with Utilization of Internal Cooling and Condenser Waste Heat for Sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze drying is an excellent drying method, but it is very energy-intensive because a relatively long drying time is required. This research investigates the utilization of condenser waste heat for sublimation as a way of accelerating the drying rate. In addition, it also investigates the effect of internal cooling combined with vacuum cooling in the pressure reduction process. Jelly fish tentacles were used as the specimen, with different configurations for condenser heat waste and internal cooling valve opening. The results show that heating with condenser heat waste can accelerate the drying rate up to 0.0035 kg/m2.s. In addition, pre-freezing by internal cooling prevents evaporation until the mass of the specimen is 0.47 g and promotes transition of the specimen into the solid phase.

  18. The thermoelectric generators use for waste heat utilization from cement plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztekler Karol

    2017-01-01

    Production often entails the formation of by-product which is waste heat. One of the equipment processing heat into electricity is a thermoelectric generator. Its operation is based on the principle of thermoelectric phenomenon, which is known as a Seebeck phenomenon. The simplicity of thermoelectric phenomena allows its use in various industries, in which the main waste product is in the form of heat with the temperature of several hundred degrees. The study analyses the possibility of the thermoelectric systems use for the waste heat utilization resulting in the cement production at the cement plant. The location and design of the thermoelectric system that could be implemented in cement plant is chosen. The analysis has been prepared in the IPSEpro software.

  19. Evaluation the microwave heating of spinel crystals in high-level waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL)

    2015-08-18

    In this report, the microwave heating of a crystal-free and a partially (24 wt%) trevorite-crystallized waste glass simulant were evaluated. The results show that a 500 mg piece of partially crystallized waste glass can be heated from room-temperature to above 1600 °C (as measured by infrared radiometry) within 2 minutes using a single mode, highly focused, 2.45 GHz microwave, operating at 300 W. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the partially crystallized glass experiences an 87 % reduction in trevorite following irradiation and thermal quenching. When a crystal-free analogue of the same waste glass simulant composition is exposed to the same microwave radiation it could not be heated above 450 °C regardless of the heating time.

  20. Exergetic life cycle assessment of cement production process with waste heat power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Xiuwen; Zhang, Yun; Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Shushen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergetic life cycle assessment was performed for the cement production process. • Each system’s efficiency before and after waste heat power generation was analyzed. • The waste heat power generation improved the efficiency of each production system. • It provided technical support for the implementation of energy-saving schemes. - Abstract: The cement industry is an industry that consumes a considerable quantity of resources and energy and has a very large influence on the efficient use of global resources and energy. In this study, exergetic life cycle assessment is performed for the cement production process, and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of each system before and after waste heat power generation is investigated. The study indicates that, before carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies of the raw material preparation system, pulverized coal preparation system and rotary kiln system are 39.4%, 10.8% and 50.2%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 4.5%, 1.4% and 33.7%, respectively; after carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies are 45.8%, 15.5% and 55.1%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 7.8%, 2.8% and 38.1%, respectively. The waste heat power generation project can recover 3.7% of the total input exergy of a rotary kiln system and improve the objective exergy efficiencies of the above three systems. The study can identify degree of resource and energy utilization and the energy-saving effect of a waste heat power generation project on each system, and provide technical support for managers in the implementation of energy-saving schemes

  1. Performance analysis of double organic Rankine cycle for discontinuous low temperature waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongxiang; Ling Xiang; Peng Hao

    2012-01-01

    This research proposes a double organic Rankine cycle for discontinuous waste heat recovery. The optimal operation conditions of several working fluids have been calculated by a procedure employing MATLAB and REFPROP. The influence of outlet temperature of heat source on the net power output, thermal efficiency, power consumption, mass flow rate, expander outlet temperature, cycle irreversibility and exergy efficiency at a given pinch point temperature difference (PPTD) has been analyzed. Pinch point analysis has also been employed to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of the ORC performance. Of all the working fluids investigated, some performances between each working fluid are rather similar. For a fixed low temperature heat source, the optimal operation condition should be mainly determined by the heat carrier of the heat source, and working fluids have limited influence. Lower outlet temperature of heat source does not always mean more efficient energy use. Acetone exhibits the least exergy destruction, while R245fa possesses the maximal exergy efficiency at a fixed PPTD. Wet fluids exhibit lower thermal efficiency than the others with the increasing of PPTD at a fixed outlet temperature of heat source. Dry and isentropic fluids offer attractive performance. - Highlights: ► We propose a double organic Rankine cycle for discontinuous waste heat recovery. ► Performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is analyzed by pinch point analysis. ► The heat carrier of the heat source determines ORC optimal operation condition. ► Design of ORC heat exchangers prefers lower pinch point temperature difference.

  2. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E. [Studsvik, Inc. 5605 Glenridge Drive Suite 705, Atlanta, GA 30342 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm

  3. Modeling studies for multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.

    1988-07-01

    Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport, and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repository-wide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow corrosion of low-level waste packages. 34 refs; 7 figs; 2 tabs

  4. Modeling studies of multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.

    1989-01-01

    Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repositorywide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow effects from corrosion of low-level waste packages

  5. Averthermodynamic analysis of waste heat recovery for cooling systems in hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javani, N.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (Canada)], email: nader.javani@uoit.ca

    2011-07-01

    The transportation sector is a heavy consumer of energy and better energy use is needed to reduce fuel consumption. One way to improve energy usage is to recover waste heat for cabin heating, cooling, or to produce electricity. The aim of this paper is to examine the use of waste heat in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles for cooling purposes using an ejector cooling cycle and an absorption cooling cycle. Energy and exergy analyses were conducted using waste heat from the battery pack and the exhaust gases to power the boiler and generator. Results showed that waste energy from the battery pack does not provide enough energy to produce cabin cooling but that exhaust gases can produce 7.32 kW and 7.91 kW cooling loads in the ejector and absorption systems. This study demonstrated that both ejector and absorption systems can reduce energy consumption in vehicles through the use of waste heat from exhaust gases.

  6. Energy need, energy production, waste heat quantities - the present state and a look into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikarski, W.

    1975-01-01

    The possibilities and methods to keep the waste heat low in our society so dependent on energy, are manifold and they affect many aspects of our economic and social life. A society which shows concern for its environment will not hesitate to explore all possible avenues and to realize them. Nevertheless, one has to start from the assumption that the energy consumption, which is closely connected with the standard of living, will increase in the near future. Thus, we have to reckon with more waste heat. Therefore, on a medium-term basis, the amount of waste heat we will be confronted with and its distribution in the environment is to be investigated carefully in order that on the one hand hydrosphere and atmosphere, the limit load of which is given, are not burdened in excess, and that on the other hand the media taking up waste heat are utilized in an optimal way (cooling management). On a long-term basis, the limits of waste heat discharge into water and atmosphere have to be determined carefully, something which can probably be done on the basis of climatological consequences. (orig.) [de

  7. Process integration in bioprocess indystry: waste heat recovery in yeast and ethyl alcohol plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskovic, P.; Anastasovski, A.; Markovska, Lj.; Mesko, V.

    2010-01-01

    The process integration of the bioprocess plant for production of yeast and alcohol was studied. Preliminary energy audit of the plant identified the huge amount of thermal losses, caused by waste heat in exhausted process streams, and reviled the great potential for energy efficiency improvement by heat recovery system. Research roadmap, based on process integration approach, is divided on six phases, and the primary tool used for the design of heat recovery network was Pinch Analysis. Performance of preliminary design are obtained by targeting procedure, for three process stream sets, and evaluated by the economic criteria. The results of process integration study are presented in the form of heat exchanger networks which fulfilled the utilization of waste heat and enable considerable savings of energy in short payback period.

  8. Potential ability of zeolite to generate high-temperature vapor using waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Jun; Wijayanta, Agung Tri

    2018-02-01

    In various material product industries, a large amount of high temperature steam as heat sources are produced from fossil fuel, then thermal energy retained by condensed water at lower than 100°C are wasted. Thermal energies retained by exhaust gases at lower than 200°C are also wasted. Effective utilization of waste heat is believed to be one of important issues to solve global problems of energy and environment. Zeolite/water adsorption systems are introduced to recover such low-temperature waste heats in this study. Firstly, an adsorption steam recovery system was developed to generate high temperature steam from unused hot waste heat. The system used a new principle that adsorption heat of zeolite/water contact was efficiently extracted. A bench-scaled system was constructed, demonstrating contentious generation of saturated steam nearly 150°C from hot water at 80°C. Energy conservation is expected by returning the generated steam to steam lines in the product processes. Secondly, it was demonstrated that superheated steam/vapor at higher than 200°C could be generated from those at nearly 120°C using a laboratory-scaled setup. The maximum temperature and the time variation of output temperature were successfully estimated using macroscopic heat balances. Lastly, the maximum temperatures were estimated whose saturate air at the relative humidity 20-80% were heated by the present system. Theoretically, air at higher than 200°C was generated from saturate air at higher than 70°C. Consequently, zeolite/water adsorption systems have potential ability to regenerate thermal energy of waste water and exhaust gases.

  9. Applying waste heat recovery system in a sewage sludge dryer – A technical and economic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tańczuk, Mariusz; Kostowski, Wojciech; Karaś, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A modernization of waste heat recovery system in a sludge drying plant is proposed. • Energy performance analysis rejected the downsize case of modernization. • Optimal system sizes regarding Net Present Value and Net Present Value Ratio do not coincide. • Up to 683 MW h/y of chemical energy savings for optimal heat exchanger size. • Higher profitability for the larger heat exchanger cases: paybacks below 3.65 years. - Abstract: Drying of digested sewage sludge, as an important alternative to sludge disposal at dumping sites, should comply with the requirements of high energy efficiency as well as economic feasibility. The technical and economic optimization analysis of installing a waste process heat recovery unit in a medium-temperature belt dryer operated in a municipal waste water treatment plant was carried out. Inlet capacity of the plant is 1.83 Mg of wet sludge per hour. The post-process air was indicated as a source of waste heat and the configuration of a heat recovery system was proposed. The main objective of the research was to find the optimal size of a chosen type of waste heat recovery heat exchanger for preheating ambient air to the process. The maximization of Net Present Value, and, alternatively, also Net Present Value Ratio were selected for the objective function of the optimization procedure. Simulation of yearly operation of waste heat exchanger was made for a range of different heat exchanging areas (101–270 m"2) regarding given parameters of a post-process air and different temperatures of ambient air. Energy performance of the modernization was evaluated and economic indices were calculated for each of the analyzed cases. The location of the maximum of optimization function was found and the calculations show higher profitability of the cases with larger waste heat exchanger. It can be concluded that the location of optimum of the objective function is very sensitive to the price of natural gas supplied to the

  10. Green innovation adoption in automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zailani, Suhaiza; Govindan, Kannan; Iranmanesh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    generators of industrial waste that affect the quality of the natural environment. This study aims to investigate the determinants of green innovation adoption and its effect on firm performance. Data were gathered by surveying 153 firms in the Malaysian automotive supply chain industry. Data were analyzed...

  11. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    -stroke diesel engine and a conventional waste heat recovery system. The results suggest that an organic Rankine cycle placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase power generation from waste heat by 32...... consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal and an advanced waste heat recovery system including a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an organic Rankine cycle. The results are compared with those of a state-of-the-art machinery system featuring a two...

  12. Electrical Energy Harvesting from Cooker’s Wasted Heat with Using Conduction Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouzard Mahdiraji Wincent Ghafour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order meet the demand of electricity in current era, the need for new sources of energy even in very minimal amount, could be done with proper research and technology advancement in order to convert as much wasted energy as possible. Collecting and analyses cooker’s wasted heat as a main wasted energy source become the main interest for this research. This application can be installed either in household usage or commercial usage. Based on majority stove in household datasheet it shown that the efficiency of the stove is approximately 50%. With half of the efficiency turn into wasted heat, this application is suitable for thermoelectric generator (TEG to harvest the heat. The objective of this research is to determine whether the thermoelectric generator (TEG would able to power the 3V LED light as a small lighting system in household. Several designs with five TEGs in series circuit are tested to the application to analyses which method generated a better result. Since this research only focus in using a conduction cooling, aluminum heat sink will be utilized either for heat absorption or heat rejection. The maximum temperature differences between hot side and cold side is 209.83 °C with average power approximately 0.1 W.

  13. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  14. A systematic method to customize an efficient organic Rankine cycle (ORC) to recover waste heat in refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haoshui; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Yufei; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Eason, John

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiple waste heat streams in refinery are recovered for an ORC using a hot water intermediate. • WHCC and GCC are used to identify opportunities to save utility and/or upgrade waste heat. • The methods consider the interaction between the HEN and ORC in an integrated manner. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) convert low temperature waste heat into power. When there are multiple waste heat sources in a refinery, operability and safety considerations may make it more practical to use hot water as the medium to recover waste heat. The hot water stream can then release the heat to the organic working fluid in an ORC system. In this paper, how to customize an efficient ORC for a heat exchanger network (HEN) to optimally recover multiple strands of waste heat is investigated. Because the heat exchanger network structure, the hot water loop, and ORC system interact with each other, the coordination and synthesis of these systems ought to be considered simultaneously to maximize the energy performance. A methodology is proposed using the waste heat composite curve (WHCC) and grand composite curve (GCC) to diagnose inefficiencies in an existing heat exchanger network. In addition, the WHCC can be used to solve the problem of the tradeoff between waste heat quality and quantity recovered with an intermediate stream. WHCCs are classified into two types, and procedures for designing the recovery network for each type are presented while considering the interaction with working fluid selection. The methods proposed in this paper can help engineers diagnose problems with the original heat exchanger network, and determine the flowrate of hot water, the structure of the waste heat recovery network, the best working fluid and the operating conditions of ORC system in an integrated manner. The ideas are applied to an illustrative case study in collaboration with Sinopec. The case study shows the effectiveness of this method and compares different

  15. Compressed air production with waste heat utilization in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, E.

    1984-06-01

    The centralized power-heat coupling (PHC) technique using block heating power stations, is presented. Compressed air production in PHC technique with internal combustion engine drive achieves a high degree of primary energy utilization. Cost savings of 50% are reached compared to conventional production. The simultaneous utilization of compressed air and heat is especially interesting. A speed regulated drive via an internal combustion motor gives a further saving of 10% to 20% compared to intermittent operation. The high fuel utilization efficiency ( 80%) leads to a pay off after two years for operation times of 3000 hr.

  16. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates

  17. Underground disposal of UK heat-generating wastes: repository design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steadman, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The report discusses the likely differences in design between a deep repository for disposal of UK heat-generating radioactive wastes and that of the planned Nirex ILW/LLW repository at Sellafield, based on a review of international published information. The main differences arise from the greater heat and radiation outputs of the waste, and in the case of intact PWR spent fuel elements, the greater length and weight of the disposal packages. Published cost estimates for other OECD countries for disposal of heat-generating wastes are considerably lower than that for the UK, partly because in most cases they are for co-disposal with a larger quantity of ILW. (author)

  18. Organic Rankine cycle unit for waste heat recovery on ships (PilotORC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    The project PilotORC was aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the use of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units to recover low-temperature waste heat sources (i.e. exhaust gases, scavenge air, engine cooling system, and lubricant oil system) on container vessels. The project...... included numerical simulations and experimental tests on a 125 kW demonstration ORC unit that utilizes the waste heat of the main engine cooling system on board one of Mærsk's container vessels. During the design of the demonstration ORC unit, different alternatives for the condenser were analyzed in order...... of using ORC units for maritime applications, and the relevance of this technology for new-building projects. Firstly, an evaluation of the waste heat resources available on board Mærsk containers fleet, and an estimation of the potential energy recovery by means of the ORC technology was performed...

  19. Numerical modeling of heat outflux from a vitrified high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravind, Arun; Jayaraj, Aparna; Seshadri, H.; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2018-01-01

    Heat generating vitrified high-level waste is initially stored in interim storage facility with adequate cooling for sufficient period of time, and then proposed to be disposed of in deep geological repositories. Heat flux from the waste form can cause thermo mechanical changes within the disposal module and also in the surrounding rock. It may change the permeability of rock fractures over a period of time. It is very essential to study the long term performance of deep geological repository to build confidence in the design and over all operation of the disposal facility. In this study a numerical model was developed to study the temperature distribution in the waste matrix and also the heat out flux to the surrounding rock matrix

  20. Waste heat recovery options in a large gas-turbine combined power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upathumchard, Ularee

    This study focuses on power plant heat loss and how to utilize the waste heat in energy recovery systems in order to increase the overall power plant efficiency. The case study of this research is a 700-MW natural gas combined cycle power plant, located in a suburban area of Thailand. An analysis of the heat loss of the combustion process, power generation process, lubrication system, and cooling system has been conducted to evaluate waste heat recovery options. The design of the waste heat recovery options depends to the amount of heat loss from each system and its temperature. Feasible waste heat sources are combustion turbine (CT) room ventilation air and lubrication oil return from the power plant. The following options are being considered in this research: absorption chillers for cooling with working fluids Ammonia-Water and Water-Lithium Bromide (in comparison) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with working fluids R134a and R245fa. The absorption cycles are modeled in three different stages; single-effect, double-effect and half-effect. ORC models used are simple ORC as a baseline, ORC with internal regenerator, ORC two-phase flash expansion ORC and ORC with multiple heat sources. Thermodynamic models are generated and each system is simulated using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to define the most suitable waste heat recovery options for the power plant. The result will be synthesized and evaluated with respect to exergy utilization efficiency referred as the Second Law effectiveness and net output capacity. Results of the models give recommendation to install a baseline ORC of R134a and a double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller, driven by ventilation air from combustion turbine compartment. The two technologies yield reasonable economic payback periods of 4.6 years and 0.7 years, respectively. The fact that this selected power plant is in its early stage of operation allows both models to economically and effectively perform waste heat

  1. Future sustainable desalination using waste heat: kudos to thermodynamic synergy

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw

    2015-01-01

    There has been a plethora of published literature on thermally-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles for seawater desalination due to their favorable environmentally friendly attributes, such as the ability to operate with low-temperature heat

  2. Co-composting of eggshell waste in self-heating reactors: monitoring and end product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Micaela A. R.; Quina, Margarida M. J.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Industrial eggshell waste (ES) is classified as an animal by-product not intended to human consumption. For reducing pathogen spreading risk due to soil incorporation of ES, sanitation by composting is a pre-treatment option. This work aims to evaluate eggshell waste recycling in self-heating composting reactors and investigate ES effect on process evolution and end product quality. Potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks were the starting organic materials considered. The incorporati...

  3. Electrical service and controls for Joule heating of a defense waste experimental glass melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, C.J.; Haideri, A.Q.

    1983-01-01

    Vitrification of radioactive liquid waste in a glass matrix is a leading candidate for long-term storage of high-level waste. This paper describes the electrical service and control system for an experimental electrically heated, nonradioactive glass melter installed at Savannah River Laboratory. Data accumulated, and design/operating experience acquired in operating this melter, are being used to design a modified melter to be installed in a processing area for use with radioactive materials

  4. Use of waste heat from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper details the Department of Energy (DOE) program concerning utilization of power plant reject heat conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A brief description of the historical development of the program is given and results of recent studies are outlined to indicate the scope of present efforts. A description of a DOE-sponsored project assessing uses for reject heat from the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station is also given

  5. Energy Efficient Waste Heat Recovery from an Engine Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    costs for the operation of the ship. The types of boilers used in this process are specially built to have water flowing around thousands of tubes ...uneven heating of the water and metal heat exchanger, leading to damage or possible failure of the boiler . Since the merchant vessels operate at near...one of the central boiler tubes . Each of the sensors was individually adjusted to ensure that the readings were as accurate as possible to allow for

  6. Data gathering in support of phase O program for waste heat utilization from nuclear enrichment facilities, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The gathering of demographic, community development, and economic data for the region impacted by the Pikeville (Ohio) Nuclear Enrichment Facility is described. These data are to be used for establishing possible community uses, e.g., space heating, domestic water heating, and industrial uses, of waste heat from the facility. It was concluded that although the economic feasibility of such waste heat utilization remains to be proven, the community would cooperate in a feasibility demonstration program

  7. Waste Heat-to-Power Using Scroll Expander for Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, John [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Smutzer, Chad [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, Jayanti [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    The objective of this program was to develop a novel, scalable scroll expander for conversion of waste heat to power; this was accomplished and demonstrated in both a bench-scale system as well as a full-scale system. The expander is a key component in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery systems which are used to convert medium-grade waste heat to electric power in a wide range of industries. These types of waste heat recovery systems allow for the capture of energy that would otherwise just be exhausted to the atmosphere. A scroll expander has the benefit over other technologies of having high efficiency over a broad range of operating conditions. The speed range of the TIAX expander (1,200 to 3,600 RPM) enables the shaft power output to directly drive an electric generator and produce 60 Hz electric power without incurring the equipment costs or losses of electronic power conversion. This greatly simplifies integration with the plant electric infrastructure. The TIAX scroll expander will reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a small-scale waste heat recovery system, while increasing the system efficiency compared to the prevailing ORC technologies at similar scale. During this project, TIAX demonstrated the scroll expander in a bench-scale test setup to have isentropic efficiency of 70-75% and operated it successfully for ~200 hours with minimal wear. This same expander was then installed in a complete ORC system driven by a medium grade waste heat source to generate 5-7 kW of electrical power. Due to funding constraints, TIAX was unable to complete this phase of testing, although the initial results were promising and demonstrated the potential of the technology.

  8. Plastic waste depolymerization as a source of energetic heating oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołosiewicz-Głąb Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past years there has been an increase in production and consumption of plastics, which are widely used in many areas of life. Waste generated from this material are a challenge for the whole of society, regardless of awareness of sustainable development and its technological progress. Still the method of disposal of plastic waste are focused mainly on their storage and incineration, not using energy contained there. In this paper technology for plastic waste depolymerization with characteristics of fuel oil resulting in the process, as an alternative to traditional energy carriers such as: coal, fine coal or coke used in households will be presented. Oil has a high calorific value and no doubt could replace traditional solutions which use conventional energy sources. Furthermore, the fuel resulting from this process is sulfur-free and chemically pure. The paper presents the installation for plastics waste depolymerization used in selected Polish Institute of Plastics Processing, along with the ability to use the main thermocatalytic transformation product.

  9. Engineering Scoping Study of Thermoelectric Generator Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Terry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choate, William T. [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)

    2006-11-01

    This report evaluates thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems with the intent to: 1) examine industrial processes in order to identify and quantify industrial waste heat sources that could potentially use TEGs; 2) describe the operating environment that a TEG would encounter in selected industrial processes and quantify the anticipated TEG system performance; 3) identify cost, design and/or engineering performance requirements that will be needed for TEGs to operate in the selected industrial processes; and 4) identify the research, development and deployment needed to overcome the limitations that discourage the development and use of TEGs for recovery of industrial waste heat.

