Sample records for automotive medicine

  1. Automotive sensors (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias


    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  2. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.


    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  3. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian


    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  4. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz


    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  5. National Automotive Center - NAC (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Encouraged by the advantages of collaboration, the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) worked with the Secretary of the...

  6. High integrity automotive castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)


    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Identification for automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hjalmarsson, Håkan; Re, Luigi


    Increasing complexity and performance and reliability expectations make modeling of automotive system both more difficult and more urgent. Automotive control has slowly evolved from an add-on to classical engine and vehicle design to a key technology to enforce consumption, pollution and safety limits. Modeling, however, is still mainly based on classical methods, even though much progress has been done in the identification community to speed it up and improve it. This book, the product of a workshop of representatives of different communities, offers an insight on how to close the gap and exploit this progress for the next generations of vehicles.

  8. Automotive NVH technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nijman, Eugenius; Priebsch, Hans-Herwig


    This book presents seven chapters examining selected noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) topics that are highly relevant for automotive vehicle development. These include applications following the major trends toward increased passenger comfort, vehicle electrification and lightweight design. The authors of the seven chapters, all of which are experts from the automotive industry and academia, present the foremost challenges and potential solutions in this demanding field. Among others, applications for sound optimization in downsized engines, noise optimization in electric powertrains, weight reduction options for exhaust systems, porous materials description, and the vibro-acoustic analysis of geared systems are discussed.

  9. Bringing Excellence to Automotive (United States)

    Večeřa, Pavel; Paulová, Iveta


    Market situation and development in recent years shows, that organization's ability to meet customer requirements is not enough. Successful organizations are able to exceed the expectations of all stakeholders. They are building their excellence systematically. Our contribution basically how the excellence in automotive is created using EFQM Excellence Model in Total Quality Management.

  10. Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung


    Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers is dealt with in this book encompassing the widely working field of small turbomachines under real operating conditions at the very high rotor speeds up to 300000 rpm. The broadly interdisciplinary field of turbocharger rotordynamics involves 1) Thermodynamics and Turbo-Matching of Turbochargers 2) Dynamics of Turbomachinery 3) Stability Analysis of Linear Rotordynamics with the Eigenvalue Theory 4) Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Rotordynamics with the Bifurcation Theory 5) Bearing Dynamics of the Oil Film using the Two-Phase Reynolds Equation 6) Computation of Nonlinear Responses of a Turbocharger Rotor 7) Aero and Vibroacoustics of Turbochargers 8) Shop and Trim Balancing at Two Planes of the Rotor 9) Tribology of the Bearing Surface Roughness 10) Design of Turbocharger Platforms using the Similarity Laws The rotor response of an automotive turbocharger at high rotor speeds is studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. Due to the nonlinear character...

  11. Automotive Industry in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter; Govindaraju, V.G.R. Chandran


    expanded in terms of sales, production, employment and local content, but failed in industrial upgrading and international competitiveness. The failures can be attributed to (a) lack of political promotion for high challenge-high support environment, (b) low technological and marketing capabilities and (c......This paper explains the evolution and assesses the development of the Malaysian automotive industry within the premise of infant industry and trade protection framework as well as extended arguments of infant industry using a global value chain perspective. The Malaysian automotive industry......) limited participation in the global value chain. Although the Malaysian infant industry protection policy comprised many promising initiatives, the national and the overall domestic automobile industry ended up as a captive of the regionalised Japanese keiretsu system in automobile manufacturing. A new...

  12. Current Automotive Holometry Studies (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.


    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  13. FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server


    Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress are selected from nearly 2,000 papers submitted to the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress, which is held by Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China ) and the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA). This proceedings focus on solutions for sustainable mobility in all areas of passenger car, truck and bus transportation. Volume 8: Vehicle Design and Testing (II) focuses on: •Automotive Reliability Technology •Lightweight Design Technology •Design for Recycling •Dynamic Modeling •Simulation and Experimental Validation •Virtual Design, Testing and Validation •Testing of Components, Systems and Full Vehicle Above all researchers, professional engineers and graduates in fields of automotive engineering, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering will benefit from this book.   SAE-China is a national academic organization composed of enterprises and professionals who focus on research, design a...

  14. Automotive mechatronics automotive networking, driving stability systems, electronics

    CERN Document Server


    As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases this book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics. It is a comprehensive introduction to controlled automotive systems and provides detailed information of sensors for travel, angle, engine speed, vehicle speed, acceleration, pressure, temperature, flow, gas concentration etc. The measurement principles of the different sensor groups are explained and examples to show the measurement principles applied in different types. Contents Basics of mechatronics.- Architecture.- Electronic control unit.- Software development.- Basic principles of networking.- Automotive networking.- Bus systems.- Automotive sensors.- Sensor measuring principles.- Sensor types.- Electric actuators.- Electrohydraulic actuators.- Electronic transmission control.- Electronic transmission control unit.- Modules for transmission control.- Antilock braking system.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modu...

  15. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying;


    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  16. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel


    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  17. Automotive systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Winner, Hermann


    This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as  “automotive systems engineering”.  These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  18. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard


    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  19. Ultracapacitors for automotive applications (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus; Wright, Randy; Hunt, Gary

    In response to a growing consensus in the auto industry that ultracapacitors can potentially play a key role in the modern vehicle power distribution network, a task force was created at the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to tackle issues facing the fledging industry. The task force embarked on first developing and establishing standards for performance and abuse tolerance of ultracapacitors in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Labs. Subsequently, potential applications in the automotive industry were identified and a consensus requirement specification was drawn as a development guide for the industry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Van Dyk


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  1. MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Michael


    MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications reviews the use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in developing solutions to the unique challenges presented by the automotive and aerospace industries.Part one explores MEMS for a variety of automotive applications. The role of MEMS in passenger safety and comfort, sensors for automotive vehicle stability control applications and automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are considered, along with pressure and flow sensors for engine management, and RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors. Part two then goes on to explore MEMS for

  2. Automotive powerplant evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamper, K.R.


    A program to obtain automotive engine performance data for use in estimating vehicle emission and fuel economy in varied service and duty is described. An experimental test procedure for generating fuel consumption and emissions data adequate to characterize an engine over its full operating range was developed for steady-state tests. The development of a test procedure for transient testing is currently under way. The steady-state data will be collected from approximately 23 different engines, including: (1) 16 current production spark-ignition engines; (2) 3 pre-production or prototype advanced design spark-ignition engines; and (3) 4 light-duty diesel engines which are, or could be, used in passenger car applications. To date, steady-state ''engine maps'' were completed on 10 engines. A simplified model used to compare steady-state data with chassis dynamometer data indicates that results thus far can be used to obtain estimates of fuel economy in automobiles.

  3. Escalation Practices in Automotive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Jurejevčič


    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: In automotive business many risk-involved situations occur and when detected, an escalation process takes place. Although defined and controlled by process guidelines and being supported by experts, escalation brings increased emotional pressure and stress for parties involved. Do escalation processes in automotive industry maintain all implied challenges? Purpose: The purpose of the article is to present current status of escalation processes and gaps between theory and practice cases. Results of the analysis are recommendations of good engineering practice derived also from actual experiences and learned lessons. Method: The method involves analysis of practical cases from automotive development process, lessons learned, anonymous survey of automotive engineers and classification of experiences. Results: Results of the survey have shown that the controlled escalation process for know-how related escalations is needed in order to establish the environment where the team is able to provide new, sometimes unconventional ideas for the problem to be solved. Organization: Presented recommendations and measures enable organization and managers to put the expertise and experiences of employees into action for problem solving during escalation. Originality: In this article some practices are presented that, although simple and some yet seen, with proper adjustment stemming from real life processes give a fruitful settlement of escalations in automotive development business.

  4. Recycling used automotive oil filters (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.


    Over 400 million used automotive oil filters are discarded in the United States each year, most of which are disposed of in landfills wasting valuable resources and risking contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. This article summarizes U.S. bureau of Mines research evaluating scrap prepared from used automotive oil filters. Experimental results show that crushed and drained oil filters have a bulk density that is higher than many typical scrap grades, a chemical analysis low in residual elements (except tin due to use of tin plate in filters), and an overall yield, oil-filter scrap to cast steel, of 76% to 85%, depending on the method used to prepare the scrap.

  5. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor


    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The automotive sector is characterised by a relatively low trade/salesratio. While the production of most automotive producers in the world is spread over variouscountries in the value chain, the brands are still considered to reflect some national identity.Internationalisation strategies may change over the lifecycle of the product and automakerstend to pursue diametrically opposed strategies. In mature markets, it is about managing whatgoes on beneath a static surface; in emerging markets’ dynamic environments, companies muststrategically position themselves to benefit from growth opportunities. However, without theright strategy and execution in mature markets, it is clear that traditional OEMs cannot profitfrom emerging markets-the persistence of structural issues in mature market operationseventually will rob all but the most resilient competitors of the opportunity to compete inemerging markets.

  7. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.


    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  8. Broadening the Concept of Poka Yoke Beyond Automotive Industry (United States)

    Măgdoiu, Alex; Oprean, Constantin


    This paper will present the development of the poka yoke systems, which were initially created and implemented just for the automotive industry, also to other domains. For some fields like medicine, constructions or software development there are already articles available on the benefits brought by poka yoke systems' implementation. Besides these domains the article will contribute to the recognition of poka yoke systems in fields where, although error proofing systems are used, no link to the poka yoke method was made by the authors, creators and users

  9. International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ispas, Nicolae


    The volume will include selected and reviewed papers from CONAT - International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering to be held in Brasov, Romania, in October 2016. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in automotive vehicles and environment, advanced transport systems and road traffic, heavy and special vehicles, new materials, manufacturing technologies and logistics, accident research and analysis and innovative solutions for automotive vehicles. The conference will be organized by SIAR (Society of Automotive Engineers from Romania) in cooperation with FISITA. .

  10. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.


    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  11. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hammad


    Full Text Available The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem in automotive applications, falls into this area. In vehicles it is important to know the state of charge of the batteries in order to prevent vehicle stranding and to ensure that the full range of the vehicle operation is exploited. In this paper, several battery models have studied including analytical, electrical circuits, stochastic and electro- chemical models. Valve Regulated Lead Acid “VRLA” battery has been modelled using electric circuit technique. This model is considered in the proposed Battery Monitoring System “BMS”. The proposed BMS includes data acquisition, data analysis and prediction of battery performance under a hypothetical future loads. Based on these criteria, a microprocessor based BMS prototype had been built and tested in automotive Lab,. The tests show promising results that can be used in industrial applications

  12. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudoux Mélanie


    Full Text Available Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigue design and how they may be effectively taken into account in the automotive industry. Actually, the coupling between the stamping process and the fatigue design is under development at PSA Peugeot Citroën Company since several years. Such an analysis deals with some major topics: thickness variation, plastic hardening and deformation, and residual stress. All of these ingredients result in fatigue criteria evolutions: it is important to stress that the stamping process can have advantageous or disadvantageous consequences on the fatigue design. This is here highlighted on some examples, dealing with front and rear axles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin BORDEI


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an overview of the evolution in the automotive sector in the process of regional development. The fundamental changes made by the component supplier sector improved the regional development and manufacturing process. Automotive industry is one of the modern sectors in many countries that benefits of a high technology impact and creates jobs that reduces unemployment across Europe. The auto industry changed cities, regions and countries into poles of development and it becomes more and more efficient. The high foreign direct investments from the automotive sector play an important role in regional development process. Continuous changes are being made in the economy, society, and company; in conclusion the automotive clusters will always be a subject of analysis.

  14. Nonlinear estimation and control of automotive drivetrains

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hong


    Nonlinear Estimation and Control of Automotive Drivetrains discusses the control problems involved in automotive drivetrains, particularly in hydraulic Automatic Transmission (AT), Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) and Automated Manual Transmission (AMT). Challenging estimation and control problems, such as driveline torque estimation and gear shift control, are addressed by applying the latest nonlinear control theories, including constructive nonlinear control (Backstepping, Input-to-State Stable) and Model Predictive Control (MPC). The estimation and control performance is improved while the calibration effort is reduced significantly. The book presents many detailed examples of design processes and thus enables the readers to understand how to successfully combine purely theoretical methodologies with actual applications in vehicles. The book is intended for researchers, PhD students, control engineers and automotive engineers. Hong Chen is a professor at the State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and...

  15. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom


    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  16. 78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System (United States)


    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of the Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of public... regarding vehicle design and traffic safety. The NASS system currently has two components: the...

  17. 77 FR 37471 - National Automotive Sampling System (United States)


    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice and request for... make informed regulatory, program, and policy decisions regarding vehicle design and traffic...

  18. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University


    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Florin NITOI


    Full Text Available Paper presents technological methods for metal deposition, costs calculation and clasification for the main process that helps in automotive technologies to repair or to increase pieces properties. Paper was constructed based on many technological experiments that starts from practicans and returns to them. The main aim is to help young engineers or practicians engineers to choose the proper reconditioning process with the best information in repairing pieces from automotive industry.

  20. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic...

  1. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Li


    Full Text Available Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resource, capability and knowledge.Design/methodology/approach: By introducing the factor analysis method, green competitiveness has been measured through an empirical analysis of 24 automotive enterprises within China.Findings: The results indicate that those elements, such as enterprise resource possession and utilization; environment, responsibility and knowledge; profitability; management efficiency, have significant effect on the green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The further analysis also unveils the advantages and disadvantages of green competitiveness for each company and the direction for improvement.Research limitations/implications: Guide regulators and managers of automobile industry to take some measures to enhance their green competitive advantage.Practical implications: Provide practical methods to measure green competitiveness for automotive enterprises.Originality/value: This paper proposes an evaluation index system of green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The suggestions of our research will be beneficial to enterprise executives and industry regulators.

  2. Branding through trade shows in the automotive industry


    Narui, Jahan


    The automotive industry is a major global industry with a great history of exhibitions. As trade shows are getting more attention within studies, the same is not the case for automotive trade shows. Noteworthy, automotive trade shows emphasize non-selling roles such as image-building. This paper seeks to investigate image-building purposes of exhibiting automotive companies using integrated marketing communications (IMC). Data has been gathered from four participating companies in the Geneva ...

  3. My father’s automotive dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rain Chen


    <正>Memories of Changchun Changchun literally means ’Long Spring’. The city is located in northeast China’s Jilin province, which literally means ’Lucky Forest’. Since my father is an old worker of Changchun’s Yi Qi(the abbreviation of Changchun First Automotive Factory) plant - China’s earliest automotive plant, I have spent 60 years in the city, graduating from the well-established Jilin University and currently working for a periodical association. A friend from Beijing encouraged me to write my family’s history, and since my family’s story is really a story about the good name of Changchun, an automotive city and a college town, I couldn’t refuse.

  4. Advanced casting technologies for lightweight automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Luo


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of alloy and process developments in aluminum and magnesium castings for lightweight automotive applications. Wear-resistant aluminum alloys, creep-resistant and high strength/ductility magnesium alloys have been developed for automotive applications. On the process front, vacuum-assisted die casting and high vacuum die casting technologies have been developed for high-integrity body and chassis applications. Thin-wall and hollow casting components are being produced by low-pressure die casting processes for structural applications. Overcasting technology is gaining traction and has enabled mixed material designs for automotive sub-systems such as engine cradles and instrument panel beams. Simulation tools developed to predict the interfacial interactions of the dissimilar components and the structural integrity of the overcast systems are being validated in the casting trials.

  5. Optimization and optimal control in automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Steinbuch, Maarten; Re, Luigi


    This book demonstrates the use of the optimization techniques that are becoming essential to meet the increasing stringency and variety of requirements for automotive systems. It shows the reader how to move away from earlier  approaches, based on some degree of heuristics, to the use of  more and more common systematic methods. Even systematic methods can be developed and applied in a large number of forms so the text collects contributions from across the theory, methods and real-world automotive applications of optimization. Greater fuel economy, significant reductions in permissible emissions, new drivability requirements and the generally increasing complexity of automotive systems are among the criteria that the contributing authors set themselves to meet. In many cases multiple and often conflicting requirements give rise to multi-objective constrained optimization problems which are also considered. Some of these problems fall into the domain of the traditional multi-disciplinary optimization applie...

  6. Automotive Radar Sensors in Silicon Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Vipul


    This book presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors.  This book bridges an existing gap between information available on dependable system/architecture design and circuit design.  It provides the background of the field and detailed description of recent research and development of silicon-based radar sensors.  System-level requirements and circuit topologies for radar transceivers are described in detail. Holistic approaches towards designing radar sensors are validated with several examples of highly-integrated radar ICs in silicon technologies. Circuit techniques to design millimeter-wave circuits in silicon technologies are discussed in depth.  Describes concepts and fundamentals of automotive rada...

  7. Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Automotive Industry. (United States)

    National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

    This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the automotive industry. First, the current state of the automotive industry is reviewed and the role of STC in addressing automotive service needs is explained. Next, the…

  8. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  9. Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills? (United States)

    Noto, Teresa L.


    Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

  10. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry. (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A


    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  11. Research progress of aluminum alloy automotive sheet and application technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; You Jianghai; Lu Hongzhou; Wang Zhiwen


    Pretrcatment technology is deeply discussed to explain its importance in guaranteeing properties and form- ability of aluminum alloy automotive sheet. Some typical applications of aluminum alloy automotive sheet to automotive industry are listed. Based on the author's knowledge and recognition and research progress presently, the important re- search contents about aluminum alloy automotive sheet are emphasized. Reducing cost and price of sheet and going deeply into application research are the main work for expending the application of aluminum alloy automotive sheet in the automobile.

  12. Market Opportunities for Automotive Components Used in Non-automotive Applications Manufacturing : Estonian Industrial Market


    Kalajärv, Jaana


    This thesis examines the opportunities available for automotive components in the Esto-nian non-automotive industrial market. The literature review part is mainly covers the theory of marketing research, because of the approach chosen for this paper. Only small part of marketing research process is re-searched closer in literature review section, because of the scope of the research. Three most relevant steps for the thesis are chosen from research process for further more in-vestigation,...

  13. A listening test system for automotive audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli;


    This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...

  14. Metrics for Automotive Merchandising, Petroleum Marketing. (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in automotive merchandising and petroleum marketing classes, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know…

  15. On credibility improvements for automotive navigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, Florian; Hipp, Markus; Kargl, Frank; Weber, Michael


    Automotive navigation systems are becoming ubiquitous as driver assistance systems. Vendors continuously aim to enhance route guidance by adding new features to their systems. However, we found in an analysis of current navigation systems that many share interaction weaknesses, which can damage the

  16. Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites (United States)

    Arnold, Scot


    New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

  17. International Conference on Vehicle and Automotive Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bolló, Betti


    This book presents the proceedings of the first vehicle engineering and vehicle industry conference. It captures the outcome of theoretical and practical studies as well as the future development trends in a wide field of automotive research. The themes of the conference include design, manufacturing, economic and educational topics.

  18. Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Schaefer, Hung [Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)


    First book about the aeroacoustics of automotive turbochargers. Author of the book ''Rotordynamics of Automotive Turbochargers'', Springer, 2012. Written by an R and D expert in the turbocharger industry. Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation. In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions. Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill's analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehicles. The content of this book is intended for advanced undergraduates, graduates in mechanical engineering, research scientists and practicing engineers who want to better understand the interactions between these working fields and the resulting impact on the interesting topic of Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers.

  19. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry (United States)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho


    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  20. Springback prediction of TWIP automotive sheets (United States)

    Ahn, Kanghwan; Yoo, Donghoon; Seo, Min Hong; Park, Sung-Ho; Chung, Kwansoo


    In an effort to reduce the weight of vehicles, automotive companies are replacing conventional steel parts with light weight alloys and/or with advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual-phase (DP), twinning induced plasticity (TWIP), and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. The main objective of this work is to experimentally and numerically evaluate the macro-performance of the automotive TWIP sheet in conjunction with springback. In order to characterize the mechanical properties, simple tension and tension-compression tests were performed to determine anisotropic properties, as well as the Bauschinger, transient, and permanent softening behaviors during reverse loading. For numerical simulations, the anisotropic yield function Yld2000-2d was utilized along with the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening law based on the modified Chaboche model. Springback verification was performed for the unconstrained cylindrical bending and 2D draw bending tests.

  1. Development of light metals automotive structural subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, A.A.; Sachdev, A.K. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)


    Key technological developments in aluminum and magnesium alloys were reviewed in relation to the manufacturing processes that enable lightweight automotive structural subsystems. Examples included the materials and processes evolution of lightweight body structures, chassis systems, and instrument panel beams. New aluminum and magnesium alloys and manufacturing technologies used to reduce mass and improve performance in vehicle cradle structures were discussed. Hydroforming processes used to enable the use of lightweight aluminum alloy tubes in automotive body structures were also reviewed, in addition to body architectures enabled by different materials and manufacturing processes. The review noted that magnesium instrument panels are now being designed to provide significant performance improvement, reduced vibration, and enhanced crashworthiness in new automobiles. It was concluded that vehicles will incorporate more lightweight materials such as nanocomposites and aluminum and magnesium sheets. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Green innovation adoption in automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zailani, Suhaiza; Govindan, Kannan; Iranmanesh, Mohammad;


    using the partial least squares technique. Environmental regulations, market demand, and firm internal initiatives have a positive effect on green innovation initiatives (GII), while GIIs have a positive effect on the three categories of sustainable performance (i.e., environmental, social, and economic......Green innovation has currently been receiving a great deal of international attention because of the growing concern of consumers, governments, and the community as a whole with regard to the degradation of natural resources and environmental pollution. The automotive sector is one of the leading...... generators of industrial waste that affect the quality of the natural environment. This study aims to investigate the determinants of green innovation adoption and its effect on firm performance. Data were gathered by surveying 153 firms in the Malaysian automotive supply chain industry. Data were analyzed...

  3. Platform Based Design for Automotive Sensor Conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Fanucci, L; Iozzi, F; Marino, C; Rocchi, A


    In this paper a general architecture suitable to interface several kinds of sensors for automotive applications is presented. A platform based design approach is pursued to improve system performance while minimizing time-to-market.. The platform is composed by an analog front-end and a digital section. The latter is based on a microcontroller core (8051 IP by Oregano) plus a set of dedicated hardware dedicated to the complex signal processing required for sensor conditioning. The microcontroller handles also the communication with external devices (as a PC) for data output and fast prototyping. A case study is presented concerning the conditioning of a Gyro yaw rate sensor for automotive applications. Measured performance results outperform current state-of-the-art commercial devices.

  4. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Keum, Jong K.; Boeman, Raymond G.


    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  5. Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Automotive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    invention have appropriate benefits. The timing of the dialog with a potential user or business partner is important when it comes to which issues that have highest priorities or are most frequently discussed in the organization of said user or business partner. If there exist a special issue that your idea......The global automotive business is one of the most competitive environment you can imagine. As an independent inventor or as a small development company it is very challenging to be successful in implementing new ideas and components. In this mature and somewhat conservative technical environment...... address you will have a much better access the decision making process and get enough interest for a potential business deal. After 20 years as a supplier of engineering services to the automotive industry and 10 years as head of Global R&D at Scania CV AB, I have experienced pros and cons both from...



    Debanshu Bhattacharya


    Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) to replace the conventional ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sabadka


    Full Text Available Today, industries such as automotive and manufacturing industries deal with a lot of environmental regulations. Lean is a production strategy whose fundamental principles drive the industry towards a more effective production of goods and services. The eco-efficiency concept is primary to sustainable development and intends to provide more value with less environmental impact. The aim of this study is to identify and explore the contributions of Lean to reduce environmental impacts that naturally result from industrial activity.

  8. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [Delphi Automotive Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others


    The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudret KANDEMİR


    Full Text Available Recently, there is a high interest in using lightweight materials for automotive applications where weight reduction and improvement in comfort are needed. Magnesium alloys with excellent specific strength and stiffness properties can be comparable with steel and aluminum alloys for applications in the automotive industry. For this reason, the properties of magnesium alloys are in the focus of research. This study aims at reviewing and evaluating the prospects of magnesium alloys use and applications in the automotive industry.

  10. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory. (United States)


    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet


    Full Text Available Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well. Time has proved that market economic analysis often shown flaws in determining the relevant market, by using solely or mainly the geographic aspect and disregarding the importance of segments on the automotive market. For these reasons we propose a new approach of the automotive market proving the importance of proper market segmentation and defining the strategic groups within the automotive market.

  12. Final report: U.S. competitive position in automotive technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Michael B.; Cheney, Margaret; Thomas, Patrick; Kroll, Peter


    Patent data are presented and analyzed to assess the U.S. competitive position in eleven advanced automotive technology categories, including automotive fuel cells, hydrogen storage, advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles and others. Inventive activity in most of the technologies is found to be growing at a rapid pace, particularly in advanced batteries, automotive fuel cells and ultracapacitors. The U.S. is the clear leader in automotive fuel cells, on-board hydrogen storage and light weight materials. Japan leads in advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles, ultracapacitors, and appears to be close to overtaking the U.S. in other areas of power electronics.

  13. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership


    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  14. Automotive Air Conditioning and Heating; Automotive Mechanics (Advanced): 9047.04. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to provide the student with all the foundations necessary to become employable in the automotive air conditioning and heating trade. The course of study includes an orientation to the world of work, the elementary physics of air conditioning and heating, and laboratory experiments…

  15. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near Net Shape Automotive Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures.

  16. Building best practice automotive after sales network : The Volkswagen case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikolik, Gerlinde


    This thesis aims to analyze the service operations and networks in the automotive industry as research into the automotive After Sales service network lacks the necessary fine details and industrial feedback. Its purpose is to present the insights and lessons learned from studying the After Sales se

  17. 76 FR 40591 - Coordinating Policies on Automotive Communities and Workers (United States)


    ... Policies on Automotive Communities and Workers By the authority vested in me as President by the.... Over the last decade, the United States has experienced a decline in employment in the automotive industry and among part suppliers. This decline accelerated dramatically from 2008 to 2009, with more...

  18. An Overview of NASA Automotive Component Reliability Studies (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.


    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using US Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Councils AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASAs procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  19. Dynamic characteristics of automotive steel sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihaliková


    Full Text Available The aim of this experimental research was to perform an analysis of deformation characteristics on two different types of steel: IF steel, and micro-alloyed steel were used automotive industry. For that purpose changes of properties of these materials were carried out by static 10-3 · s-1 and dynamic 103 · s-1 strain rate assess its plastic properties. Vickers micro hardness test was carried out by the static and dynamic loading condition and describes different hardness distribution. The higher strain hardening of materials was obtained too that was confirmed by distribution of dislocations.

  20. Industrial thermoforming simulation of automotive fuel tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesche, S. aus der [Kautex Textron GmbH and Co., Bonn (Germany)


    An industrial thermoforming simulation with regard to automotive plastic fuel tanks is presented including all relevant process stages. The radiative and conductive heat transfer during the reheat stage, the deformation and stress behaviour during the forming stage, and the final cooling stage are simulated. The modelling of the thermal and rheological behaviour of the involved material is investigated in greater detail. By means of experimental data it is found that modelling of the phase transition during the process is highly important for predicting correct wall thickness distributions. (author)

  1. AGT 100 automotive gas turbine system development (United States)

    Helms, H. E. G.


    General Motors is developing an automotive gas turbine system that can be an alternate powerplant for future automobiles. Work sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA Lewis Research Center is emphasizing small component aerodynamics and high-temperature structural ceramics. Reliability requirements of the AGT 100 turbine system include chemical and structural ceramic component stability in the gas turbine environment. The power train system, its configuration and schedule are presented, and its performance tested. The aerodynamic component development is reviewed with discussions on the compressor, turbine, regenerator, interturbine duct and scroll, and combustor. Ceramic component development is also reviewed, and production cost and required capital investment are taken into consideration.

  2. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [General Motors-AC Delco Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others


    This has been the second year of a CRADA between General Motors - AC Delco Systems (GM-ACDS) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) aimed at improved performance/lifetime of platinum-rhodium based three-way-catalysts (TWC) for automotive emission control systems. While current formulations meet existing emission standards, higher than optimum Pt-Rh loadings are often required. In additionk, more stringent emission standards have been imposed for the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts.

  3. Advanced sheet steels for automotive applications (United States)

    Fekete, James R.; Strugala, Donald C.; Yao, Zhicong


    Vacuum degassing has recently been used by sheet steel producers to improve their products' ductility and strength. Carbon contents can be reduced by an order of magnitude to less than 0.0030 wt.%. Through careful alloying and processing, a range of new steel products has been developed for the automotive industry. These products include interstitial-free, deep-drawing-quality steels; formable, high-strength, interstitial-free steels; and bake-hardenable steels. This article summarizes the chemistry and processing needed to produce these products.

  4. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hodgson; David Irick


    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its sixth year of operation. During this period the Center has involved thirteen GATE Fellows and ten GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center's focus area: hybrid drive trains and control systems. Eighteen GATE students have graduated, and three have completed their course work requirements. Nine faculty members from three departments in the College of Engineering have been involved in the GATE Center. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as internships, equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $4,000,000. Problem areas are discussed in the hope that future activities may benefit from the operation of the current program.

  5. Performance evaluation of an automotive thermoelectric generator (United States)

    Dubitsky, Andrei O.

    Around 40% of the total fuel energy in typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) is rejected to the environment in the form of exhaust gas waste heat. Efficient recovery of this waste heat in automobiles can promise a fuel economy improvement of 5%. The thermal energy can be harvested through thermoelectric generators (TEGs) utilizing the Seebeck effect. In the present work, a versatile test bench has been designed and built in order to simulate conditions found on test vehicles. This allows experimental performance evaluation and model validation of automotive thermoelectric generators. An electrically heated exhaust gas circuit and a circulator based coolant loop enable integrated system testing of hot and cold side heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and thermal interface materials at various scales. A transient thermal model of the coolant loop was created in order to design a system which can maintain constant coolant temperature under variable heat input. Additionally, as electrical heaters cannot match the transient response of an ICE, modelling was completed in order to design a relaxed exhaust flow and temperature history utilizing the system thermal lag. This profile reduced required heating power and gas flow rates by over 50%. The test bench was used to evaluate a DOE/GM initial prototype automotive TEG and validate analytical performance models. The maximum electrical power generation was found to be 54 W with a thermal conversion efficiency of 1.8%. It has been found that thermal interface management is critical for achieving maximum system performance, with novel designs being considered for further improvement.

  6. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.


    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  7. Energy economics of automotive power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, W.


    Replacement of 50 percent of the liquid fuels used in static industrial applications by solid fuel would reduce the crude oil offtake by 17 percent; elimination of the demand for high octane gasoline would increase the thermal efficiency of the production of road fuels by 5 percent; replacement of the gasoline engine by diesel or stratified charge engines could reduce the total consumption of automotive fuels by 20 and 10 percent, respectively, and reduce refinery intake by over 25 and 20 percent, respectively; adequate gasoline substitutes can be produced from coal using known technology, but the over-all thermal efficiency of this use of coal is unacceptable because of the 30 to 40 percent efficiency of the fuel production process and the moderate fuel economy of the gasoline engine; replacement of the gasoline engine by the diesel engine could reduce the consumption of coal for automotive purposes by 20 percent and replacement of both by the spark-assisted diesel engine could reduce consumption by 60 percent; the Stirling engine is comparable to the spark-assisted diesel but is bulky and unproven.

  8. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Joseph Sahaya Anand


    Full Text Available The study of the thermal, chemical and mechanical properties of pure nickel as an alternative automotive body material is presented in this paper. Current automotive components mainly use steel as the body material. Due to the increasing demand for high performance and related issues, interest is moving towards alternative materials to steel. The hardness values of both heat-treated and non-heat treated pure nickel do not change after annealing; the hardness values are in the range of 118 to 123 HV. As the annealing temperature increases, the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and Young’s modulus decrease, which indicates that the ductility increases. The highest ultimate tensile strength of pure nickel at 300 °C annealed temperature is 758.78 MPa. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies confirmed pure nickel as a face centred cubic (FCC structure with a lattice constant measured as 0.3492 nm for the unannealed sample, which increases to 0.3512 nm for the annealed samples. The corrosion rate of both annealed and non-heat treated pure nickel is in the range of 0.0266 to 0.048 mm/year.

  10. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership


    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  11. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics systems and components, networking and hybrid drive

    CERN Document Server


    The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the "Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics" technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle. Content Electrical and electronical systems – Basic principles of networking - Examples of networked vehicles – Bus systems – Architecture of electronic systems – Mechatronics – Elektronics – Electronic control Units – Software – Sensors – Actuators – Hybrid drives – Vehicle electrical system – Start...

  12. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno


    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  14. Aerospace Medicine (United States)

    Michaud, Vince


    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  15. Nuclear Medicine. (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.


    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  16. Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for future automotive applications (United States)

    Friedrich, K.


    After a brief introduction to polymer composite properties and markets, the state of the art activities in the field of manufacturing of advanced composites for automotive applications are elucidated. These include (a) long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) for secondary automotive components, and (b) continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites for car body applications. It is followed by future possibilities of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for e.g. (i) crash elements, (ii) racing car seats, and (iii) production and recycling of automotive fenders.

  17. Hydrogenated nitrile rubber for improved durability of automotive rubber parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, J.; Leibbrandt, F.; Thoermer, J.


    Rubber articles with improved heat resistance and better performance characteristics are becoming of increasing importance for the automotive industry. A new type of elastomer has therefore been developed based on saturated hydrocarbon backbone - for improved heat resistance - with nitrile side groups providing good resistance to swelling. Some of the typical characteristics of hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) vulcanizates such as good physical properties pattern at elevated low temperatures dynamic properties, ozone resistance and swelling in automotive fluids are discussed. Potential applications are suggested to improve the performance of various rubber parts used in automotive applications such as high performance seals.

