WorldWideScience

Sample records for automotive gas turbine

  1. AGT-102 automotive gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Development of a gas turbine powertrain with a 30% fuel economy improvement over a comparable S1 reciprocating engine, operation within 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.40 NOx grams per mile emissions levels, and ability to use a variety of alternate fuels is summarized. The powertrain concept consists of a single-shaft engine with a ceramic inner shell for containment of hot gasses and support of twin regenerators. It uses a fixed-geometry, lean, premixed, prevaporized combustor, and a ceramic radial turbine rotor supported by an air-lubricated journal bearing. The engine is coupled to the vehicle through a widerange continuously variable transmission, which utilizes gearing and a variable-ratio metal compression belt. A response assist flywheel is used to achieve acceptable levels of engine response. The package offers a 100 lb weight advantage in a Chrysler K Car front-wheel-drive installation. Initial layout studies, preliminary transient thermal analysis, ceramic inner housing structural analysis, and detailed performance analysis were carried out for the basic engine.

  2. Automotive Gas Turbine Power System-Performance Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1997-01-01

    An open cycle gas turbine numerical modelling code suitable for thermodynamic performance analysis (i.e. thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, cycle state points, working fluid flowrates etc.) of automotive and aircraft powerplant applications has been generated at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Technology Division. The use this code can be made available to automotive gas turbine preliminary design efforts, either in its present version, or, assuming that resources can be obtained to incorporate empirical models for component weight and packaging volume, in later version that includes the weight-volume estimator feature. The paper contains a brief discussion of the capabilities of the presently operational version of the code, including a listing of input and output parameters and actual sample output listings.

  3. Air cooling of disk of a solid integrally cast turbine rotor for an automotive gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal analysis is made of surface cooling of a solid, integrally cast turbine rotor disk for an automotive gas turbine engine. Air purge and impingement cooling schemes are considered and compared with an uncooled reference case. Substantial reductions in blade temperature are predicted with each of the cooling schemes studied. It is shown that air cooling can result in a substantial gain in the stress-rupture life of the blade. Alternatively, increases in the turbine inlet temperature are possible.

  4. Real-time simulation of an automotive gas turbine using the hybrid computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costakis, W.; Merrill, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A hybrid computer simulation of an Advanced Automotive Gas Turbine Powertrain System is reported. The system consists of a gas turbine engine, an automotive drivetrain with four speed automatic transmission, and a control system. Generally, dynamic performance is simulated on the analog portion of the hybrid computer while most of the steady state performance characteristics are calculated to run faster than real time and makes this simulation a useful tool for a variety of analytical studies.

  5. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Rotor dynamic instability investigations were conducted. Forward ball bearing hydraulic mount configurations were tested with little effect. Trial assembly of S/N 002 ceramic engine was initiated. Impeller design activities were completed on the straight line element (SLE) blade definition to address near-net-shape powder metal die forging. Performance characteristics of the Baseline Test 2A impeller were closely preserved. The modified blading design has been released for tooling procurement. Developmental testing of the diffusion flame combustor (DFC) for initial use in the S/N 002 2100 F ceramic structures engine was completed. A natural gas slave preheater was designed and fabricated. Preliminary regenerator static seal rig testing showed a significant reduction in leakage and sensitivity to stack height. Ceramic screening tests were completed and two complete sets of ceramic static structures were qualified for engine testing. Efforts on rotor dynamics development to resolve subsynchronous motion were continued.

  6. Development and performance measurement of micro-power pack using micro-gas turbine driven automotive alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop micro-power pack using automotive alternator and micro-gas turbine. ► We measure rotordynamic and power generation performance of micro-power pack. ► Micro-power pack shows dramatic increases in mass and volumetric power densities. ► Test results assure feasibility of micro-power pack for electric vehicles. -- Abstract: This paper presents the development of a micro-power pack using automotive alternators powered by a micro-gas turbine (MGT) to recharge battery packs, in particular for electric vehicles (EVs). The thermodynamic efficiency for the MGT with the power turbine is estimated from a simple Brayton cycle analysis. The rotordynamic and power generation performance of the MGT driven alternator was measured during a series of experiments under electrical no-loading and loading conditions, and with belt-pulley and flexible bellows couplings. The flexible coupling showed superior rotordynamic and power generation performance than the belt coupling due to the enhanced alignment of the alternator rotor and the reduced mechanical frictions. Furthermore, the micro-power pack showed dramatic increases in the mass and volumetric power densities by ∼4 times and ∼5 times, respectively, compared with those of a commercial diesel generator with similar power level. As a result, this paper assures the feasibility of the light-weight micro-power pack using a MGT and automotive alternators for EVs.

  7. Splitter-bladed centrifugal compressor impeller designed for automotive gas turbine application. [at the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampreen, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical design and fabrication of two splitter-bladed centrifugal compressor impellers were completed for rig testing at NASA Lewis Research Center. These impellers were designed for automotive gas turbine application. The mechanical design was based on NASA specifications for blade-shape and flowpath configurations. The contractor made engineering drawings and performed calculations for mass and center-of-gravity, for stress and vibration analyses, and for shaft critical speed analysis. One impeller was machined to print; the other had a blade height and exit radius of 2.54 mm larger than print dimensions.

  8. Cold-air performance of free power turbine designed for 112-kilowatt automotive gas-turbine engine 3: Effect of stator vane end clearances on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a free power turbine designed for a 112-kW, automotive, gas turbine engine was made to determine the penalty in performance due to the stator vane end clearances. Tests were made over a range of mean section stator vane angles from 26 deg to 50 deg (as measured from the plane of rotation) with the vane end clearances filled. These results were compared with test results of the same turbine with vane end clearances open. At design equivalent values of rotative speed and pressure ratio and at a vane angle of 35 deg, the mass flow with the vane and clearances filled was about 8 percent lower than mass flow with vane end clearances open. The decrease in mass flow was mitigated by increasing the vane angle. With the vane end clearances filled, there was about a 66 percent reduction in mass flow when the vane angle was decreased from 40 deg to 26 deg. For the same decrease in vane angle the stator throat area decreased by about 50 percent. This result indicates that the rotor losses were increasing with decreasing vane angle.

  9. The status of ceramic turbine component fabrication and quality assurance relevant to automotive turbine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richerson, D.W.

    2000-02-01

    This report documents a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) with guidance from the Ceramics Division of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). DOE and the automotive companies have funded extensive development of ceramic materials for automotive gas turbine components, the most recent effort being under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program.

  10. Cold-air performance of a 15.41-cm-tip-diameter axial-flow power turbine with variable-area stator designed for a 75-kW automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclallin, K. L.; Kofskey, M. G.; Wong, R. Y.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of the axial flow, variable area stator power turbine stage for the Department of Energy upgraded automotive gas turbine engine was conducted in cold air. The interstage transition duct, the variable area stator, the rotor, and the exit diffuser were included in the evaluation of the turbine stage. The measured total blading efficiency was 0.096 less than the design value of 0.85. Large radial gradients in flow conditions were found at the exit of the interstage duct that adversely affected power turbine performance. Although power turbine efficiency was less than design, the turbine operating line corresponding to the steady state road load power curve was within 0.02 of the maximum available stage efficiency at any given speed.

  11. Effect of water injection and off scheduling of variable inlet guide vanes, gas generator speed and power turbine nozzle angle on the performance of an automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Chrysler/ERDA baseline automotive gas turbine engine was used to experimentally determine the power augmentation and emissions reductions achieved by the effect of variable compressor and power engine geometry, water injection downstream of the compressor, and increases in gas generator speed. Results were dependent on the mode of variable geometry utilization. Over 20 percent increase in power was accompanied by over 5 percent reduction in SFC. A fuel economy improvement of at least 6 percent was estimated for a vehicle with a 75 kW (100 hp) engine which could be augmented to 89 kW (120 hp) relative to an 89 Kw (120 hp) unaugmented engine.

  12. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  13. Automotive gas turbine ceramic regenerator design and reliability program. Progress report, April 1, 1976--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.A.; Fucinari, C.A.; Lingscheit, J.N.; Rahnke, C.J.

    1976-07-01

    The primary objective of the ERDA/Ford Ceramic Regenerator Design and Reliability Program is to develop ceramic regenerator cores that can be used in passenger car gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. Specific durability objectives are defined as achieving a B/sub 10/ life of 10,000 hours on a truck/industrial gas turbine engine duty cycle. Previous reports, under this contract, summarized operating experience on lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) ceramic regenerator cores obtained at Ford Motor Company. The primary cause of failure of these regenerators was determined to be chemical attack of the LAS material. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability test in Ford 707 industrial gas turbine engines late in 1974. Results are described of 2700 hours of turbine engine durability testing accumulated during the second quarter of 1976. Two materials, aluminum silicate and magnesium aluminum silicate continue to show promise toward achieving the durability objectives of this program. Regenerator cores made from aluminum silicate show no evidence of chemical attack damage after 5000 hours of engine test.

  14. Automotive gas turbine ceramic regenerator design and reliability program. Final annual report, July 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.A.; Fucinari, C.A.; Lingscheit, J.N.; Rahnke, C.J.

    1976-10-01

    The primary objective of the ERDA/Ford Ceramic Regenerator Design and Reliability Program is to develop ceramic regenerator cores that can be used in passenger car gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. Specific durability objectives are defined as achieving a B/sub 10/ life of 10,000 hours on a truck/industrial gas turbine engine duty cycle. Previous reports, under this program, summarized operating experience on lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) ceramic regenerator cores obtained at Ford Motor Company. The primary cause of failure of these regenerators was determined to be chemical attack of the LAS material. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability test in Ford 707 industrial gas turbine engines late in 1974. A description is given of the results of 18,500 hours of turbine engine durability testing accumulated during the period from July 1, 1975 to Sept. 30, 1976. Two materials, aluminum silicate and magnesium aluminum silicate continue to show promise toward achieving the durability objectives of this program. Regenerator cores made from aluminum silicate show no evidence of chemical attack damage after 5600 hours of engine test.

  15. The Study of Automotive Exhaust Gas Turbine Power Generation Technology%汽车废气涡轮发电技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇斌

    2015-01-01

    汽车废气涡轮发电是利用汽车尾气能量推动涡轮转动并带动发电机发电的一项技术。基于汽车节能的思想,以东风EQ6100型内燃机为例设计了汽车废气回收利用装置,并从内燃机进气流量入手配合实际循环状态和排气状况,对热量的回收效益和涡轮机功率进行了计算,并对涡轮机结构进行了初步设计,发电机进行了选型匹配。计算得出了汽车废气涡轮发电涡轮机的功率和排气能量大小,证实了利用汽车废气驱动涡轮发电的可行性。%Automotive exhaust gas turbine power generation is a technology to use the car exhaust energy to rotate and drive a turbine generator to generate electricity. Based on the idea of energy-saving cars, taking Dongfeng EQ6100-type internal combustion engine as an example, a vehicle exhaust recycling system was designed. Combining the engine intake air flow rate and the actual cycling situation as well as the exhaust situation, the heat recovery efficiency and turbine power were calculated, turbine structure was preliminarily designed, and the selection of matching generators was carried out. Calculation of the automobile exhaust turbine generator turbine power and exhaust energy confirmed the feasibility of the use of motor vehicle exhaust to drive a turbine to generate electricity.

  16. Gas Turbine Performance Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Verlo, Simen Berg

    2010-01-01

    IToday, gas turbines are generally used to produce electricity and drive natural gas compressors on offshore installations. The performance of gas turbines is reduced gradually, and this lead to reduced production capacity of the platform. Degradation of performance of a gas turbine also carry with them higher fuel consumption and higher emissions. Degradation rate of gas turbines have proven to be very site-specific, but compressor fouling is generally the largest contributor to reduced per...

  17. On Mixed Flow Turbines for Automotive Turbocharger Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt Lüddecke; Dietmar Filsinger; Jan Ehrhard

    2012-01-01

    Due to increased demands for improved fuel economy of passenger cars, low-end and part-load performance is of key importance for the design of automotive turbocharger turbines. In an automotive drive cycle, a turbine which can extract more energy at high pressure ratios and lower rotational speeds is desirable. In the literature it is typically found that radial turbines provide peak efficiency at speed ratios of 0.7, but at high pressure ratios and low rotational speeds the blade speed ratio...

  18. On Mixed Flow Turbines for Automotive Turbocharger Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt Lüddecke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increased demands for improved fuel economy of passenger cars, low-end and part-load performance is of key importance for the design of automotive turbocharger turbines. In an automotive drive cycle, a turbine which can extract more energy at high pressure ratios and lower rotational speeds is desirable. In the literature it is typically found that radial turbines provide peak efficiency at speed ratios of 0.7, but at high pressure ratios and low rotational speeds the blade speed ratio will be low and the rotor will experience high values of positive incidence at the inlet. Based on fundamental considerations, it is shown that mixed flow turbines offer substantial advantages for such applications. Moreover, to prove these considerations an experimental assessment of mixed flow turbine efficiency and optimal blade speed ratio is presented. This has been achieved using a new semi-unsteady measurement approach. Finally, evidence of the benefits of mixed flow turbine behaviour in engine operation is given. Regarding turbocharged engine simulation, the benefit of wide-ranging turbine map measurement data as well as the need for reasonable turbine map extrapolation is illustrated.

  19. Gas turbine diagnostic system

    CERN Document Server

    Talgat, Shuvatov

    2011-01-01

    In the given article the methods of parametric diagnostics of gas turbine based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The diagnostic map of interconnection between some parts of turbine and changes of corresponding parameters has been developed. Also we have created model to define the efficiency of the compressor using fuzzy logic algorithms.

  20. Gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron

    2016-03-08

    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  1. Gas-turbine train; Gas turbine ressha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    2000-03-20

    Described is an experimental gas turbine car tested in July 1970 on a mainline of the now-defunct National Railways Corporation, developed from a Ki-Ha 07 type rail car of the said corporation. The engine was the KTF1430 type 2-shaft gas turbine. It was manufactured by modifying a T53 turboshaft engine then in production by the Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., through technical cooperation with Avco Lycoming. The modification for the test engine involved changes in the air inlet, the accessory driving unit, and the output axis reduction gears for easier installation on a rail car, not affecting the engine main body. As for the power train, the power from the gas turbine output axis reduction gears was transmitted to the trolley reduction gears via an intermediate gear system, a reverser, and a propeller shaft. The test on the rail took place on a 31.2km stretch of the Ban-etsu East Line. The test car trailed a load which was a Ki-Ha 58 type diesel motor car. It was found that its noise level without using intake/exhaust noise reducers was equal to or lower than that of a diesel motor car. It was also indicated that its fuel efficiency found poorer than that of a diesel would be 1.1-1.2 times higher than that of a diesel by the use of an appropriately modified power train mechanism. (NEDO)

  2. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  3. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roode, M. van [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  4. Micro turbines on gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microturbines are small gas turbine engines that drive a generator with sizes ranging from 30-350 kW. Although similar in function to bigger gas turbines, their simple radial flow turbine and high-speed generator offer better performance, greater reliability, longer service intervals, reduced maintenance lower emission and lower noise. Microturbines can generate power continuously and very economically to reduce electricity costs or they can be operated selectively for peak shaving. These benefits are further enhanced by the economics of using the microturbine's waste heat for hot water needs or other heating applications. That is why on-site microturbine power is widely used for independent production of electricity and heat in industrial and commercial facilities, hotels, hospitals, office buildings, residential buildings etc. (Original)

  5. Ceramics technology for advanced industrial gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the fabrication of high strength ceramic materials and in their application to automotive and aerospace gas turbine engines may lead also to significant improvements in the performance of industrial gas turbines. This paper presents a brief review of the improvements projected in a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy. The future costs of power generated by small gas turbines (up to 25 MW) are predicted, as well as the potential for fuel savings. Gas turbines in this size range are used extensively for gas compression and for cogeneration, as well as in a variety of more diverse applications. This paper includes results of analyses of the ways in which changes in gas turbine cost and performance are likely to affect market penetration. These results lead to predictions of future savings in U.S. fuel consumption in the industrial sector that would result. The paper also presents a brief overview of the scope of a suggested R and D program, with an appropriate schedule, which would provide a technical basis for achieving the projected results. Important parts of this program would cover ceramic design and fabrication technology, engine development and demonstration, and combustion technology

  6. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-04-30

    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  7. Gas Turbine Optimum Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Flesland, Synnøve Mangerud

    2010-01-01

    Many offshore installations are dependent on power generated by gas turbines and a critical issue is that these experience performance deterioration over time. Performance deterioration causes reduced plant efficiency and power output as well as increased environmental emissions. It is therefore of highest importance to detect and control recoverable losses in order to reduce their effect. This thesis project was therefore initiated to evaluate parameters for detecting performance deteriorati...

  8. Trends in gas turbine development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper represents the Gas Turbine Association's view of the gas turbine industry's R and D needs following the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Some of this information was discussed at the workshop Next Generation Gas Turbine Power Systems, which was held in Austin, TX, February 9--10, 1999, sponsored by DOE-Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), reference 1. The general idea is to establish public-private partnerships to reduce the risks involved in the development of new technologies which results in public benefits. The recommendations in this paper are focused on gas turbines > 30 MW output. Specific GTA recommendations on smaller systems are not addressed here. They will be addressed in conjunction with DOE-Energy Efficiency.

  9. Gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Steven W. (Inventor); Cheung, Albert K. (Inventor); Dempsey, Dae K. (Inventor); Hoke, James B. (Inventor); Kramer, Stephen K. (Inventor); Ols, John T. (Inventor); Smith, Reid Dyer Curtis (Inventor); Sowa, William A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a combustor module including an annular combustor having a liner assembly that defines an annular combustion chamber having a length, L. The liner assembly includes a radially inner liner, a radially outer liner that circumscribes the inner liner, and a bulkhead, having a height, H1, which extends between the respective forward ends of the inner liner and the outer liner. The combustor has an exit height, H3, at the respective aft ends of the inner liner and the outer liner interior. The annular combustor has a ratio H1/H3 having a value less than or equal to 1.7. The annular combustor may also have a ration L/H3 having a value less than or equal to 6.0.

  10. Influence of speed and frequency towards the automotive turbocharger turbine performance under pulsating flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 3D CFD modeling of a turbocharger turbine with pulsating flow. • Characterization based on turbine speed and frequency. • Speed has higher influence on turbine performance compared to frequency. • Detailed localized flow behavior are shown for better understanding. - Abstract: The ever-increasing demand for low carbon applications in automotive industry has intensified the development of highly efficient engines and energy recovery devices. Even though there are significant developments in the alternative powertrains such as full electric, their full deployment is hindered by high costing and unattractive life-cycle energy and emission balance. Thus powertrain based on highly efficient internal combustion engines are still considered to be the mainstream for years to come. Traditionally, turbocharger has been an essential tool to boost the engine power, however in recent years it is seen as an enabling technology for engine downsizing. It is a well-known fact that a turbocharger turbine in an internal combustion engine operates in a highly pulsating exhaust flow. There are numerous studies looking into the complex interaction of the pulsating exhaust gas within the turbocharger turbine, however the phenomena is still not fully integrated into the design stage. Industry practice is still to design and match the turbine to an engine based on steady performance maps. The current work is undertaken with the mind to move one step closer towards fully integrating the pulsating flow performance into the turbocharger turbine design. This paper presents the development efforts and results from a full 3-D CFD model of a turbocharger turbine stage. The simulations were conducted at 30,000 rpm and 48,000 rpm (50% and 80% design speed respectively) for both 20 Hz and 80 Hz pulsating flow inlet conditions. Complete validation procedure using cold-flow experimental data is also described. The temporal and spatial resolutions of the incidence angle at the

  11. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  12. H gas turbine combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corman, J. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A major step has been taken in the development of the Next Power Generation System - {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Technology Combined Cycle. This new gas turbine combined-cycle system increases thermal performance to the 60% level by increasing gas turbine operating temperature to 1430 C (2600 F) at a pressure ratio of 23 to 1. Although this represents a significant increase in operating temperature for the gas turbine, the potential for single digit NOx levels (based upon 15% O{sub 2}, in the exhaust) has been retained. The combined effect of performance increase and environmental control is achieved by an innovative closed loop steam cooling system which tightly integrates the gas turbine and steam turbine cycles. The {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Gas Turbine Combined Cycle System meets the goals and objectives of the DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. The development and demonstration of this new system is being carried out as part of the Industrial/Government cooperative agreement under the ATS Program. This program will achieve first commercial operation of this new system before the end of the century.

  13. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  14. Electricity Cogeneration Using Open Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Kralj, Anita Kovac

    2010-01-01

    The inclusion of open gas turbine can increase the operating efficiency of the process. The gas turbine with its pressure and temperature drop can be included in the process cycle. The working fluid comes from the reactor and circulates through the process units: gas turbine, heat exchanger, separator (where the liquid product separates), and the compressor.

  15. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  16. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  17. Gas Turbine Engine Behavioral Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Richard T; DeCarlo, Raymond A.; Pekarek, Steve; Doktorcik, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and validates a power flow behavioral model of a gas tur- bine engine with a gas generator and free power turbine. “Simple” mathematical expressions to describe the engine’s power flow are derived from an understand- ing of basic thermodynamic and mechanical interactions taking place within the engine. The engine behavioral model presented is suitable for developing a supervisory level controller of an electrical power system that contains the en- gine connected to a gener...

  18. Aeroderivative gas turbines for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft jet engine derivative gas turbines have gained acceptance for cogeneration applications through impressive advances in technology and especially in maintainability and reliability. The best advantages of heavy industrial turbines and of reliable commercial airline jet engines have been successfully joined to meet the requirements for industrial cogeneration service. The next generation is under development and offers improved thermal efficiencies, alternate fuel capabilities, low environmental emissions, flexibility of operation and improved competitive system economics. This paper summarizes the current aero-derivative engine features and advantages with various systems, and discusses advanced features under consideration at this time

  19. Heat Transfer in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2001-01-01

    The turbine gas path is a very complex flow field. This is due to a variety of flow and heat transfer phenomena encountered in turbine passages. This manuscript provides an overview of the current work in this field at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Also, based on the author's preference, more emphasis is on the computational work. There is much more experimental work in progress at GRC than that reported here. While much has been achieved, more needs to be done in terms of validating the predictions against experimental data. More experimental data, especially on film cooled and rough turbine blades, are required for code validation. Also, the combined film cooling and internal cooling flow computation for a real blade is yet to be performed. While most computational work to date has assumed steady state conditions, the flow is clearly unsteady due to the presence of wakes. All this points to a long road ahead. However, we are well on course.

  20. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  1. Micro Gas Turbine – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Shukla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turbomachines is a class of machines which comprise of turbines and compressors. These machines are widely used for power generation, aircraft propulsion and in a wide range of heavy and medium industries. When we scale down these large turbines, we get micro turbines, which are compact and miniaturized form of these large turbines. The process of scaling down a turbine is not as simple as it looks like, it is a very tedious job and researches are going on in this area. These micro gas turbines are usually found with a power generating capacity of 250kW. They use any gas like natural gas, biogas, etc. as its input. The advantages of a micro gas turbine are that it has high expansion ratio and less moving components. The drawbacks of these turbines are that it requires high angular velocity as well as advanced electronics which can convert electricity of high frequency which gets produced into useful frequency of 50/60 Hz. This turbine is a very viable solution for distributed power generation which can be used for stationary energy applications. Also, micro gas turbine has found great use as cogeneration systems. These micro gas turbines can produce power between less than a kilowatt to hundreds of watts, which can be used for various purposes like electricity generation or head creation. These turbines are cost-effective, eco-friendly and pollution free as they can work by burning any gas like natural gas, land fill gas, etc. The manuscript presented gives an outlook on the past, present and future of these micro gas turbines. This paper will discuss the advantages and its uses. It will also discuss the drawbacks and the limitations of these turbines. This manuscript will prove to be a reference to all the researchers who want work in this field

  2. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from...... the proposed divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to...

  3. Cyclic load duty control for gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrom, T.E.; Rexford, D.L.; Rowen, W.I.

    1981-11-10

    A gas turbine control for ameliorating the adverse affects of cyclic load applications to both single-shaft and two-shaft gas turbines is disclosed. During cyclic load conditions, air flow is governed to control the output of the gas turbine while fuel flow is controlled to hold the firing or exhaust temperatures substantially constant. Regular fuel flow governing during noncyclic loading conditions is also provided.

  4. Diagnosis and Supervision of Industrial Gas Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of industrial gas turbines is of vital importance, since it gives valuable information for the customer about maintenance, performance, and process health. The performance of an industrial gas turbine degrades gradually due to factors such as environment air pollution, fuel content, and ageing to mention some of the degradation factors. The compressor in the gas turbine is especially vulnerable against contaminants in the air since these particles are stuck at the rotor and stator ...

  5. Micro Gas Turbine – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tushar Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Turbomachines is a class of machines which comprise of turbines and compressors. These machines are widely used for power generation, aircraft propulsion and in a wide range of heavy and medium industries. When we scale down these large turbines, we get micro turbines, which are compact and miniaturized form of these large turbines. The process of scaling down a turbine is not as simple as it looks like, it is a very tedious job and researches are going on in this area. These micro gas turbin...

  6. Ceramic component development for the AGT101 gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, W. D.; Smith, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Under DOE/NASA sponsorship, a team is developing the AGT101, a highly efficient gas turbine engine for automotive application. The regenerated engine will operate at a maximum of 1370 C (2500 F) and 100,000 rpm, and will utilize a variety of Si3N4, SiC, lithium aluminum silicate and ceramic fiber insulation components. Engine design has been performed to consider the fabrication and material characteristics of these ceramic materials for both the static and rotating hot section components. Component fabrication has been performed, components have been screened in thermal and mechanical tests, and initial engine testing has been performed.

  7. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  8. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from...... the gas generator part for recuperation ahead of the expansion in the power turbine. The present study is more complete than the predecessors in that the ranges of the parameters have been extended and the mathematical model is more realistic using an extensive simulation program. It is confirmed that...... the proposed divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to...

  9. Expanding fuel flexibility of gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliere, M. [GE Energy Prod France SNC, Belfort (France)

    2005-03-01

    This article provides the energy community with comprehensive information about alternative gas turbine (GT) fuels, covering volatile fuels (naphtha, natural gas liquid (NGL), condensates), weak gas fuels from the coal/iron industry (coalbed gas, coke oven gas (COG), blast furnace gas (BFG)), ash-forming oils, and hydrogen-rich byproducts from refineries or petrochemical plants. The main technical considerations essential to the success of alternative fuel applications are reviewed and key experience milestones are highlighted. A special emphasis is placed on the combustion of hydrogen in gas turbines.

  10. Airfoil for a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George

    2011-01-18

    An airfoil is provided for a gas turbine comprising an outer structure comprising a first wall, an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced relative to the first wall such that a cooling gap is defined between at least portions of the first and second walls, and seal structure provided within the cooling gap between the first and second walls for separating the cooling gap into first and second cooling fluid impingement gaps. An inner surface of the second wall may define an inner cavity. The inner structure may further comprise a separating member for separating the inner cavity of the inner structure into a cooling fluid supply cavity and a cooling fluid collector cavity. The second wall may comprise at least one first impingement passage, at least one second impingement passage, and at least one bleed passage.

  11. Clean coal technologies for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil and gas fired gas turbines combined cycle penetration of industrial and utility applications has escalated rapidly due to the lower costs, higher efficiency and demonstrated reliability of gas turbine equipment in combination with gas economics. Recent advances in gas turbine design proven in operation above 240 MW, are establishing new levels of combined cycle plant efficiencies up to 59% and providing the potential for significant shift to gas turbine solid fuel power plant technologies. The research engineers of RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority) give an great importance in their activity to those new technologies and solutions for the utilization of coal for energy (electric and thermal) production, especially for the Integrated Gasification Combines Cycle (IGCC). The application present IGCC process and a few considerations of the possibilities for the implementation of IGCC in the existing power plant. (Author)

  12. Automatic Status Logger For a Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    JONAS, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The Company Siemens Industrial Turbo Machinery AB manufactures and launches in operation among other things gas turbines, steam turbines, compressors, turn-key power plants and carries out service for components for heat and power production. Siemens also performs research and development, marketing, sales and installations of turbines and completes power plants, service and refurbish. Our thesis for the engineering degree is to develop an automatic status log which will be used as a tool to ...

  13. Desulfurization Of Gas-Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outlaw, Ronald A.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur removed from nickel-base superalloy used to make gas-turbine blades by heating alloy and simultaneously subjecting it to sputtering by directed Ar(Sup+) ions from ion gun or from glow discharge. Reduction of sulfur content of superalloy by factor of 10 increases lifetime of turbine blade made of alloy by similar factor, because stability of protective surface oxide formed during operation of turbine increased.

  14. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  15. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hughes, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Berry, Jonathan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Russell, Tamara [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lau, Y. C. [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Liu, Shan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Arnett, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Peck, Arthur [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Tralshawala, Nilesh [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Weber, Joseph [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Benjamin, Marc [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Iduate, Michelle [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kittleson, Jacob [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Garcia-Crespo, Andres [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Delvaux, John [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Casanova, Fernando [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lacy, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Brzek, Brian [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Wolfe, Chris [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Palafox, Pepe [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Ding, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Badding, Bruce [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  16. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program twelfth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1975-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. The endurance engine was modified to incorporate a power turbine drive to the regenerators in order to simulate free rotor (upgraded) conditions. A portable baseline engine fixture complete with controls, intake, exhaust, and transmission is being assembled for odor evaluation. An additional 502 engine hours were accumulated on ceramic regenerators and seals. No core or seal failures were experienced during engine test. Initial fixture tests of zirconia seals show torque levels comparable with nickle oxide seals against the same matrix. An ambient compensation schedule was devised for the upgraded engine integrated control, and the integrated control system specifications were updated. A proposed hydromechanical automotive continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT) was evaluated and approved for preliminary development. Tests of heat rejection to the oil for lined versus linerless insulated engine assemblies indicated no heat loss penalty in omitting the metal liners. A study was made of various power turbine rotor assemblies and a final design was selected. Optimization studies of the two-stage power turbine reduction gears and regenerator spur and worm gears were completed. Initial tests on the fixture for simulating the scaled S-26 upgraded burner have begun.

  17. Gas Turbines: ''low NOx'' technologies at EGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 15 years, European Gas Turbines (EGT - GEC Alsthom Group) has gained an important know-how culture and can use its rich feedback experience in the domain of gas turbine emissions. The EGT gas turbine units equipped with denitrogenation technologies cover the 4 to 226 MW power range and cumulate more than 1.7 hours of functioning in the different existing installations in the world. This paper describes the economical and environmental interests of gas turbines for power production and the combustion technologies developed by EGT to reduce the NOx emissions. The selective catalytic reduction technique is the only available secondary technique with can allow NOx and CO emissions lower than 10 ppm. Other technologies involving diluent injection (water, water-fuel mixture, vapor..) are also described and were developed in several countries to reduce the emission of these pollutants. (J.S.)

  18. Exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yongqiang; Sun Wenxu; Li Qinghua; Zhong Ming; Hao Wei; Du Wenchang

    2011-01-01

    Almost the same quantity to net output work of energy has been carried out and wasted by exhaust gas in typical automotive engine. Recovering the energy from exhaust gas and converting to mechanical energy will dramatically increase the heat efficiency and decrease the fuel consumption. With the increasing demand of fuel conservation, exhaust gas energy recovery technologies have been a hot topic. At present, many researches have been focused on heating or cooling the cab, mechanical energy using and thermo-electronic converting. Unfortunately, the complicated transmission of mechanical energy using and the depressed efficiency of thermo-electronic converting restrict their widely applying. In this paper, a kind of exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine, in which highly compressed air acts as energy storing and converting carrier, has been established. Pneumatic driving motor can produce moderate speed and high torque output, which is compatible for engine using. The feasibility has been certificated by GT-Power simulation and laboratory testes. The technologies about increasing recovery efficiency have been discussed in detail. The results demonstrated that the in parallel exhaust gas energy recovery system, which is similar to the compound turbo-charger structure can recovery 8 to 10 percent of rated power output. At last, a comprehensive system,which includes Rankine cycle based power wheel cycle unit etc. , has been introduced.

  19. The marriage of gas turbines and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on developing gas turbine systems that can use coal or a coal-based fuel ensures that the United States will have cost-effective environmentally sound options for supplying future power generation needs. Power generation systems that marry coal or a coal-based fuel to a gas turbine? Some matchmakers would consider this an unlikely marriage. Historically, most gas turbines have been operated only on premium fuels, primarily natural gas or distillate oil. The perceived problems from using coal or coal-based fuels in turbines are: Erosion and deposition: Coal ash particles in the hot combustion gases passing through the expander turbine could erode or deposit on the turbine blades. Corrosion: Coal combustion will release alkali compounds form the coal ash. Alkali in the hot gases passing through the expander turbine can cause corrosion of high-temperature metallic surfaces. Emissions: coal contains higher levels of ash, fuel-bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and trace contaminants than premium fuels. Meeting stringent environmental regulations for particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and trace contaminants will be difficult. Economics: Coal-based systems are expensive to build. The difference in price between coal and premium fuels must be large enough to justify the higher capital cost

  20. Performance evaluation of reheat gas turbine cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarabchi, K. [University of Tabriz (Iran). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-12-01

    The role of gas turbine power plants in electrical energy production has been considerably increased in the last two to three decades. Various methods have been proposed to improve the performance of gas turbine cycles. In this research, two methods, a reheat cycle (RC) and a cycle with a reheat and a heat exchanger (RHC), were investigated and compared with a simple cycle (SC). Today, to achieve a higher efficiency and capacity in gas turbines, higher turbine inlet temperatures (1300{sup o}C and more) are used. Basically, application of such temperatures without turbine blade cooling is impossible. Therefore, analysis of gas turbine cycles without considering blade cooling in modelling will certainly not lead to a valid and correct result. The main objective of this paper is to study the performance of an RC and RHC under actual conditions. In this regard, all processes are treated as actual, and in particular a relatively simple and reliable approach is used to predict the amount of cooling air. It should be noted that there are many attempts being made to produce ceramic turbines, for which a much- reduced cooling requirement will be necessary. The results obtained on the basis of a model developed for this research show that reheating in the context of a realistic study may lead to an improvement both in efficiency and in specific net work. (author)

  1. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} caused by the consumption of hydrocarbon fuel is one of the main gases which affect the global climate. In order to reduce the formation of CO{sub 2}, it is necessary to conserve energy as effectively as possible. Therefore the heat energy provided by the fuel should be utilized in multi-cascades. The energy at the high temperature should be used for the generation of electric power and the energy at low temperature could be used for making the steam and the hot water. The gas turbine is preferable for this purpose. The heat energy of exhaust gas can be reused more easily. The two systems are proposed by using the gas turbine as the high temperature stage. One is the cogeneration system and the other is the combined cycle. The former generates electric power by the gas turbine and make steam or hot water in the exhaust gas. The latter employs the gas turbine as the high temperature cycle and the steam turbine as the low temperature cycle.

  2. Gas turbine modeling for NPP with helium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance analyzes of closed helium cycle for NPPs with high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was carried out. Air-turbine units and helium-turbine units were compared. Helium turbine features were particularized in comparison with conventional air turbines. Simulation results of gas turbine setting with helium as a working medium were presented. Problems concerning high economic efficiency advance of helium turbines were discussed

  3. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  4. Small gas turbines and total energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiquet, A.

    1976-01-01

    Gas turbines operating on liquid or gaseous fuels have been used in industry for a long time and are of growing interest for several reasons: they save energy, and with the multi-fuel system they can use natural gas, which is relatively cheap and increasingly available. They are, by definition, infinitely less polluting than a diesel engine.

  5. Evaluation of ceramics for stator application: Gas turbine engine report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, W.; Havstad, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    Current ceramic materials, component fabrication processes, and reliability prediction capability for ceramic stators in an automotive gas turbine engine environment are assessed. Simulated engine duty cycle testing of stators conducted at temperatures up to 1093 C is discussed. Materials evaluated are SiC and Si3N4 fabricated from two near-net-shape processes: slip casting and injection molding. Stators for durability cycle evaluation and test specimens for material property characterization, and reliability prediction model prepared to predict stator performance in the simulated engine environment are considered. The status and description of the work performed for the reliability prediction modeling, stator fabrication, material property characterization, and ceramic stator evaluation efforts are reported.

  6. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  7. Impact of inlet air cooling on gas turbine performance

    OpenAIRE

    Szymon Jarzębowski; Ewa Pyzik; Andrzej Miller

    2012-01-01

    In this article different possibilities of gas turbine inlet air cooling were presented. The method of defining power gain caused by air cooling was discussed. The results of increasing power output level of several different turbines and one gas turbine in combine cycle in domestic ambient conditions were presented and discussed. Significant turbine power gains were received.

  8. Air Intake System Impact on Gas Turbine Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sandøy, Marie Lindmark

    2010-01-01

    Limitations of space and weight on offshore platforms have made gas turbines the main supplier of power in these installations. Particles escaping from the inlet air filtration systems cause fouling of the gas turbine compressor section and decrease the overall effciency of the engines. New focus on decreasing global environmental gas emissions has made the importance of optimal gas turbine operation increasingly important. This thesis documents gas turbine degradation mechanisms and evaluati...

  9. Operating cost analysis aids gas turbine selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, G.K. [PT Indo-Rama Synthetics tbk., Purwakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-02-01

    If one considers the design life of a gas turbine to be 20 years, probably more than 70% of the plant operating costs will consist of fuel. And as fuel cost varies geographically, it is obvious that choosing a gas turbine, or for that matter any other prime mover, will depend on the fuel cost prevailing in that country. Spreadsheets make the analysis easier. A few options are presented to show the possible variations. The data taken for examples are typical. To illustrate the options, a typical requirement has been suggested for a plant--an electric power requirement of 50 MW and a process steam requirement of 70 tph. The selected gas/steam turbines, or diesel engine, will generate the electric power. When the equipment is down, the state electrical grid will provide the power.

  10. Externally fired gas turbine technology: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High temperature heat exchanger technology is the key element to the EFGT success. • Closed cycle EFGT plants were operated successfully for more than half a century. • Closed cycle EFGT is expected to play a major role in HTR nuclear power plants. • Biomass fueled EFGT-CHP is a promising candidate for distributed generation. • Solar hybrid gas turbine is an upgrade for lower carbon-footprint gas turbine. - Abstract: Externally fired heat engines were used widely since helium the industrial revolution using dirty solid fuels for example coal, due to the lack of refined fuels. However, with the availability of clean fuels, external firing mode was abandoned, except for steam power plants. Lately, with the global trend moving towards green power production, the idea of the external fired system has captured the attention again especially externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) due to its wider range of power generation and the potential of using environment friendly renewable energy sources like biomass. In this paper, a wide range of thermal power sources utilizing EFGT such as concentrated solar power (CSP), fossil, nuclear and biomass fuels are reviewed. Gas turbine as the main component of EFGT is investigated from micro scale below 1 MWe to the large scale central power generation. Moreover, the different high temperature heat exchanger (HTHE) materials and designs are reviewed. Finally, the methods of improving cycle efficiency such as the externally fired combined cycle (EFCC), humidified air turbine (HAT), EFGT with fuel cells and other cycles are reviewed thoroughly

  11. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  12. Emissions control for ground power gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudney, R. A.; Priem, R. J.; Juhasz, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Mroz, T. S.; Mularz, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    The similarities and differences of emissions reduction technology for aircraft and ground power gas turbines is described. The capability of this technology to reduce ground power emissions to meet existing and proposed emissions standards is presented and discussed. Those areas where the developing aircraft gas turbine technology may have direct application to ground power and those areas where the needed technology may be unique to the ground power mission are pointed out. Emissions reduction technology varying from simple combustor modifications to the use of advanced combustor concepts, such as catalysis, is described and discussed.

  13. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better...... part-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the...