  10. Steam generators and waste heat boilers for process and plant engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapathy, V

    2014-01-01

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World ProblemsSteam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel idea

  11. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bartholomew, Timothy V [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient to passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without carbon

  12. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Ship Power Plant Operating with Waste Heat Recovery through Combined Heat and Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Grljušić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to study a cogeneration plant for combined heat & power (CHP production that utilises the low-temperature waste energy in the power plant of a Suezmax-size oil tanker for all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering various configurations, a standard propulsion engine operating at maximum efficiency and a CHP Plant with R245fa fluid using a supercritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC is selected. All the ship heat requirements can be covered by energy of organic fluid after expansion in the turbine, except feeder-booster heating. Hence, an additional quantity of working fluid may be heated using an after Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG directed to the feeder-booster module. An analysis of the obtained results shows that the steam turbine plant does not yield significant fuel savings. However, a CHP plant with R245fa fluid using supercritical ORC meets all of the demands for electrical energy and heat while burning only a small amount of additional fuel in HRSG at the main engine off-design operation.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Jiangfeng; Dai, Yiping; Liu, Yuqi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A low grade waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney is proposed. • The effects of three key factors on the system performance are examined. • Thermodynamics analysis is to find a better way to utilize low grade heat source efficiently. - Abstract: The utilization of low-temperature waste heat draws more and more attention due to serious energy crisis nowadays. This paper proposes a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney. In the system, low-temperature waste heat is used to heat air to produce an air updraft in the chimney tower. The air updraft propels a turbine fixed at the base of the chimney tower to convert waste heat into electricity. The mathematical model of the system is established based on first law and second law of thermodynamics. Hot water is selected as the representative of low-temperature waste heat sources for researching. The heat source temperature, ambient air temperature and area of heat transfer are examined to evaluate their effects on the system performance such as velocity of updraft, mass flow rate of air, power output, conversion efficiency, and exergy efficiency. The velocity of air demonstrates a better stability than the mass flow rate of air and the pressure difference when temperature of heat source, ambient air temperature or area of heat transfer changes

  14. Component design considerations for gas turbine HTGR waste-heat power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Component design considerations are described for the ammonia waste-heat power conversion system of a large helium gas-turbine nuclear power plant under development by General Atomic Company. Initial component design work was done for a reference plant with a 3000-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and this is discussed. Advanced designs now being evaluated include higher core outlet temperature, higher peak system pressures, improved loop configurations, and twin 4000-MW(t) reactor units. Presented are the design considerations of the major components (turbine, condenser, heat input exchanger, and pump) for a supercritical ammonia Rankine waste heat power plant. The combined cycle (nuclear gas turbine and waste-heated plant) has a projected net plant efficiency of over 50 percent. While specifically directed towards a nuclear closed-cycle helium gas-turbine power plant (GT-HTGR), it is postulated that the bottoming waste-heat cycle component design considerations presented could apply to other low-grade-temperature power conversion systems such as geothermal plants

  15. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongxiang, Yang; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1998-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  16. Effects of stabilizers on the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear waste canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafai, K.; Ettefagh, J.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes the feasibility and the effectiveness of using stabilizers (internal metal structural components) to augment the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear waste canister. The problem was modeled as a transient two-dimensional heat transfer in two physical domains - the stabilizer and the wedge (a 30-degree-angle canister segment), which includes the heat-producing spent-fuel rods. This problem is solved by a simultaneous and interrelated numerical investigation of the two domains in cartesian and polar coordinate systems. The numerical investigations were performed for three cases. In the first case, conduction was assumed to be the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The second case assumed that radiation was the dominant mechanism, and in the third case both radiation and conduction were considered as mechanisms of heat transfer. The results show that for typical conditions in a waste package design, the stabilizers are quite effective in reducing the overall temperature in a waste canister. Furthermore, the results show that increasing the stabilizer thickness over the thickness specified in the present design has a negligible effect on the temperature distribution in the canister. Finally, the presence of the stabilizers was found to shift the location of the peak temperature areas in the waste canister

  17. Direct waste heat recovery via thermoelectric materials - chosen issues of the thermodynamic description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolasiński, Piotr; Kolasińska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The effective waste heat recovery is one of the present-day challenges in the industry and power engineering. The energy systems dedicated for waste heat conversion into electricity are usually characterized by low efficiency and are complicated in the design. The possibility of waste heat recovery via thermoelectric materials may be an interesting alternative to the currently used technologies. In particular, due to their material characteristics, conducting polymers may be competitive when compared with the power machinery and equipment. These materials can be used in a wide range of the geometries e.g. the bulk products, thin films, pristine form or composites and the others. In this article, the authors present selected issues related to the mathematical and thermodynamic description of the heat transfer processes in the thermoelectric materials dedicated for the waste heat recovery. The link of these models with electrical properties of the material and a material solution based on a conducting polymer have also been presented in this paper. (paper)

  18. A CFD study on the dust behaviour in a metallurgical waste-heat boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    A waste-heat boiler forms an essential part for the treatment of high temperature flue-gases in most metallurgical processes. Flue-dust carried by the furnace off-gas has to be captured efficiently in the waste-heat boilers before entering the downstream gas purification equipment. Flue dust may accumulate and foul on the heat transfer surfaces such as tube-walls, narrow conjunctions between the boiler and the furnace uptake, and thus may cause smelter shutdown, and interrupt the production. A commercial CFD package is used as the major tool on modelling the dust flow and settling in the waste-heat boiler of an industrial copper flash smelter. In the presentation, dust settling behaviour is illustrated for a wide range of particle sizes, and dust capture efficiency in the radiation section of the boiler for different particle sizes has been shown with the transient simulation. The simulation aims at providing detailed information of dust behaviour in the waste-heat boiler in sulphide smelting. (author) 11 refs.

  19. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  20. An improved CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) used for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Shi, Lingfeng; Tian, Hua; Li, Xiaoya; Huang, Guangdai; Chang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose an improved CTRC system (PR-CTRC) for engine waste heat recovery. • The PR-CTRC achieves a significant increase in thermodynamic performance. • The PR-CTRC possesses a strong coupling capability for high and low grade waste heat. • The PR-CTRC uses smaller turbine design parameters than ORC systems. • Total cooling load analysis of combined engine and recovery system was conducted. - Abstract: CO_2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC) is a promising technology for the waste heat recovery of an engine considering its safety and environment friendly characteristics, which also matchs the high temperature of the exhaust gas and satisfies the miniaturization demand of recovery systems. But the traditional CTRC system with a basic configuration (B-CTRC) has a poor thermodynamic performance. This paper introduces an improved CTRC system containing both a preheater and regenerator (PR-CTRC), for recovering waste heat in exhaust gas and engine coolant of an engine, and compares its performance with that of the B-CTRC system and also with that of the traditional excellent Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems using R123 as a working fluid. The utilization rate of waste heat, total cooling load, net power output, thermal efficiency, exergy loss, exergy efficiency and component size have been investigated. Results show that, the net power output of the PR-CTRC could reach up to 9.0 kW for a 43.8 kW engine, which increases by 150% compared with that of the B-CTRC (3.6 kW). The PR-CTRC also improves the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the B-CTRC, with increases of 184% and 227%, respectively. Compared with the ORC system, the PR-CTRC shows the significant advantage of highly recycling the exhaust gas and engine coolant simultaneously due to the special property of supercritical CO_2’s specific heat capacity. The supercritical property of CO_2 also generates a better heat transfer and flowing performances. Meanwhile, the PR

  1. Soil warming for utilization and dissipation of waste heat from power generation in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWalle, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Penn State research project, which studies the soil warming by circulation of heated power plant discharge water through a buried pipe network. Waste heat can be utilized by soil warming for increased crop growth in open fields with proper selection of crops and cropping systems. Dissipation of waste heat from a buried pipe network can be predicted using either of two steady-state conduction equations tested. Accurate predictions are dependent upon estimates of the pipe outer-surface temperatures, soil surface temperatures in heated soil and soil thermal conductivity. The effect of economic optimization on soil-warming land area requirements for a 1500 MWe power plant in Pennsylvania is presented. (M.S.)

  2. Waste-heat disposal from US geothermal power plants: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, R. C.

    1982-05-01

    Some of the more interesting and significant methods that are currently being studied in the US for reducing waste heat dissipation system costs and water consumption are: (1) allowing plant power output to vary with ambient conditions; (2) use of ammonia to transport waste heat from the turbine condenser to air-cooled coils; (3) development of a plastic-membrane type wet/dry tower; (4) marketing of steam turbines that can tolerate a wider range of back pressure; (5) use of circulating water storage to delay heat dissipation until more favorable conditions exist; (6) development of tubes with enhanced heat transfer surfaces to reduce condenser capital costs; and (7) use of evaporative condensers to reduce costs in binary cycles. Many of these projects involve large scale tests that are now fully installed and producing some preliminary data.

  3. Cost Scaling of a Real-World Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator: A Deeper Dive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Yee, Shannon; LeBlanc, Saniya

    2015-01-01

    Cost is equally important to power density or efficiency for the adoption of waste heat recovery thermoelectric generators (TEG) in many transportation and industrial energy recovery applications. In many cases the system design that minimizes cost (e.g., the $/W value) can be very different than the design that maximizes the system's efficiency or power density, and it is important to understand the relationship between those designs to optimize TEG performance-cost compromises. Expanding on recent cost analysis work and using more detailed system modeling, an enhanced cost scaling analysis of a waste heat recovery thermoelectric generator with more detailed, coupled treatment of the heat exchangers has been performed. In this analysis, the effect of the heat lost to the environment and updated relationships between the hot-side and cold-side conductances that maximize power output are considered. This coupled thermal and thermoelectric treatment of the exhaust waste heat recovery thermoelectric generator yields modified cost scaling and design optimization equations, which are now strongly dependent on the heat leakage fraction, exhaust mass flow rate, and heat exchanger effectiveness. This work shows that heat exchanger costs most often dominate the overall TE system costs, that it is extremely difficult to escape this regime, and in order to achieve TE system costs of $1/W it is necessary to achieve heat exchanger costs of $1/(W/K). Minimum TE system costs per watt generally coincide with maximum power points, but Preferred TE Design Regimes are identified where there is little cost penalty for moving into regions of higher efficiency and slightly lower power outputs. These regimes are closely tied to previously-identified low cost design regimes. This work shows that the optimum fill factor Fopt minimizing system costs decreases as heat losses increase, and increases as exhaust mass flow rate and heat exchanger effectiveness increase. These findings have

  4. Equipment for the emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.D.; Scully, L.W.; Fisk, A.; deBakker, P.; Friant, J.; Anderson, A.

    1983-01-01

    Emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal holes may offer several technical and economic advantages over shallow vertical hole emplacement. Less of the host rock suffers damage as a result of drift construction; the heat from the waste can be isolated from the access drifts for long periods of time; and the amount of rock which must be excavated is much less than in traditional disposal scenarios. One of the major reasons that has been used to reject the long hole concept in the past and adhere to the shallow vertical hole concept is the equipment required to drill the holes and to emplace and retrieve the waste. Such equipment does not currently exist. It clearly is more difficult to drill a 600 to 1000 foot horizontal hole, possibly 3 to 4 feet in diameter, and place a canister of waste at the end of it than to drill a 30 foot vertical hole and lower the waste to the bottom. A liner, for emplacement hole stabilization, appears to be feasible by adapting existing technology for concrete slip forming or jacking in a steel liner. The conceptual design of the equipment to drill long horizontal holes, emplace waste and retrieve waste will be discussed. Various options in concept will be presented as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The operating scenario of the selected concept will be described as well as solutions to potential problems encountered

  5. Equipment for the emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.D.; Fisk, A.; Friant, J.; Scully, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Emplacement of heat-producing waste in long horizontal holes may offer several technical and economic advantages over shallow vertical hole emplacement. Less of the host rock suffers damage as a resul of drift construction; the heat from the waste can be isolated from the access drifts for long periods of time; and the amount of rock which must be excavated is much less than in traditional disposal scenarios. One of the major reasons that has been used to reject the long hole concept in the past and adhere to the shallow vertical hole concept is the equipment required to drill the holes and to emplace and retrieve the waste. Such equipment does not currently exist. It clearly is more difficult to drill a 600 to 100 foot horizontal hole, possibly 3 to 4 feet in diameter, and place a canister of waste at the end of it than to drill a 30 foot vertical hole and lower the waste to the bottom. A liner, for emplacement hole stabilization, appears to be feasible by adapting existing technology for concrete slip forming or jacking in a steel liner. The conceptual design of the equipment to drill long horizontal holes, emplace waste and retrieve waste is discussed. Various options in concept are presented as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The operating scenario of the selected concept is described as well as solutions to potential problems encountered

  6. Effects of heat from high-level waste on performance of deep geological repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the effects of heat on the deep geological repository systems and its different components. The report is focussed specifically on effects due to thermal energy release solely from high-level waste or spent fuel. It reviews the experimental data and theoretical models of the effects of heat both on the behaviour of engineered and natural barriers. A summary of the current status of research and repository development including underground test facilities is presented

  7. Vehicle Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Model with Integrated Thermal Load Leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    backpressure can decrease engine power by ~1% per inch Hg.27 A specific exhaust heat exchanger design would need to take this effect into account...Materials. 2009;39:2142–2148. 4. Sprouse III C, Depcik C. Review of organic Rankine cycles for internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery...Adams TG. Effect of exhaust system design on engine performance. 1980. SAE Technical Paper No. 800319. 16 1 DEFENSE TECHNICAL

  8. Thermoelectric cooling of microelectronic circuits and waste heat electrical power generation in a desktop personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, C.A.; Shammas, N.Y.A.; Grainger, S.; Taylor, I.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoelectric cooling and micro-power generation from waste heat within a standard desktop computer has been demonstrated. A thermoelectric test system has been designed and constructed, with typical test results presented for thermoelectric cooling and micro-power generation when the computer is executing a number of different applications. A thermoelectric module, operating as a heat pump, can lower the operating temperature of the computer's microprocessor and graphics processor to temperatures below ambient conditions. A small amount of electrical power, typically in the micro-watt or milli-watt range, can be generated by a thermoelectric module attached to the outside of the computer's standard heat sink assembly, when a secondary heat sink is attached to the other side of the thermoelectric module. Maximum electrical power can be generated by the thermoelectric module when a water cooled heat sink is used as the secondary heat sink, as this produces the greatest temperature difference between both sides of the module.

  9. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  10. Turbomachinery design for Rankine cycles in waste heat recovery applications

    OpenAIRE

    Agromayor Otero, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Rankine Cycles are an effective and efficient manner to convert waste thermal energy into power. Numerous fluids can be used in Rankine cycles, including water, hydrocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, siloxanes, alcohols or even mixtures of fluids. The performance of Rankine cycles is highly dependent on the optimization of the operating conditions and the design of its components. The expander is, perhaps, the most important component of the Rankine cycle, as it is the device where the energy of t...

  11. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  12. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  13. Nanophotonic-Engineered Photothermal Harnessing for Waste Heat Management and Pyroelectric Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qiao; Tan, Chuan Fu; Chan, Kwok Hoe; Xu, Kaichen; Hong, Minghui; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2017-10-24

    At present, there are various limitations to harvesting ambient waste heat which include the lack of economically viable material and innovative design features that can efficiently recover low grade heat for useful energy conversion. In this work, a thermal nanophotonic-pyroelectric (TNPh-pyro) scheme consisting of a metamaterial multilayer and pyroelectric material, which performs synergistic waste heat rejection and photothermal heat-to-electricity conversion, is presented. Unlike any other pyroelectric configuration, this conceptual design deviates from the conventional by deliberately employing back-reflecting NIR to enable waste heat reutilization/recuperation to enhance pyroelectric generation, avoiding excessive solar heat uptake and also retaining high visual transparency of the device. Passive solar reflective cooling up to 4.1 °C is demonstrated. Meanwhile, the photothermal pyroelectric performance capitalizing on the back-reflecting effect shows an open circuit voltage (V oc ) and short circuit current (I sc ) enhancement of 152 and 146%, respectively. In addition, the designed photoactive component (TiO 2 /Cu) within the metamaterial multilayer provides the TNPh-pyro system with an effective air pollutant photodegradation functionality. Finally, proof-of-concept for concurrent photothermal management and enhanced solar pyroelectric generation under a real outdoor environment is demonstrated.

  14. Reactor waste heat utilization and district heating reactors. Nuclear district heating in Sweden - Regional reject heat utilization schemes and small heat-only reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.; Larsson, Y.; Margen, P.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the current status of district heating in Sweden. In future, district heating schemes will become increasingly interesting as a means of utilizing heat from nuclear reactors. Present recommendations in Sweden are that large reactors should not be located closer than about 20 km from large population centres. Reject heat from such reactors is cheap at source. To minimize the cost of long distance hot water transmission large heat rates must be transmitted. Only areas with large populations can meet this requirement. The three areas of main interest are Malmoe/Lund/Helsingborg housing close to 0.5 million; Greater Stockholm housing 1 to 1.5 million and Greater Gothenburg housing about 0.5 million people. There is an active proposal that the Malmoe/Lund/Helsingborg region would be served by a third nuclear unit at Barsebaeck, located about 20 km from Malmoe/Lund and supplying 950 MW of base load heat. Preliminary proposals for Stockholm involve a 2000 MW heat supply; proposals for Gothenburg are more tentative. The paper describes progress on these proposals and their technology. It also outlines technology under development to increase the economic range of large scale heat transport and to make distribution economic even for low heat-density family housing estates. Regions apart from the few major urban areas mentioned above require the adoption of a different approach. To this end the development of a small, simple low-temperature reactor for heat-only production suitable for urban location has been started in Sweden in close contact with Finland. Some results of the work in progress are presented, with emphasis on the safety requirements. An outline is given in the paper as to how problems of regional heat planning and institutional and legislative issues are being approached

  15. Data that warms: Waste heat, infrastructural convergence and the computation traffic commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Velkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which data centre operators are currently reconfiguring the systems of energy and heat supply in European capitals, replacing conventional forms of heating with data-driven heat production, and becoming important energy suppliers. Taking as an empirical object the heat generated from server halls, the article traces the expanding phenomenon of ‘waste heat recycling’ and charts the ways in which data centre operators in Stockholm and Paris direct waste heat through metropolitan district heating systems and urban homes, and valorise it. Drawing on new materialisms, infrastructure studies and classical theory of production and destruction of value in capitalism, the article outlines two modes in which this process happens, namely infrastructural convergence and decentralisation of the data centre. These modes arguably help data centre operators convert big data from a source of value online into a raw material that needs to flow in the network irrespective of meaning. In this conversion process, the article argues, a new commodity is in a process of formation, that of computation traffic. Altogether data-driven heat production is suggested to raise the importance of certain data processing nodes in Northern Europe, simultaneously intervening in the global politics of access, while neutralising external criticism towards big data by making urban life literally dependent on power from data streams.

  16. Waste-heat usage in agricultural biogas installations; Abwaermenutzung in landwirtschaftlichen Biogasanlagen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzwiller, S.

    2009-01-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the use of the heat generated in agricultural biogas installations. The author notes that a considerable amount of excess heat is available after internal use and heating requirements of the farm have been met. The article deals with the potential offered by this heat and its possible uses. The methods used in the study are discussed and the boundary conditions for the operation of agricultural biogas installations are examined. The costs incurred when providing an infrastructure for the use, storage and transport of the waste heat are looked at. An economical review of the costs involved in the use of the heat is made and compared with reference systems based on oil-fired heating systems and a number of cold generation systems based on various technologies. Also, electrical power generation using the Organic Rankine Cycle and Kalina processes is looked at. Finally, the various possible uses of the waste heat are evaluated.

  17. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-07-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  18. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-04-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  19. Thermodynamic feasibility of harvesting data center waste heat to drive an absorption chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Anna; Sherbeck, Jon; Phelan, Patrick; Varsamopoulos, Georgios; Gupta, Sandeep K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose an alternative data center cooling architecture that is heat driven. ► Our primary source of thermal energy is the heat dissipated by the CPUs. ► Supplementary external heat sources such as solar thermal are included as well. ► We develop a comprehensive model that leads to a potentially realizable value of less than one. - Abstract: More than half the energy to run a data center can be consumed by vapor-compression equipment that cools the center. To reduce consumption and recycle otherwise wasted thermal energy, this paper proposes an alternative cooling architecture that is heat driven and leads to a more efficient data center in terms of power usage effectiveness (PUE). The primary thermal source is waste heat produced by CPUs on each server blade. The main challenge is capturing enough of this high-temperature heat to energize an absorption unit. The goal is to capture a high fraction of dissipated thermal power by using a heat capture scheme with water as the heat transfer fluid. To determine if the CPU temperature range and amount of heat are sufficient for chiller operation, we use server software, validation thermocouples, and chip specifications. We compare these results to required values from a simulator tool specific to our chiller model. One challenge is to simultaneously cool the data center and generate enough exergy to drive the cooling process, regardless of the thermal output of the data center equipment. We can address this by adding phase change latent heat storage to consistently deliver the required heat flow and, if necessary, a solar heat source. Even with zero solar contribution, the results show that the number of CPUs we have is sufficient and our PUE indicates a very efficient data center. Adding solar contribution, the steady-state model proposed leads to a potentially realizable PUE value of less than one.