  18. Automotive Technology Evolved by Electrical and Electronic Systems (United States)

    Teratani, Tatsuo; Okuma, Shigeru

    Automotive electrical and electronic systems, e.g. EHV, FCV, future X-By-Wire, have recently been introduced or planned in place of mechanical systems. Drivers are demanding environmental performance (fuel consumption and weight reduction), safety and comfort. For general use of the new technologies, evolution of the automotive technology is required, including energy conversion efficiency improvement, size and weight reduction of components, cost reduction and high reliability. This paper discusses and summarizes the next generation power systems, the future vehicle image, power source combinations, and problems to be solved for development of automotive electronics.

  19. Downsizing assessment of automotive Stirling engines (United States)

    Knoll, R. H.; Tew, R. C., Jr.; Klann, J. L.


    A 67 kW (90 hp) Stirling engine design, sized for use in a 1984 1440 kg (3170 lb) automobile was the focal point for developing automotive Stirling engine technology. Since recent trends are towards lighter vehicles, an assessment was made of the applicability of the Stirling technology being developed for smaller, lower power engines. Using both the Philips scaling laws and a Lewis Research Center (Lewis) Stirling engine performance code, dimensional and performance characteristics were determined for a 26 kW (35 hp) and a 37 kW (50 hp) engine for use in a nominal 907 kg (2000 lb) vehicle. Key engine elements were sized and stressed and mechanical layouts were made to ensure mechanical fit and integrity of the engines. Fuel economy estimates indicated that the Stirling engine would maintain a 30 to 45 percent fuel economy advantage comparable spark ignition and diesel powered vehicles in the 1984 period.

  20. An Assembly Line Balancing Problem Automotive Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triki Hager


    Full Text Available In this paper, an Assembly Line Balancing Problem (ALBP is presented in a real-world automotive cables manufacturer company. This company found it necessary to balance its line, since it needs to increase the production rate. In this ALBP, the number of stations is known and the objective is to minimize cycle time where both precedence and zoning constrains must be satisfied. This problem is formulated as a binary linear program (BLP. Since this problem is NP-hard, an innovative Genetic Algorithm (GA is implemented. The full factorial design is used to obtain the better combination GA parameters and a simple convergence experimental study is performed on the stopping criteria to reduce computational time. Comparison of the proposed GA results with CPLEX software shows that, in a reasonable time, the GA generates consistent solutions that are very close to their optimal ones. Therefore, the proposed GA approach is very effective and competitive.

  1. Design of Polymer Coatings in Automotive Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Han-lin; ZHANG Ga; BORDES Jean-Michel; CHRISTIAN Coddet


    Driven by economical and ecological reasons, thermoplastics based coatings were more and more used in automotive engines. Two design concepts, flame spraying and serigraphy PEEK coatings on light metal substrate, were introduced in this paper. The friction and wear behavior of PEEK based coatings were investigated systematically. Coatings with different crystallinities can be obtained when cooling speed is controlled. Among three sprayed coatings considered with different crystallinities, the one with highest crystallinity exhibits best friction and wear behavior under dry sliding condition. Under lubricated sliding condition, however, the amorphous coating gives lower friction coefficient. The micron particles such as SiC,MoS2 and graphite in composite coatings can improve significantly the coating wear resistance and have a impact on coating friction behavior.

  2. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge. (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin


    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  3. Multi-channel automotive night vision system (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi


    A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source,the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of automotive engine oil (United States)

    Dahmani, Rachid; Gupta, Neelam


    Infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology were combined to develop a portable spectrophotometer for use in engine oil analysis to identify and quantify oil contaminants and residue products, Preliminary measurements were taken with a field-portable AOTF-based spectrometer (2 to 4.5 micrometers ) and an FTIR spectrometer (2 to 25 micrometers ) for comparison. Absorption spectra of used and unused oil samples were measured and compared to determine absorption changes between the various samples resulting from oil degradation and any chemical reactions that might have taken place during high- temperature engine lubrication. These preliminary results indicate that IR spectroscopy can be used for oil quality monitoring in automotive engines, which will help predict and prevent engine failure and degradation. This work can be extended to other remote sensing applications, such as the monitoring of environmental oil spills.

  5. Improvement of Automotive Part Supplier Performance Evaluation (United States)

    Kongmunee, Chalermkwan; Chutima, Parames


    This research investigates the problem of the part supplier performance evaluation in a major Japanese automotive plant in Thailand. Its current evaluation scheme is based on experiences and self-opinion of the evaluators. As a result, many poor performance suppliers are still considered as good suppliers and allow to supply parts to the plant without further improvement obligation. To alleviate this problem, the brainstorming session among stakeholders and evaluators are formally conducted. The result of which is the appropriate evaluation criteria and sub-criteria. The analytical hierarchy process is also used to find suitable weights for each criteria and sub-criteria. The results show that a newly developed evaluation method is significantly better than the previous one in segregating between good and poor suppliers.

  6. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation (United States)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan


    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  7. Automotive radar - investigation of mutual interference mechanisms (United States)

    Goppelt, M.; Blöcher, H.-L.; Menzel, W.


    In the past mutual interference between automotive radar sensors has not been regarded as a major problem. With an increasing number of such systems, however, this topic is receiving more and more attention. The investigation of mutual interference and countermeasures is therefore one topic of the joint project "Radar on Chip for Cars" (RoCC) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). RoCC's goal is to pave the way for the development of high-performance, low-cost 79 GHz radar sensors based on Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs). This paper will present some generic interference scenarios and report on the current status of the analysis of interference mechanisms.

  8. Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung


    Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation.   In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions.  Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill’s analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehi...

  9. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations (United States)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Atzema, E. H.; Roelofsen, M. E.


    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path. The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary. Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials. Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations

  10. Conference on Future Automotive Technology Focus Electro Mobility

    CERN Document Server


    The increasing trend towards electric cars leads to several challenges for the automobile industry, research institutes and politics as well as for the society. Research and serial development move closer together to meet automotive standards with new components such as traction batteries integrated into hybrid and electrical drivetrains. Furthermore, the influence of e-mobility on the daily mobility behavior, the effects on the automotive supply chain and the impact on industrial production have to be taken into account. According to these complex aspects it is crucial to not only acquire specific knowledge in the particular fields but also to consider their functional interaction. Therefore, it seems essential to merge competence from science, economy and politics. This year, the annual „Conference on Future Automotive Technology“ as the follow-up of the „2. Automobiltechnisches Kolloquium München” focuses on the economical realization of widespread automotive electro mobility. Contents - Energy St...


    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Catalina ALBULESCU


    Full Text Available The business world is changing at an impressive speed: the global financial crisis, challenging markets, technology and talent crisis have a major impact on business. The last century can be associated with the triumph of the automobile industry. At the beginning of the 21st century the automotive industry has experienced one of the largest shifts in the automotive history. The new CO2 regulations on global level have determined the automotove industry to adopt new and original technologies faster than anticipated. The emerging tendency of car sharing in larger cities added to the media information related to the negative environmental effects of car mobility generate concerns that customers were seeking a replacement to the traditional, individual car ownership. The automotive industry will face challenging years ahead taking into consideration the shifting paradigm in auto-mobility. In this context, this article aims to provide a general perspective of the tendencies in the automotive sector.

  13. Firm and Product Heterogeneity in China's Automotive Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of the anatomy of China's automotive exports, relying on the literature on firm and product heterogeneity. For this purpose, we use highly disaggregated HS 8-digit product-category level data collected by the Chinese Customs Office for 2000 and 2008, and we distinguish between foreign firms, domestic public firms, and domestic private firms. We also decompose automotive products into autos and auto parts and components (P/C. We then calculate both the extensive margins – number of products exported – and intensive margins – average value of exports per product – of China's automotive exports. We estimate gravity equations to assess the determinants of China's exports of autos and auto P/C. Overall, our analysis yields a number of new, interesting stylized facts about China's automotive exports by confirming the need for taking into account different types of heterogeneity in analyzing international trade.

  14. Kenaf Fiber Composite in Automotive Industry: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassan


    Full Text Available Recently, natural fibers become an attractive to automotive industry as an alternative reinforcement for glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics. Additionally, natural fiber components in the automotive industry can provide numerous advantages compared to synthetic conventional such as reduction of weight and cost,  recyclability, renewability and in addition to eco-efficiency. Thus, the use of natural fibers in automotive industry has shown increasingly stringent environmental criteria. Furthermore, amongst grouped bast fibers such as flax, hemp, jute, ramie and kenaf; kenaf fiber seen as potential natural fiber with robust mechanical properties. Kenaf fiber had been explored to enhance desired mechanical properties as an automotive structural components. As usual, natural fibres have some issues and disadvantages when used as reinforcements for polymeric composites. Therefore, some modification performed on fibers such as chemical treatment was carried out. In addition, the use of a coupling agent and a plasticizer can also increase fiber-matrix adhesive bonding.

  15. Springback Compensation Process for High Strength Steel Automotive Parts (United States)

    Onhon, M. Fatih


    This paper is about an advanced stamping simulation methodology used in automotive industry to shorten total die manufacturing times in a new vehicle project by means of benefiting leading edge virtual try-out technology.

  16. The impact of alternate fuels on future candidate automotive engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahnke, C.J.; Nichols, R.J.


    The thermal efficiency that could occur in the future for a variety of automotive engine candidates operating on conventional and alternate fuels is projected based on current automotive engine development trends and the special characteristics of the various alternate fuels. The multi-fuel engine candidates include mixture cycle and direct injection reciprocating engines, as well as adiabatic turbocompound engines and advanced gas turbine and Stirling engines. The alternate fuels considered are propane, methanol, ethanol, diesel and methane.

  17. Meeting the Embedded Design Needs of Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, Wayne


    The importance of embedded systems in driving innovation in automotive applications continues to grow. Understanding the specific needs of developers targeting this market is also helping to drive innovation in RISC core design. This paper describes how a RISC instruction set architecture has evolved to better meet those needs, and the key implementation features in two very different RISC cores are used to demonstrate the challenges of designing for real-time automotive systems.

  18. Joining Technology of Dissimilar Materials for Automotive Components(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meung Ho Rhee; Jong Ho Song; Woo Young Chung; Young Myoung Kim


    Joining techniques of dissimilar materials for lightweight multi-material automotive body structure were discussed. The joining of 1 .4 mm thickness steel and 2 mm thickness of Al were performed by the new method that is hybrid laser welding system. After aluminum and steel were welded by laser hybrid welding process, the micro-structure investment and the micro-hardness test were carried out. Hybrid laser welding promises a bright future in joining technology of dissimilar materials for automotive components.

  19. 78 FR 48467 - Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions... workers of Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, Original Equipment... of ] Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, including on-site...

  20. Dynamic Task Scheduling on Multicore Automotive ECUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetishree Mishra


    Full Text Available Automobile manufacturers are controlled by stringen t govt. regulations for safety and fuel emissions a nd motivated towards adding more advanced features and sophisticated applications to the existing electro nic system. Ever increasing customer’s demands for high level of comfort also necessitate providing even m ore sophistication in vehicle electronics system. All t hese, directly make the vehicle software system mor e complex and computationally more intensive. In turn , this demands very high computational capability o f the microprocessor used in electronic control unit (ECU. In this regard, multicore processors have already been implemented in some of the task rigoro us ECUs like, power train, image processing and infotainment. To achieve greater performance from t hese multicore processors, parallelized ECU softwar e needs to be efficiently scheduled by the underlayin g operating system for execution to utilize all the computational cores to the maximum extent possible and meet the real time constraint. In this paper, w e propose a dynamic task scheduler for multicore engi ne control ECU that provides maximum CPU utilization, minimized preemption overhead, minimum average waiting time and all the tasks meet their real time deadlines while compared to the static pr iority scheduling suggested by Automotive Open Syst ems Architecture (AUTOSAR.

  1. Flywheel Energy Storage for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hedlund


    Full Text Available A review of flywheel energy storage technology was made, with a special focus on the progress in automotive applications. We found that there are at least 26 university research groups and 27 companies contributing to flywheel technology development. Flywheels are seen to excel in high-power applications, placing them closer in functionality to supercapacitors than to batteries. Examples of flywheels optimized for vehicular applications were found with a specific power of 5.5 kW/kg and a specific energy of 3.5 Wh/kg. Another flywheel system had 3.15 kW/kg and 6.4 Wh/kg, which can be compared to a state-of-the-art supercapacitor vehicular system with 1.7 kW/kg and 2.3 Wh/kg, respectively. Flywheel energy storage is reaching maturity, with 500 flywheel power buffer systems being deployed for London buses (resulting in fuel savings of over 20%, 400 flywheels in operation for grid frequency regulation and many hundreds more installed for uninterruptible power supply (UPS applications. The industry estimates the mass-production cost of a specific consumer-car flywheel system to be 2000 USD. For regular cars, this system has been shown to save 35% fuel in the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP drive cycle.

  2. Remanufacturing in automotive industry: Challenges and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Golinska


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide the framework for management of reverse flow of materials in automotive industry. The emphasis is placed on the remanufacturing activities. Materials management in such conditions is a real challenge. The cause for this is parallel use of raw materials and reused materials. Such hybrid flows of materials are characterized by increased level of uncertainty connected with amount, quality and timing. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a comprehensive review of remanufacturing and traditional manufacturing. The stabilization of reverse flows is crucial for continuity of remanufacturing operations. The simulation model and results are discussed regarding stabilization of the reverse flows. Findings: Authors identify main problems that appear in the area of combining at the production system forward and reverse flows of materials. The agent-based technology is applied for configuration and stabilization of reverse network. Research limitations/implications: Paper is case – oriented. Practical implications: Both logistician and IT researchers might benefit from authors approach. Originality/value: Authors provide an interdisciplinary approach combining operations management, logistics and information technology.

  3. Automotive Catalyst State Diagnosis Using Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moos Ralf


    Full Text Available The state of catalysts plays a key role in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment. The soot or ash loading of Diesel particulate filters, the oxygen loading degree in three-way catalysts, the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in NOx storage catalysts are important parameters that are today determined indirectly and in a model-based manner with gas sensors installed upstream and/or downstream of the catalysts. This contribution gives an overview on a novel approach to determine the catalyst state directly by a microwave-based technique. The method exploits the fact that the catalyst housing acts as a microwave cavity resonator. As “sensing” elements, one or two simple antennas are mounted inside the catalyst canning. The electrical properties of the catalyst device (ceramic honeycomb plus coating and storage material can be measured. Preferably, the resonance characteristics, e.g., the resonance frequencies, of selected cavity modes are observed. The information on the catalyst interior obtained in such a contactless manner is very well correlated with the catalyst state as will be demonstrated for different exhaust gas aftertreatment systems.

  4. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán, J.


    Full Text Available The car industry is facing pressure because of the growing demand for more fuel-efficient passenger cars. In order to limit energy consumption and air pollution the weight of the carbody has to be reduced. At the same time, high levels of safety have to be guaranteed. In this situation, the choice of material becomes a key decision in car design. As a response to the requirements of the automotive sector, high strength steels and advanced high strength steels have been developed by the steel industry. These modern steel grades offer an excellent balance of low cost, light weight and mechanical properties.

    La industria del automóvil se enfrenta a una creciente demanda de vehículos de pasajeros más eficientes. Con el fin de disminuir el consumo de energía y la contaminación ambiental, el peso del vehículo tiene que ser reducido, al mismo tiempo que se garantizan altos niveles de seguridad. Ante esta situación, la elección de material se convierte en una decisión crucial en el diseño del vehículo. Como respuesta a las necesidades del sector automovilístico, nuevos aceros avanzados y de alta resistencia, han sido desarrollados por la industria siderúrgica. Dichos tipos de acero ofrecen un excelente equilibrio de precio, peso y propiedades mecánicas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetishree Mishra


    Full Text Available Automobile manufacturers are controlled by stringent govt. regulations for safety and fuel emissions and motivated towards adding more advanced features and sophisticated applications to the existing electronic system. Ever increasing customer’s demands for high level of comfort also necessitate providing even more sophistication in vehicle electronics system. All these, directly make the vehicle software system more complex and computationally more intensive. In turn, this demands very high computational capability of the microprocessor used in electronic control unit (ECU. In this regard, multicore processors have already been implemented in some of the task rigorous ECUs like, power train, image processing and infotainment. To achieve greater performance from these multicore processors, parallelized ECU software needs to be efficiently scheduled by the underlaying operating system for execution to utilize all the computational cores to the maximum extent possible and meet the real time constraint. In this paper, we propose a dynamic task scheduler for multicore engine control ECU that provides maximum CPU utilization, minimized preemption overhead, minimum average waiting time and all the tasks meet their real time deadlines while compared to the static priority scheduling suggested by Automotive Open Systems Architecture (AUTOSAR

  6. Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices (United States)

    Zerhau-Dreihoefer, Harald; Haack, Uwe; Weber, Thomas; Wendt, Dierk


    Automotive lighting devices generally have to meet high standards. For example to avoid discomfort glare for the oncoming traffic, luminous intensities of a low beam headlight must decrease by more than one order of magnitude within a fraction of a degree along the horizontal cutoff-line. At the same time, a comfortable homogeneous illumination of the road requires slowly varying luminous intensities below the cutoff line. All this has to be realized taking into account both, the legal requirements and the customer's stylistic specifications. In order to be able to simulate and optimize devices with a good optical performance different light source models are required. In the early stage of e.g. reflector development simple unstructured models allow a very fast development of the reflectors shape. On the other hand the final simulation of a complex headlamp or signal light requires a sophisticated model of the spectral luminance. In addition to theoretical models based on the light source's geometry, measured luminance data can also be used in the simulation and optimization process.

  7. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics (United States)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele


    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  8. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions (United States)

    Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul


    The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  9. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Hanspeter


    Full Text Available The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today’s opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  10. Deployment of ERP Systems at Automotive Industries, Security Inspection (Case Study: IRAN KHODRO Automotive Company) (United States)

    Ali, Hatamirad; Hasan, Mehrjerdi

    Automotive industry and car production process is one of the most complex and large-scale production processes. Today, information technology (IT) and ERP systems incorporates a large portion of production processes. Without any integrated systems such as ERP, the production and supply chain processes will be tangled. The ERP systems, that are last generation of MRP systems, make produce and sale processes of these industries easier and this is the major factor of development of these industries anyhow. Today many of large-scale companies are developing and deploying the ERP systems. The ERP systems facilitate many of organization processes and make organization to increase efficiency. The security is a very important part of the ERP strategy at the organization, Security at the ERP systems, because of integrity and extensive, is more important of local and legacy systems. Disregarding of this point can play a giant role at success or failure of this kind of systems. The IRANKHODRO is the biggest automotive factory in the Middle East with an annual production over 600.000 cars. This paper presents ERP security deployment experience at the "IRANKHODRO Company". Recently, by launching ERP systems, it moved a big step toward more developments.

  11. Herbal Medicine (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  12. Folk Medicine (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Folk Medicine Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Jump ... products Lead has been found in some traditional (folk) medicines used by East Indian, Indian, Middle Eastern, ...

  13. Overview of Automotive Core Tools: Applications and Benefits (United States)

    Doshi, Jigar A.; Desai, Darshak


    Continuous improvement of product and process quality is always challenging and creative task in today's era of globalization. Various quality tools are available and used for the same. Some of them are successful and few of them are not. Considering the complexity in the continuous quality improvement (CQI) process various new techniques are being introduced by the industries, as well as proposed by researchers and academia. Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma is some of the techniques. In recent years, there are new tools being opted by the industry, especially automotive, called as Automotive Core Tools (ACT). The intention of this paper is to review the applications and benefits along with existing research on Automotive Core Tools with special emphasis on continuous quality improvement. The methodology uses an extensive review of literature through reputed publications—journals, conference proceedings, research thesis, etc. This paper provides an overview of ACT, its enablers, and exertions, how it evolved into sophisticated methodologies and benefits used in organisations. It should be of value to practitioners of Automotive Core Tools and to academics who are interested in how CQI can be achieved using ACT. It needs to be stressed here that this paper is not intended to scorn Automotive Core Tools, rather, its purpose is limited only to provide a balance on the prevailing positive views toward ACT.

  14. Evolution of the Automotive Body Coating Process—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson K. Akafuah


    Full Text Available Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error approaches, technique and technology advancements, and theoretical assessments. Because of advancements directed at understanding the how, why, when, and where of automobile coatings, the progress in controlling droplets and their deposition attributes, and the development of new technologies and paint chemistries, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of automobile coatings and coating technologies was considered to be of value to industrial practitioners and researchers. Overall, the critical performance factors driving the development and use of advanced automotive coatings and coating technologies are (a aesthetic characteristics; (b corrosion protection; (c mass production; (d cost and environmental requirements; and (e appearance and durability. Although the relative importance of each of these factors is debatable, the perfection of any one at the expense of another would be unacceptable. Hence, new developments in automotive coatings are described and discussed in the following review, and then related to improvements in production technologies and paints. Modern automotive coating procedures are also discussed in detail. Finally, an extrapolation into the future of automotive coating is offered with a view of the developments and technologies needed for an increasingly efficient and more sustainable coatings industry.

  15. Change management methodologies trained for automotive infotainment projects (United States)

    Prostean, G.; Volker, S.; Hutanu, A.


    An Automotive Electronic Control Units (ECU) development project embedded within a car Environment is constantly under attack of a continuous flow of modifications of specifications throughout the life cycle. Root causes for those modifications are for instance simply software or hardware implementation errors or requirement changes to satisfy the forthcoming demands of the market to ensure the later commercial success. It is unavoidable that from the very beginning until the end of the project “requirement changes” will “expose” the agreed objectives defined by contract specifications, which are product features, budget, schedule and quality. The key discussions will focus upon an automotive radio-navigation (infotainment) unit, which challenges aftermarket devises such as smart phones. This competition stresses especially current used automotive development processes, which are fit into a 4 Year car development (introduction) cycle against a one-year update cycle of a smart phone. The research will focus the investigation of possible impacts of changes during all phases of the project: the Concept-Validation, Development and Debugging-Phase. Building a thorough understanding of prospective threats is of paramount importance in order to establish the adequate project management process to handle requirement changes. Personal automotive development experiences and Literature review of change- and configuration management software development methodologies led the authors to new conceptual models, which integrates into the structure of traditional development models used in automotive projects, more concretely of radio-navigation projects.

  16. Automotive Mg Research and Development in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Joseph A. [U.S. Department of Energy; Jackman, Jennifer [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Li, Naiyi [Ford Motor Company; Osborne, Richard J. [General Motors Corporation; Powell, Bob R. [General Motors Corporation; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL


    Expanding world economic prosperity and probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades require efforts to increase the efficiency of, and the development of alternatives to, petroleum-based fuels used in automotive transportation. North America has been aggressively pursuing both approaches for over ten years. Mainly as a result of lower prices due to global sourcing, magnesium has recently emerged as a serious candidate for lightweighting, and thus increasing the fuel efficiency of, automotive transportation. Automotive vehicles produced in North America currently use more Mg than vehicles produced elsewhere in the world, but the amounts per vehicle are very small in comparison to other materials such as steel, aluminum and plastics. The reasons, besides price, are primarily a less-developed state of technology for Mg in automotive transportation applications and lack of familiarity by the vehicle manufacturers with the material. This paper reviews some publicly-known, recent, present and future North American research and development activities in Mg for automotive applications.

  17. Numerical and Experimental Applications of TWIP Steel in Automotive Parts (United States)

    Lee, J. W.; Lim, J. H.; Choi, J. B.; Oh, P. Y.


    Modern automotive design has been faced with the weight reduction problem to meet the CO2 emissions standard while achieving high safety and compact design. Such being the case, most car makers want to use the ultra high strength steels (UHSS). But there are several problems when such steels are used, due to presumed lack of formability. Since the disadvantage such as above, it has been suggested that UHSS need special forming methods or it should be used only limited process like simple bending, by many automotive research institutes. To overcome these shortcomings, Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel for improved strength and formability has been developed by steel making company, including POSCO, Korea. Because of its characteristics, it is expected to be widely used in automotive parts. This paper aims at finding out several ways how to make effective use of TWIP steel in automotive parts. Especially, comprising about from 15 to 18% manganese and from 1.5 to 2% aluminum which was developed by POSCO for application of the automotive parts will be considered.

  18. Advanced Automotive Technologies annual report to Congress, fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This annual report serves to inform the United States Congress on the progress for fiscal year 1996 of programs under the Department of Energy`s Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT). This document complies with the legislative requirement to report on the implementation of Title III of the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978. Also reported are related activities performed under subsequent relevant legislation without specific reporting requirements. Furthermore, this report serves as a vital means of communication from the Department to all public and private sector participants. Specific requirements that are addressed in this report are: Discussion of how each research and development contract, grant, or project funded under the authority of this Act satisfies the requirements of each subsection; Current comprehensive program definition for implementing Title III; Evaluation of the state of automotive propulsion system research and development in the United States; Number and amount of contracts and grants awarded under Title III; Analysis of the progress made in developing advanced automotive propulsion system technology; and Suggestions for improvements in automotive propulsion system research and development, including recommendations for legislation.

  19. 77 FR 13350 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing the...

  20. [SPORT MEDICINE]. (United States)

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon


    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process.

  1. Investigation of metallurgical coatings for automotive applications (United States)

    Su, Jun Feng

    Metallurgical coatings have been widely used in the automotive industry from component machining, engine daily running to body decoration due to their high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and low friction coefficient. With high demands in energy saving, weight reduction and limiting environmental impact, the use of new materials such as light Aluminum/magnesium alloys with high strength-weight ratio for engine block and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) with better performance in crash energy management for die stamping, are increasing. However, challenges are emerging when these new materials are applied such as the wear of the relative soft light alloys and machining tools for hard AHSS. The protective metallurgical coatings are the best option to profit from these new materials' advantages without altering largely in mass production equipments, machinery, tools and human labor. In this dissertation, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating processing on aluminum alloys was introduced in engine cylinder bores to resist wear and corrosion. The tribological behavior of the PEO coatings under boundary and starve lubrication conditions was studied experimentally and numerically for the first time. Experimental results of the PEO coating demonstrated prominent wear resistance and low friction, taking into account the extreme working conditions. The numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and asperity contact based tribological study also showed a promising approach on designing low friction and high wear resistant PEO coatings. Other than the fabrication of the new coatings, a novel coating evaluation methodology, namely, inclined impact sliding tester was presented in the second part of this dissertation. This methodology has been developed and applied in testing and analyzing physical vapor deposition (PVD)/ chemical vapor deposition (CVD)/PEO coatings. Failure mechanisms of these common metallurgical hard coatings were systematically

  2. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells (United States)

    Gasteiger, Hubert


    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC environment more corrosion

  3. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry - Introduction (United States)

    Olson, W. T.


    In many cases it has been found that advances made in one technical field can contribute to other fields. An investigation is in this connection conducted concerning subjects from contemporary NASA programs and projects which might have relevance and potential usefulness to the automotive industry. Examples regarding aerospace developments which have been utilized by the automotive industry are related to electronic design, computer systems, quality control experience, a NASA combustion scanner and television display, exhaust gas analyzers, and a device for suppressing noise propagated through ducts. Projects undertaken by NASA's center for propulsion and power research are examined with respect to their value for the automotive industry. As a result of some of these projects, a gas turbine engine and a Stirling engine might each become a possible alternative to the conventional spark ignition engine.

  4. Social media for knowledge sharing in automotive repair

    CERN Document Server

    Finkbeiner, Patric


    This book explores, describes and explains the predictors essential for the acceptance of social media as a digital platform to share professional knowledge in the field of automotive repair in Germany. It reports a rigorous literature review covering key elements of social media, knowledge management and technology acceptance studies. The book assumes a pragmatist approach and applies mixed methods in an exploratory sequential design, combining qualitative and quantitative methods to ensure robust collection and analysis of the collected data. Based on a survey on German automotive repair shops, the author provides a framework, for various stakeholders, to comprehend the motivations for knowledge sharing for automotive repair professionals in Germany. This book not only adds to the existing academic body of knowledge but also provides implications for industry and legislation on a European scale. .

  5. Hybrid Modeling and Simulation of Automotive Supply Chain Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang


    Full Text Available According to the operation of automotive supply chain and the features of various simulation methods, we create and simulate a automotive supply chain network model with the core enterprise of two vehicle manufacturers, consisting of several parts suppliers, vehicle distributors and logistics service providers. On this basis of a conceptual model including the establishment of enterprise layer, business layer and operation layer, we establish a detailed model of the network system according to the network structure of automotive supply chain, the operation process and the internal business process of core enterprises; then we use System Dynamics (SD, Discrete Event Simulation (DES and Agent Based Modeling (ABM to describe the operating state of each node in the network model. We execute and analyze the simulation model of the whole network system described by Anylogic, using the results of the distributors’ inventory, inventory cost and customer’s satisfaction to prove the effectiveness of the model.

  6. State of the art: benchmarking microprocessors for embedded automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Shaout


    Full Text Available Benchmarking microprocessors provides a way for consumers to evaluate the performance of the processors. This is done by using either synthetic or real world applications. There are a number of benchmarks that exist today to assist consumers in evaluating the vast number of microprocessors that are available in the market. In this paper an investigation of the various benchmarks available for evaluating microprocessors for embedded automotive applications will be performed. We will provide an overview of the following benchmarks: Whetstone, Dhrystone, Linpack, standard performance evaluation corporation (SPEC CPU2006, embedded microprocessor benchmark consortium (EEMBC AutoBench and MiBench. A comparison of existing benchmarks will be given based on relevant characteristics of automotive applications which will give the proper recommendation when benchmarking processors for automotive applications.

  7. Offshoring trends in the manufacturing process within the automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simplay, S.; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee


    This paper investigates offshoring trends in the automotive industry. The research approach consisted of combining empirical findings from case companies with latest research from the field. Empirical data was collected through case studies from 15 automotive organisations based in Europe...... consisting of original equipment manufacturers and engineering service providers. The findings indicated some offshoring trends in the automotive industry. Offshoring in this industry is moving from a manufacturing focus to incorporate large parts of the process, including high-level product development...... engineering activities. This development has created several challenges. These challenges arose as organisations are not considering how offshoring activities could be integrated with an increasingly global supply chain for the manufacturing of the final product. The paper contributes to manufacturing theory...

  8. Digitalization of automotive industry – scenarios for future manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Steven


    Full Text Available Among the current challenges to the global automotive industry are changes in global markets leading to product variety, regulation leading to pressure for new technologies in body and powertrain, and competition by new players such as huge information and communication technology companies. Automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs deal with these issues in different ways. This paper uses the scenario technique to illustrate possible answers to the question, how future value chains of automotive industry will look like. In almost all cases, information and communication technology (ICT plays a major role in future strategies to cope with the aforementioned challenges. On the one hand, ICT can boost the way to more efficient production of variants by utilizing smart manufacturing approaches, on the other hand ICT enables new features such as autonomous driving.

  9. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude


    Full Text Available Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implementation of a 'philosophy of continuous improvement' could be used as a strategic tool to address the challenges they face in the market. Methodology: This study included a combination of literature review, interviews with managers in the selected sub-groups and questionnaires sent out to determine the challenges facing automotive component exporters. In order to test the content validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted at two organisations that are the main suppliers of automotive filters for passenger vehicles. The non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample and consisted of selected sub-sectors that contribute 64,1% of the total value of automotive component exports in South Africa. Out of twenty-seven questionnaires sent out, twenty (74% response rate were duly completed by the respondents and returned to the researcher. Findings: South Africa faces unique challenges and these are listed and ranked according to priority from most to least important as follows: 1. The reduction of production costs; 2. R/US$ exchange rate effect on the respondent's export sales and profit margin; 3. Exchange rate fluctuations; 4. Threats to the local automotive component market; and 5. Increased competition by way of manufactured imports being sold in the South African market. Value of Research: The study provides recommendations that can be used within the automotive component industry.

  10. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory. (United States)


    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering... edges, bend the glass, and then temper the glass to produce side and back windows for automobiles....

  11. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pech Ondrej


    Full Text Available Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  12. Engineering wear-resistant surfaces in automotive aluminum (United States)

    Kavorkijan, V.


    Inadequate wear resistance and low seizure loads prevent the direct use of aluminum alloys in automotive parts subject to intensive friction combined with high thermal and mechanical loading, such as brake discs, pistons, and cylinder liners. To enable the use of aluminum alloys in the production of automotive brake discs and other wear-resistant products, the insertion of a monolithic friction cladding rather than surface coating has been considered in this work. Three experimental approaches, two based on the pressure-less infiltration of porous ceramic preforms and one based on the subsequent hot rolling of aluminum and metal-matrix composite strips, are currently under investigation.

  13. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, C.D.


    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  14. Utilization of Durability Criterion to Develop Automotive Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes


    Today the automotive companies must reduce the time to development of new products with improvement in performance, durability and low cost reductions where possible. To achieve this goal the carmakers need to improve the design criterion of car systems like body, chassis and suspension components....... This paper will present a review of the techniques used in the automotive industry regarding durability before mentioned systems. The paper will present the procedures to obtain the spectrum loading to use in finite element analysis and the validation in laboratory and proving grounds....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sabadka


    Full Text Available This paper lays out the main features of the global automotive industry and identifies several important trends. Logistics operations (inbound and outbound in the automotive supply chain are complex and account for large expenses and therefore are segments in the value chainwhere improvements can be made. Better coordination between inbound and outbound logistics contributes to optimising the supply chains, to reducing inventories and to responding to consumer requests. As economies grow, the competition shifts towards brand image and customisation and here the speed and reliability of logistics operations becomes a critical elements.