  14. Performances of the Chemical Gas Turbine System and Comparison with Other Gas Turbine Based Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Arai

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper describes a novel combined cycle based on a “Chemical Gas Turbine” system. The system consists of fuel-rich and fuel-lean combustors with their gas turbines, recuperators, and a steam bottoming cycle. Important features of this system are the gas turbine with C/C composites blades and the fuel-rich combustion techniques. These techniques result in no cooling of turbine blades and much higher turbine inlet temperature, therefore, much higher thermal efficiency. This paper analyzes the energy, exergy, and heat exchanger sizes of the proposed system. Furthermore, optimizations from pressure ratio aspects are discussed. All results are compared with a simple gas turbine system and a conventional combined cycle. The following results were obtained: the chemical gas turbine system achieves a thermal efficiency of 64%, and low exergy loss in the combustion processes. In addition, characteristics of the system are similar to the simple gas turbine system.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS'00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000

  15. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.K. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  16. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reference, see 46 CFR 58.03-1). (b) Materials. The materials used for gas turbine installations shall have... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas turbine installations. 58.10-15 Section 58.10-15... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine...

  17. Airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George

    2010-12-21

    An airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine is provided. The airfoil comprises a main body comprising a wall structure defining an inner cavity adapted to receive a cooling air. The wall structure includes a first diffusion region and at least one first metering opening extending from the inner cavity to the first diffusion region. The wall structure further comprises at least one cooling circuit comprising a second diffusion region and at least one second metering opening extending from the first diffusion region to the second diffusion region. The at least one cooling circuit may further comprise at least one third metering opening, at least one third diffusion region and a fourth diffusion region.

  18. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  19. Impingement jet cooling in gas turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Due to the requirement for enhanced cooling technologies on modern gas turbine engines, advanced research and development has had to take place in field of thermal engineering. Impingement jet cooling is one of the most effective in terms of cooling, manufacturability and cost. This is the first to book to focus on impingement cooling alone.

  20. Mixer Assembly for a Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor); Smith, Lance L. (Inventor); Hautman, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer with fuel injection holes located between at least one radial swirler and at least one axial swirler, wherein the fuel injected into the main mixer is atomized and dispersed by the air flowing through the radial swirler and the axial swirler.

  1. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  2. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Opila, Elizabeth; Nickel, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Over the past forty years, a wealth of information on the behavior of ceramic materials in heat engine environments has been obtained. In the first part of the talk we summarize the behavior of monolithic SiC and Si3N4. These materials show excellent baseline behavior in clean, oxygen environments. However the aggressive components in a heat engine environment such as water vapor and salt deposits can be quite degrading. In the second part of the talk we discuss SiC-based composites. The critical issue with these materials is oxidation of the fiber coating. We conclude with a brief discussion of future directions in ceramic corrosion research.

  3. Simulation of multi fluid gas turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Ulizar Alvarez., J. I.

    1998-01-01

    This work focuses on two main subjects: first, the development and validation of a robust generic performance code for industrial gas turbines (GTSI) and, second, the study of an innovative carbon dioxide/argon semi-closed cycle burning low calorific gas coming from coal gasification. GTSI will be able to simulate open, closed and semi-closed cycles at design and off-design conditions. A comprehensive thermodynamic study of the properties of the most common working fluids ha...

  4. Optimal design of gas turbines flow paths considering operational modes

    OpenAIRE

    Boiko, Anatoli; Govorushchenko, Yuri; Usaty, Aleksander; Rudenko, Oleksii

    2014-01-01

    A new technique for multi-parameter optimization of gas turbines flow paths considering a variable mode for their operation is presented. It allow s the estimation of the influence of flow path optimization on performance parameters of gas-turbine units, such as power, efficiency, and fuel consumption. An algorithm for turbine flow path multi-criteria optimization that takes into account the gas-turbine unit operation mode is shown. Approaches to speed up the optimization process are desc...

  5. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  6. Casing for a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.; Little, David A.; Charron, Richard C.

    2016-07-12

    A casing for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a compressed air section (40) spanning between a last row of compressor blades (26) and a first row of turbine blades (28), the compressed air section (40) having a plurality of openings (50) there through, wherein a single combustor/advanced duct assembly (64) extends through each opening (50); and one top hat (68) associated with each opening (50) configured to enclose the associated combustor/advanced duct assembly (64) and seal the opening (50). A volume enclosed by the compressed air section (40) is not greater than a volume of a frustum (54) defined at an upstream end (56) by an inner diameter of the casing at the last row of compressor blades (26) and at a downstream end (60) by an inner diameter of the casing at the first row of turbine blades (28).

  7. Gas sensing using porous materials for automotive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Dominic J; Grand, Julien; Ting, Valeska P; Burke, Richard D; Edler, Karen J; Bowen, Chris R; Mintova, Svetlana; Burrows, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of combustion within a vehicle can lead to reductions in the emission of harmful pollutants and increased fuel efficiency. Gas sensors have a role to play in this process, since they can provide real time feedback to vehicular fuel and emissions management systems as well as reducing the discrepancy between emissions observed in factory tests and 'real world' scenarios. In this review we survey the current state-of-the-art in using porous materials for sensing the gases relevant to automotive emissions. Two broad classes of porous material - zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) - are introduced, and their potential for gas sensing is discussed. The adsorptive, spectroscopic and electronic techniques for sensing gases using porous materials are summarised. Examples of the use of zeolites and MOFs in the sensing of water vapour, oxygen, NOx, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen are then detailed. Both types of porous material (zeolites and MOFs) reveal great promise for the fabrication of sensors for exhaust gases and vapours due to high selectivity and sensitivity. The size and shape selectivity of the zeolite and MOF materials are controlled by variation of pore dimensions, chemical composition (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity), crystal size and orientation, thus enabling detection and differentiation between different gases and vapours. PMID:25982991

  8. Detonation wave compression in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, A.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the concept of augmenting the performance of low pressure ratio gas turbines by detonation wave compression of part of the flow. The concept exploits the constant volume heat release of detonation waves to increase the efficiency of the Brayton cycle. In the models studied, a fraction of the compressor output was channeled into detonation ducts where it was processed by transient transverse detonation waves. Gas dynamic studies determined the maximum cycling frequency of detonation ducts, proved that upstream propagation of pressure pulses represented no problems and determined the variations of detonation duct output with time. Mixing and wave compression were used to recombine the combustor and detonation duct flows and a concept for a spiral collector to further smooth the pressure and temperature pulses was presented as an optional component. The best performance was obtained with a single firing of the ducts so that the flow could be re-established before the next detonation was initiated. At the optimum conditions of maximum frequency of the detonation ducts, the gas turbine efficiency was found to be 45 percent while that of a corresponding pressure ratio 5 conventional gas turbine was only 26%. Comparable improvements in specific fuel consumption data were found for gas turbines operating as jet engines, turbofans, and shaft output machines. Direct use of the detonation duct output for jet propulsion proved unsatisfactory. Careful analysis of the models of the fluid flow phenomena led to the conclusion that even more elaborate calculations would not diminish the uncertainties in the analysis of the system. Feasibility of the concept to work as an engine now requires validation in an engineering laboratory experiment.

  9. Large eddy simulation applications in gas turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Kevin

    2009-07-28

    The gas turbine presents significant challenges to any computational fluid dynamics techniques. The combination of a wide range of flow phenomena with complex geometry is difficult to model in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers. We review the potential for large eddy simulation (LES) in modelling the flow in the different components of the gas turbine during a practical engineering design cycle. We show that while LES has demonstrated considerable promise for reliable prediction of many flows in the engine that are difficult for RANS it is not a panacea and considerable application challenges remain. However, for many flows, especially those dominated by shear layer mixing such as in combustion chambers and exhausts, LES has demonstrated a clear superiority over RANS for moderately complex geometries although at significantly higher cost which will remain an issue in making the calculations relevant within the design cycle. PMID:19531505

  10. The development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript aims to systematically review the development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China and to draw policy implications for decision making. This manuscript presents a brief overview of natural gas development and the potential of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China, followed by an introduction to the development of various technology pathways for using natural gas as an automotive fuel, including CNG (compressed natural gas) vehicles, LNG (liquefied natural gas) vehicles, and others. This material suggests, a large potential to increase the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel, especially for CNG and LNG vehicles. The following activities will promote the development of natural gas vehicles: prioritizing vehicle use in the utilization of natural gas, supporting the construction of natural gas filling stations, developing a favorable pricing policy for natural gas used in vehicles, and enhancing the research and development to further improve the technology performance, especially for the technology of LNG vehicles. -- Highlights: •An overview of the natural gas development in China. •A systematic introduction of the development of natural gas vehicles in China. •A review of the technological performance of natural gas vehicles. •Policy suggestions to promote the development of natural gas vehicles in China

  11. Internet operation of aero gas turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Diakostefanis, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Internet applications have been extended to various aspects of everyday life and offer services of high reliability and security. In the Academia, Internet applications offer useful tools for the remote creation of simulation models and real-time conduction of control experiments. The aim of this study was the design of a reliable, safe and secure software system for real time operation of a remote aero gas turbine, with the use of standard Internet technology at very low cost....

  12. Performance-analysis-based gas turbine diagnostics: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.G.

    2002-01-01

    Gas turbine diagnostics has a history almost as long as gas turbine development itself. Early engine fault diagnosis was carried out based on manufacturer information supplied in a technical manual combined with maintenance experience. In the late 1960’s when Urban introduced Gas Path Analysis, gas turbine diagnostics made a big breakthrough. Since then different methods have been developed and used in both aero and industrial applications. Until now a substantial number of papers have been p...

  13. Combustion heating value gas in a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G. [CTDD, British Coal Corporation, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Cannon, M. [European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Advanced coal and/or biomass based power generation systems offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component for many of these advanced power generation cycles is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at turbine inlet temperatures of typically 1 100 - 1 260 deg C and with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key issue. A phased combustor development programme is under-way burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6 - 4.1 MJ/m{sup 3}) with low emissions, particularly NO{sub x} derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first and second phases of the combustor development programme have been completed. The first phase used a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor based on conventional design principles. Combustor performance for this first prototype combustor was encouraging. The second phase assessed five design variants of the prototype combustor, each variant achieving a progressive improvement in combustor performance. The operating conditions for this assessment were selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine operating as part of an Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The test conditions assessed therefore included the capability to operate the combustor using natural gas as a supplementary fuel, to suit one possible start-up procedure for the cycle. The paper presents a brief overview of the ABGC development initiative and discusses the general requirements for a gas turbine operating within such a cycle. In addition, it presents full combustor performance results for the second phase of turbine combustor development and discusses the rationale for the progressive design modifications made within that programme. The strategy for the further development of the combustor to burn low calorific value fuel gas with very low conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} is presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  14. Upgrade of gas turbine cleaning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Gas turbines used to be cleaned during times of engine shut down by spraying a jet of water into the compressor air intakes with a garden hose. Washing has become more sophisticated, with modern wash skids consisting of pumps, regulators, detergent tanks, rinsing water tanks, heaters, and wash cycle programs. High pressure wash systems were developed to improve both off-line and on-line cleaning of gas turbine compressors. The main feature of a high pressure system is its ability to use less liquid while minimizing risk for damage by erosion. A high pressure system was tested on the LM 2500 gas turbine at the Kvaerner Energy test facility at Agotnes, Norway. Both on-line washing and crank washing were tested. Engine performance was found to improve after washing. Laboratory tests have been validated by field experience with the high pressure system on North Sea platforms. The use of detergent can be eliminated with high pressure washing systems, thereby simplifying and reducing the cost of the washing procedure. The greatest advantage of pressure washing is that the interval for crank washes could be extended from 1500 hours to 4000 hours. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  15. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  16. Gas turbine applications in the drying industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapper, R.C.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine if it is feasible to utilize the hot exhaust gas discharged from gas turbines in direct applications. This report illustrates the technical feasibility and economic viability of using gas turbines in drying applications. The size of turbines in this investigation ranges from 2 MW to 10 MW. In addition, an implementation strategy has been developed to employ this new system. The method used to structure the scope of this undertaking is as follows: Step 1. Collecting information by contacting dryer manufacturer and companies drying different products. Information was also gathered by literature studies and the internet. Thomas register is a great tool when it comes to company and market searches. Step 2. Looking into if it is technically possible to use the exhaust gas directly into dryers. The parameters needed for these calculations were gathered in step 1, and some of the more important are temperature, mass flow, heat demand, and information about how the dryer works. The computer program Gatecycle is a great help when it comes to finding the right turbine for a dryer. Step 3. When it was obvious that it would work for some drying applications, the profitability was tested with the help of some spreadsheets. Step 4. The market was also evaluated as a last step. Market analysis was performed with the help of Porter's (Porter is one of the most famous strategy gurus) different models. The point of this is to find ways to be unique so that competitors will have a harder time copying the new system. It is shown in the report that for the right kind of projects, this new application for turbines is profitable. It is important to realize that this new system is not profitable for every drying plant. This is a general study with general input parameters. Every plant has its' own in-parameters and has to be evaluated individually. The most important factors determining if it is profitable or not are: Local electricity

  17. Gas turbine engine with supersonic compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.

    2015-10-20

    A gas turbine engine having a compressor section using blades on a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes one or more of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions for deceleration of the gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure gas to combustors. The aerodynamic ducts include structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of two to one (2:1) or more, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  18. PV and gas turbine system for peak-demand applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer simulation model of the behavior of a photovoltaic (PV) gas turbine hybrid system with compressed air storage is developed in order to evaluate its performance and predict the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. This integrated PV and gas turbine hybrid plant produces approximately 140% more power per unit of energy consumed compared with conventional gas turbine plants. In addition lower rates of pollutant emissions to the atmosphere are achieved.(Author)

  19. Heavy duty gas turbines experience with ash-forming fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Molière, M.; Sire, J

    1993-01-01

    The heavy duty gas turbines operating in power plants can burn various fuels ranging from natural gas to heavy oils. Ash-forming fuels can have detrimental effects on the turbine hardware such as : combustion troubles, erosion, corrosion and fouling by ashes. For decades, progress has been made by the gas turbine industry, especially in the fields of superalloy metallurgy, coating and cooling technology. Furthermore, fuel treatments inspired by the petroleum and marine-engine industries (elec...

  20. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  1. Engineered Materials for Advanced Gas Turbine Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop innovative composite powders and composites that will surpass the properties of currently identified materials for advanced gas turbine...

  2. Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, and a propulsor that is coupled to be driven by the turbine through the spool. A gear assembly is coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extends from the hub. The row includes no more than 20 of the propulsor blades.

  3. Gas turbine powerhouse the development of the power generation gas turbine at BBC - ABB - Alstom

    CERN Document Server

    Eckardt, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the power generation gas turbine from the perspective of one of the leading companies in the field over a period of nearly 100 years, written by an engineer. Especially in times of imminent global economic crises it appears to be worthwhile to reflect on real economic values based on engineering ingenuity and enduring management of technological leadership.

  4. Self-contained gas turbine unite with turbine expander drive of the compressor for the gas distribution station

    OpenAIRE

    Zaryankin A.; Arianov S.; Storoguk S.; Rogalev A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the gas turbine installation with turbine expander drive of the compressor. It is shown that the offered installation has greater power capacity in comparison with the existent power turbo expanders and this unit can work in the regardless of steam turbine mode.

  5. Self-contained gas turbine unite with turbine expander drive of the compressor for the gas distribution station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaryankin A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the gas turbine installation with turbine expander drive of the compressor. It is shown that the offered installation has greater power capacity in comparison with the existent power turbo expanders and this unit can work in the regardless of steam turbine mode.

  6. GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

    2004-05-17

    In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

  7. Squeeze Film Damping for Aircraft Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Shende

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern aircraft gas turbine engines depend heavily on squeeze film damper supports at the bearings for abatement of vibrations caused by a number of probable excitation sources. This design ultimately results in light-weight construction together with higher efficiency and reliability of engines. Many investigations have been reported during past two decades concerning the functioning of the squeeze film damper, which is simple in construction yet complex in behaviour with its non-linearity and multiplicity of variables. These are reviewed in this article to throw light on the considerations involved in the design of rotor-bearing-casing systems incorporating squeeze film dampers.

  8. Gas Turbine Engine Inlet Wall Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Razvan Virgil (Inventor); Matalanis, Claude G. (Inventor); Stucky, Mark B. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an inlet duct formed to have a shape with a first ellipse in one half and a second ellipse in a second half. The second half has an upstream most end which is smaller than the first ellipse. The inlet duct has a surface defining the second ellipse which curves away from the first ellipse, such that the second ellipse is larger at an intermediate location. The second ellipse is even larger at a downstream end of the inlet duct leading into a fan.

  9. Durability Challenges for Next Generation of Gas Turbine Engine Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive fuel burn and carbon dioxide emission reduction goals for future gas turbine engines will require higher overall pressure ratio, and a significant increase in turbine inlet temperature. These goals can be achieved by increasing temperature capability of turbine engine hot section materials and decreasing weight of fan section of the engine. NASA is currently developing several advanced hot section materials for increasing temperature capability of future gas turbine engines. The materials of interest include ceramic matrix composites with 1482 - 1648 C temperature capability, advanced disk alloys with 815 C capability, and low conductivity thermal barrier coatings with erosion resistance. The presentation will provide an overview of durability challenges with emphasis on the environmental factors affecting durability for the next generation of gas turbine engine materials. The environmental factors include gaseous atmosphere in gas turbine engines, molten salt and glass deposits from airborne contaminants, impact from foreign object damage, and erosion from ingestion of small particles.

  10. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  11. Tilting pad gas bearing design for micro gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a dynamic stability investigation of a micro gas turbine supported by two flexible tilting pad bearings. The pad flexibility allows centrifugal and thermal shaft growth of the rotor but can also introduce undesirable rotor instabilities. An eigenvalue analysis on the linearised rotor-bearing dynamics is performed to estimate the required pad stiffness and damping for stability. Results of the eigenvalue analysis are evaluated by fully nonlinear orbit simulations

  12. Tilting pad gas bearing design for micro gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabuurs, M. J. H. W.; Al-Bender, F.; Reynaerts, D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a dynamic stability investigation of a micro gas turbine supported by two flexible tilting pad bearings. The pad flexibility allows centrifugal and thermal shaft growth of the rotor but can also introduce undesirable rotor instabilities. An eigenvalue analysis on the linearised rotor-bearing dynamics is performed to estimate the required pad stiffness and damping for stability. Results of the eigenvalue analysis are evaluated by fully nonlinear orbit simulations.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of turbine blade cooling on the performance of gas turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbine inlet temperature strongly affects gas turbine performance. Today blade cooling technologies facilitate the use of higher inlet temperatures. Of course blade cooling causes some thermodynamic penalties that destroys to some extent the positive effect of higher inlet temperatures. This research aims to model and evaluate the performance of gas turbine cycle with air cooled turbine. In this study internal and transpiration cooling methods has been investigated and the penalties as the result of gas flow friction, cooling air throttling, mixing of cooling air flow with hot gas flow, and irreversible heat transfer have been considered. In addition, it is attempted to consider any factor influencing actual conditions of system in the analysis. It is concluded that penalties due to blade cooling decrease as permissible temperature of the blade surface increases. Also it is observed that transpiration method leads to better performance of gas turbine comparing to internal cooling method

  14. Mathematical modeling of gas turbine cooled elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashayev, A.; Askerov, D.; Sadiqov, R.; Samedov, A. [Academy of Aviation, Baku (Azerbaijan). Dept. of Mathematical Modeling and Design of Gas Turbine Engines

    2007-07-01

    The profile section of a gas turbine blade with convective cooling was modelled. Converging quadrature processes were used to determine the stationary and quasi-stationary temperature field of the profile part of the blade. Profiles were visualized using the least squares method along with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment, and neural nets. Heat exchange boundary conditions were characterized using the finite difference method; finite element analysis (FEA); the Monte Carlo method; and the boundary integral equations method (BIEM). Boundary conditions included the heat quantity assigned by convection of the cooler transmitted by heat conduction of the blade material to the surface of cooling channels. Errors were investigated using a quadratures method and Tikhonov regularization. A Kirchhoff permutation was used to linearize tasks. The developed equation was then transformed into a Laplace equation. The model was then compared with experimental investigations to validate heat and hydraulic characteristics, as well as the temperature field of the blade cross section. It was concluded that the model can be used to assess the reliability of gas turbine engine designs. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  15. More-Electric Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Albert F.

    1997-01-01

    A new NASA Lewis Research Center and U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) thrust, the more-electric commercial engine, is creating significant interest in industry. This engine would have an integral starter-generator on the gas generator shaft and would be fully supported by magnetic bearings. The NASA/Army emphasis is on a high-temperature magnetic bearing for future gas turbine engines. Magnetic bearings could increase the reliability and reduce the weight of such engines by eliminating the lubrication system. They could also increase the DN (diameter of the bearing times the rpm) limit on engine speed and allow active vibration cancellation systems to be used, resulting in a more efficient, more-electric engine.

  16. Development of Compressor for Ultra Micro Gas Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shimpei MIZUKI

    2007-01-01

    The major problems for the development of an ultra micro gas turbine system were discussed briefly from the stand point of the internal flow and the performance characteristics. Following to these, the development of ultra micro centrifugal compression systems for the ultra micro gas turbine is explained with the design and the manufacturing processes. The measured results of ultra micro centrifugal compressors are shown.

  17. steam power plants re powering with gas turbine review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re powering faith gas turbine means integration of new gas turbine in existing power plant. Such integration yield higher efficiencies lower operating and maintenance costs and reduction in pollution emission. This paper summarizes the results of a feasibility study that inquired the possibilities of such integration in Israel Electric Corporation - IEC's existing steam power plants (oil fired)

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indi-rectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supple-mentary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas or pyrolysis gas. Intuitively, sup-plementary firing is expected to...... the recu-perated gas turbine. Instead, other process changes may be considered in order to obtain a high marginal efficiency on natural gas. Two possibilities are discussed: Integration between an IFGT and pyrolysis of the biofuel which will result in a highly efficient utilization of the biomass, and...... indirectly fired gas turbine (IFGT) and for the supplementary-fired IFGT. These results show that the combination of external firing and internal firing have the potential of reducing or solving some problems associated with the use of biomass both in the recuperated and the indirectly fired gas turbine: The...

  19. Economics and Performance Forecast of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaotao; SUGISHITA Hideaki; NI Weidou; LI Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Forecasts of the economics and performance of gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) with various types of gas turbines will help power plant designers to select the best type of gas turbine for future Chinese powerplants. The cost and performance of various designs were estimated using the commercial software GT PRO. Improved GTCC output will increase the system efficiency which may induce total investment and will certainly increase the cumulative cash which then will induce the cost and the payback period. The relative annual fuel output increases almost in proportion to the relative GTCC output. China should select the gas turbine that provides the most economical output according to its specific conditions. The analysis shows that a GTCC power plant with a medium-sized 100 to 200 MW output gas turbine is the most suitable for Chinese investors.

  20. Nuclear Mpd Gas Turbine Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In MPD generators employing alkali-metal-seeded inert gases as the working fluid, the possibility of utilizing magnetically-induced non-equilibrium ionization has been established on theoretical grounds and there is supporting experimental evidence. Joule heating of the working plasma preferentially enhances the electron temperature, producing plasma electrical conductivity levels much higher than apply for thermal equilibrium ionization. The effect is increased by increasing the applied magnetic field and (within limits) by reducing the operating pressure level. If high levels of electrical conductivity can be maintained in this non-equilibrium mode, a cycle in which temperature levels are dictated on thermodynamic grounds only can be selected. The optimization of a Brayton cycle in terms of thermodynamic efficiency and specific power is considered. The proposed cycle consists simply of a heat source, MPD generator, recuperator, heat sink and compressor, the latter being driven either electrically or by a turbine in the circuit. The general features of a land-based nuclear, recuperative closed-cycle MPD power plant are presented. An all-graphite prismatic core helium-cooled nuclear reactor is the heat source. A single gas thermodynamic cycle is considered rather than combined gas and steam cycles, to avoid the hazards of water-graphite reactions due to in-leakage from a high pressure steam cycle and to simplify the plant and its control. The detailed plant layout-suggested is given theoretical and practical justification. Detailed parametric surveys on the MPD generator and the cycle thermodynamics have been performed and some of the combined results are presented. With a reactor outlet temperature of 1800°K, gas turbine inlet temperature of 1200°K, single intercooling and cycle losses estimated from present technological data, it is shown that net plant efficiencies of 55-60% can be obtained. Fuel temperatures for a range of reactor and fuel geometries, reactor

  1. Analysis of gas turbine integrated cogeneration plant: Process integration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogeneration is defined as generation of two forms of energy viz. heat and work using single primary fuel. Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is important in improving energy efficiency of the overall plant and in reducing environmental pollution. A methodology, based on pinch analysis, is proposed in this paper to integrate gas turbine and regenerator with a process plant to minimize fuel consumption. Thermodynamic analysis of gas turbine integrated CHP plant is presented on gas turbine pressure ratio versus power to heat ratio diagram. On this novel diagram, limits of integration are identified and various regions of integration are represented. Additionally, contour plots of energy utilization factors and fuel energy saving ratios are represented on this diagram for optimal integration of gas turbine with a process plant. It is interesting to note that though the contour plots of energy utilization factors and fuel energy saving ratios differ significantly, loci of the maximal energy utilization factor and the maximal fuel energy saving ratio are identical. Optimum sizing of gas turbine integrated cogeneration plant for grassroots design and retrofitting are performed based on these diagrams. - Highlights: • Methodology for direct integration of gas turbine, regenerator, and process plant. • Integrated system analysis plotted on turbine pressure ratio vs. power to heat ratio. • Regions of integration are identified on this new diagram. • Variations of energy utilization factor and fuel energy saving ratio are indicated. • Optimal sizing of integrated gas turbine for retrofitting and grassroots design

  2. Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Dean; Vargo, Stephen; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    A proposed microelectromechanical system (MEMS) containing a closed- Brayton-cycle turbine would serve as a prototype of electric-power generators for special applications in which high energy densities are required and in which, heretofore, batteries have been used. The system would have a volume of about 6 cm3 and would operate with a thermal efficiency >30 percent, generating up to 50 W of electrical power. The energy density of the proposed system would be about 10 times that of the best battery-based systems now available, and, as such, would be comparable to that of a fuel cell. The working gas for the turbine would be Xe containing small quantities of CO2, O2, and H2O as gaseous lubricants. The gas would be contained in an enclosed circulation system, within which the pressure would typically range between 5 and 50 atm (between 0.5 and 5 MPa). The heat for the Brayton cycle could be supplied by any of a number of sources, including a solar concentrator or a combustor burning a hydrocarbon or other fuel. The system would include novel heat-transfer and heat-management components. The turbine would be connected to an electric power generator/starter motor. The system would include a main rotor shaft with gas bearings; the bearing surfaces would be made of a ceramic material coated with nanocrystalline diamond. The shaft could withstand speed of 400,000 rpm or perhaps more, with bearing-wear rates less than 10(exp -)4 those of silicon bearings and 0.05 to 0.1 those of SiC bearings, and with a coefficient of friction about 0.1 that of Si or SiC bearings. The components of the system would be fabricated by a combination of (1) three-dimensional xray lithography and (2) highly precise injection molding of diamond-compatible metals and ceramic materials. The materials and fabrication techniques would be suitable for mass production. The disadvantages of the proposed system are that unlike a battery-based system, it could generate a perceptible amount of sound, and

  3. Update on DOE Advanced IGCC/H2 Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Cooling Flow Reduction: a) Focus on improving turbine hot gas path part cooling efficiency. b) Applicable to current metallic turbine components and synergistic with advanced materials. c) Address challenges of IGCC/hydrogen fuel environment (for example, possible cooling hole plugging). Leakage Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing turbine parasitic leakages, i.e. between static-to-static, static-to-rotating turbine parts. b) Develop improved seal designs in a variety of important areas. Purge Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing required flows to keep rotor disk cavities within temperature limits. b) Develop improved sealing at the cavity rims and modified flow geometries to minimize hot gas ingestion and aerodynamic impact.

  4. Modular Coating for Flexible Gas Turbine Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, J. R. A.; Schab, J. C.; Stankowski, A.; Grasso, P. D.; Olliges, S.; Leyens, C.

    2016-01-01

    In heavy duty gas turbines, the loading boundary conditions of MCrAlY systems are differently weighted for different operation regimes as well as for each turbine component or even in individual part locations. For an overall optimized component protection it is therefore of interest to produce coatings with flexible and individually tailored properties. In this context, ALSTOM developed an Advanced Modular Coating Technology (AMCOTEC™), which is based on several powder constituents, each providing specific properties to the final coating, in combination with a new application method, allowing in-situ compositional changes. With this approach, coating properties, such as oxidation, corrosion, and cyclic lifetime, etc., can be modularly adjusted for individual component types and areas. For demonstration purpose, a MCrAlY coating with modular ductility increase was produced using the AMCOTEC™ methodology. The method was proven to be cost effective and a highly flexible solution, enabling fast compositional screening. A calculation method for final coating composition was defined and validated. The modular addition of ductility agent enabled increasing the coating ductility with up to factor 3 with only slight decrease of oxidation resistance. An optimum composition with respect to ductility is reached with addition of 20 wt.% of ductility agent.

  5. Airfoil for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George

    2011-05-24

    An airfoil is provided for a turbine of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil comprises: an outer structure comprising a first wall including a leading edge, a trailing edge, a pressure side, and a suction side; an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced from the first wall and at least one intermediate wall; and structure extending between the first and second walls so as to define first and second gaps between the first and second walls. The second wall and the at least one intermediate wall define at least one pressure side supply cavity and at least one suction side supply cavity. The second wall may include at least one first opening near the leading edge of the first wall. The first opening may extend from the at least one pressure side supply cavity to the first gap. The second wall may further comprise at least one second opening near the trailing edge of the outer structure. The second opening may extend from the at least one suction side supply cavity to the second gap. The first wall may comprise at least one first exit opening extending from the first gap through the pressure side of the first wall and at least one second exit opening extending from the second gap through the suction side of the second wall.

  6. Cooled gas turbine blade edge flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Marcio Teixeira de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica Aeronautica ITA/IEM, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcio@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    The flow on the rotating blades of a turbine is unsteady due to the wake of the stator blade row upstream. This unsteadiness is a source of losses and complex flow structures on the rotor blade due to the variation on the turbulence levels and location of the boundary layer laminar to turbulent transition. Convective cooled blades often time have cooling air ejected at the trailing edge right at the blade wake. The present investigation presents an analysis of a canonical flow consistent with the flow topology found at the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade with coolant ejection. A hydrodynamic stability analysis is performed for the combined wake and jet velocity profiles given by a gaussian distribution representing the turbulent rms wake and a laminar jet superposed. The growth rate of any instability found on the flow is an indication of faster mixing, resulting in a reduction on the wake velocity defect and consequently on the complexity associated with it. The results show that increasing the Mach number or the three-dimensionality of the disturbances result in a reduction of the amplification rate. When the flow at the trailing edge is modified by a jet, the amplification rates are lower, but the range of unstable stream wise wavenumbers is larger. (author)

  7. Blade Deterioration in a Gas Turbine Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tabakoff

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to predict blade erosion of gas turbine engines. The blade material erosion model is based on three dimensional particle trajectory simulation in the three-dimensional turbine flow field. The trajectories provide the special distribution of the particle impact parameters over the blade surface. A semi-empirical erosion model, derived from erosion tests of material samples at different particulate flow conditions, is used in the prediction of blade surface erosion based on the trajectory impact data. To improve the blade erosion resistance and to decrease the blade deterioration, the blades must be coated. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the behavior of rhodium platinum aluminide coating exposed to erosion by fly ash particles. New protective coatings are developed for erosion and thermal barrier. Chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD was used to apply the ceramic TiC coatings on INCO 718 and stainless steel 410. The erosive wear of the coated samples was investigated experimentally by exposing them to particle laden flow at velocities from 180 to 305m/s and temperatures from ambient to 538°C in a specially designed erosion wind tunnel. Both materials (INCO 718 and stainless steel 410 coated with CVD TiC showed one order of magnitude less erosion rate compared to some commercial coatings on the same substrates.

  8. Detonation wave augmentation of gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study that examined the effects of using detonation waves to augment the performance of gas turbines are reported. The central ideas were to reduce compressor requirements and to maintain high performance in jet engines. Gasdynamic equations were used to model the flows associated with shock waves generated by the detonation of fuel in detonator tubes. Shock wave attenuation to the level of Mach waves was found possible, thus eliminating interference with the compressor and the necessity of valves and seals. A preliminary parametric study of the performance of a compressor working at a 4:1 ratio in a conceptual design of a detonation wave augmented jet engine in subsonic flight indicated a clear superiority over conventional designs in terms of fuel efficiency and thrust.

  9. Natural gas turbine topping for the iris reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant designs are typically characterized by high capital and low fuel costs, while the opposite is true for fossil power generation including the natural gas-fired gas turbine combined cycle currently favored by many utilities worldwide. This paper examines potential advantages of combining nuclear and fossil (natural gas) generation options in a single plant. Technical and economic feasibility and attractiveness of a gas turbine - nuclear reactor combined cycle where gas turbine exhaust is used to superheat saturated steam produced by a low power light water reactor are examined. It is shown that in a certain range of fuel and capital costs of nuclear and fossil options, the proposed cycle offers an immediate economic advantage over stand-alone plants resulting from higher efficiency of the nuclear plant. Additionally, the gas turbine topping will result in higher fuel flexibility without the economic penalty typically associated with nuclear power. (author)

  10. Methodology for gas turbine performance improvement using variable-geometry compressors and turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringhenti, C.; Barbosa, J.R. [Instituto de Aeronautica, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. of Energy

    2004-12-01

    Poor part-load performance is a well-known undesirable characteristic of gas turbines. Running off-design, both compressor and turbine lose performance. Flow misalignment at the various rows causes losses to increase sharply, thereby decreasing net output faster than decreasing fuel consumption. To bring the flow to alignment with the blade passages, it is required to restagger the blades both at the compressor and at the turbine. To avoid mechanical complexities, it is generally accepted to restagger only the stators. This work deals with a numerical approach to the simulation of a gas turbine equipped with variable stators at the compressor and at the turbine, enabling the search for better-performance operation. A computer program has been developed to simulate virtually any gas turbine having variable stators at the compressor stages and turbine nozzle guide vanes. Variable-inlet guide vanes (VIGVs), variable-stator vanes (VSVs), variable-nozzle guide vanes (VNGVs), variable-geometry compressors (VGCs) and variable- geometry turbines (VGTs) are the focus in this work, which analyses a one-shaft free power turbine for power generation in the search for performance improvement at part load. (author)

  11. Gas--steam turbine combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this technology evaluation is to provide performance and cost characteristics of the combined gas and steam turbine, cycle system applied to an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). To date, most of the applications of combined cycles have been for electric power generation only. The basic gas--steam turbine combined cycle consists of: (1) a gas turbine-generator set, (2) a waste-heat recovery boiler in the gas turbine exhaust stream designed to produce steam, and (3) a steam turbine acting as a bottoming cycle. Because modification of the standard steam portion of the combined cycle would be necessary to recover waste heat at a useful temperature (> 212/sup 0/F), some sacrifice in the potential conversion efficiency is necessary at this temperature. The total energy efficiency ((electric power + recovered waste heat) divided by input fuel energy) varies from about 65 to 73% at full load to 34 to 49% at 20% rated electric power output. Two major factors that must be considered when installing a gas--steam turbine combines cycle are: the realiability of the gas turbine portion of the cycle, and the availability of liquid and gas fuels or the feasibility of hooking up with a coal gasification/liquefaction process.

  12. Survey of gas turbine hazardous air pollutant emission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission factors from natural gas and liquid fueled turbines have been determined by surveying the literature and combining available data. Of the 189 US EPA HAPs, only a few have been found in turbine exhaust at concentrations above ambient levels. Test data are available from several different turbine models burning natural gas and distillate oils, but data at part loads is limited, and data from newer, dry low NOx turbines is virtually non-existent. Most of the liquid fueled turbine data is from military aircraft engines and small (less than 20 MW) stationary units. All of the data was critically evaluated, but only a small fraction was judged of poor quality and, therefore, excluded from this study. Mean HAP emissions from natural gas fired turbines are very low at base load, totaling only about 0.5 ppm by weight (ppmw), or 21 pounds of HAPs per million (MM) pounds of fuel. Median HAP emissions from natural gas fired turbines are even lower, totaling only about 0.02 ppmw, or 0.8 lb HAPs/MM lb fuel. The difference between the mean and the median reflects the relatively large number of observations that are reported as below detectable levels. Mean and median HAP emissions from liquid fueled turbines are slightly higher than natural gas fired turbine emissions. Of the organic compounds found in turbine exhaust, formaldehyde is one of the most abundant. Other HAPs found in turbine exhaust include nickel, phosphorus, and manganese. The limited part load data suggests that organic HAP emissions increase as load decreases, while inorganic HAP emissions remain constant or decrease slightly as load decreases

  13. Preliminary study on the HTR-10 gas turbine cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the key issues which factor into the conceptualization of the gas turbine cycle to be coupled to the 10 MW high temperature gas cooled test reactor (HTR-10). Features of possible options of coupling gas turbine cycle to the HTR-10 are briefly discussed based on the existing system configuration of the HTR-10. Preliminary design studies are made of one indirect cycle option. This option allows for comprehensive R and D work on helium turbine technology and is based very much on the existing configuration of the HTR-10

  14. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocko, Marián; Klimko, Marek

    2016-03-01

    This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for gas turbines (turbo-compressor engines) to effect the change of thermodynamic parameters of the engine.

  15. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocko Marián

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for gas turbines (turbo-compressor engines to effect the change of thermodynamic parameters of the engine.

  16. The UTZ Special Design Office for Construction of Gas Turbines turns fifty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyryanov, Yu. P.

    2008-08-01

    The main lines of activities conducted at the ZAO Ural Turbine Works Special Design Office for Construction of Gas Turbines on developing stationary gas turbine units for power engineering, driving gasturbine units for gas pumping stations, and gas turbines for utilizing secondary resources are presented.

  17. Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

  18. Gas turbine high temperature reactor, GTHTR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) has some characters without previously set reactors such as capability of taking out heat with high temperature, high specific safety, and so on. The gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR) activating such characters has some advantages such as high power generation efficiency, feasibility on simplification of safety apparatus, and so on, and that has excellent economical efficiency. Recently, this GTHTR system is positively promoted on its investigation in South Africa, U.S.A., Russia, Holland, China, France, and so on. In JAERI, on a base of the feasibility study on GTHTR carried out fiscal year 1996 to 2000 as an entrusted research by the Science and Technology Agency, a design investigation on an actual use GTHTR (GTHTR-300) with excellent safety economical efficiency and operation feature and about 300 MW in electric output by using Japanese own technology has been progressed. The GTHTR-300 is an excellent system adopted Japanese initiative also for GTHTR as well as activated some reactor related technologies accumulated on HTGR R and D in Japan at a center of HTTR (high temperature engineering test reactor). Here were described on developing target, design concept, and a route to actual use of GTHTR. (G.K.)

  19. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  20. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  1. The gas turbine: Present technology and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas turbine is the most widely used prime mover all over the world for either power generation or mechanical drive applications. The above fact is due to the recent great improvements that have been done especially in terms of efficiency, availability and reliability. The future for gas turbine technological development looks very promising. In fact, although tremendous growth has already taken place, there is still the potential for dramatic improvements in performance. Compared with the competitive prime movers (conventional steam power plants and reciprocating piston engines) the gas turbine technology is younger and still following a strong growth curve. The coming decades will witness the continued increasing in turbine inlet temperature, the development of new materials and refrigeration systems and the commercialization of inter cooled system and steam cooled turbines. With the very soon introduction of the G and H technology, expected single and combined cycle efficiencies for heavy duty machines are respectively 40% and 60%, while maintaining 'single digit' levels in pollutant emissions. In this report are given wide information on gas turbine present technology (Thermodynamics, features, design, performances, emission control, applications) and are discussed the main lines for the future developments. Finally are presented the research and technological development activities on gas turbine of Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department

  2. Humid Air Turbine as a Primary Link PRIVATE of a Conventional Gas Turbine Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T. Szargut

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the primary link of a conventional gas turbine set has been expressed by means of the incremental energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the attained increase of power to the increase of chemical energy consumption. The calculations performed for the humid air turbine (HAT applied as a primary link indicate a high effectiveness of the utilization of the additionally consumed fuel. The compression ratio in both parts of the considered gas turbine set has been optimized in order to attain maximum energy efficiency.