  20. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  1. Modeling and Control of a Parallel Waste Heat Recovery System for Euro-VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery system for a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  2. Modeling and control of a parallel waste heat recovery system for Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery systemfor a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  3. USING CENTER HOLE HEAT TRANSFER TO REDUCE FORMATION TIMES FOR CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FROM PYROPROCESSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth J. Bateman; Charles W. Solbrig

    2006-01-01

    The waste produced from processing spent fuel from the EBR II reactor must be processed into a waste form suitable for long term storage in Yucca Mountain. The method chosen produces zeolite granules mixed with glass frit, which must then be converted into a solid. This is accomplished by loading it into a can and heating to 900 C in a furnace regulated at 915 C. During heatup to 900 C, the zeolite and glass frit react and consolidate to produce a sodalite monolith. The resultant ceramic waste form (CWF) is then cooled. The waste is 52 cm in diameter and initially 300 cm long but consolidates to 150 cm long during the heating process. After cooling it is then inserted in a 5-DHLW/DOE SNF Long Canister. Without intervention, the waste takes 82 hours to heat up to 900 C in a furnace designed to geometrically fit the cylindrical waste form. This paper investigates the reduction in heating times possible with four different methods of additional heating through a center hole. The hole size is kept small to maximize the amount of CWF that is processed in a single run. A hole radius of 1.82 cm was selected which removes only 1% of the CWF. A reference computation was done with a specified inner hole surface temperature of 915 C to provide a benchmark for the amount of improvement which can be made. It showed that the heatup time can potentially be reduced to 43 hours with center hole heating. The first method, simply pouring high temperature liquid aluminum into the hole, did not produce any noticeable effect on reducing heat up times. The second method, flowing liquid aluminum through the hole, works well as long as the velocity is high enough (2.5 cm/sec) to prevent solidification of the aluminum during the initial front movement of the aluminum into the center hole. The velocity can be reduced to 1 cm/sec after the initial front has traversed the ceramic. This procedure reduces the formation time to near that of the reference case. The third method, flowing a gas

  4. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  5. Optimized Characterization of Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinov, Dimitri; Wallig, Daniel; Bastian, Georg

    2012-06-01

    New developments in the field of thermoelectric materials bring the prospect of consumer devices for recovery of some of the waste heat from internal combustion engines closer to reality. Efficiency improvements are expected due to the development of high-temperature thermoelectric generators (TEG). In contrast to already established radioisotope thermoelectric generators, the temperature difference in automotive systems is not constant, and this imposes a set of specific requirements on the TEG system components. In particular, the behavior of the TEGs and interface materials used to link the heat flow from the heat source through the TEG to the heat sink must be examined. Due to the usage patterns of automobiles, the TEG will be subject to cyclic thermal loads, which leads to module degradation. Additionally, the automotive TEG will be exposed to an inhomogeneous temperature distribution, leading to inhomogeneous mechanical loads and reduced system efficiency. Therefore, a characterization rig is required to allow determination of the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of such high-temperature TEG systems. This paper describes a measurement setup using controlled adjustment of cold-side and warm-side temperatures as well as controlled feed-in of electrical power for evaluation of TEGs for application in vehicles with combustion engines. The temperature profile in the setup can be varied to simulate any vehicle usage pattern, such as the European standard driving cycle, allowing the power yield of the TEGs to be evaluated for the chosen cycle. The spatially resolved temperature distribution of a TEG system can be examined by thermal imaging. Hotspots or cracks on thermocouples of the TEGs and the thermal resistance of thermal interface materials can also be examined using this technology. The construction of the setup is briefly explained, followed by detailed discussion of the experimental results.

  6. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniza Abdul Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyre. In Malaysia, The Smart and Cool Home Developer attempted to develop an eco-house by utilising waste tyre as the foundation for the driveway and claimed that the buried tyres act as a heat sink for the concrete and reduce the surface temperature of the driveway. Hence investigations were conducted on two sample houses to investigate this phenomenon. Findings from this pilot study show that waste tyres do act as a heat sink to the concrete driveways which affect the ambient temperature and relative humidity of the immediate surroundings.

  7. Drying of bio fuel utilizing waste heat; Torkning av biobraenslen med spillvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Inge; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    Many industries today have large sources of low grade heat (waste heat), however this energy is mainly lost with effluents to air and water. The aim of this study has been to investigate the technical and economical aspects of utilizing this low grade heat to dry biofuel. The project has been mainly focused towards the forest industry since they have both large amounts of biofuel and waste heat available. Drying of biofuel could generate added revenue (or reduced purchase costs) and through that also create larger incentives for further energy saving modifications to the main process. Due to the higher moisture content together with the risk of frozen bark in the winter time, additional fuels (such as oil) to combust bark in the existing boiler. This is mainly the case when mechanical dewatering is not available. Drying of bark results in an added energy value, which makes it possible to combust the bark without additional fuel. The primary energy demand, in the form of electricity and optional additional heating at load peaks, is low when waste heat is used for the drying process. In this way it is possible to increase the biofuel potential, since the primary energy input to the drying process is essentially lower then the increased energy value of the fuel. Drying also decreases the biological degradation of the fuel. Taking all the above into consideration, waste heat drying could result in a 25 % increase of the biofuel potential in the forest industry in Sweden, without additional cutting of wood. A survey has been done to state which commercial technologies are available for biofuel drying with waste heat. An inquiry was sent out to a number of suppliers and included a few different cases. Relations for approximating investment cost as well as electric power demand were created based on the answers from the inquiry. These relations have then been used in the economical evaluations made for a number of cases representing both sawmills and pulp and paper mills

  8. Performance evaluation and experiment system for waste heat recovery of diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzhi, Gao; Junmeng, Zhai; Guanghua, Li; Qiang, Bian; Liming, Feng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a waste heat recovery system is proposed where a high speed turbocharged diesel engine acts as the topper of a combined cycle with exhaust gases used for a bottoming Rankine cycle. The paper describes a mathematical model to evaluate the performance of Rankine cycle system with a reciprocating piston expander. The paper focuses on the performance evaluation and parameter selection of the heat exchanger and reciprocating piston expander that are suitable to waste heat recovery of ICE (internal combustion engine). The paper also describes the experimental setup and the preliminary results. The simulation results show that a proper intake pressure should be 4–5 MPa at its given mass flow rate of 0.015–0.021 kg/s depending on the waste heat recovery of a turbocharged diesel engine (80 kW/2590 rpm). The net power and net power rise rate at various ICE rotation speeds are calculated. The result shows that introducing heat recovery system can increase the engine power output by 12%, when diesel engine operates at 80 kW/2590 rpm. The preliminary experimental results indirectly prove the simulation model by two negative work loops in the P–V curve, under a low intake pressure and steam flow rate condition. - Highlights: • We investigate waste heat recovery through secondary fluid power cycle. • We establish a thermodynamic model of reciprocating steam engine. • We conduct the performance evaluation and experimental system development. • Primary parameters of the heat exchangers and expander are determined

  9. ASPEN Plus simulation of coal integrated gasification combined blast furnace slag waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wang, Kun; Qin, Qin; Hou, Limin; Yao, Xin; Wu, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated system of coal gasification with slag waste heat recovery was proposed. • The goal of BF slag heat saving and emission reduction was achieved by this system. • The optimal parameters were obtained and the waste heat recovery rate reached 83.08%. • About 6.64 kmol/min syngas was produced when using one ton BF slag to provide energy. - Abstract: This article presented a model for the system of coal gasification with steam and blast furnace slag waste heat recovery by using the ASPEN Plus as the simulating and modeling tool. Constrained by mass and energy balance for the entire system, the model included the gasifier used to product syngas at the chemical equilibrium based on the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and the boiler used to recover the heat of the blast furnace slag (BF slag) and syngas. Two parameters of temperature and steam to coal ratio (S/C) were considered to account for their impacts on the Datong coal (DT coal) gasification process. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), cold gasification efficiency (CGE), syngas product efficiency (PE) and the heating value of syngas produced by 1 kg pulverized coal (HV) were adopted as the indicators to examine the gasification performance. The optimal operating temperature and S/C were 800 °C and 1.5, respectively. At this condition, CE reached above 90% and the maximum values of the CGE, PE and HV were all obtained. Under the optimal operating conditions, 1000 kg/min BF slag, about 40.41 kg/min DT pulverized coal and 77.94 kg/min steam were fed into the gasifier and approximate 6.64 kmol/min syngas could be generated. Overall, the coal was converted to clean syngas by gasification reaction and the BF slag waste heat was also recovered effectively (reached up to 83.08%) in this system, achieving the objective of energy saving and emission reduction

  10. An Innovative VHTR Waste Heat Integration with Forward Osmosis Desalination Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Young; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The integration concept implies the coupling of the waste heat from VHTR with the draw solute recovery system of FO process. By integrating these two novel technologies, advantages, such as improvement of total energy utilization, and production of fresh water using waste heat, can be achieved. In order to thermodynamically analyze the integrated system, the FO process and power conversion system of VHTR are simulated using chemical process software UNISIM together with OLI property package. In this study, the thermodynamic analysis on the VHTR and FO integrated system has been carried out to assess the feasibility of the concept. The FO process including draw solute recovery system is calculated to have a higher GOR compared to the MSF and MED when reasonable FO performance can be promised. Furthermore, when FO process is integrated with the VHTR to produce potable water from waste heat, it still shows a comparable GOR to typical GOR values of MSF and MED. And the waste heat utilization is significantly higher in FO than in MED and MSF. This results in much higher water production when integrated to the same VHTR plant. Therefore, it can be concluded that the suggested integrated system of VHTR and FO is a very promising and strong system concept which has a number of advantages over conventional technologies.

  11. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  12. Integrated energy and emission management for diesel engines with waste heat recovery using dynamic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.C.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycle Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine and WHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI

  13. Integrated Energy & Emission Management for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  14. Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling free convection heat transfer in a cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rock. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters just below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3-4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions. The borehole wall temperature history has been found in the previous study, and was estimated to reach a maximum temperature of about 218 degrees C after 18 years from the emplacement. The temperature history of the rock surface is then used for the air-gap simulation. The problem includes convection and radiation heat transfer in a vertical enclosure. This paper will present the results of the convection in the air-gap over one thousand years after the containers' emplacement. During this long simulation period it was also observed that a multi-cellular air flow pattern can be generated in the air gap

  15. Computational modelling of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system for an aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Escalating fuel prices and carbon dioxide emission are causing new interest in methods to increase the thrust force of an aircraft engine with limitation of fuel consumption. One viable means is the conversion of exhaust engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy or to be used in the aircraft environmental system. A one-dimensional analysis method has been proposed for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC waste heat recovery system for turbofan engine in this paper. The paper contains two main parts: validation of the numerical model and a performance prediction of turbofan engine integrated to an ORC system. The cycle is compared with industrial waste heat recovery system from Hangzhou Chinen Steam Turbine Power CO., Ltd. The results show that thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC of the turbofan engine reach lowest value at 0.91 lbm/lbf.h for 7000 lbf of thrust force. When the system installation weight is applied, the system results in a 2.0% reduction in fuel burn. Hence implementation of ORC system for waste heat recovery to an aircraft engine can bring a great potential to the aviation industry.

  16. Supervisory control of a heavy-duty diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Murgovski, N.; de Jager, A.G.; Willems, F.P.T.

    This paper presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy, called Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC), for an Euro-VI diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system. This strategy optimizes the CO2–NOxCO2–NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with

  17. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  18. Biodiesel From waste cooking oil for heating, lighting, or running diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico O. Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel and its byproducts and blends can be used as alternative fuel in diesel engines and for heating, cooking, and lighting. A simple process of biodiesel production can utilize waste cooking oil as the main feedstock to the transesterification and cruzesterification processes. I currently make my own biodiesel for applications related to my nursery and greenhouse...

  19. The Optimal Evaporation Temperature of Subcritical ORC Based on Second Law Efficiency for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Xu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The subcritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC with 28 working fluids for waste heat recovery is discussed in this paper. The effects of the temperature of the waste heat, the critical temperature of working fluids and the pinch temperature difference in the evaporator on the optimal evaporation temperature (OET of the ORC have been investigated. The second law efficiency of the system is regarded as the objective function and the evaporation temperature is optimized by using the quadratic approximations method. The results show that the OET will appear for the temperature ranges investigated when the critical temperatures of working fluids are lower than the waste heat temperatures by 18 ± 5 K under the pinch temperature difference of 5 K in the evaporator. Additionally, the ORC always exhibits the OET when the pinch temperature difference in the evaporator is raised under the fixed waste heat temperature. The maximum second law efficiency will decrease with the increase of pinch temperature difference in the evaporator.

  20. Nuclear heat-load limits for above-grade storage of solid transuranium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clontz, B.G.

    1978-06-01

    Nuclear safety and heat load limits were established for above-grade storage of transuranium (TRU) wastes. Nuclear safety limits were obtained from a study by J.L. Forstner and are summarized. Heat load limits are based on temperature calculations for TRU waste drums stored in concrete containers (hats), and results are summarized. Waste already in storage is within these limits. The limiting factors for individual drum heat load limits were (1) avoidance of temperatures in excess of 190 0 F (decomposition temperature of anion resin) when anion resin is present in a concrete hat, and (2) avoidance of temperatures in excess of 450 0 F (ignition temperature of paper) at any point inside a waste drum. The limiting factor for concrete had heat load limits was avoidance of temperatures in excess of 265 0 F (melt point of high density polyethylene) at the drum liners. A temperature profile for drums and hats filled to recommended limits is shown. Equations and assumptions used were conservative

  1. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  2. Influence of wick properties in a vertical LHP on remove waste heat from electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smitka, Martin; Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work is to develop porous wick of sintered nickel powder with different grain sizes. These porous wicks were used in LHP and there were performed a series of measurements to remove waste heat from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)

  3. Influence of wick properties in a vertical LHP on remove waste heat from electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smitka, Martin, E-mail: martin.smitka@fstroj.uniza.sk, E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk, E-mail: milan.malcho@fstroj.uniza.sk; Nemec, Patrik, E-mail: martin.smitka@fstroj.uniza.sk, E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk, E-mail: milan.malcho@fstroj.uniza.sk; Malcho, Milan, E-mail: martin.smitka@fstroj.uniza.sk, E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk, E-mail: milan.malcho@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engeneering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work is to develop porous wick of sintered nickel powder with different grain sizes. These porous wicks were used in LHP and there were performed a series of measurements to remove waste heat from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)

  4. Thermal analysis of a heat generating waste repository on the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, M.J.; Butler, T.P.; Firmin, G.H.

    1987-02-01

    The time dependent thermal behaviour of a repository containing heat generating waste has been investigated during loading, transport, and subsequent emplacement on the seabed. Variations of less than 1 0 C in the sealed repository water temperature were calculated to be sufficient to create adequate water circulation. Conservative 1-D analyses were used to estimate a maximum repository water temperature of 256 0 C, occuring about 3 years after emplacement. The temperature distributions within the heat generating waste canisters and grouted titanium tubes have been calculated using 2-D axisymmetric finite element models. Peak temperatures at the waste centre-line were found to be approx. 40 0 C above the repository water temperature. The sensitivity of the results to assumed thermal parameters and to the effect of sediment accumulation have been considered. The possibility and consequences of steam formation within a vented repository have been discussed. (author)

  5. Experimental demonstrations of organic Rankine cycle waste heat rejection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Timothy J.; Lacey, P. Douglas

    Two phase fluid management is an important factor in the successful design of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power conversion systems for space applications. The evolution of the heat rejection system approach from a jet condenser, through a rotary jet condenser, to a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) with a surface condenser has been described in a previous paper. Some of the test programs that were used to prove the validity of the selected approach are described.

  6. Physical properties of heat-treated rattan waste binderless particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Maisarah; Ahmad, Zuraida; Halim, Zahurin; Maleque, Md Abd; Ismail, Hanafi; Sarifuddin, Norshahida

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of heat treatment on the properties of binderless particleboard (BPB) fabricated via hot-pressing process with pressing temperature, pressing time and pressing pressure of 180°C, 5 minutes and 1 MPa, respectively. The fabricated BPB with density in the range of 0.8-0.95g cm-3 was heated in a temperature-controlled laboratory chamber at 80°C, 120°C and 160°C for period of 2 and 8 hours before underwent physical observation, mass loss measurement and thickness swelling test. The samples had remarkable color changes, mainly with samples of treatment temperature of 160˚C, where the color differences were 9.5 and 20.3. This changed the fabricated BPB samples from yellowish brown to dark brown color when treatment conditions increased. Darker color indicates greater mass loss due to severity of chemical component in the powder. Dimensional stability of fabricated BPB was improved with higher treatment temperature as more cellulose cross-linked and hemicellulose degraded that removed the hygroscopicity behavior of powder. These results revealed that heat treatment helped in improving the BPB physical properties, particularly in dimensional stability of boards.

  7. Future sustainable desalination using waste heat: kudos to thermodynamic synergy

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-12-02

    There has been a plethora of published literature on thermally-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles for seawater desalination due to their favorable environmentally friendly attributes, such as the ability to operate with low-temperature heat sources, from either the renewable or the exhaust gases, and having almost no major moving parts. We present an AD cycle for seawater desalination due to its unique ability to integrate higher water production yields with the existing desalination methods such as reverse osmosis (RO), multi-stage flashing (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED), etc. The hybrid cycles exploit the thermodynamic synergy between processes, leading to significant enhancement of the systems\\' performance ratio (PR). In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally the synergetic effect between the AD and MED cycles that results in quantum improvement in water production. The unique feature is in the internal latent heat recovery from the condenser unit of AD to the top-brine stage of MED, resulting in a combined, or simply termed as MEAD, cycle that requires no additional heat input other than the regeneration of an adsorbent. The batch-operated cycles are simple to implement and require low maintenance when compared with conventional desalination methods. Together, they offer a low energy and environmentally friendly desalination solution that addresses the major issues of the water-energy-environment nexus. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Improving Engine Oil Warm Up through Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Di Battista

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the transportation sector, engine oil thermal management has not yet received the attention it deserves in the path towards carbon dioxide and pollutants reduction. During the homologation cycle (which represents a typical daily trip, oil temperature reaches its thermal steady value, which insures best performances in terms of viscosity, only in the final part of the trip, when most part of the harmful emissions have been already emitted; therefore, a warm up acceleration would surely represent a strong beneficial action. In this paper, a faster warming up of the lubricant oil was done using the heat owned by the exhaust gases, which was almost immediately ready after the engine ignition, in the early part of a driving cycle. An experimental activity has been developed in a turbocharged engine (F1C 3L IVECO, modifying the oil circuit in order to heat up the oil during the cold phase of a homologation cycle by the exhaust gases. A significant reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions savings has been experimentally demonstrated. Also, the interaction between the modified oil circuit, engine, coolant circuit, and exhaust line has been investigated in order to have a system view of the new heating oil technology.

  9. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  10. Methods of Thermal Calculations for a Condensing Waste-Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rączka Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the algorithms for a flue gas/water waste-heat exchanger with and without condensation of water vapour contained in flue gas with experimental validation of theoretical results. The algorithms were used for calculations of the area of a heat exchanger using waste heat from a pulverised brown coal fired steam boiler operating in a power unit with a capacity of 900 MWe. In calculation of the condensing part, the calculation results obtained with two algorithms were compared (Colburn-Hobler and VDI algorithms. The VDI algorithm allowed to take into account the condensation of water vapour for flue gas temperatures above the temperature of the water dew point. Thanks to this, it was possible to calculate more accurately the required heat transfer area, which resulted in its reduction by 19 %. In addition, the influence of the mass transfer on the heat transfer area was taken into account, which contributed to a further reduction in the calculated size of the heat exchanger - in total by 28% as compared with the Colburn-Hobler algorithm. The presented VDI algorithm was used to design a 312 kW pilot-scale condensing heat exchanger installed in PGE Belchatow power plant. Obtained experimental results are in a good agreement with calculated values.

  11. A mixed integer linear programming model for integrating thermodynamic cycles for waste heat exploitation in process sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluleye, Gbemi; Smith, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP model developed for integration of waste heat recovery technologies in process sites. • Five thermodynamic cycles considered for exploitation of industrial waste heat. • Temperature and quantity of multiple waste heat sources considered. • Interactions with the site utility system considered. • Industrial case study presented to illustrate application of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: Thermodynamic cycles such as organic Rankine cycles, absorption chillers, absorption heat pumps, absorption heat transformers, and mechanical heat pumps are able to utilize wasted thermal energy in process sites for the generation of electrical power, chilling and heat at a higher temperature. In this work, a novel systematic framework is presented for optimal integration of these technologies in process sites. The framework is also used to assess the best design approach for integrating waste heat recovery technologies in process sites, i.e. stand-alone integration or a systems-oriented integration. The developed framework allows for: (1) selection of one or more waste heat sources (taking into account the temperatures and thermal energy content), (2) selection of one or more technology options and working fluids, (3) selection of end-uses of recovered energy, (4) exploitation of interactions with the existing site utility system and (5) the potential for heat recovery via heat exchange is also explored. The methodology is applied to an industrial case study. Results indicate a systems-oriented design approach reduces waste heat by 24%; fuel consumption by 54% and CO_2 emissions by 53% with a 2 year payback, and stand-alone design approach reduces waste heat by 12%; fuel consumption by 29% and CO_2 emissions by 20.5% with a 4 year payback. Therefore, benefits from waste heat utilization increase when interactions between the existing site utility system and the waste heat recovery technologies are explored simultaneously. The case study also shows

  12. Investigation of waste heat recovery of binary geothermal plants using single component refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unverdi, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the availability of waste heat in a power generating capacity of 47.4 MW in Germencik Geothermal Power Plant has been investigated via binary geothermal power plant. Refrigerant fluids of 7 different single components such as R-134a, R-152a, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-600, R-143m and R-161 have been selected. The binary cycle has been modeled using the waste heat equaling to mass flow rate of 100 kg/s geothermal fluid. While the inlet temperature of the geothermal fluid into the counter flow heat exchanger has been accepted as 110°C, the outlet temperature has been accepted as 70°C. The inlet conditions have been determined for the refrigerants to be used in the binary cycle. Finally, the mass flow rate of refrigerant fluid and of cooling water and pump power consumption and power generated in the turbine have been calculated for each inlet condition of the refrigerant. Additionally, in the binary cycle, energy and exergy efficiencies have been calculated for 7 refrigerants in the availability of waste heat. In the binary geothermal cycle, it has been found out that the highest exergy destruction for all refrigerants occurs in the heat exchanger. And the highest and lowest first and second law efficiencies has been obtained for R-600 and R-161 refrigerants, respectively.

  13. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  14. Study of working fluid selection of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.H.; Zhang, H.G.; Fan, B.Y.; Ouyang, M.G.; Zhao, Y.; Mu, Q.H.

    2011-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) could be used to recover low-grade waste heat. When a vehicle is running, the engine exhaust gas states have a wide range of variance. Defining the operational conditions of the ORC that achieve the maximum utilization of waste heat is important. In this paper the performance of different working fluids operating in specific regions was analyzed using a thermodynamic model built in Matlab together with REFPROP. Nine different pure organic working fluids were selected according to their physical and chemical properties. The results were compared in the regions when net power outputs were fixed at 10 kW. Safety levels and environmental impacts were also evaluated. The outcomes indicate that R11, R141b, R113 and R123 manifest slightly higher thermodynamic performances than the others; however, R245fa and R245ca are the most environment-friendly working fluids for engine waste heat-recovery applications. The optimal control principle of ORC under the transient process is discussed based on the analytical results. -- Highlights: → R11, R141b, R113 and R123 manifest the best thermodynamic performances. → R245fa and R245ca are the most environment-friendly working fluids for the engine waste heat-recovery application. → The condensing temperature has more important effect than the evaporating pressure to the performance of ORC. → The optimal control principle of ORC under the transient process was defined according to the calculation results for the vehicle engine waste heat-recovery application. → ORC thermodynamic model was built in Matlab together with REFPROP.