  16. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent (United States)

    Pech, Ondrej; Jedelsky, Jan; Caletka, Petr; Jicha, Miroslav


    Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  17. Producing lower-cost titanium for automotive applications (United States)

    Hartman, A. D.; Gerdemann, S. J.; Hansen, J. S.


    Although titanium has attractive properties that can improve the performance and economy of automobiles, at its current cost, it cannot compete with steel in most applications for which it is suited. It is readily apparent that titanium cannot be considered a viable mass-market automotive materials alternative as long as it is produced with the Kroll process. A look at existing and new technologies (as well as some that have been found lacking) in terms of applicability toward high-volume, low-cost titanium production for automotive applications indicates other options.

  18. Sliding mode observers for automotive alternator (United States)

    Chen, De-Shiou

    Estimator development for synchronous rectification of the automotive alternator is a desirable approach for estimating alternator's back electromotive forces (EMFs) without a direct mechanical sensor of the rotor position. Recent theoretical studies show that estimation of the back EMF may be observed based on system's phase current model by sensing electrical variables (AC phase currents and DC bus voltage) of the synchronous rectifier. Observer design of the back EMF estimation has been developed for constant engine speed. In this work, we are interested in nonlinear observer design of the back EMF estimation for the real case of variable engine speed. Initial back EMF estimate can be obtained from a first-order sliding mode observer (SMO) based on the phase current model. A fourth-order nonlinear asymptotic observer (NAO), complemented by the dynamics of the back EMF with time-varying frequency and amplitude, is then incorporated into the observer design for chattering reduction. Since the cost of required phase current sensors may be prohibitive, the most applicable approach in real implementation by measuring DC current of the synchronous rectifier is carried out in the dissertation. It is shown that the DC link current consists of sequential "windows" with partial information of the phase currents, hence, the cascaded NAO is responsible not only for the purpose of chattering reduction but also for necessarily accomplishing the process of estimation. Stability analyses of the proposed estimators are considered for most linear and time-varying cases. The stability of the NAO without speed information is substantiated by both numerical and experimental results. Prospective estimation algorithms for the case of battery current measurements are investigated. Theoretical study indicates that the convergence of the proposed LAO may be provided by high gain inputs. Since the order of the LAO/NAO for the battery current case is one order higher than that of the link

  19. The Partnership for Today That Works for Tomorrow: The Professional Automotive Training Center at Shoreline Community College. (United States)

    Hightower, Cameron

    The Professional Automotive Training Center (PATC) is a 28,150 square foot automotive technician training center located on the campus of Shoreline Community College (SCC) in Washington. The complex is the result of a partnership between SCC and the 230 automotive dealerships of the Puget Sound Automotive Dealers Association and is designed to…

  20. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robyn Ready


    The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program conducted education and outreach activities and used the competition's technical goals and vehicle demonstrations as a means of attracting students and the public to learn more about advanced vehicle technologies, energy efficiency, climate change, alternative fuels, and the science and math behind efficient vehicle development. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program comprised three integrated components that were designed to educate the general public and create a multi-tiered initiative to engage students and showcase the 21st century skills students will need to compete in our global economy: teamwork, creativity, strong literacy, math and science skills, and innovative thinking. The elements included an Online Experience, a National Student Contest, and in person education events and activites. The project leveraged online connections, strategic partnerships, in-classroom, and beyond-the-classroom initiatives, as well as mainstream media. This education program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also funded the specification of vehicle telemetry and the full development and operation of an interactive online experience that allowed internet users to follow the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE vehicles as they performed in real-time during the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE competition events.

  1. Flexible Labour Strategy in the Dutch Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Maarten; Leede, de Jan


    Labour flexibility is a major way for companies to become more flexible. Why companies use flexible labour relations varies widely per industry. We assess the development of labour flexibility within the Dutch automotive industry. Four cases, together representing the production chain, are presented

  2. Training Needs for High Performance in the Automotive Industry. (United States)

    Clyne, Barry; And Others

    A project was conducted in Australia to identify the training needs of the emerging industry required to support the development of the high performance areas of the automotive machining and reconditioning field especially as it pertained to auto racing. Data were gathered through a literature search, interviews with experts in the field, and…

  3. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.


    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  4. Automotive body panel containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)


    An automotive body panel containing a polymer composite formed of at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  5. Compensating springback in the automotive practice using MASHAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohnimus, S.; Petzoldt, M.; Rietman, B.; Weiher, J.


    New materials are used in the automotive industry to reduce weight and to improve crash performance. These materials feature a higher ratio of yield stress to elastic modulus leading to increased springback after tool release. The resulting shape deviations and their efficient reduction is of major

  6. Energy autonomous sensor systems for automotive condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraeulin, Christian [A. RAYMOND GmbH und Co. KG, Weil am Rhein (Germany); Nurnus, Joachim; Punt, Wladimir [Micropelt GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)


    With the number of automotive sensors increasing, the effort for connecting all these sensors becomes more and more of an issue. A possible way to overcome these issues is to use energy-autonomous sensors that, besides the basic sensor function, include means to transmit the measurement data wirelessly as well as to generate the electrical energy they need to operate. Generating the electrical energy can be done by harvesting energy from ambient sources that are available in abundance, among others these can be heat and vibration. Although these principles are not new, so far little attempts have been made to incorporate these technologies into cost-sensitive segments like the automotive market. In this paper we present two energy-autonomous sensor demonstrators for automotive applications: a temperature sensor powered with a thermoelectric harvester, thus using a tiny amount of the physical property it wants to measure, and a pressure sensor powered by vibration energy. For both applications, managing the limited amount of available energy is one of the mayor tasks in developing this kind of systems. Therefore both systems use special means in hard- and software to cope with that task. While the automotive market is a very interesting one for energy-autonomous sensors, many other possible applications can be considered, among them the solar market and industrial condition monitoring. (orig.)

  7. Monitoring active filters under automotive aging scenarios with embedded instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Jinbo; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    In automotive mixed-signal SoCs, the analogue/mixed-signal front-ends are of particular interest with regard to dependability. Because of the many electrical disturbances at the front-end, often (active) filters are being used. Due to the harsh environments, in some cases, degradation of these filte

  8. Laser surface treatment of grey cast iron for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Tang, P.N.; de Boer, M.C.; de Oliveira, U.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI


    The surface of pearlitic grey cast iron was treated using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser beam with the final aim to improve its surface properties, mainly for automotive applications. Two kinds of laser surface treatments were experimentally applied. In the laser surface hardening approach the surface of cast


    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...


    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  11. Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics (United States)

    Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette


    The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

  12. Ozone biomonitoring in a local network around an automotive plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka-Rick, R. [Biologisch Ueberwachen und Bewerten, Echterdingen (Germany)


    Effects of ambient air pollution by organic solvents, emitted from coating processes, are monitored by sensitive bioindicator plants since 1992 in and around a large automotive plant. In order to distinguish specific injury symptoms caused by these solvents, typical leaf injury symptoms by oxidant air pollution are also recorded. (orig.)

  13. Financial Crises and Automotive Industry Development in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doner, Richard F.; Wad, Peter


    The automotive industries of Southeast Asia have grown significantly but unevenly. Thailand has outperformed its neighbours in Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines with regard to production and, most notably, export volumes. But the Thai auto industry has not exhibited the level of local...

  14. GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Douglas [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    The Virginia Tech GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems (CAFCS) achieved the following objectives in support of the domestic automotive industry: Expanded and updated fuel cell and vehicle technologies education programs; Conducted industry directed research in three thrust areas development and characterization of materials for PEM fuel cells; performance and durability modeling for PEM fuel cells; and fuel cell systems design and optimization, including hybrid and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles; Developed MS and Ph.D. engineers and scientists who are pursuing careers related to fuel cells and automotive applications; Published research results that provide industry with new knowledge which contributes to the advancement of fuel cell and vehicle systems commercialization. With support from the Dept. of Energy, the CAFCS upgraded existing graduate course offerings; introduced a hands-on laboratory component that make use of Virginia Tech's comprehensive laboratory facilities, funded 15 GATE Fellowships over a five year period; and expanded our program of industry interaction to improve student awareness of challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. GATE Center graduate students have a state-of-the-art research experience preparing them for a career to contribute to the advancement fuel cell and vehicle technologies.

  15. Environmental management and operational performance in automotive companies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.; Govindan, Kannan


    The main objective of this study is to verify the influence of Environmental Management (EM) on Operational Performance (OP) in Brazilian automotive companies, analyzing whether Lean Manufacturing (LM) and Human Resources (HR) interfere in the greening of these companies. Therefore, a conceptual...

  16. Estimation of Kinetic Parameters in an Automotive SCR Catalyst Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas; Widd, Anders; Abildskov, Jens;


    A challenge during the development of models for simulation of the automotive Selective Catalytic Reduction catalyst is the parameter estimation of the kinetic parameters, which can be time consuming and problematic. The parameter estimation is often carried out on small-scale reactor tests, or p...

  17. Environmental Performance and firm strategies in the Dutch automotive sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.; Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.


    This paper explores how automotive firms positioned their portfolio since the introduction of energy labels for cars. Using data on product characteristics of automobiles offered on the Dutch market over the period 2001-2010, we analyse how car manufacturers' product portfolios have changed. Portfol

  18. Applied Physics Modules Selected for Automotive and Diesel Technologies. (United States)

    Waring, Gene

    Designed for individualized use in an applied physics course in postsecondary vocational-technical education, this series of ten learning modules is equivalent to the content of a five-credit hour class in automotive technology or diesel technology. Almost all the modules contain technological application in the form of laboratory experiments or…

  19. Visual bias in subjective assessments of automotive sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Legarth, Søren Vase


    In order to evaluate how strong the influence of visual input on sound quality evaluation may be, a naive sample of 20 participants was asked to judge interior automotive sound recordings while simultaneously being exposed to pictures of cars. twenty-two recordings of second-gear acceleration...

  20. [Expedition medicine]. (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana


    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  1. Analysis of sound absorption of tuck spacer fabrics to reduce automotive noise (United States)

    Dias, Tilak; Monaragala, Ravindra; Needham, Peter; Lay, Edward


    Textiles are widely used in the automotive industry to provide both comfort to the passengers and an aesthetic appearance to the automotive interior. They can also be used to reduce automotive interior noise, which can make automotive travel safer and more comfortable. Knitted fabrics are used widely in automotive upholstery; however, the sound absorbency of a single layer of a knitted fabric is inadequate for the reduction of automotive interior noise. This paper investigates the sound absorbency of a novel knitted spacer fabric, which can be used in automotive upholstery and has the potential for greater sound absorbency than a conventional plain knitted fabric and its derivatives. The spacer fabric is modelled as a porous sound absorber and its sound absorbency is studied with regard to its structural parameters.

  2. Acoustic response variability in automotive vehicles (United States)

    Hills, E.; Mace, B. R.; Ferguson, N. S.


    A statistical analysis of a series of measurements of the audio-frequency response of a large set of automotive vehicles is presented: a small hatchback model with both a three-door (411 vehicles) and five-door (403 vehicles) derivative and a mid-sized family five-door car (316 vehicles). The sets included vehicles of various specifications, engines, gearboxes, interior trim, wheels and tyres. The tests were performed in a hemianechoic chamber with the temperature and humidity recorded. Two tests were performed on each vehicle and the interior cabin noise measured. In the first, the excitation was acoustically induced by sets of external loudspeakers. In the second test, predominantly structure-borne noise was induced by running the vehicle at a steady speed on a rough roller. For both types of excitation, it is seen that the effects of temperature are small, indicating that manufacturing variability is larger than that due to temperature for the tests conducted. It is also observed that there are no significant outlying vehicles, i.e. there are at most only a few vehicles that consistently have the lowest or highest noise levels over the whole spectrum. For the acoustically excited tests, measured 1/3-octave noise reduction levels typically have a spread of 5 dB or so and the normalised standard deviation of the linear data is typically 0.1 or higher. Regarding the statistical distribution of the linear data, a lognormal distribution is a somewhat better fit than a Gaussian distribution for lower 1/3-octave bands, while the reverse is true at higher frequencies. For the distribution of the overall linear levels, a Gaussian distribution is generally the most representative. As a simple description of the response variability, it is sufficient for this series of measurements to assume that the acoustically induced airborne cabin noise is best described by a Gaussian distribution with a normalised standard deviation between 0.09 and 0.145. There is generally

  3. [Sport medicine]. (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram


    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  4. State Articulated Instructional Objectives Guide for Occupational Education Programs. State Pilot Model for Automotive Mechanics (DCC V-003) and Automotive Mechanics (High School). (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    This articulation instructional objective guide for automotive mechanics contains summary information on fifteen blocks (courses) of instruction. They are introduction to automotive technology; lubrication and vehicle operating maintenance; cooling system maintenance and repair; automobile heater maintenance and repair; braking system maintenance…

  5. COPD Medicine (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Treatment & Programs Medications COPD Medications COPD Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... control the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most people with COPD take long-acting medicine ...

  6. Medicine Man


    Paola, Frederick Adolf


    It becomes imperative that our doctors bring to the practice of medicine a true scientific perspective; it may be just as important that those of us doing biomedical research try to learn more of what doctors know.

  7. Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for ... administered by inhalation, by oral ingestion, or by direct injection into an organ. The mode of tracer ...

  8. Mockup Didatic Set for Students Development in Automotive Electronic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Delatore


    Full Text Available The automotive engineering education area, specifically on internal combustion engine, requires the use of suitable systems, capable to simulate, test and obtain specifics data from its operation. Automotive engines are so complex due to it is a mix of engineering subjects, so, a mockup was created to help its study. The mockup is an exactly the same engine that equips a vehicle, but assembled in a mechanical base, equipped with all the necessary components for running it up. The objective of this work is to develop a mockup with a suitable Electronic Control Unit (ECU board, in order to obtain the sensors/actuators signals from the engine and control some important engine functions by using an external ECU, so that the students may test their own strategies, compare with the original ECU.

  9. Development of nanolubricant automotive air conditioning (AAC test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redhwan A.A.M.


    Full Text Available Nanolubricant been introduced in compressor might improve the performance of automotive air conditioning system. Prior testing of the nanolubricant enhancement performance, an automotive air conditioning (AAC system test rig base on compact car has to be developed; therefore this paper presented the development process of AAC test rig. There are 15 thermocouples, 2 pressure gauges and power analyzer were assembled on the system in order to analyse its performance. The experiment was conducted with four different charged of refrigerant. The charging was based on initial weight charged. At each quantity of refrigerant charge, performance of the AAC system was evaluated by determining three important parameters which is cooling capacity, compressor work and coefficient of performance (COP. The maximum average COP is achieved at 900 RPM is 7.07. The average and maximum COP enhancement of 7.07 % and 13.34 % were achieved by applying SiO2 nanolubricant inside the compressor.

  10. 20th International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Beate; Meyer, Gereon


    This book contains the papers presented at the 20th anniversary edition of the AMAA conference held in Brussels, Belgium in 2016. The theme of the conference was "Smart Systems for the Automobile of the Future". The automobile is currently being reshaped at unprecedented pace. Automation and electrification are the two dominant megatrends which dramatically change the choice and design of components, systems, vehicular architectures and ultimately the way we use cars in the coming decades. Novel E/E architectures, vehicular connectivity and cloud services will be key to extending the perception and decision-making horizons of automated vehicles, to enable cooperative functions and a seamless digital user experience. The AMAA's ongoing mission to detect novel trends in automotive ICT, electronics and smart systems and to discuss the technological implications is once again reflected in this volume. The book will be a valuable read for research experts and professionals in the automotive and smart systems indus...

  11. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry, introduction (United States)

    Olson, W. T.


    NASA derived technology already in use in the automotive industry include: (1) developments in electronics design, computer systems, and quality control methods for line testing of cars and trucks; (2) a combustion analysis computer program for automotive engine research and development; (3) an infrared scanner and television display for analyzing tire design and performance, and for studying the effects of heat on the service life of V-belts, shock mounts, brakes, and rubber bearings; (4) exhaust gas analyzers for trouble shooting and emissions certification; (5) a device for reducing noise from trucks; and (6) a low cost test vehicle for measuring highway skid resistance. Services offered by NASA to facilitate access to its technology are described.

  12. Experimental Research of Automotive Needlepunched Carpets at Thermoforming Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-qing; GUO Zhi-ying; DONG xiang-huai; LI De-qun


    Tensile prerties with different thermoformingconditions and deformation mechanism at thermoformingtemperatures of automotive needlepunched carpets made up ofthree layers of different materials were reported.Investigations on the tensile properties were performed as afunction of thermoforming temperature, extensile speed andfiber orientation based on an orthogonal experiment design.The experimental results show that the automotive carpets arerate-dependent anisotropic one and very sensitive to theforming temperature. The tensile properties are stronglydepended an the forming temperature when compared with theextensile speed and the fiber orientation. Experiments onlyvarying with the temperature were performed because of thedominative effect of the temperature. Different defotmationperformances were observed with different temperatures.Deformation mechanisms at the thermoforming temperatureswere presented to explain the nonlinear trend of the ultimateelongation with the temperatures based on the combination ofthe experimental observations and the corresponding polymertheories.

  13. Identifying Lead Markets in the European Automotive Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Thomas; Grimpe, Christoph; Rammer, Christian


    of excellence in technology and interaction among users and producers, the lead market approach focuses on the role of demand characteristics. Based on the concept of innovation design, a lead market is defined as a country where customers prefer that design which subsequently becomes the globally dominant......This paper presents an indicator-based methodology to identify lead markets in the European automotive industry. The lead market approach tries to explain why certain countries are better positioned than others for developing and launching new products. While much research stresses the role...... design. We use an indicator-based approach which has been successfully employed for individual products as well as for various industries in order to identify lead markets in the European automotive industry. Employing five lead market factors, our results show that the EU is by far no homogeneous market...

  14. Sustainability and Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Sector

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Since this year there can be no doubt that "sustainability" has become the top issue in the automotive sector. Volkswagen's CEO Prof. Dr. Martin Winterkorn attacked incumbents like BMW Group (so far the "most sustainable car manufacturer" for the 8th consecutive year) or Toyota (producer of the famous "Prius") head-on by boldly stating to become "the most profitable and most sustainable car manufacturer worldwide by 2018" . This announcement clearly shows that "sustainability" and "profitability" no longer are considered as conflicting targets. On the contrary, to Prof. Dr. Winterkorn : "climate protection is a driver for economic growth". To prime discussions, the plenary talk will give a brief overview of the entire range of energy efficiency in the automotive sector: based on the multiple drivers behind energy efficiency, practical examples are presented along the entire life-cycle of cars (R&D, production, usage and recycling). These "cases" include big automobile producers as well as their respectiv...

  15. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards (United States)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti


    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  16. Suitability of Alternative Lubricants for Automotive Gear Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Suhane


    Full Text Available Rising environmental concerns due to the problems associated with conventional mineral lubricants has renewed interest in usage of alternative resources. Various attempts have been made to explore the possibilities of utilizing vegetable oils for range of applications. Properties like excellent viscosity features, higher biodegradability, lower toxicity, better renewability & natural lubricity etc shows its potential as lubricants inspite of certain technical problems. Critical issues like lower oxidation stability , poor cold temperature properties affects the performance of vegetable oils and restricts its application to limited range . Gear oils are the hidden workhorses of automotive applications. This article highlights the suitability of various vegetable oils for lubricant formulation as an alternative in automotive gearing applications.

  17. 4th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wellnitz, Jörg; Leary, Martin; Koopmans, Lucien


    The book on Sustainable Automotive Technologies aims to draw special attention to the research and practice focused on new technologies and approaches capable of meeting the challenges to sustainable mobility. In particular, the book features incremental and radical technical advancements that are able to meet social, economic and environmental targets in both local and global contexts. These include original solutions to the problems of pollution and congestion, vehicle and public safety, sustainable vehicle design and manufacture, new structures and materials, new power-train technologies and vehicle concepts. In addition to vehicle technologies, the book is also concerned with the broader systemic issues such as sustainable supply chain systems, integrated logistics and telematics, and end-of-life vehicle management. It captures selected peer reviewed papers accepted for presentation at the 4th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies, ICSAT2012, held at the RMIT, Melbourne, Australi...

  18. Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Akamatsu


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility, driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate, driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment, crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.

  19. Economic crisis and the automotive industry in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosip, A.


    Full Text Available The economic crisis has affected many areas but the auto industry is perhaps one of the most affected. Renault, Ford, General Motors, Toyota, Volkswagen, BMW are just some of the big players caught unprepared. Through this paper we propose an analysis of the automotive market in Romania in order to understand the sales decrease of the last two years. At the same time we aimed at understanding the reasons that led to a decrease in car sales, what were the measures taken by the government to stop this phenomenon and how the economic crisis influenced the automotive field in Romania. An objective image of the situation in the automobile market in Romania at this moment also requires an analysis of the marketing environment and the changes it has undergone over time. Last but not least we will try to find a series of measures to re-launch the car market in Romania.

  20. Learning, Upgrading, Innovation in the South African Automotive Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Justin; Lorentzen, Jochen


    , their internal upgrading and R&D agenda, and their interface with South Africa's national innovation system (NIS). The analysis makes use of eight case studies, and illustrates the conditions under which indigenous innovation in the automotive industries can happen in a developing country. This finding......This paper addresses the innovation activities of automotive component manufacturers in South Africa. It looks at the technological trajectory of a handful of firms that stand out from the crowd and analyses the results of their endeavours in the context of their interaction with foreign capital...... contradicts at least part of the conventional wisdom concerning the location of innovation activities in global car value chains. Results also point to a deficient NIS insofar as there appears to be a disjuncture between the demand for engineering competence in the manufacturing sector on the one hand...

  1. Network medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Tony; Linding, Rune


    for new therapeutic intervention. We argue that by targeting the architecture of aberrant signaling networks associated with cancer and other diseases new therapeutic strategies can be implemented. Transforming medicine into a network driven endeavour will require quantitative measurements of cell...... signaling processes; we will describe how this may be performed and combined with new algorithms to predict the trajectories taken by a cellular system either in time or through disease states. We term this approach, network medicine....

  2. Medicinal Moves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Traditional Chinese medicine is becoming a new source of growth in China-Africa trade LIU Tao never expected that his traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products would be so warmly welcomed at the annual Canton Fair last year.His surprise came after a large number of African businessmen expressed a keen interest in importing the products.That knowledge left a broad smile on his face.

  3. Evolution of Business Interoperability in the Automotive Industry


    Wende, Kristin; Legner, Christine


    In recent years, the established roles in the automotive industry have undergone changes: Automakers which have traditionally executed control over the entire value chain are now increasingly focusing on branding and distribution. At the same time, tier-1 suppliers are becoming vehicle integrators. This paper analyses how new forms of cooperation impact the required level of business interoperability. The comparison of two cases, a traditional OEM-supplier relationship and an innovative form ...

  4. French approval procedures for pyrotechnical automotive safety equipments


    Aufauvre, Lionel; Branka, Ruddy


    International audience; Pyrotechnical articles for civil uses may be subject to national procedures before placing on the market According to the French decree n°90-153, 16 February 1990 as modified; explosives that are dispensed with EC marking and that are not excluded of the decree application have to conform to approved types. Pyrotechnical automotive safety equipments such gas generators for airbag modules or seat-belt pretensioners, pyrotechnie relay compositions and/or igniters inside ...

  5. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, C.D.


    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  6. Wear effects and mechanisms of soot-contaminated automotive lubricants


    Green, D. A.; Lewis, R; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.


    A study has been carried out to investigate the influence of soot-contaminated automotive lubricants in the wear process of a simulated engine valve train contact. Previous research on this topic has been mainly performed from a chemical point of view in fundamental studies, with insufficient relevance to real engine conditions, i.e. load and geometry. This study investigates the conditions under which wear occurs through specimen testing. The objective of the work was to understand the wear ...

  7. Automotive Lighting将在中国投资设厂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    意大利车灯供应商Automotive Loghting日前宣布,将在中国投资700万欧元建厂.工厂选址在安徽芜湖。该工厂预计将于明年初投产,目前公司已经在做挑选供应商的准备。

  8. Two-Mode Operation Engine Mount Design for Automotive Applications


    Reza Tikani; Nader Vahdati; Saeed Ziaei-Rad


    Hydraulic engine mounts are applied to the automotive applications to isolate the chassis from the high frequency noise and vibration generated by the engine as well as to limit the engine shake motions resulting at low frequencies. In this paper, a new hydraulic engine mount with a controllable inertia track profile is proposed and its dynamic behavior is investigated. The profile of the inertia track is varied by applying a controlled force to a cylindrical rubber disk, placed in the inerti...

  9. The Quantitative Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Ethirajan


    Chennai, also called as Detroit of India due to presence of Automotive Industry producing over 40 % of the India's vehicle and components. During 2001-2002, the Automotive Component Industries (ACI) in Ambattur, Thirumalizai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estate, Chennai has faced problems on infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing. The objective is to study the Quantitative Performance of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster before (2001-2002) and after the CDA (2008-2009). The methodology adopted is collection of primary data from 100 ACI using quantitative questionnaire and analyzing using Correlation Analysis (CA), Regression Analysis (RA), Friedman Test (FMT), and Kruskall Wallis Test (KWT).The CA computed for the different set of variables reveals that there is high degree of relationship between the variables studied. The RA models constructed establish the strong relationship between the dependent variable and a host of independent variables. The models proposed here reveal the approximate relationship in a closer form. KWT proves, there is no significant difference between three locations clusters with respect to: Net Profit, Production Cost, Marketing Costs, Procurement Costs and Gross Output. This supports that each location has contributed for development of automobile component cluster uniformly. The FMT proves, there is no significant difference between industrial units in respect of cost like Production, Infrastructure, Technology, Marketing and Net Profit. To conclude, the Automotive Industries have fully utilized the Physical Infrastructure and Centralised Facilities by adopting CDA and now exporting their products to North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Africa and Asia. The value chain analysis models have been implemented in all the cluster units. This Cluster Development Approach (CDA) model can be implemented in industries of under developed and developing countries for cost reduction and productivity

  10. Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle (United States)

    Kiencke, Uwe; Nielsen, Lars

    Advances in automotive control systems continue to enhance safety and comfort and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Reflecting the trend to optimization through integrative approaches for engine, driveline, and vehicle control, this valuable book enables control engineers to understand engine and vehicle models necessary for controller design, and also introduces mechanical engineers to vehicle-specific signal processing and automatic control. The emphasis on measurement, comparisons between performance and modeling, and realistic examples derive from the authors' unique industrial experience

  11. Dynamic design of automotive systems: Engine mounts and structural joints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Singh


    Dynamic design and vibro-acoustic modelling issues for automotive structures are illustrated via two case studies. The first case examines the role performance of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mounts. In the second, the importance of welded joints and adhesives in vehicle bodies and chassis structures is highlighted via generic 'T' and 'L' beams assemblies. In each case, analytical and experimental results are presented. Unresolved research issues are briefly discussed.

  12. Performance Management Analytics for the Automotive Industry: An Empirical Study


    João Carlos Dias Correia Pinto


    The automotive industry is permanently collecting data about the business that is then used to calculate high level Key Performance Indicators (KPI) that are organized on a Performance Management System (PMS) to help on the decision making process. However, these KPIs represent uniquely the past. The business, in order to be proactive "i.e." create the future, must predict how it will be. Using Data Mining, Machine Learning, Statistics and Artificial Intelligence tis project creates and compa...

  13. Technology Roadmap for Energy Reduction in Automotive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), in collaboration with the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR), hosted a technology roadmap workshop in Troy, Michigan in May 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to explore opportunities for energy reduction, discuss the challenges and barriers that might need to be overcome, and identify priorities for future R&D. The results of the workshop are presented in this report.

  14. Automotive radar – investigation of mutual interference mechanisms



    In the past mutual interference between automotive radar sensors has not been regarded as a major problem. With an increasing number of such systems, however, this topic is receiving more and more attention. The investigation of mutual interference and countermeasures is therefore one topic of the joint project "Radar on Chip for Cars" (RoCC) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). RoCC's goal is to pave the way for the development of high-per...

  15. Planar millimeter wave radar frontend for automotive applications



    A fully integrated planar sensor for 77 GHz automotive applications is presented. The frontend consists of a transceiver multichip module and an electronically steerable microstrip patch array. The antenna feed network is based on a modified Rotman-lens and connected to the array in a multilayer approach offering higher integration. Furthermore, the frontend comprises a phase lock loop to allow proper frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar operation. The latest experimental results ...

  16. Phased array antenna element for automotive radar application



    In this thesis work, a design of reliable antenna front-end for W band automotive radar is studied and the problems and considerations associated with phased array antenna design at W-band are addressed. Proposed phased array antenna consists of on chip patch antenna which has the advantages of being integrated by the active circuitry. A sample of patch antenna and patch array are designed and fabricated to be tested for their functionality. Printing antenna on Silicon substrate is a compact ...

  17. MSc degree in color technology for the automotive sector (United States)

    Martinez-Verdu, F.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Gilabert, E.


    Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.

  18. Framework to Analyse Automotive Interiors with a Focus on Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajaria Nikhil


    Full Text Available The small car market in India is increasing by leaps and bounds. The market for small cars now occupies a substantial share of around 70% of the annual car production in India of about one million. The main players in the car market like Tata Motors, Maruti Udyog and Hyundai etc. are fiercely competitive and are trying to outdo each other in terms of design and technology. However, ultimately the focus of a manufacturer is providing customer satisfaction which is driven by comfort and ease of use. Automotive ergonomics is the study of how automotive can be designed better for human use. The human factor aspect of designing automobiles is first considered at the Vehicle Packaging stage. The term Vehicle Packaging comes to use whenever a new model is in the early stage of study. It is a method to safeguard and protect space for the human user and necessary components that make up the vehicle being designed. The improvement in the vehicle ergonomics requires a basic understanding of the problems that arise due to the conventional automotive interior design.

  19. Optical design of LED-based automotive tail lamps (United States)

    Domhardt, André; Rohlfing, Udo; Klinger, Karsten; Manz, Karl; Kooß, Dieter; Lemmer, Uli


    The application of ultra bright monochromatic and white High-Power-LEDs in the range of automotive lighting systems is now state of the art. These LEDs offer new possibilities in optical design and engineering within different fields of automotive lighting, e.g., tail lamps, signal lamps, headlamps and interior lighting. This contribution describes the process of the optical design of an automotive LED tail lamp based on a practical example. We will elaborate the principal geometric approach, the radiometric conditions and the optical design by using standard and advanced mathematical optimization methods. Special attention will be paid to the following topics: efficient light coupling from the LED into the optical device, adaptation of the illuminance and optimization with respect to the requirements from SAE/ECE regulations. It will be shown that the development of LED-lamps requires the complex interaction of several factors. The challenge for the optical designer is to fulfill the technical demands while also considering the appearance of the final product desired by the customer. Further design specifications emerge from the electrical and thermal layout of the lamp.

  20. Experimental and numerical analysis of automotive gearbox rattle noise (United States)

    Kadmiri, Younes; Rigaud, Emmanuel; Perret-Liaudet, Joël; Vary, Laurence


    The aim of this work is to characterize the rattle noise of automotive gearboxes, resulting from impacts between toothed wheels of unselected gear ratios. These stereo-mechanical impacts are modeled by a coefficient of restitution which describes damping during the squeezing of the lubricant film for approaching surfaces, and the elastic deformation of impacting bodies. The dynamic response of the loose gear first depends on the design parameters and the engine operating conditions. The unknown parameters are the drag torque and the coefficient of restitution. They are identified experimentally through implementation of two optical encoders in an actual automotive gearbox and the operation of a specific test bench which replicates the automotive power train. Models of the different drag torque sources are validated from analysis of the free damped response of the driveline. The coefficient of restitution and its probability density function are measured from experiments under stationary operating conditions. A nonlinear model is built. The dynamic response of the loose gear depends on the dimensionless backlash, the coefficient of restitution and a dimensionless parameter proposed to describe the rattle excitation level. Experiments under controlled excitation are performed to validate the assumptions, to confirm the ability of the parameter proposed to describe the rattle noise threshold, and to characterize the dynamic response. The nonlinear model predictions are fitted with the drag torque and coefficient of restitution previously identified. They are compared with measurements to demonstrate the ability of the model to predict gear rattle for any loose gear, any gearbox and any operating condition.

  1. Air management system for automotive fuel cells; Luftversorgungssystem fuer Fahrzeugbrennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauder, K.; Temming, J. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Fluidenergiemaschinen


    Fuel cells have attained a predominant position in the development of alternative automotive drives during the last few years. The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), preferred for automotive applications, requires compressed air for maximum efficiency. In most prototypes this is provided by twin-screw compressors. The article introduces the different types of fuel cells, and the system and requirements of mobile applications of fuel cells. The advantages and development potential of screw compressors are described. Furthermore concepts of a compressor-expander module based on screw machines are presented and discussed. (orig.) [German] Bei der Entwicklung alternativer Fahrzeugantriebe hat die Brennstoffzelle in den letzten Jahren eine vorherrschende Stellung eingenommen. Die Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran Brennstoffzelle, PEMFC, die fuer automotive Anwendungen bevorzugt verwendet wird, benoetigt fuer einen optimalen Wirkungsgrad eine Druckluftversorgung. Als Compressor kommt derzeit insbesondere der Schraubenlader bzw. -compressor in verschiedenen Prototypenfahrzeugen zum Einsatz. Der Beitrag behandelt zunaechst die unterschiedlichen Brennstoffzellentypen, den Systemaufbau und die Anforderungen an die mobile Anwendung der Brennstoffzelle. Fuer diesen speziellen Anwendungsfall werden Vorteile und Entwicklungsmoeglichkeiten der Schraubenmaschine dargelegt. Davon ausgehend finden sich Konzepte zum Aufbau eines Compressor-Expander-Moduls (CEM) auf Basis der Schraubenmaschinen. (orig.)