  3. Reflection error correction of gas turbine blade temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipngetich, Ketui Daniel; Feng, Chi; Gao, Shan

    2016-03-01

    Accurate measurement of gas turbine blades' temperature is one of the greatest challenges encountered in gas turbine temperature measurements. Within an enclosed gas turbine environment with surfaces of varying temperature and low emissivities, a new challenge is introduced into the use of radiation thermometers due to the problem of reflection error. A method for correcting this error has been proposed and demonstrated in this work through computer simulation and experiment. The method assumed that emissivities of all surfaces exchanging thermal radiation are known. Simulations were carried out considering targets with low and high emissivities of 0.3 and 0.8 respectively while experimental measurements were carried out on blades with emissivity of 0.76. Simulated results showed possibility of achieving error less than 1% while experimental result corrected the error to 1.1%. It was thus concluded that the method is appropriate for correcting reflection error commonly encountered in temperature measurement of gas turbine blades.

  4. A literature survey on gas turbines materials - recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9001F gas turbine (rating of about 200 MW) is one of the most recent versions of the 9000 series, benefitting from the developments and technological advances, notably in regard to structural materials. In the framework of the EDF gas turbine engineering and construction program, evaluating the nature of these developments can provide guidance in appraising the construction materials proposed by other manufacturers. After a brief comparison between the Gennevilliers 9001F engine and the 85 MW 9000B gas turbine at Bouchain, ordered by EDF in 1971, various research aspects for optimizing gas turbine refractory material mechanical properties and corrosion resistance (superalloys, monolithic ceramics and composite ceramics) are presented; present current and future trends for high power equipment of this type are also discussed

  5. Development of catalysts for natural gas-fired gas turbine combustors

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Due to continuously stricter regulations regarding emissions from power generation processes, further development of existing gas turbine combustors is essential. A promising alternative to conventional flame combustion in gas turbines is catalytic combustion, which can result in ultralow emission levels of NOx, CO and unburned hydrocarbons. The work presented in this thesis concerns the development of methane oxidation catalysts for gas turbine combustors. The application of catalytic combus...

  6. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Athari; Saeed Soltani; Marc A. Rosen; Seyed Mohammad Seyed Mahmoudi; Tatiana Morosuk

    2015-01-01

    The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT), a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG), and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG). The results show that (1) a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2) at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle...

  7. Application of LES in the study of inlet flow field in marine gas turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Bao-long; SUN Hai-ou; SUN Tao; HU Yan-yong

    2005-01-01

    The structure and aerodynamics performance of gas turbine inlet system is an important part of technology of gas turbine installed on naval vessels. The design and numerical simulations of gas turbine inlet system are conducted and reliable foundation for design and manufacture of marine gas turbine inlet system of high performance is provided. Numerical simulations and experiments of two inlet system models of gas turbine are conducted with satisfactory results and are of significance to the actual application of the inlet system.

  8. Technical and financial analysis of combined cycle gas turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Arshad Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents technical and financial models which were developed in this study to predict the overall performance of combined cycle gas turbine plant in line with the needs of independent power producers in the liberalized market of power sector. Three similar sizes of combined cycle gas turbine power projects up to 200 Megawatt of independent power producers in Pakistan were selected in-order to develop and drive the basic assumptions for the inputs of the models in view of prev...

  9. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hocko Marián; Klimko Marek

    2016-01-01

    This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for g...

  10. A study of variable geometry in advanced gas turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Roy-Aikins, J. E. A.

    1988-01-01

    The loss of performance of a gas turbine engine at off-design is primarily due to the rapid drop of the major cycle performance parameters with decrease in power and this may be aggravated by poor component performance. More and more stringent requirements are being put on the performance demanded from gas turbines and if future engines are to exhibit performances superior to those of present day: engines, then a means must be found of controlling engine cycle such tha...

  11. Economic Study of Solar Thermal Plant based on Gas Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Cabané Fernández, Albert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to carry out an economic analysis of solar thermal plant based on gas turbines. Throughout the project , there is a brief overview of different technologies used today in CSP without going into greater depth in most of them, but emphasizing solar tower technology with solar hybrid gas turbines. Having explained the reason why this technology has been chosen, possible configurations currently found in the solar panorama will be considered. Then, ...

  12. A Microprocessor-Based System for Monitoring Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K.S. Shrivastava

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available The development and testing of hardware and software for a microprocessor-based monitoring system for gas turbines is described in this paper. The operators of gas turbines can be trained to monitor running hours, slip between high and low pressure compressor spools and torque on the reduction gear-box under various conditions ofoperation. The system will replace the traditional method of monitoring these parameters which are more time consuming and error prone.

  13. A Microprocessor-Based System for Monitoring Gas Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    P. K.S. Shrivastava; R P Arora; Jasbir Singh

    1989-01-01

    The development and testing of hardware and software for a microprocessor-based monitoring system for gas turbines is described in this paper. The operators of gas turbines can be trained to monitor running hours, slip between high and low pressure compressor spools and torque on the reduction gear-box under various conditions ofoperation. The system will replace the traditional method of monitoring these parameters which are more time consuming and error prone.

  14. Creep-Fatigue Interactions of Gas Turbine Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tarun Goswami

    1988-01-01

    The military aircraft gas turbine engines are often required to undergo a complex set of.operating conditions where the load varies considerably with respect to time. The temperature range for performing such requirements also increases as the thrust increases.The modern design of gas turbine demands very high thrust-to-weight ratio. In order to achieve this, the design is limited in the low cycle regime. The low cycle regime necessarily has the plasticity effect because of fatigue and inelas...

  15. Combustion of Syngas Fuel in Gas Turbine Can Combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouki Ghenai

    2010-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the combustion of syngas fuel mixture in gas turbine can combustor is presented in this paper. The objective is to understand the impact of the variability in the alternative fuel composition and heating value on combustion performance and emissions. The gas turbine can combustor is designed to burn the fuel efficiently, reduce the emissions, and lower the wall temperature. Syngas mixtures with different fuel compositions are produced through different coal and biom...

  16. Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (BP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path. The thermodynamic analyses of gas turbine cycles with modifications such as intercooling, recuperating, and reheating have shown that intercooling is important to achieving high efficiency gas turbines. The gas turbine industry has considerable interest in adopting intercooling to advanced gas turbines of different capacities. This observation is reinforced by the US Navys Intercooled-Recuperative (ICR) gas turbine development program to power the surface ships. In an intercooler system, the air exiting the LP compressor must be decelerated to provide the necessary residence time in the heat exchanger. The cooler air must subsequently be accelerated towards the inlet of the HP compressor. The circumferential flow nonuniformities inevitably introduced by the heat exchanger, if not isolated, could lead to rotating stall in the compressors, and reduce the overall system performance and efficiency. Also, the pressure losses in the intercooler flow path adversely affect the system efficiency and hence, must be minimized. Thus, implementing intercooling requires fluid dynamically efficient flow path with minimum flow nonuniformities and consequent pressure losses.

  17. Non-contacting shaft seals for gas and steam turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Aubry, James R.; Gillepsie, David

    2012-01-01

    Improvements upon current gas turbine sealing technology performance are essential for decreasing specific fuel consumption to meet stringent future efficiency targets. The clearances between rotating and static components of a gas turbine, which need to be sealed, vary over a flight cycle. Hence, a seal which can passively maintain an optimum clearance, whilst preventing contact between itself and the rotor, is extremely desirable. Various configurations of a Rolls Royce (RR) seal concep...

  18. Availability Analysis of Gas Turbines Used in Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Francisco Martha de Souza; Fernando Jesus Guevara Carazas

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a complex system, such as a gas turbine, is strongly associated with its parts reliability and maintenance policy. That policy not only has influence on the parts’ repair time but also on the parts’ reliability affecting the system degradation and availability. This study presents a method for reliability and availability evaluation of gas turbines installed in an electric power station. The method is based on system reliability concepts, such as functi...

  19. Availability Analysis of Gas Turbines Used in Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Gilberto Francisco Martha; Carazas, Fernando Jesus Guevara

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a complex system, such as a gas turbine, is strongly associated with its parts reliability and maintenance policy. That policy not only has influence on the parts’ repair time but also on the parts’ reliability affecting the system degradation and availability. This study presents a method for reliability and availability evaluation of gas turbines installed in an electric power station. The method is based on system reliability concepts, such as functional tre...

  20. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fox, Dennis S.; Smialek, James L.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Tortorelli, Peter F.; More, Karren L.; Nickel, Klaus G.; Hirata, Takehiko; Yoshida, Makoto; Yuri, Isao

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Figure 26.1 illustrates the requirements for components of an aircraft engine and critical issues [1]. Currently, heat engines are constructed of metal alloys, which meet these requirements within strict temperature limits. In order to extend these temperature limits, ceramic materials have been considered as potential engine materials, due to their high melting points and stability at high temperatures. These materials include oxides, carbides, borides, and nitrides. Interest in using these materials in engines appears to have begun in the 1940s with BeO-based porcelains [2]. During the 1950s, the efforts shifted to cermets. These were carbide-based materials intended to exploit the best properties of metals and ceramics. During the 1960s and 1970s, the silicon-based ceramics silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) were extensively developed. Although the desirable high-temperature properties of SiC and Si3N4 had long been known, consolidation of powders into component-sized bodies required the development of a series of specialized processing routes [3]. For SiC, the major consolidation routes are reaction bonding, hot-pressing, and sintering. The use of boron and carbon as additives which enable sintering was a particularly noteworthy advance [4]. For Si3N4 the major consolidation routes are reaction bonding and hot pressing [5]. Reaction-bonding involves nitridation of silicon powder. Hot pressing involves addition of various refractory oxides, such as magnesia (MgO), alumina (Al2O3), and yttria (y2O3). Variations on these processes include a number of routes including Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), gas-pressure sintering

  1. A numerical study of automotive turbocharger mixed flow turbine inlet geometry for off design performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, T.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mixed flow turbines represent a potential solution to the increasing requirement for high pressure, low velocity ratio operation in turbocharger applications. While literature exists for the use of these turbines at such operating conditions, there is a lack of detailed design guidance for defining the basic geometry of the turbine, in particular, the cone angle - the angle at which the inlet of the mixed flow turbine is inclined to the axis. This investigates the effect and interaction of such mixed flow turbine design parameters. Computational Fluids Dynamics was initially used to investigate the performance of a modern radial turbine to create a baseline for subsequent mixed flow designs. Existing experimental data was used to validate this model. Using the CFD model, a number of mixed flow turbine designs were investigated. These included studies varying the cone angle and the associated inlet blade angle. The results of this analysis provide insight into the performance of a mixed flow turbine with respect to cone and inlet blade angle.

  2. A numerical study of automotive turbocharger mixed flow turbine inlet geometry for off design performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed flow turbines represent a potential solution to the increasing requirement for high pressure, low velocity ratio operation in turbocharger applications. While literature exists for the use of these turbines at such operating conditions, there is a lack of detailed design guidance for defining the basic geometry of the turbine, in particular, the cone angle – the angle at which the inlet of the mixed flow turbine is inclined to the axis. This investigates the effect and interaction of such mixed flow turbine design parameters. Computational Fluids Dynamics was initially used to investigate the performance of a modern radial turbine to create a baseline for subsequent mixed flow designs. Existing experimental data was used to validate this model. Using the CFD model, a number of mixed flow turbine designs were investigated. These included studies varying the cone angle and the associated inlet blade angle. The results of this analysis provide insight into the performance of a mixed flow turbine with respect to cone and inlet blade angle

  3. Flashback mechanisms in lean premixed gas turbine combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Benim, Ali Cemal

    2014-01-01

    Blending fuels with hydrogen offers the potential to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions in gas turbines, but doing so introduces potential new problems such as flashback.  Flashback can lead to thermal overload and destruction of hardware in the turbine engine, with potentially expensive consequences. The little research on flashback that is available is fragmented. Flashback Mechanisms in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustion by Ali Cemal Benim will address not only the overall issue of the flashback phenomenon, but also the issue of fragmented and incomplete research.Presents a coherent review of f

  4. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  5. Advanced Seal Development for Large Industrial Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Raymond E.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts are in progress to develop advanced sealing for large utility industrial gas turbine engines (combustion turbines). Such seals have been under developed for some time for aero gas turbines. It is desired to transition this technology to combustion turbines. Brush seals, film riding face and circumferential seals, and other dynamic and static sealing approaches are being incorporated into gas turbines for aero applications by several engine manufacturers. These seals replace labyrinth or other seals with significantly reduced leakage rates. For utility industrial gas turbines, leakage reduction with advanced sealing can be even greater with the enormous size of the components. Challenges to transitioning technology include: extremely long operating times between overhauls; infrequent but large radial and axial excursions; difficulty in coating larger components; and maintenance, installation, and durability requirements. Advanced sealing is part of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) engine development being done under a cooperative agreement between Westinghouse and the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. Seal development focuses on various types of seals in the 501ATS engine both at dynamic and static locations. Each development includes rig testing of candidate designs and subsequent engine validation testing of prototype seals. This presentation gives an update of the ongoing ATS sealing efforts with special emphasis on brush seals.

  6. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  7. Improving Gas Turbine efficiency by chilled water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The process in a gas turbine plant involves certain losses which can be divided into internal and external losses. In term of internal losses, the main factor is changing the state of working fluid. Since the temperature of atmospheric air may vary within a wide range, its variations can influence strongly the efficiency of gas turbine plants. With growing ambient air temperature, the specific volume of air increases, which can result in a larger work spent for air compression in the compressor. One of the most effective method for increasing the efficiency of gas turbine plants is to raise the gas temperature before the turbine. Since this temperature is the highest temperature in the cycle, this method is applicable for gas turbine plants of any scheme and type. However, there are some limitations on increasing gas temperature. The allowable temperature for reliable operation is between 1000 and 1400 k. However, decreasing ambient air temperature to increase the efficiency of gas turbine plants is easier and at low costs compared to rising gas temperature. As a decrease of 1°C temperature of inlet air increases the power output by 1%. In this paper our objective is improving the efficiency of gas turbine plants by decreasing ambient air temperature. To reach this we use a heat exchanger with different strip fins. The temperature of chilled water is constant on 7C°, but the ambient air temperature is variable between 20 and 36 C°. After designing process some graphs are presented, which give required mass flow rate to reach slightly ambient air temperature.

  8. The gas turbine-modular helium reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is an advanced gas-cooled reactor currently under development in a joint United States-Russian Federation program to provide capacity for disposition of surplus weapons plutonium. A uranium-fueled option for commercial deployment is also being scheduled, which would apply the R and D performed in Russia. The GT-MHR module couples a gas-cooled modular helium reactor (MHR) with a high efficiency modular Brayton cycle gas turbine (GT) energy conversion system. The reactor and power conversion systems are located in a below grade concrete silo that provides protection against sabotage. The GT-MHR is designed to provide unparalleled safety, high thermal efficiency and environmental advantages at a competitive electricity generation cost. The overall level of safety is achieved through a combination of inherent safety characteristics and design selections consisting of: helium coolant, which is single phase, inert, and has no reactivity effects; graphite core, which provides high heat capacity and slow thermal response, and structural stability at very high temperatures; refractory coated particle fuel, which allows extremely high burnup and retains fission products at temperatures much higher than normal operation; negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, which inherently shuts down the core above normal operating temperatures; and an annular, 600 MWt low power density core in an uninsulated steel reactor vessel surrounded by a reactor cavity cooling system. Use of the Brayton cycle helium gas turbine in the GT-MHR provides electric generating capacity at a net plant efficiency of about 48%, a level that can be obtained by no other nuclear reactor technology. Relative to water reactor plants, the high plant efficiency reduces power generation costs, thermal discharge to the environment is reduced by 50%, and actinide production is reduced by about 60% per unit electricity produced. The MHR refractory

  9. Effect of Gas/Steam Turbine Inlet Temperatures on Combined Cycle Having Air Transpiration Cooled Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, O.

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide efforts are being made for further improving the gas/steam combined cycle performance by having better blade cooling technology in topping cycle and enhanced heat recovery in bottoming cycle. The scope of improvement is possible through turbines having higher turbine inlet temperatures (TITs) of both gas turbine and steam turbine. Literature review shows that a combined cycle with transpiration cooled gas turbine has not been analyzed with varying gas/steam TITs. In view of above the present study has been undertaken for thermodynamic study of gas/steam combined cycle with respect to variation in TIT in both topping and bottoming cycles, for air transpiration cooled gas turbine. The performance of combined cycle with dual pressure heat recovery steam generator has been evaluated for different cycle pressure ratios (CPRs) varying from 11 to 23 and the selection diagrams presented for TIT varying from 1,600 to 1,900 K. Both the cycle efficiency and specific work increase with TIT for each pressure ratio. For each TIT there exists an optimum pressure ratio for cycle efficiency and specific work. For the CPR of 23 the best cycle performance is seen at a TIT of 1,900 K for maximum steam temperature of 570 °C, which gives the cycle efficiency of 60.9 % with net specific work of 909 kJ/kg.

  10. Proceedings of the flexible, midsize gas turbine program planning workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission (CEC) held a program planning workshop on March 4--5, 1997 in Sacramento, California on the subject of a flexible, midsize gas turbine (FMGT). The workshop was also co-sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the Gas Turbine Association (GTA), and the Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine Program (CAGT). The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a broad cross section of knowledgeable people to discuss the potential benefits, markets, technical attributes, development costs, and development funding approaches associated with making this new technology available in the commercial marketplace. The participants in the workshop included representatives from the sponsoring organizations, electric utilities, gas utilities, independent power producers, gas turbine manufacturers, gas turbine packagers, and consultants knowledgeable in the power generation field. Thirteen presentations were given on the technical and commercial aspects of the subject, followed by informal breakout sessions that dealt with sets of questions on markets, technology requirements, funding sources and cost sharing, and links to other programs.

  11. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  12. Development of biomass as an alternative fuel for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, J T [Aerospace Research Corp., Roanoke, VA (USA)

    1991-04-01

    A program to develop biomass as an alternative fuel for gas turbines was started at Aerospace Research Corporation in 1980. The research culminated in construction and installation of a power generation system using an Allison T-56 gas turbine at Red Boiling Springs, Tennessee. The system has been successfully operated with delivery of power to the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Emissions from the system meet or exceed EPA requirements. No erosion of the turbine has been detected in over 760 hours of operation, 106 of which were on line generating power for the TVA. It was necessary to limit the turbine inlet temperature to 1450{degrees}F to control the rate of ash deposition on the turbine blades and stators and facilitate periodic cleaning of these components. Results of tests by researchers at Battelle Memorial Institute -- Columbus Division, give promise that deposits on the turbine blades, which must be periodically removed with milled walnut hulls, can be eliminated with addition of lime to the fuel. Operational problems, which are centered primarily around the feed system and engine configuration, have been adequately identified and can be corrected in an upgraded design. The system is now ready for development of a commercial version. The US Department of Energy (DOE) provided support only for the evaluation of wood as an alternative fuel for gas turbines. However, the system appears to have high potential for integration into a hybrid system for the production of ethanol from sorghum or sugar cane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Techno-Economic Analysis of Gas Turbine Compressor Washing to Combat Fouling

    OpenAIRE

    Abass, Kabir Oliade

    2015-01-01

    Among the major deterioration problems a gas turbine encountered while in operation is compressor blade fouling. This is the accumulation and adhesion of dirt and sediment on the compressor blade which contributes between 70 to 85% of gas turbine performance loss. Fouling reduces turbine air mass flow capacity, compressor pressure ratio and overall gas turbine efficiency. In most cases, its effect does not manifest immediately in gas turbine power output and efficiency since they are not meas...

  14. Numerical Modeling and Analysis of Small Gas Turbine Engine : Part I: Analytical Model and Compressor CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaz AHMAD

    2009-01-01

    The thesis work aims at devising analytical thermodynamic model and numerical modeling of the compressor of a small gas turbine to be operated on producer gas with lower heating contents. The turbine will serve as a component of “EXPLORE-Biomass Based Polygeneration” project to meet the internal electrical power requirements of 2-5 KW. The gas turbine engine is of radial type (one stage radial compressor, one stage radial turbine). Small gas turbines give less electrical efficiencies especial...

  15. A Review of Materials for Gas Turbines Firing Syngas Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Thomas [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    Following the extensive development work carried out in the 1990's, gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) systems burning natural gas represent a reliable and efficient power generation technology widely used in many parts of the world. A critical factor was that, in order to operate at the high turbine entry temperatures required for high efficiency operation, aero-engine technology, i.e., single-crystal blades, thermal barrier coatings, and sophisticated cooling techniques had to be rapidly scaled up and introduced into these large gas turbines. The problems with reliability that resulted have been largely overcome, so that the high-efficiency GTCC power generation system is now a mature technology, capable of achieving high levels of availability. The high price of natural gas and concern about emission of greenhouse gases has focused attention on the desirability of replacing natural gas with gas derived from coal (syngas) in these gas turbine systems, since typical systems analyses indicate that IGCC plants have some potential to fulfil the requirement for a zero-emissions power generation system. In this review, the current status of materials for the critical hot gas path parts in large gas turbines is briefly considered in the context of the need to burn syngas. A critical factor is that the syngas is a low-Btu fuel, and the higher mass flow compared to natural gas will tend to increase the power output of the engine. However, modifications to the turbine and to the combustion system also will be necessary. It will be shown that many of the materials used in current engines will also be applicable to units burning syngas but, since the combustion environment will contain a greater level of impurities (especially sulfur, water vapor, and particulates), the durability of some components may be prejudiced. Consequently, some effort will be needed to develop improved coatings to resist attack by sulfur-containing compounds, and also erosion.

  16. Exergy analysis of gas turbine with air bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the exergy analysis of a conventional gas turbine and a gas turbine with air bottoming cycle (ABC) is presented in order to study the important parameters involved in improving the performance characteristics of the ABC based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. In this study, work output, specific fuel consumption (SFC) and the exergy destruction of the components are investigated using a computer model. The variations of the ABC cycle exergy parameters are comprehensively discussed and compared with those of the simple gas turbine. The results indicate that the amount of the exhaust exergy recovery in different operating conditions varies between 8.6 and 14.1% of the fuel exergy, while the exergy destruction due to the extra components in the ABC makes up only 4.7–7.4% of the fuel exergy. This is the reason why the SFC of the ABC is averagely 13.3% less and the specific work 15.4% more than those of the simple gas turbine. The results also reveal that in the ABC cycle, at a small value of pressure ratio, a higher specific work with lower SFC can be achieved in comparison with those of the simple gas turbine. - Highlights: • Exhaust exergy recovery in ABC gas turbine varies with 8.6–14.1% of the fuel exergy. • Irreversibility of the extra devices in ABC makes up 4.7–7.4% of the fuel exergy. • SFC in ABC is poor due to exergy recovery more than extra devices irreversibility. • At the same TIT and Rc, specific work in the ABC is more than simple gas turbine. • The recuperator has the largest contribution in the irreversibility of the ABC

  17. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines had been traditionally used for peak load plants and remote locations as they offer advantage of low installation costs and quick start up time. Their use as a base load generator had not been feasible owing to their poor efficiency. However, with the advent of gas turbines based combined cycle plants (CCPs), continued advances in efficiency are being made. Coupled with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions, coal compatibility and higher unit output, gas turbines are now competing with conventional power plants for base load power generation. Currently, the turbines are designed with TIT of 2300{degrees}F and metal temperatures are maintained around 1700{degrees}F by using air cooling. New higher efficiency ATS turbines will have TIT as high as 2700{degrees}F. To withstand this high temperature improved materials, coatings, and advances in cooling system and design are warranted. Development of advanced materials with better capabilities specifically for land base applications are time consuming and may not be available by ATS time frame or may prove costly for the first generation ATS gas turbines. Therefore improvement in the cooling system of hot components, which can take place in a relatively shorter time frame, is important. One way to improve cooling efficiency is to use better cooling agent. Steam as an alternate cooling agent offers attractive advantages because of its higher specific heat (almost twice that of air) and lower viscosity.

  18. Design and development of gas turbine high temperature reactor 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been designing a Japan's original gas turbine high temperature reactor, GTHTR300 (Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300). The greatly simplified design based on salient features of the HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled reactor) with a closed helium gas turbine enables the GTHTR300 a high efficient and economically competitive reactor to be deployed in early 2010s. Also, the GTHTR300 fully taking advantage of various experiences accumulated in design, construction and operation of the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) and fossil gas turbine systems reduces technological development concerning a reactor system and electric generation system. Original features of this system are core design with two-year refueling interval, conventional steel material usage for a reactor pressure vessel, innovative plant flow scheme and horizontally installed gas turbine unit. Due to these salient features, the capital cost of the GTHTR300 is less than a target cost of 200 thousands Yen/kWe, and the electric generation cost is close to a target cost of 4 Yen/kWh. This paper describes the original design features focusing on reactor core design, fuel design, in-core structure design and reactor pressure vessel design except PCU design. Also, R and D for developing the power conversion unit is briefly described. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  19. Biomass & Natural Gas Based Hydrogen Fuel For Gas Turbine (Power Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made by major power generation equipment manufacturers in the development of market applications for hydrogen fuel use in gas turbines in recent years. Development of a new application using gas turbines for significant reduction of power plant CO2 e...

  20. Development of gas turbines simplified mathematical models; Desenvolvimento de modelos matematicos simplificados das turbinas a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Leonardo Vinicius; Mendes, Pedro Paulo C. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Eletrotecnica; Ferreira, Claudio [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the development and analysis of various mathematical models for gas turbine which can be incorporated to dynamic stability or to electric power systems. The work provides answers for questions such as: the dynamic behaviour of gas turbine driven generator unities, the influence of those equipment in the other elements and the best operational conditions for the equipment.

  1. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  2. Development history of the gas turbine modular high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) as an environmentally agreeable and efficient power source to support the generation of electricity and achieve a broad range of high temperature industrial applications has been an evolutionary process spanning over four decades. This process has included ongoing major development in both the HTGR as a nuclear energy source and associated power conversion systems from the steam cycle to the gas turbine. This paper follows the development process progressively through individual plant designs from early research of the 1950s to the present focus on the gas turbine modular HTGR. (author)

  3. Gas turbine engine with radial diffuser and shortened mid section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, Richard C.; Montgomery, Matthew D.

    2015-09-08

    An industrial gas turbine engine (10), including: a can annular combustion assembly (80), having a plurality of discrete flow ducts configured to receive combustion gas from respective combustors (82) and deliver the combustion gas along a straight flow path at a speed and orientation appropriate for delivery directly onto the first row (56) of turbine blades (62); and a compressor diffuser (32) having a redirecting surface (130, 140) configured to receive an axial flow of compressed air and redirect the axial flow of compressed air radially outward.

  4. Gas Foil Bearing Technology Advancements for Closed Brayton Cycle Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbine systems are under consideration for future space electric power generation. CBC turbines convert thermal energy from a nuclear reactor, or other heat source, to electrical power using a closed-loop cycle. The operating fluid in the closed-loop is commonly a high pressure inert gas mixture that cannot tolerate contamination. One source of potential contamination in a system such as this is the lubricant used in the turbomachine bearings. Gas Foil Bearings (GFB) represent a bearing technology that eliminates the possibility of contamination by using the working fluid as the lubricant. Thus, foil bearings are well suited to application in space power CBC turbine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center is actively researching GFB technology for use in these CBC power turbines. A power loss model has been developed, and the effects of a very high ambient pressure, start-up torque, and misalignment, have been observed and are reported here.

  5. Use of bioethanol in a gas turbine combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of a gas turbine combustor that considers two conventional fuels and one biofuel is presented. The kind of fuel supplied to the combustor can impact in the Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) provoking significant changes in the power output and efficiency. Moreover, it can cause some damage in the initial steps of the gas turbine due to the migration of the hot streak. Natural gas, Diesel and Bioethanol are considered in the combustor in order to compare the performance of the power plant. The use of biofuel in a gas turbine combustor presents some benefits; a) better behavior in the distribution of the TIT, b) slightly higher power output and c) less impact of NOx and CO2 emissions. The analysis was based in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and thermodynamics. The results indicate that it is necessary to increase the mass flow rate of bioethanol to maintain the power output of the turbine, due to a significant reduction of the TIT was observed. On the other hand, the use of bioethanol permits an important reduction of NOx emissions when they are compared with the conventional fuels (natural gas or diesel). Also, a noble benefit is obtained due to the biofuel comes from biomass-derived material, resulting in a reduction of CO2 global warming. -- Highlights: • We apply numerical and thermodynamic analysis to study the effect of the biofuel in gas turbine combustor. • We apply different air distribution to check experimental measurements of NOx emissions using conventional fuels and biofuel. • Two different conditions to study the power output, efficiency and Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT), were applied

  6. Generation of synthesis gas by partial oxidation of natural gas in a gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of partial oxidation in a gas turbine (PO-GT) in the production of synthesis gas for methanol production is explored. In PO-GT, methane is compressed, preheated, partial oxidized and expanded. For the methanol synthesis a 12% gain in thermal efficiency has been calculated for the PO-GT process, while the product cost decrease with 7%. For DME synthesis simular results are achieved. More development on the reactor and turbine are needed to implement this process in the industry

  7. Full hoop casing for midframe of industrial gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Gerald A.; Charron, Richard C.

    2015-12-01

    A can annular industrial gas turbine engine, including: a single-piece rotor shaft spanning a compressor section (82), a combustion section (84), a turbine section (86); and a combustion section casing (10) having a section (28) configured as a full hoop. When the combustion section casing is detached from the engine and moved to a maintenance position to allow access to an interior of the engine, a positioning jig (98) is used to support the compressor section casing (83) and turbine section casing (87).

  8. Gas turbines aim at world power market dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid technology improvements, resulting in high efficiency, emissions reduction and low generation cost, are making gas turbines the generation technology of choice despite some recent reliability problems. The basic reason for the dominance is high efficiency. The rapid pace of gas-turbine technology improvement in the 1990s drove combined-cycle thermal efficiency to nearly 60 percent with natural gas as the fuel. It will probably go even higher after the year 2000. In addition, the gas-fired combined cycle is a bargain. With natural gas prices where they are right now, it is the least-cost generation operation for power producers with access to gas. Many will replace older, high-cost power plants with new gas-fired combined cycle power plants

  9. Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, R. K.; Fable, S.A.; D. Schmidt; L. Arellano; Smith, K O

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of a novel lean premixed low-swirl injector (LSI) concept for ultra-low NOx gas turbines. Low-swirl flame stabilization method is a recent discovery that is being applied to atmospheric heating equipment. Low-swirl burners are simple and support ultra-lean premixed flames that are less susceptible to combustion instabilities than conventional high-swirl designs. As a first step towards transferring this method to turbines, an injector modeled after th...

  10. Hot section components life usage analyses for industrial gas turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Saturday, Egbigenibo Genuine

    2015-01-01

    Industrial gas turbines generally operate at a bit stable power levels and the hot section critical components, especially high pressure turbine blades are prone to failure due to creep. In some cases, plants are frequently shut down, thus, in addition to creep low cycle fatigue failure equally sets in. Avoiding failure calls for proper monitoring of how the lives of these components are being consumed. Efforts are thus being made to estimate the life of the critical components...

  11. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  12. AGT 101: Ceramic component development: Advanced Gas Turbine Program: Topical report, October 1979-July 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Eyck, M.O.; MacBeth, J.W.; Sweeting, T.B.

    1987-11-01

    This topical report summarizes the ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company. Standard Oil, acting as a principal subcontractor and supplier of ceramic components, directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and non-destructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This enabled engine testing to proceed without program slippage, and developed the approaches for producing low-cost, production quantity processes. Standard Oil contributed to the acceptance of ceramics as a viable approach for automotive gas turbine engines and to the advancement of this vital ceramic technology. 174 figs., 33 tabs.

  13. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project

  14. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

  15. Analyzing the influence of combustion gas on a gas turbine by radiation thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Kipngetich, Ketui Daniel

    2015-11-01

    High temperature is the main focus in ongoing development of gas turbines. With increasing turbine inlet temperature, turbine blades undergo complex thermal and structural loading subjecting them to large thermal gradients and, consequently, severe thermal stresses and strain. In order to improve the reliability, safety, and service life of blades, accurate measurement of turbine blade temperature is necessary. A gas turbine can generate high-temperature and high-pressure gas that interferes greatly with radiation from turbine blades. In addition, if the gas along the optical path is not completely transparent, blade temperature measurement is subject to significant measurement error in the gas absorption spectrum. In this study, we analyze gas turbine combustion gases using the κ-distribution method combined with the HITEMP and HITRAN databases to calculate the transmission and emissivity of mixed gases. We propose spectral window methods to analyze the radiation characteristics of high-temperature gas under different spectral ranges, which can be used to select the wavelengths used in multispectral temperature measurement on turbine blades and estimate measurement error in the part of the spectrum with smaller influence (transmission > 0.98).

  16. Automotive gasoline quality analysis by gas chromatography: study of adulteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, L.S.; Azevedo, D.A. [Dept. de Quimica Organica, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); d' Avila, L.A. [Dept. de Processos Organicos, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-10-01

    The addition of organic solvents (light aliphatic, heavy aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) in Brazilian gasoline is unfortunately very frequent, and this illicit practice impares gasoline quality. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses can be used as a procedure to improve the detection of adulterated gasoline. The results showed that adulterated samples and also the type of organic solvent used in adulteration can be detected by comparison of chromatographic profiles (standard samples versus adulterated samples). However, a single GC analysis can detect an adulterated gasoline, and so decrease the number of adulterated samples approved as presenting good quality. (orig.)

  17. CANDU combined cycles featuring gas-turbine engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, a power-plant analysis is conducted to evaluate the thermodynamic merit of various CANDU combined cycles in which continuously operating gas-turbine engines are employed as a source of class IV power restoration. It is proposed to utilize gas turbines in future CANDU power plants, for sites (such as Indonesia) where natural gas or other combustible fuels are abundant. The primary objective is to eliminate the standby diesel-generators (which serve as a backup supply of class III power) since they are nonproductive and expensive. In the proposed concept, the gas turbines would: (1) normally operate on a continuous basis and (2) serve as a reliable backup supply of class IV power (the Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant uses standby gas turbines for this purpose). The backup class IV power enables the plant to operate in poison-prevent mode until normal class IV power is restored. This feature is particularly beneficial to countries with relatively small and less stable grids. Thermodynamically, the advantage of the proposed concept is twofold. Firstly, the operation of the gas-turbine engines would directly increase the net (electrical) power output and the overall thermal efficiency of a CANDU power plant. Secondly, the hot exhaust gases from the gas turbines could be employed to heat water in the CANDU Balance Of Plant (BOP) and therefore improve the thermodynamic performance of the BOP. This may be accomplished via several different combined-cycle configurations, with no impact on the current CANDU Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) full-power operating conditions when each gas turbine is at maximum power. For instance, the hot exhaust gases may be employed for feedwater preheating and steam reheating and/or superheating; heat exchange could be accomplished in a heat recovery steam generator, as in conventional gas-turbine combined-cycle plants. The commercially available GateCycle power plant analysis program was applied to conduct a

  18. Automotive exhaust gas flow control for an ammonia–water absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable part of the energy generated by an automotive internal combustion engine is wasted as heat in the exhaust system. This wasted heat could be recovered and applied to power auxiliary systems in a vehicle, contributing to its overall energy efficiency. In the present work, the experimental analysis of an absorption refrigeration system was performed. The exhaust system of an automotive internal combustion engine was connected to the generator element of an absorption refrigeration system. The performance of the absorption refrigerator was evaluated as a function of the supplied heat. The use of a control strategy for the engine exhaust gas mass flow rate was implemented to optimize the system. Exhaust gas flow was controlled by step-motor actuated valves commanded by a microcontroller in which a proportional-integral control scheme was implemented. Information such as engine torque, speed, key temperatures in the absorption cycle, as well as internal temperatures of the refrigerator was measured in a transient regime. The results indicated that the refrigeration system exhibited better performance when the amount of input heat is controlled based on the temperature of the absorption cycle generator. It was possible to conclude that, by dynamically controlling the amount of input heat, the utilisation range of the absorption refrigeration system powered by exhaust gas heat could be expanded in order to incorporate high engine speed operating conditions. - Highlights: •An absorption refrigerator was driven by automotive exhaust gas heat. •A system for controlling the refrigeration system heat input was developed. •Excessive exhaust gas heat leads to ineffective operation of the refrigerator. •Control of refrigerator's generator temperature led to better performance. •The use of exhaust gas was possible for high engine speeds

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indi-rectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supple-mentary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas or pyrolysis gas. Intuitively, sup-plementary firing is expected to...... former requires a clean, expensive fuel. The latter is limited in efficiency due to limita-tions in material temperature of the heat exchanger. Thus, in the case of an IBFGT, it would appear be very appropriate to use a cheap biomass or waste fuel for low tempera-ture combustion and external firing and...... the recu-perated gas turbine. Instead, other process changes may be considered in order to obtain a high marginal efficiency on natural gas. Two possibilities are discussed: Integration between an IFGT and pyrolysis of the biofuel which will result in a highly efficient utilization of the biomass, and...

  20. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  1. Experimental study on the heavy-duty gas turbine combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of stand and field testing of a combustion chamber for a heavy-duty 150 MW gas turbine are discussed. The model represented one of 14 identical segments of a tubular multican combustor constructed in the scale 1:1. The model experiments were executed at a pressure smaller than in the real gas turbine. The combustion efficiency, pressure loss factor, pattern factor, liner wall temperature, flame radiation, fluctuating pressure, and NOx emission were measured at partial and full load for both model and on-site testing. The comparison of these items of information, received on similar modes in the stand and field tests, has allowed the development of a method of calculation and the improvement of gas turbine combustors

  2. Development of Micromachine Gas Turbine for Portable Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Kousuke; Tanaka, Shuji; Togo, Shinichi; Kanebako, Hideki; Murayama, Motohide; Saji, Nobuyoshi; Sato, Fumihiro; Esashi, Masayoshi

    Micromachine gas turbine with centrifugal impellers of 10mm diameter fabricated by 5-axis micro-milling is under development at Tohoku University, in conjunction with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI), Tohoku-Gakuin University, and Sankyo Seiki Mfg. Co., Ltd. The development is currently at the stage of proving the feasibility of the gas turbine cycle by component tests. Micro-combustors have been developed for both hydrogen and methane fuel. Over 99.9% of the combustion efficiency has been realized in both combustors and the baseline configuration of the combustor for the gas turbine is set. A compressor of 10mm diameter has been developed as a micromachined turbocharger. The performance test of the micromachined turbocharger has been started, and ran up to 566000rpm, which is approximately 65% of the design speed. Compressor performance has been successfully measured along a constant speed line at 55% of the design speed.

  3. Segmented inlet nozzle for gas turbine, and methods of installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompas, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle guide vane assembly is formed of individual arcuate nozzle segments. The arcuate nozzle segments are elastically joined to each other to form a complete ring, with edges abutted to prevent leakage. The resultant nozzle ring is included within the overall gas turbine stationary structure and secured by a mounting arrangement which permits relative radial movement at both the inner and outer mountings. A spline-type outer mounting provides circumferential retention. A complete rigid nozzle ring with freedom to "float" radially results. Specific structures are disclosed for the inner and outer mounting arrangements. A specific tie-rod structure is also disclosed for elastically joining the individual nozzle segments. Also disclosed is a method of assembling the nozzle ring subassembly-by-subassembly into a gas turbine employing temporary jacks.

  4. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz(Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  5. Investigating factors affecting the efficiency of gas turbine power cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghaderi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, the use of gas turbines in power generation cycles has been growing. Small size, easy installation, high power-to-mass ratio and the ability to load and unload the cycle quickly are the advantages of such systems. Low efficiency is considered as one of the major disadvantages of such power plants. Thus providing a way to increase cycle efficiency can be very effective in making the cycle more efficient and thus saving fuel consumed in such systems. In this paper the thermal efficiency of the cycle is introduced through describing the mechanism of gas turbine in power generation cycle. Then we will examine the factors affecting the efficiency of the cycle and finally practical solutions such as increasing the inlet temperature, recovery, internal cooling of the compressor and heat recovery for increasing efficiency will be explained. Evaluating the polytropic efficiency of cycles shows that increasing the inlet gas temperature has little effect on turbine efficiency and is limited at high levels of ηpoly. Water or steam injection into the gas turbines will not only lead to increased efficiency of the cycle, but also increases the flexibility of the turbine, too.