  15. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Concerned to push ships to have a lower impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization are implementing stricter regulation of NOx and SOx emissions, called Tier III, within emission control areas (ECAs). Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist...... of recovering some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas. This heat is converted into electrical energy used on-board instead of using auxiliary engines. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems, are recirculating a part of the exhaust gas through the engine combustion chamber to reduce emissions. WHRS combined...... with EGR is a potential way to improve system efficiency while reducing emissions. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining the two systems. EGR dilutes the fuel, lowering the combustion temperature and thereby the formation of NOx, to reach Tier III limitation. A double stage WHRS is set up...

  16. Energy consumption analysis and simulation of waste heat recovery technology of ceramic rotary kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiguang; Zhou, Yu; Qin, Chaokui; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    Ceramsite is widely used in the construction industry, insulation works and oil industry in China, and the manufacture equipment is mainly industrial kiln. In this paper, energy consumption analysis had been carried out through experimental test of a Ceramsite kiln in Henan province. Results showed that the discharge temperature of Ceramsite was about 1393K, and the waste heat accounted for 22.1% of the total energy consumption. A structure of cyclone preheater which recovered waste heat of the high temperature Ceramsite by blast cooling was designed. Then, using Fluent software, performance of the unit was simulated. The minimum temperature that Ceramsite could reach, heat dissipating capacity of Ceramsite, temperature at air outlet, wall temperature of the unit and pressure loss were analyzed. Performance of the designed unit under different inlet velocity was analyzed as well.

  17. Calculation of Efficiencies of a Ship Power Plant Operating with Waste Heat Recovery through Combined Heat and Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Grljušić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of a combined heat & power (CHP plant, using the waste heat from a Suezmax-size oil tanker’s main engine, to meet all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering various configurations, a standard propulsion engine operating at maximum efficiency, combined with a supercritical Organic Rankine cycle (ORC system, was selected to supply the auxiliary power, using R245fa or R123 as the working fluid. The system analysis showed that such a plant can meet all heat and electrical power requirements at full load, with the need to burn only a small amount of supplementary fuel in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG when the main engine operates at part load. Therefore, it is possible to increase the overall thermal efficiency of the ship’s power plant by more than 5% when the main engine operates at 65% or more of its specified maximum continuous rating (SMCR.

  18. Second law analysis of a diesel engine waste heat recovery with a combined sensible and latent heat storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiyarajan, V.; Chinnappandian, M.; Raghavan, V.; Velraj, R.

    2011-01-01

    The exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine carries away about 30% of the heat of combustion. The energy available in the exit stream of many energy conversion devices goes as waste. The major technical constraint that prevents successful implementation of waste heat recovery is due to intermittent and time mismatched demand for and availability of energy. The present work deals with the use of exergy as an efficient tool to measure the quantity and quality of energy extracted from a diesel engine and stored in a combined sensible and latent heat storage system. This analysis is utilized to identify the sources of losses in useful energy within the components of the system considered, and provides a more realistic and meaningful assessment than the conventional energy analysis. The energy and exergy balance for the overall system is quantified and illustrated using energy and exergy flow diagrams. In order to study the discharge process in a thermal storage system, an illustrative example with two different cases is considered and analyzed, to quantify the destruction of exergy associated with the discharging process. The need for promoting exergy analysis through policy decision in the context of energy and environment crisis is also emphasized. - Highlights: → WHR with TES system eliminates the mismatch between the supply of energy and demand. → A saving of 15.2% of energy and 1.6% of exergy is achieved with PCM storage. → Use of multiple PCMs with cascaded system increases energy and exergy efficiency.

  19. Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D [Vernon, CT; Biederman, Bruce P [West Hartford, CT; Brasz, Joost J [Fayetteville, NY

    2011-05-17

    A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

  20. Online Reputation in Automotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodák Josef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of online reputation, namely the social networking profile of businesses. Selected companies in the automotive industry through social profiles communicate with their customers, the public and they trying to improve their name and the name of their products in the public eye. Online reputation analysis was carried out to determine the current situation on the territory of Slovakia. On the basis of the data found, measures were proposed to improve the current state and reputation of automotive companies. Recommendations suggested by the findings can be used on any market to improve the current state and increase the competitiveness of automotive companies.

  1. Waste-Heat-to-Power Market in the U.S., Heat is Power Annual Meeting (Presentation) – August 15, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides information about the EPA CHP Partnership, including an overview of the Partnership's tools and resources, and policy support. The presentation also describes the potential of Waste Heat to Power (WHP) systems.

  2. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  3. Heat-pipe effect on the transport of gaseous radionuclides released from a nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1990-11-01

    When an unsaturated porous medium is subjected to a temperature gradient and the temperature is sufficiently high, vadose water is heated and vaporizes. Vapor flows under its pressure gradient towards colder regions where it condenses. Vaporization and condensation produce a liquid saturation gradient, creating a capillary pressure gradient inside the porous medium. Condensate flows towards the hot end under the influence of a capillary pressure gradient. This is a heat pipe in an unsaturated porous medium. We study analytically the transport of gaseous species released from a spent-fuel waste package, as affected by a time-dependent heat pipe in an unsaturated rock. For parameter values typical of a potential repository in partially saturated fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, we found that a heat pipe develops shortly after waste is buried, and the heat-pipe's spatial extent is time-dependent. Water vapor movements produced by the heat pipe can significantly affect the migration of gaseous radionuclides. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Thermodynamic investigation of waste heat driven desalination unit based on humidification dehumidification (HDH) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, W.F.; Xu, L.N.; Han, D.; Gao, L.; Yue, C.; Pu, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • HDH desalination system powered by waste heat is proposed. • Performance of the desalination unit and the relevant heat recovery effect is calculated. • Sensitive analysis of the performance for the HDH desalination system is investigated. • Mathematical model based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics is established. - Abstract: Humidification dehumidification (HDH) technology is an effective pattern to separate freshwater from seawater or brackish water. In this paper, a closed-air open-water (CAOW) desalination unit coupled with plate heat exchangers (PHEs) is applied to recover the waste heat from the gas exhaust. Sensitivity analysis for the HDH desalination unit as well as the PHEs from the key parameters including the top and initial temperature of the seawater, operation pressure, and the terminal temperature difference (TTD) of the PHEs are accomplished, and the corresponding performance of the whole HDH desalination system is calculated and presented. The simulation results show that the balance condition of the dehumidifier is allowed by the basic thermodynamic laws, followed by a peak value of gained-output-ratio (GOR) and a bottom value of total specific entropy generation. It is concluded that excellent results including the system performance, heat recovery effect and investment of the PHEs can be simultaneously obtained with a low top temperature, while the obtained desalination performance and the heat recovery effect from other measures are always conflicting. Different from other parameters of the desalination unit, the terminal temperature difference of the PHEs has little influences on the final value of GOR.

  5. Waste heat utilization in the thermal spa of Lavey-les-Bains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy looks at the possibilities for improved waste water utilization in the Lavey-les-Bains thermal spa, Switzerland. According to the regulations in force, the temperature of the waste water rejected into the Rhone river shall not exceed 30 o C, what is currently not the case. Also the operational cost shall be reduced and the waste water quality improved. The installations are presented. From the two geothermal wells, mineral water comes out at an average flow rate of 940 l/min and a temperature of 63 o C. Actual waste water data are reported. The measured thermal water consumption data, including seasonal variations, are analysed by computerized simulation and measures to reduce the consumed volume by the optimization of internal procedures are evaluated. Measures to reduce the quantity of the rejected free chlorine are discussed. Several possible adaptations of the existing space heating, domestic water heating and pools' heating are evaluated, including cost. In addition, extensions of the thermal spa center to recreational activities are discussed, as the construction of a tropical greenhouse is

  6. Quantitative feasibility study of magnetocaloric energy conversion utilizing industrial waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuarnoz, D.; Kitanovski, A.; Gonin, C.; Borgeaud, Y.; Delessert, M.; Meinen, M.; Egolf, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model magnetic energy conversion machine for the use of industrial waste heat. ► Efficiencies and masses of the system are evaluated by a numerical model. ► Excellent potential of profitability is expected with large low-exergy heat sources. -- Abstract: The main objective of this theoretical study was to investigate under which conditions a magnetic energy conversion device (MECD) – utilizing industrial waste heat – is economically feasible. Furthermore, it was evaluated if magnetic energy conversion (MCE) has the potential of being a serious concurrent to already existing conventional energy conversion technologies. Up-today the availability of magnetocaloric materials with a high Curie temperature and a high magnetocaloric effect is rather limited. Therefore, this study was mainly focused on applications with heat sources of low to medium temperature levels. Magnetic energy conversion machines, containing permanent magnets, are numerically investigated for operation conditions with different temperature levels, defined by industrial waste heat sources and environmental heat sinks, different magnetic field intensities and different frequencies of operation (number of thermodynamic cycles per unit of time). Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations were performed in order to determine thermodynamic efficiencies and the exergy efficiencies as function of different operation conditions. From extracted data of our numerical results, approximate values of the total mass and total volume of magnetic energy conversion machines could be determined. These important results are presented dependent on the produced electric power. An economic feasibility study supplements the scientific study. It shows an excellent potential of profitability for certain machines. The most important result of this article is that the magnetic energy conversion technology can be economically and technically competitive to or even beat conventional energy

  7. Parametric analysis of a dual loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dual loop ORC system is designed for engine waste heat recovery. • The two loops are coupled via a shared heat exchanger. • The influence of the HT loop condensation parameters on the LT loop is evaluated. • Pinch point locations determine the thermal parameters of the LT loop. - Abstract: This paper presents a dual loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system consisting of a high temperature (HT) loop and a low temperature (LT) loop for engine waste heat recovery. The HT loop recovers the waste heat of the engine exhaust gas, and the LT loop recovers that of the jacket cooling water in addition to the residual heat of the HT loop. The two loops are coupled via a shared heat exchanger, which means that the condenser of the HT loop is the evaporator of the LT loop as well. Cyclohexane, benzene and toluene are selected as the working fluids of the HT loop. Different condensation temperatures of the HT loop are set to maintain the condensation pressure slightly higher than the atmosphere pressure. R123, R236fa and R245fa are chosen for the LT loop. Parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the influence of the HT loop condensation temperature and the residual heat load on the LT loop. The simulation results reveal that under different condensation conditions of the HT loop, the pinch point of the LT loop appears at different locations, resulting in different evaporation temperatures and other thermal parameters. With cyclohexane for the HT loop and R245fa for the LT loop, the maximum net power output of the dual loop ORC system reaches 111.2 kW. Since the original power output of the engine is 996 kW, the additional power generated by the dual loop ORC system can increase the engine power by 11.2%.

  8. Technologies for waste heat recovery in off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik; Kandepu, Rambabu

    2013-01-01

    different technologies are presented, considering the Draugen platform in the North Sea as a base case. The Turboden 65-HRS unit is considered as representative of the organic Rankine cycle technology. Air bottoming cycles are analyzed and optimal design pressure ratios are selected. We also study a one...... pressure level steam Rankine cycle employing the once-through heat recovery steam generator without bypass stack. We compare the three technologies considering the combined cycle thermal efficiency, the weight, the net present value, the profitability index and payback time. Both incomes related to CO2...... of the unit is expected to be around 250 ton. The air bottoming cycle without intercooling is also a possible alternative due to its low weight (76 ton) and low investment cost (8.8 M$). However, cycle performance and profitability index are poorer, 12.1% and 0.75. Furthermore, the results suggest...

  9. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  10. Improvements in Pyrolysis of Wastes in an Externally Heated Rotary Kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Okazaki, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nakata, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Osamu

    The effects of rotating speed and internal structure on the performance of an externally heated rotary kiln for waste pyrolysis were investigated. A newly developed method was adopted to evaluate the overall heat transfer coefficient km-w from the inner wall to the wastes for this purpose. The experimental results revealed that km-w monotonically increased with the number of lifters and their height. When six lifters 200 mm in height were attached to the inner wall of the kiln, the mean value of km-w increased from 38.6 W/m2K to 45.3 W/m2K at 2.7 rpm. In addition, km-w increased to 50.1 W/m2K when the rotating speed was increased to 4.0 rpm. In the water vaporization phase during the course of the pyrolysis process, the height of the lifters had a significant influence on km-w. However, the number of lifters had a significant impact on km-w in the pyrolysis phase of the plastic-based wastes. According to measurements, a 10 % increase in km-w could be obtained when installing lifters to attain a ratio of lifter height Hl to the thickness of the waste layer Hw larger than 0.45 or when arc length between two lifters Ll to the arc length of the interface between the wastes and the kiln wall Lw was larger than 1.

  11. National Automotive Center - NAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Encouraged by the advantages of collaboration, the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) worked with the Secretary of the...

  12. Energy and cost savings potential of oscillating heat pipes for waste heat recovery ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Mahajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using finned oscillating heat pipes (OHPs for heat exchange between counter-flowing air streams in HVAC air systems (i.e., outdoor and exhaust air flows, along with the associated cost savings in typical North American climates, is investigated. For a prescribed temperature difference and volumetric flow rate of air, rudimentary design parameters for a viable OHP Heat Recovery Ventilator (OHP-HRV were determined using the ε-NTU (effectiveness-Number of Transfer Unit method. The two-phase heat transfer within the OHP-HRV is modeled via effective evaporation/condensation heat transfer coefficients, while the latent heat transfer required to initiate OHP operation via boiling and evaporation is also considered. Results suggest that an OHP-HRV can possess a reasonable pressure drop (5 kW. The proposed OHP-HRV can possess an effectiveness near 0.5 and can pre-cool/heat HVAC air by >5°C. Potential energy and cost savings associated with using an OHP-HRV were estimated for commercial building envelopes in various regions of the United States. It is found that the proposed OHP-HRV can save more than $2500 annually in cities that have continental climatic conditions, such as Chicago and Denver, and for the selected locations the average yearly cost savings per building is found to be on-the-order of $700. Overall, the OHP-HRV shows potential in effectively reducing energy consumption and the operational cost of air handling units in buildings.

  13. Review of organic Rankine cycles for internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, Charles; Depcik, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Escalating fuel prices and future carbon dioxide emission limits are creating a renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of engines beyond the limit of in-cylinder techniques. One promising mechanism that accomplishes both objectives is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. This paper reviews the history of internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery focusing on Organic Rankine Cycles since this thermodynamic cycle works well with the medium-grade energy of the exhaust. Selection of the cycle expander and working fluid are the primary focus of the review, since they are regarded as having the largest impact on system performance. Results demonstrate a potential fuel economy improvement around 10% with modern refrigerants and advancements in expander technology. -- Highlights: ► This review article focuses on engine exhaust waste heat recovery works. ► The organic Rankine cycle is superior for low to medium exergy heat sources. ► Working fluid and expander selection strongly influence efficiency. ► Several authors demonstrate viable systems for vehicle installation

  14. Performance prediction of heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from humid flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Dong Woon; Lee, Sang Yong; Lee, Han Ju

    2000-01-01

    A simulation program using the mass transfer correlation was constructed to analyze 1-D simplified condensing flow across the tube bank. Higher efficiency was anticipated by reducing the flue gas temperature down below the dew point where the water vapor in the flue gas is condensed at the surface of the heat exchanger; that is, the heat transfer by the latent heat is added to that by the sensible heat. Thus, there can be an optimum operating condition to maximize the heat recovery from the flue gas. The temperature rises of the flue gas and the cooling water between the inlet and the outlet of the tube bank were compared with the experimental data reported previously. The predicted results agree well with the experimental data. Using this simulation program, the parametric studies have been conducted for various operating conditions, such as the velocities and temperatures of the vapor/gas mixture and the cooling water, the number of the rows, and the conductivity of the wall material

  15. Thermal performance analysis of Brayton cycle with waste heat recovery boiler for diesel engines of offshore oil production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xianglong; Gong, Guangcai; Wu, Yi; Li, Hangxin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of Brayton cycle with WHRB adopted in diesel engines with and without fans by thermal performance. • Waste heat recovery technology for FPSO. • The thermoeconomic analysis for the heat recovery for FPSO. - Abstract: This paper presents the theoretical analysis and on-site testing on the thermal performance of the waste heat recovery system for offshore oil production facilities, including the components of diesel engines, thermal boilers and waste heat boilers. We use the ideal air standard Brayton cycle to analyse the thermal performance. In comparison with the traditional design, the fans at the engine outlet of the waste heat recovery boiler is removed due to the limited space of the offshore platform. The cases with fan and without fan are compared in terms of thermal dynamics performance, energy efficiency and thermo-economic index of the system. The results show that the application of the WHRB increases the energy efficiency of the whole system, but increases the flow resistance in the duct. It is proved that as the waste heat recovery boiler takes the place of the thermal boiler, the energy efficiency of whole system without fan is slightly reduced but heat recovery efficiency is improved. This research provides an important guidance to improve the waste heat recovery for offshore oil production facilities.

  16. Parametric studies on automotive radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliet, C.; Oliva, A.; Castro, J.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a set of parametric studies performed on automotive radiators by means of a detailed rating and design heat exchanger model developed by the authors. This numerical tool has been previously verified and validated using a wide experimental data bank. A first part of the analysis focuses on the influence of working conditions on both fluids (mass flows, inlet temperatures) and the impact of the selected coolant fluid. Following these studies, the influence of some geometrical parameters is analysed (fin pitch, louver angle) as well as the importance of coolant flow lay-out on the radiator global performance. This work provides an overall behaviour report of automobile radiators working at usual range of operating conditions, while significant knowledge-based design conclusions have also been reported. The results show the utility of this numerical model as a rating and design tool for heat exchangers manufacturers, being a reasonable compromise between classic ε - NTU methods and CFD

  17. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A heat source probe for measuring thermal conductivity in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, M.G.; Harries, J.R.

    1985-10-01

    The development and use of a heat source probe to measure the thermal conductivity of the material in a waste rock dump is described. The probe releases heat at a constant rate into the surrounding material and the resulting temperature rise is inversely related to the thermal conductivity. The probe was designed for use in holes in the dump which are lined with 50 mm i.d. polyethylene liners. The poor thermal contact between the probe and the liner and the unknown conductivity of the backfill material around the liner necessitated long heating and cooling times (>10 hours) to ensure that the thermal conductivity of the dump material was being measured. Temperature data acquired in the field were analysed by comparing them with temperatures calculated using a two-dimensional cylindrical model of the probe and surrounding material, and the heat transfer code HEATRAN

  19. Influence of fuel composition on the non-oxidizing heating of steel in a waste gas atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkler, W [LOI Industrieofenanlagen G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-04-01

    On the basis of a number of graphs and data on theoretical combustion temperatures and the difference between the heating value of the fuel and the waste gas in respect of 1 m/sup 3/ of waste gas, the author demonstrates the influence of fuel composition on the non-oxidizing heating of steel in a waste gas atmosphere derived from five different fuels. A rotary-hearth furnace is described for the non-oxidizing heating of pressings from plain carbon and alloy steel.

  20. The relationship among CPU utilization, temperature, and thermal power for waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Anna M.; Sherbeck, Jon; Phelan, Patrick; Varsamopoulos, Georgios; Gupta, Sandeep K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work graphs a triad relationship among CPU utilization, temperature and power. • Using a custom-built cold plate, we were able capture CPU-generated high quality heat. • The work undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil to directly cool CPUs. • We found that it is possible to use CPU waste energy to power an absorption chiller. - Abstract: This work addresses significant datacenter issues of growth in numbers of computer servers and subsequent electricity expenditure by proposing, analyzing and testing a unique idea of recycling the highest quality waste heat generated by datacenter servers. The aim was to provide a renewable and sustainable energy source for use in cooling the datacenter. The work incorporates novel approaches in waste heat usage, graphing CPU temperature, power and utilization simultaneously, and a mineral oil experimental design and implementation. The work presented investigates and illustrates the quantity and quality of heat that can be captured from a variably tasked liquid-cooled microprocessor on a datacenter server blade. It undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil. The trials examine the feasibility of using the thermal energy from a CPU to drive a cooling process. Results indicate that 123 servers encapsulated in mineral oil can power a 10-ton chiller with a design point of 50.2 kW th . Compared with water-cooling experiments, the mineral oil experiment mitigated the temperature drop between the heat source and discharge line by up to 81%. In addition, due to this reduction in temperature drop, the heat quality in the oil discharge line was up to 12.3 °C higher on average than for water-cooled experiments. Furthermore, mineral oil cooling holds the potential to eliminate the 50% cooling expenditure which initially motivated this project

  1. Joule-heated glass-furnace system for the incineration of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, K.M.; Klingler, L.M.; Doty, J.W.; Kramer, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    For the past 1-1/2 years, Mound has been preparing and evaluating a commercially available joule-heated glass furnace unit, coupled with a wet scrubbing system. The purpose of the glass furnace evaluation is to advance and document incinerator technology for such combustibles as solids, resins, and sludges, and to develop a stable waste form for subsequent disposal. Four (4) waste nonradioactive types were selected to determine the combustion efficiency of the furnace unit: (1) dry solid waste composed of paper, plastics, rubber, and cloth, (2) ion exchange resin of both the anionic and cationic type, (3) filter sludge composed of diatomaceous earth, organic cellulosic filter aid, and powdered ion exchange resin, and (4) cartridge filters having glass and plastic filter surfaces and nonmetallic cores. When completed, the combustion efficiency experiments for the proposed nonradioactive waste-types revealed the ability of the furnace to easily incinerate waste at feedrates of up to 150 lb/hr. During the course of the experiments, combustibles in the offgas remained consistently low, suggesting excellent combustion efficiency. Furthermore, ash produced by the combustion process was effectively incorporated into the melt by convective currents in the glass. Future work on the glass furnace incinerator will include spiking the waste to determine radioisotope behavior in the furnace

  2. Experiments on the Recovery of Waste Heat in Cooling Ducts, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Abe

    1939-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel to investigate the partial recovery of the heat energy which is apparently wasted in the cooling of aircraft engines. The results indicate that if the radiator is located in an expanded duct, a part of the energy lost in cooling is recovered; however, the energy recovery is not of practical importance up to airplane speeds of 400 miles per hour. Throttling of the duct flow occurs with heated radiators and must be considered in designing the duct outlets from data obtained with cold radiators in the ducts.