  2. Nano-crystalline P/M aluminium for automotive applications (United States)

    Hummert, K.; Schattevoy, R.; Broda, M.; Knappe, M.; Beiss, P.; Klubberg, F.; Schubert, T. H.; Leuschner, R.


    The reduction of total vehicle weight and lowering of moving masses within the engine are key elements to overcome future emission challenges of the automotive industry. Within a German BMBF funded project the melt spinning technology will be driven to a series production status. The very fast cooling condition of the melt leads to a nano-structure of the aluminium material. This results in new material properties of known alloys. The strength increases dramatically without lowered forming behaviour. With this process the freedom of designing complex alloys is very flexible. Different alloys have been investigated for several applications, where high strength at room and elevated temperatures and/or high wear resistance is required. This paper presents some results regarding the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of a developed Al-Ni-Fe alloy. This joined research project with partners from the automotive industry as well as automotive suppliers and universities is funded by the German BMBF "NanoMobile" Program under Project number 03X3008.

  3. The analysis of experimental data obtained from automotives tests (United States)

    Stoica, R. M.; Radulescu, V. J.; Neagu, D.; Trocan, C.; Copae, I.


    The paper highlights the three important and inseparably aspects of the systemic approach of automotives dynamics: taking into account the human-vehicle-field interaction, dealing movement with algorithms specific to system theory and analysis of experimental data with algorithms specific to signals theory.Within the paper, the systemic approach regarding vehicles dynamics is based on experimental data obtained from tests, whereby it is analyzed the movement and there are obtained movement mathematical models through algorithms of systems identification.Likewise, there are shown main analysis methods for experimental data, which uses probability theory, information theory, correlation analysis and variance analysis;in addition, there are highlighted possibilities given by time analysis, frequency analysis and data time-frequency analysis. Identification algorithms and highlighted analysis procedures assure the study of automotives dynamics and fuel saving,by directly using experimental data, or by using mathematical models and applying concepts and algorithms specific to systems theory. Experimental data were obtained by testing automotives with electronic control devices and by using acquisition and storage equipmentsfor data given by the on-board computer and taken from embedded sensors.

  4. Application of Electron Beam Surface Technologies in the Automotive Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rolf Zenker; Anja Buchwalder


    Progress in the beam deflection technique opens up new possibilities for the application of electron beam (EB)surface and welding technologies in the automotive industry. This development is based on three-dimensional high-speed beam deflection and fully automatic online process control. So, in the EB surface treatment three-dimensional energy transfer fields can be realised which take into account the contour of a component, the conditions of heat conduction and the load conditions. High flexibility, precision and reproducibility are typical characteristics. High productivity is achieved by the simultaneous interaction of the EB in several processing areas or by carrying out several processes simultaneously. EB surface treatment is becoming more and more attractive and important especially in the automotive industry, and also in comparison to laser technologies. This paper deals with different EB surface technologies, for example hardening,remelting, surface alloying, dispersing or cladding of different materials such as steel, cast iron and different alloys of Al,Mg and Ti. Examples of applications in the automotive industry, especially engine components, will be discussed.

  5. Thermal comfort findings: Scenario at Malaysian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmad Rasdan


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the findings of thermal comfort assessment at Malaysian automotive industry. Nine critical workstations were chosen as subjects for the study in order to determine the thermal comfort among workers at Malaysian automotive industry. The human subjects for the study comprises of the operators from tire receiving, dashboard assembly, drum tester, body assembly, seat assembly, door check assembly, stamping workstation, engine sub assembly and paint shop of the factory. The environmental factors such as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT, relative humidity, air velocity, illuminance were measured using BABUC A apparatus and Thermal Comfort Measurement equipment. Through questionnaire survey, the demographic data of subjects and their perceptions on thermal comfort at each workstation were assessed based on ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Then, Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal satisfaction of occupants. The results indicated that most of the workstations of the automotive industry are considered as uncomfortable. Tire receiving station is considered having better working environment compared to other stations with lowest PMV index of 1.09 to 1.41 and PPD of 46%. Meanwhile, the engine sub assembly station and paint shop of assembly are considered the worst thermal environment with the PMV index values ranging between 2.1 to 2.9 and PPD values of 81% to 99%. Therefore, these two workstations are considered not comfortable because the thermal sensation scale is warm and almost hot.

  6. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers (United States)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.


    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  7. General Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of ... limitations of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  10. The status of ceramic turbine component fabrication and quality assurance relevant to automotive turbine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richerson, D.W.


    This report documents a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) with guidance from the Ceramics Division of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). DOE and the automotive companies have funded extensive development of ceramic materials for automotive gas turbine components, the most recent effort being under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program.

  11. The application of computer-aided technologies in automotive styling design (United States)

    Zheng, Ze-feng; Zhang, Ji; Zheng, Ying


    In automotive industry, outline design is its life and creative design is its soul indeed. Computer-aided technology has been widely used in the automotive industry and more and more attention has been paid. This paper chiefly introduce the application of computer-aided technologies including CAD, CAM and CAE, analyses the process of automotive structural design and describe the development tendency of computer-aided design.

  12. Collaborative Assessment of the Automotive Sales Service Based on Co-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfu Jiang


    Full Text Available Co-entropy function was constructed based on dissipative structure, collaboration and entropy theory, while co-entropy of each management level in automotive sales service and the mathematical quantified assessment model of collaborative efficiency were built. In combination with the collaborative management activity of automotive sales service in an automotive sales company in Shanghai, the model and viewpoints presented here were applied and verified through empirical research.

  13. [Medicinal cannabis]. (United States)

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F


    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  14. Tibetan traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Tibetan medicine companies in T.A.R can manufacture more than 360 Tibetan patent medicines. There are 18 Tibetan medicine factories in Tibet, and total out value exceeds 3 billion yuan. 24 kinds of Tibetan patent medicines have been incorporated into State Fundamental Medicine List, in which 14 Tibetan patent medicines are listed in national protected traditional medicine category.

  15. 汽车物流浅谈%Automotive Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大顺; 张迎杰; 赫立远


    With the improvement of people's living standards, more and more diversified way to travel, private cars as a way to travel in recent years, demand is also rising, showing a clear upward trend. In recent years through cooperating with imported brand car enterprises, coupled with the country strongly support, making own-brand car companies have significantly improved the technical level ,meanwhile gradually narrowing the gap with the joint ventures in terms of quality and performance etc. But an important issue can not be ignored is the cost control.We still can not effectively reduce production costs, resulting in own-brand car companies can not compete with the joint venture brand in the price, and automotive logistics cost is the most important part of the production costs.The so-called automotive logistics, refers to the entity flow process of the raw materials,components,vehicle and aftermarket parts in the various links on automotive supply chain.Generalized automotive logistics also include the recovery of part of the scrap cars. Automotive Logistics play a role of bridge and tie in the automotive industry chain. Automotive Logistics is the fundamental guarantee to achieve the smooth flow of the value of the automobile industry. So how can we effectively control the automotive logistics costs, has become an inevitable study subject of China's auto industry development process. The following, use the independent brand Brilliance Automotive as an example, and provide a detailed description of the automotive present development situation and logistics problems,provide appropriate referenced solutions.%随着人们生活水平的日益提高,出行方式也越来越多元化,私家车作为出行方式的一种,近年来需求量也水涨船高,呈现一个明显上升趋势。近些年自主品牌汽车通过与进口品牌车企的合作、再加上国家对自主品牌车企的大力扶持,使自主品牌车企技术水平有明显的提升,同时

  16. Predictive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boenink, Marianne; Have, ten Henk


    In the last part of the twentieth century, predictive medicine has gained currency as an important ideal in biomedical research and health care. Research in the genetic and molecular basis of disease suggested that the insights gained might be used to develop tests that predict the future health sta

  17. Personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus


    engineered anti-TNF-alpha antibody constructs now constitute one of the heaviest medicinal expenditures in many countries. All currently used TNF antagonists may dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favorably, and safety...

  18. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.


    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants

  19. Sports Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Sports medicine has become one of the biggest and fastest growing medical fields in recent years. That is because sports have become a major part of most societies. As work becomes more stressful (紧张的,压力重

  20. Medicinal Plants. (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David


    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  1. Composites on the way to structural automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, H.; Kopp, J.; Stieg, J. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)


    Against the background of a steady increase of the standards on comfort, passive safety and driving performance of vehicles as well as the commitment to reduce fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, the demand for lightweight construction attains paramount importance. The use of aluminum, magnesium or new steel alloys in the body structure can lead to significant weight reduction compared with conventional steel concepts. Furthermore, maximum weight reduction will require an intensive use of advanced composites in primary structures. The paper deals with the potentials and the challenges coming along with the introduction of advanced composites into automotive series production. Presently, liquid composite molding and compression molding of high-performance SMC are the most promising technologies to achieve demanding composite parts with high fiber volume fraction, good surface quality and controlled mechanical properties. The performance of specific automotive application processed in these techniques is presented and discussed. On principle, the cost/benefit aspect is of decisive importance for larger volume applications. Considerable efforts are necessary to reduce material and semi-finished product costs and to provide manufacturing technologies which are capable of allowing large-volume automotive production of composite components. Especially concepts are desirable which do not only provide a basic material substitution but rather an intelligent design based on component and functional integration as one of the most effective strategies to exploit the advantages of advanced composites. These aspects will be regarded and a brief summary on some other remaining challenges like recycling, crash simulation or joining and assembly technologies for mixed material concepts will be given. (orig.)

  2. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near-Net Shape Automotive Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovaschenko, Sergey F.


    The objective of this project was to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near-net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures. Pulsed pressure is created via a shockwave generated by the discharge of high voltage capacitors through a pair of electrodes in a liquid-filled chamber. The shockwave in the liquid initiated by the expansion of the plasma channel formed between two electrodes propagates towards the blank and causes the blank to be deformed into a one-sided die cavity. The numerical model of the EHF process was validated experimentally and was successfully applied to the design of the electrode system and to a multi-electrode EHF chamber for full scale validation of the process. The numerical model was able to predict stresses in the dies during pulsed forming and was validated by the experimental study of the die insert failure mode for corner filling operations. The electrohydraulic forming process and its major subsystems, including durable electrodes, an EHF chamber, a water/air management system, a pulse generator and integrated process controls, were validated to be capable to operate in a fully automated, computer controlled mode for forming of a portion of a full-scale sheet metal component in laboratory conditions. Additionally, the novel processes of electrohydraulic trimming and electrohydraulic calibration were demonstrated at a reduced-scale component level. Furthermore, a hybrid process combining conventional stamping with EHF was demonstrated as a laboratory process for a full-scale automotive panel formed out of AHSS material. The economic feasibility of the developed EHF processes was defined by developing a cost model of the EHF process in comparison to the conventional stamping process.

  3. Building Competitive Advantages CEIBS Holds the 2004 CEIBS China Automotive Industry Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Second consecutive CEIBS China Automotive Industry Forum was held in Novermber 22 at the school's Shang hai campus. Following last year's success, this year there are more than 200 local and international participants including: auto manufacturers, component suppliers, government officials, industry experts and researchers, who have gathered today to discuss issues in the country's automotive industry.

  4. Equipment for testing automotive lead/acid batteries under SAE J240a conditions (United States)

    Hamilton, J. A.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Battery cycling equipment has been designed and constructed to test lead/acid batteries according to the American Society of Automotive Engineers' (SAE) J240a Standard. This life test simulates automotive service where the battery operates in a voltage-regulated charging system. The CSIRO design uses a master/slave concept to reduce both construction time and cost.

  5. 75 FR 28303 - Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration (United States)


    ... Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (FR 75 21358). The... Employment and Training Administration Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on... reconsideration, I determine that workers of Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, Tennessee meet the worker...

  6. New microalloyed steel applications for the automotive sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, D.K.; Krauss, G.; Speer, J.G. [Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    Developments related to the use of microalloy additions, primarily of Ti, Nb, and V, and controlled processing are reviewed to illustrate how steels with tailored microstructures and properties are produced from either bar or sheet steels for new automotive components. Microalloying additions are shown to control the necessary strengthening mechanisms to produce high strength materials with the desired toughness or formability for a specific application. Selected examples of direct cooled forging steels, microalloyed carburizing steels, and advanced high strength sheet (AHSS) steels are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Part Transportation Improvement in Warehouse of an Automotive Factory (United States)

    Choojan, Tiwapom; Chutima, Parames


    This research is focus on the problems cause the assembly line stop in a Japanese automotive manufacturer in Thailand. The problem arose from not being able to supply parts to the assembly line in time and supplying wrong parts to the assembly line. Methods to resolve these problems involved the followings: 1) design new tag labels, 2) improve operations method and 3) redesign the parts storage layout and supply routes. The result showed that the time for transferring parts from the warehouse to the preparing area and the overlapped routes were reduced. Moreover, the supply accuracy from the preparation area to the assembly line was improved.

  8. Ultrapulse welding: A new joining technique. [for automotive industry (United States)

    Anderson, D. G.


    The ultrapulse process is a resistance welding process that utilizes unidirectional current of high magnitude for a very short time with a precisely controlled dynamic force pulse. Peak currents of up to 220,000 amperes for two to ten milliseconds are used with synchronized force pulses of up to nine thousand pounds. The welding current passing through the relatively high resistance of the interface between the parts that are being joined results in highly localized heating. Described is the UPW process as it applies to the automotive industry.

  9. Sustainable business models and the automotive industry: A commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wells


    Full Text Available This commentary reviews the position articulated in an article published in 2004 that the business model prevalent in the automotive industry was inadequate to meeting the challenge of sustainability, and reviews the key developments since then. The most noticeable developments the commentary traces are the growth in academic interest in business models, a more responsive government policy particularly in respect of new technologies, and the practical application of the concepts and ideas mooted in the original paper, notably with respect to electric vehicles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru BOROIU


    Full Text Available In accordance with the concept of "RCM - Reliability Centered Maintenance", the paper presents a study on the possibility to improve maintenance plan for the most frequently replaced parts from a sample of cars, followed during the operation period: front/rear brake pads. After analyzing the reliability of these components, it is found that there is the possibility of introducing the obligatory replacement operation of brake pads who have reached the third technical inspection without being replaced, sacrificing resource exploitation of them, but improving the benefits for the client - the automotive availability.

  11. Influences of weather phenomena on automotive laser radar systems (United States)

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Spies, M.; Spies, H.


    Laser radar (lidar) sensors provide outstanding angular resolution along with highly accurate range measurements and thus they were proposed as a part of a high performance perception system for advanced driver assistant functions. Based on optical signal transmission and reception, laser radar systems are influenced by weather phenomena. This work provides an overview on the different physical principles responsible for laser radar signal disturbance and theoretical investigations for estimation of their influence. Finally, the transmission models are applied for signal generation in a newly developed laser radar target simulator providing - to our knowledge - worldwide first HIL test capability for automotive laser radar systems.

  12. Simulation of Artificial Intelligence for Automotive Air-conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiao-mei; CHEN You-hua; CHEN Zhi-jiu


    The artificial intelligence is applied to the simulation of the automotive air-conditioning system ( AACS )According to the system's characteristics a model of AACS, based on neural network, is developed. Different control methods of AACS are discussed through simulation based on this model. The result shows that the neural- fuzzy control is the best one compared with the on-off control and conventional fuzzy control method.It can make the compartment's temperature descend rapidly to the designed temperature and the fluctuation is small.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari Hegde


    Full Text Available Modern automotives integrate large amount of electronic devices to improve the driving safety andcomfort. This growing number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs with sophisticated software escalatesthe vehicle system design complexity. In this paper we explain the complexity of ECUs in terms ofhardware and software and also we explore the possibility of Common Object Request Broker Architecture(CORBA architecture for the integration of add-on software in ECUs. This reduces the complexity of theembedded system in vehicles and eases the ECU integration by reducing the total number of ECUs in thevehicles.

  14. Trends in the automotive paint industry for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandin, Nathalie; Brunat, William [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Neuhaus, Ralf [PPG Industries Lacke GmbH, Stackenbergstrasse 34, D-42329 Wuppertal (Germany); Sibille, Ettore [PPG Industries Italia, Via Serra11, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)


    Since many years ED-paints are protecting car bodies against corrosion. Currently the automotive paint industry is faced with increasing demands of higher levels of corrosion protection and also requests to comply with new environmental regulations and economical pressures. Some key factors that contributed significantly towards the improvement of corrosion protection systems are: - New generations of lead free ED-paints; - Weldable organic thin film for corrosion protection, especially in box cavities and flange areas. The goal of this paper is to show how the various elements of the 'anti-corrosion package' interact. (authors)

  15. State Estimation in the Automotive SCR DeNOx Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Duwig, Christophe;


    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is a widely applied diesel engine exhaust gas after-treatment technology. For effective NOx removal in a transient operating automotive application, controlled dosing of urea can be used to meet the increasingly restrictive legislations...... on exhaust gas emissions. For advanced control, e.g. Model Predictive Control (MPC), of the SCR process, accurate state estimates are needed. We investigate the performance of the ordinary and the extended Kalman filters based on a simple first principle system model. The performance is tested through...

  16. Change in the automotive industry; Fordonsindustrin i foeraendring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaellstroem, Mikael [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Pohl, Hans [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Liljemark, Stefan [SwedPower AB (Sweden); Leander, Aasa [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Maruo, Kanehira [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden); Waldenby, Torbjoern [JIC Consulting AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mellgren, Henry [Fordonskomponentgruppen, Goeteborg (Sweden)


    The 'Change in the Automotive Industry' investigation was initiated by the Swedish Energy Agency in the autumn of 2000. The objective has been to illuminate and analyse technical developments in respect of the use of electricity in vehicles, not only for various ancillary systems but also for propulsion. A number of Swedish businesses that have, or could have, links with the automotive industry have been investigated. The main aim has been to attempt to identify the opportunities for the industry to meet and benefit from the changes. A total of 14 businesses have been visited, and a further 29 companies have replied to a survey questionnaire on the theme. Business intelligence shows that a great deal of work is being done on the use of electricity for automotive propulsion, in everything from battery vehicles, via electric hybrid vehicles to fuel cell vehicles. In terms of development, the Japanese manufacturers are in the lead, while the USA constitutes the largest single driving force behind development. The technical development requires a greater understanding within several new disciplines, and leads to major changes between different industry sectors. The results show that Sweden possesses world class expertise in several of the fields that can become very important for tomorrow's automotive industry. At the same time, the companies expect difficulties in recruiting personnel qualified in the appropriate disciplines, such as development and design. There is, therefore, a clear risk that the present-day expertise will progressively fade away if nothing is done.There is a wide range of awareness of the greater use of electricity in vehicles. However, in principle, all companies feel that development towards new drive trains will proceed rapidly. Most of the companies are also very interested in descriptions and analyses of the state of development. The general conclusion of the work is that there are excellent prospects for Swedish industry to

  17. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions. (United States)

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza


    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  18. Control of an Automotive Semi-Active Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Jesús Lozoya-Santos


    Full Text Available Two controllers for an automotive suspensions with Magneto-Rheological (MR dampers are proposed. One is a model-based using the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV approach, and the other is a model-free controller with a Frequency Estimation Based (FEB principle. The LPV controller includes an experimental nonlinear model of an MR damper using only one scheduling parameter. A comparison with a several semiactive controllers for comfort and road holding is discussed. The FEB controller is the best option based on frequency and time response analysis for comfort (10–20%, suspension deflection (30–50%, and road holding (1–5%.

  19. Stock Control in Automotive Industry with Simulation Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vegnerová


    Full Text Available At this time in economic environment there is the big trend of coming logistical chain, supply chain and supply chain management (SCM. SCM deals with material and information flows control, inventory management, demand forecast, production plan optimalization, distribution management etc. Nowadays for effective purchase, production and distribution plan and control in companies are utilized the simulation and simulation programmes. This paper deals with the simulation programme Witness and its utilization for finding of results real problems simulation utilization for stocks solution in automotive industry. The model can be used for the determination of new delivery system of materials and for stocks reduction.

  20. 76 FR 46852 - Workers From Kelly Services, Working On-Site at Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Powertrain... (United States)


    ... workers from Kelly Services working on-site at Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, El Paso, Texas. The workers...-site at Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Powertrain Division, El Paso, Texas. The amended notice...-site at Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Powertrain Division, El Paso, Texas, who became totally...

  1. GB/T 21085-2007 Automotive Vehicle Certificate of Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1.Background Automotive Vehicle Certificate of Inspection (hereinafter referred to certificate) is a statutory certificate for automotive vehicle registration in China and also an important content of consistency management of vehicle manufacturers.In order to strengthen the management of automotive vehicle manufacturers and their products,prevent stealing,smuggling and illegal assembling,crack down the illegal acts of forging and reselling and improve the efficiency of automotive vehicle registration,National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and MPS jointly put forward a solution that is to standardize the certificate and its content and build up information management system of certificates.The development of GB/T 21085-2007 Automotive Vehicle Certificate of Inspection was taken by the National Technical Committee of Auto Standardization (SAC/TC 114).

  2. Pregnancy and Medicines (United States)

    Not all medicines are safe to take when you are pregnant. Some medicines can harm your baby. That includes over-the- ... care provider before you start or stop any medicine. Not using medicine that you need may be ...

  3. Managing Your Medicines (United States)

    ... Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs About Physical Activity Managing Your Medicines - Introduction - Taking Control of Your Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker Communicating with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - ...

  4. Remote medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The international oil industry, catalyzed by a surge in exploration and production projects in remote regions, is giving health care for its travelers and expatriates a high priority. L.R. Aalund, the Journal`s Managing Editor--Technology, reports on why and how this is happening now. He covers this in articles on: health care in Russia, air ambulance evacuations, and the deployment of remote paramedics. Aalund gathered the information during trips to Finland and Russia and interviews with oil industry personnel, physicians, and other medical professionals in North America, Europe, and Siberia. Titles of the four topics presented in this special section on remote medicine are as follows: Oil companies focus on emergency care for expats in Russia; Air ambulance plan can be critical; Remote paramedics have high level of training; and Other facets of remote medicine.

  5. Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT


    Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community.     Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1    Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2    This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.

  6. Transfusion medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.


    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  7. [Travel medicine]. (United States)

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M


    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  8. Precious metal-support interaction in automotive exhaust catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑婷婷; 何俊俊; 赵云昆; 夏文正; 何洁丽


    Precious metal-support interaction plays an important role in thermal stability and catalytic performance of the automotive exhaust catalysts. The support is not only a carrier for active compounds in catalysts but also can improve the dispersion of precious metals and suppress the sintering of precious metals at high temperature;meanwhile, noble metals can also enhance the redox per-formance and oxygen storage capacity of support. The mechanism of metal-support interactions mainly includes electronic interaction, formation of alloy and inward diffusion of metal into the support or covered by support. The form and degree of precious metal-sup-port interaction depend on many factors, including the content of precious metal, the species of support and metal, and preparation methods. The research results about strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) gave a theory support for developing a kind of new cata-lyst with excellent performance. This paper reviewed the interaction phenomenon and mechanism of precious metals (Pt, Pd, Rh) and support such as Al2O3, CeO2, and CeO2-based oxides in automotive exhaust catalysts. The factors that affect SMSI and the catalysts developed by SMSI were also discussed.

  9. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kuş


    Full Text Available Reverse engineering (RE is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters.

  10. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Carl L


    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  11. Concepts for particle foam based ultralight automotive interior parts (United States)

    Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.; Schreier, P.


    The described concepts for modern automotive interior parts are based on polypropylene (PP). These interior parts have a core of expanded polypropylene particle foam (EPP) and a decorative layer of a thermoplastic polyolefin elastomer (TPO) film. Compared with conventional solutions in the field of automotive interior parts, they are characterised mainly due to the avoidance of material mixtures so that they have better recycling properties and are significantly lighter in spite of comparable crash behaviour. Because of the optimized combination of positive component properties (specifically, the rigidity of the carrier, lower density combined with the better crash behaviour of the EPP foam core and good haptic and optical properties of the film), the multi-material system compensates the disadvantages of the individual components. In addition, the integration of all process steps into a new single-step manufacturing process combined with the elimination of an additional surface treatment means that the new ultra-light concept should lead to a significant reduction in the costs and cycle time.

  12. On Mixed Flow Turbines for Automotive Turbocharger Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt Lüddecke


    Full Text Available Due to increased demands for improved fuel economy of passenger cars, low-end and part-load performance is of key importance for the design of automotive turbocharger turbines. In an automotive drive cycle, a turbine which can extract more energy at high pressure ratios and lower rotational speeds is desirable. In the literature it is typically found that radial turbines provide peak efficiency at speed ratios of 0.7, but at high pressure ratios and low rotational speeds the blade speed ratio will be low and the rotor will experience high values of positive incidence at the inlet. Based on fundamental considerations, it is shown that mixed flow turbines offer substantial advantages for such applications. Moreover, to prove these considerations an experimental assessment of mixed flow turbine efficiency and optimal blade speed ratio is presented. This has been achieved using a new semi-unsteady measurement approach. Finally, evidence of the benefits of mixed flow turbine behaviour in engine operation is given. Regarding turbocharged engine simulation, the benefit of wide-ranging turbine map measurement data as well as the need for reasonable turbine map extrapolation is illustrated.

  13. Global sustainability and key needs in future automotive design. (United States)

    McAuley, John W


    The number of light vehicle registrations is forecast to increase worldwide by a factor of 3-5 over the next 50 years. This will dramatically increase environmental impacts worldwide of automobiles and light trucks. If light vehicles are to be environmentally sustainable globally, the automotive industry must implement fundamental changes in future automotive design. Important factors in assessing automobile design needs include fuel economy and reduced emissions. Many design parameters can impact vehicle air emissions and energy consumption including alternative fuel or engine technologies, rolling resistance, aerodynamics, drive train design, friction, and vehicle weight. Of these, vehicle weight is key and will translate into reduced energy demand across all energy distribution elements. A new class of vehicles is needed that combines ultra-light design with a likely hybrid or fuel cell engine technology. This could increase efficiency by a factor of 3-5 and reduce air emissions as well. Advanced lightweight materials, such as plastics or composites, will need to overtake the present metal-based infrastructure. Incorporating design features to facilitate end-of-life recycling and recovery is also important. The trend will be towards fewer materials and parts in vehicle design, combined with ease of disassembly. Mono-material construction can create vehicle design with improved recyclability as well as reduced numbers of parts and weight.

  14. Exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yongqiang; Sun Wenxu; Li Qinghua; Zhong Ming; Hao Wei; Du Wenchang


    Almost the same quantity to net output work of energy has been carried out and wasted by exhaust gas in typical automotive engine. Recovering the energy from exhaust gas and converting to mechanical energy will dramatically increase the heat efficiency and decrease the fuel consumption. With the increasing demand of fuel conservation, exhaust gas energy recovery technologies have been a hot topic. At present, many researches have been focused on heating or cooling the cab, mechanical energy using and thermo-electronic converting. Unfortunately, the complicated transmission of mechanical energy using and the depressed efficiency of thermo-electronic converting restrict their widely applying. In this paper, a kind of exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine, in which highly compressed air acts as energy storing and converting carrier, has been established. Pneumatic driving motor can produce moderate speed and high torque output, which is compatible for engine using. The feasibility has been certificated by GT-Power simulation and laboratory testes. The technologies about increasing recovery efficiency have been discussed in detail. The results demonstrated that the in parallel exhaust gas energy recovery system, which is similar to the compound turbo-charger structure can recovery 8 to 10 percent of rated power output. At last, a comprehensive system,which includes Rankine cycle based power wheel cycle unit etc. , has been introduced.

  15. Reliability Centered Maintenance in Schedule Improvement of Automotive Assembly Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizauddin Ramli


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Today, in many automotive manufacturing companies, maintenance management is an important factor to maintain the plant operation and production equipments. Approach: In this study, we present an implementation of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM practice in one of the automotive manufacturing company in Malaysia. The RCM practice was used to assist the company in focusing their maintenance activities based on the criticalities of the equipments by applying the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA. The implementation of RCM was carried out in 4 stages; preparation, system analysis, decision making and feedback. The aim of RCM was to reduce the number of maintenance checklist and to improve significantly the integrity of maintenance practice. Results: As a result, the new RCM framework was generated where Class A equipment was at the top of the monthly maintenance frequency priority, followed by Class B and Class C equipment which had lesser critical value. Conclusion: The new RCM framework is used to conduct visible guideline and propose a new maintenance schedule. The guideline is useful for future maintenance strategy improvement. After the implementation, it can be ascertained that our proposed RCM is useful in reducing maintenance personnel burden and this leads to improvement of productivity.

  16. Sheet Forming Simulation For AHSS Components In The Automotive Industry (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Pereira, Michael; Clark, Ben; Dingle, Matthew; Hodgson, Peter


    The trend in the automotive industry towards new advanced high strength steels (AHSS), combined with the ongoing reduction in program lead times have increased the need to get tool designs right, first time. Despite the fact that the technology used by sheet metal stamping companies to design and manufacture tooling is advancing steadily, finding optimal process parameters and tool geometries remains a challenge. Consequently, there has been a transition from designs based largely on trial and error techniques and the experience of the stamping engineer, to the increased use of virtual manufacturing and finite element (FE) simulation predictions as an indispensable tool in the design process. This work investigates the accuracy of FE techniques in predicting the forming behavior of AHSS grades, such as TRIP and dual phase, as compared to more commonly used conventional steel grades. Three different methods of simulation, one-step, implicit and explicit techniques, were used to model the forming process for an automotive part. Results were correlated with experimental strain and thickness measurements of manufactured components from the production line.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nei Carvalho Costa


    Full Text Available The current safety requirements, environmental impacts and performance have been ledding the automotive industry to search for new alternatives, not just for new car bodies materials, also for new sheet surface treatments as well, used in the painting process in order to fit simultaneous, environmental requirements and corrosion resistance maintenance, that are the key feature guarantees offered by automakers and are also vital to the durability of the vehicle. This fact is of great importance considering that, besides the various types of steels and their metalic coatings, another factor that directly influences the corrosion resistance is the painting system used. Within this context, the GMB, in partnership with CSN, has been performing several works by adding the knowledge of the supplier to automotive technology. An example of this partnership we have the present study, which aimed to, comparatively, evaluate the corrosion resistance of two systems of painted galvanized steel, the first one with pre-treatment based on a traditional phosphate, and the another one based on a nano-ceramic film. In this study, was found out that materials with pre-treatment based on results of nanotechnology showed similar corrosion resistance comparing the phosphatized materials in a traditional way.

  18. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.


    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  19. Design method for automotive high-beam LED optics (United States)

    Byzov, Egor V.; Moiseev, Mikhail A.; Doskolovich, Leonid L.; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L.


    New analytical method for the calculation of the LED secondary optics for automotive high-beam lamps is presented. Automotive headlamps should illuminate the road and the curb at the distance of 100-150 meters and create a bright, flat, relatively powerful light beam. To generate intensity distribution of this kind we propose to use TIR optical element (collimator working on the total internal reflection principle) with array of microlenses (optical corrector) on the upper surface. TIR part of the optical element enables reflection of the side rays to the front direction and provides a collimated beam which incidents on the microrelief. Microrelief, in its turn, dissipates the light flux in horizontal direction to meet the requirements of the Regulations 112, 113 and to provide well-illuminated area across the road in the far field. As an example, we computed and simulated the optical element with the diameter of 33 millimeters and the height of 22 millimeters. Simulation data shows that three illuminating modules including Cree XP-G2 LED and lens allow generating an appropriate intensity distribution for the class D of UNECE Regulations.

  20. Supplier–customer relationships: Weaknesses in south african automotive supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude


    Full Text Available The South African automotive industry, which is an important sector in the South African economy, needs to function efficiently if it is to compete internationally. However, South African automotive components manufacturers (ACMs are not internationally competitive and automotive assemblers, also known as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, often import cheaper components from abroad. All parties in the South African automotive supply chains need each other to ensure optimal efficiency and competitiveness. Furthermore, it is vital that good relationships exist between customers and suppliers in the automotive supply chains in South Africa. ACMs are central to automotive supply chains. A survey was conducted among ACMs to determine the nature of relationships that exist between buyers and suppliers in South Africa’s automotive supply chains. The results showed that collaborative relationships do indeed exist between members of the supply chain but that communication, understanding of the parties’ situations and cooperation can improve this relationship and so create total alliance between OEMs and ACMs.

  1. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  2. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander


    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  3. [Psychiatric medicine]. (United States)

    Ibañez Dominguez, J


    The author, after a short historical introduction which shows the Medicine, especially the Neurology, as the predecessor of the Psychiatry, intents to relate in a theorico-practical way the anxiety and the depression within a bio-chemical and endocrinological frame. He presents the hipo and hipercalcemia signals and symptoms demonstrating with a casuistic from his clinical practice the similitude between anxiety and depression respectively. Finally he realizes a theorical analysis about the investigations published over the AMP-ciclic and infers about the hormonal interference and the clinical data linked with the manic-depressive disease.