  6. Analysis of gas turbine systems for sustainable energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie

    2000-02-01

    Increased energy demands and fear of global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases call for development of new efficient power generation systems with low or no carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, two different gas turbine power generation systems, which are designed with these issues in mind, are theoretically investigated and analyzed. In the first gas turbine system, the fuel is combusted using a metal oxide as an oxidant instead of oxygen in the air. This process is known as Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). CLC is claimed to decrease combustion exergy destruction and increase the power generation efficiency. Another advantage is the possibility to separate CO{sub 2} without a costly and energy demanding gas separation process. The system analysis presented includes computer-based simulations of CLC gas turbine systems with different metal oxides as oxygen carriers and different fuels. An exergy analysis comparing the exergy destruction of the gas turbine system with CLC and conventional combustion is also presented. The results show that it is theoretically possible to increase the power generation efficiency of a simple gas turbine system by introducing CLC. A combined gas/steam turbine cycle system with CLC is, however, estimated to reach a similar efficiency as the conventional combined cycle system. If the benefit of easy and energy-efficient CO{sub 2} separation is accounted for, a CLC combined cycle system has a potential to be favorable compared to a combined cycle system with CO{sub 2} separation. In the second investigation, a solid, CO{sub 2}-neutral biomass fuel is used in a small-scale externally fired gas turbine system for cogeneration of power and district heating. Both open and closed gas turbines with different working fluids are simulated and analyzed regarding thermodynamic performance, equipment size, and economics. The results show that it is possible to reach high power generation efficiency and total (power

  7. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, W. Gene

    1999-11-14

    Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

  8. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  9. Helium gas turbine conceptual design by genetic/gradient optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium gas turbine is the key component of the power conversion system for direct cycle High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR), of which an optimal design is essential for high efficiency. Gas turbine design currently is a multidisciplinary process in which the relationships between constraints, objective functions and variables are very noisy. Due to the ever-increasing complexity of the process, it has becomes very hard for the engineering designer to foresee the consequences of changing certain parts. With classic design procedures which depend on adaptation to baseline design, this problem is usually averted by choosing a large number of design variables based on the engineer's judgment or experience in advance, then reaching a solution through iterative computation and modification. This, in fact, leads to a reduction of the degree of freedom of the design problem, and therefore to a suboptimal design. Furthermore, helium is very different in thermal properties from normal gases; it is uncertain whether the operation experiences of a normal gas turbine could be used in the conceptual design of a helium gas turbine. Therefore, it is difficult to produce an optimal design with the general method of adaptation to baseline. Since their appearance in the 1970s, Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been broadly used in many research fields due to their robustness. GAs have also been used recently in the design and optimization of turbo-machines. Researchers at the General Electronic Company (GE) developed an optimization software called Engineous, and used GAs in the basic design and optimization of turbines. The ITOP study group from Xi'an Transportation University also did some work on optimization of transonic turbine blades. However, since GAs do not have a rigorous theory base, many problems in utilities have arisen, such as premature convergence and uncertainty; the GA doesn't know how to locate the optimal design, and doesn't even know if the optimal solution

  10. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  11. An Innovative Solution for Suburban Railroad Transportation: The Gas Turbine-Hybrid Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sciubba

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper reports the latest results of a study conducted on a hybrid train in which a gas turbine, operating in several alternative control modes (fixed point, on-off or load-following, generates the electrical energy for recharging a battery package and for driving the electric motors of a suburban train. The model, originally developed for automotive applications, has been validated by experimental tests performed on an ELLIOTT TA-45 GT group in the ENEA-Casaccia Research Center.

    This paper describes the preliminary design of the traction system and the choice of the energy flow control strategy. Numerical simulations have been carried out, based on an actual train mission (the Norwegian railroad track between Asker and Lillehammer and on industrial data for the single components. Following two different approaches, separate optimizations of the gas turbine set and battery package are performed, in which the objective function is the monetary cost per mission or, which is equivalent, the kWh/(t·km for a given mission profile.

  12. The need for output-based standards for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines output-based emission standards based on overall thermal efficiency for combustion sources including gas turbines that are used in combined heat and power applications. The criteria for emission standards are outlined and traditional approaches to emission standards, and efficiency or output-based standards are considered. Issues and challenges related to the drive to ultra low NOx ppm concentration standards for gas turbines are highlighted, and the development of Canadian National Emission guidelines is discussed along with NOx emission target levels, power output allowances, heat recovery allowances, and cost effectiveness of NOx control systems

  13. Performance adaptation of gas turbines for power generation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoutsanis, Elias

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges that the world is facing is that of providing everyone access to safe and clean energy supplies. Since the liberalization of the electricity market in the UK during the 1990s many combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants have been developed as these plants are more energy efficient and friendlier to the environment. The core component in a combined cycle plant is the gas turbine. In this project the MEA’s Pulrose Power Station CCGT plant is under invest...

  14. MOBILE POWER STATIONS BASED ON AIRCRAFT GAS-TURBINE ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Kavelin, V.; National Aviation University, Kyiv

    2012-01-01

     Gas-turbine power station is a modern, high-technology plant, which generates electricity and heat energy. It consists of one or more gas-turbine engines – power-plants ganged with electric generator and combined into one power complex by controlling system. Mobile power stations are used in districts, which are distant from source of electric power, e.g. during building of waterworks, mines, bore-holes drilling etc. Primary purpose of mobile power stations is their usage as emergency source...

  15. Gas turbine installations in nuclear power plants in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At each of the four nuclear power stations in Sweden (Ringhals, Forsmark, Oskarshamn, Barsebaeck) gas turbine generating sets have been installed. These units are normally used for peak load operation dictated of grid and System requirements but they are also connected to supply the electrical auxiliary load of the nuclear plant as reserve power sources. The gas turbines have automatic start capability under certain abnormal conditions (such as reactor trips, low frequency grid etc) but they can also be started manually from several different locations. Starting time is approximately 2- 3 minutes from start up to full load. (author)

  16. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  17. Overview of zirconia with respect to gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Phase relationships and the mechanical properties of zirconia are examined as well as the thermal conductivity, deformation, diffusion, and chemical reactivity of this refractory material. Observations from the literature particular to plasma-sprayed material and implications for gas turbine engine applications are discussed. The literature review indicates that Mg-PSZ (partially stabilized zirconia) and Ca-PSZ are unsuitable for advanced gas turbine applications; a thorough characterization of the microstructure of plasma-sprayed zirconia is needed. Transformation-toughened zirconia may be suitable for use in monolithic components.

  18. Thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine and diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Brindley, William J.; Bailey, M. Murray

    1989-01-01

    The present state of development of thin thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines and thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines is assessed. Although current thermal barrier coatings are flying in certain gas turbine engines, additional advances will be needed for future engines. Thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines have advanced to the point where they are being seriously considered for the next generation of engine. Since coatings for truck engines is a young field of inquiry, continued research and development efforts will be required to help bring this technology to commercialization.

  19. Improvements in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines for the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The gas turbine propulsion system has been playing the most significant role in the evolution and development of present-day aircraft, and has become the limiting technology for developing most new aircraft. However, the jet engine still remains the preferred propulsion choice. Aircraft gas turbines in one form or the other, viz. turbojet, turbofan, turboprop or turboshaft, have been used in commercial passenger aircraft, high performance military aircraft and in rotary wing aircraft (helicopters. The emphasis in engine development programmes world over seems to be in reducing fuel consumption, increasing thrust and in reducing weight.

  20. Fuel cell/gas turbine integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knickerbocker, T. [Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-10-19

    The Allison Engine Company`s very high efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycle program is discussed. The power cycle has the following advantages: high system efficiency potential, reduced emissions inherent to fuel cells, unmanned operation(no boiler) particularly suited for distributed power, and existing product line matches fuel cell operating environment. Cost effectiveness, estimates, and projections are given.

  1. Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbine Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to test and substantiate erosion-resistant (ER) nanocoatings for application on compressor airfoils for gas turbine engines in both industrial gas turbines and commercial aviation.

  2. A novel algorithm for the simulation of an automotive turbocharger turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Predstavljen je inovativni algoritem za simulacijo delovanja turbine turbopolnilnika z metodo karakteristik, ki omogoča simulacijo spremenljivega izstopnega oz. vstopnega tlaka na robnem elementu in spremenljivih fizikalnih lastnosti plina. Teorija metode karakteristik sloni na predpostavki idealnega plina z nespremenljivimi fizikalnimi lastnostmi - lastnosti plina se ne spreminjajo s temperaturo in koncentracijo. Zato so, za doseganje natančnejših in resničnejših rezultatov, izpeljane izpopo...

  3. Analysis of Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine for Wet Biomass Fuels Based on commercial micro gas turbine data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    The results of a study of a novel gas turbine configuration is being presented. In this power plant, an Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (IFGT), is being fueled with very wet biomass. The exhaust gas is being used to dry the biomass, but instead of striving to recover as much as possible of the thermal...... turbines. The study shows that the novel configuration, in which an IFGT and a drying unit have been combined, has considerable merit, in that its performance exceeds that of the currently available methods converting wet biomass to electric power by a factor of five. The configuration also has clear...... energy, which has been the practice up to now, the low temperature exhaust gases after having served as drying agent, are lead out into the environment; a simple change of process integration that has a profound effect on the performance. Four different cycles have been studied. These are the Simple IFGT...

  4. Technical and financial analysis of combined cycle gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Arshad Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents technical and financial models which were developed in this study to predict the overall performance of combined cycle gas turbine plant in line with the needs of independent power producers in the liberalized market of power sector. Three similar sizes of combined cycle gas turbine power projects up to 200 Megawatt of independent power producers in Pakistan were selected in-order to develop and drive the basic assumptions for the inputs of the models in view of prevailing Government of Pakistan’s two components of electricity purchasing tariff that is energy purchase price and capacity purchase price at higher voltage grid station terminal from independent power producers. The levelized electricity purchasing tariff over life of plant on gaseous fuel at 60 percent plant load factor was 6.47 cent per kilowatt hour with energy purchase price and capacity purchase prices of 3.54 and 2.93 cents per kilowatt hour respectively. The outcome of technical models of gas turbine, steam turbine and combined cycle gas turbine power were found in close agreement with the projects under consideration and provides opportunity of evaluation of technical and financial aspects of combined cycle power plant in a more simplified manner with relatively accurate results. At 105 Celsius exit temperature of heat recovery steam generator flue gases the net efficiency of combined cycle gas turbine was 48.8 percent whereas at 125 Celsius exit temperature of heat recovery steam generator flue gases it was 48.0 percent. Sensitivity analysis of selected influential components of electricity tariff was also carried out.

  5. Availability Analysis of Gas Turbines Used in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Francisco Martha de Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of a complex system, such as a gas turbine, is strongly associated with its parts reliability and maintenance policy. That policy not only has influence on the parts’ repair time but also on the parts’ reliability affecting the system degradation and availability. This study presents a method for reliability and availability evaluation of gas turbines installed in an electric power station. The method is based on system reliability concepts, such as functional tree development, application of failure mode and effects analysis to identify critical components for improvement of system reliability, and reliability and maintainability evaluation based on a historical failure database. The method also proposes the application of Reliability Centered Maintenance concepts to improve complex system maintenance policies aimed at the reduction of unexpected failure occurrences in critical components. The method is applied to the analysis of two F series gas turbines, each with an output of 150 MW, installed in a 500 MW combined cycle power plant. The reliability and availability of the turbines are simulated based on a five-year failure database. The availability analysis shows different results for each turbine, one presenting 99% and the other 96% availability, indicating differences in their systems installation and operation.

  6. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Zhao; Chris Yuan; Huajun Cao; Qiang Zhai

    2011-01-01

    Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy...

  7. Characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion in gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Basic characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion in gas turbine conditions were studied. → The study was based on detailed chemical kinetics and thermodynamic calculations. → Critical O2/CO2 ratio for combustion stability and quenching was obtained. → Effect of inlet pressure on the combustion stability and quenching was examined. → Feasible oxy-fuel operation domain under gas turbine conditions was investigated. -- Abstract: This paper reports on a numerical study of the thermodynamic and basic combustion characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion in gas turbine related conditions using detailed chemical kinetic and thermodynamic calculations. The oxy-fuels considered are mixtures of CH4, O2, CO2 and H2O, representing natural gas combustion under nitrogen free gas turbine conditions. The GRI Mech 3.0 chemical kinetic mechanism, consisting of 53 species and 325 reactions, is used in the chemical kinetic calculations. Two mixing conditions in the combustion chambers are considered; a high intensity turbulence mixing condition where the combustion chamber is assumed to be a well-stirred reactor, and a typical non-premixed flame condition where chemical reactions occur in thin flamelets. The required residence time in the well-stirred reactor for the oxidation of fuels is simulated and compared with typical gas turbine operation. The flame temperature and extinction conditions are determined for non-premixed flames under various oxidizer inlet temperature and oxidizer compositions. It is shown that most oxy-fuel combustion conditions may not be feasible if the fuel, oxygen and diluent are not supplied properly to the combustors. The numerical calculations suggest that for oxy-fuel combustion there is a range of oxygen/diluent ratio within which the flames can be not only stable, but also with low remaining oxygen and low emission of unburned intermediates in the flue gas.

  8. Technical assessment of gas turbine cycle for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas turbine cycle appears to be the best near-term power conversion method for the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The author extensively investigates the gas turbine cycle including direct cycle, open indirect cycle and closed indirect cycle with medium of helium, nitrogen and air. Each cycle is analyzed and optimized from the thermodynamic standpoint and its turbo-machine is aerodynamically designed. As a result, the direct cycle with helium is an ideal option for the HTGR gas turbine cycle; however it is not easy to be realized based on current technology. The closed indirect cycle with helium or nitrogen is a practical one at present time, which can get the gas turbine cycle and lay technical bases for the future direct cycle

  9. Creep-Fatigue Interactions of Gas Turbine Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Goswami

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The military aircraft gas turbine engines are often required to undergo a complex set of.operating conditions where the load varies considerably with respect to time. The temperature range for performing such requirements also increases as the thrust increases.The modern design of gas turbine demands very high thrust-to-weight ratio. In order to achieve this, the design is limited in the low cycle regime. The low cycle regime necessarily has the plasticity effect because of fatigue and inelastic time dependent permanent deformation because of creep. Fatigue and creep interaction studies are very important for the safe life design of critical components such as turbine discs and blades.

  10. Gas turbine cooling modeling - Thermodynamic analysis and cycle simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordal, Kristin

    1999-02-01

    Considering that blade and vane cooling are a vital point in the studies of modern gas turbines, there are many ways to include cooling in gas turbine models. Thermodynamic methods for doing this are reviewed in this report, and, based on some of these methods, a number of model requirements are set up and a Cooled Gas Turbine Model (CGTM) for design-point calculations of cooled gas turbines is established. Thereafter, it is shown that it is possible to simulate existing gas turbines with the CGTM. Knowledge of at least one temperature in the hot part of the turbine (TET, TRIT or possibly TIT) is found to be vital for a complete heat balance over the turbine. The losses, which are caused by the mixing of coolant and main flow, are in the CGTM considered through a polytropic efficiency reduction factor S. Through the study of S, it can be demonstrated that there is more to gain from coolant reduction in a small and/or old turbine with poor aerodynamics, than there is to gain in a large, modern turbine, where the losses due to interaction between coolant and main flow are, relatively speaking, small. It is demonstrated, at the design point (TET=1360 deg C, {pi}=20) for the simple-cycle gas turbine, that heat exchanging between coolant and fuel proves to have a large positive impact on cycle efficiency, with an increase of 0.9 percentage points if all of the coolant passes through the heat exchanger. The corresponding improvement for humidified coolant is 0.8 percentage points. A design-point study for the HAT cycle shows that if all of the coolant is extracted after the humidification tower, there is a decrease in coolant requirements of 7.16 percentage points, from 19.58% to 12.52% of the compressed air, and an increase in thermal efficiency of 0.46 percentage points, from 53.46% to 53.92%. Furthermore, it is demonstrated with a TET-parameter variation, that the cooling of a simple-cycle gas turbine with humid air can have a positive effect on thermal efficiency

  11. Reactor core design of Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been designing Japan's original gas turbine high temperature reactor, Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300 (GTHTR300). The greatly simplified design based on salient features of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) with a closed helium gas turbine enables the GTHTR300 a highly efficient and economically competitive reactor to be deployed in early 2010s. Also, the GTHTR300 fully taking advantage of various experiences accumulated in design, construction and operation of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) and existing fossil fired gas turbine systems reduces technological development concerning a reactor system and electric generation system. Original design features of this system are the reactor core design based on a newly proposed refueling scheme named sandwich shuffling, conventional steel material usage for a reactor pressure vessel (RPV), an innovative coolant flow scheme and a horizontally installed gas turbine unit. The GTHTR300 can be continuously operated without the refueling for 2 years. Due to these salient features, the capital cost of the GTHTR300 is less than a target cost of 200,000 yen (1667 US$)/kW e, and the electric generation cost is close to a target cost of 4 yen (3.3 US cents)/kW h. This paper describes the original design features focusing on the reactor core design and the in-core structure design, including the innovative coolant flow scheme for cooling the RPV. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan

  12. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  13. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  14. Design and Development of Smartcoatings for Gas Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrappa, I.; Yashwanth, I.V.S

    2010-01-01

    The design and development of smart coatings to combat type I & type II hot corrosion and high temperature oxidation in gas turbines is a challenging problem to the Corrosion Engineer. The developmental work in this area has successfully resulted a smart coating, which provided an excellent protection to the superalloys against all the concerns that are

  15. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that ste

  16. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur; Bijl, Anton; Alst, van Niek; Bramer, Eddy; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been perform

  17. BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN GAS-TURBINE-BASED SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a comparative evaluation of a range of biomass power generation systems. he objective was to identify systems most suitable for unique properties of biomass. he characteristics of biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance of several gas-turbine-b...

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell – Gas Turbine Hybrid Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Henke, Moritz; Willich, Caroline; Steilen, Mike; Kallo, Josef; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A model of a hybrid power plant consisting of SOFC and a gas turbine is presented. Simulations are carried out for a different number of SOFC stacks while keeping the output power of the SOFC constant. Results show that the effect of stack number on system performance is only marginal within the investigated range. Operating conditions of the SOFC, however, are strongly influenced.

  19. Parameters controlling nitric oxide emissions from gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, J. B.; Mikus, T.

    1973-01-01

    Nitric oxide forms in the primary zone of gas turbine combustors where the burnt gas composition is close to stoichiometric and gas temperatures are highest. It was found that combustor air inlet conditions, mean primary zone fuel-air ratio, residence time, and the uniformity of the primary zone are the most important variables affecting nitric oxide emissions. Relatively simple models of the flow in a gas turbine combustor, coupled with a rate equation for nitric oxide formation via the Zeldovich mechanism are shown to correlate the variation in measured NOx emissions. Data from a number of different combustor concepts are analyzed and shown to be in reasonable agreement with predictions. The NOx formation model is used to assess the extent to which an advanced combustor concept, the NASA swirl can, has produced a lean well-mixed primary zone generally believed to be the best low NOx emissions burner type.

  20. Modeling of lean premixed combustion in stationary gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean premixed combustion (LPC) of natural gas is of considerable interest in land-based gas turbines for power generation. However, modeling such combustors and adequately addressing the concerns of LPC, which include emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons, remains a significant challenge. In this paper, characteristics of published simulations of gas turbine combustion are summarised and methods of modeling turbulent combustion are reviewed. The velocity-composition PDF method is selected for implementation in a new comprehensive model that uses an unstructured-grid flow solver. Reduced mechanisms for methane combustion are evaluated in a partially stirred reactor model. Comprehensive model predictions of swirl-stabilised LPC of natural gas are compared with detailed measurements obtained in a laboratory-scale combustor. The model is also applied to industrial combustor geometries. (Author)

  1. Combustion and oxidation kinetics of alternative gas turbines fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Sirjean, Baptiste; Fournet, René; Bounaceur, Roda; Vierling, Matthieu; Montagne, Pierre; Molière, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Heavy duty gas turbines are very flexible combustion tools that accommodate a wide variety of gaseous and liquid fuels ranging from natural gas to heavy oils, including syngas, LPG, petrochemical streams (propene, butane...), hydrogen-rich refinery by-products; naphtha; ethanol, biodiesel, aromatic gasoline and gasoil, etc. The contemporaneous quest for an increasing panel of primary energies leads manufacturers and operators to explore an ever larger segment of unconventional power generatio...

  2. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  3. Low Cost Gas Turbine Off-Design Prediction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinjako, Jeremy

    This thesis seeks to further explore off-design point operation of gas turbines and to examine the capabilities of GasTurb 12 as a tool for off-design analysis. It is a continuation of previous thesis work which initially explored the capabilities of GasTurb 12. The research is conducted in order to: 1) validate GasTurb 12 and, 2) predict off-design performance of the Garrett GTCP85-98D located at the Arizona State University Tempe campus. GasTurb 12 is validated as an off-design point tool by using the program to predict performance of an LM2500+ marine gas turbine. Haglind and Elmegaard (2009) published a paper detailing a second off-design point method and it includes the manufacturer's off-design point data for the LM2500+. GasTurb 12 is used to predict off-design point performance of the LM2500+ and compared to the manufacturer's data. The GasTurb 12 predictions show good correlation. Garrett has published specification data for the GTCP85-98D. This specification data is analyzed to determine the design point and to comment on off-design trends. Arizona State University GTCP85-98D off-design experimental data is evaluated. Trends presented in the data are commented on and explained. The trends match the expected behavior demonstrated in the specification data for the same gas turbine system. It was originally intended that a model of the GTCP85-98D be constructed in GasTurb 12 and used to predict off-design performance. The prediction would be compared to collected experimental data. This is not possible because the free version of GasTurb 12 used in this research does not have a module to model a single spool turboshaft. This module needs to be purchased for this analysis.

  4. Exergy and Environmental Impact Assessment between Solar Powered Gas Turbine and Conventional Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rajaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recuperator is a heat exchanger that is used in gas turbine power plants to recover energy from outlet hot gases to heat up the air entering the combustion chamber. Similarly, the combustion chamber inlet air can be heated up to temperatures up to 1000 (°C by solar power tower (SPT as a renewable and environmentally benign energy source. In this study, comprehensive comparison between these two systems in terms of energy, exergy, and environmental impacts is carried out. Thermodynamic simulation of both cycles is conducted using a developed program in MATLAB environment. Exergetic performances of both cycles and their emissions are compared and parametric study is carried out. A new parameter (renewable factor is proposed to evaluate resources quality and measure how green an exergy loss or destruction or a system as a whole is. Nonrenewable exergy destruction and loss are reduced compared to GT with recuperator cycle by 34.89% and 47.41%, respectively. Reductions in CO2, NOx, and CO compared to GT with recuperator cycle by 49.92%, 66.14%, and 39.77%, respectively, are in line with renewable factor value of around 55.7 which proves the ability of the proposed green measure to evaluate and compare the cycles performances.

  5. Operability of an Ejector Enhanced Pulse Combustor in a Gas Turbine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Dougherty, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A pressure-gain combustor comprised of a mechanically valved, liquid fueled pulsejet, an ejector, and an enclosing shroud, was coupled to a small automotive turbocharger to form a self-aspirating, thrust producing gas turbine engine. The system was constructed in order to investigate issues associated with the interaction of pulsed combustion devices and turbomachinery. Installed instrumentation allowed for sensing of distributed low frequency pressure and temperature, high frequency pressure in the shroud, fuel flow rate, rotational speed, thrust, and laboratory noise. The engine ran successfully and reliably, achieving a sustained thrust of 5 to 6 lbf, and maintaining a rotor speed of approximately 90,000 rpm, with a combustor pressure gain of approximately 4 percent. Numerical simulations of the system without pressure-gain combustion indicated that the turbocharger would not operate. Thus, the new combustor represented a substantial improvement in system performance. Acoustic measurements in the shroud and laboratory indicated turbine stage sound pressure level attenuation of 20 dB. This is consistent with published results from detonative combustion experiments. As expected, the mechanical reed valves suffered considerable damage under the higher pressure and thermal loading characteristics of this system. This result underscores the need for development of more robust valve systems for this application. The efficiency of the turbomachinery components did not appear to be significantly affected by unsteadiness associated with pulsed combustion, though the steady component efficiencies were already low, and thus not expected to be particularly sensitive.

  6. Generic Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Performance: The development of the gas turbine simulation program GSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical modelling and simulation have played a critical role in the research and development towards today’s powerful and efficient gas turbine engines for both aviation and power generation. The simultaneous progress in modelling methods, numerical methods, software development tools and methods,

  7. Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system for the olive oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The olive oil industry generates during the extraction process several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings, exhausted pomace and olive pits. These renewable wastes could be used for power and heat applications. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of two small-scale CHP systems: a gasification- gas turbine system and an EFGT (externally fired gas turbine system). For this reason, several parameters have been calculated: generated heat and power, electric and overall efficiencies, biomass consumption, exergy efficiency, optimum pressure ratio, etc. These systems provide 30 kWe and about 60kWth. Simulation results show that the electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in EFGT system (19.1% and 59.3%, respectively) are significantly higher than those obtained in the gasification plant (12.3% and 45.4%). The proposed CHP systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo® software. -- Highlights: ► Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system. ► Olive oil industry generates several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings. ► Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. ► Systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo® software. ► Simulation results show electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in the systems.

  8. Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine Program: Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollenbacher, R.; Kesser, K.; Beishon, D.

    1994-12-01

    The Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine (CAGT) Program is an advanced gas turbine research and development program whose goal is to accelerate the commercial availability, to within the turn of the century, of high efficiency aeroderivative gas turbines for electric power generating applications. In the first project phase, research was conducted to prove or disprove the research hypothesis that advanced aeroderivative gas turbine systems can provide a promising technology alternative, offering high efficiency and good environmental performance characteristics in modular sizes, for utility applications. This $5 million, Phase 1 research effort reflects the collaborative efforts of a broad and international coalition of industries and organizations, both public and private, that have pooled their resources to assist in this research. Included in this coalition are: electric and gas utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the principal aircraft engine manufacturers. Additionally, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission have interacted with the CAGT on both technical and executive levels as observers and sources of funding. The three aircraft engine manufacturer-led research teams participating in this research include: Rolls-Royce, Inc., and Bechtel; the Turbo Power and Marine Division of United Technologies and Fluor Daniel; and General Electric Power Generation, Stewart and Stevenson, and Bechtel. Each team has investigated advanced electric power generating systems based on their high-thrust (60,000 to 100,000 pounds) aircraft engines. The ultimate goal of the CAGT program is that the community of stakeholders in the growing market for natural-gas-fueled, electric power generation can collectively provide the right combination of market-pull and technology-push to substantially accelerate the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency aeroderivative technologies.

  9. Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a demonstration of a novel lean premixed low-swirl injector (LSI) concept for ultra-low NOx gas turbines. Low-swirl flame stabilization method is a recent discovery that is being applied to atmospheric heating equipment. Low-swirl burners are simple and support ultra-lean premixed flames that are less susceptible to combustion instabilities than conventional high-swirl designs. As a first step towards transferring this method to turbines, an injector modeled after the design of atmospheric low-swirl burner has been tested up to T=646 F and 10 atm and shows good promise for future development

  10. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    OpenAIRE

    Meor Said Mior Azman; Osman Muhammad Hafizuddin; Megat Yusoff Puteri Sri Melor; Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar; Syed Ahmad Ghazali Syed M Afdhal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT) under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure ex...

  11. Ztek`s ultra high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.; Nathanson, D. [Ztek Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-10-19

    Ztek is proceeding on development of an ultra-high efficiency hybrid system of its Planar SOFC with a gas turbine, realizing shared cost and performance benefits. The gas turbine as the Balance-of-Plant was a logical selection from a fuel cell system perspective because of (1) the high-power-density energy conversion of gas turbines; (2) the unique compatibility of the Ztek Planar SOFC with gas turbines, and (3) the availability of low-cost commercial gas turbine systems. A Tennessee Valley Authority/Ztek program is ongoing, which addresses operation of the advanced Planar SOFC stacks and design scale-up for utility power generation applications.

  12. The effects of solarization on the performance of a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Christiaan; van der Spuy, Johan; von Backström, Theodor

    2016-05-01

    Various hybrid solar gas turbine configurations exist. The Stellenbosch University Solar Power Thermodynamic (SUNSPOT) cycle consists of a heliostat field, solar receiver, primary Brayton gas turbine cycle, thermal storage and secondary Rankine steam cycle. This study investigates the effect of the solarization of a gas turbine on its performance and details the integration of a gas turbine into a solar power plant. A Rover 1S60 gas turbine was modelled in Flownex, a thermal-fluid system simulation and design code, and validated against a one-dimensional thermodynamic model at design input conditions. The performance map of a newly designed centrifugal compressor was created and implemented in Flownex. The effect of the improved compressor on the performance of the gas turbine was evident. The gas turbine cycle was expanded to incorporate different components of a CSP plant, such as a solar receiver and heliostat field. The solarized gas turbine model simulates the gas turbine performance when subjected to a typical variation in solar resource. Site conditions at the Helio100 solar field were investigated and the possibility of integrating a gas turbine within this system evaluated. Heat addition due to solar irradiation resulted in a decreased fuel consumption rate. The influence of the additional pressure drop over the solar receiver was evident as it leads to decreased net power output. The new compressor increased the overall performance of the gas turbine and compensated for pressure losses incurred by the addition of solar components. The simulated integration of the solarized gas turbine at Helio100 showed potential, although the solar irradiation is too little to run the gas turbine on solar heat alone. The simulation evaluates the feasibility of solarizing a gas turbine and predicts plant performance for such a turbine cycle.

  13. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Eleventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.; Wagner, C.E.

    1975-07-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed initial heat balance testing of a baseline engine. An additional 450 hours were run on ceramic regenerators and seals. Seal wear rates are very good, and the elastomeric mounting system was satisfactory. An engine/control oil supply system based on the power steering pump is successfully operating in baseline vehicles. The design of the upgraded engine power turbine nozzle actuator was finalized, and layouts of the inlet guide vane actuator are in process. A lock-up torque converter was installed in the free rotor vehicle. Baseline engine and vehicle testing of water injection and variable inlet guide vanes was completed. A thermal analysis of the gas generator is in process. A steady-state, full power analysis was made. A three-dimensional stress analysis of the compressor cover was made. The power turbine nozzle actuating system layout was completed. The analytical studies of the power turbine rotor bearings were completed. MTI completed the design of the gas generator rotor simulation fixture and is starting to build it. Optimized reduction gears were successfully tested in a baseline engine.

  14. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, K.

    1947-01-01

    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indirectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas, or pyrolysis gas. {The interest in this cycle arise from a recent...... requires a clean, expensive fuel. The latter is limited in efficiency due to limitations in material temperature of the heat exchanger. Thus, in the case of an IBFGT, it would be very appropriate to use a cheap biomass or waste fuel for low temperature combustion and external firing and use natural gas at...... analysed: Integration between an IFGT and pyrolysis of the biofuel which will result in a highly efficient utilization of the biomass, and integration between external biomass firing, internal biomass firing and internal natural gas firing. The marginal efficiency of the natural gas is in this case found...

  16. Gas turbine combustor exit piece with hinged connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, Richard C.; Pankey, William W.

    2016-04-26

    An exit piece (66) with an inlet throat (67) that conducts a combustion gas flow (36A) in a path (82) from a combustor (63) to an annular chamber (68) that feeds the first blade section (37) of a gas turbine (26). The exit piece further includes an outlet portion (69) that forms a circumferential segment of the annular chamber. The outlet portion interconnects with adjacent outlet portions by hinges (78A, 78B, 80A, 80B). Each hinge may have a hinge axis (82A, 82B) parallel to a centerline (21) of the turbine. Respective gas flows (36A) are configured by an assembly (60) of the exit pieces to converge on the feed chamber (68) into a uniform helical flow that drives the first blade section with minimal circumferential variations in force.

  17. Status of external firing of biomass in gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bram, S.; De Ruyck, J.; Novak Zdravkovic, A.

    2005-02-15

    Dry biomass can be used as a fuel for gas turbines in different ways: it can be gasified or pyrolysed for internal combustion or it can be used as an external heat source. This heat source can be used to replace the combustor, to preheat the combustion air, or eventually to feed a primary reformer to yield hydrogen for the gas turbine. The present paper discusses the use of biomass as on external heat source from both a technical and an economic point of view. Past, present, and future projects are discussed. Possibilities range from cogeneration with microturbines where the biomass can cover a major part of the primary energy, to combined cycle plants where biomass can replace a small percentage of the natural gas. A microturbine EFGT project under construction is disclosed. (Author)

  18. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fifteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-07-30

    Progress is reported for a research program to demonstrate an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which would meet the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, have significantly improved fuel economy and be competitive in performance, reliability and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Chrysler Corporation's Sixth Generation Gas Turbine Engine, having been selected as most representative of the state-of-the-art at the beginning of this program, has been used as the Baseline Engine. This is a 4:1 pressure ratio regenerative engine with variable power turbine nozzles which meets the .41 HC, 3.4 CO, 3.0 NOx grams/mile original 1975 emissions standards. Baseline vehicles are intermediate-size, 4-door sedans modified to accept the turbine engines. The Baseline cars are being actively utilized in a variety of Bicentennial/Energy related displays and demonstrations. All Baseline Engine improvement tasks have been completed. Emissions tests using COED coal derived fuel were conducted. The first Upgraded Engine was assembled, installed in a test cell, and initial test runs up to 70% speed were conducted. Control of the gas generator shaft instabilities which have resulted in failures of the gas lubricated bearing, was demonstrated by providing a low spring rate, squeeze film damping, and reducing the motion restraint caused by thrust loadings. The power turbine shaft dynamics fixture was run successfully to 60,000 rpm. Conversion of the production cars for the Upgraded Engine is continuing. The two four-door cars are nearly complete.

  19. Technical and economic prospects for the gas-turbine MHTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature capability of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel system, in conjunction with the Modular HTGR (MHTGR) design philosophy, provide the basis for enhanced safety characteristics and for unique applications of nuclear energy in both the electric generation and process energy markets. A particular promising approach is the coupling of the MHTGR heat source with a closed gas-turbine power conversion cycle (Brayton cycle). Initial results from related international efforts indicate the potential to generated electricity with mid-40% efficiencies, with reduced capital costs (relative to steam cycle power plants), and at power costs competitive with modern natural gas fired combined cycle gas-turbine power plants. In addition, the thermodynamic characteristics of the Brayton cycle suggest that the gas-turbine MHTGR (MHTGR-GT) would be well suited for coupling with certain process energy applications, such as desalination and cogeneration. In this paper, the technical and economic potential of the MHTGR-GT are explored. In addition, key technical and licensing issues are identified, and the near term program to address them is summarized. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Analysis of Maisotsenko open gas turbine power cycle with a detailed air saturator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Developed an accurate air saturator model. • Performed sensitivity analysis for Maisotsenko gas turbine cycle (MGTC). • Performed comparative analysis for MGTC and simple gas turbine with reheat (SGTR) and humid air turbine (HAT). • MGTC has higher efficiency and specific work output with at high compressor pressure ratio. • Optimum air saturator water mass flow rate is calculated. - Abstract: With ever increasing cost of fossil fuels and natural gas, the improvement in gas turbine power cycle efficiency is needed due to the tremendous savings in fuel consumption. Water/steam injection is considered as one of the most popular power augmentation techniques because of its significant impact on the gas turbine performance. One of the recently suggested evaporative gas turbine cycles is the Maisotsenko open cycle for gas turbine power generation. In this paper, detailed thermodynamic analysis of this cycle is investigated with a thorough air saturator model. A comparative analysis is carried out to signify the advantages and disadvantages of Maisotsenko gas turbine cycle (MGTC) as compared with humid air gas turbine cycles. MGTC performance is evaluated based on a simple recuperated gas turbine cycle. In addition, sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the effect of different operating parameters on the overall cycle performance. Finally, integrating an air saturator instead of a conventional heat exchanger in recuperated gas turbine cycles enhances the power plant performance such that an efficiency enhancement of 7% points and net specific work output augmentation of 44.4% are obtained

  1. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Qvale

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indi-rectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas or pyrolysis gas. Intuitively, supplementary firing is expected to result in a high marginal efficiency. The paper shows that depending on the application, this is not always the case.

    The interest in this cycle arises from a recent demonstration of the feasibility of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants. The gas from this process could be divided into two streams, one for primary and one for supplementary firing. A preliminary analysis of the ideal, recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained for the indirectly fired gas turbine (IFGT and for the supplementary-fired IFGT. These results show that the combination of external firing and internal firing have the potential of reducing or solving some problems associated with the use of biomass both in the recuperated and the indirectly fired gas turbine: The former requires a clean, expensive fuel. The latter is limited in efficiency due to limitations in material temperature of the heat exchanger. Thus, in the case of an IBFGT, it would appear be very appropriate to use a cheap biomass or waste fuel for low temperature combustion and external firing and use natural gas at a high marginal efficiency for high temperature heating. However, it is shown that this is not the case for a simple IBFGT supplementary-fired with natural gas. The marginal efficiency of the natural gas is in this case found to be independent of temperature ratio and lower than for the recuperated gas turbine. Instead, other process changes may be considered in order to obtain a high marginal efficiency on natural gas. Two possibilities

  2. Long run of wood powder fired gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, Hassan [Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Tests have been carried out on a biomass gasification test facility at Energy Technology Center in Piteaa (ETC). It was planned to run the facility batchwise for 100 hours. The main aim of these tests was to study the effects of the impurities in the product gas on the blades of a gas turbine. The impurities are the ash particles carried by the product gas and the vaporised metals from the fuel especially the alkali metals. Six successful tests could be done before a breakdown of the gas turbine due to a fouling of the blade tips and the turbine passage resulting in seizing of the turbine. However the runs were sufficient to give new experiences in the running of the plant. The atmospheric preheating by gas combustion in the cyclone appeared to be more reliable than the pressurised preheating with an oil burner. It is also observed that the gasification could be started when the cyclone temperature is 550-600 deg C instead of higher than 700 deg C that was used earlier. The reliability of the feeding system was improved and the plugging of the downcomers was eliminated. It was also observed that the flame stability in the modified combustion chamber of the turbine depends not only on the gas composition but also on the temperature of the gas. A gas temperature that is over 650 deg C gave stable combustion. The effects of the impurities in the gas were studied. Steel cylinders were placed at the inlet of the turbine and the deposits on them were analysed. The turbine wheel was disassembled after the last run and blades were cut and the deposits were analysed too. The analysis was done on the deposits by using scanning electron microscopy. The thickness of deposits was 30-60 {mu}m on the pressure side of the turbineblades while they were too thin to be resolved with the optical microscope on the suction side. Deposits were observed also on the blade-tips and on the turbine case. It was observed that the content of K in the deposits was higher than that in the fuel

  3. Temperature detection in a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin; Kraemer, Gilbert; Stevenson, Christian

    2012-12-18

    A temperature detector includes a first metal and a second metal different from the first metal. The first metal includes a plurality of wires and the second metal includes a wire. The plurality of wires of the first metal are connected to the wire of the second metal in parallel junctions. Another temperature detector includes a plurality of resistance temperature detectors. The plurality of resistance temperature detectors are connected at a plurality of junctions. A method of detecting a temperature change of a component of a turbine includes providing a temperature detector include ing a first metal and a second metal different from the first metal connected to each other at a plurality of junctions in contact with the component; and detecting any voltage change at any junction.