  3. Heat Transfer Model of a Small-Scale Waste Glass Melter with Cold Cap Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Alexander; Guillen, Donna Post; Pokorny, Richard

    2016-09-01

    At the Hanford site in the state of Washington, more than 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is stored in underground tanks. The cleanup plan for this waste is vitrification at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), currently under construction. At the WTP, the waste will be blended with glass-forming materials and heated to 1423K, then poured into stainless steel canisters to cool and solidify. A fundamental understanding of the glass batch melting process is needed to optimize the process to reduce cost and decrease the life cycle of the cleanup effort. The cold cap layer that floats on the surface of the glass melt is the primary reaction zone for the feed-to-glass conversion. The conversion reactions include water release, melting of salts, evolution of batch gases, dissolution of quartz and the formation of molten glass. Obtaining efficient heat transfer to this region is crucial to achieving high rates of glass conversion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is being used to understand the heat transfer dynamics of the system and provide insight to optimize the process. A CFD model was developed to simulate the DM1200, a pilot-scale melter that has been extensively tested by the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL). Electrodes are built into the melter to provide Joule heating to the molten glass. To promote heat transfer from the molten glass into the reactive cold cap layer, bubbling of the molten glass is used to stimulate forced convection within the melt pool. A three-phase volume of fluid approach is utilized to model the system, wherein the molten glass and cold cap regions are modeled as separate liquid phases, and the bubbling gas and plenum regions are modeled as one lumped gas phase. The modeling of the entire system with a volume of fluid model allows for the prescription of physical properties on a per-phase basis. The molten glass phase and the gas phase physical properties are obtained from previous experimental work. Finding representative

  4. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  5. Design and optimization of air bottoming cycles for waste heat recovery in off-shore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi-objective......This paper aims at comparing two methodologies to design an air bottoming cycle recovering the waste heat from the power generation system on the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform. Firstly, the design is determined using the theory of the power maximization. Subsequently, the multi....... Findings indicate that using the power production, the volume of the recuperator and the net present value as objective functions the optimal pressure ratio (2.52) and the exhaust gas temperature (178.8 °C) differ from the values (2.80 and 145.5 °C) calculated using the theory of the power maximization...

  6. The feasibility study on supercritical methane Recuperated Brayton Cycle for waste heat recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Dyuisenakhmetov, Aibolat

    2017-05-01

    Recuperated Brayton Cycle (RBC) has attracted the attention of research scientists not only as a possible replacement for the steam cycle at nuclear power plants but also as an efficient bottoming cycle for waste heat recovery and for concentrated solar power. RBC’s compactness and the ease at which it can be integrated into existent power plants for waste heat recovery require few modifications. Methane, carbon dioxide and trifluoromethane are analyzed as possible working fluids. This work shows that it is possible to achieve higher efficiencies using methane under some operating conditions. However, as it turns out, the performance of Recuperated Brayton Cycle should be evaluated based on net output work. When the performance is assessed on the net output work criteria carbon dioxide still proves to be superior to other gases. This work also suggests that piston engines as compressors and expanders may be used instead of rotating turbines since reciprocating pistons have higher isentropic efficiencies.

  7. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  8. Resource recovery from municipal solid waste by mechanical heat treatment: An opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Ibrahim, Nurazim; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in Malaysia consists of 50 to 60 % of food wastes. In general, food wastes are commingled in nature and very difficult to be managed in sustainable manner due to high moisture content. Consequently, by dumping food wastes together with inert wastes to the landfill as final disposal destination incurs large space area and reducing the lifespan of landfill. Therefore, certain fraction of the MSW as such; food wastes (FW) can be diverted from total disposal at the landfill that can improve landfill lifespan and environmental conservation. This study aims to determine the resource characteristics of FW extracted from USM cafeteria by means of mechanical heat treatment in the presence of autoclaving technology. Sampling of FW were conducted by collecting FW samples from disposal storage at designated area within USM campus. FW characteristics was performed prior and autoclaving process. The results have demonstrated that bones fraction was the highest followed by vegetable and rice with 39, 27 and 10%, respectively. Meanwhile, based on autoclaving technique, moisture content of the FW (fresh waste) were able to be reduced ranging from 65-85% to 59-69% (treated waste). Meanwhile, chemical characteristics of treated FW results in pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio, TP, and TK 5.12, 27,6%, 1.6%, 17.3%, 0.9% and 0.36%. The results revealed that autoclaving technology is a promising approach for MSW diversion that can be transformed into useful byproducts such as fertilizer, RDF and recyclable items.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system for internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Sipeng; Deng, Kangyao; Qu, Shuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system especially for turbocharged engines is proposed to improve the thermal efficiencies of internal combustion engines. Simplified recovery processes can be described as follows: superheated steam generated by engine waste heat is injected into the pipe before the turbine to increase the boost pressure of the fresh air; intake valve close timing is adjusted to control the amount of fresh air as the original level, and thus the higher pressure charged air expands in the intake stroke and transfers the pressure energy directly to the crankshaft. In this way, the increased turbine output by the pre-turbine steam injection is finally recovered in the cylinder, which is different from the traditional Rankine cycle. The whole energy transfer processes are studied with thermodynamic analyses and numerical simulations. The results show that the mass flow rate of the injected steam has the biggest influence on the energy transfer processes followed by the temperature of the injected steam. With this in-cylinder waste heat recovery system, the fuel economy of a selected turbocharged diesel engine can be improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point when the injected mass flow ratio is set to be 0.1. - Highlights: • An in-cylinder waste heat recovery system is proposed. • Effects of injected parameters are studied with energy and exergy balance theories. • Variations of operating points on the compressor map are studied in detail. • The fuel economy is improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point

  10. Producing drinking water with the aid of waste heat or solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A method developed in Finland for the production of drinking water is described. The energy required comes either from the waste heat of nuclear power plants or from solar installations. The method has been tested in a pilot plant with an output of 120 m/sup 3/ drinking water per day. The construction of plants with an output of 500 m/sup 3/ per day is still in the planning stage.

  11. Decontamination of hospital wastes by the combined action of ionising radiation and heat - the thermorad process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icre, P.; Rocquigny, H. de

    1995-01-01

    The Thermorad process is used for decontaminating hospital wastes at the hospital as they are collected from the different departments. The process utilises the combined microbiological effects of ionising radiation (5 kGy) and dry heat (60 o C). The treatment unit, which is compact and of small size, contains a cobalt 60 source of under 100,000 curies and has an annual treatment capacity of 5000 m 3 . (author)

  12. Waste heat recovery systems for internal combustion engines: classification and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko, A.; Samoilenko, D.; Adel Hamzah, Ali; Adel Hamzah, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Recent trend about the best ways of using the deployable sources of energy in to useful work in order to reduce the rate of consumption of fossil fuel as well as pollution. Out of all the available sources, the internal combustion engines are the major consumer of fossil fuel around the globe. The remaining heat is expelled to the environment through exhaust gases and engine cooling systems, resulting in to entropy rise and serious environmental pollution, so it is required to utilized waste ...

  13. Application of cascading thermoelectric generator and cooler for waste heat recovery from solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Houcheng; Kong, Wei; Dong, Feifei; Xu, Haoran; Chen, Bin; Ni, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cascading thermoelectric devices are proposed to recover waste heat from SOFCs. • A theoretical model is developed to analyze the new hybrid system performance. • Performance parameters for evaluating the hybrid system are specified. • Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system are demonstrated. • Effects of some important parameters on the system performance are discussed. - Abstract: Besides electricity generation, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produce a significant amount of waste heat, which needs to be immediately removed to ensure the normal operation of SOFCs. If the waste heat is recovered through bottoming thermal devices, the global efficiency of SOFCs can be improved. In this study, a new hybrid system mainly consisting of a thermoelectric generator, a thermoelectric cooler and an SOFC is proposed to recover the waste heat from SOFC for performance enhancement. The thermodynamic and electrochemical irreversible losses in each component are fully considered. An analytical relationship between the SOFC operating current density and the thermoelectric devices dimensionless electric current is derived, from which the range of SOFC operating current density that permits the thermoelectric devices to effectively work is determined. The equivalent power output and efficiency for the hybrid system are specified under different operating current density regions. The feasibility and effectiveness are illustrated by comparing the proposed hybrid system with the stand-alone SOFC. It is found that the power density and efficiency of the proposed system allow 2.3% and 4.6% larger than that of the stand-alone SOFC, respectively. Finally, various parametric analyses are performed to discuss the effects of some design and operation parameters on the hybrid system performance.

  14. Steady state simulation of Joule heated ceramic melter for vitrification of high level liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugilal, G; Wattal, P K; Theyyunni, T K [Process Engineering and Systems Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Iyer, K N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    The Joule heated ceramic melter is emerging as an attractive alternative to metallic melters for high level waste vitrification. The inherent limitations with metallic melters viz., low capacity and short melter life, are overcome in a ceramic melter which can be adopted for continuous mode of operation. The ceramic melter has the added advantage of better operational flexibility. This paper describes the three dimensional model used for simulating the complex design conditions of the ceramic melter. (author).

  15. Steady state simulation of Joule heated ceramic melter for vitrification of high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Iyer, K.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Joule heated ceramic melter is emerging as an attractive alternative to metallic melters for high level waste vitrification. The inherent limitations with metallic melters viz., low capacity and short melter life, are overcome in a ceramic melter which can be adopted for continuous mode of operation. The ceramic melter has the added advantage of better operational flexibility. This paper describes the three dimensional model used for simulating the complex design conditions of the ceramic melter. (author)

  16. Thermodynamic modelling of a recompression CO_2 power cycle for low temperature waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banik, Shubham; Ray, Satyaki; De, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic model for recompression T-CO_2 is developed. • Energetic and exergetic analysis compared with S-CO_2 and Reg. Brayton cycle. • Maximum efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for T-CO_2 cycle. • Optimum recompression ratio of 0.48 is obtained for minimum irreversibility. • Reg. Brayton has better efficiency, T-CO_2 offers minimum irreversibility. - Abstract: Due to the rising prices of conventional fossil fuels, increasing the overall thermal efficiency of a power plant is essential. One way of doing this is waste heat recovery. This recovery is most difficult for low temperature waste heat, below 240 °C, which also covers majority of the waste heat source. Carbon dioxide, with its low critical temperature and pressure, offers an advantage over ozone-depleting refrigerants used in Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and hence is most suitable for the purpose. This paper introduces parametric optimization of a transcritical carbon dioxide (T-CO_2) power cycle which recompresses part of the total mass flow of working fluid before entering the precooler, thereby showing potential for higher cycle efficiency. Thermodynamic model for a recompression T-CO_2 power cycle has been developed with waste heat source of 2000 kW and at a temperature of 200 °C. Results obtained from this model are analysed to estimate effects on energetic and exergetic performances of the power cycle with varying pressure and mass recompression ratio. Higher pressure ratio always improves thermodynamic performance of the cycle – both energetic and exergetic. Higher recompression ratio also increases exergetic efficiency of the cycle. However, it increases energy efficiency, only if precooler inlet temperature remains constant. Maximum thermal efficiency of the T-CO_2 cycle with a recompression ratio of 0.26 has been found to be 13.6%. To minimize total irreversibility of the cycle, an optimum ratio of 0.48 was found to be suitable.

  17. Conflict between internal combustion engine and thermoelectric generator during waste heat recovery in cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhuev, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    It is shown that an internal combustion engine and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) arranged on the exhaust pipe of this engine come into the conflict of thermal machines that is related to using the same energy resource. The conflict grows with increasing useful electric power W e of the TEG, which leads to the limitation of both the maximum TEG output power ( W {e/max}) and the possibility of waste heat recovery in cars.

  18. Feasibility assessment of refinery waste heat-to-power conversion using an organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H.C.; Krumdieck, Susan; Vranjes, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Kerosene enthalpies were estimated at different temperatures using samples and simulations. • Numerical ORC and financial models were developed to assess feasibility of waste heat-to-power conversion. • Six pure fluids and two mixtures were investigated for selecting optimum fluid. • It is technically and economically feasible to install a 250 kW ORC unit to capture kerosene waste heat. - Abstract: Industrial waste heat is a large potential resource for generation of carbon-free electricity. This study investigates the technical and economic feasibility of converting waste heat from a stream of liquid kerosene which must be cooled down to control the vacuum distillation temperature. The process conditions were determined for a simple 250 kW organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with a heat extraction loop. The pinch point technique was adopted to determine the optimum evaporation and condensation temperatures and assess the influence of the kerosene temperature at the evaporator exit on net power output. The operating conditions and performance of the ORC system were evaluated with eight potential refrigerants and refrigerant mixtures such as R123, R134a, R245fa, isobutane, butane, pentane, an equimolar mixture of butane and pentane, and a mixture of 40% isobutane and 50% butane on a mole basis. A financial model was established for the total plant cost. Results show that isobutane, of the pure fluids, yields the best plant efficiency of 6.8% with approximately half of the kerosene flow available, and the efficiency can be increased up to 7.6% using the butane/pentane mixture. The optimum kerosene temperature at the evaporator outlet is estimated to be 70 °C for all the fluid, except the butane/pentane mixture, which meets the design constraint not to disturb the existing distillation process. A capital cost target of $3000/kW could be achieved with a payback period of 6.8 years and the internal rate of return (IRR) of 21.8%. Therefore, if the detailed

  19. Using solar heat to enhance waste-heat use; Solarthermische Abwaermenutzung; Aufwertung von Abwaerme mittels Solarthermie zur Erzeugung hochwertiger Prozessenergie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R. [BMG Engineering AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Luzzi, A.; Marty, H. [HSR, Hochschule fuer Technik, SPF Institut fuer Solartechnik, Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    This final report for Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the work done in a project involving the use of solar heat to enhance the use of waste heat at a chemical plant in Nyon, Switzerland. On the basis of a study carried out in 2006/2007, which looked at the reduction of process energy demand of a production site where an agent is produced in batch operation, possibilities for the recovery of waste heat were identified. The relatively low temperatures of the existing waste heat flows have, however, complicated its efficient use. This reflects a problem with waste heat use in industrial processes that can often be observed. Due to the sunny location in Nyon, a concept using solar energy to increase the temperature level of this waste heat has been developed. The objective of this analysis was the technical and economical assessment of such an installation and its transferability to other sites. Variants are presented and their economic viability is discussed.

  20. Feasibility Assessment of Using Power Plant Waste Heat in Large Scale Horticulture Facility Energy Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Korean government has been carrying out projects to construct several large scale horticulture facilities. However, it is difficult for an energy supply to operate stably and economically with only a conventional fossil fuel boiler system. For this reason, several unused energy sources have become attractive and it was found that power plant waste heat has the greatest potential for application in this scenario. In this study, we performed a feasibility assessment of power plant waste heat as an energy source for horticulture facilities. As a result, it was confirmed that there was a sufficient amount of energy potential for the use of waste heat to supply energy to the assumed area. In Dangjin, an horticultural area of 500 ha could be constructed by utilizing 20% of the energy reserves. In Hadong, a horticulture facility can be set up to be 260 ha with 7.4% of the energy reserves. In Youngdong, an assumed area of 65 ha could be built utilizing about 19% of the energy reserves. Furthermore, the payback period was calculated in order to evaluate the economic feasibility compared with a conventional system. The initial investment costs can be recovered by the approximately 83% reduction in the annual operating costs.

  1. A review on waste heat recovery from exhaust in the ceramics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Bertrand; Axcell, Brian; Jouhara, Hussam

    2017-11-01

    Following the energy crisis in 1980, many saving technologies have been investigated with attempts to implement them into various industries, one of them is the field of ceramic production. In order to comply with energy saving trends and environmental issues, the European ceramic industry sector has developed energy efficient systems which reduced significantly production time and costs and reduced total energy consumption. The last achievement is of great importance as the energy consumption of the ceramic process accounts for a significant percentage of the total production costs. More precisely, the firing stage consumes the highest amount of energy during the whole ceramic production process. The use of roller kilns, fired by natural gas, involves a loss of 50% of the input energy via the flue gas and the cooling gas exhausts. This review paper briefly describes the production process of the different ceramic products, with a focus on the ceramic sector in Europe. Due to the limited on waste heat recovery in the ceramic industry, other high temperature waste heat recovery applications are considered in the paper, such as in concrete and steel production, which could have a potential use in the ceramic industry. The state of the art technologies used in the ceramics industry are reviewed with a special interest in waste heat recovery from the ceramic process exhaust stacks and energy saving technologies.

  2. Efficient production of automotive biofuels; Effektiv produktion av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Hagberg, Linus; Rydberg, Tomas; Raadberg, Henrik; Saernholm, Erik

    2008-07-01

    The report describes opportunities and consequences associated with biomass polygeneration plants, in particular the role that heat plants (HP) or combined heat and power plants (CHP) in district heating systems can play in the production of automotive biofuels. The aim of the report is to provide a knowledge base to stakeholders to help assess energy and environmental benefits associated with collaborative approaches in planning, constructing and operating energy plants. Several configurations are possible for an energy polygeneration plant, but this report focuses on configurations in which a plant for automotive biofuel production and a district heating system with HPs or CHPs have been integrated in some way in order to achieve added value. The modes of integration are several, e.g.: - Supply of process steam from the CHP to the fuel plant, by which the time of operation for the CHP can be extended; Supply of surplus heat from the fuel plant to the district heating system; Material exchange between the systems, by use of residue streams from the fuel plant as fuel in the HP/CHP; Surplus heat from the fuel plant used for drying of the solid fuel to the HP/CHP or for drying of raw material for pellets production; Co-location providing opportunities for shared infrastructure for raw material handling, service systems, utilities and/or logistics. The report principally addresses integration options of the first three types, but describes briefly also pellets production. The starting point for the analysis of integration options is the description of technologies of interest for the production of automotive biofuels. Commercially available technologies are of prime interest, but also a couple of technologies under development are included in this part of the study. In addition to outlining the process characteristics for these processes, surrounding conditions and system requirements are briefly outlined. The results are summarized in Table S1. Ethanol fermentation

  3. Study on Waste Heat Utilization Device of High-Temperature Freshwater in the Modern Marine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuaijun; Liu, Chentao; Zhou, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Based on using the waste heat recycling from high temperature freshwater in marine diesel engine to heat fuel oil tank, lubrication oil tank and settling tank and so on to achieve energy saving, improve fuel efficiency as the goal, study on waste heat utilization device of high-temperature freshwater in the modern marine diesel engine to make the combustion chamber effectively cooled by high-temperature freshwater and the inner liner freshwater temperature heat is effectively utilized and so on to improve the overall efficiency of the power plant of the ship and the diesel optimum working condition.

  4. Compressed air energy storage with waste heat export: An Alberta case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaei, Hossein; Keith, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Export of compression waste heat from CAES facilities for municipal heating can be profitable. • D-CAES concept has a negative abatement cost of −$40/tCO 2 e under the studied circumstances. • Economic viability of D-CAES highly depends on distance between air storage site and heat load. - Abstract: Interest in compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology has been renewed driven by the need to manage variability form rapidly growing wind and solar capacity. Distributed CAES (D-CAES) design aims to improve the efficiency of conventional CAES through locating the compressor near concentrated heating loads so capturing additional revenue through sales of compression waste heat. A pipeline transports compressed air to the storage facility and expander, co-located at some distance from the compressor. The economics of CAES are strongly dependant on electricity and gas markets in which they are embedded. As a case study, we evaluated the economics of two hypothetical merchant CAES and D-CAES facilities performing energy arbitrage in Alberta, Canada using market data from 2002 to 2011. The annual profit of the D-CAES plant was $1.3 million more on average at a distance of 50 km between the heat load and air storage sites. Superior economic and environmental performance of D-CAES led to a negative abatement cost of −$40/tCO 2 e. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses to evaluate the impact of size of heat load, size of air storage, ratio of expander to compressor size, and length of pipeline on the economic feasibility of D-CAES

  5. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  6. The German Final Repository Konrad for Low and Intermediate Level Waste with Negligible Heat Generation - Water Law Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetsch, W.; Grundler, D.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Steyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    A survey on the conceptual realization of the requirements due to water law aspects within the license the KONRAD repository for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in Germany is given [1]. The regulatory decision for the implementation and operation of the repository KONRAD includes, among other things, water law issues. In particular, the KONRAD license includes waste requirements concerning non-radioactive hazardous material (waste package constituents) which have to be considered producing KONRAD waste packages. The intended philosophy of waste acceptance and waste package quality assurance measures to be considered by the KONRAD site operator as well as by the waste producer will be presented. It will demonstrate the selected procedure of the waste declaration and acceptance and describe the structure and logic of tools and aids to comply with the legal requirements of the license and its collateral clause issued under water law. (authors)

  7. Dynamic study of steam generation from low-grade waste heat in a zeolite–water adsorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Bing; Meng, Xiangrui; Wei, Xinli; Nakaso, Koichi; Fukai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A novel zeolite–water adsorption heat pump system based on a direct-contact heat exchange method to generate steam from low-grade waste gas and water has been proposed and examined experimentally. Superheated steam (200 °C, 0.1 MPa) is generated from hot water (70–80 °C) and dry air (100–130 °C). A dynamic model for steam generation process is developed to describe local mass and heat transfer. This model features a three-phase calculation and a moving water–gas interface. The calculations are carried out in the zeolite–water and zeolite–gas regions. Model outputs are compared with experimental results for validation. The thermal response inside the reactor and mass of steam generated is well predicted. Numerical results show that preheat process with low-temperature steam is an effective method to achieve local equilibrium quickly, thus generation process is enhanced by prolonging the time and increasing mass of the generated steam. Besides, high-pressure steam generation up to 0.5 MPa is possible from the validated dynamic model. Future work could be emphasized on enhancing high-pressure steam generation with preheat process or mass recovery operation

  8. Heat Melt Compaction as an Effective Treatment for Eliminating Microorganisms from Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Strayer, Richard F.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Ruby, Anna Maria; Wheeler, Ray; Fisher, John

    2013-01-01

    One of the technologies being tested at Ames Research Center as part of the logistics and repurposing project is heat melt compaction (HMC) of solid waste to reduce volume, remove water and render a biologically stable and safe product. Studies at Kennedy Space Center have focused on the efficacy of the heat melt compaction process for killing microorganisms in waste and specific compacter operation protocols, i.e., time and temperature required to achieve a sterile, stable product. The work. reported here includes a controlled study to examine the survival and potential re-growth of specific microorganisms over a 6-month period of storage after heating and compaction. Before heating and compaction, ersatz solid wastes were inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, previously isolated from recovered space shuttle mission food and packaging waste. Compacted HMC tiles were sampled for microbiological analysis at time points between 0 and 180 days of storage in a controlled environment chamber. In addition, biological indicator strips containing spores of Bacillus atrophaeus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus were imbedded in trash to assess the efficacy of the HMC process to achieve sterilization. Analysis of several tiles compacted at 180deg C for times of 40 minutes to over 2 hours detected organisms in all tile samples with the exception of one exposed to 180deg C for approximately 2 hours. Neither of the inoculated organisms was recovered, and the biological indicator strips were negative for growth in all tiles indicating at least local sterilization of tile areas. The findings suggest that minimum time/temperature combination is required for complete sterilization. Microbial analysis of tiles processed at lower temperatures from 130deg C-150deg C at varying times will be discussed, as well as analysis of the bacteria and fungi present on the compactor hardware as a result of exposure to the waste and the surrounding environment

  9. Organic Rankine Cycle Analysis: Finding the Best Way to Utilize Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Chakroun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a type of power cyclethat uses organic substances such as hydrocarbons orrefrigerants as the working fluid. ORC technology is usedto generate electricity in waste heat recovery applications,because the available heat is not at a high enoughtemperature to operate with other types of cycles. Theoptimum amount of working fluid required for the cycle(i.e., optimum charge level was investigated. Three chargelevels (13, 15, and 18 lbm were tested, and their effect onefficiency and performance of the system was analyzed.The heat source for the fluid was waste steam from thePurdue Power Plant, which had an average temperatureof 120oC. Regular city tap water at a temperature of 15oCwas used as the heat sink. For each charge level, multipletests were performed by measuring the temperaturesand pressures at all state points in the cycle, in order tounderstand any overarching patterns within the data.An important parameter that was analyzed is the 2nd lawefficiency. This efficiency is a measure of the effectivenessof the energy utilization compared to that of an idealcase. The peak efficiency increased from 24% to 27% asthe charge in the system decreased. Therefore, movingforward, this research suggests that a lower charge levelin the system will increase efficiency. However, testingbelow 13 lbm might cause mechanical complications inthe equipment as there may not be enough fluid to flowaround; thus, a compromise had to be made.