  4. A proposed centralised distribution model for the South African automotive component industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline J. Naude


    Full Text Available Purpose: This article explores the possibility of developing a distribution model, similar to the model developed and implemented by the South African pharmaceutical industry, which could be implemented by automotive component manufacturers for supply to independent retailers. Problem Investigated: The South African automotive components distribution chain is extensive with a number of players of varying sizes, from the larger spares distribution groups to a number of independent retailers. Distributing to the smaller independent retailers is costly for the automotive component manufacturers. Methodology: This study is based on a preliminary study of an explorative nature. Interviews were conducted with a senior staff member from a leading automotive component manufacturer in KwaZulu Natal and nine participants at a senior management level at five of their main customers (aftermarket retailers. Findings: The findings from the empirical study suggest that the aftermarket component industry is mature with the role players well established. The distribution chain to the independent retailer is expensive in terms of transaction and distribution costs for the automotive component manufacturer. A proposed centralised distribution model for supply to independent retailers has been developed which should reduce distribution costs for the automotive component manufacturer in terms of (1 the lowest possible freight rate; (2 timely and controlled delivery; and (3 reduced congestion at the customer's receiving dock. Originality: This research is original in that it explores the possibility of implementing a centralised distribution model for independent retailers in the automotive component industry. Furthermore, there is a dearth of published research on the South African automotive component industry particularly addressing distribution issues. Conclusion: The distribution model as suggested is a practical one and should deliver added value to automotive

  5. Thermal Comfort Assessment: A Case Study at Malaysian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Thermal comfort has a great influence on the productivity and satisfaction of indoor building occupants. The exposure to excessive heat during work may cause discomfort and contributed to low productivity among workers. Malaysia known with its hot and humid weather where in most of the survey study published indicated that workers in Malaysia automotive industries had exposed to excessive temperature while working. The study investigated the thermal comfort level experienced by workers at Malaysian automotive industry. Approach: The study had been conducted at one automotive parts assembly factory in Malaysia. The human subjects for the study constitute operators at tire receiving section of the factory. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, WBGT, air temperature and radiant temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using Babuc apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ASHRAE thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD was used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PPD versus PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The trend of relative humidity curve from the graph also indicated the increasing level of discomfort. The radiant temperature observed seems consistent during the study while there was decreasing of WBGT start from afternoon due to the rain. The study revealed that the PPD value of 54% of the workers population at the workstation are likely to be satisfied with thermal comfort at this station while the PMV index from ASHRAE indicated the value 1

  6. Sustaining Competitiveness Through product Development Activities Within Malaysian Automotive Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizah Mohamad


    Full Text Available The local automotive suppliers are facing a number of important challenges such asglobalisation, new requirement in market specifications and the competition brought about by theAsean Free Trade Area (AFTA agreements. In an effort to enhance the competitiveness of themanufacturing sector, the government has implemented the Second Industrial Master Plan, IMP2(1996-2005. The focus of the IMP2 is more on innovation and applications of new technologies, sothat industries can move up the value chain of their activities. Innovative capabilities achieved fromcompanies’ new product development activities have been recognized to be crucial for companies tosustain their competitiveness and organisational success. The importance of product development ismost obvious in the context of the discussion on the competitiveness of the Malaysian automotivesuppliers. The study will focus on the small medium enterprises (SMEs that make up more than 60 %of these automotive suppliers. The study is to determine the extensiveness of the suppliers’ productdevelopment activities by examining the involvement of the suppliers in customer’s productdevelopment activities. Consequently, the impact of this involvement to the competitiveness of thesuppliers is examined. The results were established based from a survey to parts and componentssuppliers of Proton, the Malaysian car national assembler. The study has shown that the SMEs wereinvolved from the early stages of the product development process that is during the design stage. Theproduct development efforts have shown to contribute towards increasing firms’ market share andfirms were also able to gain a better understanding of future product demand. A significant number ofthe suppliers have managed to penetrate the export market. Unfortunately, among the respondents,there is only one system supplier. This indicates that, either the technological capabilities of theSMEs still needed upgrading for the requirement as

  7. Evolutionary medicine. (United States)

    Swynghedauw, B


    Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Evolutionary, or darwinian, medicine takes the view that contemporary diseases result from incompatibility between the conditions under which the evolutionary pressure had modified our genetic endowment and the lifestyle and dietary habits in which we are currently living, including the enhanced lifespan, the changes in dietary habits and the lack of physical activity. An evolutionary trait express a genetic polymorphism which finally improve fitness, it needs million years to become functional. A limited genetic diversity is a necessary prerequisite for evolutionary medicine. Nevertheless, search for a genetic endowment would become nearly impossible if the human races were genetically different. From a genetic point of view, homo sapiens, is homogeneous, and the so-called human races have only a socio-economic definition. Historically, Heart Failure, HF, had an infectious origin and resulted from mechanical overload which triggered mechanoconversion by using phylogenically ancient pleiotropic pathways. Adaptation was mainly caused by negative inotropism. Recently, HF was caused by a complex remodelling caused by the trophic effects of mechanics, ischemia, senescence, diabetes and, neurohormones. The generally admitted hypothesis is that cancers were largely caused by a combination of modern reproductive and dietary lifestyles mismatched with genotypic traits, plus the longer time available for a confrontation. Such a concept is illustrated for skin and breast cancers, and also for the link between cancer risk and dietary habits.

  8. A Versatile Mixed-Signal Pin Approach for Cost-Effective Test of Automotive ICs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Credence Systems Corporation


    @@ Integrated circuits (ICs) intended for increasingly sophisticated automotive applications bring unique test demands. Advanced ICs for applications such as highly integrated automatic braking system (ABS) and airbag controllers combine high voltage digital channels, significant VI demands and precise timing capability. Along with continued missioncritical reliability concerns, the trend toward higher voltage operation and increased device integration requires specialized test capabilities able to extend across the wide operating ranges found in automotive applications. Among these capabilities, automotive test requirements increasingly dictate a need for a cost-effective versatile mixed-signal pin electronics with very high data rates reaching up to 50MHz with a voltage swing of-2 V to +28 V.

  9. Super-capacitors as an energy storage for fuel cell automotive hybrid electrical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, P.; Rael, St.; Davat, B. [Institut National Polytechnique, GREEN-INPL-CNRS (UMR 7037), 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)


    The design, implementation and testing of a purely super-capacitors energy storage system for automotive system having a fuel cell as main source are presented. The system employs a super-capacitive storage device, composed of six components (3500 F, 2.5 V, 400 A) associated in series. This device is connected to automotive 42 V DC bus by a 2-quadrant DC-DC converter. The control structure of the system is realised by means of analogical and digital control. The experimental results show that super-capacitors are suitable as energy storage device for fuel cell automotive electrical system. (authors)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar


    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence. The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others.There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine. For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc..Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine. For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others.We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the disease

  11. Genomic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar


    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence.  The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others. There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine.  For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc.. Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine.  For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others. We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the

  12. Effects of cavitation on performance of automotive torque converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Ju


    Full Text Available Cavitation is a phenomenon whereby vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid are formed in a local region where the pressure of the liquid is below its vapor pressure. It is well known that cavitation in torque converters occurs frequently when a car with an automatic transmission makes an abrupt start. Cavitation is closely related to a performance drop and noise generation at a specific operating condition in a car and a torque converter itself. This study addressed the relation between cavitation and performance in an automotive torque converter in a quantitative and qualitative manner using numerical simulations. The cavitation was calculated at various operating conditions using a commercial flow solver with the homogeneous cavitation model, and the torque converter performance was compared with the experimental data. Numerical results well match to the data and indicate that the cavitation causes significant performance drop, as the pump speed increases or both speed ratio and reference pressure decrease.

  13. Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo


    This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

  14. Multisensor Data Fusion for Automotive Engine Fault Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赟松; 褚福磊; 何永勇; 郭丹


    This paper describes mainly a decision-level data fusion technique for fault diagnosis for electronically controlled engines.Experiments on a SANTANA AJR engine show that the data fusion method provides good engine fault diagnosis.In data fusion methods, the data level fusion has small data preprocessing loads and high accuracy, but requires commensurate sensor data and has poor operational performance.The decision-level fusion based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory can process noncommensurate data and has robust operational performance, reduces ambiguity, increases confidence, and improves system reliability, but has low fusion accuracy and high data preprocessing cost.The feature-level fusion provides good compromise between the above two methods, which becomes gradually mature.In addition, acquiring raw data is a precondition to perform data fusion, so the system for signal acquisition and processing for an automotive engine test is also designed by the virtual instrument technology.

  15. A Multiobjective Optimization Model in Automotive Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Sadrnia


    Full Text Available In the new decade, green investment decisions are attracting more interest in design supply chains due to the hidden economic benefits and environmental legislative barriers. In this paper, a supply chain network design problem with both economic and environmental concerns is presented. Therefore, a multiobjective optimization model that captures the trade-off between the total logistics cost and CO2 emissions is proposed. With regard to the complexity of logistic networks, a new multiobjective swarm intelligence algorithm known as a multiobjective Gravitational search algorithm (MOGSA has been implemented for solving the proposed mathematical model. To evaluate the effectiveness of the model, a comprehensive set of numerical experiments is explained. The results obtained show that the proposed model can be applied as an effective tool in strategic planning for optimizing cost and CO2 emissions in an environmentally friendly automotive supply chain.

  16. Enhanced test methods to characterise automotive battery cells (United States)

    Mulder, Grietus; Omar, Noshin; Pauwels, Stijn; Leemans, Filip; Verbrugge, Bavo; De Nijs, Wouter; Van den Bossche, Peter; Six, Daan; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    This article evaluates the methods to characterise the behaviour of lithium ion cells of several chemistries and a nickel metal hydride cell for automotive applications like (plug-in) hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles. Although existing characterisation test methods are used, it was also indicated to combine test methods in order to speed up the test time and to create an improved comparability of the test results. Also, the existing capacity tests ignore that cells can be charged at several current rates. However, this is of interest for, e.g. fast charging and regenerative braking. Tests for high power and high energy application have been integrated in the enhanced method. The article explains the rationale to ameliorate the test methods. The test plan should make it possible to make an initial division in a group of cells purchased from several suppliers.

  17. An Organizational Knowledge Ontology for Automotive Supply Chains (United States)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Witthaut, Markus; Böhle, Carsten; Brügger, Stephan

    The currently completed ILIPT (Intelligent Logistics for Innovative Product Technologies) project was concerned with the concept of the “5 day car” (a customized car that is delivered within five days after its ordering) and encompassed extensive research on the required production and logistics network structures and processes. As car manufacturers in the automotive industry (commonly referred to as OEMs) rely heavily on their suppliers, the major challenge lies in the organization of inter-enterprise cooperation supported by information systems (IS) in an efficient manner. A common understanding of supply chain concepts is indispensable for this. Ontologies as formal representations of concepts can be used as a semantic basis for cooperation. Relevant results from ILIPT are presented followed by a concept as well as a prototype of how to transfer the theoretical findings to a practical implementation, in this case a multi-agent system.

  18. 5th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Subic, Aleksandar; Trufin, Ramona


    This book captures selected peer reviewed papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies, ICSAT 2013, held in Ingolstadt, Germany. ICSAT is the state-of-the-art conference in the field of new technologies for transportation. The book brings together the work of international researchers and practitioners under the following interrelated headings: fuel transportation and storage, material recycling, manufacturing and management costs, engines and emission reduction. The book provides a very good overview of research and development activities focused on new technologies and approaches capable of meeting the challenges to sustainable mobility. About the Editors: Prof. Dr. Jörg Wellnitz is the Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany. Prof. Dr. Aleksandar Subic is the Head of the School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Australia. Ramona Trufin, M.A. is the coordinator of the Facul...

  19. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor Devices for Automotive Applications (United States)

    Sugimoto, M.; Ueda, H.; Uesugi, T.; Kachi, T.


    In this paper, we discuss requirements of power devices for automotive applications, especially hybrid vehicles and the development of GaN power devices at Toyota. We fabricated AlGaN/GaN HEMTs and measured their characteristics. The maximum breakdown voltage was over 600V. The drain current with a gate width of 31mm was over 8A. A thermograph image of the HEMT under high current operation shows the AlGaN/GaN HEMT operated at more than 300°C. And we confirmed the operation of a vertical GaN device. All the results of the GaN HEMTs are really promising to realize high performance and small size inverters for future automobiles.

  20. Two-Mode Operation Engine Mount Design for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tikani


    Full Text Available Hydraulic engine mounts are applied to the automotive applications to isolate the chassis from the high frequency noise and vibration generated by the engine as well as to limit the engine shake motions resulting at low frequencies. In this paper, a new hydraulic engine mount with a controllable inertia track profile is proposed and its dynamic behavior is investigated. The profile of the inertia track is varied by applying a controlled force to a cylindrical rubber disk, placed in the inertia track. This design provides a hydraulic engine mount design with an adjustable notch frequency location and also damping characteristics in shake motions. By using a simple control strategy, the efficiency of the proposed hydraulic engine mount in two-mode operation meaning isolating mode in the highway driving condition and damping mode in the shock motions, is investigated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the role of strategic CSR in creating stable long term performance in the automotive industry. The first part of the paper reviews the success factors for the European auto industry and analyses the influence strategic CSR has on these factors. In order to illustrate the relation between strategic CSR activities and the economic performance, the paper presents the strategic evolution of one of the most ancient motor companies on the international scene, namely Peugeot and evaluates the innovative ideas brought into the market, as well as its future prospects. The PSA Group holds a position of European leader in terms of CO2 emissions, with an average of 110.3 grams of CO2/km in 2014. The PSA Peugeot Citroen Group’s strategy is being increasingly oriented towards environmental protection and energy saving.

  2. Monitoring automotive oil degradation: analytical tools and onboard sensing technologies. (United States)

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L


    Engine oil experiences a number of thermal and oxidative phases that yield acidic products in the matrix consequently leading to degradation of the base oil. Generally, oil oxidation is a complex process and difficult to elucidate; however, the degradation pathways can be defined for almost every type of oil because they mainly depend on the mechanical status and operating conditions. The exact time of oil change is nonetheless difficult to predict, but it is of great interest from an economic and ecological point of view. In order to make a quick and accurate decision about oil changes, onboard assessment of oil quality is highly desirable. For this purpose, a variety of physical and chemical sensors have been proposed along with spectroscopic strategies. We present a critical review of all these approaches and of recent developments to analyze the exact lifetime of automotive engine oil. Apart from their potential for degradation monitoring, their limitations and future perspectives have also been investigated.

  3. Simulation of the noise transmission through automotive door seals

    CERN Document Server

    Hazir, Andreas


    Andreas Hazir is investigating the door seal contribution to the interior noise level of production vehicles. These investigations contain experimental contribution analyses of real production vehicles and of academic test cases as well as the development of a simulation methodology for noise transmission through sealing systems and side windows. The simulations are realized by coupling transient computational aeroacoustics of the exterior flow to nonlinear finite element simulations of the structural transmission. By introducing a linear transmission model, the setup and computational costs of the seal noise transmission are significantly reduced, resulting in the feasibility of numerical contribution analyses of real production vehicles. Contents Contribution Analyses of Production Vehicles Acoustic Excitation versus Aeroacoustic Excitation Development of a Simulation Methodology Sensitivity Analysis of Noise Transmission Simulations Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of automotive engineer...

  4. Face to Face : The Perception of Automotive Designs. (United States)

    Windhager, Sonja; Slice, Dennis E; Schaefer, Katrin; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Thorstensen, Truls; Grammer, Karl


    Over evolutionary time, humans have developed a selective sensitivity to features in the human face that convey information on sex, age, emotions, and intentions. This ability might not only be applied to our conspecifics nowadays, but also to other living objects (i.e., animals) and even to artificial structures, such as cars. To investigate this possibility, we asked people to report the characteristics, emotions, personality traits, and attitudes they attribute to car fronts, and we used geometric morphometrics (GM) and multivariate statistical methods to determine and visualize the corresponding shape information. Automotive features and proportions are found to covary with trait perception in a manner similar to that found with human faces. Emerging analogies are discussed. This study should have implications for both our understanding of our prehistoric psyche and its interrelation with the modern world.

  5. Experimental Study of Castor Oil Based Lubricant for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Suhane,


    Full Text Available Vegetable oils due to their better natural propertiescan be used as an alternative to reduce the dependency on the conventional lubricants. With the depletion of conventional resources at faster pace, need of hour is to approach the safer alternatives for ensuring the availability of such resources for longer periods with lesser harm to the mankind and sorroundings.This workevaluates the prospects of Castor oil based lubricant for automotive applications in contrast to the available commercial servo gear oil. Experimentation has been performed on four ball tester set up.Material used is carbon steel balls. Refined castor and mahua oils are blended in fixed ratios and subjected to friction and wear tests. Experimentation reveals that castor mahua oil blend possess immense potential in contrast to servo gear oil due to good wear reducing traits apart from environmental benefits.

  6. SOI technology for power management in automotive and industrial applications (United States)

    Stork, Johannes M. C.; Hosey, George P.


    Semiconductor on Insulator (SOI) technology offers an assortment of opportunities for chip manufacturers in the Power Management market. Recent advances in the automotive and industrial markets, along with emerging features, the increasing use of sensors, and the ever-expanding "Internet of Things" (IoT) are providing for continued growth in these markets while also driving more complex solutions. The potential benefits of SOI include the ability to place both high-voltage and low-voltage devices on a single chip, saving space and cost, simplifying designs and models, and improving performance, thereby cutting development costs and improving time to market. SOI also offers novel new approaches to long-standing technologies.

  7. International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Application

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Gereon


    The automobile is going through the biggest transformation in its history. Automation and electrification of vehicles are expected to enable safer and cleaner mobility. The prospects and requirements of the future automobile affect innovations in major technology fields like driver assistance systems, vehicle networking and drivetrain development. Smart systems such as adaptive ICT components and MEMS devices, novel network architectures, integrated sensor systems, intelligent interfaces and functional materials form the basis of these features and permit their successful and synergetic integration. It has been the mission of the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) for more than fifteen years to detect novel trends and to discuss the technological implications from early on. Therefore, the topic of the AMAA 2014 will be “Smart Systems for Safe, Clean, and Automated Vehicles”. This book contains peer-reviewed papers written by leading engineers and researchers w...

  8. Design of electromagnetic shock absorbers for automotive suspensions (United States)

    Amati, Nicola; Festini, Andrea; Tonoli, Andrea


    Electromechanical dampers seem to be a valid alternative to conventional shock absorbers for automotive suspensions. They are based on linear or rotative electric motors. If they are of the DC-brushless type, the shock absorber can be devised by shunting its electric terminals with a resistive load. The damping force can be modified by acting on the added resistance. To supply the required damping force without exceeding in size and weight, a mechanical or hydraulic system that amplifies the speed is required. This paper illustrates the modelling and design of such electromechanical shock absorbers. This paper is devoted to describe an integrated design procedure of the electrical and mechanical parameters with the objective of optimising the device performance. The application to a C class front suspension car has shown promising results in terms of size, weight and performance.

  9. Frequency weighting filter design for automotive ride comfort evaluation (United States)

    Du, Feng


    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low- and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m • s-2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  10. Precious Metals in Automotive Technology: An Unsolvable Depletion Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi


    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century, various devices have been developed in order to reduce the emissions of harmful substances at the exhaust pipe of combustion engines. In the automotive field, the most diffuse and best known device of this kind is the “three way” catalytic converter for engines using the Otto cycle designed to abate the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons. These catalytic converters can function only by means of precious metals (mainly platinum, rhodium and palladium which exist in a limited supply in economically exploitable ores. The recent increase in prices of all mineral commodities is already making these converters significantly expensive and it is not impossible that the progressive depletion of precious metals will make them too expensive for the market of private cars. The present paper examines how this potential scarcity could affect the technology of road transportation worldwide. We argue that the supply of precious metals for automotive converters is not at risk in the short term, but that in the future it will not be possible to continue using this technology as a result of increasing prices generated by progressive depletion. Mitigation methods such as reducing the amounts of precious metals in catalysts, or recycling them can help but cannot be considered as a definitive solution. We argue that precious metal scarcity is a critical factor that may determine the future development of road transportation in the world. As the problem is basically unsolvable in the long run, we must explore new technologies for road transportation and we conclude that it is likely that the clean engine of the future will be electric and powered by batteries.

  11. Mapping automotive like controls to a general aviation aircraft (United States)

    Carvalho, Christopher G.

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop fly-by-wire control laws enabling a general aviation aircraft to be flown with automotive controls, i.e. a steering wheel and gas/brake pedals. There was a six speed shifter used to change the flight mode of the aircraft. This essentially allows the pilot to have control over different aspects of the flight profile such as climb/descend or cruise. A highway in the sky was used to aid in the navigation since it is not intuitive to people without flight experience how to navigate from the sky or when to climb and descend. Many believe that general aviation could become as widespread as the automobile. Every person could have a personal aircraft at their disposal and it would be as easy to operate as driving an automobile. The goal of this thesis is to fuse the ease of drivability of a car with flight of a small general aviation aircraft. A standard automotive control hardware setup coupled with variably autonomous control laws will allow new pilots to fly a plane as easily as driving a car. The idea is that new pilots will require very little training to become proficient with these controls. Pilots with little time to stay current can maintain their skills simply by driving a car which is typically a daily activity. A human factors study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the applied control techniques. Pilot performance metrics were developed to compare candidates with no aviation background and experienced pilots. After analyzing the relative performance between pilots and non-pilots, it has been determined that the control system is robust and easy to learn. Candidates with no aviation experience whatsoever can learn to fly an aircraft as safely and efficiently as someone with hundreds of hours of flight experience using these controls.

  12. Technical Efficiency of Automotive Industry Cluster in Chennai (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.


    Chennai is also called as Detroit of India due to its automotive industry presence producing over 40 % of the India's vehicle and components. During 2001-2002, diagnostic study was conducted on the Automotive Component Industries (ACI) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai and in SWOT analysis it was found that it had faced problems on infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing. In the year 2004-2005 under the cluster development approach (CDA), they formed Chennai auto cluster, under public private partnership concept, received grant from Government of India, Government of Tamil Nadu, Ambattur Municipality, bank loans and stake holders. This results development in infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships among ACI. The objective is to determine the correlation coefficient, regression equation, technical efficiency, peer weights, slack variables and return to scale of cluster before and after the CDA. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data from ACI and analyzing using data envelopment analysis (DEA) of input oriented Banker-Charnes-Cooper model. There is significant increase in correlation coefficient and the regression analysis reveals that for one percent increase in employment and net worth, the gross output increases significantly after the CDA. The DEA solver gives the technical efficiency of ACI by taking shift, employment, net worth as input data and quality, gross output and export ratio as output data. From the technical score and ranking of ACI, it is found that there is significant increase in technical efficiency of ACI when compared to CDA. The slack variables obtained clearly reveals the excess employment and net worth and no shortage of gross output. To conclude there is increase in technical efficiency of not only Chennai auto cluster in general but also Chennai auto components industries in particular.

  13. Fatigue and Mechanical Damage Propagation in Automotive PEM Fuel Cells (United States)

    Banan, Roshanak

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are generally exposed to high magnitude road-induced vibrations and impact loads, frequent humidity-temperature loading cycles, and freeze/thaw stresses when employed in automotive applications. The resultant mechanical stresses can play a significant role in the evolution of mechanical defects in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The focus of this research is to investigate fatigue challenges due to humidity-temperature (hygrothermal) cycles and vibrations and their effects on damage evolution in PEM fuel cells. To achieve this goal, this thesis is divided into three parts that provide insight into damage propagation in the MEA under i) hygrothermal cycles, ii) external applied vibrations, and iii) a combination of both to simulate realistic automotive conditions. A finite element damage model based on cohesive zone theory was developed to simulate the propagation of micro-scale defects (cracks and delaminations) in the MEA under fuel cell operating conditions. It was found that the micro-defects can propagate to critical states under start-up and shut-down cycles, prior to reaching the desired lifespan of the fuel cell. The simultaneous presence of hygrothermal cycles and vibrations severely intensified damage propagation and resulted in considerably large defects within 75% of the fuel cell life expectancy. However, the order of generated damage was found to be larger under hygrothermal cycles than vibrations. Under hygrothermal cycles, membrane crack propagation was more severe compared to delamination propagation. Conversely, the degrading influence of vibrations was more significant on delaminations. The presence of an anode/cathode channel offset under the combined loadings lead to a 2.5-fold increase in the delamination length compared to the aligned-channel case. The developed model can be used to investigate the damage behaviour of current materials employed in fuel cells as well as to evaluate the

  14. Frequency Weighting Filter Design for Automotive Ride Comfort Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Feng


    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low-and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m•s–2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  15. Development of Universal Portable Spray Stand for Touch-Up Process in The Automotive Paintshop (United States)

    Fatah Muhamed Mukhtar, Muhamed Abdul; Mohideen Shahul Hameed, Rasool


    A spray stand is a custom-made tool used to hold the automotive body parts as well as the devices used to facilitate the operator during the Touch Up process in Paint shop production. This paper discusses about the development of Universal Portable Spray Stand (UPSS) as a tool to hold various types of automotive body parts and model of car during the painting process. The main objective of this study is to determine the effective application of UPSS at the International College of Automotive (ICAM) and also in the automotive industry. This will be helpful to add features to the current spray stand in ICAM and to add value to the spray stand based on selected criteria which are universal, portable and cost saving. In addition, study in the UPSS is also expected to bring reduction in cycle time during the touch up process, in the paint defects and in the ergonomics issues among the operators.

  16. Monitoring and evaluation of production processes an analysis of the automotive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, Anton; Pandová, Iveta


    This book presents topics on monitoring and evaluation of production processes in the automotive industry. Regulation of production processes is also described in details. The text deals with the implementation and evaluation of these processes during the mass production of components useful in the automotive industry. It evaluates the effects and results achieved after implementation in practice. The book takes into account the different methodologies of the world's automakers and applicable standards, such as standard EN ISO 9001 and the requirements of VDA and ISO/TS 16949. The content is used to those working with the development, production and quality control of new products in the demanding automotive industry. The information provided may also be useful to engineers and technical staff in organizations working with series production and production of spare parts for the automotive and other demanding industries. The content presented was written based on discussions with various companies and organiza...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bock


    Full Text Available Within the growing domain of software engineering in the automotive sector, the number of used tools, processes, methods and languages has increased distinctly in the past years. To be able to choose proper methods for particular development use cases, factors like the intended use, key-features and possible limitations have to be evaluated. This requires a taxonomy that aids the decision making. An analysis of the main existing taxonomies revealed two major deficiencies: the lack of the automotive focus and the limitation to particular engineering method types. To face this, a graphical taxonomy is proposed based on two well-established engineering approaches and enriched with additional classification information. It provides a self-evident and -explanatory overview and comparison technique for engineering methods in the automotive domain. The taxonomy is applied to common automotive engineering methods. The resulting diagram classifies each method and enables the reader to select appropriate solutions for given project requirements.

  18. Analyzing internal barriers for automotive parts remanufacturers in China using grey-DEMATEL approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Xiqiang; Govindan, Kannan; Zhu, Qinghua


    Automotive industries have attracted attention from international sectors recently. This attention to the industry results in many innovative technologies being integrated in these manufacturing arenas. In developing countries such as the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) countries......, especially China who is a global leader in automotive sales and production, researchers see substantial attempts to increase economic and societal values in automotive sectors through the use of many sustainable strategies. Among these sustainable strategies, remanufacturing has witnessed much debate...... in recent years. In China, automotive parts remanufacturing is still in a nascent stage, but the country is striving hard to implement a strategy in industries to result in cleaner production. Additionally, remanufacturing yields high financial, societal, and environmental returns, and it provides...

  19. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,...

  20. FDI and Intra-industry Trade in the Automotive Industry in the New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambroziak Łukasz


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which foreign direct investment (FDI influenced intra-industry trade (IIT in automotive products in six New EU Member States (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia in the 1995–2014 period. Changes in IIT intensity are analysed using the Grubel-Lloyd indices. To examine the IIT pattern, IIT indices are divided into two types of trade: IIT in vertically differentiated products (low and high quality VIIT and IIT in horizontally differentiated products (HIIT. The research indicates that IIT in automotive products allowed manufacturers and consumers from the new EU Member States to benefit more from international trade. FDI inflow to the automotive sector of the NMS has been a key factor shaping IIT in automotive products.

  1. Depression - stopping your medicines (United States)

    ... this page: // Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  2. Complementary and Integrative Medicine (United States)

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  3. Alternative medicine - pain relief (United States)

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... with conventional medicine or therapy, it is considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of alternative medicine. Acupuncture ...

  4. Traveling Safely with Medicines (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  5. Personalized Medicine and Pharmacogenomics (United States)

    ... medications. Pharmacogenomics is part of a field called personalized medicine — also called individualized or precision medicine — that ... may be part of routine medical care. References Personalized medicine. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www. ...

  6. Medicines by Design (United States)

    ... Order Search the NIGMS Website Search the NIGMS Website NIGMS Home Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A ...

  7. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  8. RFID-enabled real-time manufacturing for automotive part and accessory suppliers



    Automotive part and accessory manufacturers (APAMs) at the lower tiers of the automotive vertical have been following leading vehicle assemblers in adopting RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and ubiquitous computing technologies, aiming to alleviate their advanced manufacturing systems. RFID-enabled real-time traceability and visibility facilitate the implementation of advanced strategies such as Just-In-Time (JIT) lean / responsive manufacturing and mass customization (MC). Being typical...

  9. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Chung, Emma Elgqvist, Shriram Santhanagopalan


    This study highlights the U.S. foothold in automotive lithium-ion battery (LIB) production, globally. U.S.-based manufacturers comprise 17% of global production capacity. With increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and U.S. vehicle manufacturers' proximity to customers, there is a growing opportunity for the United States to compete globally in the automotive LIB market.

  10. The evolution of green patenting activity in the automotive sector (1965-2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Lourenco; Andersen, Maj Munch

    The paper aims to analyze the evolution of eco-innovative activity and strategies in the automotive sector over time. We have chosen to use a patent count methodology tracking the development of selected technologies considered as promising “green technologies” in the automotive sector. Our...... in 2008. The analysis demonstrates the current fluid emerging stage of the greening of the economy but also illustrates that eco-innovation is already an important competitive factor....

  11. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program: NEPP Overview - Automotive Electronics (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.


    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using U.S. Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Council's AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASA's procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  12. AutoMoDe - Model-Based Development of Automotive Software

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegenbein, Dirk; Freund, Ulrich; Bauer, Andreas; Romberg, Jan; Schatz, Bernhard


    This paper describes first results from the AutoMoDe (Automotive Model-Based Development) project. The overall goal of the project is to develop an integrated methodology for model-based development of automotive control software, based on problem-specific design notations with an explicit formal foundation. Based on the existing AutoFOCUS framework, a tool prototype is being developed in order to illustrate and validate the key elements of our approach.

  13. Green Lean Six Sigma and Managerial Innovation in Malaysian Automotive Industry


    Farah Izzaida Mohd Zamri; Nurul Fadly Habidin; Siti Norhafizan Hibadullah; Nursyazwani Mohd Fuzi; Auni Fatin Nadia Chiek Desa


    The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between the Green Lean Six Sigma (GLSS) and the Management Innovation (MI) to be implemented in the Malaysian Automotive Industry. This paper tries to examine how the GLSS can contribute and have a positive impact on the development of MI to achieve better performance in the automotive industry. In addition, by applying the advantages of innovation in an industry, they are able to ensure they have a competitive advantage factor. There...

  14. The Implementation of Corporate Sustainability in the European Automotive Industry: An Analysis of Sustainability Reports


    Martina Sukitsch; Sabrina Engert; Rupert J. Baumgartner


    The acceptance of corporate sustainability implementation and sustainability reporting has continued to grow steadily in recent years. This is particularly true for companies in the automotive industry. Increasing regulatory demands, for example, with respect to CO2 emissions, are one clear reason for this. In this paper the sustainability reports of 14 manufacturers in the European automotive industry are analyzed with respect to issues of corporate sustainability implementation. This entail...



    Bezić, Heri; Galović, Tomislav


    The paper addresses the question of international trade performance of automotive sector of 21 European OECD Member countries within the period from 2000 to 2009. The methodology of this research is based on the implementation of different trade performance indicators like intra- trade balance, industry trade, composition of manufacturing exports import penetration indicator and other important indicators. During year 2014 and 2015, international competitiveness of automotive European OECD in...

  16. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Automotive Structural Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.


    This report provides recommended durability-based design criteria for a chopped-glass-fiber reinforced polymeric composite for automotive structural applications. The criteria closely follow the framework of an earlier criteria document for a continuous-strand-mat (CSM) glass-fiber reference composite. Together these design criteria demonstrate a framework that can be adapted for future random-glass-fiber composites for automotive structural applications.

  17. Automotive electronic control units: Inspection design considering time and resources constrains.


    Solé Genescà, Aleix


    On this this document, the state of the art about engine management system inspection will be studied during design and prototyping phase. For this reason, a deep background on automotive sector is needed. Automotive history will be reviewed from the creation of first motorized car up to completely autonomous autopilot, created by Tesla. After that, future trends such as hardware and software modularization will be reviewed. Considering cars high complexity, it is important to have a clear me...

  18. A Secure Mechanism to Supervise Automotive Sensor Network by Client on Smart Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Yashavanth


    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal on design of a secure client on smart phone to monitor automotive sensor network. Recently, more and more vehicles, such as BMW X5, are connected from outside via smart phone [3]. From smart phone, users can use the internet resources in automotive. Users can monitor the automotives by using their smart phones. When the automotive is moving or stolen by robber, alert information will be reported to users and users can even brake their automotive via smart phone in emergency status by sending control command to the vehicle information gateway. So client software in smart phone is required to monitor the sensor network in automotives. In order to prevent malicious attack on the client software by malicious attackers which are usually the robbers, there should be a mechanism provided to the clients which offers security by considering few criteria’s like power of computation, level of security and consumption of power. This proposed method uses IDEA for the encryption of all the messages since IDEA has high level of security and suitable to implement in software and also demands on computational power is less. Record management set is being suggested for the storage of critical data which is a Java MIDlet based mechanism. Between client software and its gateway a communication management on transaction is also proposed. The verification of the key updating process is verified with model checking in UPPAAL [7].

  19. Medicines for osteoporosis (United States)

    ... Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... when: A bone density test shows you have osteoporosis, even if you have not had a fracture ...