  4. Advanced solidification processing of an industrial gas turbine engine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Mei Ling; Price, Allen; Bellows, Richard S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper will describe the efforts of the Advanced Turbine Airfoil Manufacturing Technology Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Howmet Research Corporation. The purpose of the program is to develop single-crystal and directionally solidified casting technologies to benefit Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) industrial and utility gas turbine engines. The focus is on defining and implementing advanced Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) furnace enhancements that provide precise control of mold temperatures during solidification. Emphasis was placed on increasing the total magnitude of thermal gradients while minimizing the difference in maximum and minimum gradients produced during the solidification process. Advanced VIM casting techniques were applied to Solar Turbines Incorporated’s Titan 130 First Stage High Pressure Turbine Blade under the ATS program. A comparison of the advanced VIM casting process to the conventional Bridgeman casting process will be presented as it pertains to the thermal gradients achieved during solidification, microstructure, elemental partitioning characterization, and solution heat treat response.

  5. Environmental benefits of high efficiency, low emission gas turbine facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions from modern gas turbine plants and emission reduction methods for these plants are discussed. There are approximately 900 gas turbine units in Canadian stationary applications. They are fueled by natural gas and are one of the cleanest types of fossil fueled equipment available for power production. They produce little or no sulphur dioxide, or carbon monoxide. Increases in overall efficiency can result in even lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of energy output. Modern gas turbines must meet Canada's National Guideline for new engines which is based on emission levels achievable through pollution prevention. Four fundamental methods to prevent emissions - (1) conservation (the avoidance of energy use where possible), (2) efficiencies in energy production and the use of waste heat, (3) combustion modifications to prevent NOx formation, and (4) back-end emission cleanup - are described. Some recent studies on energy choices, and examples of economic measures which could stimulate market penetration of cleaner types of power generating sources are also discussed. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs., 3 appendices

  6. Evaluation of the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in gas-turbine and heat exchanger technology have enhanced the potential for a Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) incorporating a direct gas turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion. The resulting Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) power plant combines the high temperature capabilities of the MHR with the efficiency and reliability of modern gas turbines. While the passive safety features of the steam cycle MHR (SC-MHR) are retained, generation efficiencies are projected to be in the range of 48% and steam power conversion systems, with their attendant complexities, are eliminated. Power costs are projected to be reduced by about 20%, relative to the SC-MHR or coal. This report documents the second, and final, phase of a two-part evaluation that concluded with a unanimous recommendation that the direct cycle (DC) variant of the GT-MHR be established as the commercial objective of the US Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. This recommendation has been endorsed by industrial and utility participants and accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Phase II effort, documented herein, concluded that the DC GT-MHR offers substantial technical and economic advantages over both the IDC and SC systems. Both the DC and IDC were found to offer safety advantages, relative to the SC, due to elimination of the potential for water ingress during power operations. This is the dominant consequence event for the SC. The IDC was judged to require somewhat less development than the direct cycle, while the SC, which has the greatest technology base, incurs the least development cost and risk. While the technical and licensing requirements for the DC were more demanding, they were judged to be incremental and feasible. Moreover, the DC offers significant performance and cost improvements over the other two concepts. Overall, the latter were found to justify the additional development needs

  7. Evaluation of the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Recent advances in gas-turbine and heat exchanger technology have enhanced the potential for a Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) incorporating a direct gas turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion. The resulting Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) power plant combines the high temperature capabilities of the MHR with the efficiency and reliability of modern gas turbines. While the passive safety features of the steam cycle MHR (SC-MHR) are retained, generation efficiencies are projected to be in the range of 48% and steam power conversion systems, with their attendant complexities, are eliminated. Power costs are projected to be reduced by about 20%, relative to the SC-MHR or coal. This report documents the second, and final, phase of a two-part evaluation that concluded with a unanimous recommendation that the direct cycle (DC) variant of the GT-MHR be established as the commercial objective of the US Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. This recommendation has been endorsed by industrial and utility participants and accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Phase II effort, documented herein, concluded that the DC GT-MHR offers substantial technical and economic advantages over both the IDC and SC systems. Both the DC and IDC were found to offer safety advantages, relative to the SC, due to elimination of the potential for water ingress during power operations. This is the dominant consequence event for the SC. The IDC was judged to require somewhat less development than the direct cycle, while the SC, which has the greatest technology base, incurs the least development cost and risk. While the technical and licensing requirements for the DC were more demanding, they were judged to be incremental and feasible. Moreover, the DC offers significant performance and cost improvements over the other two concepts. Overall, the latter were found to justify the additional development needs.

  8. De-centralised power production using low-calorific value gas from renewable energy resources in gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economic feasibility has been studied of de-central installations that produce power by gasification of biomass and use of the fuel gas in a gas turbine at a scale between 1 MWe and 10 MWe. The study starts with a market analysis in the Netherlands and the European Community. Next, atmospheric gasification in a circulating fluid bed gasifier and the gas treatment are described. The gas quality is compared with gas turbine requirements. Modifications to an existing gas turbine have been considered but are not discussed in the present report. The economy of the gas turbine installation is compared with that of a similar installation using a gas engine and of a combustion installation using a steam turbine. At 5000 operating hours per year and a fuel price of Euro 2.4/GJ, the electricity production costs for 1 MWe installations vary from Euro 0.15/kWh for the gas engine and Euro 0.16/kWh for the gas turbine to Euro 0.18/kWh for the steam turbine. At 10 MWe scale, the production costs decrease to Euro 0.09/kWh for the steam turbine and Euro 0.10/kWh for the gas engine and gas turbine. These costs are similar to the market value in the Netherlands and Germany. Production costs can drop by Euro 0.01/kWh for gas engines and nearly Euro 0.02/kWh for gas turbines if reject heat is sold at Euro 3.2/GJ. Sufficient heat demand, a larger number of operating hours or lower fuel price than assumed make installations smaller than 10 MWe economically attractive. Of the three options compared, the gas turbine is expected to yield the lowest NOx and CO emissions. Given the small differences in electricity production costs, the gas turbine becomes the best choice if stringent emission limits are to be met

  9. A liquid turbine generator as a high-temperature attachment to a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shershnev, N. A.; Sinenkov, A. N.; Gorin, A. I.

    1984-11-01

    A vortex chamber working with gaseous combustion products effectively retains injected liquid metal in the form of a rotating annular layer, and this is considered as a possible basic component in a liquid generator constituting a high-temperature attachment to a gas-turbine system. It is shown that copper or nickel should be used as the working metal. Model cold experiments have given efficencies for the chamber working with water and air at a level of 0.4-0.45.

  10. Multi-spectral temperature measurement method for gas turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Feng, Chi; Wang, Lixin; Li, Dong

    2016-02-01

    One of the basic methods to improve both the thermal efficiency and power output of a gas turbine is to increase the firing temperature. However, gas turbine blades are easily damaged in harsh high-temperature and high-pressure environments. Therefore, ensuring that the blade temperature remains within the design limits is very important. There are unsolved problems in blade temperature measurement, relating to the emissivity of the blade surface, influences of the combustion gases, and reflections of radiant energy from the surroundings. In this study, the emissivity of blade surfaces has been measured, with errors reduced by a fitting method, influences of the combustion gases have been calculated for different operational conditions, and a reflection model has been built. An iterative computing method is proposed for calculating blade temperatures, and the experimental results show that this method has high precision.

  11. Gas-turbine critical research and advanced technology support project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. S.; Hodge, P. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Anderson, D. N.; Schultz, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    A technology data base for utility gas turbine systems capable of burning coal derived fuels was developed. The following areas are investigated: combustion; materials; and system studies. A two stage test rig is designed to study the conversion of fuel bound nitrogen to NOx. The feasibility of using heavy fuels in catalytic combustors is evaluated. A statistically designed series of hot corrosion burner rig tests was conducted to measure the corrosion rates of typical gas turbine alloys with several fuel contaminants. Fuel additives and several advanced thermal barrier coatings are tested. Thermal barrier coatings used in conjunction with low critical alloys and those used in a combined cycle system in which the stack temperature was maintained above the acid corrosion temperature are also studied.

  12. Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors

    CERN Document Server

    Janicka, Johannes; Schäfer, Michael; Heeger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    With regard to both the environmental sustainability and operating efficiency demands, modern combustion research has to face two main objectives, the optimization of combustion efficiency and the reduction of pollutants. This book reports on the combustion research activities carried out within the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 568 “Flow and Combustion in Future Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). This aimed at designing a completely integrated modeling and numerical simulation of the occurring very complex, coupled and interacting physico-chemical processes, such as turbulent heat and mass transport, single or multi-phase flows phenomena, chemical reactions/combustion and radiation, able to support the development of advanced gas turbine chamber concepts.

  13. Exergy Analysis of Overspray Process in Gas Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Hoon Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine power can be augmented by overspray process which consists of inlet fogging and wet compression. In this study exergy analysis of the overspray process in gas turbine system is carried out with a non-equilibrium analytical modeling based on droplet evaporation and the second law of thermodynamics. This work focuses on the effects of system parameters such as pressure ratio, water injection ratio, and initial droplet diameter on exergetical performances including irreversibility and exergy efficiency of the process. The process performances are also estimated under the condition of saturated water injection ratio above which complete evaporation of injected water droplets within a compressor is not possible. The results show that the irreversibility increases but the saturated irreversibility decreases with increasing initial droplet diameter for a specified pressure ratio.

  14. Some calculation results for power plants with helium gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are considered of calculating the thermodynamical cycle of a nuclear gas-turbine helium plant employing one compression step, one expansion step, single-shaft scheme. The calculations were performed for a reactor outlet temperature of 950 deg C and a helium pressure at the reactor outlet of 4.8 MPa, at a reactor thermal power of 2250 MW. The steam initial parameters were taken as follows: temperature of 540 deg C and pressure of 24 MPa. It is shown that steam-gas cycles, where helium from a turbine is cooled only in a steam-generator and then delivered to a compressor, have the highest thermal efficiency of these cycles the one with low-pressure steam regeneration (with 47 to 48% efficiency) is the most economical. Calculations of a binary cycle with the top helium circuit and the bottom freon (freon-22) circuit has shown that this cycle is capable of being as high as 47 to 48%

  15. Bimetallic Palladium Catalysts for Methane Combustion in Gas Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Catalytic combustion is a promising combustion technology for gas turbines, which results in ultra low emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). Due to the low temperature achieved in catalytic combustion almost no thermal NOx is formed. This thesis is concentrated on the first stage in a catalytic combustion chamber, i.e. the ignition catalyst. The catalyst used for this application is often a supported palladium based catalyst due to its...

  16. Development of gas turbine fuels and combustion. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fejer, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    This overview is triggered by the rapidly changing role of the gas turbine in the spectrum of medium and large prime movers for industrial service. It describes the characteristic features of these engines, contrasting them with their chief competitor, the steam cycle. The focus is on the aerodynamic processes in the combustion chambers of traditional engines and includes an outline of the changes that are to be expected with the introduction of the synthetic and coal derived fuels.

  17. The Behaviour of Superalloys in Marine Gas Turbine Engine Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrappa, I.; Gogia, A. K.; I.V.S. Yashwanth

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents hot corrosion results carried out systematically on the selected nickel based superalloys such as IN 738 LC, GTM-SU-718 and GTM-SU-263 for marine gas turbine engines both at high and low temperatures that represent type I and type II hot corrosion respectively. The results were compared with advanced superalloy under similar conditions in order to understand the characteristics of the selected superalloys. It is observed that the selected superalloys are relatively more re...

  18. MODELLING AND PARAMETRIC STUDY OF GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jafari; M. Sadrameli

    2012-01-01

    In order to find the amount of pollution created by combustion in a gas turbine, Conjugate CFD equations in turbulent mixing and combustion equations is done.Overall conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and the combustion process, for large eddy simulation (LES) and the chemical reaction rate method is merged. For the numerical solution, solving the Structured Grid with the Staggered Grid and cylindrical coordinates is considered. Discretization equations used for grid capability...

  19. Turbines. NO{sub x} processing on Solar gas turbines; Turbines. Traitement des NO{sub x} sur les turbines a gaz solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausse, X. [Spie-Trindel, 95 - Cergy (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the SoLoNOx process developed by the Solar Turbines Incorporated company for the prevention of NO{sub x} production in his gas turbines. The formation of combustion products, by-products and NO{sub x} are recalled first and then the different existing processes for the reduction of pollutants are reviewed: water or steam injection, and purification of exhaust gases. The SoLoNOx process uses a dry, weak and pre-mixed mixture and allows better NO{sub x} and CO reductions than the water injection process. (J.S.)

  20. Parametric Analysis of a Two-Shaft Aeroderivate Gas Turbine of 11.86 MW

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo-Leyte, R.; Salazar-Pereyra, M.; H. D. Lugo Méndez; Aguilar-Adaya, I.; J. J. Ambriz-García; J. G. Vázquez Vargas

    2015-01-01

    The aeroderivate gas turbines are widely used for power generation in the oil and gas industry. In offshore marine platforms, the aeroderivative gas turbines provide the energy required to drive mechanically compressors, pumps and electric generators. Therefore, the study of the performance of aeroderivate gas turbines based on a parametric analysis is relevant to carry out a diagnostic of the engine, which can lead to operational as well as predictive and/or corrective maintenance actions. T...

  1. Humidification - Dehumidification Desalination Process Using Waste Heat from A Gas Turbine By

    OpenAIRE

    El Dessouky, H. T. A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a hutnidification-dehumidification desalination process using waste heat from a gas turbine power plant. In this process, the air is used as the operating fluid instead of water. The process has many advantages over many desalination processes which use waste heat from gas turbines. The amount of fresh water produced and the mass of air-gas mixture leaving the desalination plant were found to decrease with decreasing gas turbine load and with increasing mixing temperatu...

  2. Current status and future prospects of gas-turbine development in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liulka, A. M.

    1981-06-01

    It is noted that gas turbine engines are widely used in the USSR in the gas industry as main drives for superchargers in main stations. In addition, gas turbine engines are widely used in the chemical industry as well as in the iron and steel industries; a series of standard units with output up to 100 MW operate in electric power engineering under base and peak load. Gas turbine engines are also used in shipbuilding and civil aviation.

  3. Estimation of Wasted Thermal Energy from Gas Turbine Units in Mosul Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A. R. Al-Habbo; A.Youns Fathi

    2012-01-01

    The present study involve a thermal analysis of a gas turbine unit like those which are used in Mosul gas turbine power station in order to estimate the amount of thermal energy is wasted in the exhaust gases. A computer program is developed to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on the performance of the gas turbine unit including the mass flow of air, power output, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature and the amount of wasted thermal energy (Qexh)...

  4. Observation and Analysis of Affinity Law Deviations through Tested Performance of Liquefied Gas Reaction Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah D. Alison-Youel

    2008-01-01

    Liquefied gas reaction turbines are subject to the hydraulic affinity laws. Particularly for liquefied hydrocarbon gas-driven turbines, deviations from the affinity laws are encountered. In the case of reaction turbines, where the geometry is fixed, the affinity law relationships between flow, head, and rotational speed are relevant. Field experience confirms that the affinity law relationships are adequate, but that the predictions made also tend to deviate from real turbine performance. Par...

  5. Design study on gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting the design study of an original design concept of gas turbine high temperature reactor, the GTHTR300 (Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300). The GTHTR300 is a greatly simplified HTGR-GT plant that leads to substantially reduced technical and cost requirements for earlier technology deployment. Also, it is expected to be an efficient and economically competitive reactor in 2010s due to newly proposed design features such as core design with two-year refueling interval, conventional steel material usage for a reactor pressure vessel, innovative plant flow scheme and horizontally installed gas turbine unit. This paper describes the original design features focusing on reactor core design, fuel design, in-core structure design and reactor pressure vessel design. In addition, a preliminary cost evaluation proved that the capital cost of the GTHTR300 is less than a target cost of 200 thousands Yen/kWe. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  6. Analysis of Maisotsenko open gas turbine bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisotsenko gas turbine cycle (MGTC) is a recently proposed humid air turbine cycle. An air saturator is employed for air heating and humidification purposes in MGTC. In this paper, MGTC is integrated as the bottoming cycle to a topping simple gas turbine as Maisotsenko bottoming cycle (MBC). A thermodynamic optimization is performed to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of MBC as compared with air bottoming cycle (ABC). Furthermore, detailed sensitivity analysis is reported to present the effect of different operating parameters on the proposed configurations' performance. Efficiency enhancement of 3.7% is reported which results in more than 2600 tonne of natural gas fuel savings per year. - Highlights: • Developed an accurate air saturator model. • Introduced Maisotsenko bottoming cycle (MBC) as a power generation cycle. • Performed Thermodynamic optimization for MBC and air bottoming cycle (ABC). • Performed detailed sensitivity analysis for MBC under different operating conditions. • MBC has higher efficiency and specific net work output as compared to ABC

  7. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  8. Fuel property effects on USN gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, A. I.; Mosier, S. A.; Nowack, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    For several years the Department of Defense has been sponsoring fuel accommodation investigations with gas turbine engine manufacturers and supporting organizations to quantify the effect of changes in fuel properties and characteristics on the operation and performance of military engine components and systems. Inasmuch as there are many differences in hardware between the operational engines in the military inventories, due to differences in design philosophy and requirements, efforts were initially expended to acquire fuel effects data from rigs simulating the hot sections of these different engines. Correlations were then sought using the data acquired to produce more general, generic relationships that could be applied to all military gas turbine engines regardless of their origin. Finally, models could be developed from these correlations that could predict the effect of fuel property changes on current and future engines. This presentation describes some of the work performed by Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, under Naval Air Propulsion Center sponsorship, to determine the effect of fuel properties on the hot section and fuel system of the Navy's TF30-P-414 gas turbine engine.

  9. Fuzzy Computing for Control of Aero Gas Turbine Engines .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Balakrishnan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Many methods, techniques and procedures available for designing the control system of plants and processes, are applied only after knowing accurately the plant or process to be controlled. However, in some complex situations where plants/processes cannot be accurately modelled, and especially where their control has human interaction, controller design may not be completely satisfactory. In such cases, it has been found that control decisions can be made on the basis of heuristic/linguistic measures or fuzzy algorithms. Fuzzy set principles have been used in controlling various plants/processes ranging from a laboratory steam engine to an autopilot, including an aero gas turbine engine engine for which the response of the engine speed for a fuzzy input of fuel flow has been studied. In this paper, certain stipulations and logic are suggested for the control of the total gas turbine engine. A case study of a single spool aero gas turbine engine with one of its state variables varied by heuristic logic is presented.

  10. Conceptual design of helium gas turbine for MHTGR-GT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual designs of the direct-cycle helium gas turbine for a practical unit (450 MWt) and an experimental unit (1200kWt) of MHTGR were conducted and the results as shown below were obtained. The power conversion vessel for this practical unit can further be downsized to an outside diameter of 7.4m and a height of 22m as compared with the conventional design examples. Comparison of the conceptual designs of helium gas turbines using single-shaft type employing the axial-flow compressor and twin-shaft type employing the centrifugal compressor shows that the former provides advantages in terms of structure and control designs whereas the latter offers a higher efficiency. In order to determine which of them should be selected, a further study to investigate various aspects of safety features and startup characteristics will be needed. Either of the two types can provide a cycle efficiency of 46 to 48%. The third mode natural frequencies of the twin-shart type's low-pressure rotational shaft and the single shaft type are below the designed rotational speed, but their vibrational controls are made available using the magnetic bearing system. Elevation of the natural frequency for the twin-shaft type would be possible by altering the arrangements of its shafting configuration. As compared with the earlier conceptual designs, the overall systems configuration can be made simpler and more compact; five stages of turbines for the single-shaft type and seven stages of turbines for the twin-shaft type employing one shaft for the low-pressure compressor and the power turbine and; 26 stages of compressors for the axial-flow type with the single shaft system and five stages of compressors for the centrifugal type with the twin-shaft system. 9 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Development of Granular Catalysts and Natural Gas Combustion Technology for Small Gas Turbine Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ismagilov, Z.R.; Kerzhentsev, M.A.; Yashnik, S.A.; Shikina, N.V.; Zagoruiko, A.N.; Parmon, V.N.; Zakharov, V.M.; Braynin, B.I.; Favorski, O.N.

    2010-01-01

    Granular catalysts for natural gas combustion in gas turbine power plants were developed: Pd-Ce-Al2O3 catalyst for initiation of methane combustion at low temperatures and the catalysts based on oxides of Mn, hexaaluminates of Mn and La for high temperature

  12. Gas turbines for polygeneration? A thermodynamic investigation of a fuel rich gas turbine cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Atakan

    2011-11-01

    " SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Emphasis" />

    Gas turbines as used nowadays are working far in the fuel lean regime, which is most reasonable for mobile applications, since the formation of pollutants and soot are avoided while the temperatures remain low enough to avoid damage of the turbine. However, from a thermodynamic point of view the exergy utilization is far from optimum at such conditions.

  13. Smart design selftuning piezoelectric energy harvester intended for gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, L. G. H.; Köhler, E.; Soeiro, M.; Lundgren, P.; Enoksson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting on a gas turbine implies constraints like high temperature tolerance, size limitation and a particular range of vibrations to utilise. In order to be able to operate under these conditions a harvester needs to be small and efficient and to respond to the appropriate range of frequencies. We present the design, simulation and measurements for a clamped-clamped coupled piezoelectric harvester with a free-sliding weight which adds self-tuning for improved response within the range of vibrations from the gas tufbine. We show a peak open circuit voltage of 11.7 V and a 3dB bandwidth of 12 Hz.

  14. Helium turbine power generation in high temperature gas reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents studies on the helium turbine power generator and important components in the indirect cycle of high temperature helium cooled reactor with multi-purpose use of exhaust thermal energy from the turbine. The features of this paper are, firstly the reliable estimation of adiabatic efficiencies of turbine and compressor, secondly the introduction of heat transfer enhancement by use of the surface radiative heat flux from the thin metal plates installed in the hot helium and between the heat transfer coil rows of IHX and RHX, thirdly the use of turbine exhaust heat to produce fresh water from seawater for domestic, agricultural and marine fields, forthly a proposal of plutonium oxide fuel without a slight possibility of diversion of plutonium for nuclear weapon production and finally the investigation of GT-HTGR of large output such as 500 MWe. The study of performance of GT-HTGR reduces the result that for the reactor of 450 MWt the optimum thermal efficiency is about 43% when the turbine expansion ratio is 3.9 for the turbine efficiency of 0.92 and compressor efficiency of 0.88 and the helium temperature at the compressor inlet is 45degC. The produced amount of fresh water is about 8640 ton/day. It is made clear that about 90% of the reactor thermal output is totally used for the electric power generation in the turbine and for the multi-puposed utilization of the heat from the turbine exhaust gas and compressed helium cooling seawater. The GT-Large HTGR is realized by the separation of the pressure and temperature boundaries of the pressure vessel, the increase of burning density of the fuel by 1.4 times, the extention of the nuclear core diameter and length by 1.2 times, respectively, and the enhancement of the heat flux along the nuclear fuel compact surface by 1.5 times by providing riblets with the peak in the flow direction. (J.P.N.)

  15. Baseline gas turbine development program. Eighteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E [comps.

    1977-04-30

    Progress is reported for a program whose goals are to demonstrate an experimental upgraded gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, compact-size American automobile. Initial running of the upgraded engine took place on July 13, 1976. The engine proved to be mechanically sound, but was also 43% deficient in power. A continuing corrective development effort has to date reduced the power deficiency to 32%. Compressor efficiency was increased 2 points by changing to a 28-channel diffuser and tandem deswirl vanes; improved processing of seals has reduced regenerator leakage from about 5 to 2.5% of engine flow; a new compressor turbine nozzle has increased compressor turbine stage efficiency by about 1 point; and adjustments to burner mixing ports has reduced pressure drop from 2.8 to 2.1% of engine pressure. Key compressor turbine component improvements are scheduled for test during the next quarterly period. During the quarter, progress was also made on development of the Upgraded Vehicle control system; and instrumentation of the fourth program engine was completed by NASA. The engine will be used for development efforts at NASA LeRC.

  16. Compensation equipment for the caloric value of the fuel of a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.M.; Rowen, W.I.; Bedford, W.D.

    1975-04-30

    In this paper, a control system for fuel flow to a gas turbine is described - especially for use of such turbines on LNG tankers. In the case of tankers transporting liquefied natural gas, the gaseous material given off is used as fuel for the gas turbine driving the ship. The gas given off contains methane and a variable percentage of nitrogen. The variations in the percentage of nitrogen in the expelled gas bring about an effective change in the volumetric heating power of the gaseous fuel passed into the turbine. In accordance with the invention, these alternations are balanced out in this process by means of a corrective compensation unit (control equipment).

  17. Dynamic potential of Petroleum Liquefied Gas (PLG) as automotive fuel in metropolitan public transportation at Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Colombia, the fuel of prevailing use in urban transportation has been motor gasoline, so much in passenger vehicles as with load. Only in pasts 2 or 3 years, and in response to international and national technological developments of automotive market but not to state policies, it has begun to be used Diesel in the urban vehicles. In countries as Italy, USA, Holland, Russia, Japan, Australia, South Korea, Mexico, Argentina, Spain, Thailand and Iran; in transportation sector, alternative fuels as Petroleum Liquefied Gas (PLG or Propane Gas) and Natural Gas Pill (NGP) are being extensively used. The PLG and NGP extensive use, it has helped to reduce the load contaminate it originating from mobile sources, since the emissions produced by these alternative systems are significantly less offensive to environment that generated them by use generalized flammable as motor gasoline and diesel. Taking into account the important findings of natural gas deposits in Colombia and considering the environmental and economic benefits that reports its use as flammable for mobile sources, its technological implementation (conversion programs) and use proliferation is recommended, mainly in large urban centers as Bogota

  18. Operation window and part-load performance study of a syngas fired gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) provides a great opportunity for clean utilization of coal while maintaining the advantage of high energy efficiency brought by gas turbines. A challenging problem arising from the integration of an existing gas turbine to an IGCC system is the performance change of the gas turbine due to the shift of fuel from natural gas to synthesis gas, or syngas, mainly consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Besides the change of base-load performance, which has been extensively studied, the change of part-load performance is also of great significance for the operation of a gas turbine and an IGCC plant. In this paper, a detailed mathematical model of a syngas fired gas turbine is developed to study its part-load performance. A baseline is firstly established using the part-load performance of a natural gas fired gas turbine, then the part-load performance of the gas turbine running with different compositions of syngas is investigated and compared with the baseline. Particularly, the impacts of the variable inlet guide vane, the degree of fuel dilution, and the degree of air bleed are investigated. Results indicate that insufficient cooling of turbine blades and a reduced compressor surge margin are the major factors that constrain the part-load performance of a syngas fired gas turbine. Results also show that air bleed from the compressor can greatly improve the working condition of a syngas fired gas turbine, especially for those fired with low lower heating value syngas. The regulating strategy of a syngas fired gas turbine should also be adjusted in accordance to the changes of part-load performance, and a reduced scope of constant TAT (turbine exhaust temperature) control mode is required.

  19. Development of small ceramic gas turbines for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of the project at NEDO to develop 300 kW ceramic gas turbines with a thermal efficiency of ≥42% at a turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of 1,350oC. The project is part of the 'New Sunshine Projects' promoted by Japan's Agency of Industrial Science and Technology and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. So far, a thermal efficiency of 37% at a TIT of 1,280oC has been achieved by a basic ceramic gas turbine (CGT). Work to develop pilot CGTs to achieve the final target is being carried out alongside research and development of ceramic parts and improved performance of ceramic components for CGTs. One group of engine and ceramic manufacturers is developing a single shaft regenerative cycle CGT (CGT 301) and a second group a double shaft type (CGT 302). The heat-resistant ceramic parts, nitrogen oxide emissions and performance of these two prototypes are outlined and the properties of the ceramic materials used are indicated. Market estimates and economics are noted

  20. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  1. Design considerations: gas turbines for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas turbine represents one of the most sophisticated designs from the standpoint of time dependent deformation behavior. The large size of the equipment, which limits the amount of full scale testing, together with the demanding performance requirements and high level of reliability desired places a high degree of emphasis on the high temperature deformation design process. As an example of the various design considerations used in this equipment, a brief overview of the turbine will be given, highlighting the materials, stress, temperatures, and load history experienced by the major components. Particular attention will then be focused on the vane segment design considerations. This component is not only structurally complicated, but experiences steep temperature gradients imposed by internal cooling and large temperature transients during cyclic duty operation which have to be addressed in the design procedure. Based on this discussion the limitations of the current design procedures will be highlighted and the areas requiring additional research inputs will be discussed

  2. Application of artificial neural networks to micro gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.; Comodi, G.; Pelagalli, L.; Renzi, M.; Vagni, S. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    In this work, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied to describe the performance of a micro gas turbine (MGT). In particular, they were used (i) to complete performance diagrams for unavailable experimental data; (ii) to assess the influence of ambient parameters on performance; and (iii) to analyze and predict emissions of pollutants in the exhausts. The experimental data used to feed the ANNs were acquired from a manufacturer's test bed. Though large, the data set did not cover the whole working range of the turbine; ANNs and an artificial neural fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) were therefore applied to fill information gaps. The results of this investigation were also used for sensitivity analysis of the machine's behavior in different ambient conditions. ANNs can effectively evaluate both MGT performance and emissions in real installations in any climate, the worst R{sup 2} in the validation set being 0.9962. (author)

  3. Development of methane oxidation catalysts for different gas turbine combustor concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Due to continuously stricter regulations regarding emissions from power generation processes, development of existing gas turbine combustors is essential. A promising alternative to conventional flame combustion in gas turbines is catalytic combustion, which can result in ultra low emission levels of NOx, CO and unburned hydrocarbons. The work presented in this thesis concerns the development of methane oxidation catalysts for gas turbine combustors. The application of catalytic combustion to...

  4. Numerical prediction of combustion induced vibro-acoustical instabilities in a gas turbine combustor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur; Kok, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of lean premixed combustion to gas turbine technology reduced the emission of harmful exhaust gas species, but due to the high sensitivity of lean flames to acoustic perturbations, the average life time of gas turbine engines was decreased significantly. Very dangerous to the integrity

  5. Assessment of steam-injected gas turbine systems and their potential application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results were arrived at by utilizing and expanding on information presented in the literature. The results were analyzed and compared with those for simple gas turbine and combined cycles for both utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. The efficiency and specific power of simple gas turbine cycles can be increased as much as 30 and 50 percent, respectively, by the injection of steam into the combustor. Steam-injected gas turbines appear to be economically competitive with both simple gas turbine and combined cycles for small, clean-fuel-fired utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. For large powerplants with integrated coal gasifiers, the economic advantages appear to be marginal.

  6. Eddy current testing for moving blades of a land based gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas turbines operate under severe conditions such as high temperature and pressure. Thus, NDT technologies is critical to ensure the integrity of facilities. Conventional NDT methods to inspect parts of gas turbine are fluorescent penetrant inspection, magnetic particle testing, etc. These method has limits to identify flaws of gas turbine. In this study, eddy current testing was performed with the surface eddy current probe for the gas turbine 1'st stage bucket. Reference specimens is designed and made with EDM notches. We estimated the depth of the surface crack which is occurred in the 1'st stage bucket.

  7. Developing compressed natural gas as an automotive fuel in Nigeria: Lessons from international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nigerian government proposed the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in 1997 as part of the initiatives to harness natural gas (NG) resources but progress has been slow. This paper examines the natural gas vehicle (NGV) implementation approaches and outcomes in seven countries with diverse experiences in order to gain an understanding of the barriers to the NGV market development in Nigeria. The analysis employs hermeneutic principles to secondary data derived from academic literature, published reports from a variety of international agencies, grey literature, and text from online sources and identifies eight success factors for NGV market development namely: strategic intent, legal backing, learning and adaptation, assignment of responsibilities, financial incentives, NG pricing, consumer confidence, and NG infrastructure. The paper concludes that the principal impediment to NGV market development in Nigeria is the uncoordinated implementation approach and that greater government involvement is required in setting strategic goals, developing the legal and regulatory frameworks, setting of clear standards for vehicles and refuelling stations as well as assigning responsibilities to specific agencies. Short-term low cost policy interventions identified include widening the existing NG and gasoline price gap and offering limited support for refuelling and retrofitting facilities. - Highlights: • We examined the NGV policies and implementation strategies in selected countries. • The use of legislative mandates help deepen NGV penetration. • Aligning stakeholder interest is critical to NGV adoption. • Making national interest a priority ahead of regional infrastructure is a critical success factor. • Government support drives participation

  8. Axial Turbine Aerodynamic Design of Small Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the aerodynamic design procedure for the axial turbines of a small heavy-duty gas turbine engine being developed by Docosan Heavy Industries. The design procedure mainly consists of three parts: namely, flow path design, airfoil design, and 3a performance calculation. To design the optimized flow path, through flow calculations as well as the loss estimation are widely used to evaluate the effect of geometric variables, for example, shape of meridional plane, mean radius, blades axial gap, and had angle. During the airfoil design procedure, the optimum number of blades is calculated by empirical correlations based on the in/outlet flow angles, and then 2a airfoil planar sections are designed carefully, followed by 2a B2 NS calculations. The designed planar sections are stacked along the span wise direction, leading to a 3a surfaced airfoil shape. To consider the 3a effect on turbine performance, 3a multistage Euler calculation, single row, and multistage NS calculations are performed

  9. Axial Turbine Aerodynamic Design of Small Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joung Seok; Lee, Wu Sang; Ryu, Je Wook [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    This study describes the aerodynamic design procedure for the axial turbines of a small heavy-duty gas turbine engine being developed by Docosan Heavy Industries. The design procedure mainly consists of three parts: namely, flow path design, airfoil design, and 3a performance calculation. To design the optimized flow path, through flow calculations as well as the loss estimation are widely used to evaluate the effect of geometric variables, for example, shape of meridional plane, mean radius, blades axial gap, and had angle. During the airfoil design procedure, the optimum number of blades is calculated by empirical correlations based on the in/outlet flow angles, and then 2a airfoil planar sections are designed carefully, followed by 2a B2 NS calculations. The designed planar sections are stacked along the span wise direction, leading to a 3a surfaced airfoil shape. To consider the 3a effect on turbine performance, 3a multistage Euler calculation, single row, and multistage NS calculations are performed.

  10. Gas turbine efficiency enhancement using waste heat powered absorption chillers in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hot climates, the efficiency of energy-intensive industrial facilities utilizing gas turbines for power generation, such as oil refineries and natural gas processing plants (NGPPs), can be enhanced by reducing gas turbine compressor inlet air temperature. This is typically achieved using either evaporative media coolers or electrically-driven mechanical vapor-compression chillers. However, the performance of evaporative media coolers is constrained in high relative humidity (RH) conditions, such as encountered in the Middle East and tropical regions, and such coolers require demineralized water supply, while electrically-driven mechanical vapor-compression chillers consume a significant amount of electric power. In this study, the use of gas turbine exhaust gas waste-heat powered, single-effect water–lithium bromide (H2O–LiBr) absorption chillers is thermo-economically evaluated for gas turbine compressor inlet air cooling scheme, with particular applicability to Middle East NGPPs. The thermodynamic performance of the proposed scheme, integrated in a NGPP, is compared with that of conventional evaporative coolers and mechanical vapor-compression chillers, in terms of key operating parameters, and either demineralized water or electricity consumption, respectively. The results show that in extreme ambient conditions representative of summer in the Persian Gulf (i.e., 55 °C, 80% RH), three steam-fired, single-effect H2O–LiBr absorption chillers utilizing 17 MW of gas turbine exhaust heat, could provide 12.3 MW of cooling to cool compressor inlet air to 10 °C. In the same ambient conditions, evaporative coolers would only provide 2.3 MW cooling capacity, and necessitate consumption of approximately 0.8 kg/s of demineralized water to be vaporized. In addition, mechanical vapor-compression chillers would require an additional 2.7 MW of electric energy to provide the same amount of cooling as H2O–LiBr absorption chillers. The additional electricity generated

  11. Specific gas turbines for extreme peak-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As with other European countries, in France peak consumption of electricity occurs during winter. Due to the increasing use of electricity for domestic heating, outside temperature greatly influences consumption (1 200 MW for a drop of 1 deg C). To meet requirements during cold spells, EDF has sought to determine which special facilities are best suited for extreme peak load conditions (i.e. offering short lifespan and minimum capital cost) and has studied the possibility of installing generation means in transformer substations (20 kV). This solution does not require extension of networks since these means are scattered near consumption areas. An experiment conducted on 3 Diesel generators of 800 kWe each at Senlis revealed some of the disadvantages of Diesel (maintenance requirements, polluting emissions and noise). EDF then examined, for this same application, the use of gas turbines, for which these drawbacks are significantly less. A study carried out under an EDF contract by the French manufacturer TURBOMECA showed that it is possible to design a small capacity gas turbine that can compete with Diesel generators, and that capital costs could be minimized by simplifying the machine, adapting its lifespan to extreme peak load needs, and taking advantage of lower cost provided by mass production. TURBOMECA defined the machine's characteristics (2 MW, 6 000 hours lifespan) and aerodynamic flow. It also estimated the cost of packaging. In terms of overall cost (including initial investment, maintenance and fuel) the gas turbine appears cheaper than Diesel generators for annual operation times of less than one hundred hours, which corresponds closely with extreme peak load use. The lower maintenance costs and the better availability counterbalance the higher capital cost (+6%) and the greater consumption (+50%). (author). 7 figs

  12. Forty-fourth ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress, Exposition and Users Symposium. Pt. 2. Aircraft gas turbine; 1999 nen dai 44 kai ASME kokusai gas turbine kaigi. kokuyo gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeyama, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-20

    This paper reports aircraft gas turbine presented at the 44th ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress 1999. What has drawn the strongest interest was the session related to the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS) being developed by NASA. The simulation links into a network about 1000 computers possessed by aero-industry related companies, research institutes and universities. The network uses common models to perform analysis under parallel processing on aerodynamics, heat transfer and structures, while taking interactions into consideration. It is planned that the whole jet engines will be subjected to non-steady calculation using three-dimensional models by the year 2007. The cost will be 8% or less of that when large super computers are used. The keys to realization of a supersonic passenger aircraft are noise, exhaust gas and impulse wave, whereas there would be no market unless a method for absorbing the impulse wave is developed and the aircraft can fly over the ground. Presentations were made on a wind tunnel testing equipment for jet engines and studies on turbo-fan engines for civilian aircraft. (NEDO)

  13. Gas turbine cogeneration plant for textile dyeing plant in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the information (i.e., notes on specific plant component weaknesses and defects, e.g., exchanger tube fouling, improper positioning of temperature probes, incorrect choice of flow valves, etc., and relative remedial actions) gained during a one year cogeneration plant debugging campaign at the Colorama textile dyeing plant in Italy. The cogeneration plant consists of a Solar Saturn MK III gas turbine (1,080 kw at terminals, 500 degrees C exhaust gas temperature); a double (steam and hot water) circuit waste heat boiler contemporaneously producing, with 100 degrees C supply water, 4 tonnes/h steam at 5 bars and 9 cubic meters/h of 20 to 80 degrees C hot water; and a 1,470 kVA generator operating at 3 kV connected by a 3kV/15kV transformer to the national grid. The plant is protected against fire by independent halon fire protection systems, one for the gas turbine plant, the other, for the control room. A modem connects the plant control and monitoring system with the firm which supplied the equipment. The plant operator cites an urgent national requirement for trained cogeneration equipment technical consultants and designers in order to better promote the use of innovative cogeneration technology by Italian industry

  14. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  15. An air bearing system for small high speed gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A. B.; Davies, S. J.; Nimir, Y. L.

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the second phase of an experimental program concerning the application of air bearings to small turbomachinery test rigs and small gas turbines. The first phase examined externally pressurized (EP) journal bearings, with a novel EP thrust bearing, for application to 'warm air' test rigs, and was entirely successful at rotational speeds in excess of 100,000 rpm. This second phase examined several designs of tilting pad-spiring journal bearings, one with a novel form of externally pressurized pad, but all using the original EP thrust bearing. The designs tested are described, including some oscillogram traces, for tests up to a maximum of 70,000 rpm; the most successful using a carbon pad-titanium beam spring arrangement. The thrust bearing which gave trouble-free operation throughout, is also described. The results of an original experiment to measure the 'runway speed' of a radial inflow turbine are also presented, which show that overspeeds of 58 percent above the design speed can result from free-power turbine coupling failure.