  10. A review of concentrated photovoltaic-thermal (CPVT) hybrid solar systems with waste heat recovery (WHR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Ju; Chao Xu; Zhirong Liao; Xiaoze Du; Gaosheng Wei; Zhifeng Wang; Yongping Yang

    2017-01-01

    In conventional photovoltaic (PV) systems,a large portion of solar energy is dissipated as waste heat since the generating efficiency is usually less than 30%.As the dissipated heat can be recovered for various applications,the wasted heat recovery concentrator PV/thermal (WHR CPVT) hybrid systems have been developed.They can provide both electricity and usable heat by combining thermal systems with concentrator PV (CPV) module,which dramatically improves the overall conversion efficiency of solar energy.This paper systematically and comprehensively reviews the research and development ofWHR CPVT systems.WHR CPVT systems with innovative design configurations,different theoretical evaluation models and experimental test processes for several implementations are presented in an integrated manner.We aim to provide a global point of view on the research trends,market potential,technical obstacles,and the future work which is required in the development of WHR CPVT technology.Possibly,it will offer a generic guide to the investigators who are interested in the study of WHR CPVT systems.

  11. Modelling of Evaporator in Waste Heat Recovery System using Finite Volume Method and Fuzzy Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaporator is an important component in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC-based Waste Heat Recovery (WHR system since the effective heat transfer of this device reflects on the efficiency of the system. When the WHR system operates under supercritical conditions, the heat transfer mechanism in the evaporator is unpredictable due to the change of thermo-physical properties of the fluid with temperature. Although the conventional finite volume model can successfully capture those changes in the evaporator of the WHR process, the computation time for this method is high. To reduce the computation time, this paper develops a new fuzzy based evaporator model and compares its performance with the finite volume method. The results show that the fuzzy technique can be applied to predict the output of the supercritical evaporator in the waste heat recovery system and can significantly reduce the required computation time. The proposed model, therefore, has the potential to be used in real time control applications.

  12. Ways to achieve optimum utilization of waste gas heat in cement kiln plants with cyclone preheaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbiss, E

    1986-02-01

    Kiln exit gases and the exhaust gases from clinker coolers often cannot be fully utilized in drying plants. In such cases a part of the heat content of the gases should be utilized for water heating. In addition, it is possible to utilize the waste gas heat in conventional steam boilers, with which, depending on design, it is possible to generate electricity at a rate of between 10-30 kWh/t (net output). A new and promising method of utilization of waste gas heat is provided by precalcining systems with bypass, in which up to 100% of the kiln exit gases can be economically bypassed and be utilized in a steam boiler, without requiring any cooling. A development project, already started, gives information on the operational behaviour of such a plant and on the maximum energy recoverable. Alternatively, the bypass gases may, after partial cooling with air or preheater exit gas, be dedusted and then utilized in a grinding/drying plant. Furthermore, they can be used in the cement grinding process for the drying of wet granulated blastfurnace slag or other materials. For this it is not necessary to dedust the bypass gases.

  13. SOLID FUEL OF HYDROCARBON, WOOD AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE FOR LOCAL HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belarus oil refining and oil producing industries are paid close attention. On the background of the active maintaining the level of oil processing and volume of oil extraction in our country and in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union there is a steady formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste; therefore recycling of the latter is an urgent task to improve the competitiveness of production. The most cost-effective way of using hydrocarbon waste is the conversion of it into power resources. In this case it is possible to obtain significant power-saving and economic effect of the combined use of a hydrocarbon, wood, agricultural and other combustible waste, meanwhile improving the ecological situation at the sites of waste storage and creating a solid fuel with the necessary energy and specified physical-and-chemical properties. A comprehensive solution of a recycling problem makes it possible to use as energy resources a lot of waste that has not found application in other technologies, to produce alternative multi-component fuel which structure meets environmental and energy requirement for local heating systems. In addition, the implementation of such technology will make it possible to reduce power consumption of enterprises of various kinds that consume fuel and will also increase the share of local fuels in the energy balance of a particular region.

  14. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume I. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of capturing energy ejected in hot water at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is presented. The cooling water, drawn from the river or a pond at the rate of 500,000 gallons per minute, is typically heated 80 0 F to about 150 0 F and is then allowed to cool in the atmosphere. The energy added to the water is equivalent to 20 million barrels of oil a year. This study reports that the reject heat can be used directly in an organic Rankine cycle system to evaporate fluids which drive electric generators. The output of one reactor can produce 45,000 kilowatts of electricity. Since the fuel is waste heat, an estimated 45% savings over conventional electric costs is possible over a thirty year period

  15. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxide Materials for Effective Power Generation from Waste Heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    A large amount of thermal energy that emitted from many industrial processes is available as waste heat. It is difficult to reclaim this heat due to the dispersed nature and relative smallness of its sources. Thermoelectric conversion can offer a very promising method to overcome these difficulties...... by converting heat directly into electricity. However, the requirements for this task place in the materials are not easily satisfied by the conventional thermoelectric materials. Not only they must possess a high thermoelectric performance, they should also be stable at high temperatures and be composed...... of nontoxic and low-cost elements, and must be able to be processed and shaped cheaply. Oxides are among the strongest candidate materials for this purpose, and recently they have been intensively investigated and developed [1-5]. In this report, the development progress of two state-of-the-art p-type Ca3Co4O...

  16. Retrospective dosimetry: dose evaluation using unheated and heated quartz from a radioactive waste storage building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.; Jungner, H.

    2002-01-01

    In the assessment of dose received from a nuclear accident, considerable attention has been paid to retrospective dosimetry using heated materials such as household ceramics and bricks. However, unheated materials such as mortar and concrete are more commonly found in industrial sites and particularly in nuclear installations. These materials contain natural dosemeters such as quartz, which usually is less sensitive than its heated counterpart. The potential of quartz extracted from mortar is a wall of a low-level radioactive-waste storage facility containing distributed sources of 60 Co and 13C s has been investigated. Dose-depth profiles based on small aliquots and single grains from the quartz extracted from the mortar samples are reported here. These are compared with results from heated quartz and polymineral fine grains extracted from an adjacent brick, and the integrated dose recorded by environmental TLDs. (author)

  17. Retrospective dosimetry: Dose evaluation using unheated and heated quartz from a radioactive waste storage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the assessment of dose received from a nuclear accident, considerable attention has been paid to retrospective dosimetry using heated materials such as household ceramics and bricks. However, unheated materials such as mortar and concrete are more commonly found in industrial sites......-137 has been investigated. Dose-depth profiles based on small aliquots and single grains from the quartz extracted from the mortar samples are reported here. These are compared with results from heated quartz and polymineral fine grains extracted from an adjacent brick, and the integrated dose...... and particularly in nuclear installations. These materials contain natural dosemeters Such as quartz. which usually is less sensitive than its heated counterpart. The potential of quartz extracted from mortar in a wall of a low-level radioactive-waste storage facility containing distributed sources of Co-60 and Cs...

  18. Performance analysis of ORC power generation system with low-temperature waste heat of aluminum reduction cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqi; Zhou, Naijun; Jing, Guo

    Performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system to recover low-temperature waste heat from aluminum reduction cell was analyzed. The temperature of waste heat is 80°C-200°C and the flow rate is 3×105m3/h. The pinch temperature difference between waste heat and working fluids is 10°C. The results show that there is optimal evaporating temperature for maximum net power under the same pinch point. For heat source temperature range of 80°C-140°C and 150°C-170°C, the working fluid given biggest net power is R227ea and R236fa, respectively. When the temperature is higher than 180°C, R236ea generates the biggest net power. The variation of heat source temperature has important effect on net power. When the temperature decreases 10%, the net power will deviate 30% from the maximum value.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system for marine diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Song, Yin; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Escalating fuel prices and imposition of carbon dioxide emission limits are creating renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of marine diesel engines. One viable means to achieve such improved thermal efficiency is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. This paper examines waste heat recovery of a marine diesel engine using ORC technology. Two separated ORC apparatuses for the waste heat from both the jacket cooling water and the engine exhaust gas are designed as the traditional recovery system. The maximum net power output is chosen as the evaluation criterion to select the suitable working fluid and define the optimal system parameters. To simplify the waste heat recovery, an optimized system using the jacket cooling water as the preheating medium and the engine exhaust gas for evaporation is presented. The influence of preheating temperature on the system performance is evaluated to define the optimal operating condition. Economic and off-design analysis of the optimized system is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the optimized system is technically feasible and economically attractive. - Highlights: • ORC is used to recover waste heat from both exhaust gas and jacket cooling water. • Comparative study is conducted for different ORC systems. • Thermal performance, system structure and economic feasibility are considered. • Optimal preheating temperature of the system is selected

  20. A thermodynamic analysis of waste heat recovery from reciprocating engine power plants by means of Organic Rankine Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Antti; Honkatukia, Juha; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Larjola, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a Rankine cycle using organic fluid as the working fluid instead of water and steam. The ORC process is a feasible choice in waste heat recovery applications producing electricity from relatively low-temperature waste heat sources or in applications having a rather low power output. Utilizing waste heat from a large high-efficiency reciprocating engine power plant with ORC processes is studied by means of computations. In addition to exhaust gas heat recovery, this study represents and discusses an idea of directly replacing the charge air cooler (CAC) of a large turbocharged engine with an ORC evaporator to utilize the charge air heat in additional power production. A thermodynamic analysis for ORCs was carried out with working fluids toluene, n-pentane, R245fa and cyclohexane. The effect of different ORC process parameters on the process performance are presented and analyzed in order to investigate the heat recovery potential from the exhaust gas and charge air. A simplified feasibility consideration is included by comparing the ratio of the theoretical heat transfer areas needed and the obtained power output from ORC processes. The greatest potential is related to the exhaust gas heat recovery, but in addition also the lower temperature waste heat streams could be utilized to boost the electrical power of the engine power plant. A case study for a large-scale gas-fired engine was carried out showing that the maximum power increase of 11.4% was obtained from the exhaust gas and 2.4% from the charge air heat. - Highlights: • Waste heat recovery potential of reciprocating engines was studied. • Thermodynamic optimization for ORCs was carried out with different fluids. • The utilization of exhaust gas and charge air heat is presented and discussed. • Simplified economic feasibility study was included in the analysis. • Power increase of 11.4% was obtained from exhaust gas and 2.4% from charge air

  1. Automotive NVH technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nijman, Eugenius; Priebsch, Hans-Herwig

    2016-01-01

    This book presents seven chapters examining selected noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) topics that are highly relevant for automotive vehicle development. These include applications following the major trends toward increased passenger comfort, vehicle electrification and lightweight design. The authors of the seven chapters, all of which are experts from the automotive industry and academia, present the foremost challenges and potential solutions in this demanding field. Among others, applications for sound optimization in downsized engines, noise optimization in electric powertrains, weight reduction options for exhaust systems, porous materials description, and the vibro-acoustic analysis of geared systems are discussed.

  2. Identification for automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hjalmarsson, Håkan; Re, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Increasing complexity and performance and reliability expectations make modeling of automotive system both more difficult and more urgent. Automotive control has slowly evolved from an add-on to classical engine and vehicle design to a key technology to enforce consumption, pollution and safety limits. Modeling, however, is still mainly based on classical methods, even though much progress has been done in the identification community to speed it up and improve it. This book, the product of a workshop of representatives of different communities, offers an insight on how to close the gap and exploit this progress for the next generations of vehicles.

  3. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  4. Split radiator design for heat rejection optimization for a waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2016-10-18

    A cooling system provides improved heat recovery by providing a split core radiator for both engine cooling and condenser cooling for a Rankine cycle (RC). The cooling system includes a radiator having a first cooling core portion and a second cooling core portion. An engine cooling loop is fluidly connected the second cooling core portion. A condenser of an RC has a cooling loop fluidly connected to the first cooling core portion. A valve is provided between the engine cooling loop and the condenser cooling loop adjustably control the flow of coolant in the condenser cooling loop into the engine cooling loop. The cooling system includes a controller communicatively coupled to the valve and adapted to determine a load requirement for the internal combustion engine and adjust the valve in accordance with the engine load requirement.

  5. Underground seasonal storage of industrial waste heat; Saisonale Speicherung industrieller Abwaerme im Untergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, M.; Mueller, J. [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik, TU Muenchen-Weihenstephan, Freising (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The thermal efficiency of subject systems, especially at higher temperatures is influenced by heat and humidity transport underground. Thermal conductivity and specific thermal capacity depend on the humidity content of the soil. A simulation model was developed that describes the coupled heat and humidity transport in the temperature range up to 90 C. This model will be validated in laboratory and field tests and then be used for designing and analysing underground stores. Pilot plants for the storage of industrial waste heat were designed and planned on the basis of this simulation. In both cases these are cogeneration plants whose waste heat was to be used for space heating and as process energy. Both plants have a very high demand of electric energy which is mostly supplied by the cogeneration plant. The waste heat is put into the store during the summer. In the winter heat is supplied by both the store and the cogeneration plant. In both cases the store has a volume of approx. 15,000 cubic metres with 140 and 210 pits located in a depth of 30 and 40 metres. The plants are used to carry out extensive measurements for the validation of simulation models. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die thermische Leistungsfaehigkeit solcher Systeme wird insbesondere im hoeheren Temperaturbereich durch den Waerme- und Feuchtetransport im Untergrund beeinflusst. Sowohl die Waermeleitfaehigkeit als auch die spezifische Waermekapazitaet sind vom Feuchtegehalt des Bodens abhaengig. Es wurde ein Simulationsmodell entwickelt, das den gekoppelten Waerme- und Feuchtetransport im Temperaturbereich bis 90 C beschreibt. Dieses Modell wird an Labor- und Feldexperimenten validiert und dient dann zur Auslegung und Analyse von Erdwaermesonden-Speichern. Basierend auf diesen theoretischen Grundlagenarbeiten wurden Pilotanlagen zur saisonalen Speicherung industrieller Abwaerme ausgelegt und geplant. In beiden Faellen handelt es sich um Kraft/Waermekopplungsanlagen, deren Abwaerme zur Gebaeudeheizung und

  6. Design optimization of ORC systems for waste heat recovery on board a LNG carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffiato, Marco; Frangopoulos, Christos A.; Manente, Giovanni; Rech, Sergio; Lazzaretto, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ORC systems are one of the most promising options to recover low temperature heat. • Design of ORC systems on board a LNG carrier is optimized using the Heatsep method. • Simple, regenerative and two-stage, subcritical and supercritical ORCs are considered. • Three engine cooling systems layouts are found to supply heat to the ORCs. • The highest net power output is achieved by the two-stage ORC configuration. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology may represent an interesting way to exploit the low grade waste heat rejected by the ship power generation plant. This option is investigated here to recover the heat available from three of the four engines of a real electrically driven Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. A detailed analysis of the engines operation is first performed to evaluate all thermal streams released by the engines. Heat associated with the jacket water, lubricating oil and charge air cooling of the engines is found to be available for the ORC, while the heat from the exhaust gases is already used to generate low pressure steam for ship internal use. Simple, regenerative and two-stage ORC configurations are compared using six different organic fluids that are selected as the most suitable for this application. The thermal matching that maximizes the net power output of the total system composed by engine cooling circuits and ORC cycle is then found by searching for the optimum heat transfer between thermal streams independently of the structure/number of the heat exchangers. Three layouts of the engine cooling systems are compared. Results show that the maximum net power output (820 kW) achieved by the two-stage ORC configuration almost doubles the simple cycle and regenerative ones (430–580 kW), but structure complexity and reliability issues may give different indications in terms of economic feasibility

  7. Performance analysis of a low-temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination prototype

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-10-01

    This paper discusses the performance analysis of an advanced adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with an internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator. The AD cycle employs the adsorption-desorption principles to convert sea or brackish water into high-grade potable water with total dissolved solids (TDS) less than 10 ppm (mg/L) utilizing low-temperature heat source. The salient features of the AD cycle are the utilization of low temperature waste heat (typically 55 C to 85 C) with the employment of an environment-friendly silica gel/water pair and the low maintenance as it has no major moving parts other than the pumps and valves. For improved performance of the AD pilot plant, the internal heat recovery scheme between the condenser and evaporator has been implemented with a run-about water circuit between them. The efficacy of the scheme is analyzed in terms of key performance indicators such as the specific daily water production (SDWP) and the performance ratio (PR). Extensive experiments were performed for assorted heat source temperatures ranging from 70 C to 50 C. From the experiments, the SDWP of the AD cycle with the proposed heat recovery scheme is found to be 15 m3 of water per ton of silica gel that is almost twice that of the yield obtained by a conventional AD cycle for the same operation conditions. Another important finding of AD desalination plant is that the advanced AD cycle could still be operational with an inlet heat source temperature of 50 C and yet achieving a SDWP of 4.3 m3 - a feat that never seen by any heat-driven cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Waste Eggshell as a Base Catalyst under a Microwave Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore the most affordable and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of biodiesel. Substitute fuel is presently a significant topic all over the world, attributable to the efforts of reducing global warming, which is the result arising from the combustion of petroleum or petrol diesel fuel. Due to its advantages of being renewable and environmentally friendly, biodiesel production has the potential to become the major substitute of petrol diesel fuel. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, is produced from renewable sources, and contributes a small amount of greenhouse gas (e.g., CO2 and SO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Research has established that one of the key obstacles to the commercialization of biodiesel is the high price of biodiesel production due to the shortage of suitable raw materials. However, waste-cooking-oil (WCO is one of the most cost-effective sources of biodiesel synthesis, and can practically minimize the raw material cost. The research was carried out to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil in order to reduce the cost, waste, and pollution associated with biodiesel production. The application of a microwave heating system towards enhancing the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil has been given little consideration in the preceding research, particularly with the application of eggshell as a heterogeneous catalyst. However, the tentative results in this study show significant performance in terms of biodiesel production, as follows: (1 the increasing of the reaction time from 120 to 165 min considerably increased the biodiesel production, which declined with a further rise to 210 min; (2 the results of this study reveal that a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of nine is appropriate and can be used for the best production of biodiesel; (3 the production of biodiesel in this study demonstrated a significant increase in response to the further increasing of power; (4 a 120 min

  9. Effect of aluminate ions on the heat of hydration of cementitious waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.