  20. Medicines for sleep (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  1. [Disaster medicine]. (United States)

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline


    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations.

  2. Medicine organizer (United States)

    Martins, Ricardo; Belchior, Ismael


    In the last year of secondary school, students studying physics and chemistry are incentivized to do a project where they must put in practice their improvement of scientific knowledge and skills, like observation of phenomena and analysis of data with scientific knowledge. In this project a group of students, tutored by the teacher, wanted to build an instrument that helps people to take their medical drugs at the right time. This instrument must have some compartments with an alarm and an LED light where the people can put their medical drugs. The instrument must be easily programed using an android program that also registers if the medicine has been taken. The students needed to simulate the hardware and software, draw the electronic system and build the final product. At the end of the school year, a public oral presentation was prepared by each group of students and presented to the school community. They are also encouraged to participate in national and international scientific shows and competitions.

  3. Predictive Process Optimization for Fracture Ductility in Automotive TRIP Steels (United States)

    Gong, Jiadong

    In light of the emerging challenges in the automotive industry of meeting new energy-saving and environment-friendly requirements imposed by both the government and the society, the auto makers have been working relentlessly to reduce the weight of automobiles. While steel makers pushed out a variety of novel Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) to serve this market with new needs, TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels is one of the most promising materials for auto-body due to its exceptional combination of strength and formability. However, current commercial automotive TRIP steels demonstrate relatively low hole-expansion (HE) capability, which is critical in stretch forming of various auto parts. This shortcoming on ductility has been causing fracture issues in the forming process and limits the wider applications of this steel. The kinetic theory of martensitic transformations and associated transformation plasticity is applied to the optimization of transformation stability for enhanced mechanical properties in a class of high strength galvannealed TRIP steel. This research leverages newly developed characterization and simulation capabilities, supporting computational design of high-performance steels exploiting optimized transformation plasticity for desired mechanical behaviors, especially for the hole-expansion ductility. The microstructure of the automotive TRIP sheet steels was investigated, using advanced tomographic characterization including nanoscale Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP) microanalysis. The microstructural basis of austenite stability, the austenite carbon concentration in particular, was quantified and correlated with measured fracture ductility through transformation plasticity constitutive laws. Plastic flow stability for enhanced local fracture ductility at high strength is sought to maintain high hole-expansion ductility, through quantifying the optimal stability and the heat-treatment process to achieve it. An additional

  4. Vibration isolation of automotive vehicle engine using periodic mounting systems (United States)

    Asiri, S.


    Customer awareness and sensitivity to noise and vibration levels have been raised through increasing television advertisement, in which the vehicle noise and vibration performance is used as the main market differentiation. This awareness has caused the transportation industry to regard noise and vibration as important criteria for improving market shares. One industry that tends to be in the forefront of the technology to reduce the levels of noise and vibration is the automobile industry. Hence, it is of practical interest to reduce the vibrations induced structural responses. The automotive vehicle engine is the main source of mechanical vibrations of automobiles. The engine is vulnerable to the dynamic action caused by engine disturbance force in various speed ranges. The vibrations of the automotive vehicle engines may cause structural failure, malfunction of other parts, or discomfort to passengers because of high level noise and vibrations. The mounts of the engines act as the transmission paths of the vibrations transmitted from the excitation sources to the body of the vehicle and passengers. Therefore, proper design and control of these mounts are essential to the attenuation of the vibration of platform structures. To improve vibration resistant capacities of engine mounting systems, vibration control techniques may be used. For instance, some passive and semi-active dissipation devices may be installed at mounts to enhance vibration energy absorbing capacity. In the proposed study, a radically different concept is presented whereby periodic mounts are considered because these mounts exhibit unique dynamic characteristics that make them act as mechanical filters for wave propagation. As a result, waves can propagate along the periodic mounts only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is completely blocked within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The experimental arrangements, including the design of

  5. The bullwhip effect phenomenon in automotive supply chains in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to report on research that was completed to explore the concept of the bullwhip effect in supply chains and to illustrate empirically the presence of the bullwhip effect in automotive supply chains in South Africa. Problem Investigated: This article investigates the presence of the bullwhip effect - which was identified through an empirical study - and its causes and implications for supply chain management in the South African automotive component industry. Methodology: A literature study was conducted on the causes and implications of the bullwhip effect phenomenon. This was followed by an empirical study in the form of a survey among South African automotive component manufacturers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significant supply chain problems relating to the bullwhip effect in automotive supply chains. Findings and Implications: The results indicate that automotive component manufacturers are dependent on demand-forecasting information from their customers. They experience long lead times, fluctuating orders, cancellation of orders, excess and slow moving inventory and a lack of integration with suppliers and customers. There are also signs of relationship problems and a possible silo mentality. The mentioned results indicate the presence of the bullwhip effect in South African automotive supply chains. Since the bullwhip effect can have a major impact on organisations' costs, knowing where to invest effort and resources should be a high priority for supply chain managers. Value of the Research: Since the field of supply chain management is extremely dynamic, this article contributes to the body of knowledge and provides new insight into the bullwhip effect phenomenon. The results included in this article could assist parties in automotive supply chains to focus their attention on problems that might be within their control and if solved could lead to improved

  6. Cross Cultural Logistics and Supply Chain Management Towards Organizational Effectiveness within the Asean/Thai Automotive Industries: A Sem Analysis


    Dansomboon Suwaj; Phimonsathienand Thepparat; Fongsuwan Wanno


    As a manufacturing, logistics and supply chain hub within ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), Thailand holds the 12th spot in global vehicle production for an estimated 2,355 Thai and multinational automotive industry enterprises. Within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Thailand ranks number one in automotive production contributing $US11.4 billion to the Thai economy and 12 percent to Thailand’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product), with the automotive industry being Thailand’...

  7. Obstetric medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balbi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obstetric assistance made major advances in the last 20 years: improved surgical technique allows quicker caesarean sections, anaesthesiology procedures such as peripheral anaesthesia and epidural analgesia made safer operative assistance, remarkably reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, neonatology greatly improved the results of assistance to low birth weight newborns. A new branch of medicine called “obstetric medicine” gained interest and experience after the lessons of distinguished physicians like Michael De Swiet in England. All together these advances are making successful pregnancies that 20 years ago would have been discouraged or even interrupted: that’s what we call high risk pregnancy. High risk of what? Either complications of pregnancy on pre-existing disease or complications of pre-existing disease on pregnancy. Nowadays, mortality in pregnancy has a medical cause in 80% of cases in Western countries (Confidential Enquiry on Maternal Deaths, UK, 2004. DISCUSSION The background is always changing and we have to take in account of: increase of maternal age; widespread use of assisted fertilization techniques for treatment of infertility; social feelings about maternity desire with increasing expectations from medical assistance; immigration of medically “naive” patients who don’t know to have a chronic disease, but apt and ready to conceive; limited knowledge of feasibility of drug use in pregnancy which may induce both patients and doctors to stopping appropriate drug therapy in condition of severe disease. Preconception counseling, planning the pregnancy, wise use of drugs, regular follow-up throughout the pregnancy and, in selected cases, preterm elective termination of pregnancy may result in excellent outcome both for mother and foetus. CONCLUSIONS Highly committed and specifically trained physicians are required to counsel these patients and to plan their treatment before and during pregnancy.

  8. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi


    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  10. Reverse logistics strategic antinomies: the case of the automotive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanas, G.


    Full Text Available Legislation plays a major role in the automobile manufacturing sector. The European legislation has a prominent international role in this respect. We examine the impact of the European Parliament, Council (2000 Directive 2000/53/EC on the EU automobile sector reverse logistics activities in the light of the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR principle. We argue that there is an antinomy in the application of the Directive that is supposed to support an EPR strategy. The antinomy is expressed by [1] the absence of the necessary capabilities of Producer Responsibility Organizations (PROs to advance to higher reverse logistics activities like remanufacturing [2] an indefinite delay of the possibility for transformation of the current forward chain manufacturing model, [3] a stability in the strategic group formation of the European automobile manufacturing sector that prevents the further diffusion of manufacturing and remanufacturing capabilities within EU with profound positive economic impacts in favour of the industrialized countries with a strong automotive manufacturing sector and negative impacts to less industrialized countries. We also argue that the proper application of the EPR strategy is in favour of established EU manufacturers and can act as a barrier to entry for non-European firms.

  11. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller


    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  12. Simulation of Assembly Line Balancing in Automotive Component Manufacturing (United States)

    Jamil, Muthanna; Mohd Razali, Noraini


    This study focuses on the simulation of assembly line balancing in an automotive component in a vendor manufacturing company. A mixed-model assembly line of charcoal canister product that is used in an engine system as fuel's vapour filter was observed and found that the current production rate of the line does not achieve customer demand even though the company practices buffer stock for two days in advance. This study was carried out by performing detailed process flow and time studies along the line. To set up a model of the line by simulation, real data was taken from a factory floor and tested for distribution fit. The data gathered was then transformed into a simulation model. After verification of the model by comparing it with the actual system, it was found that the current line efficiency is not at its optimum condition due to blockage and idle time. Various what-if analysis were applied to eliminate the cause. Proposed layout shows that the line is balanced by adding buffer to avoid the blockage. Whereas, manpower is added the stations to reduce process time therefore reducing idling time. The simulation study was carried out using ProModel software.

  13. Utilization of Infrared Fiber Optic in the Automotive Industry (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)


    Fiber optics are finding a place in the automotive industry. Illumination is the primary application today. Soon, however, fiber optics will be used for data communications and sensing applications. Silica fiber optics and plastic fibers are sufficient for illumination and communication applications however, sensing applications involving high temperature measurement and remote gas analysis would benefit from the use of infrared fiber optics. Chalcogonide and heavy metal fluoride glass optical fibers are two good candidates for these applications. Heavy metal fluoride optical fibers are being investigated by NASA for applications requiring transmission in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Zirconium-Barium-Lanthanum-Aluminum-Sodium-Fluoride (ZBLAN) is one such material which has been investigated. This material has a theoretical attenuation coefficient 100 times lower than that of silica and transmits into the mid-IR. However, the measured attenuation coefficient is higher than silica due to impurities and crystallization. Impurities can be taken care of by utilizing cleaner experimental protocol. It has been found that crystallization can be suppressed by processing in reduced gravity. Fibers processed in reduced gravity on the KC135 reduced gravity aircraft were found to be free of crystals while those processed on the ground were found to have crystals. These results will be presented along with plans for producing continuous lengths of ZBLAN optical fiber on board the International Space Station.

  14. An Embedded Software Platform for Distributed Automotive Environment Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seepold Ralf


    Full Text Available This paper discusses an innovative extension of the actual vehicle platforms that integrate intelligent environments in order to carry out e-safety tasks improving the driving security. These platforms are dedicated to automotive environments which are characterized by sensor networks deployed along the vehicles. Since this kind of platform infrastructure is hardly extensible and forms a non-scalable process unit, an embedded OSGi-based UPnP platform extension is proposed in this article. Such extension deploys a compatible and scalable uniform environment that allows to manage the vehicle components heterogeneity and to provide plug and play support, being compatible with all kind of devices and sensors located in a car network. Furthermore, such extension allows to autoregister any kind of external devices, wherever they are located, providing the in-vehicle system with additional services and data supplied by them. This extension also supports service provisioning and connections to external and remote network services using SIP technology.

  15. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) characterization for a valuable management. (United States)

    Morselli, Luciano; Santini, Alessandro; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano


    Car fluff is the waste produced after end-of-life-vehicles (ELVs) shredding and metal recovery. It is made of plastics, rubber, glass, textiles and residual metals and it accounts for almost one-third of a vehicle mass. Due to the approaching of Directive 2000/53/EC recycling targets, 85% recycling rate and 95% recovery rate in 2015, the implementation of automotive shredder residue (ASR) sorting and recycling technologies appears strategic. The present work deals with the characterization of the shredder residue coming from an industrial plant, representative of the Italian situation, as for annual fluxes and technologies involved. The aim of this study is to characterize ASR in order to study and develop a cost effective and environmentally sustainable recycling system. Results show that almost half of the residue is made of fines and the remaining part is mainly composed of polymers. Fine fraction is the most contaminated by mineral oils and heavy metals. This fraction produces also up to 40% ashes and its LHV is lower than the plastic-rich one. Foam rubber represents around half of the polymers share in car fluff. Moreover, some chemical-physical parameters exceed the limits of some parameters fixed by law to be considered refuse derived fuel (RDF). As a consequence, ASR needs to be pre-treated in order to follow the energy recovery route.

  16. Torsional Oscillations in Automotive Transmissions: Experimental Analysis and Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Galvagno


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the torsional oscillations of an automotive transmission system by means of an experimental test bench used to validate the proposed lumped parameter model. The rig consists of a Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT and a Manual Transmission (MT connected through the respective output shafts, while the excitation is provided by two electric motors, which are controlled in speed or torque. The experimental analysis includes the measurement of the external torques, applied by the two electric motors to the mechanical system, and the measurement of the system response in terms of angular speeds at different positions along the transmission line. The frequency response of the system is estimated from the experimental data and compared with the results of a 5-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model, which proves to be adequate to describe the dynamic behaviour of the system up to a frequency of 200 Hz. The comparison between simulated results and experimental data shows good agreement, so the model can be used to predict the torsional vibrations of the transmission system in the linear field. Moreover, the effects of the nonlinearities associated with the mean value of the excitations are shown. Finally the influence of the selected gear ratio on the experimental frequency response is discussed.

  17. Influence of Multiharmonics Excitation on Rattle Noise in Automotive Gearboxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kadmiri


    Full Text Available We consider the automotive gearbox rattle noise resulting from vibro-impacts that can occur between the idle gears under excessive velocity fluctuations of the shaft-driving gears imposed by engine torque fluctuation. Even if the rattling phenomenon has no consequence on reliability, it may be particularly annoying for vehicle interior sound quality and acoustic comfort. The main parameters governing such kind of vibrations are the excitation source associated with engine torque fluctuation which can be modeled by an imposed displacement of the driveline, the inertia of the idle gear, the drag torque acting during the free flight motion, and the impact laws. In the case of rattle, it is reasonable to assume that duration of impacts between teeth is very short compared to the excitation period. Then, these impacts are modeled by a coefficient of restitution law. The excitation source is not composed only with fundamental component but also with other harmonic components. This study presents some effects of these additional components on the dynamic response of the idle gear.

  18. Modeling a Thermoelectric Generator Applied to Diesel Automotive Heat Recovery (United States)

    Espinosa, N.; Lazard, M.; Aixala, L.; Scherrer, H.


    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are outstanding devices for automotive waste heat recovery. Their packaging, lack of moving parts, and direct heat to electrical conversion are the main benefits. Usually, TEGs are modeled with a constant hot-source temperature. However, energy in exhaust gases is limited, thus leading to a temperature decrease as heat is recovered. Therefore thermoelectric properties change along the TEG, affecting performance. A thermoelectric generator composed of Mg2Si/Zn4Sb3 for high temperatures followed by Bi2Te3 for low temperatures has been modeled using engineering equation solver (EES) software. The model uses the finite-difference method with a strip-fins convective heat transfer coefficient. It has been validated on a commercial module with well-known properties. The thermoelectric connection and the number of thermoelements have been addressed as well as the optimum proportion of high-temperature material for a given thermoelectric heat exchanger. TEG output power has been estimated for a typical commercial vehicle at 90°C coolant temperature.

  19. The Productivity Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.


    Chennai, also called the Detroit of India, is India's second fastest growing auto market and exports auto components and vehicles to US, Germany, Japan and Brazil. For inclusive growth and sustainable development, 250 auto component industries in Ambattur, Thirumalisai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estates located in Chennai have adopted the Cluster Development Approach called Automotive Component Cluster. The objective is to study the Value Chain, Correlation and Data Envelopment Analysis by determining technical efficiency, peer weights, input and output slacks of 100 auto component industries in three estates. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Output Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper model by taking net worth, fixed assets, employment as inputs and gross output as outputs. The non-zero represents the weights for efficient clusters. The higher slack obtained reveals the excess net worth, fixed assets, employment and shortage in gross output. To conclude, the variables are highly correlated and the inefficient industries should increase their gross output or decrease the fixed assets or employment. Moreover for sustainable development, the cluster should strengthen infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships to decrease costs and to increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the indigenous and export market.

  20. Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels (United States)

    Hazra, S.; Williams, D.; Roy, R.; Aylmore, R.; Allen, M.; Hollingdale, D.


    The appearance of defects such as `hollows' and `shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of a panel may become unacceptable. Considerable time is then dedicated to minimizing their occurrence through tool modifications. This paper will investigate the use of the wavelet transform as a tool to analyze physically measured panels. The transform has two key aspects. The first is its ability to distinguish small scale local defects from large scale styling curvature. The second is its ability to characterize the shape of a defect in terms of its wavelength and a `correlation value'. The two features of the transform enable it to be used as a tool for locating and predicting the severity of defects. The paper will describe the transform and illustrate its application on test cases.

  1. Wastes to Reduce Emissions from Automotive Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jiménez Aguilar


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was actually the investigation of the effect of various treatments on the ability of urine in absorbing greenhouse gases. Urine alone or mixed with olive-oil-mill waste waters (O, poultry litter (P, or sewage sludge (S was used on the absorption of CO2 and NOx from diesel exhaust. The absorption coefficient (0.98–0.29 g CO2/grNH4 was similar to other solvents such as ammonia and amines. The ranges of CO2 absorption(1.7–5.6 g/l and NO reduction (0.9–3.7 g/l in six hours indicate that on average 20 litres of urine could be needed to capture CO2 and NOx vehicle emissions from each covered kilometre. The best results of CO2 absorption and NOx reduction were for urine mixed with O, P and urine alone. These wastes could be used to capture CO2 and NOx from automotive diesel engines to reduce gas emissions. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO2 absorption and reduce the risks associated with waste-water reuse.

  2. Direct and Collisional Excitation of Automotive Fuel Components) (United States)

    White, Allen R.; Wilson, Kyle; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.


    Adding energy directly into the vibrational modes of automotive fuel may reduce the threshold energy required for combustion, without raising the combustion charge temperature. This energy can be supplied either directly via incident laser radiation or indirectly through collision with directly excited molecules. The most common chemical in commercial gasoline, isooctane, does not absorb infrared radiation sufficiently at any wavelength for which an infrared laser is readily available. However, CO2 lasers are relatively cheap, and are available at wavelengths which are absorbed by isopropanol as well as ethanol, which is also a component of commercial gasoline. In this study, the infrared absorption of isopropanol and ethanol in balance isooctane were measured at three wavelengths (10.6 m, 10.2 m, and 9.3 m) of incident CO2 laser radiation. Additional time-resolved emission measurements were performed for these mixtures. The data support the existence of the proposed collisional pathway for energy transfer from ethanol and isopropanol to isooctane.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sporer


    Full Text Available The replacement of the former, purely mechanical, functionality with mechatronics-based solutions, the introduction of new propulsion technologies, and the connection of cars to their environment are just a few reasons for the continuously increasing electrical and/or electronic system (E/E system complexity in modern passenger cars. Smart methodologies and techniques have been introduced in system development to cope with these new challenges. A topic that is often neglected is the definition of the interface between the hardware and software subsystems. However, during the development of safety-critical E/E systems, according to the automotive functional safety standard ISO 26262, an unambiguous definition of the hardware-software interface (HSI has become vital. This paper presents a domain-specific modelling approach for mechatronic systems with an integrated hardware-software interface definition feature. The newly developed model-based domain-specific language is tailored to the needs of mechatronic system engineers and supports the system’s architectural design including the interface definition, with a special focus on safety-criticality.

  4. Proposal of a Sustainability Index for the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel F. Salvado


    Full Text Available In a scenario of increasing globalization, sustainable development has emerged as an attractive and strategic issue for both countries and individual organizations and their supply chains. Companies have faced different challenges in seeking to combine the best economic performance with increased social and environmental responsibility. Monitoring sustainability is essential for decision-making and management of activities that comprise an organization’s system processes. Evaluation can be performed using indices or a set of indicators. In addition to increasing organizational effectiveness and improving competitiveness, customer service and profitability, it is also a crucial influence on the development of business sustainability. This paper proposes a sustainability index that provides companies with information about their level of economic, social and environmental sustainability, showing their performance at both individual and supply chain level. The importance of the indicators is assessed by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP methodology applied to a case study of a supply chain in the automotive industry. The various stages experienced during the construction of the index are also shown. The final results achieved are then presented and discussed in light of the objectives.

  5. Measurement of the velocity field behind the automotive vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedelský Jan


    Full Text Available Passenger comfort in a personal vehicle cabin strongly depends on the appropriate function of the cabin ventilation system. Great attention is therefore paid to the effective functioning of the automotive vents. Various techniques can be employed to evaluate the proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA was used in our case for accurate measurement of the velocity field and consequent assessment of jet boundaries and jet axis. A novel methodology has been developed for the simulation of realistic conditions when using just a single vent under laboratory conditions instead of the complete vehicle ventilation system. A special technique has also been developed for determination of the terminal inclination angles of vent vanes for the particular vent type, which can be completely closed by the adjustable horizontal vanes. A two wire CTA probe was used for measurement of the actual velocity over predefined planes, which were specified according to smoke visualization. Mean velocities and the turbulence intensity were evaluated on the basis of the obtained data and are presented in a form of charts. Both jet boundary and orientation of the jet for a given setup of the vent are important characteristics of particular vent type. Effectiveness of different vents could be compared using our methodology and hence contribute to development of advanced ventilation system.

  6. Measurement of the velocity field behind the automotive vent (United States)

    Ležovič, Tomáš; Lízal, František; Jedelský, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav


    Passenger comfort in a personal vehicle cabin strongly depends on the appropriate function of the cabin ventilation system. Great attention is therefore paid to the effective functioning of the automotive vents. Various techniques can be employed to evaluate the proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA) was used in our case for accurate measurement of the velocity field and consequent assessment of jet boundaries and jet axis. A novel methodology has been developed for the simulation of realistic conditions when using just a single vent under laboratory conditions instead of the complete vehicle ventilation system. A special technique has also been developed for determination of the terminal inclination angles of vent vanes for the particular vent type, which can be completely closed by the adjustable horizontal vanes. A two wire CTA probe was used for measurement of the actual velocity over predefined planes, which were specified according to smoke visualization. Mean velocities and the turbulence intensity were evaluated on the basis of the obtained data and are presented in a form of charts. Both jet boundary and orientation of the jet for a given setup of the vent are important characteristics of particular vent type. Effectiveness of different vents could be compared using our methodology and hence contribute to development of advanced ventilation system.

  7. The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy. (United States)

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E


    Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Mohiuddin


    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief investigation on suitability of Proton-exchange  membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs as the source of power for transportation purposes. Hydrogen is an attractive alternative transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel that can be used in an internal combustion engine (ICE and it is widely available. If hydrogen is used in a fuel cell which converts the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity, (NOx emissions are eliminated. The investigation was carried out on a  fuel cell car model by implementing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM types of fuel cell as the source of power to propel the prototype car. This PEMFC has capability to propel the electric motor by converting chemical energy stored in hydrogen gas into useful electrical energy. PEM fuel cell alone is used as the power source for the electric motor without the aid of any other power source such as battery associated with it. Experimental investigations were carried out to investigate the characteristics of fuel cell used and the performance of the fuel cell car. Investigated papameters are the power it develops, voltage, current and speed it produces under different load conditions. KEYWORDS: fuel cell; automotive; proton exchange membrane; polymer electrolyte membrane; internal combustion engine

  9. Numerical and experimental characterizations of automotive catalytic converter internal flows (United States)

    Lai, M.-C.; Lee, T.; Kim, J.-Y.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Li, P.; Chui, G.


    The three-dimensional non-reacting flow field inside a typical dual-monolith automotive catalytic converter subject to different flow and structural conditions is studied numerically and experimentally. In the numerical analysis, the monolith brick resistance is formulated by using the pressure gradient of a fully developed laminar duct-flow and is corrected for the entrance effect. This correlation is found to agree with experimental pressure drop data and is introduced as an additional source term into the governing nondimensional momentum equation within the monolith brick. Simulation results show that the level of gas flow maldistribution in the monolith depends on the inlet flow Reynolds number, the brick resistance, and the inlet pipe length and its bending angles. The flow distribution is found to be more uniform inside a monolith brick with a lower inlet flow Reynolds number, a larger brick resistance, a shorter inlet pipe, and a straight inlet pipe instead of a bent one. Point-velocity measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry and smoke-flow visualization techniques at selected flow sections are also conducted to verify the simulation results.

  10. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.


    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  11. The digital compensation technology system for automotive pressure sensor (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Li, Quanling; Lu, Yi; Luo, Zai


    Piezoresistive pressure sensor be made of semiconductor silicon based on Piezoresistive phenomenon, has many characteristics. But since the temperature effect of semiconductor, the performance of silicon sensor is also changed by temperature, and the pressure sensor without temperature drift can not be produced at present. This paper briefly describe the principles of sensors, the function of pressure sensor and the various types of compensation method, design the detailed digital compensation program for automotive pressure sensor. Simulation-Digital mixed signal conditioning is used in this dissertation, adopt signal conditioning chip MAX1452. AVR singlechip ATMEGA128 and other apparatus; fulfill the design of digital pressure sensor hardware circuit and singlechip hardware circuit; simultaneously design the singlechip software; Digital pressure sensor hardware circuit is used to implementing the correction and compensation of sensor; singlechip hardware circuit is used to implementing to controll the correction and compensation of pressure sensor; singlechip software is used to implementing to fulfill compensation arithmetic. In the end, it implement to measure the output of sensor, and contrast to the data of non-compensation, the outcome indicates that the compensation precision of compensated sensor output is obviously better than non-compensation sensor, not only improving the compensation precision but also increasing the stabilization of pressure sensor.

  12. Reactive Boride Brazing on Low-Alloy Automotive Grade Steel (United States)

    Palanisamy, B.; Upadhyaya, A.


    Brazing is a widely used process to improve the performance of steels used in automotive applications. The substrate material is often exposed to harsh conditions in these applications and may affect the service life of the component. Reactive boride brazing aims to improve the mechanical properties of the substrate material by forming a ceramic-metal composite coating in a single-step process in situ. In this study, sintered Ancor 4300 low-alloy steel is used as the substrate with chromium-rich braze and chromium-lean braze materials. The mechanical properties of the brazed samples were studied in detail using microindentation hardness measurements and the transverse rupture test. The results indicate that the brazed superlayer has a 10 times higher hardness. There was a significant improvement in the transverse rupture strength of the steel brazed with the chromium-rich boride as compared to the pure substrate material. In an effort to reduce processing time, green compacts of the substrate were also directly brazed and yielded favorable results.

  13. Classification of Iran Automotive and Parts Manufacturing stocks by DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Elahi


    Full Text Available One of the most important subjects of DEA area is efficiency analysis and classification of firms. It is important that stock holders know all information about stocks. Efficiency of stock market plays a significant role in transfer of invests The most important goal of the present paper is to evaluate the efficiency of automotive and parts manufacturing branch in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE, to select a group of desirable securities from a list of 31. We applied data envelopment analysis for ranking and evaluating the units. First, the efficiency of units presented in three different types: technical, management and scale efficiency, and inefficient units were identified. So, peer groups, their weights and grade of units introduced. Finally, optimal amounts of inputs calculated for some of inefficient units. The Results show that the units (7, 8, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25 and 29 are known as superior units. Unit 7 obtained the first rank of 29 units because this DMU get the efficient rank in three types and was introduced 5 as the peer unit for the others so called the stronger unit. 19 of the firms are classified in efficient scale.The units 3,10, 11, 13, 16 and 17 have surplus inputs, it means that these units have used more inputs rather than the other units which are in the same level and suggested reduce the surplus amount for achieving the same efficiency.

  14. Automotive Parking Lot and Theft Detection through Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Automotive parking lot and theft detection through image processing is a smart parking lot which will save time for the owner to park his car in a more organized way and also prevent theft of the car. It is a technology to optimize the checkout process by analysing a database of images of number plates of cars. The heart of the project is based on image processing. The images of number plates will be detected by Matlab and a picture of the driver will be saved in a similar database. As soon as both the images are saved, the garage entrance pole will shift 90 degrees upward using a DC MOTOR and will remain in that position for 30 seconds to allow the car to enter. After 30 seconds it will return back to its previous position. When the car exits the earlier steps will be repeated and Matlab will match both the images that were taken during entering and leaving. Meanwhile the seven segment display will show that a car has left the parking lot, by decrementing a number from its display. The cars are controlled by a microcontroller which is also able to detect and display if a vacant parking space is available. If there is no vacancy a red LED lights up, where as a green LED is used to display presence of parking space along with how many parking spots are available. It is applicable to be used in super market car parking lots and also apartment garages.

  15. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.


    Developments in "omics" are creating a paradigm shift in Laboratory Medicine leading to Personalised Medicine. This allows the increasing in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether Laboratory Medicine is able to implement new...... diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...

  16. The correlation between relationship value and business expansion in the South African automotive supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta S. Tolmay


    Full Text Available Background: The South African automotive industry includes complete supply chains. The South African automotive supply chain stakeholders operating within the global arena are faced with opportunities as well as challenges. The South African government supports the automotive industry and encourages the vision to drastically expand the industry by the year 2020. However, having to adhere to strict prescriptions from customers regarding product quality and logistics, automotive component suppliers have only the actual relationship with customers through which value can be added. Literature acknowledges the importance of relationship value and agrees that it results in business retention. However, literature fails to prove whether relationship value can result in business expansion where more business is generated.Objectives: The objective of this article was to provide a better understanding of how to optimise relationship value within the South African automotive supply chains between Tier 1 and Tier 2 suppliers. Furthermore, the correlation between relationship value and business expansion was tested through a linear regression model. It was also important to determine whether supply chain stakeholders from different countries of origin and cultural backgrounds attach the same importance to relationship value.Method: This article reports on research which followed a positivistic paradigm, through a quantitative study undertaken in the South African automotive supply chains. Members of the National Association for Automobile Component and Allied Manufacturers of South Africa (NAACAM, defined as Tier 1 suppliers, were approached to describe their best Tier 2 suppliers. Questions relating to relationship value and business expansion were asked via a closed-ended questionnaire. The aim was to obtain the perceptions of Tier 1 suppliers of their best Tier 2 suppliers in terms of relationship value and business expansion. The data were analysed


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ahmad


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the findings from a study on teaching in practical work on automotive courses at Vocational Colleges in Malaysia. The random sampling technique was used in selecting 283 students and 63 teachers as respondents from the automotive courses. The findings of the research indicate that teachers have strong preference in using the demonstration and questioning technique during the set induction stage of teaching. Teachers also prefer group monitoring and problem solving during the teaching phase, and re-explaining and report writing in the post-teaching stage. This research provides the combination of teaching techniques that could be used in teaching vocational skills in general and automotive practical work in particular. This study has concluded that vocational teaching method in automotive practical work to be applied in teaching for other practical courses to improve current practices. Thus, teachers are proposed to use this method to improve students’ knowledge in automotive and to develop skills for the current and future workforce.

  18. Review of Special Standards in Quality Management Systems Audits in Automotive Production (United States)

    Šurinová, Yulia


    Quality management systems (QMS) in automotive industry generally have several differences in comparison with other industrial branches. Different customers have their own specific requirements, including requirements for quality audits. Audits are one of the coretools of quality management to make the PDCA (Plan - Do - Check - Act) cycle work. As a matter of fact, compliance with ISO/TS 16949:2009 requirements is a condition for supplying the automotive industry. However, there are some standards which co-exist together with the ISO 9001 based management systems and technical specification for QMS in automotive ISO/TS16949. Which are those specific standards in automotive industry and what standard to use and why - those are the questions to be answered in this paper. The aim of the paper is to review what standards are used for audits implementation in automotive industry in the Slovak Republic, and why the organizations keep following those "extra" standards even if certification for ISO/TS 16949 is required by all the car makers. The paper is structured as follows: after short introduction to the topic and related terms, presented is our methodology. . In the third section, the achieved results are discussed. And finally, the principal findings of the paper, limitations and conclusions are presented.

  19. Electrification of the transportation sector: Is there a need for restructuring the automotive parts suppliers? (United States)

    Bekaslan, A. Ebru

    The future of the transportation sector has significant implications for the mitigation of climate change through reduced GHG emissions as well as achieving energy efficiency and energy independence. Battery-powered, plug-in, and hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as the greatest source of a solution. This thesis analyzes the historical development and growth of the automotive industry as well as the restructuring toward the next generation technologies in comparison with the U.S. and China to shed light on the question of how a developing country can structure its strategies to be able to upgrade and be competitive over time. Conventional business models can become obsolete. Companies will find it difficult to maintain their market position unless they gain new perspectives on the outlook of the industry as a whole, and take into account the successful business models of tomorrow. The potential for further growth of the Turkish automotive supplier base particularly in the next generation of automotive technologies is therefore highly dependent on policies and strategies at the national level as much as its dependence on the global strategies of the automotive industry's major players. In this sense, the key questions that motivate this study are whether there are foreseeable technological changes and product-segmentation strategies that could significantly enhance the competitiveness of local Turkish suppliers of automotive components. The thesis builds on the theory of innovative enterprise and evolutionary agglomeration to examine the competitive potential of the Konya Auto Part Suppliers' Cluster in Turkey.

  20. Impact of agile methodologies on team capacity in automotive radio-navigation projects (United States)

    Prostean, G.; Hutanu, A.; Volker, S.