  16. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  17. Investigating factors affecting the efficiency of gas turbine power cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaderi, R.; M. Damircheli

    2014-01-01

    Today, the use of gas turbines in power generation cycles has been growing. Small size, easy installation, high power-to-mass ratio and the ability to load and unload the cycle quickly are the advantages of such systems. Low efficiency is considered as one of the major disadvantages of such power plants. Thus providing a way to increase cycle efficiency can be very effective in making the cycle more efficient and thus saving fuel consumed in such systems. In this paper the thermal efficiency ...

  18. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Research and development into thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines is reviewed critically. The type of coating systems developed for aircraft applications are found to be preferred for clear fuel electric utility applications. These coating systems consists of a layer of plasma sprayed zirconia-yttria ceramic over a layer of MCrAly bond coat. They are not recommended for use when molten salts are presented. Efforts to understand coating degradation in dirty environments and to develop corrosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are discussed.

  19. Gas turbine blade with intra-span snubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Gary B.; Mayer, Clinton

    2014-07-29

    A gas turbine blade (10) including a hollow mid-span snubber (16). The snubber is affixed to the airfoil portion (14) of the blade by a fastener (20) passing through an opening (24) cast into the surface (22) of the blade. The opening is defined during an investment casting process by a ceramic pedestal (38) which is positioned between a ceramic core (32) and a surrounding ceramic casting shell (48). The pedestal provides mechanical support for the ceramic core during both wax and molten metal injection steps of the investment casting process.

  20. Interface ring for gas turbine fuel nozzle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy A.; Schilp, Reinhard

    2016-03-22

    A gas turbine combustor assembly including a combustor liner and a plurality of fuel nozzle assemblies arranged in an annular array extending within the combustor liner. The fuel nozzle assemblies each include fuel nozzle body integral with a swirler assembly, and the swirler assemblies each include a bellmouth structure to turn air radially inwardly for passage into the swirler assemblies. A radially outer removed portion of each of the bellmouth structures defines a periphery diameter spaced from an inner surface of the combustor liner, and an interface ring is provided extending between the combustor liner and the removed portions of the bellmouth structures at the periphery diameter.

  1. Fuel nozzle for a combustor of a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belsom, Keith Cletus; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Thomas, Larry Lou

    2016-03-22

    A fuel nozzle for a gas turbine generally includes a main body having an upstream end axially separated from a downstream end. The main body at least partially defines a fuel supply passage that extends through the upstream end and at least partially through the main body. A fuel distribution manifold is disposed at the downstream end of the main body. The fuel distribution manifold includes a plurality of axially extending passages that extend through the fuel distribution manifold. A plurality of fuel injection ports defines a flow path between the fuel supply passage and each of the plurality of axially extending passages.

  2. Cogeneration power plant concepts using advanced gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenhofer, K.; Lezuo, A. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) is undeniably the environmentally most favourable way of making efficient use of energy in the power generation industry. Cogeneration is also particularly appreciated by political decision makers because of its high yield from primary energy sources, and thus its contribution to the protection of the environment and the conservation of resources. Advanced gas turbines, along with an intelligent power plant design consisting of pre-engineered, modular power plant items, will help cogeneration to play an important role in future energy markets also from an economic point of view. (orig.)

  3. Experimental study of biogas combustion using a gas turbine configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafay, Y.; Taupin, B.; Martins, G.; Cabot, G.; Renou, B.; Boukhalfa, A. [CNRS UMR 6614, Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Site universitaire du Madrillet, Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2007-08-15

    The aim of the present work is to compare stability combustion domains, flame structures and dynamics between CH{sub 4}/air flames and a biogas/air flames (issued from waste methanisation) in a lean gas turbine premixed combustion conditions. Velocity profiles are obtained by Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements. CH* chemiluminescence measurements and temporal acquisition of chamber pressure are performed in order to describe flame structure and instabilities. Changes in flame structure and dynamics when fuel composition is varying are found to strongly depend on laminar flame speed. No clear correlation between the unstable flame and the reaction zone penetration in the corner recirculation can be found. (orig.)

  4. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ulloa; Rey, Guillermo D.; Ángel Sánchez; Ángeles Cancela

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled “Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines.” This is one of the topics covered in the course “Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer,” which is offered in the second year of Mechanical Engineering at the Defense University Center at the Naval Academy in Vigo, Spain. While participating in the activity, students will be divided into groups of no more th...

  5. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  6. Modelling internal air systems in gas turbine engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Michael Owen

    2007-01-01

    Rotating-disc systems can be used to model,experimentally and computationally,the flow and heat transfer that occur inside the internal cooling-air systems of gas turbine engines.These rotating-disc systems have been used successfully to simplify and understand some of the complex flows that occur in internal-air systems,and designers have used this insight to improve the cooling effectiveness,thereby increasing the engine efficiency and reducing the emissions.In this review paper,three important cases are considered:hot-gas ingress;the pre-swirl system;and buoyancy-induced flow.Ingress,or ingestion,occurs when hot gas from the mainstream gas path is ingested into the wheel-space between the turbine disc and its adjacent casing.Rim seals are fitted at the periphery of the system,and sealing flow is used to reduce or prevent ingress.However,too much sealing air reduces the engine efficiency,and too little can cause serious overheating,resulting in damage to the turbine rim and blade roots.Although the flow is three-dimensional and unsteady,there are encouraging signs that simple 'orifice models' could be used to estimate the amount of ingress into the wheel-space.In a pre-swirl system,the cooling air for the gas-turbine blades is swirled by stationary nozzles,and the air is delivered to the blades via receiver holes in the rotating turbine disc.Swirling the air reduces its temperature relative to the rotating blades,and the designer needs to calculate the air temperature and pressure drop in the system.The designer also needs to calculate the effect of this swirling flow on the heat transfer from the turbine disc to the air,as this has a significant effect on the temperature distribution and stresses in the disc.Recent experimental and computational studies have given a better understanding of the flow and heat transfer in these systems.Buoyancy-induced flow occurs in the cavity between two co-rotating compressor discs when the temperature of the discs is higher

  7. Adapting the gas turbine generator to emergency electrical equipment for US-APWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US-APWR (US Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor) uses Gas Turbine Generators (GTG) as Emergency Power Supply instead of the most commonly used Diesel Generators. In a gas turbine the heat that comes from the burning fuel expands the air and the high-speed rush of this hot air spins the turbine. There are major advantages of the turbine over the diesel: -) gas turbine engines have a greater power-to-weight ratio compared to equivalent engines; -) gas turbine engines are smaller than equivalent counterparts of the same power; -) a water cooling system is not required; and -) the gas turbine is a very simple rotating engine with few component which eases its maintenance. A major drawback of the gas turbine engine is that it requires a longer start-up time of about several tens of seconds compared to the diesel generator and as a consequence can not equip existing PWR plants that require a start-up within 15 seconds. The US-APWR introduces an advanced accumulator tank that makes it possible to prolong this startup time of emergency electric source equipment to 100 seconds which allows gas turbine generators to be used as emergency power supply. It is shown that the US-APWR GTG unit is successful in the initial type test and meets the requirements for Class 1E emergency power sources described in R.G 1.9 and IEEE Std-387

  8. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  9. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and

  10. Condition Based Monitoring of Gas Turbine Combustion Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulerich, Nancy; Kidane, Getnet; Spiegelberg, Christine; Tevs, Nikolai

    2012-09-30

    The objective of this program is to develop sensors that allow condition based monitoring of critical combustion parts of gas turbines. Siemens teamed with innovative, small companies that were developing sensor concepts that could monitor wearing and cracking of hot turbine parts. A magnetic crack monitoring sensor concept developed by JENTEK Sensors, Inc. was evaluated in laboratory tests. Designs for engine application were evaluated. The inability to develop a robust lead wire to transmit the signal long distances resulted in a discontinuation of this concept. An optical wear sensor concept proposed by K Sciences GP, LLC was tested in proof-of concept testing. The sensor concept depended, however, on optical fiber tips wearing with the loaded part. The fiber tip wear resulted in too much optical input variability; the sensor could not provide adequate stability for measurement. Siemens developed an alternative optical wear sensor approach that used a commercial PHILTEC, Inc. optical gap sensor with an optical spacer to remove fibers from the wearing surface. The gap sensor measured the length of the wearing spacer to follow loaded part wear. This optical wear sensor was developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. It was validated in lab tests and installed on a floating transition seal in an F-Class gas turbine. Laboratory tests indicate that the concept can measure wear on loaded parts at temperatures up to 800{degrees}C with uncertainty of < 0.3 mm. Testing in an F-Class engine installation showed that the optical spacer wore with the wearing part. The electro-optics box located outside the engine enclosure survived the engine enclosure environment. The fiber optic cable and the optical spacer, however, both degraded after about 100 operating hours, impacting the signal analysis.

  11. Improving the Transient Performance of the Gas Turbine by Steam Injection during Frequency Dips

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghaffari; Saeed Bahrami; Marcus Thern

    2013-01-01

    Single-shaft gas turbines are sensitive to frequency changes which might affect the grid stability during large frequency drops. This paper presents a new control system that uses steam injection as an auxiliary input to improve the transient performance of the gas turbine during frequency drops. Steam injection is beneficial because it reduces the peak temperature in the combustion chamber and augments the output power by increasing the mass flow through the turbine. The use of this auxiliar...

  12. Flash Atomization: A New Concept to Control Combustion Instability in Water-Injected Gas Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwas Iyengar; Harold Simmons; David Ransom

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to explore methods to reduce combustor rumble in a water-injected gas turbine. Attempts to use water injection as a means to reduce NOX emissions in gas turbines have been largely unsuccessful because of increased combustion instability levels. This pulsation causes chronic fretting, wear, and fatigue that damages combustor components. Of greater concern is that liberated fragments could cause extensive damage to the turbine section. Combustion instability can be...

  13. Developments in advanced high temperature disc and blade materials for aero-engine gas turbine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, S

    2012-01-01

    The research carried out as part of this EngD is aimed at understanding the high temperature materials used in modern gas turbine applications and providing QinetiQ with the information required to assess component performance in new propulsion systems. Performance gains are achieved through increased turbine gas temperatures which lead to hotter turbine disc rims and blades. The work has focussed on two key areas: (1) Disc Alloy Assessment of High Temperature Properties; and (2) Thermal Barr...

  14. Numerical simulation and prototype testing of gas turbine with hot spinning process

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy (Zheng) Li

    2013-01-01

    The gas turbine is normally operating in high temperature environment and its blades / rotor are constantly contacting gas with extremely high temperature. To prolong the life cycle and improve the function of these critical turbine components, the cooling methods should be applied to reduce the temperature in turbine disc area. But the potential problem is that the cooling methodology reducing the central rotor temperature can enlarge the temperature gradients leading excessive thermal stres...

  15. Sand effects on thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walock, Michael; Barnett, Blake; Ghoshal, Anindya; Murugan, Muthuvel; Swab, Jeffrey; Pepi, Marc; Hopkins, David; Gazonas, George; Kerner, Kevin

    Accumulation and infiltration of molten/ semi-molten sand and subsequent formation of calcia-magnesia-alumina-silicate (CMAS) deposits in gas turbine engines continues to be a significant problem for aviation assets. This complex problem is compounded by the large variations in the composition, size, and topology of natural sands, gas generator turbine temperatures, thermal barrier coating properties, and the incoming particulate's momentum. In order to simplify the materials testing process, significant time and resources have been spent in the development of synthetic sand mixtures. However, there is debate whether these mixtures accurately mimic the damage observed in field-returned engines. With this study, we provide a direct comparison of CMAS deposits from both natural and synthetic sands. Using spray deposition techniques, 7% yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings are deposited onto bond-coated, Ni-superalloy discs. Each sample is coated with a sand slurry, either natural or synthetic, and exposed to a high temperature flame for 1 hour. Test samples are characterized before and after flame exposure. In addition, the test samples will be compared to field-returned equipment. This research was sponsored by the US Army Research Laboratory, and was accomplished under Cooperative Agreement # W911NF-12-2-0019.

  16. LES of an ignition sequence in a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boileau, M.; Staffelbach, G.; Cuenot, B. [CERFACS, Toulouse (France); Poinsot, T. [IMFT - CNRS, Toulouse (France); Berat, C. [Turbomeca (SAFRAN group), Bordes (France)

    2008-07-15

    Being able to ignite or reignite a gas turbine engine in a cold and rarefied atmosphere is a critical issue for many manufacturers. From a fundamental point of view, the ignition of the first burner and the flame propagation from one burner to another are phenomena that are usually not studied. The present work is a large eddy simulation (LES) of these phenomena. To simulate a complete ignition sequence in an annular chamber, LES has been applied to the full 360 geometry, including 18 burners. This geometry corresponds to a real gas turbine chamber. Massively parallel computing (700 processors on a Cray XT3 machine) was essential to perform such a large calculation. Results show that liquid fuel injection has a strong influence on the ignition times. Moreover, the rate of flame progress from burner to burner is much higher than the turbulent flame speed due to a major effect of thermal expansion. This flame speed is also strongly modified by the main burner aerodynamics due to the swirled injection. Finally, the variability of the combustor sectors and quadrant ignition times is highlighted. (author)

  17. Sensor and Actuator Needs for More Intelligent Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Schadow, Klaus; Horn, Wolfgang; Pfoertner, Hugo; Stiharu, Ion

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the controls and diagnostics technologies, that are seen as critical for more intelligent gas turbine engines (GTE), with an emphasis on the sensor and actuator technologies that need to be developed for the controls and diagnostics implementation. The objective of the paper is to help the "Customers" of advanced technologies, defense acquisition and aerospace research agencies, understand the state-of-the-art of intelligent GTE technologies, and help the "Researchers" and "Technology Developers" for GTE sensors and actuators identify what technologies need to be developed to enable the "Intelligent GTE" concepts and focus their research efforts on closing the technology gap. To keep the effort manageable, the focus of the paper is on "On-Board Intelligence" to enable safe and efficient operation of the engine over its life time, with an emphasis on gas path performance

  18. Environmental radon monitoring in gas turbine power station in Haryana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of indoor radon and its progeny levels was carried out in Gas Turbine Power Station in Haryana, where natural gas is used as fuel. In the power station LR-115, Type- II plastic track detectors were exposed for 100 days at different locations. The radon levels measured at various locations were moderate to high and thus unsafe from health point of view. The potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), radon levels (EEC), annual exposure, annual effective dose in the Plant varied from 4.14 mWL to 26.7 mWL, 38.3 Bq m-3 to 247.6 Bq m-3, 0.17 WLM to 1.10 WLM and 0.66 mSv to 4.25 mSv. For comparison, the results of a study carried out in thermal power plant in Haryana are also presented. (author)

  19. Contribution of heat transfer to turbine blades and vanes for high temperature industrial gas turbines. Part 1: Film cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, K; Aoki, S

    2001-05-01

    This paper deals with the contribution of heat transfer to increase the turbine inlet temperature of industrial gas turbines in order to attain efficient and environmentally benign engines. High efficiency film cooling, in the form of shaped film cooling and full coverage film cooling, is one of the most important cooling technologies. Corresponding heat transfer tests to optimize the film cooling effectiveness are shown and discussed in this first part of the contribution. PMID:11460641

  20. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT, a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG, and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG. The results show that (1 a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2 at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the lowest value of exergy efficiency is calculated for the fog cooler, where the mixing of air and water at greatly different temperatures causes the high exergy destruction; and (3 utilization of the fogging cooler in the steam injection cycle increases the exergy destruction in the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the simple gas turbine cycle is found to be more economic as its relative cost difference, total unit product cost, and exergoeconomic factors are less than those for the two other configurations. However, its efficiency and net power output are notably lower than for the gas turbine with steam injection and/or fog cooling. The total unit product cost is highest for the simple gas turbine with steam injection.

  1. Inlet Air Fogging of Marine Gas Turbine in Power Output Loss Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Domachowski Zygfryd; Dzida Marek

    2015-01-01

    The use of inlet air fogging installation to boost the power for gas turbine engines is widely applied in the power generation sector. The application of fogging to mechanical drive is rarely considered in literature [1]. This paper will cover some considerations relating to its application for gas turbines in ship drive.

  2. Construction of power-generating gas turbine units with the use of efficient thermal schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, D. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Zhuravlev, Yu. I.; Lesnichenko, A. Ya.; Tsai, S. S.

    2008-08-01

    The design features of GTE-30 and GTE-50 power-generating gas turbines, the basic thermal circuit of a PGU-90 (150) combined-cycle plant, and a layout solution for a cogeneration station built around a gas-turbine unit are considered.

  3. Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Technologies Inc. and its subcontractors, during the period April 1, 1993 through October 31, 1994 under Phase II of the DOE Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development program. The objective of the program is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through the implementation of selected ceramic components.

  4. Regenerative Heat Usage of Gas-Turbine Units with Isobar Heat Supply

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Begliak

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems concerning optimization of gas turbine operational modes at varying loads due to regeneration application. The possibility pertaining to increase of operational efficiency gas-turbine units at various modes is shown in the paper. The efficiency can be achieved due to an increase of regeneration rate while reducing consumer’s heat load.

  5. Regenerative Heat Usage of Gas-Turbine Units with Isobar Heat Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Begliak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning optimization of gas turbine operational modes at varying loads due to regeneration application. The possibility pertaining to increase of operational efficiency gas-turbine units at various modes is shown in the paper. The efficiency can be achieved due to an increase of regeneration rate while reducing consumer’s heat load.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of alternative marine fuels for marine gas turbine power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, Mohamed M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2016-03-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  7. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of Alternative Marine Fuels for Marine Gas Turbine Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed M El Gohary; Nader R Ammar

    2016-01-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  9. Method for Making Measurements of the Post-Combustion Residence Time in a Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeffrey H (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and method of measuring a residence time in a gas-turbine engine is provided, whereby the method includes placing pressure sensors at a combustor entrance and at a turbine exit of the gas-turbine engine and measuring a combustor pressure at the combustor entrance and a turbine exit pressure at the turbine exit. The method further includes computing cross-spectrum functions between a combustor pressure sensor signal from the measured combustor pressure and a turbine exit pressure sensor signal from the measured turbine exit pressure, applying a linear curve fit to the cross-spectrum functions, and computing a post-combustion residence time from the linear curve fit.

  10. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  11. Analysis of the Behaviour of Biofuel-Fired Gas Turbine Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero Olano, Marcos; Jiménez Alvaro, Ángel; González Fernández, M. Celina

    2011-01-01

    The utilisation of biofuels in gas turbines is a promising alternative to fossil fuels for power generation. It would lead to significant reduction of CO2 emissions using an existing combustion technology, although significant changes seem to be needed and further technological development is necessary. The goal of this work is to perform energy and exergy analyses of the behaviour of gas turbines fired with biogas, ethanol and synthesis gas (bio-syngas), compared with natural gas. The g...

  12. Prospects of power conversion technology of direct-cycle helium gas turbine for MHTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor (MHTGR) is a modern passively safe reactor. The reactor and helium gas turbine may be combined for high efficiency's power conversion, because MHTGR has high outlet temperature up to 950 degree C. Two different schemes are planed separately by USA and South Africa. the helium gas turbine methodologies adopted by them are mainly based on the developed heavy duty industrial and aviation gas turbine technology. The author introduces the differences of two technologies and some design issues in the design and manufacture. Moreover, the author conclude that directly coupling a closed Brayton cycle gas turbine concept to the passively safe MHTGR is the developing direction of MHTGR due to its efficiency which is much higher than that of using steam turbine

  13. Structural integrity analyses of aging gas turbine engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the modes of degradation that are operative in durability critical gas path components such as blades and vanes and safety critical rotating components such as discs, spacers and cooling plates in aging gas turbine engines. How long aging engine fleets can be kept in service safely, without replacing a significant portion of their aging structural components, is a growing concern for engine life-cycle managers? This concern arises as a result of uncertainties associated with their residual lives. Another concern is the high maintenance cost associated with the replacement of aging components and the need to balance risk and escalating maintenance costs without compromising safety. The presentation also focusses on component life extension strategies that engine life cycle managers may adopt to cost effectively manage their engines while ensuring safety and reliability. In the case of aero-engines, maintaining airworthiness while ensuring affordability is of prime concern to both life-cycle managers and regulatory authorities. The presentation reviews the basic requirements of qualification methodologies that must be followed to introduce repairs, design modifications and new materials in aging engines. Some of these tests are necessary to establish structural performance requirements and to ensure structural integrity and performance throughout the extended life period. New engine standards have also emerged that allow the application of fracture mechanics based damage tolerance concepts to be used for safety-critical parts beyond their conventional safe-life limits such that a component is only retired once it develops a detectable crack at the fracture critical location. The implementation of this methodology however requires quantification of uncertainties associated with the inspection technique used to inspect the engine at overhaul, material variability and the critical crack size at fracture critical location. The presentation

  14. Analisa Pengaruh Water Wash Terhadap Performansi Turbin Gas Pada PLTG Unit 7 Paya Pasir PT.PLN Sektor Pembangkitan Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Perangin Angin, Febri Dwi Senjaya

    2015-01-01

    Turbin gas adalah mesin Pembakaran luar (eksternal Combustion Engine) dimana energi kinetik dari gas panas memutar sudu – sudu turbin menjadi energi mekanik. Pada saat ini instalasi turbin gas ditambah dengan cara baru yang disebut Water Wash. Water Wash adalah suatu cara yang digunakan untuk membersihkan kompresor sehingga daya keluaran turbin gas lebih besar. Proses penggunaan Water Wash beroperasi menggunakan pola semprotan air dari nozzle yang sangat dirancang untuk benar-benar masuk ...

  15. Pyrolysis of automotive shredder residue for the production of fuel-grade gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every year eight to ten million cars and trucks are disposed of by shredding at one of the 200 auto shredders located in the United States. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) is a by-product created in the dismantling of automobiles. Figure 1 illustrates the process by which ASR is generated. An automobile is stripped of useful and/or hazardous items, such as the gas tank, battery, tires, and radiator. Although it is beneficial to have these items removed for safety and environmental concerns, this is not always accomplished. After removal of some or all of these items, the automobile is shredded to provide a material less than 4 inches in size and composed of approximately 50% organic and 50% inorganic fractions. Ferrous scrap is then separated out magnetically. This ferrous scrap supplies the steel industry with 12 to 14 million tons per year for electric arc furnace feedstock. Air cyclone separators isolate a low density open-quotes fluffclose quotes from the nonferrous fraction (aluminum, copper, etc.). This fluff (shredder residue) is composed of a variety of plastics, fabrics, foams, glass, rubber, and an assortment of contaminants. Fluff bulk density is approximately 20 lb/ft

  16. Small turbines in distributed utility application: Natural gas pressure supply requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, H.L.

    1996-05-01

    Implementing distributed utility can strengthen the local distribution system and help avoid or delay the expense of upgrading transformers and feeders. The gas turbine-generator set is an attractive option based on its low front-end capital cost, reliable performance at unmanned stations, and environmental performance characteristics. This report assesses gas turbine utilization issues from a perspective of fuel supply pressure requirements and discusses both cost and operational factors. A primary operational consideration for siting gas turbines on the electric distribution system is whether the local gas distribution company can supply gas at the required pressure. Currently available gas turbine engines require gas supply pressures of at least 150 pounds per square inch gauge, more typically, 250 to 350 psig. Few LDCs maintain line pressure in excess of 125 psig. One option for meeting the gas pressure requirements is to upgrade or extend an existing pipeline and connect that pipeline to a high-pressure supply source, such as an interstate transmission line. However, constructing new pipeline is expensive, and the small volume of gas required by the turbine for the application offers little incentive for the LDC to provide this service. Another way to meet gas pressure requirements is to boost the compression of the fuel gas at the gas turbine site. Fuel gas booster compressors are readily available as stand-alone units and can satisfactorily increase the supply pressure to meet the turbine engine requirement. However, the life-cycle costs of this equipment are not inconsequential, and maintenance and reliability issues for boosters in this application are questionable and require further study. These factors may make the gas turbine option a less attractive solution in DU applications than first indicated by just the $/kW capital cost. On the other hand, for some applications other DU technologies, such as photovoltaics, may be the more attractive option.

  17. Welding repair of the steam and gas turbines rotors made of Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of typical steam turbine and gas turbine rotor failures is carried out. On the base of the rotors different failure causes and their mode of occurring, an evaluation of the weldability of the Cr-Mo-V steels and the classification of the common turbine rotors repair possibilities is presented. The developing of specific in-situ welding repair process of the damaged 20.65 MW gas turbine rotor is described. After repair, the rotor was put back into service. (Author) 15 refs

  18. Technical development give industrial gas turbines a new edge in offshore applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellberg, Anders; Thom, Dorian [Demag Delaval Industrial Turbines, Lincoln, Lincolnshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Gas turbines have been used as compressor and alternator drivers for many years, but over the last decade gas turbines have been subject to considerable technological development spurred on by economic changes and increased environmental concerns. Industrial types of gas turbines have been specifically designed and developed for mechanical drive and general industrial power applications. However, during the last decade, gas turbine manufacturers have concentrated their developments on the lucrative aircraft market, with some subsequent benefit for the aero derivative type gas turbines. Since the pre selection of a particular characteristic (e.g. emissions, fuel consumption, maintenance method, etc) will automatically preclude one or other type of gas turbine, by virtue of the turbine design, this has resulted in a more restrictive choice for end users. We will show in this paper how the new generation of industrial gas turbines (with specific focus on the GT10C) will redress this balance. It will be shown that the new generation of machines maintain all the benefits of the industrial design (maintenance, reliability, operability) but also inherit higher efficiency, lower weight, low emissions, higher power output and speed to address present market requirements. While the weight of an industrial gas turbine core engine is somewhat higher than that of an aero derivative, today's package design is more focused to the offshore needs and as such that the core engine does not have any significant effect on overall package weight or layout. The maintenance methods that have been developed are more suitable to demands of low downtime and faster maintenance activities. The impression of most customers has been that 'industrial' type gas turbines are not suitable for the high demands of the offshore market. However, recent developments have changed the technology and the aim of the paper is to change the image. (author)

  19. Performance review: PBMR closed cycle gas turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium is considered as one of the ideal working fluid for closed cycle using nuclear heat source due to its low neutron absorption as well as high thermodynamic properties. The commercial viability of the Helium turbo machinery depends on operational success. The past attempts failed due to poor performances manifested in the form of drop in efficiency, inability to reach maximum load, slow response to the transients etc. Radical changes in the basic design were suggested in some instances as possible solutions. A better understanding of the operational performance is necessary for the detailed design of the plant and the control systems. This paper describes the theory behind the off design and transient modelling of a closed cycle gas turbine plant. A computer simulation model has been created specifically for this cycle. The model has been tested for various turbine entry temperatures along the steady state and its replications at various locations were observed. The paper also looks at the various control methods available for a closed cycle and some of the options were simulated. (author)

  20. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto J. Gregory

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures of hot section components in today’s gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today’s engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire thermocouples.

  1. Cogeneration from poultry industry wastes: Indirectly fired gas turbine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on biomass characteristics, namely water content, density, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular, some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant, which can consist of an indirectly fired gas turbine. Moreover, a steam turbine plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences in terms of energy savings/production and of return of the investments

  2. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled “Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines.” This is one of the topics covered in the course “Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer,” which is offered in the second year of Mechanical Engineering at the Defense University Center at the Naval Academy in Vigo, Spain. While participating in the activity, students will be divided into groups of no more than 10 for seminars. The groups will create PowerPoint presentations that include all of the analyzed aspects. The topics to be discussed during the workshop on power plant turbines are the: (1 principles of operation; (2 processes involved; (3 advantages and disadvantages; (4 efficiency; (5 combined cycle; and (6 transversal competences, such as teamwork, oral and written presentations, and analysis and synthesis of information. This paper presents the use of Google Sites as a guide to the WebQuest so that students can access all information online, including instructions, summaries, resources, and information on qualifications.

  3. Thermodynamic characteristics of a low concentration methane catalytic combustion gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low concentration methane, emitted from coal mines, landfill, animal waste, etc. into the atmosphere, is not only a greenhouse gas, but also a waste energy source if not utilised. Methane is 23 times more potent than CO2 in terms of trapping heat in the atmosphere over a timeframe of 100 years. This paper studies a novel lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine, which can be powered with about 1% methane (volume) in air. When this technology is successfully developed, it can be used not only to mitigate the methane for greenhouse gas reduction, but also to utilise such methane as a clean energy source. This paper presents our study results on the thermodynamic characteristics of this new lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine system by conducting thermal performance analysis of the turbine cycle. The thermodynamic data including thermal efficiencies and exergy loss of main components of the turbine system are presented under different pressure ratios, turbine inlet temperatures and methane concentrations.

  4. Demonstration of Enabling Spar-Shell Cooling Technology in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, James [Florida Turbine Technologies Inc., Jupiter, FL (United States)

    2014-12-29

    In this Advanced Turbine Program-funded Phase III project, Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. (FTT) has developed and tested, at a pre-commercial prototypescale, spar-shell turbine airfoils in a commercial gas turbine. The airfoil development is based upon FTT’s research and development to date in Phases I and II of Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grants. During this program, FTT has partnered with an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), Siemens Energy, to produce sparshell turbine components for the first pre-commercial prototype test in an F-Class industrial gas turbine engine and has successfully completed validation testing. This project will further the commercialization of this new technology in F-frame and other highly cooled turbine airfoil applications. FTT, in cooperation with Siemens, intends to offer the spar-shell vane as a first-tier supplier for retrofit applications and new large frame industrial gas turbines. The market for the spar-shell vane for these machines is huge. According to Forecast International, 3,211 new gas turbines units (in the >50MW capacity size range) will be ordered in ten years from 2007 to 2016. FTT intends to enter the market in a low rate initial production. After one year of successful extended use, FTT will quickly ramp up production and sales, with a target to capture 1% of the market within the first year and 10% within 5 years (2020).

  5. Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Hasegawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoints of securing a stable supply of energy and protecting our global environment in the future, the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC power generation of various gasifying methods has been introduced in the world. Gasified fuels are chiefly characterized by the gasifying agents and the synthetic gas cleanup methods and can be divided into four types. The calorific value of the gasified fuel varies according to the gasifying agents and feedstocks of various resources, and ammonia originating from nitrogenous compounds in the feedstocks depends on the synthetic gas clean-up methods. In particular, air-blown gasified fuels provide low calorific fuel of 4 MJ/m3 and it is necessary to stabilize combustion. In contrast, the flame temperature of oxygen-blown gasified fuel of medium calorie between approximately 9–13 MJ/m3 is much higher, so control of thermal-NOx emissions is necessary. Moreover, to improve the thermal efficiency of IGCC, hot/dry type synthetic gas clean-up is needed. However, ammonia in the fuel is not removed and is supplied into the gas turbine where fuel-NOx is formed in the combustor. For these reasons, suitable combustion technology for each gasified fuel is important. This paper outlines combustion technologies and combustor designs of the high temperature gas turbine for various IGCCs. Additionally, this paper confirms that further decreases in fuel-NOx emissions can be achieved by removing ammonia from gasified fuels through the application of selective, non-catalytic denitration. From these basic considerations, the performance of specifically designed combustors for each IGCC proved the proposed methods to be sufficiently effective. The combustors were able to achieve strong results, decreasing thermal-NOx emissions to 10 ppm (corrected at 16% oxygen or less, and fuel-NOx emissions by 60% or more, under conditions where ammonia concentration per fuel heating value in unit volume was 2.4 × 102 ppm

  6. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called mixed diesel-gasapproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  7. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  8. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  9. Gas turbine engine combustor can with trapped vortex cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrus, David Louis; Joshi, Narendra Digamber; Haynes, Joel Meier; Feitelberg, Alan S.

    2005-10-04

    A gas turbine engine combustor can downstream of a pre-mixer has a pre-mixer flowpath therein and circumferentially spaced apart swirling vanes disposed across the pre-mixer flowpath. A primary fuel injector is positioned for injecting fuel into the pre-mixer flowpath. A combustion chamber surrounded by an annular combustor liner disposed in supply flow communication with the pre-mixer. An annular trapped dual vortex cavity located at an upstream end of the combustor liner is defined between an annular aft wall, an annular forward wall, and a circular radially outer wall formed therebetween. A cavity opening at a radially inner end of the cavity is spaced apart from the radially outer wall. Air injection first holes are disposed through the forward wall and air injection second holes are disposed through the aft wall. Fuel injection holes are disposed through at least one of the forward and aft walls.

  10. Comparison of damping treatments for gas turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert W.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

    1996-05-01

    High frequency vibration of gas turbine fan blades is a high cycle fatigue concern. Friction damping devices are ineffective in suppressing high frequency vibration modes and external damping treatments are plagued by creep concerns. An alternative approach is to apply viscoelastic material internally in the blades. In this paper, an analytical comparison of internal damping treatments for fan blades is presented. The fan blade is modeled as a solid, flat, cantilevered titanium plate. Internal portions are removed producing cavities that are filled with viscoelastic material. Configurations with one, two, and three cavities are modeled using the modal strain energy method in conjunction with finite element analysis to estimate damping. Results show that appreciable damping levels for high frequency modes are possible with stiff viscoelastic material. Other design criteria are also considered. Results indicate that the hydrostatic load from the viscoelastic material on the cavity walls may be a concern.

  11. Degradation of gas turbine coatings and life assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheruvu, N.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    MCrAlY coatings are widely used on hot section components of gas turbines to provide hot corrosion and/or oxidation protection by formation of an oxide layer on the surface. As the protective oxide scale exfoliates during service, aluminum from the coating diffuses outward for reformation of the protective scale. Aluminum may also diffuse inward due to the differences in composition between the coating and the substrate. Thus, the coatings degrade due to oxidation, oxide scale spallation, and inward and outward diffusion of aluminum. Service life of these coatings is controlled by the aluminum content in the coating, operating temperature and start- shutdown cycles. In-service degradation of CoCrAlY and CoNiCrAlY coatings is presented. A procedure to predict the remaining service life of coatings under oxidizing conditions is discussed. (orig.) 12 refs.

  12. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemad, Shahrokh [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Baird, Benjamin [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Alavandi, Sandeep [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Pfefferle, William [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States)

    2010-04-01

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE's goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar

  13. NDE of titanium alloy MMC rings for gas turbine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baaklini, G.Y.; Percival, L.D.; Yancey, R.N.; Kautz, H.E.

    1993-09-01

    Progress in the processing and fabrication of metal matrix composites (MMC's) requires appropriate mechanical and nondestructive testing methods. These methods are needed to characterize properties, assess integrity, and predict the life of engine components such as compressor rotors, blades, and vanes. Capabilities and limitations of several state-of-the-art nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are investigated for characterizing titanium MMC rings for gas turbine engines. The use of NDE technologies such as x-ray computed tomography, radiography, and ultrasonics in identifying fabrication-related problems that caused defects in components is examined. Acousto-ultrasonics was explored to assess degradation of material mechanical properties by using stress wave factor and ultrasonic velocity measurements before and after the burst testing of the rings.

  14. NDE of titanium alloy MMC rings for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Percival, Larry D.; Yancey, Robert N.; Kautz, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    Progress in the processing and fabrication of metal matrix composites (MMC's) requires appropriate mechanical and nondestructive testing methods. These methods are needed to characterize properties, assess integrity, and predict the life of engine components such as compressor rotors, blades, and vanes. Capabilities and limitations of several state-of-the-art nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are investigated for characterizing titanium MMC rings for gas turbine engines. The use of NDE technologies such as x-ray computed tomography, radiography, and ultrasonics in identifying fabrication-related problems that caused defects in components is examined. Acousto-ultrasonics was explored to assess degradation of material mechanical properties by using stress wave factor and ultrasonic velocity measurements before and after the burst testing of the rings.

  15. Ceramics in gas turbines - Powder and process characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.

    1977-01-01

    The role of powder and process characterization in producing high quality silicon nitride and silicon carbide components, for gas turbine applications, is described. Some of the intrinsic properties of various forms of Si3N4 and SiC are listed and limitations of such materials' availability have been pointed out. The essential features/parameters to characterize a batch of powder have been discussed including the standard techniques for such characterization. In process characterization, parameters in sintering, reaction sintering, and hot pressing processes are discussed including the factors responsible for strength limitations in ceramic bodies. It is inevitable that significant improvements in material properties can be achieved by reducing or eliminating the strength limiting factors with consistent powder and process characterization along with process control.

  16. Gas Turbine Engine Component Development : An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Jansen

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer - aided engineering methods have made a significant impact in the design technologies of advanced machinery. These methods have been applied in several areas such as aerodynamics and fluid dynamic theory for high efficiency, stress and vibration theory for reliability, and manufacturing strategies to produce machined components at low cost and with short time schedules. The integration of these various design technologies offer the opportunity for even greater productivity in the engineering design and manufacturing process. This paper addresses the application of various engineering disciplines to the demand of producing a reliable, efficient design and the subsequent manufacture of components with short lead times through the interaction of these computer - aided engineering technologies. The concept is further illustrated by simple cases for a centrifugal compressor and a gas turbine.

  17. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess of fuel control requirements back to aircraft fuel tank, thereby increasing the fuel pump heat sink and decreasing the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than that normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. Fluid circuitry is provided to route hot engine oil through a plurality of heat exchangers disposed within the system to provide for selective cooling of the oil.

  18. Gas turbine nozzle vane insert and methods of installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William John; Predmore, Daniel Ross; Placko, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    A pair of hollow elongated insert bodies are disposed in one or more of the nozzle vane cavities of a nozzle stage of a gas turbine. Each insert body has an outer wall portion with apertures for impingement-cooling of nozzle wall portions in registration with the outer wall portion. The insert bodies are installed into the cavity separately and spreaders flex the bodies toward and to engage standoffs against wall portions of the nozzle whereby the designed impingement gap between the outer wall portions of the insert bodies and the nozzle wall portions is achieved. The spreaders are secured to the inner wall portions of the insert bodies and the bodies are secured to one another and to the nozzle vane by welding or brazing.

  19. Recuperated atmosphere SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-08-24

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  20. Development of impact design methods for ceramic gas turbine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J.; Cuccio, J.; Kington, H.

    1990-01-01

    Impact damage prediction methods are being developed to aid in the design of ceramic gas turbine engine components with improved impact resistance. Two impact damage modes were characterized: local, near the impact site, and structural, usually fast fracture away from the impact site. Local damage to Si3N4 impacted by Si3N4 spherical projectiles consists of ring and/or radial cracks around the impact point. In a mechanistic model being developed, impact damage is characterized as microcrack nucleation and propagation. The extent of damage is measured as volume fraction of microcracks. Model capability is demonstrated by simulating late impact tests. Structural failure is caused by tensile stress during impact exceeding material strength. The EPIC3 code was successfully used to predict blade structural failures in different size particle impacts on radial and axial blades.

  1. The ISO 9001 combined cycle gas turbine power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, C. [Enron Power Operations Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Enron Power Operations Limited is believed to be one of the first organisations to achieve BS EN ISO9001: 1994 for an Operational Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Station. In 1997 the Power Station decided to re-create policies and procedures to fill in the unknown gaps in its array of policies and procedures. The creation of the Quality Management System was expected to take six months utilising limited resources and the experiences of operational staff. Initial checks and internal audits created a wealth of information and highlighted some significant short falls, once certification was gained further issues have been noted. This paper concerns the development, implementation and certification of the Quality Management System at Teesside Power Station showing some benefits noted during this period and the short period after certification. Any other improvements and benefits will come in the future during continued development of the system. (author)

  2. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    In many cases it has been found that advances made in one technical field can contribute to other fields. An investigation is in this connection conducted concerning subjects from contemporary NASA programs and projects which might have relevance and potential usefulness to the automotive industry. Examples regarding aerospace developments which have been utilized by the automotive industry are related to electronic design, computer systems, quality control experience, a NASA combustion scanner and television display, exhaust gas analyzers, and a device for suppressing noise propagated through ducts. Projects undertaken by NASA's center for propulsion and power research are examined with respect to their value for the automotive industry. As a result of some of these projects, a gas turbine engine and a Stirling engine might each become a possible alternative to the conventional spark ignition engine.