    1993-11-01

    During the hydration and setting of high-salt content liquid waste grouts, considerable heat is generated by exothermic reactions within the grout. These reactions include hydration reactions of cementitious solids and reactions between waste constituents and the solids. Adiabatic temperature rises exceeding 80 degrees C have been estimated for grouts prepared with a dry blend of 47 wt % fly ash, 47 wt % blast furnace slag, and 6 wt % type I/II Portland cement (1) Performance criteria for grout disposal specify that the temperature of the grout waste form must not exceed 90 degrees C (2) To counter the increase in temperature, inert solids were added to the ''47/47/6'' dry blend to reduce the amount of heat-generating solids, thereby decreasing the temperature rise. Based on preliminary results from adiabatic calorimetry, a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % class F fly ash, 28 wt % ground blast furnace slag, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement was selected for further testing

  10. A novel cascade organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for waste heat recovery of truck diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Zhuge, Weilin; Zhang, Yangjun; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A confluent cascade expansion ORC (CCE-ORC) system is proposed. • Cyclopentane is considered as the most suitable fluid for this system. • The CCE-ORC system performance under full operating conditions is analyzed. • The BSFC of diesel engine can be reduced by 9.2% with the CCE-ORC system. • Performance comparison of CCE-ORC and dual-loop ORC is conducted. - Abstract: Waste heat recovery (WHR) of engines has attracted increasingly more concerns recently, as it can improve engine thermal efficiency and help truck manufacturers meet the restrictions of CO_2 emission. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) has been considered as the most potential technology of WHR. To take full advantage of waste heat energy, the waste heat in both exhaust gases and the coolant need to be recovered; however, conventional multi-source ORC systems are too complex for vehicle applications. This paper proposed a confluent cascade expansion ORC (CCE-ORC) system for engine waste heat recovery, which has simpler architecture, a smaller volume and higher efficiency compared with conventional dual-loop ORC systems. Cyclopentane is analyzed to be regarded as the most suitable working fluid for this novel system. A thermodynamic simulation method is established for this system, and off-design performance of main components and the working fluid side pressure drop in the condenser have been taken into consideration. System performance simulations under full engine operating conditions are conducted for the application of this system on a heavy-duty truck diesel engine. Results show that the engine peak thermal efficiency can be improved from 45.3% to 49.5% where the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreases from 185.6 g/(kW h) to 169.9 g/(kW h). The average BSFC in the frequently operating region can decrease by 9.2% from 187.9 g/(kW h) to 172.2 g/(kW h). Compared with the conventional dual-loop ORC system, the CCE-ORC system can generate 8% more net power, while the

  11. Development of a desalination system driven by solar energy and low grade waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elminshawy, Nabil A.S.; Siddiqui, Farooq R.; Sultan, Gamal I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Productivity increases significantly up to critical waste gas flow rate. • Productivity decreases for waste gas flow rate higher than critical flow rate. • Increasing evaporator inlet waste gas temperature increases productivity. • The proposed system coupled with combined cycle has a fuel saving 1844 kg/h. • The cost of potable water produced is 0.014 USD/L. - Abstract: Various thermal power systems emit flue gases containing significant amount of waste energy. The aim of this research is to recover a valuable amount of this energy to develop an efficient desalination system coupled with solar energy. Experiments were performed in the month of June 2014 at Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia (26°4′53″N, 43°58′32″E) for different hot air (waste gas) flow rates and evaporator inlet water temperature to study the effect on daily potable water productivity. The proposed setup comprised an evaporator, condenser, air blower, electric heaters, storage tank and evacuated tube solar collectors. It was found that increasing the hot air flow rate increases the water productivity up to the critical flow rate after which the productivity decreases. Analytical model was developed for this desalination setup and the results were compared to that obtained from experiments. The overall daily (9 AM–5 PM) potable water productivity of the proposed system is about 50 L for corresponding useful waste heat varying from 130 to 180 MJ/day and a global solar radiation on a horizontal surface ranging from 15 to 29 MJ/m 2 /day. Water is produced at the cost of 0.014 USD/L and the fuel saving equal to 1844 kg/h is achieved for the proposed desalination system

  12. Second law analysis of novel working fluid pairs for waste heat recovery by the Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Tim; Heberle, Florian; Brüggemann, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and the Kalina cycle (KC) are potential thermodynamic concepts for decentralized power generation from industrial waste heat at a temperature level below 500 °C. The aim of this work is to investigate in detail novel zeotropic mixtures as working fluid for the KC and compare to sub- and supercritical ORC based on second law efficiency. Heat source temperature is varied between 200 °C and 400 °C. The results show that second law efficiency of KC can be increased by applying alcohol/alcohol mixtures as working fluid instead of ammonia/water mixtures; especially for heat source temperatures above 250 °C. Efficiency increase is in the range of 16% and 75%. Despite this efficiency improvements, ORC with zeotropic mixtures in sub- and supercritical operation mode proves to be superior to KC in the examined temperature range. Second law efficiency is up to 13% higher than for KC. A maximum second law efficiency of 59.2% is obtained for supercritical ORC with benzene/toluene 36/64 at 400 °C heat source temperature. The higher level of efficiency and the lower complexity of ORC in comparison to KC indicate that ORC with zeotropic mixtures offers the greater potential for waste heat recovery. - Highlights: • Kalina Cycle with novel alcohol mixtures as working fluid is investigated. • Results are compared to ammonia/water-Kalina Cycle and ORC. • Second law efficiency of Kalina Cycle can be increased by novel alcohol mixtures. • Efficiency increase is in the range of 16% and 75%. • ORC with zeotropic mixtures proves to be superior to Kalina Cycle.

  13. Potential of organic Rankine cycle using zeotropic mixtures as working fluids for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, You-Rong; Du, Mei-Tang; Wu, Chun-Mei; Wu, Shuang-Ying; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) systems using zeotropic mixtures as working fluids for recovering waste heat of flue gas from industrial boiler is examined on the basis of thermodynamics and thermo-economics under different operating conditions. In order to explore the potential of the mixtures as the working fluids in the ORC, the effects of various mixtures with different components and composition proportions on the system performance have been analyzed. The results show that the compositions of the mixtures have an important effect on the ORC system performance, which is associated with the temperature glide during the phase change of mixtures. From the point of thermodynamics, the performance of the ORC system is not always improved by employing the mixtures as the working fluids. The merit of the mixtures is related to the restrictive conditions of the ORC, different operating conditions results in different conclusions. At a fixed pinch point temperature difference, the small mean heat transfer temperature difference in heat exchangers will lead to a larger heat transfer area and the larger total cost of the ORC system. Compared with the ORC with pure working fluids, the ORC with the mixtures presents a poor economical performance. - Highlights: • Organic Rankine cycle system with the mixture working fluids for recovering waste heat is analyzed. • The performance of the mixture-fluid ORC is related to temperature glide in phase change of mixture working fluids. • The relative merit of the mixture working fluids depends on the restrictive operation conditions of the ORC. • The ORC with mixture working fluid presents a poor economical performance compared with the pure working fluid case

  14. Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat and waste heat recovery in the iron and steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katter, L. B.; Peterson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The system identified operates from the primary arc furnace evacuation system as a heat source. Energy from the fume stream is stored as sensible energy in a solid medium (packed bed). A steam-driven turbine is arranged to generate power for peak shaving. A parametric design approach is presented since the overall system design, at optimum payback is strongly dependent upon the nature of the electric pricing structure. The scope of the project was limited to consideration of available technology so that industry-wide application could be achieved by 1985. A search of the literature, coupled with interviews with representatives of major steel producers, served as the means whereby the techniques and technologies indicated for the specific site are extrapolated to the industry as a whole and to the 1985 time frame. The conclusion of the study is that by 1985, a national yearly savings of 1.9 million barrels of oil could be realized through recovery of waste heat from primary arc furnace fume gases on an industry-wide basis. Economic studies indicate that the proposed system has a plant payback time of approximately 5 years.

  15. Heat pumps as a tool for energy recovery from mining wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, D.; Skarphagen, H.; Wiltshire, R.; Jessop, C. [Holymoor Consultancy, Chesterfield (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-22

    The article explains the principles of open-loop and closed-loop heat pumps and discusses the use of mine water as a source for ground heat. The use of mine water for space heating or cooling purposes has been demonstrated to be feasible and economic in applications in Scotland, Canada, Norway and the USA. Mine water is an attractive energy resource due to: (1) the high water storage and water flux in mine workings, representing a huge renewable enthalpy reservoir; (2) the possibility of re-branding a potentially polluting environmental liability as a 'green' energy resource; and (3) the development of many mine sites as commercial/industrial parks with large space heating/cooling requirements. The exothermic nature of the pyrite oxidation reaction implies added benefits if closed-loop systems can harness the chemical energy released in mine-waste tips. An appreciation of geochemistry also assists in identifying and solving possible problems with precipitation reactions occurring in heat pump systems. 51 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. A heated large block test for high level nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.A.; Blair, S.C.; Buscheck, T.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Lee, K.; Owens, M.W.; Roberts, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive decay heat from high-level nuclear waste may, depending on the thermal load, create coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the host rock of a repository. A heated large block test (LBT) is designed to understand some of the TNMC processes. A block of Topopah Spring tuff of about 3 x 3 x 4.5 m was isolated at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Small blocks of the rock adjacent to the large block were collected for laboratory testing of some individual thermal-mechanical, thermal-hydrological, and thermal-chemical processes. The large block will be heated by heaters within so that a dryout zone and a condensate zone will exist simultaneously. Guard heaters on the block sides will be used to minimize horizontal heat losses. A constant load of about 4 MPa will be applied to the top and sides of the large block. The sides will be sealed with moisture and thermal barriers. Temperature, moisture content, pore pressure, chemical composition, stress, displacement, electrical resistivity, acoustic emissions, and acoustic velocities will be measured throughout the block during the heating and cool-down phases. The results from the experiments on small blocks and the tests on the large block will provide a better understanding of some concepts of the coupled TMHC processes. The progress of the project is presented in this paper

  17. Determination of heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed: Extension to high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Jarrett A.; Pokorny, Richard; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-01-01

    The heat conductivity (λ) and the thermal diffusivity (a) of reacting glass batch, or melter feed, control the heat flux into and within the cold cap, a layer of reacting material floating on the pool of molten glass in an all-electric continuous waste glass melter. After previously estimating λ of melter feed at temperatures up to 680 deg C, we focus in this work on the λ(T) function at T > 680 deg C, at which the feed material becomes foamy. We used a customized experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples, which monitored the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible with feed was heated at a constant rate from room temperature up to 1100°C. Approximating measured temperature profiles by polynomial functions, we used the heat transfer equation to estimate the λ(T) approximation function, which we subsequently optimized using the finite-volume method combined with least-squares analysis. The heat conductivity increased as the temperature increased until the feed began to expand into foam, at which point the conductivity dropped. It began to increase again as the foam turned into a bubble-free glass melt. We discuss the implications of this behavior for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap

  18. Heat of hydration measurements on cemented radioactive wastes. Part 1: cement-water pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes the hydration of cement pastes in terms of chemical and kinetic models. A calorimetric technique was used to measure the heat of hydration to develop these models. The effects of temperature, water/cement ratio and cement replacements, ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and pulverised fuel ash (PFA) on the hydration of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is reported. The incorporation of BFS or PFA has a marked effect on the hydration reaction. The effect of temperature is also important but changing the water/cement ratio has little effect. Results from cement pastes containing only water and cement yield total heats of reaction of 400, 200 and 100 kJ/kg for OPC, BFS and PFA respectively. Using the results from the models which have been developed, the effect of major salts present in radioactive waste streams can be assessed. Values of the total heat of reaction, the time to complete 50 percent reaction, and the energy of activation, can be compared for different waste systems. (U.K.)

  19. Design of SMART waste heat removal dry cooling tower using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Jae; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The 85% of cooling system are once-through cooling system and closed cycle wet cooling system. However, many countries are trying to reduce the power plant water requirement due to the water shortage and water pollution. Dry cooling system is investigated for water saving advantage. There are two dry cooling system which are direct and indirect cooling system. In direct type, turbine exhaust is directly cooled by air-cooled condenser. In indirect system, turbine steam is cooled by recirculating intermediate cooling water loop, then the loop is cooled by air-cooled heat exchanger in cooling tower. In this paper, the purpose is to remove SMART waste heat, 200MW by using newly designed tower. The possibility of enhancing cooling performance by solar energy is analyzed. The simple cooling tower and solar energy cooling tower are presented and two design should meet the purpose of removing SMART waste heat, 200MW. In first design, when tower diameter is 70m, the height of tower should be 360m high. In second design, the chimney height decrease from 360m to 180m as collector radius increase from 100m to 500m due to collector temperature enhancement by solar energy, To analyze solar cooling tower further, consideration of solar energy performance at night should be analyzed

  20. Design of SMART waste heat removal dry cooling tower using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Jae; Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The 85% of cooling system are once-through cooling system and closed cycle wet cooling system. However, many countries are trying to reduce the power plant water requirement due to the water shortage and water pollution. Dry cooling system is investigated for water saving advantage. There are two dry cooling system which are direct and indirect cooling system. In direct type, turbine exhaust is directly cooled by air-cooled condenser. In indirect system, turbine steam is cooled by recirculating intermediate cooling water loop, then the loop is cooled by air-cooled heat exchanger in cooling tower. In this paper, the purpose is to remove SMART waste heat, 200MW by using newly designed tower. The possibility of enhancing cooling performance by solar energy is analyzed. The simple cooling tower and solar energy cooling tower are presented and two design should meet the purpose of removing SMART waste heat, 200MW. In first design, when tower diameter is 70m, the height of tower should be 360m high. In second design, the chimney height decrease from 360m to 180m as collector radius increase from 100m to 500m due to collector temperature enhancement by solar energy, To analyze solar cooling tower further, consideration of solar energy performance at night should be analyzed.

  1. Phase transformation based pyroelectric waste heat energy harvesting with improved practicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, almost 60% of thermal energy produced in the United States was lost to the environment as waste heat. Ferroelectric based pyroelectric devices can be used to convert some of this waste heat into usable electrical energy using the Olsen cycle, an ideal thermodynamic cycle, but there are a number of barriers to its realization in a practical device. This study uses the Olsen cycle to benchmark a less efficient thermodynamic cycle that is more easily implemented in devices. The ferroelectric pyroelectric material used was (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.55 Sn 0.32 Ti 0.13 )O 3 ceramic, a ferroelectric material that undergoes a temperature driven phase transformation. A net energy density of 0.27 J cm −3 per cycle was obtained from the ferroelectric material using the modified cycle with a temperature change between 25°C and 180°C. This is 15.5% of the Olsen cycle result with the same temperature range and 1–8 MV m −1 applied electric field range. The power density was estimated to 13.5 mW cm −3 with given experimental conditions. A model is presented that quantitatively describes the effect of several parameters on output energy density and can be used to design ferroelectric based pyroelectric energy converters. The model indicates that optimization of material geometry and heating conditions can increase the output power by an order or magnitude. (paper)

  2. A graphical criterion for working fluid selection and thermodynamic system comparison in waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Huan; Li, Ming-Jia; He, Ya-Ling; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we proposed a graphical criterion called CE diagram by achieving the Pareto optimal solutions of the annual cash flow and exergy efficiency. This new graphical criterion enables both working fluid selection and thermodynamic system comparison for waste heat recovery. It's better than the existing criterion based on single objective optimization because it is graphical and intuitionistic in the form of diagram. The features of CE diagram were illustrated by studying 5 examples with different heat-source temperatures (ranging between 100 °C to 260 °C), 26 chlorine-free working fluids and two typical ORC systems including basic organic Rankine cycle(BORC) and recuperative organic Rankine cycle (RORC). It is found that the proposed graphical criterion is feasible and can be applied to any closed loop waste heat recovery thermodynamic systems and working fluids. - Highlights: • A graphical method for ORC system comparison/working fluid selection was proposed. • Multi-objectives genetic algorithm (MOGA) was applied for optimizing ORC systems. • Application cases were performed to demonstrate the usage of the proposed method.

  3. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  4. Automotive Brake Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  5. Cooling systems for waste heat. Cooling systems, review and selection criteria. Kuehlsysteme fuer Abwaerme. Kuehlsysteme, Ueberblick und Auswahlkriterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W. (Jaeggi, Wallisellen (Switzerland))

    1990-05-01

    In many areas of ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration engineering, chemical and process engineering and energy production waste heat occurs. If a reduction in energy losses or heat recovery is not possible waste heat has to be drawn off through cooling systems. For this the following systems can be used: dry cooling systems, dry cooler with spray system, open-cycle wet cooler, hybrid dry cooler, and closed-cycle wet cooler. Particularly hybrid cooling systems can give acceptable solutions when the results with other systems are only unsatisfactory. (BWI).

  6. Determination of heating value of industrial waste for the formulation of alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouabid G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative fuels has become increasingly widespread. They are basically designed based on industrial waste so that they can substitute fossil fuels which start to become scarce. Alternative fuels must meet some criteria, namely an important calorific content, minimum humidity and ash content. When it comes to combustion, the most interesting parameter is the calorific value which represents the thermal energy released during combustion. The experiments that were conducted showed that the calorific value is influenced by other parameters namely moisture and ash content. It was therefore necessary to study the behavior of the heating value in terms of these two parameters in order to establish a relationship that is used to describe the behavior. This is expected to allow a simulation of the calorific value of a mixture of various industrial waste.

  7. Thermal decomposition of woody wastes contaminated with radioactive materials using externally-heated horizontal kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyuki; Kato, Shigeru; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Ito, Takuya; Suzuki, Seiichi; Kojima, Toshinori; Kodera, Yoichi; Hatta, Akimichi; Kikuzato, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Thermal decomposition experiments of woody wastes contaminated with radioactive materials were conducted using an externally-heated horizontal kiln in the work area for segregation of disaster wastes at Hirono Town, Futaba County, Fukushima Prefecture. Radioactivity was not detected in gaseous products of thermal decomposition at 923 K and 1123 K after passage through a trap filled with activated carbon. The contents of radioactive cesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) were measured in the solid and liquid products of the thermal decomposition experiments and in the residues in the kiln after all of the experiments. Although a trace amount of radioactive cesium was found in the washing trap during the start-up period of operation at 923 K, most of the cesium remained in the char, including the residues in the kiln. These results suggest that most of the radioactive cesium is trapped in char particles and is not emitted in gaseous form. (author)

  8. The Misselhorn Cycle: Batch-Evaporation Process for Efficient Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Gleinser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the Misselhorn cycle is introduced as a power cycle that aims for efficient waste heat recovery of temperature sources below 100 °C. The basic idea shows advantages over a standard Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in overall efficiency and utilization of the heat source. The main characteristic of this cycle is the use of at least three parallel batch evaporators instead of continuous heat exchangers. The operational phases of the evaporators are shifted so that there is always one vaporizer in discharge mode. A transient MATLAB® model (The MathWorks: Natick, MA, USA is used to simulate the achievable performance of the Misselhorn cycle. The calculations of the thermodynamic states of the system are based on the heat flux, the equations for energy conservation and the equations of state found in the NIST Standard Reference Database 23 (Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties - REFPROP, National Institute of Standards and Technology: Gaithersburg, MD, USA. In the isochoric batch evaporation, the pressure and the corresponding boiling temperature rise over time. With a gradually increasing boiling temperature, no pinch point limitation occurs. Furthermore, the heat source medium is passed through the evaporators in serial order to obtain a quasi-counter flow setup. It could be shown that these features offer the possibility to gain both high thermal efficiencies and an enhanced utilization of the heat source at the same time. A basic model with a fixed estimated heat transfer coefficient promises a possible system exergy efficiency of 44.4%, which is an increase of over 60% compared to a basic ORC with a system exergy efficiency of only 26.8%.

  9. Activation, decay heat, and waste classification studies of the European DEMO concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Eade, T.; Bachmann, C.; Fischer, U.; Taylor, N. P.

    2017-04-01

    Inventory calculations have a key role to play in designing future fusion power plants because, for a given irradiation field and material, they can predict the time evolution in chemical composition, activation, decay heat, gamma-dose, gas production, and even damage (dpa) dose. For conceptual designs of the European DEMO fusion reactor such calculations provide information about the neutron shielding requirements, maintenance schedules, and waste disposal prospects; thereby guiding future development. Extensive neutron-transport and inventory calculations have been performed for a reference DEMO reactor model with four different tritium-breeding blanket concepts. The results have been used to chart the post-operation variation in activity and decay heat from different vessel components, demonstrating that the shielding performance of the different blanket concepts—for a given blanket thickness—varies significantly. Detailed analyses of the simulated nuclide inventories for the vacuum vessel (VV) and divertor highlight the most dominant radionuclides, potentially suggesting how changes in material composition could help to reduce activity. Minor impurities in the raw composition of W used in divertor tiles, for example, are shown to produce undesirable long-lived radionuclides. Finally, waste classifications, based on UK regulations, and a recycling potential limit, have been applied to estimate the time-evolution in waste masses for both the entire vessel (including blanket modules, VV, divertor, and some ex-vessel components) and individual components, and also to suggest when a particular component might be suitable for recycling. The results indicate that the large mass of the VV will not be classifiable as low level waste on the 100 year timescale, but the majority of the divertor will be, and that both components will be potentially recyclable within that time.

  10. Combined heat and power system with advanced gasification technology for biomass wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, S.; Abe, T.; Yasuda, T. [Nippon Furnace Kogyo Kaisha Ltd, Yokohama (Japan); Gupta, A.K. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechnical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The results obtained from an advanced gasification system utilizing high temperature steam are presented here. The results showed successful demonstration of clean syngas production having high calorific value fuel ({proportional_to}10 MJ/m{sup 3}N) using woody biomass wastes in a downdraft type gasifier. The gasification capacity of the plant on dry basis was 60 kg/h. The syngas produced can be utilized in an absorption type chiller for air conditioning. This advanced gasification technology allows one to transform wastes to clean energy at local production sites without any environmental impact and expensive waste transportation costs. The experience gained from the demonstration plant allows one to implement to other industrial applications for use as a decentralized unit and obtain clean syngas for local use. The demonstration conducted here shows that the system is favorable for onsite use of compatible combined heat and power (CHP) system including light oil supported diesel engine power generator. The biomass waste fuel from a lumber mill factory was used in this study. The factory handles a wide forests area of about 50 ha and produces about 2,500 m{sup 3}/year of wood chips from thin out trees and waste lumbers. This translates to a maximum 110 kg/h of wood chips that can be fed to a gasifier. The syngas produced was used for the combined heat and power system. Local use of biomass for fuel reforming reduces the cost of collection and transportation costs so that a sustainable business is demonstrated with profit from the generated electricity and thermal energy. The cost structure incorporates both the depreciation cost and operation cost of the system. Thermal energy from hot water can be used for drying lumbers and wood chips in a cascade manner. The drying process can be adopted for enhancing its productivity with increased variability on the quality of lumber. The results show that the combined heat and power system (CHP) offers good profitable

  11. Intelligent design of waste heat recovery systems using thermoelectric generators and optimization tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goudarzi, A. M.; Mozaffari, Ahmad; Samadian, Pendar

    2014-01-01

    design to maximize the electricity demand of Damavand power plant as the biggest thermal system in Middle East sited in Iran. The idea of designing is laid behind applying a number of thermoelectric modules within the condenser in order to recover the waste heat of the thermal systems. Besides......Optimal design of thermal systems that effectively use energy resources is one of the foremost challenges that researchers almost confront. Until now, several researches have been made to enhance the performance of major thermal systems. In this investigation, the authors try to make a conceptual...

  12. Enhancement of LNG plant propane cycle through waste heat powered absorption cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, P.; Mortazavi, A.; Eveloy, V.; Al-Hashimi, S.; Hwang, Y.; Radermacher, R.

    2012-01-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants utilizing sea water for process cooling, both the efficiency and production capacity of the propane cycle decrease with increasing sea water temperature. To address this issue, several propane cycle enhancement approaches are investigated in this study, which require minimal modification of the existing plant configuration. These approaches rely on the use of gas turbine waste heat powered water/lithium bromide absorption cooling to either (i) subcool propane after the propane cycle condenser, or (ii) reduce propane cycle condensing pressure through pre-cooling of condenser cooling water. In the second approach, two alternative methods of pre-cooling condenser cooling water are considered, which consist of an open sea water loop, and a closed fresh water loop. In addition for all cases, three candidate absorption chiller configurations are evaluated, namely single-effect, double-effect, and cascaded double- and single-effect chillers. The thermodynamic performance of each propane cycle enhancement scheme, integrated in an actual LNG plant in the Persian Gulf, is evaluated using actual plant operating data. Subcooling propane after the propane cycle condenser is found to improve propane cycle total coefficient of performance (COP T ) and cooling capacity by 13% and 23%, respectively. The necessary cooling load could be provided by either a single-effect, double-effect or cascaded and single- and double-effect absorption refrigeration cycle recovering waste heat from a single gas turbine operated at full load. Reducing propane condensing pressure using a closed fresh water condenser cooling loop is found result in propane cycle COP T and cooling capacity enhancements of 63% and 22%, respectively, but would require substantially higher capital investment than for propane subcooling, due to higher cooling load and thus higher waste heat requirements. Considering the present trend of short process enhancement payback periods in the

  13. Technology for industrial waste heat recovery by organic Rankine cycle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, W. G.; Drake, R. L.; Prisco, C. J.