    The development processes used in automotive radio-navigation projects are constantly under adaption pressure. While the software development models are based on automotive production processes, the integration of peripheral components into an automotive system will trigger a high number of requirement modifications. The use of traditional development models in automotive industry will bring team’s development capacity to its boundaries. The root cause lays in the inflexibility of actual processes and their adaption limits. This paper addresses a new project management approach for the development of radio-navigation projects. The understanding of weaknesses of current used models helped us in development and integration of agile methodologies in traditional development model structure. In the first part we focus on the change management methods to reduce request for change inflow. Established change management risk analysis processes enables the project management to judge the impact of a requirement change and also gives time to the project to implement some changes. However, in big automotive radio-navigation projects the saved time is not enough to implement the large amount of changes, which are submitted to the project. In the second phase of this paper we focus on increasing team capacity by integrating at critical project phases agile methodologies into the used traditional model. The overall objective of this paper is to prove the need of process adaption in order to solve project team capacity bottlenecks.

  1. Models and optimization of solar-control automotive glasses (United States)

    Blume, Russell Dale

    Efforts to develop automotive glasses with enhanced solar control characteristics have been motivated by the desire for increased consumer comfort, reduced air-conditioning loads, and improved fuel-economy associated with a reduction in the total solar energy transmitted into the automotive interior. In the current investigation, the base soda-lime-silicate glass (72.7 wt.% SiO 2, 14.2% Na2O, 10.0% CaO, 2.5% MgO, 0.6% Al2O 3 with 0.3 Na2SO4 added to the batch as a fining agent) was modified with Fe2O3 (0.0 to 0.8%), NiO (0.0 to 0.15%), CoO (0.0 to 0.15%), V2O5 (0.0 to 0.225%), TiO2 (0.0 to 1.5%), SnO (0.0 to 3.0%), ZnS (0.0 to 0.09%), ZnO (0.0 to 2.0%), CaF2 (0.0 to 2.0%), and P2O5 (0.0 to 2.0%) to exploit reported non-linear mechanistic interactions among the dopants by which the solar-control characteristics of the base glass can be modified. Due to the large number of experimental variables under consideration, a D-optimal experimental design methodology was utilized to model the solar-optical properties as a function of batch composition. The independent variables were defined as the calculated batch concentrations of the primary (Fe2O 3, NiO, CoO, V2O5) and interactive (CaF2 , P2O5, SnO, ZnS, ZnO, TiO2) dopants in the glass. The dependent variable was defined as the apparent optical density over a wavelength range of 300--2700 nm at 10 nm intervals. The model form relating the batch composition to the apparent optical density was a modified Lambert-Beer absorption law; which, in addition to the linear terms, contained quadratic terms of the primary dopants, and a series of binary and ternary non-linear interactions amongst the primary and interactive dopants. Utilizing the developed model, exceptional fit in terms of both the discrete response (the transmission curves) and the integrated response (visible and solar transmittance) were realized. Glasses utilizing Fe2O 3, CoO, NiO, V2O5, ZnO and P2O 5 have generated innovative glasses with substantially improved

  2. Multi-tool design and analysis of an automotive HUD (United States)

    Irving, Bruce; Hasenauer, David; Mulder, Steve


    Design and analysis of an optical system is often a multidisciplinary task, and can involve the use of specialized software packages for imaging, mechanics, and illumination. This paper will present a case study on the design and analysis of a basic heads-up display (HUD) for automotive use. The emphasis will be on the special requirements of a HUD visual system and on the tools and techniques needed to accomplish the design. The first section of this paper will present an overview of the imaging design using commercially available imaging design software. Topics addressed in this section include modeling the windshield, visualizing the imaging performance, using constraints and freeform surfaces to improve the system, and meeting specific visual performance specifications with design/analysis methods. The second section will address the use of a CAD program to design a basic mechanical structure to support and protect the optics. This section will also discuss some of the issues and limitations involved in translating data between a CAD program and a lens design or illumination program. Typical issues that arise include the precision of optical surface prescriptions, surface and material properties, and the management of large data files. In the final section, the combined optical and mechanical package will be considered, using an illumination design program for stray light analysis. The stray light analysis will be directed primarily toward finding, visualizing, and quantifying unexpected ray paths. Techniques for sorting optical ray paths by path length, power, and elements or materials encountered will be discussed, along with methods for estimating the impact of stray light on the optical system performance.

  3. Evaluation of an attributive measurement system in the automotive industry (United States)

    Simion, C.


    Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a critical component for any quality improvement process. MSA is defined as an experimental and mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability and it falls into two categories: attribute and variable. Most problematic measurement system issues come from measuring attribute data, which are usually the result of human judgment (visual inspection). Because attributive measurement systems are often used in some manufacturing processes, their assessment is important to obtain the confidence in the inspection process, to see where are the problems in order to eliminate them and to guide the process improvement. It was the aim of this paper to address such a issue presenting a case study made in a local company from the Sibiu region supplying products for the automotive industry, specifically the bag (a technical textile component, i.e. the fabric) for the airbag module. Because defects are inherent in every manufacturing process and in the field of airbag systems a minor defect can influence their performance and lives depend on the safety feature, there is a stringent visual inspection required on the defects of the bag material. The purpose of this attribute MSA was: to determine if all inspectors use the same criteria to determine “pass” from “fail” product (i.e. the fabric); to assess company inspection standards against customer's requirements; to determine how well inspectors are conforming to themselves; to identify how inspectors are conforming to a “known master,” which includes: how often operators ship defective product, how often operators dispose of acceptable product; to discover areas where training is required, procedures must be developed and standards are not available. The results were analyzed using MINITAB software with its module called Attribute Agreement Analysis. The conclusion was that the inspection process must

  4. Efficient production of automotive biofuels; Effektiv produktion av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Hagberg, Linus; Rydberg, Tomas; Raadberg, Henrik; Saernholm, Erik


    The report describes opportunities and consequences associated with biomass polygeneration plants, in particular the role that heat plants (HP) or combined heat and power plants (CHP) in district heating systems can play in the production of automotive biofuels. The aim of the report is to provide a knowledge base to stakeholders to help assess energy and environmental benefits associated with collaborative approaches in planning, constructing and operating energy plants. Several configurations are possible for an energy polygeneration plant, but this report focuses on configurations in which a plant for automotive biofuel production and a district heating system with HPs or CHPs have been integrated in some way in order to achieve added value. The modes of integration are several, e.g.: - Supply of process steam from the CHP to the fuel plant, by which the time of operation for the CHP can be extended; Supply of surplus heat from the fuel plant to the district heating system; Material exchange between the systems, by use of residue streams from the fuel plant as fuel in the HP/CHP; Surplus heat from the fuel plant used for drying of the solid fuel to the HP/CHP or for drying of raw material for pellets production; Co-location providing opportunities for shared infrastructure for raw material handling, service systems, utilities and/or logistics. The report principally addresses integration options of the first three types, but describes briefly also pellets production. The starting point for the analysis of integration options is the description of technologies of interest for the production of automotive biofuels. Commercially available technologies are of prime interest, but also a couple of technologies under development are included in this part of the study. In addition to outlining the process characteristics for these processes, surrounding conditions and system requirements are briefly outlined. The results are summarized in Table S1. Ethanol fermentation

  5. Reflections on preventive medicine. (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S


    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sernov


    Full Text Available The paper contains information on the current state of automotive lighting equipment. Different designs of automotive lighting devices, their merits and demerits are described in the paper. The paper includes a substantiation of expediency of developing light-emitting diode lighting and proposes recommendations about optimization of their design.

  7. 75 FR 69470 - JL French Automotive Castings, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Labor Ready and Seek... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration JL French Automotive Castings, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers... Worker Adjustment Assistance on November 4, 2009, applicable to workers of JL French Automotive Castings... workers leased from Seek Staffing, were employed on-site at the Sheboygan, Wisconsin location of JL...

  8. 78 FR 66779 - CTS Automotive LLC, a Subsidiary of CTS Corporation Including On-Site Leased Workers From Metro... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration CTS Automotive LLC, a Subsidiary of CTS Corporation Including On- Site... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on September 5, 2013, applicable to workers of CTS Automotive LLC, a subsidiary of CTS Corporation, including on-site leased workers from Metro Staff, Inc., and Aerotek,...


    This report presents the results of the verification test of the DeVilbiss FLG-631-318 high-volume, low-pressure gravity-feed spray gun, hereafter referred to as the DeVilbiss FLG, which is designed for use in automotive refinishing. The test coating chosen by ITW Automotive Refi...


    This report presents the results of the verification test of the DeVilbiss GTi-600G high-volume, low-pressure gravity-feed spray gun, hereafter referred to as the DeVilbiss GTi, which is designed for use in automotive refinishing. The test coating chosen by ITW Automotive Refinis...

  11. 3 CFR 13509 - Executive Order 13509 of June 23, 2009. Establishing a White House Council on Automotive... (United States)


    ... work. The Director for Recovery of Auto Communities and Workers (Director of Recovery) shall serve as... a White House Council on Automotive Communities and Workers 13509 Order 13509 Presidential Documents... Automotive Communities and Workers Section 1. Policy. Over the last decade, the United States has...

  12. HIL Simulation of Power Electronics and Electric Drives for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Puschmann


    Full Text Available Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is today a standard method for testing electronic equipment in the automotive industry. Since electric drives and power electronic devices are more and more important in automotive applications, these kinds of systems have to be integrated into the hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Power converters and electric drives are used in many different applications in vehicles today (hybrid electric or electric powertrain, electric steering systems, DC-DC converters, etc.. The wide range of applications, topologies, and power levels results in various different approaches and solutions for hardware-in-the-loop testing. This paper gives an overview of hardware-in-the-loop simulation of power electronics and electric drives in the automotive industry. The currently available technologies are described and future challenges are outlined.

  13. Analysis of the potential for new automotive uses of wrought magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)


    The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within the US Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought magnesium and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, Al, and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of Mg (whose density is less than one-fourth that of steel and only two-thirds that of Al). This study shows that Mg sheet could be used in automotive body nonstructural and semistructural applications, whereas extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. The primary barrier to such uses of wrought Mg is high cost.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Meneses


    Full Text Available Increasing group and team effectiveness is fundamental for any organisation, especially during periods of economic crisis. In order to build or design a team or to optimise its work, it is necessary to consider tasks, processes and results. Given that teams are a key tool for competitiveness in the automotive sector, this paper focuses on how to improve the performance and the effectiveness of production teams in Spain's automotive industry through three processes: group development, group identification, and team potency. The results show that these processes predict 57% of group performance, and in particular two of the effectiveness criteria used in this sector: absenteeism and order and hygiene in the workplace. We discuss the usefulness of these results for managers and team leaders in order to improve team performance and effectiveness in the automotive sector.

  15. Deformation and fatigue behaviors of carburized automotive gear steel and predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonglae Jo


    Full Text Available The fatigue behavior of carburized components such as automotive transmission gears is very complex due to hardness and microstructure difference, residual stresses and multi-axial stress states developed between the case and the core. In addition, automotive gears in service, commonly used in helical type, are actually subjected to complex stress conditions such as bending, torsion, and contact stress states. This study presents experimental and analytical results on deformation behavior of carburized steels, widely used in automotive gears, under cyclic stress conditions including axial and torsion loadings. Axial fatigue tests and rotating bending fatigue tests are also included. Predictions of cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviors of the carburized steel with two-layer model are compared with experimental results. The carburized steel investigated in this study exhibited cyclic softening under both axial loading and torsional loading. Predicted results with simple two-layer model for the cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviors were comparatively similar to the experimental data.

  16. Design of an FMCW radar baseband signal processing system for automotive application. (United States)

    Lin, Jau-Jr; Li, Yuan-Ping; Hsu, Wei-Chiang; Lee, Ta-Sung


    For a typical FMCW automotive radar system, a new design of baseband signal processing architecture and algorithms is proposed to overcome the ghost targets and overlapping problems in the multi-target detection scenario. To satisfy the short measurement time constraint without increasing the RF front-end loading, a three-segment waveform with different slopes is utilized. By introducing a new pairing mechanism and a spatial filter design algorithm, the proposed detection architecture not only provides high accuracy and reliability, but also requires low pairing time and computational loading. This proposed baseband signal processing architecture and algorithms balance the performance and complexity, and are suitable to be implemented in a real automotive radar system. Field measurement results demonstrate that the proposed automotive radar signal processing system can perform well in a realistic application scenario.

  17. Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the upstream automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Govindan, Kannan; Carvalho, H.;


    This paper suggests an Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of automotive companies and the corresponding supply chain. An integrated assessment model is proposed based on green and resilient practices. The Delphi technique is used to obtain the weights of the supply chain...... the applicability of this index in a real-world supply chain and highlight its managerial implications. The results show that the resilient paradigm is considered to be the one that contributes more to the competitiveness of the automotive supply chain. The green practice identified as the most important...... to the greenness of this industry is to reduce energy consumption. The significant contributions to resilience are sourcing strategies that allow switching of suppliers, flexible supply base/flexible sourcing and creating total supply chain visibility. The proposed index was developed in the context of automotive...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yabing; MENG Fanzhong; XU Hanxue; WU Jianming


    The high-speed multi-cycle impact and speed, load fluctuant characteristics of a kind of narrow-width automotive engine oil-pump chain 06BN-1 are studied through engine assembly and road-drive tests to satisfy the light-weight demand of engine. The worn surface morphologies of rubbing area between pin, bush and roller are also analyzed based on scanning electron microscope. The results show that the main wear mechanism of automotive engine oil-pump chain is fatigue wear, and it's failure mechanism is the forming, extending and flaking of cracks on top layer of pin and bush. Pin and bush both occurred cycle-soften phenomenon, and roller occurred cycle-harden. Fretting wear is one of the most important "fall to pieces" failure causes of automotive chain. Ensuring sufficient strength and plasticity of roller, as well as adopting suitable shaping technology are the effective methods to increase its resistance to multi-cycle impact.

  19. Study on Variable Capacity Control Mechanism of Scroll Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioner (United States)

    Hirano, Takahisa; Shigeoka, Tetsuo

    As for the automotive air conditioner, (1) to keep the automotive cabin temperature in a comfortable region, (2) to improve driving feeling, (3) to drive the air conditioning system economically through all seasons, are universally required. Recently, from these points, compressors with variable capacity control mechanism for automotive air conditioners have been remarkably requested. We have developed a scroll comoressor with variable capacity control mechanism. The capacity control mechanism, which changes the channel area of the bypass hole continuously, according to the suction gas pressure and the discharge gas pressure, has been developed. In this report, we describe the mechanism of variable capacity control and the performance simulation program that has been developed for the scroll compressor. Further, we describe the measuring results of cylinder pressure behavior, the results of energy loss analysis and the effect of comfort, drivability, power saving in the refrigerating cycle using the developed capacity control compressor.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ahmadi


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the demand for fuels in Iran automotive sector, using the Almost Ideal Demand System to estimate price and income elasticities for all the available fuels in the automotive sector: gasoline, automotive gas oil and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG. These estimates can be very useful in predicting the overall impacts of price policies designed to reduce fuel consumption and to address concerns of carbon emissions or energy security. Empirical results indicate all own-price elasticities are negative and significant at 5% level. The own-price elasticity for gas oil, gasoline and LPG were estimated by about -0.22, -1.01 and -3.58, respectively. The findings also show that gasoline and gas oil are normal goods and LPG being an inferior good.

  1. a Vibrational Model of Open Celled Polyurethane Foam Automotive Seat Cushions (United States)

    Patten, W. N.; Sha, S.; Mo, C.


    A mechanistic model of a seat cushion is developed. The work relates the kinematic motion of the seat to the geometric and constitutive properties of the cellular foam used in the seat. The model includes the influence of pneumatic damping caused by friction between the gas within the open-celled foam and matrix polymer. A continuous shape function is introduced to characterize the piecewise continuous stress-strain characteristic of flexible open-celled foam. After some simplification, a non-linear dynamic automotive seat cushion model is derived, which relies explicitly on the constitutive properties of polyurethane foams and on the geometry of the seat cushion. Experimental and analytical models of the two automotive seats are compared to verify the model. The comparisons indicate that the new model is able to predict the dynamic performance of an automotive seat cushion with fidelity.

  2. Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers. Linear and nonlinear rotordynamics - Bearing design - Rotor balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Schaefer, Hung [Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Describes the rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers. Requires only a minimum of mathematical background. Written by an R and D expert from industry. This book deals with rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers while encompassing the analysis of the dynamics of rotating machines at very high rotor speeds of 300,000 rpm and above. This interdisciplinary field involves 1. thermodynamics and turbo-matching knowledge to compute working conditions of turbochargers, 2. fluid and bearing dynamics to calculate various operating thrust loads and to design the rotating floating ring bearings (two-oil-film bearings), and 3. tribology to improve the rotor stability and to reduce the bearing friction. Mathematical background in modeling and simulation methods is necessary; however, the prerequisites have been kept to a minimum. The book addresses both practitioners working in the field of rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers and graduate students in mechanical engineering.

  3. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber Automotive Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corum, J.M.


    This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quasi-isotropic carbon-fiber composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite, which was made by a rapid molding process suitable for high-volume automotive applications, consisted of continuous Thornel T300 fibers (6K tow) in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. The reinforcement was in the form of four {+-}45{sup o} stitch-bonded mats in the following layup: [0/90{sup o}/{+-}45{sup o}]{sub S}. This material is the second in a progression of three candidate thermoset composites to be characterized and modeled as part of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory project entitled Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies and is closely coordinated with the industry Automotive Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for large automotive structural components. This document is in two parts. Part I provides the design criteria, and Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects on deformation, strength, and stiffness of cyclic and sustained loads, operating temperature, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris). Guidance is provided for design analysis, time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage tolerance design guidance, including the effects of holes. Chapter 6 provides a brief summary of the design criteria.

  4. Comparison of Quality Engineering Practices in Malaysian and Indonesian Automotive Related Companies (United States)

    Putri, Nilda Tri; Sha'ri Mohd, Yusof; Irianto, Dradjad


    The main motivating factor driving this research is to find differences between the automotive related companies in Malaysia and Indonesia with regard to quality engineering (QE) implementation. A comparative study between Malaysia and Indonesia provides the opportunity to gain perspective and thorough understanding of the similarities and differences on the critical factors for successful QE practices in the context of both these countries. Face to face interviews are used to compare the QE practices in two automotive companies in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively. The findings of study showed that both countries have clear quality objectives to achieving zero defects in processes and products and total customer satisfaction. Top and middle management in both countries were found to be directly involved in quality improvement on the shop floor to provide On-The-Job training and actively encourage team members to perform quality problem solving through the formation of quality control circles (QCC) particularly in Indonesia automotive industry. In Malaysia automotive industry, the implementation was not fully effective, but they have started to cultivate those values in the daily execution. Based on the case study results and analysis, the researcher has provided suggestions for both countries as an improvement plan for successful QE implementation. These recommendations will allow management to implement appropriate strategies for better QE implementation which hopefully can improve company's performance and ultimately the making the automotive industry in both countries to reach world class quality. It is strongly believed that the findings of this study can help Malaysia and Indonesia automotive industries in their efforts to become more effective and competitive.

  5. The Perceptions of the Automotive Supply Industry Related to Information Technology Utilization and Creating Barriers to Competitive Market Entry: A Case Study of the Implications for Strategic Planning (United States)

    Cargal, Joseph L.


    The purpose of this study was to examine information technology/systems strategy related factors in the automotive supply industry based on responses to the Strategic Planning and Business Performance Survey provided to automotive suppliers. This population produces supplies to the automotive industry with products valued at hundreds of billions…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Mojtahedzadeh


    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to conduct an empirical study in Iranian automotive industry in order to improve their performance. The quality culture plays a vital role in determining the performance in Iranian manufacturing industries. In this research, a model has been developed that includes the factors of Total Quality Management and quality culture to study their effect on the performance of Iranian automotive industry. It is hoped that this paper can provide an academic source for both academicians and managers due to investigate the relationship between Total Quality Management, Quality Culture, and Performance in a systematic manner to increase successful rate of Total Quality Management implementation.

  7. Sol-gel processed alumina based materials in microcalorimeter sensor device fabrication for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakouzi, S.R.; McBride, J.R.; Nietering, K.E.; Narula, C.K. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)


    The application of sol-gel processed materials in a variety of sensors has been proposed. The authors describe microcalorimeter sensor devices employing sol-gel processed alumina based materials which can be used to monitor pollutants in automotive exhaust. These sensors operate by measuring changes in resistance upon catalysis and are economically acceptable for automotive applications. It is important to point out that automobiles will be required to have a means of monitoring exhaust gases by on-board sensors as mandated by the EPA and the California Air Resources Board (OBD-II).

  8. A method for Perceptual Assessment of Automotive Audio Systems and Cabin Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo;


    This paper reports the design and implementation of a method to perceptually assess the acoustical prop- erties of a car cabin and the subsequent sound reproduction properties of automotive audio systems. Here, we combine Spatial Decomposition Method and Rapid Sensory Analysis techniques. The for......This paper reports the design and implementation of a method to perceptually assess the acoustical prop- erties of a car cabin and the subsequent sound reproduction properties of automotive audio systems. Here, we combine Spatial Decomposition Method and Rapid Sensory Analysis techniques...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dziubińska


    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and technological aspects of forming magnesium alloy parts for aircraft and automotive applications. The main applications of magnesium alloys in the aircraft and automotive industries are discussed. In addition, the forging technology for magnesium alloys is generally described, with a particular emphasis on wrought alloys. A brief outline of the state of the art in the forging of magnesium alloys is given based on a survey of the specialist literature and the results of previous research by the authors.

  10. Global production networks and local suppliers: Sonora’s entrepreneurs facing automotive expansion growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Bracamonte Sierra


    Full Text Available Within the context of the severe crisis faced by the U.S. based automotive firms, one of their strategies has been the relocation of the assembly plants in Mexico. This article analyzes the case of the automotive cluster led by Ford in Hermosillo, in the Mexican state of Sonora, showing that this type of clusters led by transnational corporations create technological spillovers and stimulate the accumulation of local capabilities. Particular attention is given to the process of creation of local small and medium enterprises linked to global production networks.

  11. The application of Ce-Zr oxide solid solution to oxygen storage promoters in automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Msakuni (Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc., Aichi (Japan)); Kimura, Mareo (Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc., Aichi (Japan)); Isogai, Akio (Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc., Aichi (Japan))


    The complex oxides in the CeO[sub 2]-ZrO[sub 2] system were examined for the improvement of oxygen storage capacity in automotive catalysts. The formation of Ce-Zr oxide solid solution improved the thermal stability and activity of CeO[sub 2]. The Ce-Zr addition enhanced the removal activity for CO, NO[sub x] and hydrocarbons under dynamic air-fuel ratio condition. The automotive catalyst was designed and developed through research on the oxides in the CeO[sub 2]-ZrO[sub 2] system. (orig.)

  12. Cold and Cough Medicines (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  13. Medicine safety and children (United States)

    ... this page: // Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  14. National Farm Medicine Center (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  15. Taking multiple medicines safely (United States)

    ... in your wallet and at home. Review your medicine list with your health care providers and pharmacists. Discuss ... all of your providers a copy of your medicine list. Ask questions about any new drugs you are ...

  16. Society for Vascular Medicine (United States)

    ... Certification with this new online course from the Society for Vascular Medicine. Learn more. Looking for a ... jobs are listed right now. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Vascular Medicine. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Medicines for ADHD (United States)

    ... abuse. Teach your child not to share or sell their medicines. Monitor your child's medicines closely. References ... the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...

  18. Veterinary medicines update. (United States)


    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues.

  19. ADHD Medicines (for Kids) (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Help en español Medicamentos para el TDAH About ADHD Have you ever been so bored that you ...

  20. Update and Expansion of the Center of Automotive Technology Excellence Under the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irick, David


    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its seventh year of operation under this agreement, its thirteenth year in total. During this period the Center has involved eleven GATE Fellows and three GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center’s focus area: Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Control Systems. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $2,000,000.

  1. Performing Narrative Medicine (United States)

    Langellier, Kristin M.


    In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

  2. Composite materials molding simulation for purpose of automotive industry (United States)

    Grabowski, Ł.; Baier, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.


    Composite materials loom large increasingly important role in the overall industry. Composite material have a special role in the ever-evolving automotive industry. Every year the composite materials are used in a growing number of elements included in the cars construction. Development requires the search for ever new applications of composite materials in areas where previously were used only metal materials. Requirements for modern solutions, such as reducing the weight of vehicles, the required strength and vibration damping characteristics go hand in hand with the properties of modern composite materials. The designers faced the challenge of the use of modern composite materials in the construction of bodies of power steering systems in vehicles. The initial choice of method for producing composite bodies was the method of molding injection of composite material. Molding injection of polymeric materials is a widely known and used for many years, but the molding injection of composite materials is a relatively new issue, innovative, it is not very common and is characterized by different conditions, parameters and properties in relation to the classical method. Therefore, for the purpose of selecting the appropriate composite material for injection for the body of power steering system computer analysis using Siemens NX 10.0 environment, including Moldex 3d and EasyFill Advanced tool to simulate the injection of materials from the group of possible solutions were carried out. Analyses were carried out on a model of a modernized wheel case of power steering system. During analysis, input parameters, such as temperature, pressure injectors, temperature charts have been analysed. An important part of the analysis was to analyse the propagation of material inside the mold during injection, so that allowed to determine the shape formability and the existence of possible imperfections of shapes and locations air traps. A very important parameter received from

  3. Planar millimeter wave radar frontend for automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grubert


    Full Text Available A fully integrated planar sensor for 77 GHz automotive applications is presented. The frontend consists of a transceiver multichip module and an electronically steerable microstrip patch array. The antenna feed network is based on a modified Rotman-lens and connected to the array in a multilayer approach offering higher integration. Furthermore, the frontend comprises a phase lock loop to allow proper frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar operation. The latest experimental results verify the functionality of this advanced frontend design featuring automatic cruise control, precrash sensing and cut-in detection. These promising radar measurements give reason to a detailed theoretical investigation of system performance. Employing commercially available MMIC various circuit topologies are compared based on signal-tonoise considerations. Different scenarios for both sequential and parallel lobing hint to more advanced sensor designs and better performance. These improvements strongly depend on the availability of suitable MMIC and reliable packaging technologies. Within our present approach possible future MMIC developments are already considered and, thus, can be easily adapted by the flexible frontend design. Es wird ein integrierter planarer Sensor für 77 GHz Radaranwendungen vorgestellt. Das Frontend besteht aus einem Sende- und Empfangs-Multi-Chip-Modul und einer elektronisch schwenkbaren Antenne. Das Speisenetzwerk der Antenne basiert auf einer modifizierten Rotman- Linse. Für eine kompakte Bauweise sind Antenne und Speisenetzwerk mehrlagig integriert. Weiterhin umfasst das Frontend eine Phasenregelschleife für eine präzise Steuerung des frequenzmodulierten Dauerstrichradars. Die aktuellen Messergebnisse bestätigen die Funktionalit¨at dieses neuartigen Frontend-Designs, das automatische Geschwindigkeitsregelung, Kollisionswarnung sowie Nahbereichsüberwachung ermöglicht. Die Qualität der Messergebnisse hat weiterf

  4. Planar millimeter wave radar frontend for automotive applications (United States)

    Grubert, J.; Heyen, J.; Metz, C.; Stange, L. C.; Jacob, A. F.


    A fully integrated planar sensor for 77 GHz automotive applications is presented. The frontend consists of a transceiver multichip module and an electronically steerable microstrip patch array. The antenna feed network is based on a modified Rotman-lens and connected to the array in a multilayer approach offering higher integration. Furthermore, the frontend comprises a phase lock loop to allow proper frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar operation. The latest experimental results verify the functionality of this advanced frontend design featuring automatic cruise control, precrash sensing and cut-in detection. These promising radar measurements give reason to a detailed theoretical investigation of system performance. Employing commercially available MMIC various circuit topologies are compared based on signal-tonoise considerations. Different scenarios for both sequential and parallel lobing hint to more advanced sensor designs and better performance. These improvements strongly depend on the availability of suitable MMIC and reliable packaging technologies. Within our present approach possible future MMIC developments are already considered and, thus, can be easily adapted by the flexible frontend design. Es wird ein integrierter planarer Sensor für 77 GHz Radaranwendungen vorgestellt. Das Frontend besteht aus einem Sende- und Empfangs-Multi-Chip-Modul und einer elektronisch schwenkbaren Antenne. Das Speisenetzwerk der Antenne basiert auf einer modifizierten Rotman- Linse. Für eine kompakte Bauweise sind Antenne und Speisenetzwerk mehrlagig integriert. Weiterhin umfasst das Frontend eine Phasenregelschleife für eine präzise Steuerung des frequenzmodulierten Dauerstrichradars. Die aktuellen Messergebnisse bestätigen die Funktionalit¨at dieses neuartigen Frontend-Designs, das automatische Geschwindigkeitsregelung, Kollisionswarnung sowie Nahbereichsüberwachung ermöglicht. Die Qualität der Messergebnisse hat weiterführende theoretische

  5. Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing - a GATE Center of Excellence at the University of Michigan-Dearborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, P. K.


    The Center for Lightweighting Materials and Processing (CLAMP) was established in September 1998 with a grant from the Department of Energy’s Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program. The center received the second round of GATE grant in 2005 under the title “Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing”. Using the two grants, the Center has successfully created 10 graduate level courses on lightweight automotive materials, integrated them into master’s and PhD programs in Automotive Systems Engineering, and offered them regularly to the graduate students in the program. In addition, the Center has created a web-based lightweight automotive materials database, conducted research on lightweight automotive materials and organized seminars/symposia on lightweight automotive materials for both academia and industry. The faculty involved with the Center has conducted research on a variety of topics related to design, testing, characterization and processing of lightweight materials for automotive applications and have received numerous research grants from automotive companies and government agencies to support their research. The materials considered included advanced steels, light alloys (aluminum, magnesium and titanium) and fiber reinforced polymer composites. In some of these research projects, CLAMP faculty have collaborated with industry partners and students have used the research facilities at industry locations. The specific objectives of the project during the current funding period (2005 – 2012) were as follows: (1) develop new graduate courses and incorporate them in the automotive systems engineering curriculum (2) improve and update two existing courses on automotive materials and processing (3) upgrade the laboratory facilities used by graduate students to conduct research (4) expand the Lightweight Automotive Materials Database to include additional materials, design case studies and make it more

  6. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose


    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  7. BATTERIES 2020 – A Joint European Effort towards European Competitive Automotive Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, J.-M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L.M.; Omar, N.;

    The Integrated Project “Batteries 2020” unites 9 European partners jointly working on the research and development of European competitive automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing lifetime and energy density of large format high-energy lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...

  8. Front-End Types. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide. (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with automobile front-end types. Covered in the module are three common types of passenger car front suspension systems and their major components as well as two types…

  9. Millwater Pumping System Optimization Improves Efficiency and Saves Energy at an Automotive Glass Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 2001, the Visteon automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee renovated its millwater pumping system. This improvement saved the plant $280,000 annually in energy and operating costs, reduced annual energy consumption by 3.2 million kilowatt-hours, reduced water consumption, improved system performance, and reduced use of water treatment chemicals.

  10. Literature Review on Simulation and Analysis of Timing Chain of an Automotive Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniket V. Mulik


    Full Text Available The current trend in automotive industry is to achieve compact, efficient, reliable systems. Engine timing drives used in engines are one of the most critical systems. Timing belts are subjected to excessive elongation and wear, while timing gears contribute excess mass and inertia in the system. Hence timing chains are preferred widely, in various high performance engines. Chain drives are easy to assemble and adjust, highly efficient, durable, reliable, compact and capable of attaining a wide range of power and speed capacities. In spite of these advantages their complex dynamic behaviour is not well researched. With the improvement of the speed and load of the automotive engine, and silent chain technology, as silent chain has a compact structure, high transmitting efficiency, high reliability and high wear resistance, its vibration and noise is low, and the silent chain have the advantage of life-long maintenance-free, it significant overcomes the gear drive and belt drive performance, therefore, the silent chain is increasingly widely used in automotive engine timing system. In this present review dynamic analysis as well as analysis of automotive engines timing silent chain system are studied.

  11. 76 FR 27669 - Automotive Components Holdings, LLC, a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, Saline Plant Division... (United States)


    ... Company, Saline Plant Division, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under Ford Company, Visteon... automotive component parts. The worker group includes workers whose wages were reported under Ford Company... firm, including workers whose wages were reported under Ford Company, Visteon, MSX International,...

  12. The Relationship between Personality Type and Learning Style: A Study of Automotive Technology Students (United States)

    Threeton, Mark D.; Walter, Richard A.


    In an effort to provide career and technical education (CTE) professionals with additional insight on how to better meet the individual education needs of the learner, this study (a) sought to identify the predominant personality type of postsecondary automotive technology students and (b) examined whether there was a relationship between the…

  13. Automotive Service Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 0912 (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012


    The graduate of the Automotive Service Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) repair, maintain and overhaul or modify a motor vehicle; (2) comprehend work orders, technical bulletins and estimates, and relate the information to the job at hand; (3) interpret warranty policy in terms of service…


    This assessment identifies the environmental impacts and usage trends of shop towels in the printing and automotive repair industries. The shop towels are used to clean equipment and to wipe up contaminants for a variety of operations. Four types of shop towels were evaluated; wo...

  15. The effect of job organizational factors on job satisfaction in two automotive industries in Malaysia. (United States)

    Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Taha, Zahari


    A methodology is developed in diagnosing the effect of job organizational factors on job satisfaction in two automotive industries in Malaysia. One hundred and seventy male subjects of age 18-40 years with the mean age of 26.8 and standard deviation (SD) of 5.3 years and the mean work experience of 6.5 years and SD of 4.9 years took part in the study. Five job organizational factors were tested in the study including job rotation, work method, training, problem solving and goal setting. A job organization questionnaire was designed and was based on respondents' perception in relation to job satisfaction. The results showed that job organization factors were significantly related to job satisfaction. Job rotation, work method, training and goal setting showed strong correlation with job satisfaction while problem solving had intermediate correlation in the first automotive industry. On the other hand, most job organization factors showed intermediate correlation with job satisfaction in the second automotive industry except the training factor which had low correlation with job satisfaction. These results highlight that job rotation, work methods, problem solving and goal setting are outstanding factors in the study of job satisfaction for automotive industries.