  3. On better utilization of gas turbines in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Mohamed A.; Abdulrahim, Hassan K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060 Safat (Kuwait); Amer, Anwar B. [Kuwait Foundations for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS), P.O. Box 25263, 13113 Safat (Kuwait)

    2008-04-15

    The Kuwaiti Ministry of Electricity and Water installed 16 gas turbine (GT) units of 2000 MW total generating capacity at Azzour South power plant (PP) and Sabbyia PP. These units are operating as a simple GT cycle by gas or oil fuel. The GT unit power output in Azzour PP is 163 MW at 15 C ambient temperature (ISO conditions), and 125 MW at 46 C (design outside air conditions). This paper suggests four variants for better utilization of these GT units. The first variant is to utilize these GT during off-peak hours to operate seawater reverse-osmosis desalting system. This increases the badly needed installed desalting capacity, decreases the specific energy consumed for desalting, and solves the problem of low water-to-power production ratio. The second variant is to add heat recovery steam generator to produce steam. This steam is used to operate multi-stage flashing units for more desalted water with no additional fuel energy. In the third variant, a gas/steam combined cycle is proposed to increase significantly both the installed capacity and efficiency. The fourth variant deals with cooling intake air to the compressor to increase the unit capacity when needed in hot days. (author)

  4. Topping gas turbines improve steam power plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezuo, A. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). KWU Group)

    An interesting option for improving the efficiency and output of an existing conventional steam power plant is to convert it into a combined steam-and-gas cycle power plant by adding a topping gas turbine. The investment involved is relatively low, the payback period is short, and the low specific fuel consumption makes it possible to save on overall running costs. At the same time, the amount of residue for disposal and also pollutant emissions are drastically reduced. This article describes the configuration of a fully-fired combined-cycle power plant and discusses thermodynamic design and efficiency, operational aspects, emissions and residues and investment and economic viability. Both coal-fired and gas or oil-fired steam power plants can be converted by adding a topping cycle and the investment cost is about 20% of the cost of a new plant with the same output rating as the plant to be converted. Conversion reduces pollutant emission and residues produced (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, dust, ash, gypsum, waste heat). 4 figs.

  5. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines : morphology, processing and properties

    OpenAIRE

    GrÜnling, H.; Mannsmann, W.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings out of fully or partially stabilized zirconia offer a unique chance in gas turbines to increase the gas inlet temperature significantly while keeping the temperature of the structural material of the component within conventional limits. The protection of combustor parts and transition pieces as well as of some stationary gas turbine parts however is state of the art. As a consequence of still insufficient reliability, the application for hot rotating parts is very li...

  6. Analysis of the behaviour of biofuel-fired gas turbine power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero Marcos; Jiménez Ángel; González Celina; Nieto Rafael; López Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The utilisation of biofuels in gas turbines is a promising alternative to fossil fuels for power generation. It would lead to a significant reduction of CO2 emissions using an existing combustion technology, although considerable changes appear to be required and further technological development is necessary. The goal of this work is to conduct energy and exergy analyses of the behaviour of gas turbines fired with biogas, ethanol and synthesis gas (bio-syngas), compared with natural ga...

  7. Parametric Analysis of a Two-Shaft Aeroderivate Gas Turbine of 11.86 MW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lugo-Leyte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aeroderivate gas turbines are widely used for power generation in the oil and gas industry. In offshore marine platforms, the aeroderivative gas turbines provide the energy required to drive mechanically compressors, pumps and electric generators. Therefore, the study of the performance of aeroderivate gas turbines based on a parametric analysis is relevant to carry out a diagnostic of the engine, which can lead to operational as well as predictive and/or corrective maintenance actions. This work presents a methodology based on the exergetic analysis to estimate the irrevesibilities and exergetic efficiencies of the main components of a two-shaft aeroderivate gas turbine. The studied engine is the Solar Turbine Mars 100, which is rated to provide 11.86 MW. In this engine, the air is compressed in an axial compressor achieving a pressure ratio of 17.7 relative to ambient conditions and a high pressure turbine inlet temperature of 1220 °C. Even if the thermal efficiency associated to the pressure ratio of 17.7 is 1% lower than the maximum thermal efficiency, the irreversibilities related to this pressure ratio decrease approximately 1 GW with respect to irreversibilities of the optimal pressure ratio for the thermal efficiency. In addition, this paper contributes to develop a mathematical model to estimate the high turbine inlet temperature as well as the pressure ratio of the low and high pressure turbines.

  8. Investigation into the thermodynamic suitability of a commercial turbocharger for use in a micro gas-turbine / David Tertius Landsberg

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberg, David Tertius

    2006-01-01

    Micro gas-turbines are expanding to be much more prevalent in the power generating market. They are merely scaled down versions of their larger siblings, gas-turbines powering commercial airplanes on generating megawatts of electrical energy throughout the world. The basic components of a micro gas-turbine and that of a turbocharger unit on internal combustion engines are quite similar. Both have a compressor, a heat source and a turbine. This study investigates the possibility...

  9. Helium turbomachinery operating experience from gas turbine power plants and test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closed-cycle gas turbine, pioneered and deployed in Europe, is not well known in the USA. Since nuclear power plant studies currently being conducted in several countries involve the coupling of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a helium closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system, the experience gained from operated helium turbomachinery is the focus of this paper. A study done as early as 1945 foresaw the use of a helium closed-cycle gas turbine coupled with a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor, and some two decades later this was investigated but not implemented because of lack of technology readiness. However, the first practical use of helium as a gas turbine working fluid was recognized for cryogenic processes, and the first two small fossil-fired helium gas turbines to operate were in the USA for air liquefaction and nitrogen production facilities. In the 1970's a larger helium gas turbine plant and helium test facilities were built and operated in Germany to establish technology bases for a projected future high efficiency large nuclear gas turbine power plant concept. This review paper covers the experience gained, and the lessons learned from the operation of helium gas turbine plants and related test facilities, and puts these into perspective since over three decades have passed since they were deployed. An understanding of the many unexpected events encountered, and how the problems, some of them serious, were resolved is important to avoid them being replicated in future helium turbomachines. The valuable lessons learned in the past, in many cases the hard way, particularly from the operation in Germany of the Oberhausen II 50 MWe helium gas turbine plant, and the technical know-how gained from the formidable HHV helium turbine test facility, are viewed as being germane in the context of current helium turbomachine design work being done for future high efficiency nuclear gas turbine plant concepts. - Highlights:

  10. Design analysis and development of a high temperature actuaror for gas turbine blade tip clearance control

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun, Mustafa Bulut; Coskun, Mustafa Bulut

    2011-01-01

    During a typical startup cycle industrial gas turbine blades experience rapid radial thermal expansion while bulky shroud structure with larger thermal inertia requires much longer period to reach its operating temperature. Turbine designers have to leave a safe radial distance in order to prevent contact of blades to the surrounding annular casing. However, when thermal steady state in the turbine stage is achieved, shroud and casing grow and excessive amount of blade-shroud clearance remain...

  11. Design and Analysis of Gas Turbine Blade by Potential Flow Approach

    OpenAIRE

    V. Vijaya Kumar,; R. Lalitha Narayana

    2014-01-01

    The design features of the turbine segment of the gas turbine have been taken from the “preliminary design of a power turbine for maximization of an existing turbojet engine”. It was observed that in the above design, after the rotor blades being designed they were analyzed only for the mechanical stresses. As the temperature has a significant effect on the overall stress in the rotor blades, a detailed study is carried out on the temperature effects to have a clear understand...

  12. Artificial neural networks for monitoring the gas turbine; Artificiella neuronnaet foer gasturbinoevervakning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Magnus; Thern, Marcus [Inst. foer Energivetenskaper, Lunds Univ. (Sweden)

    2011-10-15

    Through available historical operational data from gas turbines, fast, accurate, easy to use and reliable models can be developed. These models can be used for monitoring of gas turbines and assist in the transition from today's time-based maintenance to condition based maintenance. For the end user this means that, because only operational data is needed, they can easily develop their own tools independent of the manufacturer. Traditionally these types of models are constructed with physical relations for e.g., mass, energy and momentum. To develop a model with physical relations is often laborious and requires classified information which the end user does not have access to. Research has shown that by producing models using operational data a very high model precision can be achieved. When implementing these models in a power plant computer system the gas turbine's performance can be monitored in real time. This can facilitate fault detection at an early stage, and if necessary, stop the gas turbine before major damage occurs. For the power plant owner, this means that the gas turbine reliability is increased since the need for maintenance is minimized and the downtime is reduced. It also means that a measure of the gas turbine's overall status is continuously available, with respect to e.g. degradation, which helps in the planning of service intervals. The tool used is called artificial neural networks (ANN), a collective name for a number of algorithms for information processing that attempts to mimic the nerve cell function. Just like real networks of neurons in a brain, these artificial neural networks have the ability to learn. In this case, neural networks are trained to mimic the behavior of gas turbines by introducing them to data from real gas turbines. After a neural network is trained it represents a very accurate model of the gas turbine that it is trained to emulate.

  13. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration; Turbina de gas reactor modular con helio en cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de los Santos, G. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: tesgleon@gmail.com

    2009-10-15

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  14. Thermodynamic analysis for a regenerative gas turbine cycle in coking process

    OpenAIRE

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2014-01-01

    A regenerative gas turbine cycle driven by residual coke oven gas is proposed in this paper. The thermal efficiency and the work output (per ton of coke) of the system are analyzed based on thermodynamics and the theory of gas turbine cycle. The influences of the gas release rate, the residual gas rate and the effectiveness of regenerator on the performance of the cycle are analyzed by using numerical examples. It is found that the work output increases with the increase of the residual gas r...

  15. Integrated PV and gas-turbine system for satisfying peak-demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-simulation model of the behaviour of a photovoltaic (PV) gas-turbine hybrid system, with a compressed-air store, is developed in order to evaluate its performance as well as predict the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. This integrated PV and gas-turbine hybrid plant produces approximately 140% more power per unit of fuel consumed compared with corresponding conventional gas-turbine plants. In addition, lower rates of pollutant emissions to the atmosphere per kWh of electricity generated are achieved. (Author)

  16. Some Experimental Investigations on Gas Turbine Cooling Performed with Infrared Thermography at Federico II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Astarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some experimental measurements of convective heat transfer coefficient distributions which are connected with the cooling of gas turbines, performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II with infrared thermography. Measurements concern impinging jets, cooling of rotating disks, and gas turbine blades, which are either stationary or rotating. The heated thin foil sensor, associated with the detection of surface temperature by means of infrared thermography, is exploited to accurately measure detailed convective heat transfer coefficient maps. The paper also intends to show how to correctly apply the infrared technique in a variety of gas turbines cooling problems.

  17. Lean-rich axial stage combustion in a can-annular gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R.; Szedlacsek, Peter

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus and method for lean/rich combustion in a gas turbine engine (10), which includes a combustor (12), a transition (14) and a combustor extender (16) that is positioned between the combustor (12) and the transition (14) to connect the combustor (12) to the transition (14). Openings (18) are formed along an outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16). The gas turbine (10) also includes a fuel manifold (28) to extend along the outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16), with fuel nozzles (30) to align with the respective openings (18). A method (200) for axial stage combustion in the gas turbine engine (10) is also presented.

  18. On the applicability of aircraft gas-turbine engines to duplicate reliabile power buses at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical feasibility to create on the basis of aircraft engines reverse gas-turbine power plants for 6000 and 2500 kW, permitting to substitute them for diesel generators at NPP with a considerable economic effect, has been substantiated. Multiple increase in the capacity of starters and assembly replacement, which transmit the torque from them to the main engine shaft permit to ensure their start in 15-20 s. Further decrease in power supply break can be achieved at the expense of additional installation of compressorless gas turbine, operating with stored compressed air during gas-turbine engine start

  19. Development of superalloys for 1700 C ultra-efficient gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hiroshi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). High Temperature Materials Center

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of global warming is one of the most outstanding issues for the humankind. The Japanese government announced that it will reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 25% from the 1990 level by 2020 as a medium-term goal. One of the promising approaches to achieving this is to improve the efficiency of thermal power plants emitting one-third of total CO{sub 2} gas in Japan. The key to improving the thermal efficiency is high temperature materials with excellent temperature capabilities allowing higher inlet gas temperatures. In this context, new single crystal superalloys for turbine blades and vanes, new coatings and turbine disk superalloys have been successfully developed for various gas turbine applications, typically 1700 C ultra-efficient gas turbines for next generation combine cycle power plants. (orig.)

  20. Analysis on Service Life of Hot-end Components of Gas Turbine Using Equivalent Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taixing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the gas turbine depends on the technical status and the maintenance level of the hot-end components in a large part.The three main factors influencing on the service life of the hot-end components of the gas turbine were analyzed first.On this basis,various common service life assessment methods for gas turbine were discussed in detail.Aiming at the features of the M701F gas-steam combined cycle unit in Huizhou LNG power plant,a gas turbine life assessment method based on equivalent operation time analysis was put forward.The calculation result of an example shows that the equivalent operation time analysis method is a simple and practical assessment method.

  1. Fuel flexibility via real-time Raman fuel-gas analysis for turbine system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Woodruff, S.; Chorpening, B.; Tucker, D.

    2015-06-01

    The modern energy production base in the U.S. is increasingly incorporating opportunity fuels such as biogas, coalbed methane, coal syngas, solar-derived hydrogen, and others. In many cases, suppliers operate turbine-based generation systems to efficiently utilize these diverse fuels. Unfortunately, turbine engines are difficult to control given the varying energy content of these fuels, combined with the need for a backup natural gas supply to provide continuous operation. Here, we study the use of a specially designed Raman Gas Analyzer based on capillary waveguide technology with sub-second response time for turbine control applications. The NETL Raman Gas Analyzer utilizes a low-power visible pump laser, and a capillary waveguide gas-cell to integrate large spontaneous Raman signals, and fast gas-transfer piping to facilitate quick measurements of fuel-gas components. A U.S. Department of Energy turbine facility known as HYPER (hybrid performance system) serves as a platform for apriori fuel composition measurements for turbine speed or power control. A fuel-dilution system is used to simulate a compositional upset while simultaneously measuring the resultant fuel composition and turbine response functions in real-time. The feasibility and efficacy of system control using the spontaneous Raman-based measurement system is then explored with the goal of illustrating the ability to control a turbine system using available fuel composition as an input process variable.

  2. Maintenance optimization of a gas turbine power plant; Optimisation de la maintenance d'une tranche turbine a combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despujols, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France). Dept. Surveillance, Diagnostic, Maintenance; Meillant, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France). Div. Productions Thermiques et Hydrauliques

    1999-10-01

    A Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) analysis has been applied by EDF to 123 MW gas turbines. This study enabled to define a complete preventive maintenance programme adapted to the specific operating conditions of these plants to ensure a high availability level at the lower cost. (author)

  3. The gas turbine: Present technology and future developments; La turbina a gas: Tecnologie attuali e gli sviluppi futuri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minghetti, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    The gas turbine is the most widely used prime mover all over the world for either power generation or mechanical drive applications. The above fact is due to the recent great improvements that have been done especially in terms of efficiency, availability and reliability. The future for gas turbine technological development looks very promising. In fact, although tremendous growth has already taken place, there is still the potential for dramatic improvements in performance. Compared with the competitive prime movers (conventional steam power plants and reciprocating piston engines) the gas turbine technology is younger and still following a strong growth curve. The coming decades will witness the continued increasing in turbine inlet temperature, the development of new materials and refrigeration systems and the commercialization of inter cooled system and steam cooled turbines. With the very soon introduction of the {sup G }and {sup H }technology, expected single and combined cycle efficiencies for heavy duty machines are respectively 40% and 60%, while maintaining single digit levels in pollutant emissions. In this report are given wide information on gas turbine present technology (Thermodynamics, features, design, performances, emission control, applications) and are discussed the main lines for the future developments. Finally are presented the research and technological development activities on gas turbine of Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department.

  4. Performance of a Line Loss Correction Method for Gas Turbine Emission Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, D. E.; Whitefield, P. D.; Lobo, P.

    2015-12-01

    International concern for the environmental impact of jet engine exhaust emissions in the atmosphere has led to increased attention on gas turbine engine emission testing. The Society of Automotive Engineers Aircraft Exhaust Emissions Measurement Committee (E-31) has published an Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6241 detailing the sampling system for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter from aircraft engines, and is developing an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) for methodology and system specification. The Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST) Center for Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research has led numerous jet engine exhaust sampling campaigns to characterize emissions at different locations in the expanding exhaust plume. Particle loss, due to various mechanisms, occurs in the sampling train that transports the exhaust sample from the engine exit plane to the measurement instruments. To account for the losses, both the size dependent penetration functions and the size distribution of the emitted particles need to be known. However in the proposed ARP, particle number and mass are measured, but size is not. Here we present a methodology to generate number and mass correction factors for line loss, without using direct size measurement. A lognormal size distribution is used to represent the exhaust aerosol at the engine exit plane and is defined by the measured number and mass at the downstream end of the sample train. The performance of this line loss correction is compared to corrections based on direct size measurements using data taken by MST during numerous engine test campaigns. The experimental uncertainty in these correction factors is estimated. Average differences between the line loss correction method and size based corrections are found to be on the order of 10% for number and 2.5% for mass.

  5. Proven reliability of the gas-turbine engine. BIPS Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    The background, capabilities and experience of the Garrett Corp. in designing, developing, manufacturing and testing gas turbines and related systems are described, and the requirements for and components of the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) for space vehicles are outlined. Data on the compressor and turbine, alternator, bearings, recuperator, radiator, heat source assembly, and control systems are presented. (LCL)

  6. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  7. Presentation summary: Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous prototypes and demonstration plants have been constructed and operated beginning with the Dragon plant in the early 1960s. The MHTGR was the U.S. developed modular plant and underwent pre application review by NRC. The GT-MHR represents a further refinement on this concept with the steam cycle being replaced by a closed loop gas turbine (Brayton) cycle. Modular gas reactors and the GT-MHR represent a fundamental shift in reactor design and safety philosophy. The reactor system is contained in a 3 vessel, side-by-side arrangement. The reactor and a shutdown cooling system are in one vessel, and the gas turbine based power conversion system, including the generator, in a second parallel vessel. A more detailed look at the system shows the compact arrangement of gas turbine, compressors, recuperator, heat exchanges, and generator. Fueled blocks are stacked in three concentric rings with inert graphite blocks making up the inner and outer reflectors. Operating control rods are located outside the active core while startup control rods and channels for reserve shutdown pellets are located near the core center. Ceramic coated fuel is the key to the GT-MHR's safety and economics. A kernel of Uranium oxycarbide (or UO2) is placed in a porous carbon buffer and then encapsulated in multiple layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. These micro pressure vessels withstand internal pressures of up to 2,000 psi and temperatures of nearly 2,000 C providing extremely resilient containment of fission products under both normal operating and accident conditions. The fuel particles are blended in carbon pitch, forming fuel rods, and then loaded into holes within large graphite fuel elements. Fuel elements are stacked to form the core. Fuel particle testing in has repeatedly demonstrated the high temperature resilience of coated particle fuel to temperature approaching 2,000 C. As an conservative design goal, GT-MHR has been sized to keep maximum fuel temperatures below

  8. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sixth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, C.E.

    1974-04-30

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Engines were built to replace those originally loaned to the Program. Efforts to identify and correct a general power deficiency were generally successful. The third baseline vehicle was built and checked out. Baseline vehicle emissions, performance, fuel consumption, and noise tests were run. Chrysler's proprietary linerless insulation showed no significant distress following 300 hours of engine endurance testing. An improved elastomeric drive for ceramic regenerators was developed on the regenerator rig. Preparations are being made for engine testing. The Ai Research engine simulation model is operational and control system concepts are being studied. Operation of the preprototype fuel system was verified on an engine. All other key preprototype system elements were bench checked. Variable inlet guide vane testing and development and torque converter lock-up evaluation tests are in process. A free rotor engine arrangement for vehicle evaluation and development is being built. Initial specifications were completed for a 122 horsepower, compact vehicle upgraded engine. NASA completed initial specifications for the gas generator aerodynamics. Overall engine and engine housing layout studies are being made.

  9. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). 1944 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed in development and demonstration of structural ceramics technology for automotive gas turbine engines. At the end of this period, the project name was changed to ``Ceramic Turbine Engine Demonstration Project``, effective Jan. 1995. Objectives are to provide early field experience demonstrating the reliability and durability of ceramic components in a modified, available gas turbine engine application, and to scale up and improve the manufacturing processes for ceramic turbine engine components and demonstrate the application of these processes in the production environment. The 1994 ATTAP activities emphasized demonstration and refinement of the ceramic turbine nozzles in the AlliedSignal/Garrett Model 331-200[CT] engine test bed in preparation for field testing; improvements in understanding the vibration characteristics of the ceramic turbine blades; improvements in critical ceramics technologies; and scaleup of the process used to manufacture ceramic turbine components.

  10. Study of an exhaust gas recirculation equipped micro gas turbine supplied with bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss in this paper some aspects related to the employment of liquid and gaseous bio-fuels in a micro-gas turbine. Besides the purpose of checking the effectiveness of methods for supplying the micro-turbine with fuels from renewable sources, the attention is focused on the need of controlling the pollutant emission. To this aim, several solutions are experienced and numerically tested. For the liquid fuel supply, a new shape and location of the main fuel injector is combined with a modified position of the pilot injector. In the case of the biogas fuelling, an external EGR option is considered as activated. Both methods aim at the reduction of the thermal and prompt NO formation by approaching the flameless combustion concept. -- Highlights: • External and internal EGR concepts applied to NOx control from micro gas turbines. • For gaseous fuels: internal EGR is obtained by a proper location of the pilot injector. • For liquid fuels: replacing the original radial injectors with a pressure swirl atomizer. • We apply a CFD based method, after validation with experimental data. • Blends of bio-fuels with fossil fuels promise noticeable benefits

  11. Influence of precooling cooling air on the performance of a gas turbine combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooling of hot sections, especially the turbine nozzle and rotor blades, has a significant impact on gas turbine performance. In this study, the influence of precooling of the cooling air on the performance of gas turbines and their combined cycle plants was investigated. A state of the art F class gas turbine was selected, and its design performance was deliberately simulated using detailed component models including turbine blade cooling. Off design analysis was used to simulate changes in the operating conditions and performance of the gas turbines due to precooling of the cooling air. Thermodynamic and aerodynamic models were used to simulate the performance of the cooled nozzle and rotor blade. In the combined cycle plant, the heat rejected from the cooling air was recovered at the bottoming steam cycle to optimize the overall plant performance. With a 200K decrease of all cooling air stream, an almost 1.78% power upgrade due to increase in main gas flow and a 0.70 percent point efficiency decrease due to the fuel flow increase to maintain design turbine inlet temperature were predicted

  12. Technical and economic analysis of steam-injected gas-turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric D.; Williams, Robert H.

    1985-11-01

    Industrial cogeneration is gaining popularity as an energy and money saving alternative to separate steam and electricity generation. Among cogeneration technologies, gas-turbine systems are attractive largely because of their lower capital cost and high thermodynamic efficiency. However, at industrial plants where steam and electricity loads vary daily, seasonally, or unpredictably, the economics of conventional gas turbines are often unfavorable due to low capacity utilization. Steam-injected gas-turbine cogeneration overcomes the part-load problem by providing for excess steam to be injected back into the turbine to raise electrical output and generating efficiency. Under provisions of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, any excess electricity can be sold to the local grid at the prevailing avoided cost of electricity. Steam-injected gas-turbine cogeneration can result in a consistently high rate of return on investment over a wide range of variation in process steam loads. Moreover, this technology can also give rise to greater annual electricity production and fuel savings per unit of process steam generated, compared to simple-cycle cogeneration, making the technology attractive from the perspective of society, as well as that of the user. Steam-injected gas-turbines may soon find applications in electric utility base-load generation, as well, since it appears that electrical generating efficiencies in excess of 50% can be obtained from turbines producing of the order of 100 MW of electricity at a fully-installed capital cost as low as 500/kW.

  13. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION CONTROLS FOR STATIONARY GAS TURBINE. VOLUME I: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives an environmental assessment of combustion modification techniques for stationary gas turbines, with respect to NOx control effectiveness, operational impact, thermal efficiency impact, control costs, and effect on emissions of pollutants other than NOx.

  14. CONTROL OF UTILITY BOILER AND GAS TURBINE POLLUTANT EMISSIONS BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION - PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a field study to assess the applicability of combustion modification techniques to control NOx and other pollutant emissions from utility boilers and gas turbines without causing deleterious side effects. Comprehensive, statistically designed tests wer...

  15. Robust High Fidelity Large Eddy Simulation Tool for Gas Turbine Combustors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to develop and demonstrate the use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for computations of gas turbine combustor flow and transport processes, using the...

  16. A Physics-Based Starting Model for Gas Turbine Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an integrated starting model for gas turbine engines using a new physics-based...

  17. Development of technology of nitride films manufacture for blades of gas turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.Р. Ігнатович

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available  Films of TiN on compressor blades of gas turbine engines are considered. Films are obtained with using plasma jet coater of capillary pulse-periodical plasmatrone. Diagnostics of films surface are performed.

  18. Investigation of forward flow distributed combustion for gas turbine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New innovative advanced combustion design methodology for gas turbine applications is presented that is focused on the quest towards zero emissions. The new design methodology is called colorless distributed combustion (CDC) and is significantly different from the currently used methodology. In this paper forward flow modes of CDC have been investigated for application to gas turbine combustors. The CDC provides significant improvement in pattern factor, reduced NOx emission and uniform thermal field in the entire combustion zone for it to be called as an isothermal reactor. Basic requirement for CDC is carefully tailored mixture preparation through good mixing between the combustion air and product gases prior to rapid mixing with fuel so that the reactants are at much higher temperature to result in hot and diluted oxidant stream at temperatures that are high enough to autoignite the fuel and oxidant mixture. With desirable conditions one can achieve spontaneous ignition of the fuel with distributed combustion reactions. Distributed reactions can also be achieved in premixed mode of operation with sufficient entrainment of burned gases and faster turbulent mixing between the reactants. In the present investigation forward flow modes consisting of two non-premixed combustion modes and one premixed combustion mode have been examined that provide potential for CDC. In all the configurations the air injection port is positioned at the opposite side of the combustor exit, whereas the location of fuel injection ports is changed to give different configurations. Two combustion geometries resulting in thermal intensity of 5 MW/m3-atm and 28 MW/m3-atm are investigated. Increase in thermal intensity (lower combustion volume) presents many challenges, such as, lower residence time, lower recirculation of gases and effect of confinement on jet characteristics. The results are presented on the global flame signatures, exhaust emissions, and radical emissions using experiments

  19. Effective energy management by combining gas turbine cycles and forward osmosis desalination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Innovative gas turbine system and FO integrated system was proposed. • The feasibility of the integrated system was analyzed thermodynamically. • GOR of the FO–gas turbine system is 17% higher than those of MED and MSF. • Waste heat utilization of the suggested system is 85.7%. • Water production capacity of the suggested system is 3.5 times higher than the MSF–gas turbine system. - Abstract: In the recent years, attempts to improve the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine cycles have been made. In order to enhance the energy management of the gas turbine cycle, a new integration concept has been proposed; integration of gas turbine cycle and forward osmosis desalination process. The combination of the gas turbine cycle and the forward osmosis (FO) desalination process basically implies the coupling of the waste heat from the gas turbine cycle to the draw solute recovery system in the FO process which is the most energy consuming part of the whole FO process. By doing this, a strong system that is capable of producing water and electricity with very little waste heat can be achieved. The feasibility of this newly proposed system was analyzed using UNISIM program and the OLI property package. For the analysis, the thermolytic draw solutes which has been suggested by other research groups have been selected and studied. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on the integration system in order to understand and identify the key parameters of the integrated system. And the integrated system was further evaluated by comparing the gain output ratio (GOR) values with the conventional desalination technologies such as multi stage flash (MSF) and multi effect distillation (MED). The suggested integrated system was calculated to have a GOR of 14.8, while the MSF and MED when integrated to the gas turbine cycle showed GOR value of 12. It should also be noted that the energy utilization of the suggested integrated system is significantly higher by 27

  20. Effect of Ambient Temperature on the Performance of Gas Turbines Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Naeim Farouk Mohammed; Liu Sheng; Qaisar Hayat

    2013-01-01

    Efficiency and electric-power output of gas turbines vary according to the ambient conditions. The amount of these variations greatly affects electricity production, fuel consumption and plant incomes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of the ambient temperature on the performance of gas turbines. We observed that the power decreases due to reduction in air mass flow rate (the density of the air declines as temperature increases) and the efficiency decreases becaus...

  1. Performances of air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Seraffon, Maud

    2012-01-01

    Future industrial gas turbines will be required to operate at higher temperatures to increase operating efficiencies and will be subjected to more frequent thermal cycles. The temperatures that the substrates of components exposed in the harshest environments experience can be reduced using air-cooling systems coupled with ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs); however, few studies have been carried out at the substrate temperatures encountered in industrial gas turbines (e.g...

  2. Thermodynamic and exergoenvironmental analyses, and multi-objective optimization of a gas turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with a comprehensive thermodynamic and exergoeconomic modeling of a Gas Turbine (GT) power plant. In order to validate the thermodynamic model, the results are compared with one of the largest gas turbine power plants in Iran (known as Shahid Salimi Gas Turbine power plant). Moreover, a multi-objective optimization is performed to find the best design variables. The design parameters considered here are air compressor pressure ratio (rAC), compressor isentropic efficiency (ηAC), gas turbine isentropic efficiency (ηGT), combustion chamber inlet temperature (T3) and gas turbine inlet temperature (TIT). In the multi-objective optimization approach, certain exergetic, economic and environmental parameters are considered through two objective functions, including the gas turbine exergy efficiency, total cost rate of the system production including cost rate of environmental impact. In addition, fast and effective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is applied for the optimization purpose. The thermoenviroeconomic objective function is minimized while power plant exergy efficiency is maximized using a power full developed genetic algorithm. The results of optimal designs are obtained as a set of multiple optimum solutions, called 'the Pareto optimal solutions'. Moreover, the optimized results are compared with the working data from the case study. These show that by selecting the optimized data 50.50% reduction in environmental impacts is obtained. Finally, sensitivity analysis of change in objective functions, when the optimum design parameters vary, is performed and the degree of each parameter on conflicting objective functions has been determined. - Highlights: → Comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a gas turbine power plant. → Exergy, exergoeconomic and environmental analysis of a gas turbine power plan. → To improve a system performance by using multi-objective optimization.

  3. Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Gas Turbines Based on a Kernelized Information Entropy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Weiying Wang; Zhiqiang Xu; Rui Tang; Shuying Li; Wei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbines are considered as one kind of the most important devices in power engineering and have been widely used in power generation, airplanes, and naval ships and also in oil drilling platforms. However, they are monitored without man on duty in the most cases. It is highly desirable to develop techniques and systems to remotely monitor their conditions and analyze their faults. In this work, we introduce a remote system for online condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of gas turbine...

  4. Technoeconomic Environmental and Risk Analysis of Marine Gas Turbine Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoudis, Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    A novel generic Technoeconomic, Environmental and Risk Analysis (TERA) computational method was developed for marine power plants that are composed of existing or at preliminary design stage marine gas turbines. The method is composed of several numerical models in order to realistically approach the life cycle operation of a marine gas turbine power plant-according to the operational profile of the platform marine vessel type-coupled to an integrated full electric propulsion s...

  5. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbines Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Jun

    2004-01-01

    We examine the adoption of gas turbine electricity generators by electric utilities and independent power producers from 1980 to 2001 in search of evidence of economic regulation inducing particular type of technology adoption and development. We focus on three major attributes of gas turbines - capacity, heat rate, and age - and two major economic regulatory regimes - vertically integrated utilities operating price-regulated monopoly franchises and independent power producers competing in re...

  6. Some Experimental Investigations on Gas Turbine Cooling Performed with Infrared Thermography at Federico II

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some experimental measurements of convective heat transfer coefficient distributions which are connected with the cooling of gas turbines, performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II with infrared thermography. Measurements concern impinging jets, cooling of rotating disks, and gas turbine blades, which are either stationary or rotating. The heated thin foil sensor, associated with the detection of surface temperature by means of infrare...

  7. Experimental and Numerical Research of a Novel Combustion Chamber for Small Gas Turbine Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Hybl R.; Betak V.; Kubata J.; Tuma J.

    2013-01-01

    New combustion chamber concept (based on burner JETIS-JET Induced Swirl) for small gas turbine engine (up to 200kW) is presented in this article. The combustion chamber concept is based on the flame stabilization by the generated swirl swirl generated by two opposite tangentially arranged jet tubes in the intermediate zone, this arrangement replaces air swirler, which is very complicated and expensive part in the scope of small gas turbines with annular combustion chamber. The mixing primary ...

  8. Application of Laser-based Diagnostics to a Prototype Gas Turbine Burner at Selected Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Whiddon, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The matured laser-diagnostic techniques of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were applied to a prototype gas turbine burner operating on various fuels. The work was performed to provide verification of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of the combustion of atypical fuels in a gas turbine combustor. The burner was operated using methane and three synthesized fuels of interest- one with hydrogen as the principle component and two with a low hea...

  9. Upgrading existing coal-fired power plants through heavy-duty and aeroderivative gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The feedwater repowering of an existing coal-fired power plant is examined. • Repowering is operated by adding heavy duty and aeroderivative gas turbines. • A characteristic plane allows to compare benefits of different repowering options. • Regenerative gas turbines yield the greatest increase in steam plant performances. • Aeroderivative gas turbine allows to implement a more flexible part-load strategy. - Abstract: The need to meet future changes in power demand and current environmental regulations are considered the main driving forces for upgrading existing coal-fired power plants. In this context, repowering by gas-turbine integration is a well-established technique to increase power plant capacity and operational flexibility. Non-negligible benefits are also improvements in efficiency and a decrease in greenhouse gases emissions promoted by the shift to low carbon fuels. This paper aims to investigate the impact of feedwater heater repowering on a 300 MW coal-fired power plant. Marginal efficiency and power increase, as well as the performance of integrated steam-gas power plants, are evaluated by varying the steam section operating conditions and gas turbine technology. Three main cases are investigated, assuming integration with simple or regenerative heavy-duty gas turbines and aeroderivative gas turbines. As part of this investigation, a performance plane is defined, allowing to compare repowering options based on different steam turbine overloads and boiler modes of operation. Focusing on repowering configurations with the maximum power increase, the analysis also examines the plant capability to follow potential load variations and their impact on energy and economic performance parameters

  10. Polygeneration system based on low temperature solid oxide fuel cell/micro gas turbine hybrid system

    OpenAIRE

    Samavati, Mahrokh

    2012-01-01

    Polygeneration systems attract attention recently because of their high efficiency and low emission compare to the conventional power generation technology. Three different polygeneration systems based on low temperature solid oxide fuel cell, atmospheric solid oxide fuel cell/ micro gas turbine, and pressurized solid oxide fuel cell/ micro gas turbine are mathematically modeled in this study using MATLAB (version 7.12.0.635). These systems are designed to provide space heating, cooling and h...

  11. Some Aspects of Gas Turbine Fuel Preparation and Turbomachinery Response to LCV Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Pontus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis gives some background information on environmental issues as the scientific community at large currently sees it. It tries to relate the plethora of current combustion technologies which may be used in gas turbines to those issues. Some basic principles on combustion design are given. Different candidate fuels for gas turbine combustion are discussed. Combustion of bio-fuels is treated and provides background material for Papers 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Pre- and post-treatment technologi...

  12. Multi-dimensional modelling of gas turbine combustion using a flame sheet model in KIVA II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W. K.; Lai, M.-C.; Chue, T.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A flame sheet model for heat release is incorporated into a multi-dimensional fluid mechanical simulation for gas turbine application. The model assumes that the chemical reaction takes place in thin sheets compared to the length scale of mixing, which is valid for the primary combustion zone in a gas turbine combustor. In this paper, the details of the model are described and computational results are discussed.

  13. A Silicon-Based Micro Gas Turbine Engine for Power Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, X -C; Maeda, R; Sun, Y F; Wu, M; Hua, J S

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on our research in developing a micro power generation system based on gas turbine engine and piezoelectric converter. The micro gas turbine engine consists of a micro combustor, a turbine and a centrifugal compressor. Comprehensive simulation has been implemented to optimal the component design. We have successfully demonstrated a silicon-based micro combustor, which consists of seven layers of silicon structures. A hairpin-shaped design is applied to the fuel/air recirculation channel. The micro combustor can sustain a stable combustion with an exit temperature as high as 1600 K. We have also successfully developed a micro turbine device, which is equipped with enhanced micro air-bearings and driven by compressed air. A rotation speed of 15,000 rpm has been demonstrated during lab test. In this paper, we will introduce our research results major in the development of micro combustor and micro turbine test device.

  14. Combinations of solid oxide fuel cell and several enhanced gas turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchonthara, Prapan; Bhattacharya, Sankar; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    Combined power generation systems with combinations of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and various enhanced gas turbine (GT) cycles were evaluated. In the GT part, steam injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle, GT/steam turbine (ST) combined cycle, and humid air turbine (HAT) cycle were considered. Moreover, additional recuperation was considered by means of air preheating (APH) in the STIG cycle. Effects of operating turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and pressure ratio (PR) on overall system performance were assessed. Although the SOFC-HAT system shows the lowest specific work output compared to other systems, its highest thermal efficiency presents a significant advantage. Furthermore, at high TITs and PRs the SOFC-HAT system gives the best performance in terms of both thermal efficiency and specific work. Results indicate that energy recuperative features in the HAT promote the positive effect of increasing TIT by means of enhancing GT efficiency, leading to the improvement in thermal efficiency of the overall system.

  15. Mechanical support of a ceramic gas turbine vane ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.; Mosher, Daniel A.; Holowczak, John E.; Reinhardt, Gregory E.

    2010-07-27

    An assembly for mounting a ceramic turbine vane ring onto a turbine support casing comprises a first metal clamping ring and a second metal clamping ring. The first metal clamping ring is configured to engage with a first side of a tab member of the ceramic turbine vane ring. The second metal clamping ring is configured to engage with a second side of the tab member such that the tab member is disposed between the first and second metal clamping rings.

  16. Using LQG/LTR Optimal Control Method to Improve Stability and Performance of Industrial Gas Turbine System

    OpenAIRE

    Fereidoon Shabaninia; Kazem Jafari

    2012-01-01

    The gas turbine is a power plant, which produces a great amount of energy for its size and weight. Its compactness, low weigh, and multiple fuels make it a natural power plant for various industries such as power generation or oil and gas process plants. In any of these applications, the performance and stability of the gas turbines are the end products that strongly influence the profitability of the business that employs them. Control and analyses of gas turbines for achieving stability and...

  17. Retrofitting fossil-fired power plants with gas turbines as a means of increasing output and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that power plant efficiency can be increased substantially by joining a steam turbine and a gas turbine in a combined cycle. This is because the high average inlet temperature of the gas turbine produces a high overall efficiency when combined with the low average outlet temperature of the steam turbine. This is particularly important in the present power plant situation where good fuel efficiency, low power generation costs and the reduction of pollutant emissions are major factors

  18. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  19. Thermodynamic modeling and Exergy Analysis of Gas Turbine Cycle for Different Boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalatendu Pattanayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study an exergy analysis of 88.71 MW 13D2 gas turbine (GT topping cycle is carried out. Exergy analysis based on second law was applied to the gas cycle and individual components through a modeling approach. The analysis shows that the highest exergy destruction occurs in the combustion chamber (CC. In addition, the effects of the gas turbine load and performance variations with ambient temperature, compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature (TIT are investigated to analyse the change in system behavior. The analysis shows that the gas turbine is significantly affected by the ambient temperature which leads to a decrease in power output. The results of the load variation of the gas turbine show that a reduction in gas turbine load results in a decrease in the exergy efficiency of the cycle as well as all the components. The compressor has the largest exergy efficiency of 92.84% compared to the other component of the GT and combustion chamber is the highest source of exergy destruction of 109.89 MW at 100 % load condition. With increase in ambient temperature both exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency decreases.