    1984-10-01

    The recovery of industrial waste heat and the conversion thereof to useful electric power by use of Rankine cycle systems is studied. Four different aspects of ORC technology were studied: possible destructive chemical reaction between an aluminum turbine wheel and R-113 working fluid under wheel-to-rotor rub conditions; possible chemical reaction between stainless steel or carbon steel and any of five different ORC working fluids under rotor-stator rub conditions; effects on electric generator properties of extended exposure to an environment of saturated R-113 vapor/fluid; and operational proof tests under laboratory conditions of two 1070 kW, ORC, R-113 hermetic turbogenerator power module systems.

  14. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  15. Thermodynamic effects when utilizing waste heat from condensation in cases of a reduced vacuum in steam turbine plants of thermal power stations, to provide heat at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljevic, N.; Savic, B.; Stojakovic, M.

    1986-01-01

    There is an interesting variant of cogeneration in the steam turbine system of a thermal power plant, i.e. the utilisation of the waste heat of condensation with a reduced vacuum without reconstruction of the thermal power plant. The thermodynamic effect in cogeneration was calculated in consideration of the dynamics of heat consumption. This cogeneration process has the advantage of saving primary energy without reconstruction of the thermal power plant.

  16. Heat Melt Compaction as an Effective Treatment for Eliminating Microorganisms from Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Strayer, Richard F.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Ruby, Anna Maria; Wheeler, Ray; Fisher, John

    2013-01-01

    One of the technologies being tested at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) for the Advance Exploration Systems program and as part of the logistics and repurposing project is heat melt compaction (HMC) of solid waste. Reduces volume, removes water and renders a biologically stable and safe product. The HMC compacts and reduces the trash volume as much as 90o/o greater than the current manual compaction used by the crew.The project has three primary goals or tasks. 1. Microbiological analysis of HMC hardware surfaces before and after operation. 2. Microbiological and physical characterizations of heat melt tiles made from trash at different processing times and temperatures. 3. Long term storage and stability of HMC trash tiles or "Do the bugs grow back?"

  17. Heat-transfer aspects of Stirling power generation using incinerator waste energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.T.; Lin, F.Y.; Chiou, J.S. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-01-01

    The integration of a free-piston Stirling engine with linear alternator and an incinerator is able to effectively recover the waste energy and generate electrical power. In this study, a cycle-averaged heat transfer model is employed to investigate the performance of a free-piston Stirling engine installed on an incinerator. With the input of source and sink temperatures and other realistic heat transfer coefficients, the efficiency and the optimal power output are estimated, and the effect induced by internal and external irreversibilities is also evaluated. The proposed approach and modeling results presented in this study provide valuable information for engineers and designers to recover energy from small-scale incinerators. (author)

  18. Potential weather modification caused by waste heat release from large dry cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical model of a cooling tower plume is employed to study the possible atmospheric effects of thermal plumes from natural draft dry cooling towers. Calculations are performed for both single and multiple towers, each of which can dissipate the waste heat from a nominal 1000 MWe power generating unit, and the results are compared with those for wet cooling towers associated with plants of the same generating capacity. Dry cooling tower plumes are found to have a higher potential for inducing convective clouds than wet cooling tower plumes, under most summertime meteorological conditions. This is due to the fact that both the sensible heat and momentum fluxes from a dry tower in summer are approximately one order of magnitude larger than those from a wet cooling tower

  19. Thermoelectric Power Generation Utilizing the Waste Heat from a Biomass Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazdil, Marian; Pospisil, Jiri

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the presented work is to test the possibility of using thermoelectric power to convert flue gas waste heat from a small-scale domestic pellet boiler, and to assess the influence of a thermoelectric generator on its function. A prototype of the generator, able to be connected to an existing device, was designed, constructed, and tested. The performance of the generator as well as the impact of the generator on the operation of the boiler was investigated under various operating conditions. The boiler gained auxiliary power and could become a combined heat and power unit allowing self-sufficient operation. The created unit represents an independent source of electricity with effective use of fuel.

  20. Simultaneous Waste Heat and Water Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gases for Advanced Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This final report presents the results of a two-year technology development project carried out by a team of participants sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this project is to develop a membrane-based technology to recover both water and low grade heat from power plant flue gases. Part of the recovered high-purity water and energy can be used directly to replace plant boiler makeup water as well as improving its efficiency, and the remaining part of the recovered water can be used for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), cooling tower water makeup or other plant uses. This advanced version Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) with lower capital and operating costs can be applied to existing plants economically and can maximize waste heat and water recovery from future Advanced Energy System flue gases with CO2 capture in consideration, which will have higher moisture content that favors the TMC to achieve higher efficiency.

  1. Air conditioning using waste heat from fuel cells; Konzeptstudie: Klimatisierung durch Abwaermenutzung aus Brennstoffzellen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantenbein, P.; Luzzi, A.; Spirig, M. [Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil (HSR), Institut fuer Solartechnik (SPF), Rapperswil (Switzerland); Schuler, A.; Nerlich, V. [Hexis AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This concept study for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done at the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil, Switzerland on possibilities of using the waste heat from fuel cell stacks to provide heating and, in the summertime, cooling using an absorption refrigeration system. The study evaluates the technical, economical and market-relevant aspects of such systems. The methods used in making comparisons with conventional reference systems, including reviews of existing information and expert questioning, are discussed. The results obtained are presented and the results of sensitivity analyses are discussed. These include electricity feed-in tariffs and gas prices, pay-back times, capital interest rates, etc. Further, barriers encountered such as patents and other market hindrances are discussed. The report is completed with a comprehensive appendix.

  2. Analysis of vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using a Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, António; Santos, Helder; Costa, Mário

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust WHR (waste heat recovery) potential using a RC (Rankine cycle ). To this end, both a RC thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model have been developed. Both models use as input, experimental data obtained from a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer. The thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa and revealed the advantage of using water as the working fluid in applications of thermal recovery from exhaust gases of vehicles equipped with a spark-ignition engine. Moreover, the heat exchanger effectiveness for the organic working fluids R123 and R245fa is higher than that for the water and, consequently, they can also be considered appropriate for use in vehicle WHR applications through RCs when the exhaust gas temperatures are relatively low. For an ideal heat exchanger, the simulations revealed increases in the internal combustion engine thermal and vehicle mechanical efficiencies of 1.4%–3.52% and 10.16%–15.95%, respectively, while for a shell and tube heat exchanger, the simulations showed an increase of 0.85%–1.2% in the thermal efficiency and an increase of 2.64%–6.96% in the mechanical efficiency for an evaporating pressure of 2 MPa. The results confirm the advantages of using the thermal energy contained in the vehicle exhaust gases through RCs. Furthermore, the present analysis demonstrates that improved evaporator designs and appropriate expander devices allowing for higher evaporating pressures are required to obtain the maximum WHR potential from vehicle RC systems. -- Highlights: ► This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using Rankine cycle systems. ► A thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model were developed. ► Experimental data obtained in a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer was used as models input. ► Thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa. ► Results confirm advantages of using the thermal energy

  3. Thermo-Economic Performance Analysis of a Regenerative Superheating Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghe Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a promising form of technology for recovering low-grade waste heat. In this study, a regenerative ORC system is established to recover the waste flue gas of 160 °C. Focusing on thermodynamic and economic performance while simultaneously considering the limitations of volume flow ratio (VFR and the effect of superheat, working fluid selection and parameter optimization have been investigated. The optimization of the evaporation temperature is carried out by analyzing the variation of net power output and specific investment cost (SIC. Then, the net power output, specific net power output, total exergy destruction rate, VFR, total capital cost, and levelized electricity cost (LEC are selected as criteria, and a fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation method is adopted to select a more suitable working fluid and determine the optimal degree of superheat. In addition, the preheating coefficient, latent heat coefficient, superheating coefficient, and internal heat coefficient were proposed to explore the effect of working fluid critical temperature on thermal efficiency. Research studies demonstrate that there is an optimal evaporation temperature, maximizing net power output and minimizing the SIC. Isohexane and butane have greater specific net power output due to greater latent heat. A suitable degree of superheat is not only conducive to improving the working capacity of working fluids, but also reduces the VFR, total capital cost, SIC, and LEC for different working fluids. Thus, the system’s thermodynamic and economic performance—as well as the operational stability—are improved. Among the six working fluids, butane exhibits the best comprehensive performance, and its optimal evaporation temperature and degree of superheat are 100 °C and 5 °C, respectively.

  4. A novel split cycle internal combustion engine with integral waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Guangyu; Morgan, Robert; Heikal, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel engine thermodynamic cycle is proposed. • Theoretical analysis is applied to identify the key parameters of the thermodynamic cycle. • The key stages of the split cycle are analysed via one-dimensional modelling work. • The effecting mechanism of the split cycle efficiency is analysed. - Abstract: To achieve a step improvement in engine efficiency, a novel split cycle engine concept is proposed. The engine has separate compression and combustion cylinders and waste heat is recovered between the two. Quasi-isothermal compression of the charge air is realised in the compression cylinder while isobaric combustion of the air/fuel mixture is achieved in the combustion cylinder. Exhaust heat recovery between the compression and combustion chamber enables highly efficient recovery of waste heat within the cycle. Based on cycle analysis and a one-dimensional engine model, the fundamentals and the performance of the split thermodynamic cycle is estimated. Compared to conventional engines, the compression work can be significantly reduced through the injection of a controlled quantity of water in the compression cylinder, lowering the gas temperature during compression. Thermal energy can then be effectively recovered from the engine exhaust in a recuperator between the cooled compressor cylinder discharge air and the exhaust gas. The resulting hot high pressure air is then injected into a combustor cylinder and mixed with fuel, where near isobaric combustion leads to a low combustion temperature and reduced heat transferred from the cylinder wall. Detailed cycle simulation indicates a 32% efficiency improvement can be expected compared to the conventional diesel engines.

  5. Corrosion Effects on the Fatigue Crack Propagation of Giga-Grade Steel and its Heat Affected Zone in pH Buffer Solutions for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation test was conducted of giga-grade steel and its heat affected zone in pH buffer solutions, and the results were compared with model predictions. Pure corrosion effect on fatigue crack propagation, particularly, in corrosive environment was evaluated by means of the modified Forman equation. As shown in results, the average corrosion rate determined from the ratio of pure corrosion induced crack length to entire crack length under a cycle load were 0.11 and 0.37 for base metal and heat affected zone, respectively, with load ratio of 0.5, frequency of 0.5 and pH 10.0 environment. These results demonstrate new interpretation methodology for corrosion fatigue crack propagation enabling the pure corrosion effects on the behavior to be determined.

  6. Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: A comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola; Finnveden, Goeran; Ekvall, Tomas; Bjoerklund, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management (landfill disposal or material recovery). A secondary objective was to test a combination of dynamic energy system modelling and LCA by combining the concept of complex marginal electricity production in a static, environmental systems analysis. Furthermore, we wanted to increase the methodological knowledge about how waste can be environmentally compared to other fuels in district-heat production. The results indicate that combustion of biofuel in a CHP is environmentally favourable and robust with respect to the avoided type of electricity and waste management. Waste incineration is often (but not always) the preferable choice when incineration substitutes landfill disposal of waste. It is however, never the best choice (and often the worst) when incineration substitutes recycling. A natural gas fired CHP is an alternative of interest if marginal electricity has a high fossil content. However, if the marginal electricity is mainly based on non-fossil sources, natural gas is in general worse than biofuels

  7. Waste Heat Recovery of a PEMFC System by Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two systems are brought forward to recover the waste heat of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC, which are named the organic Rankine cycle (ORC, and heat pump (HP combined organic Rankine cycle (HPORC. The performances of both systems are simulated on the platform of MATLAB with R123, R245fa, R134a, water, and ethanol being selected as the working fluid, respectively. The results show that, for PEMFC where operating temperature is constantly kept at 60 °C, there exists an optimum working temperature for each fluid in ORC and HPORC. In ORC, the maximal net power can be achieved with R245fa being selected as the working fluid. The corresponding thermal efficiency of the recovery system is 4.03%. In HPORC, the maximal net power can be achieved with water being selected in HP and R123 in ORC. The thermal efficiency of the recovery system increases to 4.73%. Moreover, the possibility of using ORC as the cooling system of PEMFC is also studied. The heat released from PEMFC stack is assumed to be wholly recovered by the ORC or HPORC system. The results indicate that the HPORC system is much more feasible for the cooling system of a PEMFC stack, since the heat recovery ability can be promoted due to the presence of HP.

  8. Analysis of Efficiency of the Ship Propulsion System with Thermochemical Recuperation of Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, Oleksandr; Serbin, Serhiy

    2018-03-01

    One of the basic ways to reduce polluting emissions of ship power plants is application of innovative devices for on-board energy generation by means of secondary energy resources. The combined gas turbine and diesel engine plant with thermochemical recuperation of the heat of secondary energy resources has been considered. It is suggested to conduct the study with the help of mathematical modeling methods. The model takes into account basic physical correlations, material and thermal balances, phase equilibrium, and heat and mass transfer processes. The paper provides the results of mathematical modeling of the processes in a gas turbine and diesel engine power plant with thermochemical recuperation of the gas turbine exhaust gas heat by converting a hydrocarbon fuel. In such a plant, it is possible to reduce the specific fuel consumption of the diesel engine by 20%. The waste heat potential in a gas turbine can provide efficient hydrocarbon fuel conversion at the ratio of powers of the diesel and gas turbine engines being up to 6. When the diesel engine and gas turbine operate simultaneously with the use of the LNG vapor conversion products, the efficiency coefficient of the plant increases by 4-5%.

  9. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horttanainen, M.; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose

  10. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horttanainen, M., E-mail: mika.horttanainen@lut.fi; Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  11. Development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, T.; Ito, M.; Katsube, I.; Shibuya, E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of municipal solid waste. The systematic classification and design guideline are proposed in consideration of the characteristics of solid waste processing system. The conceptual design of thermoelectric power generation system is carried out for a typical middle scale incinerator system (200 ton/day) by the local model. Totally the recovered electricity is 926.5 kWe by 445 units (569,600 couples). In order to achieve detailed design, one dimensional steady state model taking account of temperature dependency of the heat transfer performance and thermoelectric properties is developed. Moreover, small scale on-site experiment on 60 W class module installed in the real incinerator is carried out to extract various levels of technological problems. In parallel with the system development, high temperature thermoelectric elements such as Mn-Si and so on are developed aiming the optimization of ternary compound and high performance due to controlled fine-grain boundary effect. The manganese silicide made by shrinking-rate controlled sintering method performs 5 (μW/cm K2) in power factor at 800 K. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. Process integration and waste heat recovery in Lithuanian and Danish industry. Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The present document forms the Final Report for the first phase of the project `Process Integration and Waste Heat Recovery in Lithuanian and Danish Industry`. The project is carried out in the period 1995-1998 in a co-operation between the COWI offices in Lyngby and Vilnius, The Technical University of Denmark (Institute for Energetics), Kaunas University of Technology (CIPAI) and Vilnius Technical University, financed by The Danish Ministry of Energy`s EFP-95-programme, Lithuanian Energy Agency as well as the participants. The first phase of the project has comprised the establishment of the CIPAI centre (Centre for Industrial Process Analysis and Integration) at Kaunas University of Technology, training and knowledge transfer as well as elaboration of 6 industrial case-studies within the area of `Process Integration and waste Heat Recovery`. The second phase of the project has comprised R and D activities in this area in order to present general conclusions from the project as well as to present new and improved methods and tools for PI-analysis. The aim of the Final Report for the first phase of the project is to summarise project activities and the achieved results from case-studies and from the operation of the CIPAI-centre in general. (au)

  13. Development of thermoacoustic engine operating by waste heat from cooking stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. M.; Abakr, Y. A.; Riley, P. H.; Hann, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    There are about 1.5 billion people worldwide use biomass as their primary form of energy in household cooking[1]. They do not have access to electricity, and are too remote to benefit from grid electrical supply. In many rural communities, stoves are made without technical advancements, mostly using open fires cooking stoves which have been proven to be extremely low efficiency, and about 93% of the energy generated is lost during cooking. The cooking is done inside a dwelling and creates significant health hazard to the family members and pollution to environment. SCORE (www.score.uk.com) is an international collaboration research project to design and build a low-cost, high efficiency woodstove that uses about half amount of the wood of an open wood fire, and uses the waste heat of the stove to power a thermoacoustic engine (TAE) to produce electricity for applications such as LED lighting, charging mobile phones or charging a 12V battery. This paper reviews on the development of two types of the thermoacoustic engine powered by waste heat from cooking stove which is either using Propane gas or burning of wood as a cooking energy to produce an acceptable amount of electricity for the use of rural communities.

  14. A feasibility analysis of waste heat recovery systems for marine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Francesco; Gabrielii, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The shipping sector is today facing challenges which require a larger focus on energy efficiency and fuel consumption. In this article, a methodology for performing a feasibility analysis of the installation of a WHR (waste heat recovery) system on a vessel is described and applied to a case study vessel. The method proposes to calculate the amount of energy and exergy available for the WHR systems and to compare it with the propulsion and auxiliary power needs based on available data for ship operational profile. The expected exergy efficiency of the WHR system is used as an independent variable, thus allowing estimating the expected fuel savings when a detailed design of the WHR system is not yet available. The use of the proposed method can guide in the choice of the installation depending on the requirements of the owner in terms of payback time and capital investment. The results of the application of this method to the case study ship suggest that fuel savings of 5%–15% can realistically be expected, depending on the sources of waste heat used and on the expected efficiency of the WHR system. - Highlights: • Method for simple estimation of benefits from WHR on ships. • High detail account of ship operational profile is included in the analysis. • Detailed knowledge of the WHR system is not required; its exergy efficiency is used as independent variable

  15. Analytical methods of heat transfer compared with numerical methods as related to nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Gasca, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical methods were applied to the prediction of the far-field thermal impact of a nuclear waste repository. Specifically, the transformation of coordinates and the Kirchhoff transformation were used to solve one-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems. Calculations for the HLW and TRU nuclear waste with initial areal thermal loadings of 12 kW/acre and 0.7 kW/acre, respectively, are carried out for various models. Also, finite difference and finite element methods are applied. The last method is used to solve two-dimensional linear and nonlinear heat conduction problems. Results of the analysis are temperature distributions and temperature histories. Explicit analytical expressions of the maximum temperature rise as a function of the system parameters are presented. The theoretical approaches predict maximum temperature increases in the overburden with an error of 10%. When the finite solid one-dimensional NWR thermal problem is solved with generic salt and HLW thermal load as parameters, the maximum temperature rises predicted by the finite difference and finite element methods had maximum errors of 2.6 and 6.7%, respectively. In all the other cases the finite difference method also gave a smaller error than the finite element method

  16. Waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines by exhaust-driven Brayton cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of Bryton Bottoming Systems (BBS) as waste heat recovery devices for future adiabatic diesel engines in heavy duty trucks is presented. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the influence of external and internal design parameters on BBS performance. Conceptual design and trade-off studies were undertaken to estimate the optimum configuration, size, and cost of major hardware components. The potential annual fuel savings of long-haul trucks equipped with BBS were estimated. The addition of a BBS to a turbocharged, nonaftercooled adiabatic engine would improve fuel economy by as much as 12%. In comparison with an aftercooled, turbocompound engine, the BBS-equipped turbocharged engine would offer a 4.4% fuel economy advantage. If installed in tandem with an aftercooled turbocompound engine, the BBS could effect a 7.2% fuel economy improvement. The cost of a mass-produced 38 Bhp BBS is estimated at about $6460 or 170/Bhp. Technical and economic barriers that hinder the commercial introduction of bottoming systems were identified. Related studies in the area of waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines and NASA-CR-168255 (Steam Rankine) and CR-168256 (Organic Rankine).

  17. The far field heating effects of a radioactive waste depository in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.P.; Bourke, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    Fission product heating of the rock surrounding a depository for high level radioactive waste, will result in high temperatures and high thermal gradients over distances of several hundred metres for many centuries. The consequent thermal expansion of the rock leads to stresses which could alter the fracture pattern and therefore the permeability of the rock. These problems are assessed by considering an idealised model of a depository for which analytic solutions to the temperature and stress fields are derived. A related problem is that any water present in the fissures will tend to rise because of its decrease in density on heating. If the water had previously leached away some of the radionuclides in the waste, then this convective transport constitutes a possible leakage path back to the biosphere. For the low permeabilities expected at a depository site, it is possible to linearise the resulting equations and derive analytic solutions for the flow velocities. This procedure has been carried out for the idealised depository model, in order to estimate the magnitude of these effects

  18. Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers is dealt with in this book encompassing the widely working field of small turbomachines under real operating conditions at the very high rotor speeds up to 300000 rpm. The broadly interdisciplinary field of turbocharger rotordynamics involves 1) Thermodynamics and Turbo-Matching of Turbochargers 2) Dynamics of Turbomachinery 3) Stability Analysis of Linear Rotordynamics with the Eigenvalue Theory 4) Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Rotordynamics with the Bifurcation Theory 5) Bearing Dynamics of the Oil Film using the Two-Phase Reynolds Equation 6) Computation of Nonlinear Responses of a Turbocharger Rotor 7) Aero and Vibroacoustics of Turbochargers 8) Shop and Trim Balancing at Two Planes of the Rotor 9) Tribology of the Bearing Surface Roughness 10) Design of Turbocharger Platforms using the Similarity Laws The rotor response of an automotive turbocharger at high rotor speeds is studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. Due to the nonlinear character...

  19. Automotive systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Markus [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik; Winner, Hermann (eds.) [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Fahrzeugtechnik

    2013-06-01

    Innovative state-of-the-art book. Presents brand new results of a joint workshop in the field of automotive systems engineering. Recommendable to students for further reading even though not a primary text book. This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as ''automotive systems engineering''. These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  20. Automotive turbogenerator design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C. [ITC, San Diego, CA (United States); McDonald, C. [McDonald Thermal Engineering, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    For the small turbogenerator to find reception in the hybrid electric automotive market its major features must be dominated by the following considerations, low cost, high performance, low emissions, compact size and high reliability. Not meeting the first two criteria has been the nemesis of earlier attempts to introduce the small gas turbine for automotive service. With emphasis on the design for low cost and high performance, this paper presents several turbogenerator design flowpath configuration options for the major engine components. The projected evolution from today`s state-of-the-art all metallic engines, to advanced technology ceramic units for service in the early decade of the 21st century, is the major topic of this paper. (author)