  16. What has led the automotive industry to offshore engineering services to low cost countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simplay, Steve; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee


    This paper will investigate the drivers behind why automotive organizations move product development work from high-cost countries to low-cost countries and the challenges and benefits they face when globalizing their product development model. This paper will provide a literature review of this ......This paper will investigate the drivers behind why automotive organizations move product development work from high-cost countries to low-cost countries and the challenges and benefits they face when globalizing their product development model. This paper will provide a literature review...... of this area and present a case study of a global multinational premium automotive organization with headquarters in Germany. The findings showed that an outsourced offshore delivery center is multi-dimensional and difficult to manage when faced with such complexity.The case company decided to outsource again...... to a specialized third party, also with headquarters in Germany, to minimize complexity. This paper adds to theoretical knowledge in the field by expanding on existing research in diversified areas and gives practitioners insights into why the premium automotive organization outsourced offshore, what the drivers...

  17. Towards the automotive HMI of the future: Overview of the AIDE - Integrated project results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Andreone, L.; Pagle, K.; Markkula, G.; Deregibus, E.; Romera Rue, M.; Bellotti, F.; Engelsberg, A.; Brouwer, R.; Peters, B.; Gloria, A. de


    The Adaptive Integrated Driver-vehicle interfacE (AIDE) is an integrated project funded by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme. The project, which involves 31 partners from the European automotive industry and academia, deals with behavioral and technical issues related to autom

  18. Materials selection for automotive engines. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning material selection and substitution for automobile engines. Mechanical properties, including dimensional stability, are reviewed. Machined parts, castings, forgings, and extrusions are examined. Citations concerning automotive bodies, frames, and structures are presented in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Materials selection for automotive engines. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The bibliography contains citations concerning material selection and substitution for automobile engines. Mechanical properties, including dimensional stability, are reviewed. Machined parts, castings, forgings, and extrusions are examined. Citations concerning automotive bodies, frames, and structures are presented in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs (United States)

    Wagner, Stacey


    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  1. Integration of different simulation tools for the development of next generation Automotive Safety Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M. van; Versteegh, T.; Tideman, M.


    The development of intelligent in-car systems and connected vehicle systems is of major concern to the automotive industry. These systems need to function properly in a vast amount of different traffic scenarios, which involves interaction with other traffic actors, both human and technical, in a la

  2. Use of Fault Tree Analysis for Automotive Reliability and Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, H


    Fault tree analysis (FTA) evolved from the aerospace industry in the 1960's. A fault tree is deductive logic model that is generated with a top undesired event in mind. FTA answers the question, ''how can something occur?'' as opposed to failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) that is inductive and answers the question, ''what if?'' FTA is used in risk, reliability and safety assessments. FTA is currently being used by several industries such as nuclear power and chemical processing. Typically the automotive industries uses failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) such as design FMEAs and process FMEAs. The use of FTA has spread to the automotive industry. This paper discusses the use of FTA for automotive applications. With the addition automotive electronics for various applications in systems such as engine/power control, cruise control and braking/traction, FTA is well suited to address failure modes within these systems. FTA can determine the importance of these failure modes from various perspectives such as cost, reliability and safety. A fault tree analysis of a car starting system is presented as an example.

  3. Fault self-diagnosis designing method of the automotive electronic control system (United States)

    Ding, Yangyan; Yang, Zhigang; Fu, Xiaolin


    The fault self-diagnosis system is an important component of an the automotive electronic control system. Designers of automotive electronic control systems urgently require or need a complete understanding of the self-diagnosis designing method of the control system in order to apply it in practice. Aiming at this exigent need, self-diagnosis methods of designing sensors, electronic control unit (ECU), and actuators, which are the three main parts of automotive electronic control systems, are discussed in this paper. According to the fault types and characteristics of commonly used sensors, self-diagnosis designing methods of the sensors are discussed. Then fault diagnosis techniques of sensors utilizing signal detection and analytical redundancy are analysed and summarized respectively, from the viewpoint of the self-diagnosis designing method. Also, problems about failure self-diagnosis of ECU are analyzed here. For different fault types of an ECU, setting up a circuit monitoring method and a self-detection method of the hardware circuit are adopted respectively. Using these two methods mentioned above, a real-time and on-line technique of failure self-diagnosis is presented. Furthermore, the failure self-diagnosis design method of ECU are summarized. Finally, common faults of actuators are analyzed and the general design method of the failure self-diagnosis system is presented. It is suggested that self-diagnosis design methods relative to the failure of automotive electronic control systems can offer a useful approach to designers of control systems.

  4. 78 FR 70278 - Automotive Trade Mission to New Delhi, Pune and Chennai, India (United States)


    ... manufacturing companies such as Ford, GM, BMW, AUDI, Volvo, Renault, Hyundai, Daimler, and Nissan, among others..., Toyota, BMW, Nissan, Volkswagen, Skoda, Mercedes Benz, Fiat, Renault, and Volvo. As the automotive...., Komatsu Limited, Ford, BMW and Mitsubishi have manufacturing plants in Chennai. Chennai accounts for...

  5. A Versatile Mixed-Signal Pin Approach for Cost-Effective Test of Automotive ICs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Credence Systems Corporation


    @@ (上接第9期51页) Figure 3:3 different pins types which cover a wide range of requirements: - DPIN: The digital mixed signal pin for high speed digital requirements - VPIN digital mixed-signal pin with high voltage digital test capability. With the 30 V swing and 50 MHz data rate the pin fits excellent for automotive requirements.

  6. Security threats to automotive CAN networks-Practical examples and selected short-term countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.hoppe@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Kiltz, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kiltz@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Dittmann, Jana, E-mail: jana.dittmann@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)


    The IT security of automotive systems is an evolving area of research. To analyse the current situation and the potentially growing tendency of arising threats we performed several practical tests on recent automotive technology. With a focus on automotive systems based on CAN bus technology, this article summarises the results of four selected tests performed on the control systems for the window lift, warning light and airbag control system as well as the central gateway. These results are supplemented in this article by a classification of these four attack scenarios using the established CERT taxonomy and an analysis of underlying security vulnerabilities, and especially, potential safety implications. With respect to the results of these tests, in this article we further discuss two selected countermeasures to address basic weaknesses exploited in our tests. These are adaptations of intrusion detection (discussing three exemplary detection patterns) and IT-forensic measures (proposing proactive measures based on a forensic model). This article discusses both looking at the four attack scenarios introduced before, covering their capabilities and restrictions. While these reactive approaches are short-term measures, which could already be added to today's automotive IT architecture, long-term concepts also are shortly introduced, which are mainly preventive but will require a major redesign. Beneath a short overview on respective research approaches, we discuss their individual requirements, potential and restrictions.

  7. 77 FR 55898 - Request for Comments on a Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Automotive... (United States)


    ... Approved Information Collection: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports ACTION: Notice and request for comments... soliciting comments on the following information collection was published on May 18, 2012 (77 FR 29751). No... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kenneth R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy...

  8. High speed bending of 2nd level interconnects on printed circuit boards for automotive electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Ubachs, R.; Wiel, H.J. van de; Waal, A. van der; Veer, J. van der


    Standard drop tests for portable electronics are not representative for the qualification of automotive electronics. High-frequency vibrations are more dominant than abrupt shocks during normal operation. In this work a high speed board bending (HSB) method is developed to mimic the constant cyclic

  9. Demand forecasting for automotive sector in Malaysia by system dynamics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulkepli, Jafri, E-mail:; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal, E-mail: [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia); Fong, Chan Hwa, E-mail: [SWM Environment Sdn. Bhd.Level 17, Menara LGB, Taman Tun Dr. Ismail Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    In general, Proton as an automotive company needs to forecast future demand of the car to assist in decision making related to capacity expansion planning. One of the forecasting approaches that based on judgemental or subjective factors is normally used to forecast the demand. As a result, demand could be overstock that eventually will increase the operation cost; or the company will face understock, which resulted losing their customers. Due to automotive industry is very challenging process because of high level of complexity and uncertainty involved in the system, an accurate tool to forecast the future of automotive demand from the modelling perspective is required. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to forecast the demand of automotive Proton car industry in Malaysia using system dynamics approach. Two types of intervention namely optimistic and pessimistic experiments scenarios have been tested to determine the capacity expansion that can prevent the company from overstocking. Finding from this study highlighted that the management needs to expand their production for optimistic scenario, whilst pessimistic give results that would otherwise. Finally, this study could help Proton Edar Sdn. Bhd (PESB) to manage the long-term capacity planning in order to meet the future demand of the Proton cars.

  10. Optical coupling of flexible microstructured organic light sources for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melpignano, P.; Sinesi, S.; Rotaris, G.; Antonipieri, M.; Cicoira, F.; Loi, M.A.; Muccini, M.; Zamboni, R.; Gale, M.T.; Westenhöfer, S.


    In this paper, we report on modelling and processing of customised optical patterns coupled with microstructured large area organic light emitting device (OLED) sources for automotive lighting. Different approaches for the optical control of the light emitted from an OLED are discussed and compared

  11. VISA Final Report: Fully Integrated Power Electronic Systems in Automotive Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.


    This report summarizes the activities related to the public funded project “Vollintegrierte leistungselektronische Systeme in der Automobilelektronik – VISA” (Fully Integrated Power Electronic Systems in Automotive Electronics). Aim of the project is to investigate the integration of components into

  12. Integrated Automotive High-Power LED-Lighting Systems in 3D-MID Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, W.


    The growing energy consumption of lighting as well as rising luminous efficacies and -fluxes of high-power Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have contributed to the widespread use of LEDs in modern lighting systems. One of the most prominent users of the LED-technology is automotive (exterior) lighting.

  13. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Donald [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)


    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)--which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles--is heavily concentrated in east Asia. Currently, China, Japan, and Korea collectively host 88% of all LIB cell and 79% of automotive LIB cell manufacturing capacity. Mature supply chains and strong cumulative production experience suggest that most LIB cell production will remain concentrated in Asia. However, other regions--including North America--could be competitive in the growing automotive LIB cell market under certain conditions. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. Modeled costs are for large format, 20-Ah stacked pouch cells with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC) cathodes and graphite anodes suitable for automotive application. Production volume is assumed to be at commercial scale, 600 MWh per year.

  14. Third annual report to Congress on the automotive technology development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978 focused on advancing the technology of automotive propulsion systems. In formulating the Act, Congress found that: (1) existing automobiles do not meet the Nation's long-term environmental and energy goals; (2) insufficient resources are being devoted to research and development (R and D) on advanced automobile propulsion systems; (3) with sufficient R and D, alternatives to existing systems could meet long-term goals at reasonable cost; and (4) expanded R and D would complement and stimulate corresponding private sector efforts. Because of the Nation's energy problems, Congress felt that advanced automobile propulsion system technology should be developed quickly. Through the Act, Congress expressed its intent for the Department of Energy (DOE) to: (1) make R and D contracts and grants for development of advanced automobile propulsion systems within five years, or within the shortest practicable time consistent with appropriate R and D techniques; (2) evaluate and disseminate information about advanced automobile propulsion system technology; (3) preserve, enhance, and facilitate competition in R and D of existing and alternative automotive propulsion systems; and (4) supplement, but neither supplant nor duplicate, private industry R and D efforts. Summaries of the status of conventional powertrain technology, automotive technology development program, and the management plan and policy transition are given. Tables on contracts and grant procurement for advanced gas turbine engine systems, advanced Stirling engine systems, and the vehicle systems project are given. (WHK)

  15. How "Green" Is Your Fuel? Creation and Comparison of Automotive Biofuels (United States)

    Wagner, Eugene P.; Koehle, Maura A.; Moyle, Todd M.; Lambert, Patrick D.


    In recent years, biofuel development and use has risen significantly. This undergraduate laboratory experiment educates students on the various alternative fuels that are being developed for automotive applications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Students replicate commercially available alternative fuels, E85 and biodiesel, as well…

  16. In-use compliance programme - Overview of Automotive LPG vehicles 1999-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Gense, N.L.J.; Burgwal, H.C. van de


    This report presents a general overview of the results of automotive LPG vehicles that have been tested within the framework of the Dutch In-Use Compliance programme for passenger cars over the years 1999 to 2003. The work in these years was executed under a contract with the Dutch Ministry of Housi

  17. Design of a Fuel Processor System for Generating Hydrogen for Automotive Applications (United States)

    Kolavennu, Panini K.; Telotte, John C.; Palanki, Srinivas


    The objective of this paper is to design a train of tubular reactors that use a methane feed to produce hydrogen of the desired purity so that it can be utilized by a fuel cell for automotive applications. Reaction engineering principles, which are typically covered at the undergraduate level, are utilized to design this reactor train. It is shown…

  18. Automotive security functions: the use of new technologies to tackle vehicle-related crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Peter


    New technologies are mainly used in academia and industry to advance applications in three categories within the automotive field. The first category involves applications to improve traffic efficiency. The second set of applications aims to provide the driver and passengers with infotainment featur

  19. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 5: Fuel and Carburetion Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. (United States)

    Goodson, Ludy

    This student guide is for Unit 5, Fuel and Carburetion Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting and servicing the fuel and carburetion systems. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 218-219. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  20. An approach for functional safety improvement of an existing automotive system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khabbaz Saberi, A.; Luo, Y.; Pawel Cichosz, F.; Brand, M. van den; Jansen, S.T.H.


    Safety of automotive systems is becoming more involved, specially for the case of autonomous vehicles. The ISO 26262 standard offers a systematic approach for designing a safe road vehicle (or subsystems of a car) from design phase through its production. However, providing functional safety (accord

  1. Hydrogen patent portfolios in the automotive industry - the search for promising storage methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, S.


    In the development of hydrogen vehicle technologies, the automotive industry adopts a portfolio approach; a multitude of technological options is developed for hydrogen storage and conversion. Patent portfolios of car manufacturers are used as indicators of the variation and selection dynamics of di

  2. Demand forecasting for automotive sector in Malaysia by system dynamics approach (United States)

    Zulkepli, Jafri; Fong, Chan Hwa; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal


    In general, Proton as an automotive company needs to forecast future demand of the car to assist in decision making related to capacity expansion planning. One of the forecasting approaches that based on judgemental or subjective factors is normally used to forecast the demand. As a result, demand could be overstock that eventually will increase the operation cost; or the company will face understock, which resulted losing their customers. Due to automotive industry is very challenging process because of high level of complexity and uncertainty involved in the system, an accurate tool to forecast the future of automotive demand from the modelling perspective is required. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to forecast the demand of automotive Proton car industry in Malaysia using system dynamics approach. Two types of intervention namely optimistic and pessimistic experiments scenarios have been tested to determine the capacity expansion that can prevent the company from overstocking. Finding from this study highlighted that the management needs to expand their production for optimistic scenario, whilst pessimistic give results that would otherwise. Finally, this study could help Proton Edar Sdn. Bhd (PESB) to manage the long-term capacity planning in order to meet the future demand of the Proton cars.

  3. 75 FR 1080 - Certain Automotive Multimedia Display and Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products... (United States)


    .... International Trade Commission has determined to grant the joint motion to terminate the above-captioned... Doc No: 2010-89] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-657] Certain Automotive... Commission Determination To Grant the Joint Motion To Terminate the Investigation on the Basis of...

  4. Global assessment of Dimethyl-ether as an automotive fuel (second edition)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.P.; Doorn, A. van; Walwijk, M. van


    This report studies the feasibility of dimethyl-ether (DME) as an automotive fuel. The report is aimed at putting DME in a wide perspective. Subjects included are production of the fuel, emissions, engine design, market introduction, safety and the possible position of DME in the future world-wide e

  5. Global assessment of Dimethyl-ether as an automotive fuel (second edition)


    Verbeek, R.P.; Van Doorn, A.; Walwijk, M. van


    This report studies the feasibility of dimethyl-ether (DME) as an automotive fuel. The report is aimed at putting DME in a wide perspective. Subjects included are production of the fuel, emissions, engine design, market introduction, safety and the possible position of DME in the future world-wide energy supply. DME properties; DME production

  6. Building Real Modularity Competence in Automotive Design, Development, Production, and After-service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron


    the essential principles on which effective implementation of modular strategies depends in any industry. We illustrate these principles with examples of both effective and faulty modularity practice from the automotive and other industries. We then propose a modularity maturity model for assessing the degree...

  7. Evaluation of the environmental impact of modern passenger cars on petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Winkel, R.G.


    The project reported here concerns an investigation into the environmental performance of modern passenger cars on four different fuels: petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG. The objectives of the project were twofold: - To make a valid and useful comparison between modern vehicles fuelled by thes

  8. Fourth international symposium on automotive propulsion systems. Volume I. [Eighteen papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A pre-conference draft is given (in five volumes) of the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Automotive Propulsion Systems, held April 18-22, 1977, in Washington, D.C. Volume I contains eighteen papers; a separate abstract was prepared for each for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA).

  9. Establishing Evidence for Safety Cases in Automotive Systems – A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderhof, W.; Gross, H-G.; Doerr, H.


    The upcoming safety standard ISO/WD 26262 that has been derived from the more general IEC 61508 and adapted for the automotive industry, introduces the concept of a safety case, a scheme that has already been successfully applied in other sectors of industry such as nuclear, defense, aerospace, and

  10. 75 FR 9441 - Lucas-Smith Automotive, Inc.: Potosi, MO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Lucas-Smith Automotive, Inc.: Potosi, MO; Notice of Negative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of Lucas-...

  11. Optimization of Temperature Level to Enhance Worker Performance in Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Production of automotive parts is among the largest contributor to economic earnings in Malaysia. The dominant work involve in producing automotive part were manual assembly process. Where it is definitely used a manpower capability. Thus the quality of the product heavily depends on workers comfort in the working condition. Temperature is one of the environmental factors that give significant effect on the worker performance. Approach: Temperature level and productivity rate were observed in automotive factory. An automotive manufacturing firm was chosen to observe the temperature level and workers productivity rate. The data were analyzed using Artificial Neural Networks analysis (ANN. ANN analysis technique is usual analysis method used to form the best linear relationship from the collected data. Results: It is apparent from the linear relationship, that the optimum value of production (value≈1 attained when temperature value (WBGT is 24.5°C. Conclusion: Optimum value production rate (value≈1 for one manual production line in that particular company is successfully achieved. Through ANN method, the optimum temperature level for the optimum manual workers performance manage to be predicted.

  12. Trade unions in transnational automotive companies in Russia and Slovakia: prospects for working class power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinz, Sarah; Morris, Jeremy


    This article compares industrial relations in production sites in Slovakia and Russia owned by a single transnational automotive firm, Volkswagen. We analyse the empirical data using a workingclass power approach. In Slovakia, associational and institutional power is well developed and influenced...

  13. Model predictive control of a waste heat recovery system for automotive diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.; De Jager, B.; Steinbuch, M.


    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is designed for an automotive Waste Heat Recovery system with two parallel evaporators. The objective is to maximize Waste Heat Recovery system output power, while satisfying safe operation under highly dynamic disturbances from the engine

  14. Impacts of the Global Crisis Period 2007- 2010 on the Automotive Industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlacek Marek


    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was to analyse the possible intensity of dependency of the Czech Republic, or more precisely, its total economic indicator Gross Domestic Product on realized Sales sector of the automotive industry before crisis, during the crisis period (2007-2010 as well as after the crisis. There was also used the development analysis of individual total economic indicators in the Czech automotive industry in time. On the other hand, in the article there were found and analysed impacts of the global recession on the functioning of several chosen companies associated in the Automotive Industry Association of the Czech Republic at their interaction with this way developed macroeconomic surroundings. The investigation was based on the development of company result indicator value (Sales of the selected companies and the chosen macro indicator (Gross Domestic Product when looking for their reciprocal dependency in the period mainly connected with the financial and economic crisis. In the contribution, an elementary analysis of the chosen indicator Sales was carried out. With the help of regress and correlation analysis there were further researched the relationships among this chosen indicator of company performance reciprocally with all the companies, the Automotive Industry Association of the Czech Republic as a whole, and the chosen macro-indicator representing the development of selected markets. For the following calculation of tested criteria, Cohen’s Coefficient was used to be able to assess the effect of the group on the value variability of studied random quantity.

  15. Durability of polymer matrix composites for automotive structural applications: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corum, J.M.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.; Sun, C.T.; Talreja, R.; Weitsman, Y.J.


    A key unanswered question that must be addressed before polymeric composites will be widely used in automotive structural components is their known durability. Major durability issues are the effects that cyclic loadings, creep, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts have on dimensional stability, strength, and stiffness throughout the required life of a composite component. This report reviews the current state of understanding in each of these areas. It also discusses the limited information that exists on one of the prime candidate materials for automotive structural applications--an isocyanurate reinforced with a continuous strand, swirl mat. Because of the key role that nondestructive evaluations must play in understanding damage development and progression, a chapter is included on ultrasonic techniques. A final chapter then gives conclusions and recommendations for research needed to resolve the various durability issues. These recommendations will help provide a sound basis for program planning for the Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Automotive Composites Consortium of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors.

  16. [Contribution of occupational medicine to social medicine]. (United States)

    Geraut, Christian


    Occupational medicine has always been part of social medicine, but focuses on the part of the population in paid employment. Investigations of occupational diseases have identified several toxic chemicals that can affect other sectors of society: examples include cancers due to sawdust, asbestos, benzene, as well as carcinogens, mutagens and reproductive toxins. Better knowledge of the risks posed by epoxy resins, cements, formaldehyde, lead, toluene and other chemical agents has helped to understand certain diseases in the population. Knowledge of musculoskeletal disorders due to repetitive work has been of help in other areas; gradual resumption of appropriate activity seems to be the best basic treatment. Studies of mental overload and its consequences in the workplace (suicide, depression, etc.) have implications for human relations in society as a whole. Multidisciplinary networking helps to regularly take stock of findings in occupational medicine that may be applicable to social medicine.

  17. [Interaction between medicines and medicinal plants]. (United States)

    Tres, J C


    In recent years there has been a notable increase in the consumption of medicinal plants in Spanish society. This might be due to the fact that in some cases they have shown themselves to be efficient in treating certain pathologies and to the erroneous perception that these products are innocuous. Medicinal plants behave as authentic medicines since the chemical substances of which they are formed can have a biological activity in humans. For this reason, their joint administration with "conventional medicines" can produce variations in the magnitude of the effect. This type of interaction, just like those produced between two or more medicines, can produce pharmacokinetic mechanisms if they affect the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, or pharmacodynamic mechanisms if they affect the result of the pharmacological action. In the medical literature there are few articles and notifications of cases concerning the adverse effects and interactions that affect medicinal plants, which probably reflects an under-notification of these phenomena. If we add to this the lack of experimental data and controlled studies, perception of their prevalence is difficult or nearly impossible. This article sets out, in an order that will be explained later, the findings of an exhaustive review of the medical literature with the aim of making its existence known to the reader, without going into other considerations, such as the degree of evidence for example, which will be the subject of forthcoming articles.

  18. Durability-Based Design Guide for an Automotive Structural Composite: Part 2. Background Data and Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corum, J.M. [ORNL; Battiste, R.L. [ORNL; Brinkman, C.R. [ORNL; Ren, W. [ORNL; Ruggles, M.B. [ORNL; Weitsman, Y.J. [ORNL; Yahr, G.T. [ORNL


    This background report is a companion to the document entitled ''Durability-Based Design Criteria for an Automotive Structural Composite: Part 1. Design Rules'' (ORNL-6930). The rules and the supporting material characterization and modeling efforts described here are the result of a U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Automotive Materials project entitled ''Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures.'' The overall goal of the project is to develop experimentally based, durability-driven design guidelines for automotive structural composites. The project is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC). The initial reference material addressed by the rules and this background report was chosen and supplied by ACC. The material is a structural reaction injection-molded isocyanurate (urethane), reinforced with continuous-strand, swirl-mat, E-glass fibers. This report consists of 16 position papers, each summarizing the observations and results of a key area of investigation carried out to provide the basis for the durability-based design guide. The durability issues addressed include the effects of cyclic and sustained loadings, temperature, automotive fluids, vibrations, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and roadway kickups) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. The position papers cover these durability issues. Topics include (1) tensile, compressive, shear, and flexural properties; (2) creep and creep rupture; (3) cyclic fatigue; (4) the effects of temperature, environment, and prior loadings; (5) a multiaxial strength criterion; (6) impact damage and damage tolerance design; (7) stress concentrations; (8) a damage-based predictive model for time-dependent deformations; (9) confirmatory subscale component tests; and (10) damage development and growth observations.

  19. Design of LED edge-lit light bar for automotive taillight applications (United States)

    Yu, Jyh-Cheng; Chen, Jia-Hao; Liu, Shih-Chiang


    This study investigates the optical design of LED edge-lit curved light bar and applies to the design of automotive taillight. LEDs have been widely used in automotive lighting. However, the designs are mostly of direct backlight using arrays of LEDs with diffusive patterns above, which often causes problems such as low uniformity, glaring, and excess LEDs. Edge-lit light guide devices have been widely used in the back light models of LCD. However, the geometry of the lighting devices in the automotive lighting is often curved and non-rectangular, and the related literatures are very limited. This study addresses the design of edge-lit curved light bars and the optimization scheme for uniform light emitting. An automotive taillight with LED edge-lit light bar is used as an illustrated example. The light tracing software, TracePro is used to simulate the optical characteristics of the proposed design. 90° V-cuts are used as the optical features to distribute the light, and the lead angles of the V-cut are varied to achieve the optimum axial luminous intensity. A Fuzzy optimization scheme is proposed to manipulate the anchor spacing points which continuously varies the V-cut spacing along the light bar to satisfy the requirements of Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) regulations and the illumination uniformity requirements. This study also proposes a solution to reduce the illuminance difference between the inner and the outer portions of the curved section of a light bar by varying bilaterial thickness of light bar cross section.

  20. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Holloway


    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  1. Ethics in sports medicine. (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P


    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  2. Advances in Regenerative medicine



    PREFACE In order to better introduce this book, it is important to define regenerative medicine as this field is built through a combination of multiple elements including living cells, matrix to support the living cells (i.e. a scaffold), and cell communicators (or signaling systems) to stimulate the cells, and their surrounding environment to grow and develop into new tissue or organ. Indeed, regenerative medicine is an emerging multidisciplinary field involving biology, medicine, and ...

  3. Implementations of translational medicine


    Sonntag Kai-Christian


    Abstract New developments in science are rapidly influencing and shaping basic and clinical research and medicine. This has led to the emergence of multiple opportunities and challenges on many levels in the bio-medical and other associated fields. To face these opportunities and challenges, new concepts and strategies are needed. These can be provided by translational research/medicine as an integrative concept based on a multidirectional understanding of research and medicine embedded in a ...

  4. Occupational medicine and toxicology



    Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational ...

  5. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel


    BACKGROUND: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient's unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention. Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  6. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Swallow, Steven


    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted.

  7. Music and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi


    Full Text Available Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship.Keywords: history of medicine, medical humanities, healing music

  8. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    Barnett, Huey D.


    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  9. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse (United States)

    ... Know Getting Rid of Old Medicines Dealing With Addiction Understanding Medications and What They Do Prescription Drug Abuse Bath Salts Depressants Ketamine MDMA (Ecstasy) Contact Us Print Resources ...

  10. Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers (United States)

    Jain, Vipul

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All

  11. Teaching evidence based medicine in family medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorka Vrdoljak


    Full Text Available The concept of evidence based medicine (EBM as the integrationof clinical expertise, patient values and the best evidence was introduced by David Sackett in the 1980’s. Scientific literature in medicine is often marked by expansion, acummulation and quick expiration. Reading all important articles to keep in touch with relevant information is impossible. Finding the best evidence that answers a clinical question in general practice (GP in a short time is not easy. Five useful steps are described –represented by the acronym “5A+E”: assess, ask, acquire, appraise, apply and evaluate.The habit of conducting an evidence search “on the spot’’ is proposed. Although students of medicine at University of Split School of Medicine are taught EBM from the first day of their study and in all courses, their experience of evidence-searching and critical appraisal of the evidence, in real time with real patient is inadequate. Teaching the final-year students the practical use of EBM in a GP’s office is different and can have an important role in their professional development. It can positively impact on quality of their future work in family practice (or some other medical specialty by acquiring this habit of constant evidence-checking to ensure that best practice becomes a mechanism for life-long learning. Conclusion. EBM is a foundation stone of every branch of medicine and important part of Family Medicine as scientific and professional discipline. To have an EB answer resulting from GP’s everyday work is becoming a part of everyday practice.

  12. Implementation of an Integrative Medicine Curriculum for Preventive Medicine Residents. (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Delia R; D'Adamo, Christopher; Amr, Sania


    The University of Maryland Department of Epidemiology and Public Health collaborated with the Center for Integrative Medicine at the same institution to develop and implement a unique integrative medicine curriculum within a preventive medicine residency program. Between October 2012 and July 2014, Center for Integrative Medicine faculty provided preventive medicine residents and faculty, and occasionally other Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, with comprehensive exposure to the field of integrative medicine, including topics such as mind-body medicine, nutrition and nutritional supplements, Traditional Chinese Medicine, massage, biofield therapies, manual medicine, stress management, creative arts, and the use of integrative medicine in the inpatient setting. Preventive medicine residents, under the supervision of Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, led integrative medicine-themed journal clubs. Resident assessments included a case-based knowledge evaluation, the Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire, and a qualitative evaluation of the program. Residents received more than 60 hours of integrative medicine instruction, including didactic sessions, experiential workshops, and wellness retreats in addition to clinical experiences and individual wellness mentoring. Residents rated the program positively and recommended that integrative medicine be included in preventive medicine residency curricula. The inclusion of a wellness-focused didactic, experiential, and skill-based integrative medicine program within a preventive medicine residency was feasible and well received by all six preventive medicine residents.

  13. HIV Medicines and Side Effects (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/17/2017; last reviewed 1/17/2017) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  14. Joining of Dissimilar alloy Sheets (Al 6063&AISI 304) during Resistance Spot Welding Process: A Feasibility Study for Automotive industry


    Reddy Sreenivasulu


    Present design trends in automotive manufacture have shifted emphasis to alternative lightweight materials in order to achieve higher fuel efficiency and to bring down vehicle emission. Although some other joining techniques are more and more being used, spot welding still remains the primary joining method in automobile manufacturing so far. Spot welds for automotive applications should have a sufficiently large diameter, so that nugget pullout mode is the dominant failure mode. Interfacial ...

  15. Research on Calculation Method of Period and Deadline of Frame in Automotive Electronic and Information Integrated Control System



    International audience; With the increase of the complexity of automotive control, it is necessary to develop AEIICS (Automotive Electronic and Information Integrated Control System) for exchanging information between ECUs (Electronic Control Units) based on in-vehicle network technology. We named the parameter (or variable) contained in and transmitted by frame as signal. Period and deadline are basic temporal characteristics for signal and frame. Designers mainly focus on directly designing...

  16. Exploitation of the TRIP Effect for the Development of Formable, Fracture and Fatigue Resistant Steels for Automotive Applications (United States)

    Haidemenopoulos, Gregory N.

    The present paper summarizes recent and on-going work on the exploitation of TRansformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) in an effort to develop automotive steels which would possess high-strength combined with high formability while these steels could also exhibit high fracture and fatigue resistance. Especially for the automotive industry, the driving force for these developments is the vehicle weight reduction, which could eventually lead to lower fuel consumption combined with reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Responsabilitatea corporatistă faţă de salariaţi. Studiu asupra sectorului automotive european


    Cristina GĂNESCU


    The main purpose of this paper is to create a methodology for assessing corporate responsibility toward employees, focusing on the European automotive sector. The starting point for this research was the content analysis of sustainability or social responsibility reports published by 13 European automotive manufacturers in 2010, 2011, and 2012, which is was also helpful in identifying the indicators used to assess corporate responsibility toward employees. The methodology focused on developin...

  18. Preventive Medicine Redefined. (United States)

    Moore, George


    Departments of preventive medicine can survive through unity, which can be achieved through majority agreement on a new and specific definition of preventive medicine. A definition is proposed that is based on a review and analysis of recent progress in the prevention of the major causes of mortality. (MLW)

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... medicine exams will involve an injection in a vein in your child’s arm or hand. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and ... medicine exams will involve an injection into a vein in your child's arm or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to ...

  20. Personalized Regenerative Medicine. (United States)

    Arjmand, Babak; Goodarzi, Parisa; Mohamadi-Jahani, Fereshteh; Falahzadeh, Khadijeh; Larijani, Bagher


    Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from "personalized medicine" towards "precision medicine". Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare. Accordingly, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as the new fields of medicine use cell-based products in order to develop personalized treatments. Different sources of stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been considered in targeted therapies which could give many advantages. iPSCs as the novel and individual pluripotent stem cells have been introduced as the appropriate candidates for personalized cell therapies. Cellular therapies can provide a personalized approach. Because of person-to-person and population differences in the result of stem cell therapy, individualized cellular therapy must be adjusted according to the patient specific profile, in order to achieve best therapeutic results and outcomes. Several factors should be considered to achieve personalized stem cells therapy such as, recipient factors, donor factors, and the overall body environment in which the stem cells could be active and functional. In addition to these factors, the source of stem cells must be carefully chosen based on functional and physical criteria that lead to optimal outcomes.