  20. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including changes in pressure as they pass through turbines and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). To examine pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted specific tests using a hyperbaric chamber. Tests were designed to simulate Kaplan turbine passage conditions and to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes, with and without the complication of fish being acclimated to gas-supersaturated water.

  1. Research on transient operation characteristics of helium gas turbine by simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By setting up the lumped parameter mathematic models of HTGR helium gas turbine and compressor device, and using Matlab/Simulink to build the simulation models, the transient operation characteristics of startup process of helium gas turbine were studied. The simulation results give the operation curves for high pressure compressor, low pressure compressor, and some key curves of compressor outlet pressure, core inlet and outlet temperature, turbine power, compressor power and generator power changing with core power. The calculation results show that, in the startup process, the trends of these main parameter curves meet the design requirements, and the transient characteristics simulation results are reasonable. (authors)

  2. Integration of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell into A 10 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver F. Cheddie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using gas turbine power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies. In this work, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency. The SOFC system utilizes four heat exchangers for heat recovery from both the turbine outlet and the fuel cell outlet to ensure a sufficiently high SOFC temperature. The power output of the hybrid plant is 37 MW at 66.2% efficiency. A thermo-economic model predicts a payback period of less than four years, based on future projected SOFC cost estimates.

  3. Alternative Liquid Fuel Effects on Cooled Silicon Nitride Marine Gas Turbine Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holowczak, J.

    2002-03-01

    With prior support from the Office of Naval Research, DARPA, and U.S. Department of Energy, United Technologies is developing and engine environment testing what we believe to be the first internally cooled silicon nitride ceramic turbine vane in the United States. The vanes are being developed for the FT8, an aeroderivative stationary/marine gas turbine. The current effort resulted in further manufacturing and development and prototyping by two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers, preliminary development of both alumina, and YTRIA based environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) and testing or ceramic vanes with an EBC coating.

  4. Combining the nuclear power plant steam cycle with gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear steam power plants (NPP) are characterized by low efficiency, compared to steam power plants using fossil fuels. This is due to the relatively low temperature and pressure-throttling conditions of the NPP compared to those using fossil fuel. The light water pressurized water reactor (LW PWR) commercially known as AP600 was suggested for Kuwait cogeneration power desalting plant (CPDP). It has 600 MW nominal power capacity and 33% overall efficiency. Meanwhile, the Kuwaiti Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) installed plenty of gas turbines (GTs) to cover the drastic increase in the peak electrical load during the summer season. Combining some of these GTs with the AP600 can increase the capacity and efficiency of the combined plant, compared to either the GT open cycle or the NPP separate plants. This paper investigates the feasibility of utilizing the hot gases leaving the GT to superheat the steam leaving the steam generator of the AP600 NPP, as well as heating the feed water returning to the steam generator of the NPP condenser. This drastically increases the power output and the efficiency of the NPP. Detailed modifications to the NPP power cycle and the resulting enhancement of its performance are presented.

  5. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, ceramic component developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneyck, M. O.; Macbeth, J. W.; Sweeting, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    The ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company while performing as a principal subcontractor to the Garrett Auxiliary Power Division for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project (NASA Contract DEN3-167) is summarized. The report covers the period October 1979 through July 1987, and includes information concerning ceramic technology work categorized as common and unique. The former pertains to ceramic development applicable to two parallel AGT projects established by NASA contracts DEN3-168 (AGT100) and DEN3-167 (AGT101), whereas the unique work solely pertains to Garrett directed activity under the latter contract. The AGT101 Technology Development Project is sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA-Lewis. Standard Oil directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and nondestructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This permitted engine testing to proceed without program slippage.

  6. Gas-liquid dispersion with dual Rushton turbine impellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudcova, V; Machon, V; Nienow, A W

    1989-08-20

    Aerated and unaerated power consumption and flow patterns in a 0.56 m diameter agitated vessel containing water with dual Rushton turbines have been studied. Under unaerated conditions with a liquid height-to-diameter ratio of 2, an impeller spacing of 2 to 3 times the impeller is required for each to draw an amount of power equal to a single impeller. For aerated conditions, if a similar spacing is used, equations for the flooding-loading transition and for power consumption for a single Rushton impeller can be extended relatively easily to dual systems. All results for this spacing are explained by reference to bulk flow patterns and gassed-filled cavity structures and the proportion of sparged gas flowing through the upper impeller is also estimated. Such a spacing is generally recommended since it maximizes the power draw and hence the potential for oxygen mass transfer. Data are presented for other spacings but the results do not fit in easily with single agitator studies because strong impeller-impeller flow pattern interactions occur. PMID:18588146

  7. Multidisciplinary design optimization of film-cooled gas turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya Shashishekara S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Design optimization of a gas turbine blade geometry for effective film cooling toreduce the blade temperature has been done using a multiobjective optimization formulation. Three optimization formulations have been used. In the first, the average blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint has been imposed on the maximum blade temperature. In the second, the maximum blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized with an upper bound constraint on the average blade temperature. In the third formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. Shape optimization is performed using geometric parameters associated with film cooling and blade external shape. A quasi-three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver for turbomachinery flows is used to solve for the flow field external to the blade with appropriate modifications to incorporate the effect of film cooling. The heat transfer analysis for temperature distribution within the blade is performed by solving the heat diffusion equation using the finite element method. The multiobjective Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser function approach has been used in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique for optimization. The results obtained using both formulations are compared with reference geometry. All three formulations yield significant reductions in blade temperature with the multiobjective formulation yielding largest reduction in blade temperature.

  8. Thermo-economic optimization of whole gas turbine plant (GTPOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the GTPOM project that focused on the development and implementation of an integrated through-life economic performance optimization tool for gas turbine whole plant analysis, funded in part through the European Commission's Fifth Framework Programme.PSEconomy, the software tool developed in GTPOM, is primarily intended for use at the preliminary design stage to enable the down-selection of potentially attractive new cycle configurations based on calculated through-life economic performance. However, its flexibility also enables the re-appraisal of existing power generation system design to improve economic, thermodynamic or emissions performance.PSEconomy comprises three key areas of functionality:thermodynamic process modelling capability,economic analysis capability,optimization capability.This paper summarises the key objectives of the project, the structure of the software tool, and the functionality it offers the User. It also briefly describes an example case study performed with the tool to demonstrate the through-life economic optimization capabilities of the system, and suggests potential application areas for the software

  9. Investigation of azimuthal staging concepts in annular gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiray, Nicolas; Bothien, Mirko; Schuermans, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the influence of azimuthal staging concepts on the thermoacoustic behavior of annular combustion chambers is assessed theoretically and numerically. Staging is a well-known and effective method to abate thermoacoustic pulsations in combustion chambers. However, in the case of, for example, fuel staging the associated inhomogeneity of equivalence ratio may result in increased levels of NOx emissions. In order to minimize this unwanted effect a staging concept is required in which the transfer functions of the burners are changed while affecting the equivalence ratio as little as possible. In order to achieve this goal, a theoretical framework for predicting the influence of staging concepts on pulsations has been developed. Both linear and nonlinear analytical approaches are presented and it is shown that the dynamics of azimuthal modes can be described by coupled Van der Pol oscillators. A criterion based on the thermoacoustic coupling strength and on the asymmetry degree provides the modal behavior in the annular combustor, i.e. standing or traveling waves. The model predictions have been verified by numerical simulations of a heavy-duty gas turbine using an in-house thermoacoustic network-modeling tool. The interaction between the heat release of the flame and the acoustic field was modeled using measured transfer functions and source terms. These numerical simulations confirmed the original theoretical considerations.

  10. Thermal barrier coating life modeling in aircraft gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissley, D. M.

    1997-03-01

    Analytical models for predicting ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) spalling life in aircraft gas tur-bine engines are presented. Electron beam/physical vapor-deposited and plasma-sprayed TBC systems are discussed. An overview of the following TBC spalling mechanisms is presented: (1) metal oxidation at the ceramic/metal interface, (2) ceramic/metal interface stresses caused by radius of curvature and inter-face roughness, (3) material properties and mechanical behavior, (4) component design features, (5) tem-perature gradients, (6) ceramic/metal interface stress singularities at edges and corners, and (7) object impact damage. Analytical models for TBC spalling life are proposed based on observations of TBC spall-ing and plausible failure theories. Spalling was assumed to occur when the imposed stresses exceed the material strength (at or near the ceramic/metal interface). Knowledge gaps caused by lack of experimen-tal evidence and analytical understanding of TBC failure are noted. The analytical models are considered initial engineering approaches that capture observed TBC spalling failure trends.

  11. Turbine Airfoil With CMC Leading-Edge Concept Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for gas turbine engine hot-sections. When the Navy s Harrier fighter experienced engine (Pegasus F402) failure because of leading-edge durability problems on the second-stage high-pressure turbine vane, the Office of Naval Research came to the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for test support in evaluating a concept for eliminating the vane-edge degradation. The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was selected for testing since it could provide temperature, pressure, velocity, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environment. The study focused on equipping the stationary metal airfoil (Pegasus F402) with a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) leading-edge insert and evaluating the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. The test exposed the component, with and without the CMC insert, to the harsh engine environment in an unloaded condition, with cooling to provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The insert was made using an AlliedSignal Composites, Inc., enhanced HiNicalon (Nippon Carbon Co. LTD., Yokohama, Japan) fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiC/SiC CMC) material fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration. This insert was 45-mils thick and occupied a recessed area in the leading edge and shroud of the vane. It was designed to be free floating with an end cap design. The HPBR tests provided a comparative evaluation of the temperature response and leading-edge durability and included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were aircooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the exact set of internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). In addition to documenting the temperature response of the metal vane for comparison with the CMC, a demonstration of improved leading-edge durability was a primary goal. First, the

  12. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  13. 40 CFR 60.4325 - What emission limits must I meet for NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil (or some other combination of fuels)? 60... percent natural gas, you must meet the corresponding limit for a natural gas-fired turbine when you are... Combustion Turbines Emission Limits § 60.4325 What emission limits must I meet for NOX if my turbine...

  14. Development and validation of a full-range performance analysis model for a three-spool gas turbine with turbine cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance analysis of a gas turbine is important for both its design and its operation. For modern gas turbines, the cooling flow introduces a noteworthy thermodynamic loss; thus, the determination of the cooling flow rate will clearly influence the accuracy of performance calculations. In this paper, a full-range performance analysis model is established for a three-spool gas turbine with an open-circuit convective blade cooling system. A hybrid turbine cooling model is embedded in the analysis to predict the amount of cooling air accurately and thus to remove the errors induced by the relatively arbitrary value of cooling air requirements in the previous research. The model is subsequently used to calculate the gas turbine performance; the calculation results are validated with detailed test data. Furthermore, multistage conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed for the turbine section. The results indicate that with the same coolant condition and flow rate as those in the performance analysis, the blade metal has been effectively cooled; in addition, the maximum temperature predicted by conjugate heat transfer analysis is close to the corresponding value in the cooling model. Hence, the present model provides an effective tool for analyzing the performance of a gas turbine with cooling. - Highlights: • We established a performance model for a gas turbine with convective cooling. • A hybrid turbine cooling model is embedded in the performance analysis. • The accuracy of the model is validated with detailed test data of the gas turbine. • Conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed for the turbine for verification

  15. Effective utilization of fossil fuels for low carbon world -- IGCC and high performance gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Takao; Sakamoto, Koichi; Komori, Toyoaki; Kishine, Takashi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro

    2010-09-15

    The reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is required to minimize the effect of hydrocarbon based power generation on global warming. In pursue of this objective, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is dedicating considerable efforts on two different ways to reduce the environmental impact. The first one involves gas turbine performance improvement by raising firing temperature for Natural-gas and LNG applications. In this regard, the latest J class gas turbine was designed to operate at 1600 deg C and expected combined cycle efficiency in excess of 60%. The other approach involves the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants to burn solid fuel like coal.

  16. Prediction of auto-ignition temperatures and delays for gas turbine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bounaceur, Roda; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Sirjean, Baptiste; Fournet, René; Montagne, Pierre; Vierling, Matthieu; Moliere, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Gas turbines burn a large variety of gaseous fuels under elevated pressure and temperature conditions. During transient operations, variable gas/air mixtures are involved in the gas piping system. In order to predict the risk of auto-ignition events and ensure a safe operation of gas turbines, it is of the essence to know the lowest temperature at which spontaneous ignition of fuels may happen. Experimental auto-ignition data of hydrocarbon-air mixtures at elevated pressures are scarce and of...

  17. Gas Turbine Characteristics for a Large Civil Tilt-Rotor (LCTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project; an engine system study has been undertaken to help define and understand some of the major gas turbine engine parameters required to meet performance and weight requirements as defined by earlier vehicle system studies. These previous vehicle studies will be reviewed to help define gas turbine performance goals. Assumptions and analysis methods used will be described. Performance and weight estimates for a few conceptual gas turbine engines meeting these requirements will be given and discussed. Estimated performance for these conceptual engines over a wide speed variation (down to 50 percent power turbine rpm at high torque) will be presented. Finally, areas needing further effort will be suggested and discussed.

  18. Thermal tests of the 9FB gas turbine unit produced by general electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.; Radin, Yu. A.; Mel'nikov, V. A.; Tuz, N. E.; Mironenko, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    In July 2011, a PGU-410 combined-cycle power plant was commissioned at the Srendeuralsk district power station owned by Enel OGK-5. The main equipment of this power plant includes an MS9001FB gas turbine unit (produced by GE Energy Power Plant Systems, the United States), a heat recovery boiler (produced by Nooter/Ericsen, the United States), and a >Skoda KT-140-13.3 two-cylinder condensing and cogeneration turbine with steam reheating. In 2011-2012, specialists of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute carried out thermal tests of this power plant in a wide range of loads and under different external conditions. The results from thermal tests of the MS9001FB gas turbine unit are presented and analyzed. The actual indicators of the gas turbine unit and its elements are determined and their characteristics are constructed.

  19. Gaz Türbinlerinin Optimal Performans Analizi = Optimal Performance Analysis of Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanettin ÇETİN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of gas turbines increases rapidly in the electricity production and cogeneration systems in recent years. Decreasing performance of gas turbines causes not only reducing their capacity of electricity production but also increasing production cost. In this study, the thermodynamic analysis of the open cycle gas turbine model is examined. The power output and the thermal efficiency of system are chosen as the performance criteria and the effects of compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, isentropic efficiencies and pressure losses on the performance are analyzed. Developed model has been solved by using the computer program written in Visual Basic language and the design parameters giving maximum power and efficiency are determined.

  20. Design issues and performance of a chemically recuperated aeroderivative gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of innovative gas turbine cycles have been proposed lately, including the humid air turbine (HAT) and the chemically recuperated gas turbine (CRGT). The potential of the CRGT cycle lies in the ability to generate power with a high efficiency and ultra-low NOx emission. Much of the research work published on the CRGT cycle is restricted to an analysis of the thermodynamic potential of the cycle. However, little work has been devoted to discussion of some of the relevant design and operation issues of such cycles. In this paper, part-load performance characteristics are presented for a CRGT cycle based on an aeroderivative gas turbine engine adapted for chemical recuperation. The paper also includes discussion of some of the design issues for the methane-steam reformer component of the cycle. The results of this study show that large heat exchange surface areas and catalyst volumes are necessary to ensure sufficient methane conversion in the methane steam reformer section of the cycle. The paper also shows that a chemically recuperated aeroderivative gas turbine has similar part-load performance characteristics compared with the corresponding steam-injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle. (Author)

  1. Turbine bucket for use in gas turbine engines and methods for fabricating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-06-03

    A turbine bucket for use with a turbine engine. The turbine bucket includes an airfoil that extends between a root end and a tip end. The airfoil includes an outer wall that defines a cavity that extends from the root end to the tip end. The outer wall includes a first ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrate that extends a first distance from the root end to the tip end. An inner wall is positioned within the cavity. The inner wall includes a second CMC substrate that extends a second distance from the root end towards the tip end that is different than the first distance.

  2. Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Gas Turbines for Reduction of CO2 Emissions; Combustion Testing with Focus on Stability and Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Røkke, Petter E.; Hustad, Johan E.

    2005-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation can be applied with the intention of reducing CO2 emissions. When a fraction of the exhaust gas is injected in the entry of a gas turbine, the amount of CO2 in the exhaust gas not being recirculated will be higher and less complicated to capture. However, with this change in combustion air composition, especially the reduced concentration of oxygen, the combustion process will be affected. The lower oxygen concentration decreases the stability and the increased amoun...

  3. Design and Analysis of Gas Turbine Blade by Potential Flow Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vijaya Kumar,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design features of the turbine segment of the gas turbine have been taken from the “preliminary design of a power turbine for maximization of an existing turbojet engine”. It was observed that in the above design, after the rotor blades being designed they were analyzed only for the mechanical stresses. As the temperature has a significant effect on the overall stress in the rotor blades, a detailed study is carried out on the temperature effects to have a clear understanding of the combined mechanical and the thermal stresses. The first stage rotor blade of the gas turbine is analyzed for the mechanical axial and centrifugal forces. Knowing the fluid conditions at exit of the gas turbines, a value of static pressure was assumed at the turbine outlet. From this the corresponding enthalpy drop required in the power turbine is calculated. The peripheral speed of rotor and flows velocities is kept in the reasonable range so to minimize losses. In which the base profiles available and is analyzed later for flow conditions through any of the theoretical flow analysis methods such as “Potential flow Approach”

  4. Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

    2007-03-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis for a regenerative gas turbine cycle in coking process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A regenerative gas turbine cycle driven by residual coke oven gas is proposed in this paper. The thermal efficiency and the work output (per ton of coke of the system are analyzed based on thermodynamics and the theory of gas turbine cycle. The influences of the gas release rate, the residual gas rate and the effectiveness of regenerator on the performance of the cycle are analyzed by using numerical examples. It is found that the work output increases with the increase of the residual gas rate while decreases with the increase of the gas release rate. The cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency and bigger work output, which means that the coke oven gas is used more effectively. Moreover, there exist two optimal pressure ratios of compressor which lead the maximum thermal efficiency and the maximum specific work, respectively.

  6. Life cycle analysis and choice of natural gas-based automotive alternative fuels in Chongqing Municipality,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui; LI Guangyi; ZHANG Zongyi; REN Yulong; HAN Weijian

    2007-01-01

    Road transport produces significant amounts of emissions by using crude oil as the primary energy source.A reduction of emissions can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains.The objective of this study is to carry out an economic,environmental and energy (EEE) life cycle study on natural gas-based automotive fuels with conventional gasoline in an abundant region of China.A set of indices of four fuels/vehicle systems on the basis of life cycle are assessed in terms of impact of EEE,in which natural gas produces compressed natural gas (CNG),methanol,dimethylether (DME) and Fischer Tropsch diesel (FTD).The study included fuel production,vehicle production,vehicle operation,infrastructure and vehicle end of life as a system for each fuel/vehicle system.A generic gasoline fueled car is used as a baseline.Data have been reviewed and modified based on the best knowledge available to Chongqing local sources.Results indicated that when we could not change electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles into commercial vehicles on a large scale,direct use of CNG in a dedicated or bi-fuel vehicle is an economical choice for the region which is most energy efficient and more environmental friendly.The study can be used to support decisions on how natural gas resources can best be utilized as a fuel/energy resource for automobiles,and what issues need to be resolved in Chongqing.The models and approaches for this study can be applied to other regions of China as long as all the assumptions are well defined and modified to find a substitute automotive energy source and establish an energy policy in a specific region.

  7. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as to how they could serve multiple applications

  8. EFFECTS OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY AND ENHANCING STRATEGIES ON GAS TURBINE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamir K. Ibrahim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their numerous advantages, gas turbine (GT power plants have become an important technology for power generation. This paper presents a parametric analysis for different configurations of GT plants, considering the effects of isentropic compressor and turbine efficiency, which allows the selection of the optimum GT configuration for the optimum performance of a GT power plant. The computational model was developed utilizing MATLAB software. The simulated results show that the reheat GT configuration has higher power output, whereas the regenerative GT configuration has higher thermal efficiency, when considering the effects of isentropic compressor and turbine efficiency. The maximum thermal efficiency of 52.4% and the maximum power output of 268 MW are obtained with isentropic turbine efficiency. The result reveals that isentropic compressor and turbine efficiency influence significantly the performance of GTs.

  9. Aerodynamic design study on HTGR helium gas turbines. Investigation on the effect of design conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance prediction codes for an axial turbine and an axial compressor were prepared based on the loss models of Craig, Cox and Wilson and of Koch, Smith and Wilson respectively. Using those codes, preliminary design of 3600 rpm single-shaft HTGR helium gas turbines were carried out. Influences of changing system mass flow rate and pressure on turbine and compressor design and performance were surveyed. Possible conditions of these parameters were found in which 3600 rpm single-shaft gas turbines could be properly designed. Feasibility of magnetic bearings and rotor dynamic design, which were not taken into account in this investigation, should be considered in future studies. A small power, high pressure HTGR gas turbine is difficult to design in a single-shaft configuration. As an alternative plan, a preliminary design of a 2-shaft gas turbine with an electrical output of 100 MWe and an inlet pressure of 6 MPa was carried out. High practicability and performance were expected. Probably, in this particular case, magnetic bearings now on the market can be used. (author). 65 refs

  10. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Most of the studies on the low cycle fatigue life prediction have been reported under isothermal conditions where the deformation of the material is strain dependent. In the development of gas turbines, components such as blades and vanes are exposed to temperature variations in addition to strain cycling. As a result, the deformation process becomes temperature and strain dependent. Therefore, the life of the component becomes sensitive to temperature-strain cycling which produces a process known as {open_quotes}thermomechanical fatigue, or TMF{close_quotes}. The TMF fatigue failure phenomenon has been modeled using conventional fatigue life prediction methods, which are not sufficiently accurate to quantitatively establish an allowable design procedure. To add to the complexity of TMF life prediction, blade and vane substrates are normally coated with aluminide, overlay or thermal barrier type coatings (TBC) where the durability of the component is dominated by the coating/substrate constitutive response and by the fatigue behavior of the coating. A number of issues arise from TMF depending on the type of temperature/strain phase cycle: (1) time-dependent inelastic behavior can significantly affect the stress response. For example, creep relaxation during a tensile or compressive loading at elevated temperatures leads to a progressive increase in the mean stress level under cyclic loading. (2) the mismatch in elastic and thermal expansion properties between the coating and the substrate can lead to significant deviations in the coating stress levels due to changes in the elastic modulii. (3) the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} corrosion resistance coatings applied to the substrate may act as primary crack initiation sites. Crack initiation in the coating is a function of the coating composition, its mechanical properties, creep relaxation behavior, thermal strain range and the strain/temperature phase relationship.

  11. Alternative systems for fuel gas boosters for small gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Henry B.

    1992-04-01

    The study was done to investigate alternative technologies for fuel gas boosters for gas turbine engines under 5 MW output. The goal was to identify concepts which would significantly reduce the overall life cycle cost of these boosters. In a broad review of alternative systems, centrifugal compressors were found to be most promising. Electrically driven centrifugals, either direct drive or gear driven, were found to be quite limited in speed. Therefore they require many stages for these applications, and no cost advantage was indicated. Considerable promise was indicated for centrifugals driven by bleed air from the engine compressor, using turbocompressor units which are conversions of existing turbochargers for internal combustion engines. A first cost advantage of 30 to 80 percent was indicated for applications with an annual market size of at least ten units. Considerable savings in installation and maintenance costs are expected in addition.

  12. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  13. Composite hubs for low cost gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed stress analysis was performed using NASTRAN to demonstrate theoretically the adequacy of composite hubs for low cost turbine engine applications. Composite hubs are adequate for this application from the steady state stress view point.

  14. Biogas and sewage gas in Stirling engines and micro gas turbines. Results of a field study; Bio- und Klaergas in Stirlingmotoren und Mikrogasturbinen. Ergebnisse einer Feldstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Bernd; Wyndorps, Agnes [Hochschule Reutlingen (Germany); Bekker, Marina; Oechsner, Hans [Hohenheim Univ., Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie, Stuttgart (Germany); Kelm, Tobias [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In decentral heat and power generation from biogas, sewage gas, landfill gas and methane in systems with a capacity below 100 kWe, Stirling engines and micro gas turbines may have advantages over gas engines, gasoline engines, and diesel engines. This was proved in a research project in which the operation of a Stirling engine with sewage gas and a micro gas turbine with biogas were investigated. (orig.)

  15. 3000 MW(t) HTGR - gas turbine non-intercoolel. Technical evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes all the technical work performed on the 3000-MW(t) 3-loop High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Gas Turbine design as of June 1979. Although the plant configuration has changed to a 2000-MW(t) 2-loop plant, most of the technical assessments described in this report are still applicable to the 2000-MW(t) plant. The report covers the criteria under which the plant was designed, the technical feasibility problems associated with the plant and their potential solutions, and other potential applications and improvements which could make the gas turbine concept more attractive economically

  16. The Externally Fired Gas Turbine (EFGT-Cycle) and Simulation of the Key Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautz, Martin Jorge M.G.; Hansen, Ulf [University of Rostock, Institute for Energy and Environmental Technology, Rostock (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The externally fired gas turbine unites two advantages. On the one hand, the utilisation of the waste heat from the turbine in a recuperative process and, on the other, the possibility to burn 'dirty' fuel. In particular, the EFGT opens a new option to utilise biomass for combined-heat-and-power and contributes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A micro gas turbine with 100 kW electric output is chosen as an example to study the effects of temperature difference and pressure loss in the gas-to-air heat exchanger on cycle efficiency and power. The simulation calculations are performed with the codes AspenPlus and GateCycle. In addition to cycle optimisation the effect of low-calorific biogas on the combustion air ratio and the possibility of solar energy as a heat source for the EFGT are studied.

  17. Biomass-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine cogeneration for the cane sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam injection for power and efficiency augmentation in aeroderivative gas turbines has been commercially established for natural gas-fired cogeneration since 1980. Steam-injected gas turbines fired with coal and biomass are being developed. A performance and economic assessment of biomass integrated-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine (BIG/STIG) cogeneration systems is carried out here. A detailed economic case study is presented for the second largest sugar factory in Jamaica, with cane residues as the fuel. BIG/STIG cogeneration units would be attractive investments for sugar producers, who could sell large quantities of excess electricity to the utility, or for the utility, as a low-cost generating option. Worldwide, the cane sugar industry could support some 50,000 MW of BIG/STIG electric generation capacity. The relatively modest development effort required to commercialize the BIG/STIG technology is discussed in a companion paper prepared for this conference

  18. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  19. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris

    2013-06-01

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  20. Helium gas turbine plant in Oberhausen - a milestone for the development of high-temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 50 MW helium turbine from the GHH Sterkrade for the new thermal power plant of Energy Supply, Oberhausen (EVO), works according to the method of closed cycles proposed by both professors Ackeret and Keller in 1939. In this closed gas turbine method, the working medium does not take part in the combustion, but is heated from the outside in a superheater. After the heated medium has given off its energy, it must be cooled down again in an after-cooler so that the power will not be too great when newly compressing the circulating medium. A future field of application of the gas turbine in closed cycle is the direct coupling with helium cooled high temperature reactors for over 1,000 MW electric power. Layout and construction of the turbine plant are described. (orig./LH)

  1. Laboratory studies of the effects of pressure and dissolved gas supersaturation on turbine-passed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, B. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Designing advanced turbine systems requires knowledge of environmental conditions that injure or kill fish such as the stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes fish experience during turbine passage and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). The objective of this study was to examine the relative importance of pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality. Specific tests were designed to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes typical of turbine passage, with and without the complication of the fish being acclimated to gas supersaturated water. The study investigated the responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, both singly and in combination.

  2. Summary of gas turbine power generation for the Yamanashi maglev test line; Fujoshiki tetsudo Yamanashi jikkensen sharyo tosai gas turbine hatsuden sochi no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, H.; Hirota, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-20

    This paper describes the gas turbine generator mounted on rolling stocks used at the Yamanashi experimental line for a levitation railway system. Studies are being made for power supply on the dispersion type induction current collection, in which collector coils are attached onto the surface of a superconducting magnet mounted on each bogie car. However, because this system cannot obtain sufficient power unless the cars are running at high speeds, it requires batteries to be mounted on the cars. At the Yamanashi experimental line, where increase in device load and time of high speed run are small, the ratio of battery charging time increases. Therefore, it was decided that a gas turbine generator is mounted as a standby power supply. Its basic design targets are reduction in weight, size and noise, as well as measures for fire prevention. Requirements call for power output of 350 kW, 600V, use of light oil or kerosene (tank capacity to be as large as for five hour use), environmental condition of minus 10 degrees C to plus 40 degrees C, altitude of zero to 1000 m, noise of 80 dB or lower, and weight of 1.9 tons or less. The gas turbine is of an aeronautical turbo prop engine converted for industrial use. The turbine can be controlled of unattended operation from a ground station. If an idling command is turned on, no power is supplied from the generator, but supplied from the spare batteries mounted on cars. (NEDO)

  3. To the application of steam-gas circuits for saturated-steam turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different thermal schemes of duel-circuit NPPs with saturated-steam turbine plants, operating in steam-gas cycle were analyzed. Analytical dependences for evaluating change of NPP efficiency in result of steam-gas circuit introduction were obtained. It was concluded that energy indices of plants grew in result of using circuits with higher initial temperature and decreasing temperature of external air

  4. HTGR gas-turbine program. Semiannual progress report for period ending March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the conceptual design and analysis performed by General Atomic Company and its subcontractors for the US Department of Energy on the direct cycle gas turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The primary accomplishments for this period were cost reduction studies, turbomachinery failure analysis, and alternate plant concept evaluation.

  5. HTGR gas-turbine program. Semiannual progress report for period ending March 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the conceptual design and analysis performed by General Atomic Company and its subcontractors for the US Department of Energy on the direct cycle gas turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The primary accomplishments for this period were cost reduction studies, turbomachinery failure analysis, and alternate plant concept evaluation

  6. Innovative methods of managing research testing of gas turbine installations for terrestrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Шитикова, Елена Викторовна; Табунщик, Галина Владимировна; Разношинский, Виктор Николаевич

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the questions of a efficient management by research test process of the gas turbine units for terrestrial usage. Authors have executed reengineering of research test process taking into account specificity of complex research tests of the gas pumping station.

  7. GAS TURBINE ENGINE DIAGNOSING COMPLEX METHOD DEVELOPMENT ON THE BASES OF MULTIPLE FACTORS ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Panin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper dials with the method of gas turbine engine diagnosing that takes into account an engine vibrating condition, concentration of deterioration products in oil, critical elements damages accumulation and change of the compressor gas dynamical stability while in service.

  8. Observation and Analysis of Affinity Law Deviations through Tested Performance of Liquefied Gas Reaction Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah D. Alison-Youel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied gas reaction turbines are subject to the hydraulic affinity laws. Particularly for liquefied hydrocarbon gas-driven turbines, deviations from the affinity laws are encountered. In the case of reaction turbines, where the geometry is fixed, the affinity law relationships between flow, head, and rotational speed are relevant. Field experience confirms that the affinity law relationships are adequate, but that the predictions made also tend to deviate from real turbine performance. Part of the deviations seen may be attributed to the nonideal fluid; however, further examination is warranted. This paper presents an investigation into the affinity law relationships between head, flow, and rotational speed in conjunction with actual turbine performance. The three basic affinity law relationships are combined to form the most general performance equation. This equation subsequently incorporates both the affinity law relationships and the conservation of energy principal. Application of real turbine test data shows that this general performance equation presents a more accurate representation of turbine performance than the affinity law relationships alone.

  9. Methodologies for predicting the part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    on methodologies for predicting part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines. Two different design models – one simple and one more complex – are created. Subsequently, for each of these models, the part-load performance is predicted using component maps and turbine constants, respectively....... Comparisons with manufacturer data are made. With respect to the design models, the simple model, featuring a compressor, combustor and turbines, results in equally good performance prediction in terms of thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature as does a more complex model. As for part-load predictions...

  10. The generation of electricity by gas turbines using the catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, O.P.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    1989-01-01

    Various systems for the generation of electricity by gas turbines using catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases have been investigated. Parametric studies of three configurations that are deemed to be practically feasible have been completed. It is shown that thermodynamic efficiency of these systems...... may be quite high. The system design has been made to comply with generally accepted limitations on the operation of the compressors, turbines and heat exchangers. The heat catalyst has been investigated experimentally in order to establish design information. The system design has been carried out on...... the basis of these experiments and of commonly accepted limits on the operation of the compressors, turbines, and heat exchangers...

  11. Evaluation of Soya Bio-Diesel as a Gas Turbine Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Gupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, the crude oil prices have increased immensely as the fossil fuels are depleting, biodiesel has emerged as an alternative fuel for the petroleum. In this context the use of bio-diesel in the gas turbine seems a solution for power generation problems and their environmental concerns. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce net carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. However, there are several operational and durability problems which may arise in using straight vegetable oils, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel fuel. Bio-fuels, an alternative fuels are having environmental benefit as; they are made from renewable sources. It can be blended in any proportion with mineral Diesel. Many performance and emission tests are being carried out in reciprocating diesel engines that use bio fuel but there are very few tests has been done on gas turbine engines. The gas turbine combustion is steady flame combustion. This feature creates the wide range for the different alternative fuels for clean combustion in the gas turbine, such as natural gas, petroleum distillates, pyrolysis wood gas, biogas of methanisation, bio-diesel etc. The present work is an analysis of the Soya bio-diesel productionprocess i.e. trans-esterification, the different parameters affecting on trans-esterification. The different physical and chemical properties of this bio-diesel and diesel has been determined and compared to establish the suitability of the bio-diesel in the gas turbine. An analysis on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC has been done to find out the composition of the different fatty acid esters. The effect of these fatty acids onthe property of the bio-diesel has also been explained such as viscosity, heat of combustion, cetane No, cold flow properties, lubricity and oxidative stability etc. This will also help us to select best suited bio-diesel for the

  12. The generation of electricity by gas turbines using the catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, O.P.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    1989-01-01

    Various systems for the generation of electricity by gas turbines using catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases have been investigated. Parametric studies of three configurations that are deemed to be practically feasible have been completed. It is shown that thermodynamic efficiency of these systems may be quite high. The system design has been made to comply with generally accepted limitations on the operation of the compressors, turbines and heat exchangers. The heat catalyst has been invest...

  13. Effect of steam addition on cycle performance of simple and recuperated gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for the cycle efficiency and specific power of simple and recuperated gas turbine cycles in which steam is generated and used to increase turbine flow. Calculations showed significant improvements in cycle efficiency and specific power by adding steam. The calculations were made using component efficiencies and loss assumptions typical of stationary powerplants. These results are presented for a range of operating temperatures and pressures. Relative heat exchanger size and the water use rate are also examined.

  14. Design features of the GTD 8000 and GTD 15000 marine gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Viktor I.

    1992-06-01

    An account is given of the design features and performance of the GTD 8000 and GTD 15000 marine gas turbines, whose simple-cycle thermodynamic efficiencyis of the order of 34-35 percent. A development history is presented for the component design improvements through which such performance levels were achieved. Attention is given to the counterflow combustor, bearings, and high pressure compressor/turbine spool rotor joint assembly features. These powerplants are suitable for hydrofoil and hovercraft applications.

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of a hybrid solar gas-turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A complete analytical model for a hybrid solar driven gas-turbine plant is presented. • Each subsystem is modeled: combustion chamber, solar collector, and gas turbine. • Main irreversibility losses for the subsystems are accounted. • The model validation by comparing with real prototype plants is very satisfactory. • The output records are analyzed with respect the main losses parameters, and the temperature and pressure ratios. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model for a hybrid solar gas-turbine power plant is presented. All the subsystems of the plant are modeled, taking into account the most important losses sources: those coming from heat losses in the solar subsystem, those in the combustion chamber, those associated to the Brayton cycle, and those heat losses in the heat exchangers connecting subsystems. Analytical expressions for the overall plant efficiency and its power output are obtained in a general form, for whichever solar share: from the pure combustion mode when solar irradiance is null or small, to the eventual case in which only solar heat input would be enough to ensure that the working fluid reaches the turbine inlet temperature. The gas-turbine model is validated by direct comparison of the model predictions with the output parameters of a commercial turbine. Results are very promising. The real parameters of an existing experimental thermosolar plant are considered and its performance records in stationary irradiance conditions are obtained. A sensitivity analysis of the influence of several turbine losses is performed: recuperator, turbine, compressor, and pressure losses. Finally, the influence of the pressure and temperature ratios on the overall plant efficiency and the fuel conversion rate is discussed. This kind of thermodynamic analysis is necessary in order to design efficient as well as commercially interesting new generations of plants of this type

  16. Integrated Method of the Computation of Cooling Systems for Gas Turbine Rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Тарасов, Александр Иванович; Чан, Конг Шанг; Литвиненко, Оксана Алексеевна; Михайлова, Ирина Александровна

    2015-01-01

    The integrated method allows for the simplification of the CFD analysis of the cooling of turbine rotors through the replacement of small-size elements (slots, labyrinth sealing, etc.) by virtual channels that provide the passage of air from one cavity to the next one. This computation method of the cooling of gas turbines was based on the combination of the method of computation of hydraulic networks and the method of computation of the flow and heat exchange of the viscous compressed liquid...

  17. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  18. Development of a high temperature cooled fast response probe for gas turbine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mersinligil, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of unsteady pressures within the hot components of gas turbine engines still remains a true challenge for test engineers. Several high temperature pressure sensors have been developed but so far their applications are restricted to unsteady wall static pressure measurements. Because of the severe flow conditions such as turbine inlet temperatures of 1700°C and pressures of 50 bar or more in the most advanced aero-engine designs; few (if any) experimental techniques exist to me...

  19. Basic thermodynamics of FLOXCOM, the low-NOx gas turbines adiabatic combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FLOXCOM Project is aimed to develop technology for clean and efficient gas turbines, operating at high temperatures. It is based on the technologically innovative combustion solution--flameless oxidation. The investigation is directed towards the validation of engineering feasibility of the flameless oxidation technology for the production of operating pilot combustors that will demonstrate, advantages including among others, improved performance relating to low NOx levels, maintaining uniform combustor wall temperatures, uniform fuel stream injection and more, resulting in an increased mean time between failure (MTBF) and reliability of the gas turbine. Combustion chambers for gas turbines and jet engines differ from conventional industrial furnace design by being 'adiabatic' (without heat extraction inside the combustor) and by operating at elevated pressures. Consequently, the aero-thermodynamics of the internal flow requires a different approach. The present paper is concerned with the thermodynamic relationships of gas turbine flameless oxidation. A detailed analysis of the different operational scheme options is described. It is shown that the thermodynamic process and operational parameters within the present low-NOx gas turbine combustor are principally different to those of industrial furnace operating in the flameless oxidation mode of combustion

  20. Development of interactive design system, KAIT by computer-analysis for gas turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuta, Toshio; Yamaji, Seiichi; Tanizawa, Tadashi; Isozaki, Toshiaki; Hamabe, Kenji; Hoshino, Akifumi; Sugimoto, Takao; Miyaji, Hiroshi; Take, Koji; Yoshigane, Masaru

    1987-08-20

    Upon development of various gas turbines, design of the turbine power generating portion provides the dominating influences over the turbine performance and durability. Heretofore, such design has been coped with by the accumulation of the technologies required during the design stage which had been programed individually, but due to the recent increase of development projects which contents have been upgraded, difficulties have arisen in coping with the performance design of blade profile, etc. which requires a time-consuming trial and error approach. Accordingly, Kawasaki Heavy Industries Co. has developed the Kawasaki Interactive Axial Gas Turbine Blade Design System (KAIT) which does the design and development of turbine blades, the most labor and time consuming work in designing a gas turbine, through the computer dialoguing on examination and analysis in each different specific field such as fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, structural mechanics, fatigue and high temperature strength etc.. This article explains the outline of this system. Thanks for this system, a blade with well balanced performance and durability can be designed in a short time. (13 figs, 12 refs)